Science.gov

Sample records for accelerating waste treatment

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF DEFENSE NUCLEAR WASTE USING HAZARDOUS WASTE GUIDANCE. APPLICATIONS TO HANFORD SITE ACCELERATED HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL MISSION0

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, William; Huffman, Lori; Lerchen, Megan; Wiemers, Karyn

    2003-02-27

    Federal hazardous waste regulations were developed for management of industrial waste. These same regulations are also applicable for much of the nation's defense nuclear wastes. At the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State, one of the nation's largest inventories of nuclear waste remains in storage in large underground tanks. The waste's regulatory designation and its composition and form constrain acceptable treatment and disposal options. Obtaining detailed knowledge of the tank waste composition presents a significant portion of the many challenges in meeting the regulatory-driven treatment and disposal requirements for this waste. Key in applying the hazardous waste regulations to defense nuclear wastes is defining the appropriate and achievable quality for waste feed characterization data and the supporting evidence demonstrating that applicable requirements have been met at the time of disposal. Application of a performance-based approach to demonstrating achievable quality standards will be discussed in the context of the accelerated high-level waste treatment and disposal mission at the Hanford Site.

  2. Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venneri, Francesco

    1998-04-01

    Nuclear waste from commercial power plants contains large quantities of plutonium, other fissionable actinides, and long-lived fission products that are potential proliferation concerns and create challenges for the long-term storage. Different strategies for dealing with nuclear waste are being followed by various countries because of their geologic situations and their views on nuclear energy, reprocessing and non-proliferation. The current United States policy is to store unprocessed spent reactor fuel in a geologic repository. Other countries are opting for treatment of nuclear waste, including partial utilization of the fissile material contained in the spent fuel, prior to geologic storage. Long-term uncertainties are hampering the acceptability and eventual licensing of a geologic repository for nuclear spent fuel in the US, and driving up its cost. The greatest concerns are with the potential for radiation release and exposure from the spent fuel for tens of thousands of years and the possible diversion and use of the actinides contained in the waste for weapons construction. Taking advantage of the recent breakthroughs in accelerator technology and of the natural flexibility of subcritical systems, the Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept offers the United States and other countries the possibility to greatly reduce plutonium, higher actinides and environmentally hazardous fission products from the waste stream destined for permanent storage. ATW does not eliminate the need for, but instead enhances the viability of permanent waste repositories. Far from being limited to waste destruction, the ATW concept also brings to the table new technologies that could be relevant for next-generation power producing reactors. In the ATW concept, spent fuel would be shipped to the ATW site where the plutonium, transuranics and selected long-lived fission products would be destroyed by fission or transmutation in their first and only pass through the

  3. Comparative study of ageing, heat treatment and accelerated carbonation for stabilization of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in view of reducing regulated heavy metal/metalloid leaching.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rafael M; Mertens, Gilles; Salman, Muhammad; Cizer, Özlem; Van Gerven, Tom

    2013-10-15

    This study compared the performance of four different approaches for stabilization of regulated heavy metal and metalloid leaching from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI-BA): (i) short term (three months) heap ageing, (ii) heat treatment, (iii) accelerated moist carbonation, and (iv) accelerated pressurized slurry carbonation. Two distinct types of MSWI-BA were tested in this study: one originating from a moving-grate furnace incineration operation treating exclusively household refuse (sample B), and another originating from a fluid-bed furnace incineration operation that treats a mixture of household and light industrial wastes (sample F). The most abundant elements in the ashes were Si (20-27 wt.%) and Ca (16-19 wt.%), followed by significant quantities of Fe, Al, Na, S, K, Mg, Ti, and Cl. The main crystalline substances present in the fresh ashes were Quartz, Calcite, Apatite, Anhydrite and Gehlenite, while the amorphous fraction ranged from 56 to 73 wt.%. The leaching values of all samples were compared to the Flemish (NEN 7343) and the Walloon (DIN 38414) regulations from Belgium. Batch leaching of the fresh ashes at natural pH showed that seven elements exceeded at least one regulatory limit (Ba, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb, Se and Zn), and that both ashes had excess basicity (pH > 12). Accelerated carbonation achieved significant reduction in ash basicity (9.3-9.9); lower than ageing (10.5-12.2) and heat treatment (11.1-12.1). For sample B, there was little distinction between the leaching results of ageing and accelerated carbonation with respect to regulatory limits; however carbonation achieved comparatively lower leaching levels. Heat treatment was especially detrimental to the leaching of Cr. For sample F, ageing was ineffective and heat treatment had marginally better results, while accelerated carbonation delivered the most effective performance, with slurry carbonation meeting all DIN limits. Slurry carbonation was deemed the most

  4. Packaged Waste Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This Jacksonville, Florida, apartment complex has a wastewater treatment system which clears the water, removes harmful microorganisms and reduces solid residue to ash. It is a spinoff from spacecraft waste management and environmental control technology.

  5. Lyophilization -Solid Waste Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Reinhard, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a solid waste treatment system that has been designed for a Mars transit exploration mission. The technology described is an energy-efficient lyophilization technique that is designed to recover water from spacecraft solid wastes. Candidate wastes include feces, concentrated brines from water processors, and other solid wastes that contain free water. The system is designed to operate as a stand-alone process or to be integrated into the International Space Station Waste Collection System. In the lyophilization process, water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, separating the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. The sublimed water is then condensed in a solid ice phase and then melted to generate a liquid product. In the subject system the waste solids are contained within a 0.2 micron bio-guard bag and after drying are removed from the system and stored in a secondary container. This technology is ideally suited to applications such as the Mars Reference Mission, where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO2 is not. The system is designed to minimize power consumption through the use of thermoelectric heat pumps. The results of preliminary testing of a prototype system and testing of the final configuration are provided. A mathematical model of the system is also described.

  6. Treatment of organic waste

    DOEpatents

    Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1979-01-01

    An organic waste containing at least one element selected from the group consisting of strontium, cesium, iodine and ruthenium is treated to achieve a substantial reduction in the volume of the waste and provide for fixation of the selected element in an inert salt. The method of treatment comprises introducing the organic waste and a source of oxygen into a molten salt bath maintained at an elevated temperature to produce solid and gaseous reaction products. The gaseous reaction products comprise carbon dioxide and water vapor, and the solid reaction products comprise the inorganic ash constituents of the organic waste and the selected element which is retained in the molten salt. The molten salt bath comprises one or more alkali metal carbonates, and may optionally include from 1 to about 25 wt.% of an alkali metal sulfate.

  7. Microbiology of Waste Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unz, Richard F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the microbiology of waste treatment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes topics such as: (1) sanitary microbiology; (2) wastewater disinfectant; (3) viruses in wastewater; and (4) wastewater microbial populations. A list of 142 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Waste Treatment Plant - 12508

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, Benton; Olds, Erik

    2012-07-01

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will immobilize millions of gallons of Hanford's tank waste into solid glass using a proven technology called vitrification. The vitrification process will turn the waste into a stable glass form that is safe for long-term storage. Our discussion of the WTP will include a description of the ongoing design and construction of this large, complex, first-of-a-kind project. The concept for the operation of the WTP is to separate high-level and low-activity waste fractions, and immobilize those fractions in glass using vitrification. The WTP includes four major nuclear facilities and various support facilities. Waste from the Tank Farms is first pumped to the Pretreatment Facility at the WTP through an underground pipe-in-pipe system. When construction is complete, the Pretreatment Facility will be 12 stories high, 540 feet long and 215 feet wide, making it the largest of the four major nuclear facilities that compose the WTP. The total size of this facility will be more than 490,000 square feet. More than 8.2 million craft hours are required to construct this facility. Currently, the Pretreatment Facility is 51 percent complete. At the Pretreatment Facility the waste is pumped to the interior waste feed receipt vessels. Each of these four vessels is 55-feet tall and has a 375,000 gallon capacity, which makes them the largest vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. These vessels contain a series of internal pulse-jet mixers to keep incoming waste properly mixed. The vessels are inside the black-cell areas, completely enclosed behind thick steel-laced, high strength concrete walls. The black cells are designed to be maintenance free with no moving parts. Once hot operations commence the black-cell area will be inaccessible. Surrounded by black cells, is the 'hot cell canyon'. The hot cell contains all the moving and replaceable components to remove solids and extract liquids. In this area, there is ultrafiltration equipment, cesium

  9. PNNL Supports Hanford Waste Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-16

    For more than 40 years, technical assistance from PNNL has supported the operations and processing of Hanford tank waste. Our expertise in tank waste chemistry, fluid dynamics and scaling, waste forms, and safety bases has helped to shape the site’s waste treatment baseline and solve operational challenges. The historical knowledge and unique scientific and technical expertise at PNNL are essential to the success of the Hanford mission.

  10. Solid Waste Treatment Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershaft, Alex

    1972-01-01

    Advances in research and commercial solid waste handling are offering many more processing choices. This survey discusses techniques of storage and removal, fragmentation and sorting, bulk reduction, conversion, reclamation, mining and mineral processing, and disposal. (BL)

  11. Treatment of mercury containing waste

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, Paul D.; Melamed, Dan; Patel, Bhavesh R; Fuhrmann, Mark

    2002-01-01

    A process is provided for the treatment of mercury containing waste in a single reaction vessel which includes a) stabilizing the waste with sulfur polymer cement under an inert atmosphere to form a resulting mixture and b) encapsulating the resulting mixture by heating the mixture to form a molten product and casting the molten product as a monolithic final waste form. Additional sulfur polymer cement can be added in the encapsulation step if needed, and a stabilizing additive can be added in the process to improve the leaching properties of the waste form.

  12. Steel industry wastes. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Vachon, D.T.; Schmidt, J.W.; Schmidtke, N.W.

    1982-06-01

    A literature review dealing with waste processing of steel industry wastes is presented. The costs for the U.S. steel industry to comply with environmental standards are such that water reuse and recycling may be necessary. The review examines conventional coke plant wastewater treatments such as flotation, phenol extraction, ammonia stripping, and biological nitrification, and alternative treatment processes for blast furnace scrubber blowdown such as alkaline chlorination, ozonation, and reverse osmosis. A review of pickling operations and finishing processes is also included with their appropriate waste methods highlighted.

  13. SYSTEMS TO ACCELERATE IN SITU STABILIZATION OF WASTE DEPOSITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ systems to accelerate the stabilization of waste deposits involve three essential elements: selection of a chemical or biological agent (reactant) which can react with and stabilize the waste, a method for delivery of the reactant to the deposit and a method for recovery ...

  14. Radiation protection challenges in the management of radioactive waste from high-energy accelerators.

    PubMed

    Ulrici, Luisa; Algoet, Yvon; Bruno, Luca; Magistris, Matteo

    2015-04-01

    The European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) has operated high-energy accelerators for fundamental physics research for nearly 60 y. The side-product of this activity is the radioactive waste, which is mainly generated as a result of preventive and corrective maintenance, upgrading activities and the dismantling of experiments or accelerator facilities. Prior to treatment and disposal, it is common practice to temporarily store radioactive waste on CERN's premises and it is a legal requirement that these storage facilities are safe and secure. Waste treatment typically includes sorting, segregation, volume and size reduction and packaging, which will depend on the type of component, its chemical composition, residual activity and possible surface contamination. At CERN, these activities are performed in a dedicated waste treatment centre under the supervision of the Radiation Protection Group. This paper gives an overview of the radiation protection challenges in the conception of a temporary storage and treatment centre for radioactive waste in an accelerator facility, based on the experience gained at CERN. The CERN approach consists of the classification of waste items into 'families' with similar radiological and physical-chemical properties. This classification allows the use of specific, family-dependent techniques for radiological characterisation and treatment, which are simultaneously efficient and compliant with best practices in radiation protection. The storage was planned on the basis of radiological and other possible hazards such as toxicity, pollution and fire load. Examples are given of technical choices for the treatment and radiological characterisation of selected waste families, which could be of interest to other accelerator facilities. PMID:25377753

  15. Assessing mixed waste treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.; Bloom, G.A.; Hart, P.W.

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the management and treatment of its mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). As discussed earlier in this conference MLLW are regulated under both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and various DOE orders. During the next 5 years, DOE will manage over 1,200,000 m{sup 3} of MLLW and mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste at 50 sites in 22 states (see Table 1). The difference between MLLW and MTRU waste is in the concentration of elements that have a higher atomic weight than uranium. Nearly all of this waste will be located at 13 sites. More than 1400 individual mixed waste streams exist with different chemical and physical matrices containing a wide range of both hazardous and radioactive contaminants. Their containment and packaging vary widely (e.g., drums, bins, boxes, and buried waste). This heterogeneity in both packaging and waste stream constituents makes characterization difficult, which results in costly sampling and analytical procedures and increased risk to workers.

  16. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  17. Disposition of Nuclear Waste Using Subcritical Accelerator-Driven Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Doolen, G.D.; Venneri, F.; Li, N.; Williamson, M.A.; Houts, M.; Lawrence, G.

    1998-06-27

    ATW destroys virtually all the plutonium and higher actinides without reprocessing the spent fuel in a way that could lead to weapons material diversion. An ATW facility consists of three major elements: (1) a high-power proton linear accelerator; (2) a pyrochemical spent fuel treatment i waste cleanup system; (3) a liquid lead-bismuth cooled burner that produces and utilizes an intense source-driven neutron flux for transmutation in a heterogeneous (solid fuel) core. The concept is the result of many years of development at LANL as well as other major international research centers. Once demonstrated and developed, ATW could be an essential part of a global non-proliferation strategy for countries that could build up large quantities of plutonium from their commercial reactor waste. ATW technology, initially proposed in the US, has received wide and rapidly increasing attention abroad, especially in Europe and the Far East with major programs now being planned, organized and tided. Substantial convergence presently exists on the technology choices among the programs, opening the possibility of a strong and effective international collaboration on the phased development of the ATW technology.

  18. WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    F. Habashi

    2000-06-22

    The Waste Treatment Building System provides the space, layout, structures, and embedded subsystems that support the processing of low-level liquid and solid radioactive waste generated within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The activities conducted in the Waste Treatment Building include sorting, volume reduction, and packaging of dry waste, and collecting, processing, solidification, and packaging of liquid waste. The Waste Treatment Building System is located on the surface within the protected area of the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System helps maintain a suitable environment for the waste processing and protects the systems within the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) from most of the natural and induced environments. The WTB also confines contaminants and provides radiological protection to personnel. In addition to the waste processing operations, the Waste Treatment Building System provides space and layout for staging of packaged waste for shipment, industrial and radiological safety systems, control and monitoring of operations, safeguards and security systems, and fire protection, ventilation and utilities systems. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides the required space and layout for maintenance activities, tool storage, and administrative facilities. The Waste Treatment Building System integrates waste processing systems within its protective structure to support the throughput rates established for the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides shielding, layout, and other design features to help limit personnel radiation exposures to levels which are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, and with other MGR systems that support the waste processing operations. The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the General Site Transportation System, Site Communications System, Site Water System, MGR

  19. Plasma technology for waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, D.R.

    1995-04-01

    Improved environmental cleanup technology is needed to meet demanding goals for remediation and treatment of future waste streams. Plasma technology has unique features which could provide advantages of reduced secondary waste, lower cost, and onsite treatment for a wide variety of applications. Plasma technology can provide highly controllable processing without the need for combustion heating. It can be used to provide high temperature processing ({approximately}10,000{degrees}C). Plasma technology can also be employed for low temperature processing (down to room temperature range) through selective plasma chemistry. A graphite electrode arc plasma furnace at MIT has been used to investigate high temperature processing of simulated solid waste for Department of Energy environmental cleanup applications. Stable, non-leachable glass has been produced. To ensure reliable operation and to meet environmental objectives, new process diagnostics have been developed to measure furnace temperature and to determine metals emissions in the gaseous effluent. Selective plasma destruction of dilute concentrations of hazardous compounds in gaseous waste streams has been investigated using electron beam generated plasmas. Selective destruction makes it possible to treat the gas steam at relatively low temperatures in the 30-300{degrees}C range. On-line infrared measurements have been used in feedback operation to maximize efficiency and ensure desired performance. Plasma technology and associated process diagnostics will be used in future studies of a wide range of waste streams.

  20. Multimedia strategy considers waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    The advent of multimedia pollution prevention programs has raised some interesting and challenging questions on the subject of facility operations. First and foremost is the goal of a multimedia pollution prevention program: how can industrial streams in an operating facility be treated to prevent pollutants from escaping in a particular effluent or waste streams without transferring the same pollutants to another medium? Once this is resolved, the next issue to be addressed is the fate of pollutants removed from effluent streams. EPA is moving toward discouraging destruction as an acceptable means of waste treatment. The strategies are presented for handling pollutants from one media without contaminating another.

  1. Treatment of mixed waste coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, S.; Bowers, J.S.

    1995-09-01

    The primary processes used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for treatment of radioactively contaminated machine coolants are industrial waste treatment and in situ carbon adsorption. These two processes simplify approaches to meetings the sanitary sewer discharge limits and subsequent Land Disposal REstriction criteria for hazardous and mixed wastes (40 CFR 268). Several relatively simple technologies are used in industrial water treatment. These technologies are considered {open_quotes}Best Demonstrated Available Technologies,{close_quotes} or BDAT, by the Environmental Protection Agency. The machine coolants are primarily aqueous and contain water soluble oil consisting of ethanol amine emulsifiers derived from fatty acids, both synthetic and natural. This emulsion carries away metal turnings from a part being machined on a lathe or other machining tool. When the coolant becomes spent, it contains chlorosolvents carried over from other cutting operations as well as a fair amount of tramp oil from machine bearings. This results in a mutiphasic aqueous waste that requires treatment of metal and organic contaminants. During treatment, any dissolved metals are oxidized with hydrogen peroxide. Once oxidized, these metals are flocculated with ferric sulfate and precipitated with sodium hydroxide, and then the precipitate is filtered through diatomaceous earth. The emulsion is broken up by acidifying the coolant. Solvents and oils are adsorbed using powdered carbon. This carbon is easily separated from the remaining coolant by vacuum filtration.

  2. Treatment of mixed waste coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, S.; Bowers, J.S.

    1995-02-01

    The primary processes used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for treatment of radioactively contaminated machine coolants are industrial waste treatment and in situ carbon adsorption. These two processes simplify approaches to meeting the sanitary sewer discharge limits and subsequent Land Disposal Restriction criteria for hazardous and mixed wastes (40 CFR 268). Several relatively simple technologies are used in industrial water treatment. These technologies are considered Best Demonstrated Available Technologies, or BDAT, by the Environmental Protection Agency. The machine coolants are primarily aqueous and contain water soluble oil consisting of ethanol amine emulsifiers derived from fatty acids, both synthetic and natural. This emulsion carries away metal turnings from a part being machined on a lathe or other machining tool. When the coolant becomes spent, it contains chlorosolvents carried over from other cutting operations as well as a fair amount of tramp oil from machine bearings. This results in a multiphasic aqueous waste that requires treatment of metal and organic contaminants. During treatment, any dissolved metals are oxidized with hydrogen peroxide. Once oxidized, these metals are flocculated with ferric sulfate and precipitated with sodium hydroxide, and then the precipitate is filtered through diatomaceous earth. The emulsion is broken up by acidifying the coolant. Solvents and oils are adsorbed using powdered carbon. This carbon is easily separated from the remaining coolant by vacuum filtration.

  3. Biological treatment of hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, G.A.; Filippi, L.J. de

    1998-12-01

    This reference book is intended for individuals interested in or involved with the treatment of hazardous wastes using biological/biochemical processes. Composed of 13 chapters, it covers a wide variety of topics ranging from engineering design to hydrogeologic factors. The first four chapters are devoted to a description of several different types of bioreactors. Chapter 5 discusses the biofiltration of volatile organic compounds. Chapters 6 through 9 discuss specific biological, biochemical, physical, and engineering factors that affect bioremediation of hazardous wastes. Chapter 10 is a very good discussion of successful bioremediation of pentachlorophenol contamination under laboratory and field conditions, and excellent references are provided. The next chapter discusses the natural biodegradation of PCB-contaminated sediments in the Hudson River in New York state. Chapter 12 takes an excellent look at the bioremediation capability of anaerobic organisms. The final chapter discusses composting of hazardous waste.

  4. Electrochemical treatment of liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1997-10-01

    Under this task, electrochemical treatment processes are being evaluated and developed for the destruction of organic compounds and nitrates/nitrites and the removal of other hazardous species from liquid wastes stored throughout the DOE complex. This technology targets the (1) destruction of nitrates, nitrites and organic compounds; (2) removal of radionuclides; and (3) removal of RCRA metals. The development program consists of five major tasks: (1) evaluation of electrochemical reactors for the destruction and removal of hazardous waste components, (2) development and validation of engineering process models, (3) radioactive laboratory-scale tests, (4) demonstration of the technology in an engineering-scale reactor, and (5) analysis and evaluation of test data. The development program team is comprised of individuals from national laboratories, academic institutions, and private industry. Possible benefits of this technology include: (1) improved radionuclide separation as a result of the removal of organic complexants, (2) reduction in the concentrations of hazardous and radioactive species in the waste (e.g., removal of nitrate, mercury, chromium, cadmium, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 106}Ru), (3) reduction in the size of the off-gas handling equipment for the vitrification of low-level waste (LLW) by reducing the source of NO{sub x} emissions, (4) recovery of chemicals of value (e.g. sodium hydroxide), and (5) reduction in the volume of waste requiring disposal.

  5. A Primer on Waste Water Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

    This information pamphlet is for teachers, students, or the general public concerned with the types of waste water treatment systems, the need for further treatment, and advanced methods of treating wastes. Present day pollution control methods utilizing primary and secondary waste treatment plants, lagoons, and septic tanks are described,…

  6. Radioactive liquid waste treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.L.

    1984-07-01

    The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in Idaho provides improved treatment for low-level aqueous waste compared to conventional systems. A unique, patented evaporated system is used in the RLWTF. SHADE (shielded hot air drum evaporator, US Patent No. 4,305,780) is a low-cost disposable unit constructed from standard components and is self-shielded. The results of testing and recent operations indicate that evaporation rates of 2 to 6 gph (8 to 23 L/h) can be achieved with a single unit housed in a standard 30-gal (114-L) drum container. The operating experience has confirmed the design evaporation rate of 60,000 gal (227,000 L) per year, using six SHADE's. 2 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Audit Report on "Waste Processing and Recovery Act Acceleration Efforts for Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste at the Hanford Site"

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management's (EM), Richland Operations Office (Richland), is responsible for disposing of the Hanford Site's (Hanford) transuranic (TRU) waste, including nearly 12,000 cubic meters of radioactive contact-handled TRU wastes. Prior to disposing of this waste at the Department's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Richland must certify that it meets WIPP's waste acceptance criteria. To be certified, the waste must be characterized, screened for prohibited items, treated (if necessary) and placed into a satisfactory disposal container. In a February 2008 amendment to an existing Record of Decision (Decision), the Department announced its plan to ship up to 8,764 cubic meters of contact-handled TRU waste from Hanford and other waste generator sites to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) at Idaho's National Laboratory (INL) for processing and certification prior to disposal at WIPP. The Department decided to maximize the use of the AMWTP's automated waste processing capabilities to compact and, thereby, reduce the volume of contact-handled TRU waste. Compaction reduces the number of shipments and permits WIPP to more efficiently use its limited TRU waste disposal capacity. The Decision noted that the use of AMWTP would avoid the time and expense of establishing a processing capability at other sites. In May 2009, EM allocated $229 million of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) funds to support Hanford's Solid Waste Program, including Hanford's contact-handled TRU waste. Besides providing jobs, these funds were intended to accelerate cleanup in the short term. We initiated this audit to determine whether the Department was effectively using Recovery Act funds to accelerate processing of Hanford's contact-handled TRU waste. Relying on the availability of Recovery Act funds, the Department changed course and approved an alternative plan that could increase costs by about $25 million

  8. Accelerator Production of Tritium project process waste assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, S.D.; Peterson, P.K.

    1995-09-01

    DOE has made a commitment to compliance with all applicable environmental regulatory requirements. In this respect, it is important to consider and design all tritium supply alternatives so that they can comply with these requirements. The management of waste is an integral part of this activity and it is therefore necessary to estimate the quantities and specific wastes that will be generated by all tritium supply alternatives. A thorough assessment of waste streams includes waste characterization, quantification, and the identification of treatment and disposal options. The waste assessment for APT has been covered in two reports. The first report was a process waste assessment (PWA) that identified and quantified waste streams associated with both target designs and fulfilled the requirements of APT Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Item 5.5.2.1. This second report is an expanded version of the first that includes all of the data of the first report, plus an assessment of treatment and disposal options for each waste stream identified in the initial report. The latter information was initially planned to be issued as a separate Waste Treatment and Disposal Options Assessment Report (WBS Item 5.5.2.2).

  9. Los Alamos National Laboratory accelerated tru waste workoff strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Kosiewicz, S.T.; Triay, I.R.; Rogers, P.Z.; Christensen, D.V.

    1997-03-01

    During 1996, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed two transuranic (TRU) waste workoff strategies that were estimated to save $270 - 340M through accelerated waste workoff and the elimination of a facility. The planning effort included a strategy to assure that LANL would have a significant quantity (3000+ drums) of TRU waste certified for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) beginning in April of 1998, when WIPP was projected to open. One of the accelerated strategies can be completed in less than ten years through a Total Optimization of Parameters Scenario ({open_quotes}TOPS{close_quotes}). {open_quotes}TOPS{close_quotes} fully utilizes existing LANL facilities and capabilities. For this scenario, funding was estimated to be unconstrained at $23M annually to certify and ship the legacy inventory of TRU waste at LANL. With {open_quotes}TOPS{close_quotes} the inventory is worked off in about 8.5 years while shipping 5,000 drums per year at a total cost of $196M. This workoff includes retrieval from earthen cover and interim storage costs. The other scenario envisioned funding at the current level with some increase for TRUPACT II loading costs, which total $16M annually. At this funding level, LANL estimates it will require about 17 years to work off the LANL TRU legacy waste while shipping 2,500 drums per year to WIPP. The total cost will be $277M. This latter scenario decreases the time for workoff by about 19 years from previous estimates and saves an estimated $190M. In addition, the planning showed that a $70M facility for TRU waste characterization was not needed. After the first draft of the LANL strategies was written, Congress amended the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) to accelerate the opening of WIPP to November 1997. Further, the No Migration Variance requirement for the WIPP was removed. This paper discusses the LANL strategies as they were originally developed. 1 ref., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Waste treatment integration in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baresi, L.; Kern, R.

    1991-01-01

    The circumstances and criteria for space-based waste treatment bioregenerative life-support systems differ in many ways from those needed in terrestrial applications. In fact, the term "waste" may not even be appropriate in the context of nearly closed, cycling, ecosystems such as those under consideration. Because of these constraints there is a need for innovative approaches to the problem of "materials recycling". Hybrid physico-chemico-biological systems offer advantages over both strictly physico-chemico or biological approaches that would be beneficial to material recycling. To effectively emulate terrestrial cycling, the use of various microbial consortia ("assemblies of interdependent microbes") should be seriously considered for the biological components of such systems. This paper will examine the use of consortia in the context of a hybrid-system for materials recycling in space.

  11. Electrochemical treatment of liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.

    1996-10-01

    Electrochemical treatment processes are being evaluated and developed for the destruction of organic compounds and nitrates/nitrites and the removal of other hazardous species from liquid wastes stored throughout the DOE complex. This activity consists of five major tasks: (1) evaluation of different electrochemical reactors for the destruction and removal of hazardous waste components, (2) development and validation of engineering process models, (3) radioactive laboratory-scale tests, (4) demonstration of the technology in an engineering-scale size reactor, and (5) analysis and evaluation of testing data. The development program team is comprised of individuals from federal, academic, and private industry. Work is being carried out in DOE, academic, and private industrial laboratories.

  12. Waste treatment integration in space.

    PubMed

    Baresi, L; Kern, R

    1991-10-01

    The circumstances and criteria for space-based waste treatment bioregenerative life-support systems differ in many ways from those needed in terrestrial applications. In fact, the term "waste" may not even be appropriate in the context of nearly closed, cycling, ecosystems such as those under consideration. Because of these constraints there is a need for innovative approaches to the problem of "materials recycling". Hybrid physico-chemico-biological systems offer advantages over both strictly physico-chemico or biological approaches that would be beneficial to material recycling. To effectively emulate terrestrial cycling, the use of various microbial consortia ("assemblies of interdependent microbes") should be seriously considered for the biological components of such systems. This paper will examine the use of consortia in the context of a hybrid-system for materials recycling in space. PMID:11537702

  13. Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

  14. Hanford Tank Waste - Near Source Treatment of Low Activity Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, William Gene

    2013-08-15

    Abstract only. Treatment and disposition of Hanford Site waste as currently planned consists of 100+ waste retrievals, waste delivery through up to 8+ miles of dedicated, in-ground piping, centralized mixing and blending operations- all leading to pre-treatment combination and separation processes followed by vitrification at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The sequential nature of Tank Farm and WTP operations requires nominally 15-20 years of continuous operations before all waste can be retrieved from many Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). Also, the infrastructure necessary to mobilize and deliver the waste requires significant investment beyond that required for the WTP. Treating waste as closely as possible to individual tanks or groups- as allowed by the waste characteristics- is being investigated to determine the potential to 1) defer, reduce, and/or eliminate infrastructure requirements, and 2) significantly mitigate project risk by reducing the potential and impact of single point failures. The inventory of Hanford waste slated for processing and disposition as LAW is currently managed as high-level waste (HLW), i.e., the separation of fission products and other radionuclides has not commenced. A significant inventory of this waste (over 20M gallons) is in the form of precipitated saltcake maintained in single shell tanks, many of which are identified as potential leaking tanks. Retrieval and transport (as a liquid) must be staged within the waste feed delivery capability established by site infrastructure and WTP. Near Source treatment, if employed, would provide for the separation and stabilization processing necessary for waste located in remote farms (wherein most of the leaking tanks reside) significantly earlier than currently projected. Near Source treatment is intended to address the currently accepted site risk and also provides means to mitigate future issues likely to be faced over the coming decades. This paper

  15. DOE mixed waste treatment capacity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Wehrman, R.R.; Young, J.R.; Shaver, S.R.

    1994-06-01

    This initial DOE-wide analysis compares the reported national capacity for treatment of mixed wastes with the calculated need for treatment capacity based on both a full treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes to the Land Disposal Restrictions and on treatment of transuranic wastes to the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The status of treatment capacity is reported based on a fifty-element matrix of radiation-handling requirements and functional treatment technology categories. The report defines the classifications for the assessment, describes the models used for the calculations, provides results from the analysis, and includes appendices of the waste treatment facilities data and the waste stream data used in the analysis.

  16. Mixed waste treatment model: Basis and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, B.A.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) required treatment system capacities for risk and cost calculation. Los Alamos was tasked with providing these capacities to the PEIS team. This involved understanding the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex waste, making the necessary changes to correct for problems, categorizing the waste for treatment, and determining the treatment system requirements. The treatment system requirements depended on the incoming waste, which varied for each PEIS case. The treatment system requirements also depended on the type of treatment that was desired. Because different groups contributing to the PEIS needed specific types of results, we provided the treatment system requirements in a variety of forms. In total, some 40 data files were created for the TRU cases, and for the MLLW case, there were 105 separate data files. Each data file represents one treatment case consisting of the selected waste from various sites, a selected treatment system, and the reporting requirements for such a case. The treatment system requirements in their most basic form are the treatment process rates for unit operations in the desired treatment system, based on a 10-year working life and 20-year accumulation of the waste. These results were reported in cubic meters and for the MLLW case, in kilograms as well. The treatment system model consisted of unit operations that are linked together. Each unit operation`s function depended on the input waste streams, waste matrix, and contaminants. Each unit operation outputs one or more waste streams whose matrix, contaminants, and volume/mass may have changed as a result of the treatment. These output streams are then routed to the appropriate unit operation for additional treatment until the output waste stream meets the treatment requirements for disposal. The total waste for each unit operation was calculated as well as the waste for each matrix treated by the unit.

  17. TOPICAL REVIEW: Thermal plasma waste treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heberlein, Joachim; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2008-03-01

    Plasma waste treatment has over the past decade become a more prominent technology because of the increasing problems with waste disposal and because of the realization of opportunities to generate valuable co-products. Plasma vitrification of hazardous slags has been a commercial technology for several years, and volume reduction of hazardous wastes using plasma processes is increasingly being used. Plasma gasification of wastes with low negative values has attracted interest as a source of energy and spawned process developments for treatment of even municipal solid wastes. Numerous technologies and approaches exist for plasma treatment of wastes. This review summarizes the approaches that have been developed, presents some of the basic physical principles, provides details of some specific processes and considers the advantages and disadvantages of thermal plasmas in waste treatment applications.

  18. Treatment of industrial waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D. R.

    1980-02-12

    A method is disclosed for processing industrial waste waters and , in particular, blow down water from thermal electric plants. The water is processed to concentrate the salts contained therein and to obtain a concentrated brine which can then be passed to a thermal evaporator and/or solar evaporation ponds. The water is processed by the addition of magnesium hydroxide and carbon dioxide in amounts sufficient to precipitate the calcium as calcium carbonate, thereby obtaining a water reduced in calcium content and increased in magnesium content from the industrial waste water. The treated water is processed to recover a purified water from a brine, preferably by reverse osmosis. Calcium hydroxide is added to the brine generated by the reverse osmosis process in an amount sufficient to precipitate magnesium hydroxide therefrom which can be recycled to supply the magnesium hydroxide used in pre-treatment of the water prior to the reverse osmosis process. A clarified brine is recovered from the magnesium hydroxide precipitation step and may then be naturally or thermally evaporated to produce a saturated slurry of salt solids. This slurry can then be further reduced to dryness by solar evaporation.

  19. Radioactive waste treatment technologies and environment

    SciTech Connect

    HORVATH, Jan; KRASNY, Dusan

    2007-07-01

    The radioactive waste treatment and conditioning are the most important steps in radioactive waste management. At the Slovak Electric, plc, a range of technologies are used for the processing of radioactive waste into a form suitable for disposal in near surface repository. These technologies operated by JAVYS, PLc. Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, PLc. Jaslovske Bohunice are described. Main accent is given to the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment and Conditioning Centre, Bituminization plant, Vitrification plant, and Near surface repository of radioactive waste in Mochovce and their operation. Conclusions to safe and effective management of radioactive waste in the Slovak Republic are presented. (authors)

  20. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinglan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Yutao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiangzhi

    2015-04-01

    Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers). PMID:25623003

  1. Solid waste treatment processes for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrero, T. R.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the state-of-the-art of solid waste(s) treatment processes applicable to a Space Station. From the review of available information a source term model for solid wastes was determined. An overall system is proposed to treat solid wastes under constraints of zero-gravity and zero-leakage. This study contains discussion of more promising potential treatment processes, including supercritical water oxidation, wet air (oxygen) oxidation, and chemical oxidation. A low pressure, batch-type treament process is recommended. Processes needed for pretreatment and post-treatment are hardware already developed for space operations. The overall solid waste management system should minimize transfer of wastes from their collection point to treatment vessel.

  2. HANDBOOK ON TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE LEACHATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various treatment processes were evaluated for their applicability and effectiveness in treating leachate from hazardous waste land disposal facilities. These technologies include activated sludge treatment, air stripping, carbon adsorption, flow equalization, granular media filt...

  3. Accelerator waste - A new challenge for radio-analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Schumann, Dorothea; Neuhausen, Joer; Wohlmuther, Michaelg

    2007-07-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) at Villigen (Switzerland) operates the most powerful accelerator facility in Europe. Due to the increasing quantities of accelerator waste with almost unknown radionuclide inventory, the development of new radio-analytical methods is an urgent task. Besides the characterization by {gamma}-measurements and dose rate determinations, also the investigation of long-lived radionuclides, being probably essential for a final disposal, is required from Swiss authorities. Chemical separation is necessary for the determination of the majority of these isotopes. As a representative example for such studies, the analytics of a beam dump assembly is introduced. Samples were taken from the target E beam dump station from the 590 MeV proton accelerator facility. The content of several radionuclides with half-lives between 2 and 10{sup 7} years was determined by {gamma}-spectrometry and, after chemical separation, by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) as well as Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The results are compared with theoretical predictions. Long-term object of these studies is the elaboration of nuclide vectors, which allow the estimation of nuclide inventories by simple calculations. (authors)

  4. Accelerator-Driven Systems for Nuclear Waste Transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Charles D.

    The renewed interest since 1990 in accelerator-driven subcritical systems for transmutation of commercial nuclear waste has evolved to focus on the issue of whether fast- or thermal-spectrum systems offer greater promise. This review addresses the issue by comparing the performance of the more completely developed thermal- and fast-spectrum designs. Substantial design information is included to allow an assessment of the viability of the systems compared. The performance criteria considered most important are (a) the rapidity of reduction of the current inventory of plutonium and minor actinide from commercial spent fuel, (b) the cost, and (c) the complexity. The liquid-fueled thermal spectrum appears to offer major advantages over the solid-fueled fast-spectrum system, making waste reduction possible with about half the capital requirement on a substantially shorter time scale and with smaller separations requirements.

  5. Optimization of accelerator-driven technology for LWR waste transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, C.D.

    1996-12-31

    The role of accelerator-driven transmutation technology is examined in the context of the destruction of actinide waste from commercial light water reactors. It is pointed out that the commercial plutonium is much easier to use for entry-level nuclear weapons than weapons plutonium. Since commercial plutonium is easier to use, since there is very much more of it already, and since it is growing rapidly, the permanent disposition of commercial plutonium is an issue of greater importance than weapons plutonium. The minor actinides inventory, which may be influenced by transmutation, is compared in terms of nuclear properties with commercial and weapons plutonium and for possible utility as weapons material. Fast and thermal spectrum systems are compared as means for destruction of plutonium and the minor actinides. it is shown that the equilibrium fast spectrum actinide inventory is about 100 times larger than for thermal spectrum systems, and that there is about 100 times more weapons-usable material in the fast spectrum system inventory compared to the thermal spectrum system. Finally it is shown that the accelerator size for transmutation can be substantially reduced by design which uses the accelerator-produced neutrons only to initiate the unsustained fission chains characteristic of the subcritical system. The analysis argues for devoting primary attention to the development of thermal spectrum transmutation technology. A thermal spectrum transmuter operating at a fission power of 750-MWth fission power, which is sufficient to destroy the actinide waste from one 3,000-MWth light water reactor, may be driven by a proton beam of 1 GeV energy and a current of 7 mA. This accelerator is within the range of realizable cyclotron technology and is also near the size contemplated for the next generation spallation neutron source under consideration by the US, Europe, and Japan.

  6. Enhancement of accelerated carbonation of alkaline waste residues by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Araizi, Paris K; Hills, Colin D; Maries, Alan; Gunning, Peter J; Wray, David S

    2016-04-01

    The continuous growth of anthropogenic CO2 emissions into the atmosphere and the disposal of hazardous wastes into landfills present serious economic and environmental issues. Reaction of CO2 with alkaline residues or cementitius materials, known as accelerated carbonation, occurs rapidly under ambient temperature and pressure and is a proven and effective process of sequestering the gas. Moreover, further improvement of the reaction efficiency would increase the amount of CO2 that could be permanently sequestered into solid products. This paper examines the potential of enhancing the accelerated carbonation of air pollution control residues, cement bypass dust and ladle slag by applying ultrasound at various water-to-solid (w/s) ratios. Experimental results showed that application of ultrasound increased the CO2 uptake by up to four times at high w/s ratios, whereas the reactivity at low water content showed little change compared with controls. Upon sonication, the particle size of the waste residues decreased and the amount of calcite precipitates increased. Finally, the sonicated particles exhibited a rounded morphology when observed by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:26905698

  7. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Jinglan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Yutao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiangzhi

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Life cycle assessment of electronic waste recycling is quantified. • Key factors for reducing the overall environmental impact are indentified. • End-life disposal processes provide significant environmental benefits. • Efficiently reduce the improper disposal amount of e-waste is highly needed. • E-waste incineration can generate significant environmental burden. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers)

  8. Experiences with treatment of mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.H.; Nuttall, E.

    1996-04-10

    During its many years of research activities involving toxic chemicals and radioactive materials, Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) has generated considerable amounts of waste. Much of this waste includes chemically hazardous components and radioisotopes. Los Alamos chose to use an electrochemical process for the treatment of many mixed waste components. The electro-chemical process, which the authors are developing, can treat a great variety of waste using one type of equipment built at a moderate expense. Such a process can extract heavy metals, destroy cyanides, dissolve contamination from surfaces, oxidize toxic organic compounds, separate salts into acids and bases, and reduce the nitrates. All this can be accomplished using the equipment and one crew of trained operating personnel. Results of a treatability study of chosen mixed wastes from Los Alamos Mixed Waste Inventory are presented. Using electrochemical methods cyanide and heavy metals bearing wastes were treated to below disposal limits.

  9. Disposal of water treatment wastes containing arsenic - a review.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Colin; Tyrer, Mark; Cheeseman, Christopher R; Graham, Nigel J D

    2010-03-15

    Solid waste management in developing countries is often unsustainable, relying on uncontrolled disposal in waste dumps. Particular problems arise from the disposal of treatment residues generated by removing arsenic (As) from drinking water because As can be highly mobile and has the potential to leach back to ground and surface waters. This paper reviews the disposal of water treatment wastes containing As, with a particular emphasis on stabilisation/solidification (S/S) technologies which are currently used to treat industrial wastes containing As. These have been assessed for their appropriateness for treating As containing water treatment wastes. Portland cement/lime mixes are expected (at least in part) to be appropriate for wastes from sorptive filters, but may not be appropriate for precipitative sludges, because ferric flocs often used to sorb As can retard cement hydration. Brine resulting from the regeneration of activated alumina filters is likely to accelerate cement hydration. Portland cement can immobilize soluble arsenites and has been successfully used to stabilise As-rich sludges and it may also be suitable for treating sludges generated from precipitative removal units. Oxidation of As(III) to As(V) and the formation of calcium-arsenic compounds are important immobilisation mechanisms for As in cements. Geopolymers are alternative binder systems that are effective for treating wastes rich in alumina and metal hydroxides and may have potential for As wastes generated using activated alumina. The long-term stability of cemented, arsenic-bearing wastes is however uncertain, as like many cements, they are susceptible to carbonation effects which may result in the subsequent re-release of As. PMID:20153878

  10. Chemical aspects of nuclear waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, W. D.

    1980-01-01

    The chemical aspects of the treatment of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes are discussed in overview. The role of chemistry and the chemical reactions in waste treatment are emphasized. Waste treatment methods encompass the chemistry of radioactive elements from every group of the periodic table. In most streams, the radioactive elements are present in relatively low concentrations and are often associated with moderately large amounts of process reagents, or materials. In general, it is desirable that waste treatment methods are based on chemistry that is selective for the concentration of radionuclides and does not require the addition of reagents that contribute significantly to the volume of the treated waste. Solvent extraction, ion exchange, and sorbent chemistry play a major role in waste treatment because of the high selectivity provided for many radionuclides. This paper deals with the chemistry of the onsite treatment methods that is typically used at nuclear installations and is not concerned with the chemistry of the various alternative materials proposed for long-term storage of nuclear wastes. The chemical aspects are discussed from a generic point of view in which the chemistry of important radionuclides is emphasized.

  11. Waste washing pre-treatment of municipal and special waste.

    PubMed

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn

    2012-03-15

    Long-term pollution potential in landfills is mainly related to the quality of leachate. Waste can be conveniently treated prior to landfilling with an aim to minimizing future emissions. Washing of waste represents a feasible pre-treatment method focused on controlling the leachable fraction of residues and relevant impact. In this study, non-recyclable plastics originating from source segregation, mechanical-biological treated municipal solid waste (MSW), bottom ash from MSW incineration and automotive shredder residues (ASR) were treated and the removal efficiency of washing pre-treatment prior to landfilling was evaluated. Column tests were performed to simulate the behaviour of waste in landfill under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The findings obtained revealed how waste washing treatment (WWT) allowed the leachability of contaminants from waste to be reduced. Removal rates exceeding 65% were obtained for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN). A percentage decrease of approximately 60% was reached for the leachable fraction of chlorides, sulphates, fluoride and metals, as proved by a reduction in electric conductivity values (70%). PMID:21968117

  12. Waste treatment in silicon production operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Larry M. (Inventor); Tambo, William (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A battery of special burners, each adapted for the treatment of a particular range of waste material formed during the conversion of metallurgical grade silicon to high purity silane and silicon, is accompanied by a series arrangement of filters to recover fumed silica by-product and a scrubber to recover muriatic acid as another by-product. All of the wastes are processed, during normal and plant upset waste load conditions, to produce useful by-products in an environmentally acceptable manner rather than waste materials having associated handling and disposal problems.

  13. Proposed HWIR alters waste treatment, disposal options

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.; Robinson, C.

    1996-04-01

    In what it has called its most important change to the hazardous waste rules since 1980, the Environmental Protection Agency has proposed the Hazardous Waste Identification Rule for process wastes that currently are regulated by the hazardous waste provisions in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, or RCRA Subtitle C. The rule addresses wastes that EPA has individually listed as hazardous, as well as wastes that are mixed with, derived from or contain listed hazardous wastes. The HWIR sets constituent-specific exit levels that would let low-risk process wastes escape the rigorous regulations of Subtitle C. EPA also proposes changes to RCRA`s land disposal restrictions so that some wastes that currently must be treated according to strict universal treatment standards may not have to be treated at all -- or could be treated in a less expensive manner -- before disposal. The proposed rule is important to virtually every company that is subject to RCRA`s hazardous waste regulations and raises many issues on which companies may want to comment.

  14. TREATMENT OF FISSION PRODUCT WASTE

    DOEpatents

    Huff, J.B.

    1959-07-28

    A pyrogenic method of separating nuclear reactor waste solutions containing aluminum and fission products as buring petroleum coke in an underground retort, collecting the easily volatile gases resulting as the first fraction, he uminum chloride as the second fraction, permitting the coke bed to cool and ll contain all the longest lived radioactive fission products in greatly reduced volume.

  15. Hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-29

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently evaluating hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation technologies in existence and under development to determine applicability to remediation needs of the DOE facilities under the Albuquerque Operations Office and to determine areas of research need. To assist LANL is this effort, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) conducted an assessment of technologies and monitoring methods that have been demonstrated or are under development. The focus of this assessment is to: (1) identify existing technologies for hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation of old waste sites; (2) identify technologies under development and the status of the technology; (3) assess new technologies that need development to provide adequate hazardous waste treatment and remedial action technologies for DOD and DOE sites; and (4) identify hazardous waste and remediation problems for environmental research and development. There are currently numerous research and development activities underway nationwide relating to environmental contaminants and the remediation of waste sites. To perform this effort, SAIC evaluated current technologies and monitoring methods development programs in EPA, DOD, and DOE, as these are the primary agencies through which developmental methods are being demonstrated. This report presents this evaluation and provides recommendations as to pertinent research needs or activities to address waste site contamination problems. The review and assessment have been conducted at a programmatic level; site-specific and contaminant-specific evaluations are being performed by LANL staff as a separate, related activity.

  16. Sorting of household waste and thermal treatment of waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ferranti, M.P.; Ferrero, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The priorities in waste policy are implicit in the title of this book. The first goal is sorting and recycling of materials whenever possible. The second priority is for thermal treatment of any materials unsuitable for recovery. The different sessions dealt with the research carried out under cost-shared contracts in the various programme areas.

  17. Lube solvents no threat to waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, E.H.; Tullos, L.F.

    1980-10-01

    Biological treatment of reasonable loads of lubricating oil extraction solvents should pose no problems for a diversified refinery treatment system. Activated sludge, aerated lagoons, or oxidation ponds are the most frequently employed biological processes for treating such wastes. Rates of solvent degradation are reported for phenol and furfural.

  18. Microbiological treatment of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.

    1992-12-31

    The ability of microorganisms which are ubiquitous throughout nature to bring about information of organic and inorganic compounds in radioactive wastes has been recognized. Unlike organic contaminants, metals cannot be destroyed, but must be either removed or converted to a stable form. Radionuclides and toxic metals in wastes may be present initially in soluble form or, after disposal may be converted to a soluble form by chemical or microbiological processes. The key microbiological reactions include (i) oxidation/reduction; (ii) change in pH and Eh which affects the valence state and solubility of the metal; (iii) production of sequestering agents; and (iv) bioaccumulation. All of these processes can mobilize or stabilize metals in the environment.

  19. Treatment of oil field wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, E.G.; Seedall, L.K.

    1988-06-21

    An apparatus for recovery of barite and clays from spend drilling fluids is described comprising: (a) a rotary kiln having a first end higher than a second end whereby drilling fluids therein will flow from the first end to the second end, the kiln having an inlet at the first end for receiving drilling fluids and combustion air; (b) a burner connected to the first end of the kiln for supplying fire to the kiln for aiding in burning the combustible components of the drilling fluids in the kiln; (c) a fuel and pressurized air inlet connected to the burner; (d) an outlet at the second end of the kiln for removing the light weight waste; (e) means connected to the outlet for removing high weight dried waste from the kiln by gravity; (f) cyclone separator means located downstream of the kiln outlet for separation of particulates such as barite and clays; (g) secondary combustion means located downstream from the cyclone separator means for oxidation of residual pyrolized gases from oxidized carbonaceous waste from the kiln; (h) heat exchanger means for cooling the exhaust gases to substantially a 100% water saturation point with incoming combustion air to preheat the combustion air; and (i) means for removing residual oxides of sulfur from the exhaust gases prior to vending to the atmosphere.

  20. Closed Fuel Cycle Waste Treatment Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, J. D.; Collins, E. D.; Crum, J. V.; Ebert, W. L.; Frank, S. M.; Garn, T. G.; Gombert, D.; Jones, R.; Jubin, R. T.; Maio, V. C.; Marra, J. C.; Matyas, J.; Nenoff, T. M.; Riley, B. J.; Sevigny, G. J.; Soelberg, N. R.; Strachan, D. M.; Thallapally, P. K.; Westsik, J. H.

    2015-02-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the existing waste management approaches for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in comparison to the objectives of implementing an advanced fuel cycle in the U.S. under current legal, regulatory, and logistical constructs. The study begins with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Integrated Waste Management Strategy (IWMS) (Gombert et al. 2008) as a general strategy and associated Waste Treatment Baseline Study (WTBS) (Gombert et al. 2007). The tenets of the IWMS are equally valid to the current waste management study. However, the flowsheet details have changed significantly from those considered under GNEP. In addition, significant additional waste management technology development has occurred since the GNEP waste management studies were performed. This study updates the information found in the WTBS, summarizes the results of more recent technology development efforts, and describes waste management approaches as they apply to a representative full recycle reprocessing flowsheet. Many of the waste management technologies discussed also apply to other potential flowsheets that involve reprocessing. These applications are occasionally discussed where the data are more readily available. The report summarizes the waste arising from aqueous reprocessing of a typical light-water reactor (LWR) fuel to separate actinides for use in fabricating metal sodium fast reactor (SFR) fuel and from electrochemical reprocessing of the metal SFR fuel to separate actinides for recycle back into the SFR in the form of metal fuel. The primary streams considered and the recommended waste forms include; Tritium in low-water cement in high integrity containers (HICs); Iodine-129: As a reference case, a glass composite material (GCM) formed by the encapsulation of the silver Mordenite (AgZ) getter material in a low-temperature glass is assumed. A number of alternatives with distinct advantages are also considered including a fused silica waste form

  1. Economic and environmental optimization of waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Münster, M.; Ravn, H.; Hedegaard, K.; Juul, N.; Ljunggren Söderman, M.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Optimizing waste treatment by incorporating LCA methodology. • Applying different objectives (minimizing costs or GHG emissions). • Prioritizing multiple objectives given different weights. • Optimum depends on objective and assumed displaced electricity production. - Abstract: This article presents the new systems engineering optimization model, OptiWaste, which incorporates a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. As part of the optimization, the model identifies the most attractive waste management options. The model renders it possible to apply different optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritize several objectives given different weights. A simple illustrative case is analysed, covering alternative treatments of one tonne of residual household waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste for biogas production for either combined heat and power generation or as fuel in vehicles. The case study illustrates that the optimal solution depends on the objective and assumptions regarding the background system – illustrated with different assumptions regarding displaced electricity production. The article shows that it is feasible to combine LCA methodology with optimization. Furthermore, it highlights the need for including the integrated waste and energy system into the model.

  2. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) will provide permanent disposal for approximately 43 Mgal of low-level radioactive liquid waste currently being stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. The first step in permanent disposal is accomplished by solidifying the liquid waste with cementitious dry materials. The resulting grout is cast within underground vaults. This report on the GTF contains information on the following: Geologic data, hydrologic data, groundwater monitoring program, information, detection monitoring program, groundwater characterization drawings, building emergency plan--grout treatment facility, response action plan for grout treatment facility, Hanford Facility contingency plan, training course descriptions, overview of the Hanford Facility Grout Performance, assessment, bland use and zoning map, waste minimization plan, cover design engineering report, and clay liners (ADMIXTURES) in semiarid environments.

  3. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A.; Mayberry, J.; Frazier, G.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well.

  4. Hazardous waste treatment facility and skid-mounted treatment systems at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Lussiez, G.W.; Zygmunt, S.J.

    1993-05-01

    To centralize treatment, storage, and staging areas for hazardous wastes, Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a 12,000-ft{sup 2} hazardous waste treatment facility. The facility will house a treatment room for each of four kinds of wastes: nonradioactive characteristic wastes, nonradioactive listed wastes radioactive characteristic wastes, and radioactive listed wastes. The facility will be used for repacking labpacks, bulking small organic waste volumes, processing scintillation vials, treating reactives such as lithium hydride and pyrophoric uranium, treating contaminated solids such as barium sand, and treating plating wastes. The treated wastes will then be appropriately disposed of. This report describes the integral features of the hazardous waste treatment facility.

  5. Medical waste treatment and decontamination system

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.; Schulz, Rebecca L.; Clark, David E.

    2001-01-01

    The invention discloses a tandem microwave system consisting of a primary chamber in which hybrid microwave energy is used for the controlled combustion of materials. A second chamber is used to further treat the off-gases from the primary chamber by passage through a susceptor matrix subjected to additional hybrid microwave energy. The direct microwave radiation and elevated temperatures provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the treated off gases. The tandem microwave system can be utilized for disinfecting wastes, sterilizing materials, and/or modifying the form of wastes to solidify organic or inorganic materials. The simple design allows on-site treatment of waste by small volume waste generators.

  6. Zinc Bromide Waste Solution Treatment Options

    SciTech Connect

    Langston, C.A.

    2001-01-16

    The objective of this effort was to identify treatment options for 20,000 gallons of low-level radioactively contaminated zinc bromide solution currently stored in C-Area. These options will be relevant when the solutions are declared waste.

  7. The Plasma Hearth Process demonstration project for mixed waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Geimer, R.; Dwight, C.; McClellan, G.

    1994-07-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Testing to date has yielded encouraging results in displaying potential applications for the PHP technology. Early tests have shown that a wide range of waste materials can be readily processed in the PHP and converted to a vitreous product. Waste materials can be treated in their original container as received at the treatment facility, without pretreatment. The vitreous product, when cooled, exhibits excellent performance in leach resistance, consistently exceeding the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) requirements. Performance of the Demonstration System during test operations has been shown to meet emission requirements. An accelerated development phase, being conducted at both bench- and pilot-scale on both nonradioactive and radioactive materials, will confirm the viability of the process. It is anticipated that, as a result of this accelerated technology development and demonstration phase, the PHP will be ready for a final field-level demonstration within three years.

  8. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  9. Economic and environmental optimization of waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Münster, M; Ravn, H; Hedegaard, K; Juul, N; Ljunggren Söderman, M

    2015-04-01

    This article presents the new systems engineering optimization model, OptiWaste, which incorporates a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. As part of the optimization, the model identifies the most attractive waste management options. The model renders it possible to apply different optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritize several objectives given different weights. A simple illustrative case is analysed, covering alternative treatments of one tonne of residual household waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste for biogas production for either combined heat and power generation or as fuel in vehicles. The case study illustrates that the optimal solution depends on the objective and assumptions regarding the background system--illustrated with different assumptions regarding displaced electricity production. The article shows that it is feasible to combine LCA methodology with optimization. Furthermore, it highlights the need for including the integrated waste and energy system into the model. PMID:25595392

  10. Handbook of industrial and hazardous wastes treatment. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Wang; Yung-Tse Hung; Howard Lo; Constantine Yapijakis

    2004-06-15

    This expanded Second Edition offers 32 chapters of industry- and waste-specific analyses and treatment methods for industrial and hazardous waste materials - from explosive wastes to landfill leachate to wastes produced by the pharmaceutical and food industries. Key additional chapters cover means of monitoring waste on site, pollution prevention, and site remediation. Including a timely evaluation of the role of biotechnology in contemporary industrial waste management, the Handbook reveals sound approaches and sophisticated technologies for treating: textile, rubber, and timber wastes; dairy, meat, and seafood industry wastes; bakery and soft drink wastes; palm and olive oil wastes; pesticide and livestock wastes; pulp and paper wastes; phosphate wastes; detergent wastes; photographic wastes; refinery and metal plating wastes; and power industry wastes. This final chapter, entitled 'Treatment of power industry wastes' by Lawrence K. Wang, analyses the stream electric power generation industry, where combustion of fossil fuels coal, oil, gas, supplies heat to produce stream, used then to generate mechanical energy in turbines, subsequently converted to electricity. Wastes include waste waters from cooling water systems, ash handling systems, wet-scrubber air pollution control systems, and boiler blowdown. Wastewaters are characterized and waste treatment by physical and chemical systems to remove pollutants is presented. Plant-specific examples are provided.

  11. RETRIEVAL & TREATMENT OF HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    EACKER, J.A.; SPEARS, J.A.; STURGES, M.H.; MAUSS, B.M.

    2006-01-20

    The Hanford Tank Farms contain 53 million gal of radioactive waste accumulated during over 50 years of operations. The waste is stored in 177 single-shell and double-shell tanks in the Hanford 200 Areas. The single-shell tanks were put into operation from the early 1940s through the 1960s with wastes received from several generations of processing facilities for the recovery of plutonium and uranium, and from laboratories and other ancillary facilities. The overall hanford Tank Farm system represents one of the largest nuclear legacies in the world driving towards completion of retrieval and treatment in 2028 and the associated closure activity completion by 2035. Remote operations, significant radiation/contamination levels, limited access, and old facilities are just some of the challenges faced by retrieval and treatment systems. These systems also need to be able to successfully remove 99% or more of the waste, and support waste treatment, and tank closure. The Tank Farm retrieval program has ramped up dramatically in the past three years with design, fabrication, installation, testing, and operations ongoing on over 20 of the 149 single-shell tanks. A variety of technologies are currently being pursued to retrieve different waste types, applications, and to help establish a baseline for recovery/operational efficiencies. The paper/presentation describes the current status of retrieval system design, fabrication, installation, testing, readiness, and operations, including: (1) Saltcake removal progress in Tanks S-102, S-109, and S-112 using saltcake dissolution, modified sluicing, and high pressure water lancing techniques; (2) Sludge vacuum retrieval experience from Tanks C-201, C-202, C-203, and C-204; (3) Modified sluicing experience in Tank C-103; (4) Progress on design and installation of the mobile retrieval system for sludge in potentially leaking single-shell tanks, particularly Tank C-101; and (5) Ongoing installation of various systems in the next

  12. Raw liquid waste treatment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, Marshall F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A raw sewage treatment process is disclosed in which substantially all the non-dissolved matter, which is suspended in the sewage water is first separated from the water, in which at least organic matter is dissolved. The non-dissolved material is pyrolyzed to form an activated carbon and ash material without the addition of any conditioning agents. The activated carbon and ash material is added to the water from which the non-dissolved matter was removed. The activated carbon and ash material absorbs organic matter and heavy metal ions, it is believed, are dissolved in the water and is thereafter supplied in a counter current flow direction and combined with the incoming raw sewage to facilitate the separation of the non-dissolved settleable materials from the sewage water. The used carbon and ash material together with the non-dissolved matter which was separated from the sewage water are pyrolyzed to form the activated carbon and ash material.

  13. Handling Radioactive Waste from the Proton Accelerator Facility at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) - Always Surprising? - 13320

    SciTech Connect

    Mueth, Joachim

    2013-07-01

    waste management process of PSI, especially of the Section Dismantling and Waste Management. Strictly proven and accepted methods needed to be developed and enhanced for safe treatment, transport, conditioning and storage. But in the field of waste from research activities, individual and new solutions have to be found in an increasingly growing administrative environment. Furthermore, a wide variety of components, with a really large inventory of radioactive nuclides, has to be handled. And there are always surprising challenges concerning the unusual materials or the nuclide inventory. In case of the operational and dismantling radioactive accelerator waste, the existing conditioning methods are in the process of a continuous enhancement - technically and administratively. The existing authorized specifications of conditioning processes have to be extended to optimize and fully describe the treatment of the inevitably occurring radioactive waste from the accelerator facility. Additional challenges are the changes with time concerning the legal and regulatory requirements - or do we have to consider it as business as usual? This paper gives an overview of the current practices in radioactive waste management and decommissioning of the existing operational accelerator waste. (authors)

  14. Theoretical treatment of fluid flow for accelerating bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gledhill, Irvy M. A.; Roohani, Hamed; Forsberg, Karl; Eliasson, Peter; Skews, Beric W.; Nordström, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Most computational fluid dynamics simulations are, at present, performed in a body-fixed frame, for aeronautical purposes. With the advent of sharp manoeuvre, which may lead to transient effects originating in the acceleration of the centre of mass, there is a need to have a consistent formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations in an arbitrarily moving frame. These expressions should be in a form that allows terms to be transformed between non-inertial and inertial frames and includes gravity, viscous terms, and linear and angular acceleration. Since no effects of body acceleration appear in the inertial frame Navier-Stokes equations themselves, but only in their boundary conditions, it is useful to investigate acceleration source terms in the non-inertial frame. In this paper, a derivation of the energy equation is provided in addition to the continuity and momentum equations previously published. Relevant dimensionless constants are derived which can be used to obtain an indication of the relative significance of acceleration effects. The necessity for using computational fluid dynamics to capture nonlinear effects remains, and various implementation schemes for accelerating bodies are discussed. This theoretical treatment is intended to provide a foundation for interpretation of aerodynamic effects observed in manoeuvre, particularly for accelerating missiles.

  15. Nuclear Waste Treatment Program: Annual report for FY 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, H.C.; Brouns, R.A.; Powell, J.A.

    1987-09-01

    To support DOE's attainment of its goals, Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) is to provide technology necessary for the design and operation of nuclear waste treatment facilities by commercial enterprises as part of a licensed waste management system and problem-specific treatment approaches, waste form and treatment process adaptations, equipment designs, and trouble-shooting. This annual report describes progress during FY 1986 toward meeting these two objectives. 29 refs., 59 figs., 25 tabs.

  16. TREATMENT OF REACTIVE WASTES AT HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is intended to provide an information base for personnel accepting hazardous waste at existing disposal sites, or performing remedial action at uncontrolled waste sites, to make the appropriate decisions regarding the disposition of reactive wastes. It emphasizes simp...

  17. Aqueous Waste Treatment Plant at Aldermaston

    SciTech Connect

    Keene, D.; Fowler, J.; Frier, S.

    2006-07-01

    For over half a century the Pangbourne Pipeline formed part of AWE's liquid waste management system. Since 1952 the 11.5 mile pipeline carried pre-treated wastewater from the Aldermaston site for safe dispersal in the River Thames. Such discharges were in strict compliance with the exacting conditions demanded by all regulatory authorities, latterly, those of the Environment Agency. In March 2005 AWE plc closed the Pangbourne Pipeline and ceased discharges of treated active aqueous waste to the River Thames via this route. The ability to effectively eliminate active liquid discharges to the environment is thanks to an extensive programme of waste minimization on the Aldermaston site, together with the construction of a new Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). Waste minimization measures have reduced the effluent arisings by over 70% in less than four years. The new WTP has been built using best available technology (evaporation followed by reverse osmosis) to remove trace levels of radioactivity from wastewater to exceptionally stringent standards. Active operation has confirmed early pilot scale trials, with the plant meeting throughput and decontamination performance targets, and final discharges being at or below limits of detection. The performance of the plant allows the treated waste to be discharged safely as normal industrial effluent from the AWE site. Although the project has had a challenging schedule, the project was completed on programme, to budget and with an exemplary safety record (over 280,000 hours in construction with no lost time events) largely due to a pro-active partnering approach between AWE plc and RWE NUKEM and its sub-contractors. (authors)

  18. National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste minimization and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission requested the US Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) to assist the biomedical community in becoming more knowledgeable about its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste stream generated by the biomedical community, and to identify applicable treatment technologies for these mixed waste streams. As the first step in the waste minimization process, liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLMW) streams generated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were characterized and combined into similar process categories. This report identifies possible waste minimization and treatment approaches for the LLMW generated by the biomedical community identified in DOE/LLW-208. In development of the report, on site meetings were conducted with NIH personnel responsible for generating each category of waste identified as lacking disposal options. Based on the meetings and general waste minimization guidelines, potential waste minimization options were identified.

  19. Combustible radioactive waste treatment by incineration and chemical digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Stretz, L.A.; Crippen, M.D.; Allen, C.R.

    1980-05-28

    A review is given of present and planned combustible radioactive waste treatment systems in the US. Advantages and disadvantages of various systems are considered. Design waste streams are discussed in relation to waste composition, radioactive contaminants by amount and type, and special operating problems caused by the waste.

  20. Regulatory framework for the thermal treatment of various waste streams.

    PubMed

    Lee, C C; Huffman, G L; Mao, Y L

    2000-08-28

    Since 1990, regulations and standards have changed considerably. This article is an update of the regulatory requirements for the thermal treatment of various waste streams. The waste categories covered, along with the laws they are governed under, include: Hazardous waste under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and under the Clean Air Act; municipal solid waste under Subtitle D of the RCRA; medical waste under Subtitle J of the RCRA; Superfund waste under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA); toxic waste under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA); and sludge waste under the Clean Water Act (CWA). PMID:10863011

  1. Waste treatment by selective mineral ion exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Polito, Aurelie

    2007-07-01

    STMI, subsidiary company of the AREVA Group with over 40 years in the D and D business, has been continuously innovating and developing new decontamination techniques, with the objectives of achieving more efficient decontaminations on a growing spectrum of media. In the field of liquid waste treatment, STMI manufactures uses and commercialises selective inorganic ion exchangers (RAN). These are hydrated synthetic inorganic compounds prepared from very pure raw materials. Different types of RANs (POLYAN, OXTAIN, Fe-Cu, Fe-CoK, Si-Fe-CoK) can be used to trap a large number of radioactive elements in contaminated effluents. Different implementations could be applied depending on technical conditions. STMI's offers consist in building global solution and preliminary design of installation either in dispersed form (batch) or in column (cartridge filtration). Those products are used all over the world not only in the nuclear business (Canada, US, Belgium, France...) but also in other fields. Indeed, it provides competitive solutions to many domains of application especially water pollution control, liquid waste treatment in the nuclear business by decreasing the activity level of waste. The following paper will focus on the theoretical principle of the mineral exchanger, its implementation and the feed back collected by STMI. (author)

  2. Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.; Clark, L.L.; Craig, R.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.; McCarthy, D.; Franklin, A.L.; Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases.

  3. ACCELERATION OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY TRANSURANIC WASTE DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    O'LEARY, GERALD A.

    2007-01-04

    One of Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) most significant risks is the site's inventory of transuranic waste retrievably stored above and below-ground in Technical Area (TA) 54 Area G, particularly the dispersible high-activity waste stored above-ground in deteriorating facilities. The high activity waste represents approximately 50% (by activity) of the total 292,000 PE-Ci inventory remaining to be disposed. The transuramic waste inventory includes contact-handled and remote-handled waste packaged in drums, boxes, and oversized containers which are retrievably stored both above and below-ground. Although currently managed as transuranic waste, some of the inventory is low-level waste that can be disposed onsite or at approved offsite facilities. Dispositioning the transuranic waste inventory requires retrieval of the containers from above and below-ground storage, examination and repackaging or remediation as necessary, characterization, certification and loading for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad New Mexico, all in accordance with well-defined requirements and controls. Although operations are established to process and characterize the lower-activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers, LAN L does not currently have the capability to repack high activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers (> 56 PE-Ci) or to process oversized containers with activity levels over 0.52 PE-Ci. Operational issues and compliance requirements have resulted in less than optimal processing capabilities for lower activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers, limiting preparation and reducing dependability of shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Since becoming the Los Alamos National Laboratory contract in June 2006, Los Alamos National Security (LANS) L.L.C. has developed a comprehensive, integrated plan to effectively and efficiently disposition the transuranic waste inventory, working in concert with the Department of

  4. Analysis of waste treatment requirements for DOE mixed wastes: Technical basis

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The risks and costs of managing DOE wastes are a direct function of the total quantities of 3wastes that are handled at each step of the management process. As part of the analysis of the management of DOE low-level mixed wastes (LLMW), a reference scheme has been developed for the treatment of these wastes to meet EPA criteria. The treatment analysis in a limited form was also applied to one option for treatment of transuranic wastes. The treatment requirements in all cases analyzed are based on a reference flowsheet which provides high level treatment trains for all LLMW. This report explains the background and basis for that treatment scheme. Reference waste stream chemical compositions and physical properties including densities were established for each stream in the data base. These compositions are used to define the expected behavior for wastes as they pass through the treatment train. Each EPA RCRA waste code was reviewed, the properties, chemical composition, or characteristics which are of importance to waste behavior in treatment were designated. Properties that dictate treatment requirements were then used to develop the treatment trains and identify the unit operations that would be included in these trains. A table was prepared showing a correlation of the waste physical matrix and the waste treatment requirements as a guide to the treatment analysis. The analysis of waste treatment loads is done by assigning wastes to treatment steps which would achieve RCRA compliant treatment. These correlation`s allow one to examine the treatment requirements in a condensed manner and to see that all wastes and contaminant sets are fully considered.

  5. HANDBOOK: VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS AND RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The applications and limitations of vitrification technologies for treating hazardous and radioactive waste are presented. everal subgroups of vitrifications technologies exist. iscussions of glass structure, applicable waste types, off gas treatment, testing and evaluation proce...

  6. 50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NONEVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NON-EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS IN CENTER, AND EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER COOLING TOWERS ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  7. Accelerating the disposition of transuranic waste from LANL - 9495

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, Mark D; Stiger, Susan G; Blankenhorn, James A; Rael, George J; Moody, David C

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was established during World War II with a single mission -- to design and build an atomic bomb. In the 65 years since, nuclear weapons physics, design and engineering have been the Laboratory's primary and sustaining mission. Experimental and process operations -- and associated cleanout and upgrade activities -- have generated a significant inventory of transuranic (TRU) waste that is stored at LANL's Technical Area 54, Material Disposal Area G (MDA G). When the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) opened its doors in 1999, LANL's TRU inventory totaled about 10,200 m{sup 3}, with a plutonium 239-equivalent curie (PE Ci) content of approximately 250,000 curies. By December 2008, a total of about 2,300 m3 (61,000 PE Ci) had been shipped to WIPP from LANL. This has resulted in a net reduction of about 1,000 m{sup 3} of TRU inventory over that time frame. This paper presents progress in dispositioning legacy and newly-generated transuranic waste (TRU) from ongoing missions at the LANL. The plans for, and lessons learned, in dispositioning several hundred high-activity TRU waste drums are reviewed. This waste population was one of the highest risks at LANL. Technical challenges in disposition of the high-activity drums are presented. These provide a preview of challenges to be addressed in dispositioning the remaining 6,800 m{sup 3} of TRU stored above ground and 2,400 m{sup 3} of TRU waste that is 'retrievably' stored below-grade. LANL is using subcontractors for much of this work and has formed a strong partnership with WIPP and its contractor to address this cleanup challenge.

  8. Bulky waste quantities and treatment methods in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anna W; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-02-01

    Bulky waste is a significant and increasing waste stream in Denmark. However, only little research has been done on its composition and treatment. In the present study, data about collection methods, waste quantities and treatment methods for bulky waste were obtained from two municipalities. In addition a sorting analysis was conducted on combustible waste, which is a major fraction of bulky waste in Denmark. The generation of bulky waste was found to be 150-250 kg capita(-1) year(-1), and 90% of the waste was collected at recycling centres; the rest through kerbside collection. Twelve main fractions were identified of which ten were recyclable and constituted 50-60% of the total quantity. The others were combustible waste for incineration (30-40%) and non-combustible waste for landfilling (10%). The largest fractions by mass were combustible waste, bricks and tile, concrete, non-combustible waste, wood, and metal scrap, which together made up more than 90% of the total waste amounts. The amount of combustible waste could be significantly reduced through better sorting. Many of the waste fractions consisted of composite products that underwent thorough separation before being recycled. The recyclable materials were in many cases exported to other countries which made it difficult to track their destination and further treatment. PMID:21890876

  9. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project. Volume 3, Waste treatment technologies (Draft)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  10. The Hybrid Treatment Process for treatment of mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Kindle, C.H.

    1992-04-01

    This paper describes a new process for treating mixed hazardous and radioactive waste, commonly called mixed waste. The process is called the Hybrid Treatment Process (HTP), so named because it is built on the 20 years of experience with vitrification of wastes in melters, and the 12 years of experience with treatment of wastes by the in situ vitrification (ISV) process.

  11. Disposition of Nuclear Waste Using Subcritical Accelerator-Driven Systems: Technology Choices and Implementation Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Venneri, Francesco; Williamson, Mark A.; Li Ning; Houts, Michael G.; Morley, Richard A.; Beller, Denis E.; Sailor, William; Lawrence, George

    2000-10-15

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has led the development of accelerator-driven transmutation of waste (ATW) to provide an alternative technological solution to the disposition of nuclear waste. While ATW will not eliminate the need for a high-level waste repository, it offers a new technology option for altering the nature of nuclear waste and enhancing the capability of a repository. The basic concept of ATW focuses on reducing the time horizon for the radiological risk from hundreds of thousands of years to a few hundred years and on reducing the thermal loading. As such, ATW will greatly reduce the amount of transuranic elements that will be disposed of in a high-level waste repository. The goal of the ATW nuclear subsystem is to produce three orders of magnitude reduction in the long-term radiotoxicity of the waste sent to a repository, including losses through processing. If the goal is met, the radiotoxicity of ATW-treated waste after 300 yr would be less than that of untreated waste after 100 000 yr.These objectives can be achieved through the use of high neutron fluxes produced in accelerator-driven subcritical systems. While critical fission reactors can produce high neutron fluxes to destroy actinides and select fission products, the effectiveness of the destruction is limited by the criticality requirement. Furthermore, a substantial amount of excess reactivity would have to be supplied initially and compensated for by control poisons. To overcome these intrinsic limitations, we searched for solutions in subcritical systems freed from the criticality requirement by taking advantage of the recent breakthroughs in accelerator technology and the release of liquid lead/bismuth nuclear coolant technology from Russia. The effort led to the selection of an accelerator-driven subcritical system that results in the destruction of the actinides and fission products of concern as well as permitting easy operational control through the external control of the neutron

  12. Evaluation of Biodegradability of Waste Before and After Aerobic Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchowska-Kisielewicz, Monika; Jędrczak, Andrzej; Sadecka, Zofia

    2014-12-01

    An important advantage of use of an aerobic biostabilization of waste prior to its disposal is that it intensifies the decomposition of the organic fraction of waste into the form which is easily assimilable for methanogenic microorganisms involved in anaerobic decomposition of waste in the landfill. In this article it is presented the influence of aerobic pre-treatment of waste as well as leachate recirculation on susceptibility to biodegradation of waste in anaerobic laboratory reactors. The research has shown that in the reactor with aerobically treated waste stabilized with recilculation conversion of the organic carbon into the methane is about 45% higher than in the reactor with untreated waste stabilized without recirculation.

  13. IN-SITU TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Techniques were investigated for in-situ treatment of hazardous wastes that could be applied to contaminated soils. Included were chemical treatment methods, biological treatment, photochemical transformations and combination methods. Techniques were developed based on fundamenta...

  14. Treatment of Bone Waste Using Thermal Plasma Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ki, Ho Beom; Kim, Woo Hyung; Kim, Bong Soo; Koo, Hyung Joon; Li, Mingwei; Chae, Jae Ou

    2007-10-01

    Daily meat consumption produces a lot of bone waste, and dumped bone waste without treatment would result in environmental hazards. Conventional treatment methods of waste bones have some disadvantages. Herein, an investigation of bone waste treated using thermal plasma technology is presented. A high-temperature plasma torch operated at 25.2 kW was used to treat bone waste for seven minutes. The bone waste was finally changed into vitric matter and lost 2/3 of its weight after the treatment. The process was highly efficient, economical, convenient, and fuel-free. This method could be used as an alternative for disposal of bone waste, small infectious animals, hazardous hospital waste, etc.

  15. Comparison of accelerator-based with reactor-based waste transmutation schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, W.C.; Beard, C.A.; Venneri, F.; Davidson, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    Accelerator-based transmutation of waste (ATW) systems for the destruction of commercial LWR spent fuel are compared with systems based on thermal reactors accomplish the same objectives. When the same technology is assumed for the actinide-burning aspect of the two systems, it is seen that the size of the accelerator is determined only by the choice of how many of the long-lived fission products to burn. if none are transmuted, then the accelerator is not necessary. This result is independent of the choice of fluid carrier, and whether the actinides are destroyed in an ATW system or in a separate reactor.

  16. Waste treatment at the La Hague and Marcoule sites

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In this report, an overview of waste treatment and solidification facilities located at the La Hague and Marcoule sites, which are owned and/or operated by Cogema, provided. The La Hague facilities described in this report include the following: The STE3 liquid effluent treatment facility (in operation); the AD2 solid waste processing facility (also in operation); and the UCD alpha waste treatment facility (under construction). The Marcoule facilities described in this report, both of which are in operation, include the following: The STEL-EVA liquid effluent treatment facilities for the entire site; and the alpha waste incinerator of the UPI plant. This report is organized into four sections: this introduction, low-level waste treatment at La Hague, low-level waste treatment at Marcoule, and new process development. including the solvent pyrolysis process currently in the development stage for Cogema`s plants.

  17. Radioactive Waste Evaporation: Current Methodologies Employed for the Development, Design, and Operation of Waste Evaporators at the Savannah River Site and Hanford Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Calloway, T.B.

    2003-09-11

    Evaporation of High level and Low Activity (HLW and LAW) radioactive wastes for the purposes of radionuclide separation and volume reduction has been conducted at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites for more than forty years. Additionally, the Savannah River Site (SRS) has used evaporators in preparing HLW for immobilization into a borosilicate glass matrix. This paper will discuss the methodologies, results, and achievements of the SRTC evaporator development program that was conducted in support of the SRS and Hanford WTP evaporator processes. The cross pollination and application of waste treatment technologies and methods between the Savannah River and Hanford Sites will be highlighted. The cross pollination of technologies and methods is expected to benefit the Department of Energy's Mission Acceleration efforts by reducing the overall cost and time for the development of the baseline waste treatment processes.

  18. The environmental impact of mine wastes — Roles of microorganisms and their significance in treatment of mine wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledin, M.; Pedersen, K.

    1996-10-01

    Mine wastes have been generated for several centuries, and mining activity has accelerated significantly during the 20th century. The mine wastes constitute a potential source of contamination to the environment, as heavy metals and acid are released in large amounts. A great variety of microorganisms has been found in mine wastes and microbiological processes are usually responsible for the environmental hazard created by mine wastes. However, microorganisms can also be used to retard the adverse impact of mine wastes on the environment. Conventionally, the mine drainage as well as the waste itself can be treated with alkali to increase pH and precipitate metals. The main drawback of this method is that it has to be continuously repeated to be fully effective. There may also be negative effects on beneficial microorganisms. Several other treatment methods have been developed to stop weathering processes thereby reducing the environmental impact of mine wastes. One approach has been to influence the waste deposit itself by reducing the transfer of oxygen and water to the waste. This can be achieved by covering the waste or by placing it under water. Vegetating the cover will probably also decrease the transfer of oxygen and water, and will give the deposit area a more aesthetical appearance. The other main approach to reduce the environmental impact of mine wastes is to treat the drainage water. Various methods aim at using microorganisms for this in natural or engineered systems. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, metal-transforming bacteria and metal accumulating microorganisms are some examples. Often, some kind of reactor design is needed to effectively control these processes. Recently, much interest has been focused on the use of natural or artificial wetlands for treatment since this generally is a low-cost and low-maintenance method. Bacterial sulfate-reduction and microbial metal accumulation are processes wanted in such systems. Few studies have dealt with long

  19. A Los Alamos concept for accelerator transmutation of waste and energy production (ATW)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This document contains the diagrams presented at the ATW (Accelerator Transmutation of Waste and Energy Production) External Review, December 10-12, 1990, held at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Included are the charge to the committee and the presentations for the committee`s review. Topics of the presentations included an overview of the concept, LINAC technology, near-term application -- high-level defense wastes (intense thermal neutron source, chemistry and materials), advanced application of the ATW concept -- fission energy without a high-level waste stream (overview, advanced technology, and advanced chemistry), and a summary of the research issues.

  20. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning.

  1. Immobilized microbe bioreactors for waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Portier, R J; Miller, G P

    1991-10-01

    The application of adapted microbial populations immobilized on a porous diatomaceous earth carrier to pre-treat and reduce toxic concentration of volatile organics, pesticides, petroleum aliphatics and aromatics has been demonstrated for several industrial sites. In the pre-treatment of industrial effluents and contaminated groundwaters, these bioreactors have been used to optimize and reduce the cost of conventional treatment systems, i.e. steam stripping, carbon adsorption and traditional biotreatment. Additionally, these systems have been employed as seeding devices for larger biotreatment systems. The cost effective utilization of an immobilized microbe reactor system for water supply regeneration in a microgravity environment is presented. The feasibility of using immobilized biomass reactors as an effluent treatment technology for the biotransformation and biodegradation of phenols, chlorinated halocarbons, residual oils and lubricants was evaluated. Primary biotransformation tests of two benchmark toxicants, phenol and ethylene dichloride at concentrations expected in life support effluents were conducted. Biocatalyst supports were evaluated for colonization potential, surface and structural integrity, and performance in continuous flow bioreactors. The implementation of such approaches in space will be outlined and specific areas for interfacing with other non-biological treatment approaches will be considered for advanced life support, tertiary waste water biotreatment. PMID:11537697

  2. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. The engineering studies, initiated in July 1991, identified 37 mixed waste streams, and 55 low-level waste streams. This report documents the waste stream information and potential treatment strategies, as well as the regulatory requirements for the Department of Energy-owned treatment facility option. The total report comprises three volumes and two appendices. This report consists of Volume 1, which explains the overall program mission, the guiding assumptions for the engineering studies, and summarizes the waste stream and regulatory information, and Volume 2, the Waste Stream Technical Summary which, encompasses the studies conducted to identify the INEL's waste streams and their potential treatment strategies.

  3. Treatment of halogen-containing waste and other waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1997-01-01

    A process for treating a halogen-containing waste material. The process provides a bath of molten glass containing a sacrificial metal oxide capable of reacting with a halogen in the waste material. The sacrificial metal oxide is present in the molten glass in at least a stoichiometric amount with respect to the halogen in the waste material. The waste material is introduced into the bath of molten glass to cause a reaction between the halogen in the waste material and the sacrificial metal oxide to yield a metal halide. The metal halide is a gas at the temperature of the molten glass. The gaseous metal halide is separated from the molten glass and contacted with an aqueous scrubber solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to yield a metal hydroxide or metal oxide-containing precipitate and a soluble alkali metal halide. The precipitate is then separated from the aqueous scrubber solution. The molten glass containing the treated waste material is removed from the bath as a waste glass. The process of the invention can be used to treat all types of waste material including radioactive wastes. The process is particularly suited for separating halogens from halogen-containing wastes.

  4. Treatment of halogen-containing waste and other waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1997-03-18

    A process is described for treating a halogen-containing waste material. The process provides a bath of molten glass containing a sacrificial metal oxide capable of reacting with a halogen in the waste material. The sacrificial metal oxide is present in the molten glass in at least a stoichiometric amount with respect to the halogen in the waste material. The waste material is introduced into the bath of molten glass to cause a reaction between the halogen in the waste material and the sacrificial metal oxide to yield a metal halide. The metal halide is a gas at the temperature of the molten glass. The gaseous metal halide is separated from the molten glass and contacted with an aqueous scrubber solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to yield a metal hydroxide or metal oxide-containing precipitate and a soluble alkali metal halide. The precipitate is then separated from the aqueous scrubber solution. The molten glass containing the treated waste material is removed from the bath as a waste glass. The process of the invention can be used to treat all types of waste material including radioactive wastes. The process is particularly suited for separating halogens from halogen-containing wastes. 3 figs.

  5. Maximim Accelerations On The Fuel Assemblies Of a 21-PWR Waste Package During End Impacts 

    SciTech Connect

    V. DeLa Brosse

    2003-03-27

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the acceleration of the fuel assemblies contained in a 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel waste package impacting an unyielding surface. A range of initial velocities of the waste package is studied. The scope of this calculation is limited to estimating the acceleration of the fuel assemblies during the impact.

  6. Maximim Accelerations On The Fuel Assemblies Of a 21-PWR Waste Package During End Impacts 

    SciTech Connect

    T. Schmitt

    2005-08-17

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the acceleration of the fuel assemblies contained in a 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel waste package impacting an unyielding surface. A range of initial velocities of the waste package is studied. The scope of this calculation is limited to estimating the acceleration of the fuel assemblies during the impact.

  7. A budesonide prodrug accelerates treatment of colitis in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Cui, N; Friend, D R; Fedorak, R N

    1994-01-01

    Although oral glucocorticoids are the treatment of choice for moderate to severe ulcerative pancolitis, their systemic side effects and adrenal suppression account for considerable morbidity. An oral glucocorticoid-conjugate (prodrug), budesonide-beta-D-glucuronide, which is not absorbed in the small intestine but is hydrolysed by colonic bacterial and mucosal beta-glucuronidase to release free budesonide into the colon was synthesised. The objective of this study was to compare treatment with budesonide-beta-D-glucuronide with treatment with free budesonide by examining: (1) the healing of experimental colitis and (2) the extent of adrenal suppression. Pancolitis was induced with 4% acetic acid. Animals were then randomised to receive oral therapy for 72 hours with (1) budesonide-beta-D-glucuronide, (2) free budesonide, or (3) vehicle. Drug efficacy and colitic healing was determined by measuring gross colonic ulceration, myeloperoxidase activity, and in vivo colonic fluid absorption. Adrenal suppression was determined by measuring plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone and serum corticosterone. Vehicle-treated colitis animals had gross ulceration, increased myeloperoxidase activity, and net colonic fluid secretion. Treatment with oral budesonide-beta-D-glucuronide accelerated all measures of colitis healing at a fourfold lower dose than did free budesonide. Furthermore, treatment with budesonide-beta-D-glucuronide did not result in adrenal suppression whereas free budesonide treatment did. A newly synthesised orally administered glucocorticoid-conjugate accelerates colitis healing with limited adrenal suppression. Development of an orally administered colon-specific steroid delivery system represents a novel approach to inflammatory bowel disease treatment. PMID:7959202

  8. Proposed low-level radioactive waste handling building at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), evaluating the impacts associated with the proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Building at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. As a result of the high energy physics program at Fermilab, small quantities of low-level radioactive wastes are generated. These wastes are collected, sorted and packaged for shipment to an off-site disposal facility in Hanford, Washington. The proposed project includes the construction of a new building to house, all low-level radioactive waste handling operations. The building would provide workspace for five full-time workers. The proposed project would improve the efficiency and safety of the low-level radioactive waste handling at Fermilab by upgrading equipment and consolidating operations into one facility.

  9. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert; William Ebert; James Marra; Robert Jubin; John Vienna

    2008-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program (GNEP) is designed to demonstrate a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle that can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness and availability may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms.

  10. Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yade, N.

    1986-01-01

    The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

  11. LAND TREATMENT FIELD STUDIES. VOLUME 6. INORGANIC PICKLING LIQUOR WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of field measurements and observations of a land treatment site for the management of an inorganic pickling liquor waste. The waste is spread on the site as a 20% solids sludge. Sulfate and iron are known to be major waste constituents. The organi...

  12. Waste Treatment in the Urban Society

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Philip H.

    1965-01-01

    Domestic and industrial wastes are treated for two distinct purposes: (1) separation of water from the putrescible organic material, dissolved and particulates; (2) disinfection of the water to prevent the transmission of water-borne pathogens. Currently, in North America, disinfection is accomplished by the addition of a powerful oxidizing chemical such as chlorine or a related compound. Separation of solids from liquid is achieved by flocculation followed by sedimentation. Flocculation may be biologically or chemically induced, the former being more economical where practical. Methods of bioflocculation described include the following processes: (1) activated sludge, (2) contact stabilization, (3) tapered aeration, (4) step aeration, (5) total oxidation, and (6) trickling filter. Non-mechanical processes of sewage treatment are economically and technically sound in many rural and semi-rural applications. The oxidation pond ((lagoon) is not mechanical, but this consideration must not lead rural municipalities to a program of neglect. All plants treating human wastes should provide a disinfection process at the effluent. PMID:14308906

  13. Production of metal waste forms from spent fuel treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, B.R.; Keiser, D.D.; Rigg, R.H.; Laug, D.V.

    1995-02-01

    Treatment of spent nuclear fuel at Argonne National Laboratory consists of a pyroprocessing scheme in which the development of suitable waste forms is being advanced. Of the two waste forms being proposed, metal and mineral, the production of the metal waste form utilizes induction melting to stabilize the waste product. Alloying of metallic nuclear materials by induction melting has long been an Argonne strength and thus, the transition to metallic waste processing seems compatible. A test program is being initiated to coalesce the production of the metal waste forms with current induction melting capabilities.

  14. A study of light ion accelerators for cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Prelec, K.

    1997-07-01

    This review addresses several issues, such as possible advantages of light ion therapy compared to protons and conventional radiation, the complexity of such a system and its possible adaptation to a hospital environment, and the question of cost-effectiveness compared to other modalities for cancer treatment or to other life saving procedures. Characteristics and effects of different types of radiation on cells and organisms will be briefly described; this will include conventional radiation, protons and light ions. The status of proton and light ion cancer therapy will then be described, with more emphasis on the latter; on the basis of existing experience the criteria for the use of light ions will be listed and areas of possible medical applications suggested. Requirements and parameters of ion beams for cancer treatment will then be defined, including ion species, energy and intensity, as well as parameters of the beam when delivered to the target (scanning, time structure, energy spread). Possible accelerator designs for light ions will be considered, including linear accelerators, cyclotrons and synchrotrons and their basic features given; this will be followed by a review of existing and planned facilities for light ions. On the basis of these considerations a tentative design for a dedicated light ion facility will be suggested, a facility that would be hospital based, satisfying the clinical requirements, simple to operate and reliable, concluding with its cost-effectiveness in comparison with other modalities for treatment of cancer.

  15. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

  16. Treatment Planning for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Maria S.; Gonzalez, Sara J.; Minsky, Daniel M.; Kreiner, Andres J.

    2010-08-04

    Glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma are frequent brain tumors in adults and presently still incurable diseases. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising alternative for this kind of pathologies. Accelerators have been proposed for BNCT as a way to circumvent the problem of siting reactors in hospitals and for their relative simplicity and lower cost among other advantages. Considerable effort is going into the development of accelerator-based BNCT neutron sources in Argentina. Epithermal neutron beams will be produced through appropriate proton-induced nuclear reactions and optimized beam shaping assemblies. Using these sources, computational dose distributions were evaluated in a real patient with diagnosed glioblastoma treated with BNCT. The simulated irradiation was delivered in order to optimize dose to the tumors within the normal tissue constraints. Using Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations, dose distributions were generated for brain, skin and tumor. Also, the dosimetry was studied by computing cumulative dose-volume histograms for volumes of interest. The results suggest acceptable skin average dose and a significant dose delivered to tumor with low average whole brain dose for irradiation times less than 60 minutes, indicating a good performance of an accelerator-based BNCT treatment.

  17. Treatment Planning for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, María S.; González, Sara J.; Minsky, Daniel M.; Kreiner, Andrés J.

    2010-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma are frequent brain tumors in adults and presently still incurable diseases. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising alternative for this kind of pathologies. Accelerators have been proposed for BNCT as a way to circumvent the problem of siting reactors in hospitals and for their relative simplicity and lower cost among other advantages. Considerable effort is going into the development of accelerator-based BNCT neutron sources in Argentina. Epithermal neutron beams will be produced through appropriate proton-induced nuclear reactions and optimized beam shaping assemblies. Using these sources, computational dose distributions were evaluated in a real patient with diagnosed glioblastoma treated with BNCT. The simulated irradiation was delivered in order to optimize dose to the tumors within the normal tissue constraints. Using Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations, dose distributions were generated for brain, skin and tumor. Also, the dosimetry was studied by computing cumulative dose-volume histograms for volumes of interest. The results suggest acceptable skin average dose and a significant dose delivered to tumor with low average whole brain dose for irradiation times less than 60 minutes, indicating a good performance of an accelerator-based BNCT treatment.

  18. Evaluating the technical aspects of mixed waste treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bagaasen, L.M.; Scott, P.A.

    1992-10-01

    This report discusses treatment of mixed wastes which is thought to be more complicated than treatment of either hazardous or radioactive wastes. In fact, the treatment itself is no more complicated: however, the regulations that define acceptability of the final waste disposal system are significantly more entangled, and sometimes in apparent conflict. This session explores the factors that influence the choice of waste treatment technologies, and expands on some of the limitations to their application. The objective of the presentation is to describe the technical factors that influence potential treatment processes and the ramifications associated with particular selections (for example, the generation of secondary waste streams). These collectively provide a framework for making informed treatment process selections.

  19. Environmental evaluation of waste treatment scenarios for the towns Khanty-Mansiysk and Surgut, Russia.

    PubMed

    Kaazke, Julia; Meneses, Montse; Wilke, Berndt-Michael; Rotter, Vera Susanne

    2013-03-01

    Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Ugra in Siberia has recently started to play a major role in the Russian economy because key oil and gas extraction sites are located in this region. As a result, the extensions of infrastructure and higher incomes have been leading to an accelerated population growth and consequent increase in the generation of solid household waste. The current methods of waste disposal have now reached their limits, especially in the towns Khanty-Mansiysk and Surgut. The key objectives of this study were to identify the influence of waste composition and transport routes on the life cycle assessment (LCA) results and to assess the current waste treatment option for solid household waste and to compare it with proposed scenarios. Furthermore, recommendations for an optimal use of LCA within a decision-making process for a waste management plan are presented. LCA methodology was used to evaluate different waste management scenarios such as landfilling and incineration. One result was that the options 'incineration with recycling' and 'anaerobic mechanical-biological treatment with recycling' demonstrated lower environmental impact in both Khanty-Mansiysk and Surgut. Another finding was that there were hardly any differences in the ranking of the scenarios for Surgut and Khanty-Mansiysk. However, the special socio-cultural circumstances and location of each town have to be considered seriously in the development of a sustainable waste management plan. PMID:23381971

  20. 40 CFR 268.37 - Waste specific prohibitions-ignitable and corrosive characteristic wastes whose treatment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-ignitable and corrosive characteristic wastes whose treatment standards were vacated. 268.37 Section 268.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Prohibitions on Land...

  1. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WASTES FROM THE CORN WET MILLING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot plant aerated lagoon and laboratory completely mixed activated sludge treatment studies of corn wet milling wastes showed that either process could produce a satisfactory effluent. A full scale completely mixed activated sludge treatment plant was designed from laboratory r...

  2. 40 CFR 266.235 - What waste treatment does the storage and treatment conditional exemption allow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Conditional Exemption for Low... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What waste treatment does the...

  3. 40 CFR 35.925-15 - Treatment of industrial wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Treatment of industrial wastes. 35.925... § 35.925-15 Treatment of industrial wastes. That the allowable project costs do not include (a) costs of interceptor or collector lines constructed exclusively, or almost exclusively, to serve...

  4. 40 CFR 35.925-15 - Treatment of industrial wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment of industrial wastes. 35.925... § 35.925-15 Treatment of industrial wastes. That the allowable project costs do not include (a) costs of interceptor or collector lines constructed exclusively, or almost exclusively, to serve...

  5. 40 CFR 35.925-15 - Treatment of industrial wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Treatment of industrial wastes. 35.925... § 35.925-15 Treatment of industrial wastes. That the allowable project costs do not include (a) costs of interceptor or collector lines constructed exclusively, or almost exclusively, to serve...

  6. 40 CFR 35.925-15 - Treatment of industrial wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Treatment of industrial wastes. 35.925... § 35.925-15 Treatment of industrial wastes. That the allowable project costs do not include (a) costs of interceptor or collector lines constructed exclusively, or almost exclusively, to serve...

  7. 40 CFR 35.925-15 - Treatment of industrial wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Treatment of industrial wastes. 35.925... § 35.925-15 Treatment of industrial wastes. That the allowable project costs do not include (a) costs of interceptor or collector lines constructed exclusively, or almost exclusively, to serve...

  8. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization.

  9. ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT METHODS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The five-year schedule for the minimization and restrictions on the disposal of hazardous wastes onto the land is described. Two major items are causing a shift in the way hazardous wastes are managed in the United States. Because of liability for hazardous wastes, companies are ...

  10. Method for aqueous radioactive waste treatment

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.; Burger, L.L.

    1994-03-29

    Plutonium, strontium, and cesium found in aqueous waste solutions resulting from nuclear fuel processing are removed by contacting the waste solutions with synthetic zeolite incorporating up to about 5 wt % titanium as sodium titanate in an ion exchange system. More than 99.9% of the plutonium, strontium, and cesium are removed from the waste solutions. 3 figures.

  11. Method for aqueous radioactive waste treatment

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.; Burger, Leland L.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium, strontium, and cesium found in aqueous waste solutions resulting from nuclear fuel processing are removed by contacting the waste solutions with synthetic zeolite incorporating up to about 5 wt % titanium as sodium titanate in an ion exchange system. More than 99.9% of the plutonium, strontium, and cesium are removed from the waste solutions.

  12. Treatment Facility F: Accelerated Removal and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.J.; Buettner, M.H.; Carrigan, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    The Accelerated Removal and Validation (ARV) phase of remediation at the Treatment Facility F (TFF) site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was designed to accelerate removal of gasoline from the site when compared to normal, single shift, pump-and-treat operations. The intent was to take advantage of the in-place infrastructure plus the increased underground temperatures resulting from the Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project (DUSDP). Operations continued 24-hours (h) per day between October 4 and December 12, 1993. Three contaminant removal rate enhancement approaches were explored during the period of continuous operation. First, we tried several configurations of the vapor pumping system to maximize the contaminant removal rate. Second, we conducted two brief trials of air injection into the lower steam zone. Results were compared with computer models, and the process was assessed for contaminant removal rate enhancement. Third, we installed equipment to provide additional electrical heating of contaminated low-permeability soil. Four new electrodes were connected into the power system. Diagnostic capabilities at the TFF site were upgraded so that we could safely monitor electrical currents, soil temperatures, and water treatment system processes while approximately 300 kW of electrical energy was being applied to the subsurface.

  13. Challenges when performing economic optimization of waste treatment: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Juul, N.; Münster, M.; Ravn, H.; Söderman, M. Ljunggren

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Review of main optimization tools in the field of waste management. • Different optimization methods are applied. • Different fractions are analyzed. • There is focus on different parameters in different geographical regions. • More research is needed which encompasses both recycling and energy solutions. - Abstract: Strategic and operational decisions in waste management, in particular with respect to investments in new treatment facilities, are needed due to a number of factors, including continuously increasing amounts of waste, political demands for efficient utilization of waste resources, and the decommissioning of existing waste treatment facilities. Optimization models can assist in ensuring that these investment strategies are economically feasible. Various economic optimization models for waste treatment have been developed which focus on different parameters. Models focusing on transport are one example, but models focusing on energy production have also been developed, as well as models which take into account a plant’s economies of scale, environmental impact, material recovery and social costs. Finally, models combining different criteria for the selection of waste treatment methods in multi-criteria analysis have been developed. A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented, and the main challenges and crucial parameters that need to be taken into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both policy-makers and model-developers involved in assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives.

  14. Disposition of nuclear waste using subcritical accelerator-driven systems

    SciTech Connect

    Venneri, F.; Li, N.; Williamson, M.; Houts, M.; Lawrence, G.

    1998-12-01

    Studies have shown that the repository long-term radiological risk is from the long-lived transuranics and the fission products Tc-99 and I-129, thermal loading concerns arise mainly form the short-lived fission products Sr-90 and Cs-137. In relation to the disposition of nuclear waste, ATW is expected to accomplish the following: (1) destroy over 99.9% of the actinides; (2) destroy over 99.9% of the Tc and I; (3) separate Sr and Cs (short half-life isotopes); (4) separate uranium; (5) produce electricity. In the ATW concept, spent fuel would be shipped to a ATW site where the plutonium, other transuranics and selected long-lived fission products would be destroyed by fission or transmutation in their only pass through the facility. This approach contrasts with the present-day reprocessing practices in Europe and Japan, during which high purity plutonium is produced and used in the fabrication of fresh mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) that is shipped off-site for use in light water reactors.

  15. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  16. Accelerating the degradation of green plant waste with chemical decomposition agents.

    PubMed

    Kejun, Sun; Juntao, Zhang; Ying, Chen; Zongwen, Liao; Lin, Ruan; Cong, Liu

    2011-10-01

    Degradation of green plant waste is often difficult, and excess maturity times are typically required. In this study, we used lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose assays; scanning electron microscopy; infrared spectrum analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis to investigate the effects of chemical decomposition agents on the lignocellulose content of green plant waste, its structure and major functional groups and the mechanism of accelerated degradation. Our results showed that adding chemical decomposition agents to Ficus microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust reduced the contents of lignin by 0.53%-11.48% and the contents of cellulose by 2.86%-7.71%, and increased the contents of hemicellulose by 2.92%-33.63% after 24 h. With increasing quantities of alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, the lignin content decreased. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, lignocellulose tube wall thickness increased significantlyIncreases of 29.41%, 3.53% and 34.71% were observed after treatment with NaOH, alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy showed that CO and aromatic skeleton stretching absorption peaks were weakened and the C-H vibrational absorption peak from out-of-plane in positions 2 and 6 (S units) (890-900 cm(-1)) was strengthened after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, indicating a reduction in lignin content. Several absorption peaks [i.e., C-H deformations (asymmetry in methyl groups, -CH(3)- and -CH(2)-) (1450-1460 cm(-1)); Aliphatic C-H stretching in methyl and phenol OH (1370-1380 cm(-1)); CO stretching (cellulose and hemicellulose) (1040-1060 cm(-1))] that indicate the presence of a chemical bond between lignin and cellulose was reduced, indicating that the chemical bond between lignin and cellulose had been partially broken. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that Na

  17. Industrial waste treatment process engineering. Volume 2: Biological processes

    SciTech Connect

    Celenza, G.J.

    1999-11-01

    Industrial Waste Treatment Process Engineering is a step-by-step implementation manual in three volumes, detailing the selection and design of industrial liquid and solid waste treatment systems. It consolidates all the process engineering principles required to evaluate a wide range of industrial facilities, starting with pollution prevention and source control and ending with end-of-pipe treatment technologies. This three-volume set is a practical guide for environmental engineers with process implementation responsibilities; a one-stop resource for process engineering requirements--from plant planning to implementing specific treatment technologies for unit operations; a comprehensive reference for industrial waste treatment technologies; and includes calculations and worked problems based on industry cases. The contents of Volume 2 include: aeration; aerobic biological oxidation; activated sludge system; biological oxidation: lagoons; biological oxidation: fixed film processes; aerobic digesters; anaerobic waste treatment, anaerobic sludge treatment; and sedimentation.

  18. Evaluation of alternative treatments for spent fuel rod consolidation wastes and other miscellaneous commercial transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Schneider, K.J.; Oma, K.H.; Smith, R.I.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1986-05-01

    Eight alternative treatments (and four subalternatives) are considered for both existing commercial transuranic wastes and future wastes from spent fuel consolidation. Waste treatment is assumed to occur at a hypothetical central treatment facility (a Monitored Retrieval Storage facility was used as a reference). Disposal in a geologic repository is also assumed. The cost, process characteristics, and waste form characteristics are evaluated for each waste treatment alternative. The evaluation indicates that selection of a high-volume-reduction alternative can save almost $1 billion in life-cycle costs for the management of transuranic and high-activity wastes from 70,000 MTU of spent fuel compared to the reference MRS process. The supercompaction, arc pyrolysis and melting, and maximum volume reduction alternatives are recommended for further consideration; the latter two are recommended for further testing and demonstration.

  19. 40 CFR 266.235 - What waste treatment does the storage and treatment conditional exemption allow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What waste treatment does the storage and treatment conditional exemption allow? 266.235 Section 266.235 Protection of Environment...-Level Mixed Waste Storage, Treatment, Transportation and Disposal. Treatment § 266.235 What...

  20. ACCELERATING HANFORD TRANSURANC (TRU) WASTE CERTIFICATION & SHIPMENT FROM 2 PER YEAR TO 12 PER MONTH

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2005-01-20

    The Department of Energy's site at Hanford has significantly accelerated the characterization of transuranic (TRU) waste and its subsequent shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)--from a total of two shipments in fiscal year 2002 to twelve shipments per month. The challenges encountered and experience gained in achieving this acceleration provide valuable lessons that can be used by others in the waste industry. Lessons learned as well as estimates of cost savings and schedule benefits are described. At the start of the acceleration effort, three separate facilities managed by multiple organizations characterized and handled the drums. To consolidate the majority of these activities under one organization and in one facility required RCRA permit and safety basis modifications. and a myriad of construction activities--but all with very visible benefit. Transferring drums between the separate facilities involved multiple organizations, and required meeting a complex set of transportation and safety basis requirements. Consolidating characterization activities into a single facility greatly simplified this process, realizing very significant operational efficiencies. Drums stockpiled in buildings for future processing previously were stored with recognition of physical, chemical, and radiological hazards, but without consideration for future processing. Drums are now stored using a modular approach so that feed for characterization processing takes drums from the accessible module face rather than randomly throughout the storage building. This approach makes drum handling more efficient, minimizes the potential for worker injuries, and supports the principles of ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) exposure from the waste. Sampling the headspace gas of the TRU waste packages was a major bottleneck in the characterization process, and hence an obstacle to acceleration. Sampling rates were improved by a combination of insulating and heating a waste

  1. Immobilization in ceramic waste forms of the residues from treatment of mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Oversby, V.M.; van Konynenburg, R.A.; Glassley, W.E.; Curtis, P.G.

    1993-11-01

    The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Applied Technology Program at LLNL is developing a Mixed Waste Management Facility to demonstrate treatment technologies that provide an alternative to incineration. As part of that program, we are developing final waste forms using ceramic processing methods for the immobilization of the treatment process residues. The ceramic phase assemblages are based on using Synroc D as a starting point and varying the phase assemblage to accommodate the differences in chemistry between the treatment process residues and the defense waste for which Synroc D was developed. Two basic formulations are used, one for low ash residues resulting from treatment of organic materials contaminated with RCRA metals, and one for high ash residues generated from the treatment of plastics and paper products. Treatment process residues are mixed with ceramic precursor materials, dried, calcined, formed into pellets at room temperature, and sintered at 1150 to 1200{degrees}C to produce the final waste form. This paper discusses the chemical composition of the waste streams and waste forms, the phase assemblages that serve as hosts for inorganic waste elements, and the changes in waste form characteristics as a function of variation in process parameters.

  2. EPA/DOE joint efforts on mixed waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.C.; Huffman, G.L.; Nalesnik, R.P.

    1995-12-31

    Under the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), the Department of Energy (DOE) is directed to develop treatment plans for their stockpile of wastes generated at their various sites. As a result, DOE is facing the monumental problem associated with the treatment and ultimate disposal of their mixed (radioactive and hazardous) waste. Meanwhile, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a final {open_quotes}Hazardous Waste Combustion Strategy{close_quotes} in November 1994. Under the Combustion Strategy, EPA permit writers have been given the authority to use the Omnibus Provision of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to impose more stringent emission limits for waste combustors prior to the development of new regulations. EPA and DOE established a multi-year Interagency Agreement (IAG) in 1991. The main objective of the IAG (and of the second IAG that was added in 1993) is to conduct a research program on thermal technologies for treating mixed waste and to establish permit procedures for these technologies particularly under the new requirements of the above-mentioned EPA Combustion Strategy. The objective of this Paper is to summarize the results of the EPA/DOE joint efforts on mixed waste treatment since the establishment of the original Interagency Agreement. Specifically, this Paper will discuss six activities that have been underway; namely: (1) National Technical Workgroup (NTW) on Mixed Waste Treatment, (2) State-of-the-Art Assessment of APC (Air Pollution Control) and Monitoring Technologies for the Rocky Flats Fluidized Bed Unit, (3) Initial Study of Permit {open_quotes}Roadmap{close_quotes} Development for Mixed Waste Treatment, (4) Risk Assessment Approach for a Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment Facility, (5) Development and Application of Technology Selection Criteria for Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment, and (6) Performance Testing of Mixed Waste Incineration: In-Situ Chlorine Capture in a Fluidized Bed Unit.

  3. Chemical fixation increases options for hazardous waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Indelicato, G.J.; Tipton, G.A.

    1996-05-01

    The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) govern the manner in which hazardous materials are managed. Disposing RCRA hazardous wastes on or in the land is no longer an accepted remedial option. This land disposal restriction requires that all listed and characteristic hazardous wastes must be treated according to specified standards before they are disposed. These treatment standards define technologies and concentration limits. Hazardous wastes that do not meet the standards are prohibited from being disposed on land, such as in landfills, surface impoundments, land treatment units, injection wells, and mines or caves.

  4. Detection, Composition and Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds from Waste Treatment Plants

    PubMed Central

    Font, Xavier; Artola, Adriana; Sánchez, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Environmental policies at the European and global level support the diversion of wastes from landfills for their treatment in different facilities. Organic waste is mainly treated or valorized through composting, anaerobic digestion or a combination of both treatments. Thus, there are an increasing number of waste treatment plants using this type of biological treatment. During waste handling and biological decomposition steps a number of gaseous compounds are generated or removed from the organic matrix and emitted. Different families of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) can be found in these emissions. Many of these compounds are also sources of odor nuisance. In fact, odors are the main source of complaints and social impacts of any waste treatment plant. This work presents a summary of the main types of VOC emitted in organic waste treatment facilities and the methods used to detect and quantify these compounds, together with the treatment methods applied to gaseous emissions commonly used in composting and anaerobic digestion facilities. PMID:22163835

  5. The Vitrification as Pathway for Long Life Organic Waste Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Girold, C.; Lemort, F.; Pinet, O.

    2006-07-01

    Worldwide, several vitrification processes have been developed and are industrially exploited for the vitrification of high level waste, attesting the efficiency of this technique for fission product treatment and glassy materials for nuclear waste containment is the conditioning that receives the best acceptance. However, these processes operate a very high technology and strangely, for less radioactive waste such as long live intermediate level waste, this technology did not break through even when their final disposal scenario are very close (except mainly thermal consideration). This reflexion gives example for anyone to appreciate how the vitrification of organics intermediate level waste can be an excellent solution and even a competitive technical-economic answer with limited industrial risks. By 'vitrification of organics', we mean in this paper the incineration/vitrification of mixed organic and mineral waste; this results in gasification of organic matter and vitrification of the oxidized mineral fraction of the waste. Such processes can accommodate any ratio of mineral/organic from pure burnable waste to pure mineral sludges. Many advantages come with the vitrification of organics: Treatment of the organic matter, gas release avoided, existing suitable glass composition families, and volume reduction. The technological characteristics that should show a vitrification process for organic waste according to our experience in this field is detailed and examples of treatment with chlorinated waste or old bituminous drums reprocessing are given. (authors)

  6. Final report: Accelerated beta decay for disposal of fission fragment wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Reiss, Howard R.

    2000-03-06

    The fundamental theory of the interaction of intense, low-frequency electromagnetic fields with certain radioactive nuclei has been fully formulated. The nuclei are of the type that exists in high-level radioactive wastes that are end products of the production of energy from nuclear fission. The basic physical mechanisms that underlie the coupling of the applied field to the nucleus have been identified. Both the basic theory and numerical predictions that stem from it support the conclusion that high-level radioactive wastes can be disposed of by substantially accelerating the rate of radioactive decay. Some old experiments on the acceleration of this type of radioactivity, with results that were not understood at the time, have been re-examined. Their interpretation is now clear, and the experiments are found to be in agreement with the theory.

  7. Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Waste Feed Qualification Program Development Approach - 13114

    SciTech Connect

    Markillie, Jeffrey R.; Arakali, Aruna V.; Benson, Peter A.; Halverson, Thomas G.; Adamson, Duane J.; Herman, Connie C.; Peeler, David K.

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is a nuclear waste treatment facility being designed and constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy by Bechtel National, Inc. and subcontractor URS Corporation (under contract DE-AC27-01RV14136 [1]) to process and vitrify radioactive waste that is currently stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. A wide range of planning is in progress to prepare for safe start-up, commissioning, and operation. The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the WTP design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring acceptance requirements can be met before the transfer of waste. The WTP Project has partnered with Savannah River National Laboratory to develop the waste feed qualification program. The results of waste feed qualification activities will be implemented using a batch processing methodology, and will establish an acceptable range of operator controllable parameters needed to treat the staged waste. Waste feed qualification program development is being implemented in three separate phases. Phase 1 required identification of analytical methods and gaps. This activity has been completed, and provides the foundation for a technically defensible approach for waste feed qualification. Phase 2 of the program development is in progress. The activities in this phase include the closure of analytical methodology gaps identified during Phase 1, design and fabrication of laboratory-scale test apparatus, and determination of the waste feed qualification sample volume. Phase 3 will demonstrate waste feed qualification testing in support of Cold Commissioning. (authors)

  8. Nuclear waste treatment program. Annual report for FY 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Two of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear waste management-related goals are: (1) to ensure that waste management is not an obstacle to the further deployment of light-water reactors (LWR) and the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle and (2) to fulfill its institutional responsibility for providing safe storage and disposal of existing and future nuclear wastes. As part of its approach to achieving these goals, the Office of Terminal Waste Disposal and Remedial Action of DOE established what is now called the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) during the second half of FY 1982. To support DOE's attainment of its goals, the NWTP is to provide (1) documented technology necessary for the design and operation of nuclear waste treatment facilities by commercial enterprises as part of a licensed waste management system and (2) problem-specific treatment approaches, waste form and treatment process adaptations, equipment designs, and trouble-shooting assistance, as required, to treat existing wastes. This annual report describes progress during FY 1985 toward meeting these two objectives. The detailed presentation is organized according to the task structure of the program.

  9. Westinghouse Cementation Facility of Solid Waste Treatment System - 13503

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Torsten; Aign, Joerg

    2013-07-01

    During NPP operation, several waste streams are generated, caused by different technical and physical processes. Besides others, liquid waste represents one of the major types of waste. Depending on national regulation for storage and disposal of radioactive waste, solidification can be one specific requirement. To accommodate the global request for waste treatment systems Westinghouse developed several specific treatment processes for the different types of waste. In the period of 2006 to 2008 Westinghouse awarded several contracts for the design and delivery of waste treatment systems related to the latest CPR-1000 nuclear power plants. One of these contracts contains the delivery of four Cementation Facilities for waste treatment, s.c. 'Follow on Cementations' dedicated to three locations, HongYanHe, NingDe and YangJiang, of new CPR-1000 nuclear power stations in the People's Republic of China. Previously, Westinghouse delivered a similar cementation facility to the CPR-1000 plant LingAo II, in Daya Bay, PR China. This plant already passed the hot functioning tests successfully in June 2012 and is now ready and released for regular operation. The 'Follow on plants' are designed to package three 'typical' kind of radioactive waste: evaporator concentrates, spent resins and filter cartridges. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the Westinghouse experience to design and execution of cementation facilities. (authors)

  10. Nuclear waste treatment program: Annual report for FY 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, R.A.; Powell, J.A.

    1988-09-01

    Two of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear waste management-related goals are to ensure that waste management is not an obstacle to the further development of light-water reactors and the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle and to fulfill its institutional responsibility for providing safe storage and disposal of existing and future nuclear wastes. As part of its approach to achieving these goals, the Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology of DOE established what is now called the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory during the second half of FY 1982. To support DOE's attainment of its goals, the NWTP is to provide technology necessary for the design and operation of nuclear waste treatment facilities by commercial enterprises as part of a licensed waste management system and problem-specific treatment approaches, waste form and treatment process adaptations, equipment designs, and trouble-shooting assistance, as required to treat existing wastes. This annual report describes progress during FY 1987 towards meeting these two objectives. 24 refs., 59 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. Composting of sugar-cane waste by-products through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Verma, Deepshikha; Singh, Bhanu L; Kumar, Umesh; Shweta

    2010-09-01

    The waste by-products of the sugar-cane industry, bagasse (b), pressmud (p) and trash (t) have been subjected to bioinoculation followed by vermicomposting to shorten stabilization time and improve product quality. Press-mud alone and in combination with other by-products of sugar processing industries was pre-decomposed for 30 days by inoculation with combination of Pleurotus sajorcaju, Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas striatum. This treatment was followed by vermicomposting for 40 days with the native earthworm, Drawida willsi. The combination of both treatments reduced the overall time required for composting to 20 days and accelerated the degradation process of waste by-products of sugar processing industry, thereby producing a nutrient-enriched compost product useful for sustaining high crop yield, minimizing soil depletion and value added disposal of waste materials. PMID:20403689

  12. FINAL REPORT. POLYOXOMETALATES FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research was directed primarily towards the use of polyoxometalate complexes for separationof lanthanide, actinide, and technetium species from aqueous waste solutions, such as the HanfordTank Wastes. Selective binding of these species responsible for much of the high level...

  13. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS AQUEOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have been conducted with a rotating biological contractor (RBC) to evaluate the treatability of leachates from the Stringfellow and New Lyme hazardous waste sites. The leachates were transported from the waste sites to Cincinnati at the United States Environmental Protect...

  14. Developing a dependable approach for evaluating waste treatment data

    SciTech Connect

    Gering, K.L.

    1997-12-31

    Decision makers involved with hazardous waste treatment issues are faced with the challenge of making objective evaluations concerning treatment formulations. This work utilizes an effectiveness factor (denoted as {eta}) as the basis for waste treatment evaluations, which was recently developed for application to mixed waste treatability studies involving solidification and stabilization at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The effectiveness factor incorporates an arbitrary treatment criterion {Phi}, which in practice could be the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Unconfined Compressive Strength, Leachability Index, or any other criterion used to judge treatment performance. Three values for {Phi} are utilized when assessing a given treatment formulation: before treatment, after treatment, and a reference value (typically a treatment standard). The expression for {eta} also incorporates the waste loading as the prime experimental parameter, and accounts for the contribution that each hazard has upon the overall treatment performance. Also discussed are general guidelines for numerical boundaries and statistical interpretations of treatment data. Case studies are presented that demonstrate the usefulness of the effectiveness factor and related numerical methods, where the typical hazards encountered are toxic metals within mixed waste.

  15. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: An accelerator-driven system for the destruction of nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revol, Jean-Pierre

    2003-07-01

    Progress in particle accelerator technology makes it possible to use a proton accelerator to produce energy and to destroy nuclear waste efficiently. The energy amplifier (EA) proposed by Carlo Rubbia and his group is a subcritical fast neutron system driven by a proton accelerator. It is particularly attractive for destroying, through fission, transuranic elements produced by presently operating nuclear reactors. The EA could also efficiently and at minimal cost transform long-lived fission fragments using the concept of adiabatic resonance crossing (ARC), recently tested at CERN with the TARC experiment. The ARC concept can be extended to several other domains of application (production of radioactive isotopes for medicine and industry, neutron research applications, etc.).

  16. Nuclear waste incineration and accelerator aspects from the European PDS-XADS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Alex C.

    2005-04-01

    In the context of general environmental concerns, the issue of waste from nuclear power plants is a question of actual interest. Here fundamental research in Nuclear Science may have great potential impact on society and on the longer-term future. In contrast to certain non-scientifically voiced opininos, it is clear, from basic facts of Nuclear Science, that e.g. fast neutrons can transmute long-lived radio-toxic components of the spent fuel into short-lived species. Because of the flexibility and control needed for the transmutation of large quantities of nuclear waste with a high content of minor actinides, one could favor for a transmuter reactor a sub-critical system, where the needed additional neutrons come from an external source, i.e. a high-energy proton accelerator producing spallation neutrons. In the European context, a roadmap for this technology was developped by a technical expert group. Consecutive to this, the European project PDS-XADS has been launched, as a preliminary design study for an Accelerator-Driven System. Here we shall report the conclusions for the layout of the accelerator and the associated beam-line to the reactor. The technical options have been chosen with the reliability of the accelerator as prime design criterion.

  17. Air pollutants emissions from waste treatment and disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    Hamoda, Mohamed F

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the atmospheric pollution created by some waste treatment and disposal facilities in the State of Kuwait. Air monitoring was conducted in a municipal wastewater treatment plant, an industrial wastewater treatment plant established in a petroleum refinery, and at a landfill site used for disposal of solid wastes. Such plants were selected as models for waste treatment and disposal facilities in the Arabian Gulf region and elsewhere. Air measurements were made over a period of 6 months and included levels of gaseous emissions as well as concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Samples of gas and bioaerosols were collected from ambient air surrounding the treatment facilities. The results obtained from this study have indicated the presence of VOCs and other gaseous pollutants such as methane, ammonia, and hydrogen sulphide in air surrounding the waste treatment and disposal facilities. In some cases the levels exceeded the concentration limits specified by the air quality standards. Offensive odors were also detected. The study revealed that adverse environmental impact of air pollutants is a major concern in the industrial more than in the municipal waste treatment facilities but sitting of municipal waste treatment and disposal facilities nearby the urban areas poses a threat to the public health. PMID:16401572

  18. Treatability study of absorbent polymer waste form for mixed waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, S. D.; Lehto, M. A.; Stewart, N. A.; Croft, A. D.; Kern, P. W.

    2000-02-10

    A treatability study was performed to develop and characterize an absorbent polymer waste form for application to low level (LLW) and mixed low level (MLLW) aqueous wastes at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). In this study absorbent polymers proved effective at immobilizing aqueous liquid wastes in order to meet Land Disposal Restrictions for subsurface waste disposal. Treatment of aqueous waste with absorbent polymers provides an alternative to liquid waste solidification via high-shear mixing with clays and cements. Significant advantages of absorbent polymer use over clays and cements include ease of operations and waste volume minimization. Absorbent polymers do not require high-shear mixing as do clays and cements. Granulated absorbent polymer is poured into aqueous solutions and forms a gel which passes the paint filter test as a non-liquid. Pouring versus mixing of a solidification agent not only eliminates the need for a mixing station, but also lessens exposure to personnel and the potential for spread of contamination from treatment of radioactive wastes. Waste minimization is achieved as significantly less mass addition and volume increase is required of and results from absorbent polymer use than that of clays and cements. Operational ease and waste minimization translate into overall cost savings for LLW and MLLW treatment.

  19. FOAMING IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physical mechanisms of the formation of foam in radioactive waste treatment and waste immobilization processes are poorly understood. The objective of this research is to develop a basic understanding of the mechanisms that produce foaming, to identify the key parameters whic...

  20. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) Final Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-12

    The AMWTP Final EIS assesses the potential environmental impacts associated with alternatives related to the construction and operation of a proposed waste treatment facility at the INEEL. The alternatives analyzed were: the No Action Alternative, the Proposed Action, the Non-Thermal Treatment Alternative, and the Treatment and Storage Alternative. The Proposed Action is the Preferred Alternative. Under the Proposed Action/Preferred Alternative, the AMWTP facility would treat transuranic waste, alpha-contaminated low-level mixed waste, and low-level mixed waste in preparation for disposal. After treatment, transuranic waste would be disposed of at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Low-level mixed waste would be disposed of at an approved disposal facility depending on decisions to be based on DOE's Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Evaluation of impacts on land use, socioeconomics, cultural resources, aesthetic and scenic resources, geology, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, noise, traffic and transportation, occupational and public health and safety, INEEL services, and environmental justice were included in the assessment.

  1. INNOVATIVE THERMAL PROCESSES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT AND DESTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the land disposal of untreated hazardous wastes has continued to fall into disfavor in North America, increasing attention is being given to alternative hazardous waste treatment and disposal technologies. This increased attention and the public and private support resulting f...

  2. GUIDE TO TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTES AT SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past fewyears, it has become increasinsly evident that land disposal of hazardous wastes is at least only a temporary solution for much of the wastes present at Superfund sites. The need for more Iong-term, permanent "treatment solutions as alternatives to land disposal ...

  3. A process for treatment of mixed waste containing chemical plating wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Anast, K.R.; Dziewinski, J.; Lussiez, G.

    1995-02-01

    The Waste Treatment and Minimization Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed and will be constructing a transportable treatment system to treat low-level radioactive mixed waste generated during plating operations. The chemical and plating waste treatment system is composed of two modules with six submodules, which can be trucked to user sites to treat a wide variety of aqueous waste solutions. The process is designed to remove the hazardous components from the waste stream, generating chemically benign, disposable liquids and solids with low level radioactivity. The chemical and plating waste treatment system is designed as a multifunctional process capable of treating several different types of wastes. At this time, the unit has been the designated treatment process for these wastes: Destruction of free cyanide and metal-cyanide complexes from spent plating solutions; destruction of ammonia in solution from spent plating solutions; reduction of Cr{sup VI} to Cr{sup III} from spent plating solutions, precipitation, solids separation, and immobilization; heavy metal precipitation from spent plating solutions, solids separation, and immobilization, and acid or base neutralization from unspecified solutions.

  4. 51. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EIMCO WASTE WATER TREATMENT THICKENER No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EIMCO WASTE WATER TREATMENT THICKENER No. 2, ELECTRIC POWERHOUSE No. 2, AND OUTDOOR ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION IN BACKGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  5. 12. NORTHEAST VIEW OF THE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COMPLEX FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. NORTHEAST VIEW OF THE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COMPLEX FOR THE PRIMARY AND 22 BAR MILLS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Auxiliary Buildings & Shops, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  6. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

  7. MICROORGANISMS AND HIGHER PLANTS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Batch experiments were conducted to compare the waste water treatment efficiencies of plant-free microbial filters with filters supporting the growth of reeds (Phragmites communis), cattail (Typha latifolia), rush (Juncus effusus), and bamboo (Bambusa multiplex). The experimental...

  8. A bio-hybrid anaerobic treatment of papaya processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, P.Y.; Chou, C.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Hybrid anaerobic treatment of papaya processing wastes is technically feasible. At 30/sup 0/C, the optimal organic loading rates for maximizing organic removal efficiency and methane production are 1.3 and 4.8 g TCOD/1/day, respectively. Elimination of post-handling and treatment of digested effluent can also be achieved. The system is more suitable for those processing plants with a waste amount of more than 3,000 metric tons per year.

  9. Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility and skid-mounted treatment systems at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Lussiez, G.W.; Zygmunt, S.J.

    1994-02-01

    To centralize treatment, storage, and areas for hazardous wastes, Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a 1115 m2 hazardous waste treatment facility. The facility will house a treatment room for each of four kinds of wastes: nonradioactive characteristic wastes, nonradioactive listed wastes, radioactive characteristic wastes, and radioactive listed wastes. The facility will be used for repacking labpacks; bulking small organic waste volumes; processing scintillation vials; treating reactives such as lithium hydride and pyrophoric uranium; treating contaminated solids such as barium sand; treating plating wastes and other solutions with heavy metals and oxidizing organics: Separate treatment rooms will allow workers to avoid mixing waste types and prevent cross-contamination. The ventilation air from the treatment areas may contain hazardous or radioactive dust. Gas may also leak from process equipment. The gas treatment process includes separating solids and gases and neutralization or adsorption of the hazardous gases. The ventilation air from each room will first be filtered before being scrubbed in a common gas caustic scrubber on an outside pad. There are two levels of exhaust in each treatment room, one for heavy gases and another for light gases. Several features help mitigate or eliminate hazards due to spills and releases: each treatment room is sealed and under slight negative pressure; each room has its own HEPA filtration; to avoid mixing of incompatible wastes and reagents, portable individual spill-containment trays are used for skids, to limit the danger of spills, the waste is directly transferred from outside storage to the treatment room; to mitigate the consequences of a gas release in the room, mobile hoods are connected to the exhaust-air treatment system; the floor, walls, ceilings, fixtures, ducts, and piping are made of acid-resistant material or are coated.

  10. The Accelerated Intake: A Method for Increasing Initial Attendance to Outpatient Cocaine Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festinger, David S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The effectiveness of offering same day appointments at an outpatient cocaine treatment program to increase intake attendance was examined. Seventy-eight clients were given standard or accelerated intake appointments. Significantly more clients who were given accelerated appointments attended the program. An accelerated intake procedure appears to…

  11. Prospects of effective microorganisms technology in wastes treatment in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    Sludge dewatering and treatment may cost as much as the wastewater treatment. Usually large proportion of the pollutants in wastewater is organic. They are attacked by saprophytic microorganisms, i.e. organisms that feed upon dead organic matter. Activity of organisms causes decomposition of organic matter and destroys them, where the bacteria convert the organic matter or other constituents in the wastewater to new cells, water, gases and other products. Demolition activities, including renovation/remodeling works and complete or selective removal/demolishing of existing structures either by man-made processes or by natural disasters, create an extensive amount of wastes. These demolition wastes are characterized as heterogeneous mixtures of building materials that are usually contaminated with chemicals and dirt. In developing countries, it is estimated that demolition wastes comprise 20% to 30% of the total annual solid wastes. In Egypt, the daily quantity of construction and demolition (C&D) waste has been estimated as 10 000 tones. That is equivalent to one third of the total daily municipal solid wastes generated per day in Egypt. The zabbaliin have since expanded their activities and now take the waste they collect back to their garbage villages where it is sorted into recyclable components: paper, plastics, rags, glass, metal and food. The food waste is fed to pigs and the other items are sold to recycling centers. This paper summarizes the wastewater and solid wastes management in Egypt now and future. PMID:23569767

  12. Prospects of effective microorganisms technology in wastes treatment in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Emad A

    2011-06-01

    Sludge dewatering and treatment may cost as much as the wastewater treatment. Usually large proportion of the pollutants in wastewater is organic. They are attacked by saprophytic microorganisms, i.e. organisms that feed upon dead organic matter. Activity of organisms causes decomposition of organic matter and destroys them, where the bacteria convert the organic matter or other constituents in the wastewater to new cells, water, gases and other products. Demolition activities, including renovation/remodeling works and complete or selective removal/demolishing of existing structures either by man-made processes or by natural disasters, create an extensive amount of wastes. These demolition wastes are characterized as heterogeneous mixtures of building materials that are usually contaminated with chemicals and dirt. In developing countries, it is estimated that demolition wastes comprise 20% to 30% of the total annual solid wastes. In Egypt, the daily quantity of construction and demolition (C&D) waste has been estimated as 10 000 tones. That is equivalent to one third of the total daily municipal solid wastes generated per day in Egypt. The zabbaliin have since expanded their activities and now take the waste they collect back to their garbage villages where it is sorted into recyclable components: paper, plastics, rags, glass, metal and food. The food waste is fed to pigs and the other items are sold to recycling centers. This paper summarizes the wastewater and solid wastes management in Egypt now and future. PMID:23569767

  13. Thermal Treatment of Solid Wastes Using the Electric Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1999-09-01

    A thermal waste treatment facility has been developed at the Albany Research Center (ARC) over the past seven years to process a wide range of heterogeneous mixed wastes, on a scale of 227 to 907 kg/h (500 to 2,000 lb/h). The current system includes a continuous feed system, a 3-phase AC, 0.8 MW graphite electrode arc furnace, and a dedicated air pollution control system (APCS) which includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer, spray cooler, baghouse, and wet scrubber. The versatility of the complete system has been demonstrated during 5 continuous melting campaigns, ranging from 11 to 25 mt (12 to 28 st) of treated wastes per campaign, which were conducted on waste materials such as (a) municipal incinerator ash, (b) simulated low-level radioactive, high combustible-bearing mixed wastes, (c) simulated low-level radioactive liquid tank wastes, (d) heavy metal contaminated soils, and (e) organic-contaminated dredging spoils. In all cases, the glass or slag products readily passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Program (TCLP) test. Additional studies are currently under way on electric utility wastes, steel and aluminum industry wastes, as well as zinc smelter residues. Thermal treatment of these solid waste streams is intended to produce a metallic product along with nonhazardous glass or slag products.

  14. Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

    2008-03-01

    Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to save the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tens of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass.

  15. Safety Evaluation for Hull Waste Treatment Process in JNC

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, H.; Kurakata, K.

    2002-02-26

    Hull wastes and some scrapped equipment are typical radioactive wastes generated from reprocessing process in Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). Because hulls are the wastes remained in the fuel shearing and dissolution, they contain high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started the project of Hull Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF) to treat these solid wastes using compaction and incineration methods since 1993. It is said that Zircaloy fines generated from compaction process might burn and explode intensely. Therefore explosive conditions of the fines generated in compaction process were measured. As these results, it was concluded that the fines generated from the compaction process were not hazardous material. This paper describes the outline of the treatment process of hulls and results of safety evaluation.

  16. New treatment for sulfide-laden tannery waste

    SciTech Connect

    Berberich, S.

    1984-02-01

    A new treatment for tannery wastes containing toxic sulfide has been developed using anaerobic microorganisms that thrive alongside sulfide compounds. The new system, using an anaerobic reactor, transforms sulfide-laden tannery wastes into inert matter, methane, and material (including sulfide) readily digested in an aerobic polishing step. An industrial scale-up of the anaerobic reactor could digest between 60-70% of tannery pollutants. The new treatment offers leather tanneries and other industries that generate high-sulfide waste a cheaper way to meet federal water pollution guidelines.

  17. Performance estimates for waste treatment pyroprocesses in ATW

    SciTech Connect

    Li, N.

    1997-05-01

    The author has identified several pyrometallurgical processes for the conceptual ATW waste treatment cycle. These processes include reductive extraction, electrowinning and electrorefining, which constitute some versatile treatment cycles for liquid-metal based and molten-salt based waste forms when they are properly integrated. This paper examines the implementation of these processes and the achievable separations for some typical species. The author also presents a simple analysis of the processing rates limited by mass diffusion through a thin hydrodynamic boundary layer. It is shown that these processes can be realized with compact and efficient devices to meet the ATW demand for the periodic feeding and cleaning of the waste.

  18. Treatment studies of paint stripping waste from plastic media blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    Blasting with plastic media is used to strip paint and decontaminate surfaces. For disposal the plastic media is pulverized into a plastic dust. About 10 wt % of the waste from plastic media blasting is pulverized paint, which makes the waste a characteristically hazardous waste because of the presence of barium, cadmium, chromium and lead in the paint pigments. Four separate treatments of this hazardous waste were studied: (1) density separation to remove the paint, (2) self-encapsulation of the mix of plastic and paint dust into plastic pellets, (3) solidification/stabilization (S/S) into cementitious waste forms, and (4) low-temperature ashing to destroy the large mass of nonhazardous polymer. Two types of plast blasting wastes were studied: a urea formaldehyde thermoset polymer and an acrylic thermoplastic polymer (polymethylmethacrylate). Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) extraction concentrations for the treated and untreated wastes are listed. Density separation failed to adequately separate the paint with an aqueous carbonate solution. Self-encapsulation reduced the waste volume by about 50%, but did not meet TCLP criteria. Cementitious solidification gave the lowest TCLP concentrations, but increased the waste volume by about 50%. Low-temperature ashing at 600 C resulted in a mass decrease of 93 to 98% for the wastes; the metals remaining in the ash could be stabilized with cementitious solidification and still result in a volume decrease of 75 to 95 volume percent.

  19. Development of an accelerated leach test(s) for low-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, D.R.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1985-01-01

    An accelerated leach test(s) is being developed to predict long-term leaching behavior of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) forms in their disposal environments. As necessary background, a literature survey of reported leaching mechanisms, available mathematical models and factors that affect leaching of LLW forms has been compiled. Mechanisms which have been identified include diffusion, dissolution, ion exchange, corrosion and surface effects. A computerized data base of LLW leaching data and mathematical models is being developed. The data is being used for model evaluation by curve fitting and statistical analysis according to standard procedures of statistical quality control. Long-term leach tests on portland cement, bitumen and vinyl ester-styrene (VES) polymer waste forms are underway which are designed to identify and evaluate factors that accelerate leaching without changing the mechanisms. Initial results on the effect of temperature on leachability indicate that the leach rates of cement and VES waste forms increase with increasing temperature, whereas, the leach rate of bitumen is little affected. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  20. High power linear accelerators for tritium production and transmutation of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.P.

    1990-01-01

    Proton linacs driving high-flux spallation neutron sources are being considered for transmutation of nuclear waste and production of tritium. Advances in high-current linac technology have provided a basis for the development of credible designs for the required accelerator, which has a nominal 1.6-GeV energy, and a 250-mA cw current. A beam with these parameters incident on a liquid lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) target can generate a thermal neutron flux of up to 5 {times} 10{sup 16} n/cm{sup 2}-s in a cylindrical blanket surrounding the spallation source. This high flux can produce tritium through the {sup 6}Li(n,{alpha})T or {sup 3}He(n,{gamma})T reactions, or can burn long-lived actinides and fission products from nuclear waste through capture and fission processes. In some system scenarios, waste actinides and/or other fissile materials in the blanket can produce sufficient fission energy to power the accelerator.

  1. An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, S.; Hyde, R.A.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.

    1992-08-01

    In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified.

  2. An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, S.; Hyde, R.A.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified.

  3. Glass Development for Treatment of LANL Evaporator Bottoms Waste

    SciTech Connect

    DE Smith; GF Piepel; GW Veazey; JD Vienna; ML Elliott; RK Nakaoka; RP Thimpke

    1998-11-20

    Vitrification is an attractive treatment option for meeting the stabilization and final disposal requirements of many plutonium (Pu) bearing materials and wastes at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TA-55 facility, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Hanford, and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared that vitrification is the "best demonstrated available technology" for high- level radioactive wastes (HLW) (Federal Register 1990) and has produced a handbook of vitriilcation technologies for treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste (US EPA, 1992). This technology has been demonstrated to convert Pu-containing materials (Kormanos, 1997) into durable (Lutze, 1988) and accountable (Forsberg, 1995) waste. forms with reduced need for safeguarding (McCulhun, 1996). The composition of the Evaporator Bottoms Waste (EVB) at LANL, like that of many other I%-bearing materials, varies widely and is generally unpredictable. The goal of this study is to optimize the composition of glass for EVB waste at LANL, and present the basic techniques and tools for developing optimized glass compositions for other Pu-bearing materials in the complex. This report outlines an approach for glass formulation with fixed property restrictions, using glass property-composition databases. This approach is applicable to waste glass formulation for many variable waste streams and vitrification technologies.. Also reported are the preliminary property data for simulated evaporator bottom glasses, including glass viscosity and glass leach resistance using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

  4. Membrane Treatment of Liquid Salt Bearing Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, S. A.; Adamovich, D. V.; Demkin, V. I.; Timofeev, E. M.

    2003-02-25

    The main fields of introduction and application of membrane methods for preliminary treatment and processing salt liquid radioactive waste (SLRW) can be nuclear power stations (NPP) and enterprises on atomic submarines (AS) utilization. Unlike the earlier developed technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste decontamination and concentrating this report presents the new enhanced membrane technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste processing based on the state-of-the-art membrane unit design, namely, the filtering units equipped with the metal-ceramic membranes of ''TruMem'' brand, as well as the electrodialysis and electroosmosis concentrators. Application of the above mentioned units in conjunction with the pulse pole changer will allow the marked increase of the radioactive waste concentrating factor and the significant reduction of the waste volume intended for conversion into monolith and disposal. Besides, the application of the electrodialysis units loaded with an ion exchange material at the end polishing stage of the radioactive waste decontamination process will allow the reagent-free radioactive waste treatment that meets the standards set for the release of the decontaminated liquid radioactive waste effluents into the natural reservoirs of fish-farming value.

  5. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-23

    The long-term performance of the grout disposal system for Phosphate/Sulfate Waste (PSW) was analyzed. PSW is a low-level liquid generated by activities associated with N Reactor operations. The waste will be mixed with dry solids and permanently disposed of as a cementitious grout in sub-surface concrete vaults at Hanford's 200-East Area. Two categories of scenarios were analyzed that could cause humans to be exposed to radionuclides and chemicals from the grouted waste: contaminated groundwater and direct intrusion. In the groundwater scenario, contaminants are released from the buried grout monoliths, then eventually transported via the groundwater to the Columbia River. As modeled, the contaminants are assumed to leach out of the monoliths at a constant rate over a 10,000-year period. The other category of exposure involves intruders who inadvertently contact the waste directly, either by drilling, excavating, or gardening. Long-term impacts that could result from disposal of PSW grout were expressed in terms of incremental increases of (1) chemical concentrations in the groundwater and surface waters, and (2) radiation doses. None of the calculated impacts exceeded the corresponding regulatory limits set by Washington State, Department of Energy, or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  6. PERMIT ROADMAP DEVELOPMENT FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA and DOE established a multi-year Interagency Agreement (IAG) in1991. he main objective of the IAG (and of the second IAG that was added in 1993) is to conduct a research program on thermal technologies for treating mixed waste and to establish permit procedures for these tech...

  7. Development and testing of a wet oxidation waste processing system. [for waste treatment aboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitzmann, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    The wet oxidation process is considered as a potential treatment method for wastes aboard manned spacecraft for these reasons: (1) Fecal and urine wastes are processed to sterile water and CO2 gas. However, the water requires post-treatment to remove salts and odor; (2) the residual ash is negligible in quantity, sterile and easily collected; and (3) the product CO2 gas can be processed through a reduction step to aid in material balance if needed. Reaction of waste materials with oxygen at elevated temperature and pressure also produces some nitrous oxide, as well as trace amounts of a few other gases.

  8. Utilizing Strong Tight Intermodal Waste Packaging to Meet Accelerated Cleanup Goals at The Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, JosephC.

    2004-01-22

    In support of the accelerated cleanup challenge, personnel at the Savannah River Site have been working diligently to identify and acquire cost-effective waste containers that can be used to package a voluminous amount of low level radioactive waste that needs to be disposed. In so doing, personnel have transformed their paradigm in packaging low level radioactive waste in traditional 45-cubic-foot and 90-cubic-foot containers and utilizing refurbished intermodal containers instead. The transition has increased efficiencies in the processing, packaging, transportation, storage, and disposal of low level radioactive waste, while providing decreased procurement costs. Since large items do not have to be size-reduced to fit into the large containers, additional cost savings are being realized by minimizing void space, labor, time, equipment, and risks if size reduction techniques were performed. Cost savings for fiscal year 2003 exceeded one million dollars. Additional savings are estimated to be between 3 million dollars and 4 million dollars through fiscal year 2006.

  9. Accelerator-driven transmutation of high-level waste from the defense and commercial sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, C.; Arthur, E.; Beard, C.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The major goal has been to develop accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) system designs that will thoroughly and rapidly transmute nuclear waste, including plutonium from dismantled weapons and spent reactor fuel, while generating useful electrical power and without producing a long-lived radioactive waste stream. We have identified and quantified the unique qualities of subcritical nuclear systems and their capabilities in bringing about the complete destruction of plutonium. Although the 1191 subcritical systems involved in our most effective designs radically depart from traditional nuclear reactor concepts, they are based on extrapolations of existing technologies. Overall, care was taken to retain the highly desired features that nuclear technology has developed over the years within a conservative design envelope. We believe that the ATW systems designed in this project will enable almost complete destruction of nuclear waste (conversion to stable species) at a faster rate and without many of the safety concerns associated with the possible reactor approaches.

  10. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L.

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

  11. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report documents those studies so the project can continue with an evaluation of programmatic options, system tradeoff studies, and the conceptual design phase of the project. This report, appendix B, comprises the engineering design files for this project study. The engineering design files document each waste steam, its characteristics, and identified treatment strategies.

  12. Study on the plasma treatment of waste oil containing PCB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H. S.; Lukashov, V. P.; Vashchenko, S. P.; Morozov, S. V.

    2009-12-01

    The paper presents the results of treatment of transformer oil containing less than 2 ppm polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in a plant of high-temperature plasma melting of ash residues after the municipal waste incineration. The content of undecomposed PCBs, dioxins, and other hazardous waste in all secondary products of treatment (off gases; slag; secondary fly ash; process water used for slag granulation) was analyzed by different methods. Performed analytical investigations showed high ecological degree of PCB decomposition in the plant of plasma-thermal treatment of ashes after incinerators.

  13. Reliability analysis of common hazardous waste treatment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, R.D.

    1993-05-01

    Five hazardous waste treatment processes are analyzed probabilistically using Monte Carlo simulation to elucidate the relationships between process safety factors and reliability levels. The treatment processes evaluated are packed tower aeration, reverse osmosis, activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, and activated carbon adsorption.

  14. Guide to land treatment of municipal waste water in Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Skelton, L.W.; Hinesly, T.D.; John, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    Waste water is a recyclable commodity. Organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and micronutrients in waste water are generally harmful when discharged to lakes and streams, but these constituents have a positive economic value when applied under properly controlled conditions to vegetated soils. The guide provides an overview of planning for a land-treatment system. It first discusses the potential for land treatment in Illinois, how to modify lagoons for land treatment, economic considerations, health and environmental concerns, regulatory requirements, and public education. It then provides more technical information on land-treatment processes, site and waste-load evaluation, systems for agricultural production, the potential for supplemental irrigation in Illinois, general site management, and system monitoring.

  15. Mixed Waste Encapsulation in Polyester Resins. Treatment for Mixed Wastes Containing Salts. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference #1685

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous solid mixed wastes, such as treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of nitrate, sulfate, and chloride salts makes traditional cement stabilization of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. Salts can effect the setting rate of cements and can react with cement hydration products to form expansive and cement damaging compounds. Many of these salt wastes are in a dry granular form and are the by-product of treating spent acidic and metal solutions used to recover and reformulate nuclear weapons materials over the past 50 years. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) alone, there is approximately 8,000 cubic meters of nitrate salts (potassium and sodium nitrate) stored above ground with an earthen cover. Current estimates indicate that over 200 million kg of contaminated salt wastes exist at various DOE sites. Continued primary treatment of waste water coupled with the use of mixed waste incinerators may generate an additional 5 million kg of salt-containing, mixed waste residues each year. One of the obvious treatment solutions for these salt-containing wastes is to immobilize the hazardous components to meet Environmental Protection Agency/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (EPA/RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), thus rendering the mixed waste to a radioactive waste only classification. One proposed solution is to use thermal treatment via vitrification to immobilize the hazardous component and thereby substantially reduce the volume, as well as provide exceptional durability. However, these melter systems involve expensive capital apparatus with complicated off-gas systems. In addition, the vitrification of high salt waste may cause foaming and usually requires extensive development to specify glass

  16. In Situ Modular Waste Retrieval and Treatment System

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.S.

    1996-10-01

    As part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act process from remediation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG 6) at ORNL, a public meeting was held for the Proposed Plan. It was recognized that contaminant releases from WAG 6 posed minimal potential risk to the public and the environment. The US DOE in conjunction with the US EPA and the TDEC agreed to defer remedial action at WAG 6 until higher risk release sites were first remediated. This report presents the results of a conceptual design for an In Situ Modular Retrieval and Treatment System able to excavate, shred, and process buried waste on site, with minimum disturbance and distribution of dust and debris. the system would bring appropriate levels of treatment to the waste then encapsulate and leave it in place. The system would be applicable to areas in which waste was disposed in long trenches.

  17. Hybrid Microwave Treatment of SRS TRU and Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G.G.

    1999-11-18

    A new process, using hybrid microwave energy, has been developed as part of the Strategic Research and Development program and successfully applied to treatment of a wide variety of non-radioactive materials, representative of SRS transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes. Over 35 simulated (non-radioactive) TRU and mixed waste materials were processed individually, as well as in mixed batches, using hybrid microwave energy, a new technology now being patented by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC).

  18. Apparatus and a method for biological treatment of waste waters

    SciTech Connect

    Besik, F.

    1983-12-20

    An apparatus and a method for biological treatment of waste waters achieving biological oxidation of organic matter, biological nitrification and denitrification of nitrogenous compounds and biological removal of phosphorus and clarification of the treated waste water in a single reaction tank in a single suspended growth sludge system without the use of traditional compressors, mixers, recirculation pumps, piping and valving and without the use of the traditional clarifier.

  19. Logistics modeling of future solid waste storage, treatment, and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, G.M.; Stiles, D.L.; Shaver, S.R.; Armacost, L.L.

    1993-11-01

    Logistics modeling is a powerful analytical technique for effective planning of waste storage, treatment, and disposal activities. Logistics modeling facilitates analyses of alternate scenarios for future waste flows, facility schedules, and processing or handling capacities. These analyses provide an increased understanding of the specific needs for waste storage, treatment, and disposal while adequate time remains to plan accordingly. They also help to determine the sensitivity of these needs to various system parameters. This paper discusses a logistics modeling system developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to aid in solid waste planning for a large industrial complex managing many different types and classifications of waste. The basic needs for such a system are outlined, and the approach adopted in developing the system is described. A key component of this approach is the development of a conceptual model that provides a flexible framework for modeling the waste management system and addressing the range of logistics and economic issues involved. Developing an adequate description of the waste management system being analyzed is discussed. Examples are then provided of the types of analyses that have been conducted. The potential application of this modeling system to different settings is also examined.

  20. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report, Appendix A, Environmental Regulatory Planning Documentation, identifies the regulatory requirements that would be imposed on the operation or construction of a facility designed to process the INEL's waste streams. These requirements are contained in five reports that discuss the following topics: (1) an environmental compliance plan and schedule, (2) National Environmental Policy Act requirements, (3) preliminary siting requirements, (4) regulatory justification for the project, and (5) health and safety criteria.

  1. Solid waste treatment opportunities in the Palestinian authority areas.

    PubMed

    Khatib, Imad; Al-Khateeb, Nader

    2009-05-01

    Municipal services in the Palestinian Authority (PA) areas, including the West Bank and Gaza Strip (WBGS), are facing serious difficulties that have been intensified following the outbreak of the Palestinian uprising in late September 2000. The solid waste management services, being the most essential services provided by the municipalities and village councils, are mostly affected by the ongoing harsh situation and hence proper solutions that take into account the actual amount of generated municipal solid waste and its composition is a pre-requisite for planning proper treatment. Hence, a study was carried out to identify the actual status of solid waste in eight West Bank districts. A social survey was also conducted to collect information concerning the level of public awareness among communities surveyed to the perception of solid waste recycling and reuse. The results of the survey conducted in 2001-2002 were later reviewed during July-October 2008 to assess if the trend of domestic solid waste generation had changed. Based on the survey and post-assessment, it is found that political and economic conditions have both significantly impacted the trend of generated municipal solid waste and since no improvements in either condition are forthcoming, it is concluded that survey results could be used in a planning study. A possible handling of the generated wastes may entail transferring the recyclable waste to Israeli recycling industries, and in constructing three composting plants in different accessible locations in the West Bank. PMID:19121576

  2. Status of development of actinide blanket processing flowsheets for accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, H.J.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Marsh, S.F.; Schroeder, N.C.; Smith, B.F.; Villarreal, R.; Walker, R.B.; Yarbro, S.L.; Yates, M.A.

    1993-09-01

    An accelerator-driven subcritical nuclear system is briefly described that transmutes actinides and selected long-lived fission products. An application of this accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste (ATW) concept to spent fuel from a commercial nuclear power plant is presented as an example. The emphasis here is on a possible aqueous processing flowsheet to separate the actinides and selected long-lived fission products from the remaining fission products within the transmutation system. In the proposed system the actinides circulate through the thermal neutron flux as a slurry of oxide particles in heavy water in two loops with different average residence times: one loop for neptunium and plutonium and one for americium and curium. Material from the Np/Pu loop is processed with a short cooling time (5-10 days) because of the need to keep the total actinide inventory, low for this particular ATW application. The high radiation and thermal load from the irradiated material places severe constraints on the separation processes that can be used. The oxide particles are dissolved in nitric acid and a quarternary, ammonium anion exchanger is used to extract neptunium, plutonium, technetium, and palladium. After further cooling (about 90 days), the Am, Cm and higher actinides are extracted using a TALSPEAK-type process. The proposed operations were chosen because they have been successfully tested for processing high-level radioactive fuels or wastes in gram to kilogram quantities.

  3. Health physics fundamentals, radiation protection, and radioactive waste treatment. Volume ten

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Topics include health physics fundamentals (is radiation dangerous, what is health physics, federal regulations, presence of radiation, sources of radiation, types of radiation), radiation protection (amounts of radiation, radiation measurement, individual radiation exposure measurements, reducing the effects of radiation), and radioactive waste treatment (what are radioactive wastes, gaseous radioactive waste, liquid radioactive waste, solid radioactive waste, methods of rad-waste treatment, PWR and BWR radwaste treatment.

  4. Waste Water Management and Infectious Disease. Part II: Impact of Waste Water Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robert C.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of various treatment processes, such as oxidation ponds, chemical coagulation and filtration, and the soil mantle, to remove the agents of infectious disease found in waste water is discussed. The literature concerning the efficiency of removal of these organisms by various treatment processes is reviewed. (BT)

  5. OVERLAND RECYCLING SYSTEM FOR ANIMAL WASTE TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twelve 6 x 6 meter plots were designed to receive overland spray or rainfall only and sloped to direct runoff via plastic lined runoff ditches to one cone shaped plastic lined corner of each plot. These plots were completely randomized over all treatments each treatment having fo...

  6. Waste form development for use with ORNL waste treatment facility sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bostick, W.D.

    1996-05-01

    A sludge that simulates Water Softening Sludge number 5 (WSS number 5 filtercake) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was prepared and evaluated for its thermal behavior, volume reduction, stabilization, surface area and compressive strength properties. Compaction of the surrogate waste and the calcium oxide (produced by calcination) in the presence of paraffin resulted in cylindrical molds with various degrees of stability. This work has demonstrated that surrogate WSS number 5 at ORNL can be successfully stabilized by blending it with about 35 percent paraffin and compacting the mixture at 8000 psi. This compressive strength of the waste form is sufficient for temporary storage of the waste while long-term storage waste forms are developed. Considering the remarkable similarity between the surrogate and the actual filtercake, the findings of this project should be useful for treating the sludge generated by the waste treatment facility at ORNL.

  7. Radioactive waste management treatments: A selection for the Italian scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Locatelli, G.; Mancini, M.

    2012-07-01

    The increased attention for radioactive waste management is one of the most peculiar aspects of the nuclear sector considering both reactors and not power sources. The aim of this paper is to present the state-of-art of treatments for radioactive waste management all over the world in order to derive guidelines for the radioactive waste management in the Italian scenario. Starting with an overview on the international situation, it analyses the different sources, amounts, treatments, social and economic impacts looking at countries with different industrial backgrounds, energetic policies, geography and population. It lists all these treatments and selects the most reasonable according to technical, economic and social criteria. In particular, a double scenario is discussed (to be considered in case of few quantities of nuclear waste): the use of regional, centralized, off site processing facilities, which accept waste from many nuclear plants, and the use of mobile systems, which can be transported among multiple nuclear sites for processing campaigns. At the end the treatments suitable for the Italian scenario are presented providing simplified work-flows and guidelines. (authors)

  8. Full Focus Needed on Finishing Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant - 12196

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, Suzanne; Biyani, Rabindra; Holmes, Erika

    2012-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy's (US DOE's) Hanford Nuclear Site has 177 underground waste storage tanks located 19 to 24 km (12 to 15 miles) from the Columbia River in south-central Washington State. Hanford's tanks now hold about 212,000 cu m (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive and chemically hazardous waste. Sixty-seven tanks have leaked an estimated 3,785 cu m (1 million gallons) of this waste into the surrounding soil. Further releases to soil, groundwater, and the Columbia River are the inevitable result of the tanks continuing to age. The risk from this waste is recognized as a threat to the Northwest by both State and Federal governments. US DOE and Bechtel National, Inc., are building the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to treat and vitrify (immobilize in glass) the waste from Hanford's tanks. As is usual for any groundbreaking project, problems have arisen that must be resolved as they occur if treatment is to take place as specified in the court-enforceable Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) and the Consent Decree, entered into by US DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). At times, US DOE's approach to solving these critical issues seems to have caused undue wastes of time, energy, and, ultimately, public funds. Upon reviewing the history of Hanford's tank waste treatment project, Ecology hopes that constructive criticism of past failures and praise of successes will inspire US DOE to consider changing practices, be more transparent with regulatory agencies and the public, and take a 'lean production' approach to successfully completing this project. All three Tri-Party Agreement agencies share the goal of completing WTP on time, ensuring it is operational and in compliance with safety standards. To do this, Ecology believes US DOE should: - Maintain focus on the primary goal of completing the five major facilities of

  9. Spallation radiation damage and dosimetry for accelerator transmutation of waste applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, M.S.; Lin, C.; Ferguson, P.D.; Sommer, W.F.

    1993-10-01

    Proposals are currently being made for systems to treat radioactive waste based on the use of accelerator-driven neutron sources. A linear proton accelerator with energies as high as 1600 MeV and currents up to 250 ma are anticipated for the driver. The neutron fluxes may reach up to 10{sup 20} neutrons/m{sup 2}s as generated by the spallation reactions that occur when the protons strike target materials. Calculations are described to determine radiation fluxes and flux spectra inherent in such systems and to estimate likely radiation effects on system components. The calculations use LAHET, a Monte Carlo high-energy transport code, and MCNP, a generalized-geometry, coupled neutron-photon Monte Carlo transport code. Cross sections for displacement and helium production are presented for spallation neutrons of energies from 21 MeV to 1600 MeV for Inconel 718 (Ni plus 18.5, 18.5, 5.1, and 3 wt % of Cr, Fe, Nb, and Mo, respectively), an alloy that is used for the proton beam entry window in several accelerators. In addition, results for this alloy are presented for the primary knocked-on atom (PKA) spectrum and the transmutation yield for 1600 MeV incident neutrons.

  10. Optimization of conditions for thermal treatment of rice bran using an accelerator including an organo-iron compound.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Hikari; Tachibana, Naoya; Fukushima, Masami

    2011-02-01

    A method for thermal conversion of raw organic waste (ROW) to a compost-like material (CLM) with higher levels of unsaturated carbohydrates, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds was developed, in which rice bran and an organo-iron compound were employed as a model ROW and the accelerator, respectively. To evaluate the qualities of CLMs, organic substances of an acid insoluble fraction of alkaline extracts (AIAEs) from a CLM were structurally characterized by elemental analysis, pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and FT-IR. The levels of unsaturated carbohydrates, and nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds in the CLM samples were increased by long-term treatment (60°C for 5 days, 170°C for 3 days). In particular, the high lipid content of the AIAEs, which was indicative of inadequate digestion of CLM components, was dramatically reduced in the presence of the accelerator. PMID:21044838

  11. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  12. Accelerated safety analyses - structural analyses Phase I - structural sensitivity evaluation of single- and double-shell waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.L.

    1994-11-01

    Accelerated Safety Analyses - Phase I (ASA-Phase I) have been conducted to assess the appropriateness of existing tank farm operational controls and/or limits as now stipulated in the Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs) and Operating Specification Documents, and to establish a technical basis for the waste tank operating safety envelope. Structural sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the response of the different waste tank configurations to variations in loading conditions, uncertainties in loading parameters, and uncertainties in material characteristics. Extensive documentation of the sensitivity analyses conducted and results obtained are provided in the detailed ASA-Phase I report, Structural Sensitivity Evaluation of Single- and Double-Shell Waste Tanks for Accelerated Safety Analysis - Phase I. This document provides a summary of the accelerated safety analyses sensitivity evaluations and the resulting findings.

  13. Accelerated alpha radiation damage in a ceramic waste form, interim results

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, S. M.; Johnson, S. G.; Moschetti, T. L.; O'Holleran, T. P.; Sinkler, W.; Esh, D.; Goff, K. M.

    1999-11-11

    Interim results are presented on the alpha-decay damage study of a {sup 238}Pu-loaded ceramic waste form (CWF). The waste form was developed to immobilize fission products and transuranic species accumulated from the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. To evaluate the effects of {alpha}-decay damage on the waste form the {sup 238}Pu-loaded material was analyzed by (1) x-ray diffraction (XRD), (2) microstructure characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EDS/WDS) and electron diffraction, (3) bulk density measurements and (4) waste form durability, performed by the product consistency test (PCT). While the predominate phase of plutonium in the CWF, PuO{sub 2}, shows the expected unit cell expansion due to {alpha}-decay damage, currently no significant change has occurred to the macro- or microstructure of the material. The major phase of the waste form is sodalite and contains very little Pu, although the exact amount is unknown. Interestingly, measurement of the sodalite phase unit cell is also showing very slight expansion; again, presumably from {alpha}-decay damage.

  14. Waste characterization for the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility in support of waste certification

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.F.

    1994-10-17

    The Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) procedures define the rules concerning packages of solid Low Level Waste (LLW) that are sent to the E-area vaults (EAV). The WACs tabulate the quantities of 22 radionuclides that require manifesting in waste packages destined for each type of vault. These quantities are called the Package Administrative Criteria (PAC). If a waste package exceeds the PAC for any radionuclide in a given vault, then specific permission is needed to send to that vault. To avoid reporting insignificant quantities of the 22 listed radionuclides, the WAC defines the Minimum Reportable Quantity (MRQ) of each radionuclide as 1/1000th of the PAC. If a waste package contains less than the MRQ of a particular radionuclide, then the package`s manifest will list that radionuclide as zero. At least one radionuclide has to be reported, even if all are below the MRQ. The WAC requires that the waste no be ``hazardous`` as defined by SCDHEC/EPA regulations and also lists several miscellaneous physical/chemical requirements for the packages. This report evaluates the solid wastes generated within the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) for potential impacts on waste certification.

  15. Treatment of Mixed Wastes via Fixed Bed Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-28

    This report outlines the details of research performed under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-96MC33258 to evaluate the ChemChar hazardous waste system for the destruction of mixed wastes, defined as those that contain both RCRA-regulated haz- ardous constituents and radionuclides. The ChemChar gasification system uses a granular carbonaceous char matrix to immobilize wastes and feed them into the gasifier. In the gasifier wastes are subjected to high temperature reducing conditions, which destroy the organic constituents and immobilize radionuclides on the regenerated char. Only about 10 percent of the char is consumed on each pass through the gasifier, and the regenerated char can be used to treat additional wastes. When tested on a 4-inch diameter scale with a continuous feed unit as part of this research, the ChemChar gasification system was found to be effective in destroying RCRA surrogate organic wastes (chlorobenzene, dichloroben- zene, and napht.halene) while retaining on the char RCRA heavy metals (chromium, nickel, lead, and cadmium) as well as a fission product surrogate (cesium) and a plutonium surrogate (cerium). No generation of harmful byproducts was observed. This report describes the design and testing of the ChemChar gasification system and gives the operating procedures to be followed in using the system safely and effectively for mixed waste treatment.

  16. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions.

  17. Fate of metals contained in waste electrical and electronic equipment in a municipal waste treatment process.

    PubMed

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Terazono, Atsushi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) that is not covered by the recycling laws are treated as municipal solid waste. A part of common metals are recovered during the treatment; however, other metals are rarely recovered and their destinations are not clear. This study investigated the distribution ratios and substance flows of 55 metals contained in WEEE during municipal waste treatment using shredding and separation techniques at a Japanese municipal waste treatment plant. The results revealed that more than half of Cu and most of Al contained in WEEE end up in landfills or dissipate under the current municipal waste treatment system. Among the other metals contained in WEEE, at least 70% of the mass was distributed to the small-grain fraction through the shredding and separation and is to be landfilled. Most kinds of metals were concentrated several fold in the small-grain fraction through the process and therefore the small-grain fraction may be a next target for recovery of metals in terms of both metal content and amount. Separate collection and pre-sorting of small digital products can work as effective way for reducing precious metals and less common metals to be landfilled to some extent; however, much of the total masses of those metals would still end up in landfills and it is also important to consider how to recover and utilize metals contained in other WEEE such as audio/video equipment. PMID:21963338

  18. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  19. Physical/chemical treatment of mixed waste soils

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.I. ); Alperin, E.S.; Fox, R.D. )

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the results and findings of the demonstration testing of a physical/chemical treatment technology for mixed wastes. The principal objective of the tests was to demonstrate the capability of the low temperature thermal separation (LTTS) technology for rendering PCB-contaminated mixed waste soils as nonhazardous and acceptable for low level radioactive waste disposal. The demonstration testing of this technology was a jointly-conducted project by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems) Waste Management Technology Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and IT Corporation. This pilot-scale demonstration program testing of IT's thermal separator technology in Oak Ridge was conducted as part of the DOE Model Program. This program has private industry, regulators, and universities helping to solve DOE waste management problems. Information gained from the DOE Model is shared with the participating organizations, other federal agencies, and regulatory agencies. The following represent the most significant findings from these demonstration tests: Thermal separation effectively separated PCB contamination from a mixed waste to enable the treated soil to be managed as low level radioactive waste. At the same operating conditions, mercury contamination of 0.8 ppM was reduced to less than 0.1 ppM. The majority of uranium and technetium in the waste feeds oil remained in the treated soil. Radionuclide concentration in cyclone solids is due to carry-over of entrained particles in the exit gas and not due to volatilization/condensation. Thermal separation also effectively treated all identified semi-volatile contaminants in the waste soil to below detection limits with the exception of di-n-butylphthalate in one of the two runs. 4 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  20. TREATMENT OF ELECTROPLATING WASTES BY REVERSE OSMOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reverse osmosis treatment of plating bath rinsewaters has been examined. Emphasis has been placed on closed-loop operation with recycle of purified water for rinsing, and return of plating chemical concentrate to the bath. Three commercially available membrane configurations have...

  1. Pilot studies to achieve waste minimization and enhance radioactive liquid waste treatment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Freer, J.; Freer, E.; Bond, A.

    1996-07-01

    The Radioactive and Industrial Wastewater Science Group manages and operates the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The RLWTF treats low-level radioactive liquid waste generated by research and analytical facilities at approximately 35 technical areas throughout the 43-square-mile site. The RLWTF treats an average of 5.8 million gallons (21.8-million liters) of liquid waste annually. Clarifloculation and filtration is the primary treatment technology used by the RLWTF. This technology has been used since the RLWTF became operable in 1963. Last year the RLWTF achieved an average of 99.7% removal of gross alpha activity in the waste stream. The treatment process requires the addition of chemicals for the flocculation and subsequent precipitation of radionuclides. The resultant sludge generated during this process is solidified in drums and stored or disposed of at LANL.

  2. Hazardous waste treatment using fungus enters marketplace

    SciTech Connect

    Illman, D.L.

    1993-07-01

    When the announcement was made eight years ago that a common fungus had been found that could degrade a variety of environmental pollutants, the news stirred interest in the scientific community, the private sector, and the general public. Here was the promise of a new technology that might be effective and economical in treating hazardous waste, especially the most recalcitrant of toxic pollutants. Today, commercialization is beginning amid a mixture of optimism and skepticism. The organism in question is white rot fungus, or Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and it belongs to a family of woodrotting fungi common all over North America. The fungi secrete enzymes that break down lignin in wood to carbon dioxide and water--a process called mineralization. These lignin-degrading enzymes are not very discriminating, however. The white rot fungi have been shown to degrade such materials as DDT, the herbicide (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4,5-T), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentachlorophenol (PCP), creosote, coal tars, and heavy fuels, in many cases mineralizing these pollutants to a significant extent.

  3. Developments in geothermal waste treatment biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Jin, J.Z.

    1992-09-01

    Disposal of toxic solid waste in an environmentally and economically acceptable way may be in some cases a major impediment to large geothermal development. The major thrust of the R&D effort in this laboratory is to develop low-cost processes for the concentration and removal of toxic materials and metals from geothermal residues. In order to accomplish this, biochemical processes elaborated by certain microorganisms which live in extreme environments have served as models for a biotechnology. It has been shown that 80% or better removal of toxic metals can be achieved at fast rates (e.g., 25 hours or less) at acidic pH and temperatures of about 60{degrees}C. There are several process variables which have to be taken into consideration in the development of such biotechnology. These include reactor size and type, strain of microorganisms, biomass growth, temperature, loading concentrations of residual geothermal sludge, and chemical nature of metal salts present. Recent data generated by the research and development effort associated with the emerging biotechnology will be presented and discussed.

  4. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  5. EVALUATION OF PRISTINE LIGNIN FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A feasibility study was conducted to assess the utilization of lignin, isolated from a steam-exploded hardwood (Tulip poplar) with 95% ethanol and 0.1n NaOH, as a potential adsorbent for hazardous waste treatment. Eight organic compounds and two heavy metals were selected to allo...

  6. An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Operator Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

    The occupational analysis contains a brief job description for the waste water treatment occupations of operator and maintenance mechanic and 13 detailed task statements which specify job duties (tools, equipment, materials, objects acted upon, performance knowledge, safety considerations/hazards, decisions, cues, and errors) and learning skills…

  7. An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Maintenance Mechanic Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the waste water treatment mechanics occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Twelve duties are broken…

  8. 49. LOOKING NORTH AT EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. LOOKING NORTH AT EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS, WITH BLOW ENGINE HOUSE No. 3 ON RIGHT, AND FILTER CAKE HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  9. BIOLOGICAL WASTE AIR TREATMENT IN BIOTRICKLING FILTERS. (R825392)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Recent studies in the area of biological waste air treatment in biotrickling filters have addressed fundamental key issues, such as biofilm architecture, microbiology of the process culture and means to control accumulation of biomass. The results from these s...

  10. ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF WASTE WATER AQUACULTURE TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study attempted to ascertain the economic viability of aquaculture as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment systems for small municipalities in the Southwestern region of the United States. A multiple water quality objective level cost-effectiveness model was ...

  11. 20. VIEW OF WASTE TREATMENT CONTROL ROOM IN BUILDING 374. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF WASTE TREATMENT CONTROL ROOM IN BUILDING 374. THE BUILDING 371/374 COMPLEX WAS DESIGNED TO EMPHASIZE AUTOMATICALLY CONTROLLED, REMOTELY OPERATED PROCESSES. (1/80) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  12. EPA/DOE JOINT EFFORTS ON MIXED WASTE TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes the results of six major activities that have been underway since the inception of the EPA/DOE joint effort in mixed waste thermal treatment as a consequence of establishing their Interagency Agreements (IAGS) in 1991 and 1993. he six IAG activities are: 1) ...

  13. Fetal loss and work in a waste water treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, R.W.; Kheifets, L.; Obrinsky, D.L.; Whorton, M.D.; Foliart, D.E.

    1984-05-01

    We investigated pregnancy outcomes in 101 wives of workers employed in a waste water treatment plant (WWTP), and verified fetal losses by hospital records. Paternal work histories were compiled and each of the 210 pregnancies was assigned a paternal exposure category. The relative risk of fetal loss was increased when paternal exposure to the WWTP occurred around the time of conception.

  14. Mine Waste Technology Program. Passive Treatment for Reducing Metal Loading

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 48, Passive Treatment Technology Evaluation for Reducing Metal Loading, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Departmen...

  15. Progress in geothermal waste treatment biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S. ); Kang, Sun Ki . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-05-01

    Studies directed at the development of an environmentally acceptable technology for the treatment and disposal of geothermal sludges have shown that a biotechnology based on microbial biochemical processes is technically and economically feasible. Process designs for the emerging biotechnology have to take several variables into consideration. In the present paper some of these variables will be discussed in terms of their effect on the cost and efficiency of potential processes. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Pyrochemical separations technologies envisioned for the U. S. accelerator transmutation of waste system

    SciTech Connect

    Laidler, J. J.

    2000-02-17

    A program has been initiated for the purpose of developing the chemical separations technologies necessary to support a large Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) system capable of dealing with the projected inventory of spent fuel from the commercial nuclear power stations in the United States. The baseline process selected combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to enable the efficient separation of uranium, technetium, iodine, and the transuranic elements from LWR spent fuel. The diversity of processing methods was chosen for both technical and economic factors. A six-year technology evaluation and development program is foreseen, by the end of which an informed decision can be made on proceeding with demonstration of the ATW system.

  17. Food waste treatment in a community center.

    PubMed

    Schwalb, Michael; Rosevear, Carrie; Chin, Rebecca; Barrington, Suzelle

    2011-07-01

    For urban community composting centers, the proper selection and use of bulking agent is a key element in not only the cost but also the quality of the finished compost. Besides wood chips (WC) widely used as BA, readily usable cereal residue pellets (CRP) can provide biodegradable carbon and sufficient free air space (FAS) to produce stabilizing temperatures. The objective of the present project was to test at a community center, the effectiveness of CRP in composting food waste (FW). Two recipes were used (CRP with and without WC) to measure: FAS; temperature regimes, and; losses in mass, water, carbon and nitrogen. Both recipes were composted during three consecutive years using a 2 m(3) commercial in-vessel composter operated in downtown Montreal (Canada). For all recipes, FAS exceeded 30% for moisture content below 60%, despite yearly variations in FW and BA physical properties. When properly managed by the center operator, both FW and CRP compost mixtures with and without WC developed within 3 days thermophilic temperatures exceeding 50 °C. The loss of total mass, water, carbon and nitrogen was quite variable for both recipes, ranging from 36% to 54%, 42% to 55%, 48% to 65%, and 4% to 55%, respectively. The highest loss in dry mass, water and C was obtained with FW and CRP without WC aerated to maintain mesophilic rather than thermophilic conditions. Although variable, lower nitrogen losses were obtained with CRP and WC as BA, compared to CRP alone, as also observed during previous laboratory trials. Therefore and as BA, CRP can be used alone but nitrogen losses will be minimized by adding WC. Compost stabilization depends on operator vigilance in terms of aeration. The measured fresh compost density of 530-600 kg/m(3) indicates that the 2 m(3) in-vessel composter can treat 6.5 tons of FW/year if operated during 7 months. PMID:21376554

  18. Short mechanical biological treatment of municipal solid waste allows landfill impact reduction saving waste energy content.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Salati, Silvia; Di Gregorio, Alessandra; Carrera, Alberto; Tambone, Fulvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of full scale MBT process (28 d) in removing inhibition condition for successive biogas (ABP) production in landfill and in reducing total waste impact. For this purpose the organic fraction of MSW was treated in a full-scale MBT plant and successively incubated vs. untreated waste, in simulated landfills for one year. Results showed that untreated landfilled-waste gave a total ABP reduction that was null. On the contrary MBT process reduced ABP of 44%, but successive incubation for one year in landfill gave a total ABP reduction of 86%. This ABP reduction corresponded to a MBT process of 22 weeks length, according to the predictive regression developed for ABP reduction vs. MBT-time. Therefore short MBT allowed reducing landfill impact, preserving energy content (ABP) to be produced successively by bioreactor technology since pre-treatment avoided process inhibition because of partial waste biostabilization. PMID:23792663

  19. Economic evaluation of radiation processing in urban solid wastes treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carassiti, F.; Lacquaniti, L.; Liuzzo, G.

    During the last few years, quite a number of studies have been done, or are still in course, on disinfection of urban liquid wastes by means of ionizing radiations. The experience gained by SANDIA pilot plant of irradiation on dried sewage sludge, together with the recently presented conceptual design of another plant handling granular solids, characterized by high efficiency and simple running, have shown the possibility of extending this process to the treatment of urban solid wastes. As a matter of fact, the problems connected to the pathogenic aspects of sludge handling are often similar to those met during the disposal of urban solid wastes. This is even more so in the case of their reuse in agriculture and zootechny. The present paper introduces the results of an analysis carried out in order to evaluate the economical advantage of inserting irradiation treatment in some process scheme for management of urban solid wastes. Taking as an example a comprehensive pattern of urban solid wastes management which has been analysed and estimated economically in previous works, we first evaluated the extra capital and operational costs due to the irradiation and then analysed economical justification, taking into account the increasing commercial value of the by-products.

  20. The Murmansk low-level liquid radioactive waste treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, R.B.; Penzin, R.A.; Tumparov, A.; Gussgard, K.; Dyer, R.A.; Ruksha, V.V.

    1996-09-01

    Since May 1994, Russian, Norway and the US have cooperated successfully to develop the design of the LLRW treatment facility. Among the other participating organizations are the Association for Advanced Technologies, the Royal norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The joint US/Norwegian/Russian Technical Team for the Design provide technical review and advice. A major objective of the design is to enable Russian to permanently cease disposing of this waste in Arctic waters and to formally adhere to the London Convention permanent ban. Therefore, the modifications will increase the facility`s capacity from 1,200 m{sup 3} per year to 5,000 m{sup 3} per year, will permit the facility to process high-salt wastes from the Russian Navy`s North Fleet and will improve the stabilization and interim storage of the processed wastes. The plant design utilizes novel technology for the filtration and treatment of the high saline waste streams, as well as waste streams for maintenance and decontamination activities. The discharge streams will meet national and international discharge limits for radionuclides. Following detailed design, the next phase is construction.

  1. Steel wastes as versatile materials for treatment of biorefractory wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Sara V; Amorim, Camila C; Andrade, Luiza N; Calixto, Natália C Z; Henriques, Andréia B; Ardisson, José D; Leão, Mônica M D

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on novel cost-effective adsorbent materials suggests potential use of industrial wastes for effluent treatment, with the added benefit of reuse of the wastes. Waste steel materials, including blast oxygen furnace sludge (BOFS), blast furnace sludge (BFS), and blast furnace dust (BFD), were investigated as low-cost adsorbents for removal of an oil emulsion and RR195 dye. The residues were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller area, volume and distribution of pore diameters, Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, granulometry, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, and pHpzc. Adsorption kinetics data were obtained by UV-vis spectrophotometry at the maximum absorption wavelength of the dye solution and crude oil emulsion. The use of waste as an adsorbent was more efficient for treatment of the oil emulsion than the dye solution. BOFS had higher total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency than the other waste materials. For the RR195 dye, good color removal was observed for all adsorbents, >90 % within 24 h. TOC removal was poor, <10 % for BFD and BFS and a maximum of 37 % for BOFS. For the oil emulsion, 97 % TOC removal was obtained by adsorption onto BOFS and 87 % onto BFS. PMID:25196961

  2. Short treatment time and excellent treatment outcome in accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy for T1 glottic cancer.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Yukihisa; Hieda, Yoko; Yoshida, Rika; Yoshizako, Takeshi; Fuchiwaki, Takafumi; Aoi, Noriaki; Sekihara, Kazumasa; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Kawauchi, Hideyuki; Kitagaki, Hajime; Sasaki, Ryohei; Inomata, Taisuke

    2015-11-01

    Accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy was performed as treatment for patients with T1 glottic cancer, and its utility was evaluated based on treatment outcomes and adverse effects. Fifty-eight men who had undergone radiotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. Tumor classification was Tis in 4 patients, T1a in 38, and T1b in 16. Histological examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma in 55 patients. Travel time from home to hospital was 0-1 hour for 24 patients, 1-2 hours for 9, and >2 hours for 25. Laser vaporization was performed prior to radiotherapy in 38 patients, and 19 patients received concurrent chemotherapy with an agent such as S-1. Patients were irradiated twice daily using an irradiation container. Most patients received a dose of 1.5 Gy/fraction up to a total of 60 Gy. The median overall treatment time was 30 days, with a median observation period of 59.6 months. A complete response was observed in all patients. The 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control rates were 97.2%, 93.2%, and 97.8%, respectively. Although grade 3 pharyngeal mucositis was observed in 2 patients, there were no other grade 3 or higher acute adverse events. As late toxicity, grade 2 laryngeal edema and grade 1 laryngeal hemorrhage were observed in 1 patient each, but no serious events such as laryngeal necrosis or laryngeal stenosis were observed. In conclusion, this treatment method brings excellent outcome and will substantially reduce the treatment duration among patients who need to stay at nearby hotels while undergoing treatment at hospitals in rural areas. PMID:26663937

  3. Short treatment time and excellent treatment outcome in accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy for T1 glottic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tamaki, Yukihisa; Hieda, Yoko; Yoshida, Rika; Yoshizako, Takeshi; Fuchiwaki, Takafumi; Aoi, Noriaki; Sekihara, Kazumasa; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Kawauchi, Hideyuki; Kitagaki, Hajime; Sasaki, Ryohei; Inomata, Taisuke

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy was performed as treatment for patients with T1 glottic cancer, and its utility was evaluated based on treatment outcomes and adverse effects. Fifty-eight men who had undergone radiotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. Tumor classification was Tis in 4 patients, T1a in 38, and T1b in 16. Histological examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma in 55 patients. Travel time from home to hospital was 0–1 hour for 24 patients, 1–2 hours for 9, and >2 hours for 25. Laser vaporization was performed prior to radiotherapy in 38 patients, and 19 patients received concurrent chemotherapy with an agent such as S-1. Patients were irradiated twice daily using an irradiation container. Most patients received a dose of 1.5 Gy/fraction up to a total of 60 Gy. The median overall treatment time was 30 days, with a median observation period of 59.6 months. A complete response was observed in all patients. The 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control rates were 97.2%, 93.2%, and 97.8%, respectively. Although grade 3 pharyngeal mucositis was observed in 2 patients, there were no other grade 3 or higher acute adverse events. As late toxicity, grade 2 laryngeal edema and grade 1 laryngeal hemorrhage were observed in 1 patient each, but no serious events such as laryngeal necrosis or laryngeal stenosis were observed. In conclusion, this treatment method brings excellent outcome and will substantially reduce the treatment duration among patients who need to stay at nearby hotels while undergoing treatment at hospitals in rural areas. PMID:26663937

  4. Method for the treatment of waste sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Tomyn, W.W.

    1984-10-23

    A method for the treatment of sludge to cause its solidification and render it suitable for use as landfill by admixtures of chemicals therewith, the method including the steps of feeding the sludge into a sludge hopper and feeding chemicals into a chemical hopper. The sludge and chemicals are continuously fed, each at a controlled feed rate, into a rotating mixing chamber to control the generation of heat in the mixing chamber generated by the combination of sludge and chemicals whereby the sludge and chemicals therein are mixed and caused to move upwardly and longitudinally of the chamber from the inlet opening to the outlet opening thereof.

  5. Radiological Monitoring of Waste Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Y. M.; Nik, H. W.

    2011-03-01

    Scheduled waste in West Malaysia is handled by Concession Company and is stored and then is incinerated. It is known that incineration process may result in naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to be concentrated. In this study we have measured three samples consist of by-product from the operation process such as slag, filter cake and fly ash. Other various environmental media such as air, surface water, groundwater and soil within and around the plant have also been analysed for their radioactivity levels. The concentration of Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 in slag are 0.062 Bq/g, 0.016 Bq/g and 0.19 Bq/g respectively. The total activity (Raeq) in slag is 99.5 Bq/kg. The concentration in fly ash is 0.032 Bq/g, 0.16 Bq/g and 0.34 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively resulting in Raeq of 287.0 Bq/kg. For filter cake, the concentration is 0.13 Bq/g, 0.031 Bq/g and 0.33 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively resulting in Raeq of 199.7 Bq/kg. The external radiation level ranges from 0.08 μSv/h (Administrative building) to 0.35 μSv/h (TENORM storage area). The concentration level of radon and thoron progeny varies from 0.0001 to 0.0016 WL and 0.0006 WL to 0.002 WL respectively. For soil samples, the activity ranges from 0.11 Bq/g to 0.29 Bq/g, 0.06 Bq/g to 0.18 Bq/g and 0.065 Bq/g to 0.38 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively. While activity in water, except for a trace of K-40, it is non-detectable.

  6. Radiological Monitoring of Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, Y. M.; Nik, H. W.

    2011-03-30

    Scheduled waste in West Malaysia is handled by Concession Company and is stored and then is incinerated. It is known that incineration process may result in naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to be concentrated. In this study we have measured three samples consist of by-product from the operation process such as slag, filter cake and fly ash. Other various environmental media such as air, surface water, groundwater and soil within and around the plant have also been analysed for their radioactivity levels. The concentration of Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 in slag are 0.062 Bq/g, 0.016 Bq/g and 0.19 Bq/g respectively. The total activity (Ra{sub eq}) in slag is 99.5 Bq/kg. The concentration in fly ash is 0.032 Bq/g, 0.16 Bq/g and 0.34 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively resulting in Raeq of 287.0 Bq/kg. For filter cake, the concentration is 0.13 Bq/g, 0.031 Bq/g and 0.33 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively resulting in Raeq of 199.7 Bq/kg. The external radiation level ranges from 0.08 {mu}Sv/h (Administrative building) to 0.35 {mu}Sv/h (TENORM storage area). The concentration level of radon and thoron progeny varies from 0.0001 to 0.0016 WL and 0.0006 WL to 0.002 WL respectively. For soil samples, the activity ranges from 0.11 Bq/g to 0.29 Bq/g, 0.06 Bq/g to 0.18 Bq/g and 0.065 Bq/g to 0.38 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively. While activity in water, except for a trace of K-40, it is non-detectable.

  7. Chemical treatment of chelated metal finishing wastes.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Glarborg, Christen; Ross, Mark A

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated two chemical approaches for treatment of commingled cadmium-cyanide (Cd-CN) and zinc-nickel (Zn-Ni) wastewaters. The first approach, which involved application of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), focused on elimination of chelating substances. The second approach evaluated the use of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC) to specifically target and precipitate regulated heavy metals. Results demonstrated that by maintaining a pH of 10.0 and an oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) value of +600 mV, NaOCl treatment was effective in eliminating all chelating substances. Cadmium, chromium, nickel, and zinc solution concentrations were reduced from 0.27, 4.44, 0.06, and 0.10 ppm to 0.16, 0.17, 0.03, and 0.06 ppm, respectively. Similarly, a 1% DMDTC solution reduced these same metal concentrations in commingled wastewater to 0.009, 1.142, 0.036, and 0.320 ppm. Increasing the DMDTC concentration to 2% improved the removal of all regulated heavy metals except zinc, the removal of which at high pH values is limited by its amphotericity. PMID:23342939

  8. Silo 3 Waste Treatment Phase I Physical Testing Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    2001-03-13

    A characterization study of the Fernald Silo 3 waste was performed at the request of Rocky Mountain Remedial Services, LLC (RMRS) to support treatment of the waste with the Envirobond reagents and Envirobrick process. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) performed the characterization under a Work for Others Agreement WOF-00-007. Physical property testing was subcontracted to the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL). This report is intended to transmit the results of the physical property testing conducted at the CETL. Results of the physical property testing are summarized in a final report from Steve Hoeffner, CETL.

  9. Two-stage thermal/nonthermal waste treatment process

    SciTech Connect

    Rosocha, L.A.; Anderson, G.K.; Coogan, J.J.; Kang, M.; Tennant, R.A.; Wantuck, P.J.

    1993-05-01

    An innovative waste treatment technology is being developed in Los Alamos to address the destruction of hazardous organic wastes. The technology described in this report uses two stages: a packed bed reactor (PBR) in the first stage to volatilize and/or combust liquid organics and a silent discharge plasma (SDP) reactor to remove entrained hazardous compounds in the off-gas to even lower levels. We have constructed pre-pilot-scale PBR-SDP apparatus and tested the two stages separately and in combined modes. These tests are described in the report.

  10. Comparative environmental analysis of waste brominated plastic thermal treatments.

    PubMed

    Bientinesi, M; Petarca, L

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this research activity is to investigate the environmental impact of different thermal treatments of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), applying a life cycle assessment methodology. Two scenarios were assessed, which both allow the recovery of bromine: (A) the co-combustion of WEEE and green waste in a municipal solid waste combustion plant, and (B) the staged-gasification of WEEE and combustion of produced syngas in gas turbines. Mass and energy balances on the two scenarios were set and the analysis of the life cycle inventory and the life cycle impact assessment were conducted. Two impact assessment methods (Ecoindicator 99 and Impact 2002+) were slightly modified and then used with both scenarios. The results showed that scenario B (staged-gasification) had a potentially smaller environmental impact than scenario A (co-combustion). In particular, the thermal treatment of staged-gasification was more energy efficient than co-combustion, and therefore scenario B performed better than scenario A, mainly in the impact categories of "fossil fuels" and "climate change". Moreover, the results showed that scenario B allows a higher recovery of bromine than scenario A; however, Br recovery leads to environmental benefits for both the scenarios. Finally the study demonstrates that WEEE thermal treatment for energy and matter recovery is an eco-efficient way to dispose of this kind of waste. PMID:18829288

  11. Comparative environmental analysis of waste brominated plastic thermal treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Bientinesi, M. Petarca, L.

    2009-03-15

    The aim of this research activity is to investigate the environmental impact of different thermal treatments of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), applying a life cycle assessment methodology. Two scenarios were assessed, which both allow the recovery of bromine: (A) the co-combustion of WEEE and green waste in a municipal solid waste combustion plant, and (B) the staged-gasification of WEEE and combustion of produced syngas in gas turbines. Mass and energy balances on the two scenarios were set and the analysis of the life cycle inventory and the life cycle impact assessment were conducted. Two impact assessment methods (Ecoindicator 99 and Impact 2002+) were slightly modified and then used with both scenarios. The results showed that scenario B (staged-gasification) had a potentially smaller environmental impact than scenario A (co-combustion). In particular, the thermal treatment of staged-gasification was more energy efficient than co-combustion, and therefore scenario B performed better than scenario A, mainly in the impact categories of 'fossil fuels' and 'climate change'. Moreover, the results showed that scenario B allows a higher recovery of bromine than scenario A; however, Br recovery leads to environmental benefits for both the scenarios. Finally the study demonstrates that WEEE thermal treatment for energy and matter recovery is an eco-efficient way to dispose of this kind of waste.

  12. Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Swine Waste Treatment Systems▿

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Archana; Kocherginskaya, Svetlana; Mehboob, Asma; Robert, Matthew; Mackie, Roderick I.; Raskin, Lutgarde; Zilles, Julie L.

    2006-01-01

    Chlortetracycline and the macrolide tylosin were identified as commonly used antimicrobials for growth promotion and prophylaxis in swine production. Resistance to these antimicrobials was measured throughout the waste treatment processes at five swine farms by culture-based and molecular methods. Conventional farm samples had the highest levels of resistance with both culture-based and molecular methods and had similar levels of resistance despite differences in antimicrobial usage. The levels of resistance in organic farm samples, where no antimicrobials were used, were very low by a culture-based method targeting fecal streptococci. However, when the same samples were analyzed with a molecular method detecting methylation of a specific nucleotide in the 23S rRNA that results in resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B (MLSB), an unexpectedly high level of resistant rRNA (approximately 50%) was observed, suggesting that the fecal streptococci were not an appropriate target group to evaluate resistance in the overall microbial community and that background levels of MLSB resistance may be substantial. All of the feed samples tested, including those from the organic farm, contained tetracycline resistance genes. Generally, the same tetracycline resistance genes and frequency of detection were found in the manure and lagoon samples for each commercial farm. The levels of tetracycline and MLSB resistance remained high throughout the waste treatment systems, suggesting that the potential impact of land application of treated wastes and waste treatment by-products on environmental levels of resistance should be investigated further. PMID:17041160

  13. Antimicrobial use and resistance in swine waste treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Archana; Kocherginskaya, Svetlana; Mehboob, Asma; Robert, Matthew; Mackie, Roderick I; Raskin, Lutgarde; Zilles, Julie L

    2006-12-01

    Chlortetracycline and the macrolide tylosin were identified as commonly used antimicrobials for growth promotion and prophylaxis in swine production. Resistance to these antimicrobials was measured throughout the waste treatment processes at five swine farms by culture-based and molecular methods. Conventional farm samples had the highest levels of resistance with both culture-based and molecular methods and had similar levels of resistance despite differences in antimicrobial usage. The levels of resistance in organic farm samples, where no antimicrobials were used, were very low by a culture-based method targeting fecal streptococci. However, when the same samples were analyzed with a molecular method detecting methylation of a specific nucleotide in the 23S rRNA that results in resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B (MLSB), an unexpectedly high level of resistant rRNA (approximately 50%) was observed, suggesting that the fecal streptococci were not an appropriate target group to evaluate resistance in the overall microbial community and that background levels of MLSB resistance may be substantial. All of the feed samples tested, including those from the organic farm, contained tetracycline resistance genes. Generally, the same tetracycline resistance genes and frequency of detection were found in the manure and lagoon samples for each commercial farm. The levels of tetracycline and MLSB resistance remained high throughout the waste treatment systems, suggesting that the potential impact of land application of treated wastes and waste treatment by-products on environmental levels of resistance should be investigated further. PMID:17041160

  14. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  15. Raw Liquid Waste Treatment System and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A raw sewage treatment process is disclosed in which substantially all the non-dissolved matter, suspended in the sewage water is first separated from the water, in which at least organic matter remains dissolved. The non-dissolved material is pyrolyzed to form an activated carbon and ash material without the addition of any conditioning agents. The activated carbon and ash material is added to the water from which the non-dissolved matter was removed. The activated carbon and ash material adsorbs the organic matter dissolved in the water and is thereafter supplied in a counter flow direction and combined with the incoming raw sewage to at least facilitate the separation of the non-dissolved settleable materials from the sewage water. Carbon and ash material together with the non-dissolved matter which was separated from the sewage water are pyrolyzed to form the activated carbon and ash material.

  16. Development and demonstration of treatment technologies for the processing of US Department of Energy Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, G.A.; Berry, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Mixed waste is defined as ``waste contaminated with chemically hazardous and radioactive species.`` The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was established in response to the need for a unified, DOE complexwide solution to issues of mixed waste treatment that meets regulatory requirements. MWIP is developing treatment technologies that reduce risk, minimize life-cycle cost, and improve process performance as compared to existing technologies. Treatment for waste streams for which no current technology exists, and suitable waste forms for disposal, will be provided to improve operations of the DOE Office of Waste Management. MWIP is composed of six technical areas within a mixed-waste treatment system: (1) systems analysis, (2) materials handling, (3) chemical/physical separation, (4) waste destruction and stabilization, (5) off-gas treatment, and (6) final waste form stabilization. The status of the technical initiatives and the current research, development, and demonstration in each of these areas are described in this paper

  17. Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.M.

    2000-10-30

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions.

  18. Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method.

  19. Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method.

  20. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF CROSS-FLOW FILTRATION FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

    2011-01-12

    In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, the DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing cross-flow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was included in those studies, with a focus on start-up techniques, filter cake development, the application of filter aids (cake forming solid precoats), and body feeds (flux enhancing polymers). This paper discusses the progress of those filter studies. Cross-flow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate slurries. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self-cleaning through the action of wall shear stress created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self-cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduce permeability. Unfortunately, low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Savannah River Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the cross-flow filter axial flowrate, limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, limited by space and increasing the required pump load. SRNL set up both dead-end and cross-flow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, filter cleaning, and several different types of filter aids and body feeds. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed

  1. Remote handling equipment at the hanford waste treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bardal, M.A.; Roach, J.D.

    2007-07-01

    Cold war plutonium production led to extensive amounts of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. The storage tanks could potentially leak into the ground water and into the Columbia River. The solution for this risk of the leaking waste is vitrification. Vitrification is a process of mixing molten glass with radioactive waste to form a stable condition for storage. The Department of Energy has contracted Bechtel National, Inc. to build facilities at the Hanford site to process the waste. The waste will be separated into high and low level waste. Four major systems will process the waste, two pretreatment and two high level. Due to the high radiation levels, high integrity custom cranes have been designed to remotely maintain the hot cells. Several critical design parameters were implemented into the remote machinery design, including radiation limitations, remote operations, Important to Safety features, overall equipment effectiveness, minimum wall approaches, seismic constraints, and recovery requirements. Several key pieces of equipment were designed to meet these design requirements - high integrity crane bridges, trolleys, main hoists, mast hoists, slewing hoists, a monorail hoist, and telescoping mast deployed tele-robotic manipulator arms. There were unique and challenging design features and equipment needed to provide the remotely operated high integrity crane/manipulator systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. The cranes consist of a double girder bridge with various main hoist capacities ranging from one to thirty ton and are used for performing routine maintenance. A telescoping mast mounted tele-robotic manipulator arm with a one-ton hook is deployed from the trolley to perform miscellaneous operations in-cell. A dual two-ton slewing jib hoist is mounted to the bottom of the trolley and rotates 360 degrees around the mast allowing the closest hook wall approaches. Each of the two hoists on

  2. Treatment technology analysis for mixed waste containers and debris

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Brown, C.H.; Langton, C.A.; Askew, N.M.; Kan, T.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1994-03-01

    A team was assembled to develop technology needs and strategies for treatment of mixed waste debris and empty containers in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of applying the Debris and Empty Container Rules to these wastes. These rules issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) apply only to the hazardous component of mixed debris. Hazardous debris that is subjected to regulations under the Atomic Energy Act because of its radioactivity (i.e., mixed debris) is also subject to the debris treatment standards. The issue of treating debris per the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) at the same time or in conjunction with decontamination of the radioactive contamination was also addressed. Resolution of this issue requires policy development by DOE Headquarters of de minimis concentrations for radioactivity and release of material to Subtitle D landfills or into the commercial sector. The task team recommends that, since alternate treatment technologies (for the hazardous component) are Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT): (1) funding should focus on demonstration, testing, and evaluation of BDAT on mixed debris, (2) funding should also consider verification of alternative treatments for the decontamination of radioactive debris, and (3) DOE should establish criteria for the recycle/reuse or disposal of treated and decontaminated mixed debris as municipal waste.

  3. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

  4. Approximate cost functions for solid waste treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Tsilemou, Konstantinia; Panagiotakopoulos, Demetrios

    2006-08-01

    Cost estimation is a basic requirement for planning municipal solid waste management systems. The variety of organizational, financial and management schemes and the continuously developing technological advancements render the economic analysis a complex task, made more complex by the scarcity of real cost data. The objectives of this paper were: (1) to explore the problems arising in getting cost estimates from scattered and limited published data; (2) to suggest a procedure for generating cost functions relating initial set-up cost and operating cost with facility size; and (3) to present such cost functions, relevant to European states, for selected types of solid waste treatment and disposal facilities. Regarding the problems of available scarce data, one needs to deal with cost figures which correspond to facilities with variations in size, technology, year of construction, working conditions, level of technological automation, environmental impacts, social acceptance, capacity utilization rate, composition of inflowing waste, waste management policies, degree of compliance with quality standards, etc. The paper addresses this issue and discusses the proper use of statistical analyses in such cases of fragmented data; moreover, it points out some usual misuses of statistics by analysts and the danger of getting erroneous results. The suggested process for generating cost functions acceptable to the decision-makers is pivoted around the question of acceptable approximation level. Finally, approximate cost curves are suggested for waste-to-energy facilities, landfilling facilities, anaerobic digestion facilities and composting facilities. PMID:16941990

  5. A theory of the plasma torch for waste-treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, H.S.; Hong, S.H.

    1997-12-31

    Arc-plasma technology has broad applications to waste treatment processing including the safe disposal of hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes. The plasma torch could be useful to the development of an efficient, compact, lightweight, clean burning incinerator for industrial and municipal waste disposal in an environmentally beneficial way. The authors therefore develop a simple theoretical model describing physics of the plasma torch plume in connection with its applications to the arc-plasma waste-treatment system. The theoretical analysis is carried out by making use of Bernoulli`s pressure-balance equation, which provides a stable equilibrium solution of the gas density in the plume ejected from the torch into a high-pressure reactor chamber with 4{var_epsilon} < 1. The pressure depression parameter {var_epsilon} is proportional to the gas temperature and inversely proportional to the square of the chamber pressure. In a low-pressure chamber, characterized by 4{var_epsilon} > 1, there is no stable equilibrium solution satisfying Bernoulli`s equation. Therefore, it is expected that the observable plasma data may change abruptly as the chamber pressure crosses the borderline defined by 4{var_epsilon} = 1. Indeed most of the plasma data measured in an experiment change abruptly at the pressure borderline of 4{var_epsilon} = 1.

  6. Characterization of residues from physicochemical treatment of waste fluorescent lamps.

    PubMed

    Urniezaite, Inga; Denafas, Gintaras; Jankunaite, Dalia

    2010-07-01

    Fluorescent lamps are widely used world-wide due to their long life and energy saving capability. These lamps contain mercury (Hg) as a source of fluorescent radiation. The object of this study is a new technology for physicochemical treatment of waste fluorescent lamps. The residuals of the technological process were evaluated for potential leaching of heavy metals into the environment. Evaluation was performed using standardized extraction tests. Additionally, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analysis, as well as tests with complex-forming agents and under pH-stable conditions were performed aiming to predict stability of the residuals in various environmental conditions. According to the XRD analysis, the minerals fluorapatite and hydroxylapatite were dominant in analyzed samples. The results of total extraction by aqua regia revealed that residuals contain relatively high total concentrations of Hg, Mn, and Zn. Concentrations of heavy metals, leaching to aqueous solution, were compared to leaching limit values (according to EU legislation). The concentrations of available Hg in the waste fluorescent lamp treatment products, according to its solubility in the water, exceed the limit values. The measured water-leachable Hg concentration was 4.88 mg kg(-1), while the value for waste acceptable at hazardous waste landfill sites is 2 mg kg(-1). Concentrations of other measured heavy metals did not exceed the limit values. According to the results, Hg stabilization potential for presented technology exceeds 99%. PMID:19710106

  7. 75 FR 81250 - Pulse Jet Mixing at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... SAFETY BOARD Pulse Jet Mixing at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant AGENCY: Defense Nuclear... the use of pulse jet mixing at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant located in Washington... to the Secretary of Energy Pulse Jet Mixing at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant...

  8. Low level mixed waste thermal treatment technical basis report

    SciTech Connect

    Place, B.G.

    1994-12-01

    Detailed characterization of the existing and projected Hanford Site Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) inventory was initiated in 1993 (Place 1993). This report presents an analysis of the existing and projected RMW inventory. The subject characterization effort continues to be in support of the following engineering activities related to thermal treatment of Hanford Site RMW: (1) Contracting for commercial thermal treatment; (2) Installation and operation of an onsite thermal treatment facility (Project W-242); (3) Treatment at another Department of Energy (DOE) site. The collation of this characterization information (data) has emphasized the establishment of a common data base for the entire existing RMW inventory so that the specification of feed streams destined for different treatment facilities can be coordinated.

  9. Hazardous solid waste from domestic wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, W M

    1978-01-01

    The treatment of liquid wastes in municipal sewage treatment plants creates significant quantities of solid residue for disposal. The potential hazard from these wastes requires that their characteristics be determined accurately to develop environmentally sound management criteria. It is readily recognized that the sludge characteristics vary with the type and degree of industrial activity within a wastewater collection system and that these characteristics play a significant role in determining whether the material has potential for beneficial reuse or if it must be directed to final disposal. This paper offers an overview of past and present practices of sewage sludge disposal, an indication of quantities produced, and experience with beneficial reuse. An estimated range of costs involved, expected environmental effects and potential for continued use is offered for each disposal or reuse system discussed. PMID:738239

  10. Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

    2008-08-31

    Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to significantly reduce the cost to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) of treating the tank wastes by hundreds of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass. An electrochemical salt-splitting process, based on sodium-ion selective ceramic membranes, is being developed to recover and recycle sodium hydroxide from high-salt radioactive tank wastes in DOE’s complex. The ceramic membranes are from a family of materials known as sodium (Na)—super-ionic conductors (NaSICON)—and the diffusion of sodium ions (Na+) is allowed, while blocking other positively charged ions. A cost/benefit evaluation was based on a strategy that involves a separate caustic-recycle facility based on the NaSICON technology, which would be located adjacent to the WTP facility. A Monte Carlo approach was taken, and several thousand scenarios were analyzed to determine likely economic results. The cost/benefit evaluation indicates that 10,000–50,000 metric tons (MT) of sodium could be recycled, and would allow for the reduction of glass production by 60,000–300,000 MT. The cost of the facility construction and operation was scaled to the low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification facility, showing cost would be

  11. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste treatment building system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  12. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus; Riber, Christian; Kamuk, Bettina; Astrup, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    address and include costs in existing waste facilities in decision-making may unintendedly lead to higher overall costs at societal level. To avoid misleading conclusions, economic assessment of alternative SWM solutions should not only consider potential costs associated with alternative treatment but also include marginal costs associated with existing facilities. PMID:26946936

  13. Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building Safety Information Document (SID)

    SciTech Connect

    Fatell, L.B.; Woolsey, G.B.

    1993-04-15

    This Safety Information Document (SID) provides a description and analysis of operations for the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Treatment Building (the Treatment Building). The Treatment Building has been classified as a moderate hazard facility, and the level of analysis performed and the methodology used are based on that classification. Preliminary design of the Treatment Building has identified the need for two separate buildings for waste treatment processes. The term Treatment Building applies to all these facilities. The evaluation of safety for the Treatment Building is accomplished in part by the identification of hazards associated with the facility and the analysis of the facility`s response to postulated events involving those hazards. The events are analyzed in terms of the facility features that minimize the causes of such events, the quantitative determination of the consequences, and the ability of the facility to cope with each event should it occur. The SID presents the methodology, assumptions, and results of the systematic evaluation of hazards associated with operation of the Treatment Building. The SID also addresses the spectrum of postulated credible events, involving those hazards, that could occur. Facility features important to safety are identified and discussed in the SID. The SID identifies hazards and reports the analysis of the spectrum of credible postulated events that can result in the following consequences: Personnel exposure to radiation; Radioactive material release to the environment; Personnel exposure to hazardous chemicals; Hazardous chemical release to the environment; Events leading to an onsite/offsite fatality; and Significant damage to government property. The SID addresses the consequences to the onsite and offsite populations resulting from postulated credible events and the safety features in place to control and mitigate the consequences.

  14. Optimization of a packed bed reactor for liquid waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, C.A.; Brower, M.J.; Coogan, J.J.; Tennant, R.A.

    1993-11-01

    The authors describe an optimization study of a packed bed reactor (PBR), developed for the treatment of hazardous liquid wastes. The focus is on the destruction of trichloroethylene (TCE). The PBR technology offers many distinct advantages over other processes: simple design, high destruction rates (99.99%), low costs, ambient pressure operation, easy maintenance and scaleability. The cost effectiveness, optimal operating parameters and scaleability were determined. As a second stage of treatment, a silent discharge plasma (SDP) reactor was installed to further treat offgases from the PBR. A primary advantage of this system is closed loop operation, where exhaust gases are continuously recycled and not released into the atmosphere.

  15. Implementation of Treatment Systems for Low and Intermediate Radioactive Waste at Site Radwaste Treatment Facility (SRTF), PR China - 12556

    SciTech Connect

    Lohmann, Peter; Nasarek, Ralph; Aign, Joerg

    2012-07-01

    The AP1000 reactors being built in the People's Republic of China require a waste treatment facility to process the low and intermediate radioactive waste produced by these nuclear power stations. Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH was successful in being awarded a contract as to the planning, delivery and commissioning of such a waste treatment facility. The Site Radwaste Treatment Facility (SRTF) is a waste treatment facility that can meet the AP1000 requirements and it will become operational in the near future. The SRTF is situated at the location of Sanmen, People's Republic of China, next to one of the AP1000 and is an adherent building to the AP1000 comprising different waste treatment processes for radioactive spent filter cartridges, ion-exchange resins and radioactive liquid and solid waste. The final product of the SRTF-treatment is a 200 l drum with cemented waste or grouted waste packages for storage in a local storage facility. The systems used in the SRTF are developed for these special requirements, based on experience from similar systems in the German nuclear industry. The main waste treatment systems in the SRTF are: - Filter Cartridge Processing System (FCS); - HVAC-Filter and Solid Waste Treatment Systems (HVS); - Chemical Liquid Treatment Systems (CTS); - Spent Resin Processing Systems (RES); - Mobile Treatment System (MBS). (authors)

  16. Secondary Low-Level Waste Treatment Strategy Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    D.M. LaRue

    1999-05-25

    The objective of this analysis is to identify and review potential options for processing and disposing of the secondary low-level waste (LLW) that will be generated through operation of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). An estimate of annual secondary LLW is generated utilizing the mechanism established in ''Secondary Waste Treatment Analysis'' (Reference 8.1) and ''Secondary Low-Level Waste Generation Rate Analysis'' (Reference 8.5). The secondary LLW quantities are based on the spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) arrival schedule as defined in the ''Controlled Design Assumptions Document'' (CDA) (Reference 8.6). This analysis presents estimates of the quantities of LLW in its various forms. A review of applicable laws, codes, and standards is discussed, and a synopsis of those applicable laws, codes, and standards and their impacts on potential processing and disposal options is presented. The analysis identifies viable processing/disposal options in light of the existing laws, codes, and standards, and then evaluates these options in regard to: (1) Process and equipment requirements; (2) LLW disposal volumes; and (3) Facility requirements.

  17. Treatment of Difficult Wastes with Molten Salt Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P C; Kwak, S

    2003-02-21

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a good alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes such as explosives, low-level mixed waste streams, PCB contaminated oils, spent resins and carbon. Since mid-1990s, the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) have jointly invested in MSO development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL first demonstrated the MSO process for the effective destruction of explosives, explosives-contaminated materials, and other wastes on a 1.5-kg/hr bench-scale unit, and then in an integrated MSO facility capable of treating 8 kg/hr of low-level radioactive mixed wastes. Several MSO systems have been built with sizes up to 10 ft in height and 16 inches in diameter. LLNL in 2001 completed a MSO plant for DAC for the destruction of explosives-contaminated sludge and explosives-contaminated carbon. We will present in this paper our latest demonstration data and our operational experience with MSO.

  18. Characterization of the solid low level mixed waste inventory for the solid waste thermal treatment activity - III

    SciTech Connect

    Place, B.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-24

    The existing thermally treatable, radioactive mixed waste inventory is characterized to support implementation of the commercial, 1214 thermal treatment contract. The existing thermally treatable waste inventory has been identified using a decision matrix developed by Josephson et al. (1996). Similar to earlier waste characterization reports (Place 1993 and 1994), hazardous materials, radionuclides, physical properties, and waste container data are statistically analyzed. In addition, the waste inventory data is analyzed to correlate waste constituent data that are important to the implementation of the commercial thermal treatment contract for obtaining permits and for process design. The specific waste parameters, which were analyzed, include the following: ``dose equivalent`` curie content, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content, identification of containers with PA-related mobile radionuclides (14C, 12 79Se, 99Tc, and U isotopes), tritium content, debris and non-debris content, container free liquid content, fissile isotope content, identification of dangerous waste codes, asbestos containers, high mercury containers, beryllium dust containers, lead containers, overall waste quantities, analysis of container types, and an estimate of the waste compositional split based on the thermal treatment contractor`s proposed process. A qualitative description of the thermally treatable mixed waste inventory is also provided.

  19. Treatment of Organic-Contaminated Mixed Waste Utilizing the Oak Ridge Broad Spectrum Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Estes, C. H.; Heacker, F. K.; Cunningham, J.; Westich, B.

    2003-02-25

    To meet the requirements of the State of Tennessee's Department of Environment and Conservation Commissioner's Order for treatment of mixed low level wastes, Oak Ridge has utilized commercial treatment companies to treat and dispose mixed waste. Over the past year, Oak Ridge has shipped organic-contaminated mixed waste for treatment to meet milestones under the Site Treatment Plan. Oak Ridge has established contracts with commercial treatment companies accessible by all DOE sites for treatment of a wide range of mixed wastes. The paper will describe and summarize the activities involved in treating and disposing of organic-contaminated mixed waste utilizing DOE complex-wide contracts and the treatment and disposal activities required. This paper will describe the case history of treatment of several organic-contaminated mixed wastes from the Oak Ridge Reservation requiring treatment prior to disposal. The paper will include waste category information, implementation activities, and contract access. The paper will discuss the specifics of the mixed waste treatment including waste characteristics, treatment process and equipment utilized, and treatment results. Additional information will be provided on task order development, waste profiling, treatment pricing, and the disposal process.

  20. Karlsruhe Database for Radioactive Wastes (KADABRA) - Accounting and Management System for Radioactive Waste Treatment - 12275

    SciTech Connect

    Himmerkus, Felix; Rittmeyer, Cornelia

    2012-07-01

    The data management system KADABRA was designed according to the purposes of the Cen-tral Decontamination Department (HDB) of the Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs-GmbH (WAK GmbH), which is specialized in the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste. The layout considers the major treatment processes of the HDB as well as regulatory and legal requirements. KADABRA is designed as an SAG ADABAS application on IBM system Z mainframe. The main function of the system is the data management of all processes related to treatment, transfer and storage of radioactive material within HDB. KADABRA records the relevant data concerning radioactive residues, interim products and waste products as well as the production parameters relevant for final disposal. Analytical data from the laboratory and non destructive assay systems, that describe the chemical and radiological properties of residues, production batches, interim products as well as final waste products, can be linked to the respective dataset for documentation and declaration. The system enables the operator to trace the radioactive material through processing and storage. Information on the actual sta-tus of the material as well as radiological data and storage position can be gained immediately on request. A variety of programs accessed to the database allow the generation of individual reports on periodic or special request. KADABRA offers a high security standard and is constantly adapted to the recent requirements of the organization. (authors)

  1. Land treatment field studies. Volume 6. Inorganic pickling liquor waste. Final report Sep 77-Feb 81

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.B.; Bysshe, S.E.; Goodwin, B.E.; Harris, J.C.; Land, D.B.

    1983-07-01

    This report presents the results of field measurements and observations of a land treatment site for the management of an inorganic pickling liquor waste. The waste is spread on the site as a 20% solids sludge. Sulfate and iron are known to be major waste constituents. The organic content of the waste is neglible. The site was sampled twice, and observations were made on the type and amount of waste handled, site characteristics, and management procedures for waste application and monitoring. Organic and inorganic analysis was conducted on the waste and soil/waste mixture; inorganic analysis was performed on plant samples.

  2. Modeling Offgas Systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Frank G., III

    2005-09-02

    To augment steady-state design calculations, dynamic models of three offgas systems that will be used in the Waste Treatment Plant now under construction at the Hanford Site were developed using Aspen Custom Modeler{trademark}. The offgas systems modeled were those for the High Level Waste (HLW) melters, Low Activity Waste (LAW) melters and HLW Pulse Jet Ventilation (PJV) system. The models do not include offgas chemistry but only consider the two major species in the offgas stream which are air and water vapor. This is sufficient to perform material and energy balance calculations that accurately show the dynamic behavior of gas pressure, temperature, humidity and flow throughout the systems. The models are structured to perform pressure drop calculations across the various unit operations using a combination of standard engineering calculations and empirical data based correlations for specific pieces of equipment. The models include process controllers, gas ducting, control valves, exhaust fans and the offgas treatment equipment. The models were successfully used to analyze a large number of operating scenarios including both normal and off-normal conditions.

  3. Fate of metals contained in waste electrical and electronic equipment in a municipal waste treatment process

    SciTech Connect

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Terazono, Atsushi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fate of 55 metals during shredding and separation of WEEE was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most metals were mainly distributed to the small-grain fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Much of metals in WEEE being treated as municipal waste in Japan end up in landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pre-sorting of small digital products reduces metals to be landfilled at some level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Consideration of metal recovery from other middle-sized WEEE is still important. - Abstract: In Japan, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) that is not covered by the recycling laws are treated as municipal solid waste. A part of common metals are recovered during the treatment; however, other metals are rarely recovered and their destinations are not clear. This study investigated the distribution ratios and substance flows of 55 metals contained in WEEE during municipal waste treatment using shredding and separation techniques at a Japanese municipal waste treatment plant. The results revealed that more than half of Cu and most of Al contained in WEEE end up in landfills or dissipate under the current municipal waste treatment system. Among the other metals contained in WEEE, at least 70% of the mass was distributed to the small-grain fraction through the shredding and separation and is to be landfilled. Most kinds of metals were concentrated several fold in the small-grain fraction through the process and therefore the small-grain fraction may be a next target for recovery of metals in terms of both metal content and amount. Separate collection and pre-sorting of small digital products can work as effective way for reducing precious metals and less common metals to be landfilled to some extent; however, much of the total masses of those metals would still end up in landfills and it is also important to consider how to recover and utilize metals contained in other WEEE such as audio

  4. HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE ) GLASSES FOR HANFORDS WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PROJECT)

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; BOWAN BW; JOSEPH I; GAN H; KOT WK; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL

    2010-01-04

    This paper presents the results of glass formulation development and melter testing to identify high waste loading glasses to treat high-Al high level waste (HLW) at Hanford. Previous glass formulations developed for this HLW had high waste loadings but their processing rates were lower that desired. The present work was aimed at improving the glass processing rate while maintaining high waste loadings. Glass formulations were designed, prepared at crucible-scale and characterized to determine their properties relevant to processing and product quality. Glass formulations that met these requirements were screened for melt rates using small-scale tests. The small-scale melt rate screening included vertical gradient furnace (VGF) and direct feed consumption (DFC) melter tests. Based on the results of these tests, modified glass formulations were developed and selected for larger scale melter tests to determine their processing rate. Melter tests were conducted on the DuraMelter 100 (DMIOO) with a melt surface area of 0.11 m{sup 2} and the DuraMelter 1200 (DMI200) HLW Pilot Melter with a melt surface area of 1.2 m{sup 2}. The newly developed glass formulations had waste loadings as high as 50 wt%, with corresponding Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration in the glass of 26.63 wt%. The new glass formulations showed glass production rates as high as 1900 kg/(m{sup 2}.day) under nominal melter operating conditions. The demonstrated glass production rates are much higher than the current requirement of 800 kg/(m{sup 2}.day) and anticipated future enhanced Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) requirement of 1000 kg/(m{sup 2}.day).

  5. Thermal plasma technology for the treatment of wastes: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Gomez, E; Rani, D Amutha; Cheeseman, C R; Deegan, D; Wise, M; Boccaccini, A R

    2009-01-30

    This review describes the current status of waste treatment using thermal plasma technology. A comprehensive analysis of the available scientific and technical literature on waste plasma treatment is presented, including the treatment of a variety of hazardous wastes, such as residues from municipal solid waste incineration, slag and dust from steel production, asbestos-containing wastes, health care wastes and organic liquid wastes. The principles of thermal plasma generation and the technologies available are outlined, together with potential applications for plasma vitrified products. There have been continued advances in the application of plasma technology for waste treatment, and this is now a viable alternative to other potential treatment/disposal options. Regulatory, economic and socio-political drivers are promoting adoption of advanced thermal conversion techniques such as thermal plasma technology and these are expected to become increasingly commercially viable in the future. PMID:18499345

  6. Treatment of oilfield produced water by waste stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Shpiner, R; Vathi, S; Stuckey, D C

    2007-01-01

    Produced water (PW) from oil wells can serve as an alternative water resource for agriculture if the main pollutants (hydrocarbons and heavy metals) can be removed to below irrigation standards. Waste stabilization ponds seem like a promising solution for PW treatment, especially in the Middle East where solar radiation is high and land is available. In this work, hydrocarbon removal from PW in a biological waste stabilization pond was examined at lab-scale followed by an intermittent slow sand filter. The system was run for 300 days and removed around 90% of the oil in the pond, and 95% after the sand filter. COD removal was about 80% in the pond effluent, and 85% after the filter. The system was tested under various operational modes and found to be stable to shock loads. Installation of oil booms and decantation of surface oil seem to be important in order to maintain good system performance over time. PMID:17591220

  7. Energy and nutrient recovery from anaerobic treatment of organic wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrich, Christian-Dominik

    The objective of the research was to develop a complete systems design and predictive model framework of a series of linked processes capable of providing treatment of landfill leachate while simultaneously recovering nutrients and bioenergy from the waste inputs. This proposed process includes an "Ammonia Recovery Process" (ARP) consisting of: (1) ammonia de-sorption requiring leachate pH adjustment with lime or sodium hydroxide addition followed by, (2) ammonia re-absorption into a 6-molar sulfuric acid spray-tower followed by, (3) biological activated sludge treatment of soluble organic residuals (BOD) followed by, (4) high-rate algal post-treatment and finally, (5) an optional anaerobic digestion process for algal and bacterial biomass, and/or supplemental waste fermentation providing the potential for additional nutrient and energy recovery. In addition, the value provided by the waste treatment function of the overall processes, each of the sub-processes would provide valuable co-products offering potential GHG credit through direct fossil-fuel replacement, or replacement of products requiring fossil fuels. These valuable co-products include, (1) ammonium sulfate fertilizer, (2) bacterial biomass, (3) algal biomass providing, high-protein feeds and oils for biodiesel production and, (4) methane bio-fuels. Laboratory and pilot reactors were constructed and operated, providing data supporting the quantification and modeling of the ARP. Growth parameters, and stoichiometric coefficients were determined, allowing for design of the leachate activated sludge treatment sub-component. Laboratory and pilot algal reactors were constructed and operated, and provided data that supported the determination of leachate organic/inorganic-nitrogen ratio, and loading rates, allowing optimum performance of high-rate algal post-treatment. A modular and expandable computer program was developed, which provided a systems model framework capable of predicting individual component

  8. Progress and Lessons Learned in Transuranic Waste Disposition at The Department of Energy's Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Mousseau; S.C. Raish; F.M. Russo

    2006-05-18

    This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and operated by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC(BBWI) It describes the results to date in meeting the 6,000-cubic-meter Idaho Settlement Agreement milestone that was due December 31, 2005. The paper further describes lessons that have been learned from the project in the area of transuranic (TRU) waste processing and waste certification. Information contained within this paper would be beneficial to others who manage TRU waste for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  9. Treatment of dairy waste by using water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Trivedy, R K; Pattanshetty, S M

    2002-01-01

    In the present study treatment of wastewater from a large dairy by using water hyacinth was studied in laboratory experiments. Effects of depth of the system, variations in area coverage, prior settling and of daily renewal of the plants was also studied on the efficacy of hyacinth in treating the dairy waste. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was found to grow exceptionally well in the waste (BOD 840.0 mg/L) and brought down the level of BOD from 840.0 to 121.0 mg/L; COD from 1,160.0 to 164.0 mg/L, total suspended solids from 359.0 mg/L to 245.0 mg/L, TDS from 848.0 mg/L to 352.0 mg/L, total nitrogen from 26.6 mg/L to 8.9 mg/L in 4 days. There was very little reduction, however in calcium, sodium and potassium concentration. Results of different experiments showed that systems with shallow depth were more efficient in removing dissolved solids, suspended solids, BOD, COD, nitrogen and phosphorus. Daily renewal of the plants led to slightly better reduction in suspended and dissolved solids, BOD, COD and nitrogen. Water hyacinth coverage was found to have a direct bearing on the treatment efficiency. Pretreatment (settling) of the waste was also found to be favourable as dissolved oxygen content increased rapidly in the experimental sets with pretreatment. Efficiency of removal of various parameters was also good in these sets. From the study it can be concluded that dairy waste can be effectively treated by water hyacinth. Consideration of above parameters and incorporating them in design factors can greatly increase the efficiency of the system. PMID:12201119

  10. Design of electrochemical processes for treatment of unusual waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    UCRL- JC- 129438 PREPRINT This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor the University of California nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or the University of California. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or the University of California, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. Introduction. An overview of work done on the development of three electrochemical processes that meet the specific needs of low- level waste treatment is presented. These technologies include: mediated electrochemical oxidation [I- 4]; bipolar membrane electrodialysis [5]; and electrosorption of carbon aerogel electrodes [6- 9]. Design strategies are presented to assess the suitability of these electrochemical processes for Mediated electrochemical oxidation. Mixed wastes include both hazardous and radioactive components. It is desirable to reduce the overall volume of the waste before immobilization and disposal in repositories. While incineration is an attractive technique for the destruction of organic fractions of mixed wastes, such high-temperature thermal processes pose the threat of volatilizing various radionuclides. By destroying organics in the aqueous phase at low temperature and ambient pressure, the risk of volatilization can be reduced. One approach that is

  11. 40 CFR 265.383 - Interim status thermal treatment devices burning particular hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interim status thermal treatment devices burning particular hazardous waste. 265.383 Section 265.383 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE,...

  12. STATUS OF EPA/DOE MOU TECHNICAL WORKGROUP ACTIVITIES: HG WASTE TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Land Disposal Restrictions program currently has technology-specific treatment standards for hazardous wastes containing greater than or equal to 260ppm total mercury (Hg) (i.e., high Hg subcategory wastes). The treatment standards specify RMERC for high Hg subcategory wast...

  13. Electrochemical Treatment of Alkaline Nuclear Wastes. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2001-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are two of the major hazardous non-radioactive species present in Hanford and Savannah River (SR) high-level waste (HLW). Electrochemical treatment processes have been developed to remove these species by converting aqueous sodium nitrate/nitrite into sodium hydroxide and chemically reducing the nitrogen species to gaseous ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrogen. Organic complexants and other organic compounds found in waste can be simultaneously oxidized to gaseous carbon dioxide and water, thereby reducing flammability and leaching risks as well as process interferences in subsequent radionuclide separation processes. Competing technologies include thermal, hydrothermal and chemical destruction. Unlike thermal and hydrothermal processes that typically operate at very high temperatures and pressures, electrochemical processes typically operate at low temperatures (<100 C) and atmospheric pressure. Electrochemical processes effect chemical transformations by the addition or removal of electrons and, thus, do not add additional chemicals, as is the case with chemical destruction processes. Hanford and SR have different plans for disposal of the low-activity waste (LAW) that results when radioactive Cs{sup 137} has been removed from the HLW. At SR, the decontaminated salt solution will be disposed in a cement waste form referred to as Saltstone, whereas at Hanford the waste will be vitrified as a borosilicate glass. Destruction of the nitrate and nitrite before disposing the decontaminated salt solution in Saltstone would eliminate possible groundwater contamination that could occur from the leaching of nitrate and nitrite from the cement waste form. Destruction of nitrate and nitrite before vitrification at Hanford would significantly reduce the size of the off-gas system by eliminating the formation of NO{sub x} gases in the melter. Throughout the 1990's, the electrochemical conversion process has been extensively studied at SR, the University of

  14. Life Cycle Assesment of Daugavgriva Waste Water Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romagnoli, F.; Sampaio, F.; Blumberga, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the assessment of the environmental impacts caused by the treatment of Riga's waste water in the Daugavgriva plant with biogas energy cogeneration through the life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA seems to be a good tool to assess and evaluate the most serious environmental impacts of a facility The results showed clearly that the impact category contributing the most to the total impact -eutrophicationcomes from the wastewater treatment stage. Climate change also seems to be a relevant impact coming from the wastewater treatment stage and the main contributor to the Climate change is N2O. The main environmental benefits, in terms of the percentages of the total impact, associated to the use of biogas instead of any other fossil fuel in the cogeneration plant are equal to: 3,11% for abiotic depletation, 1,48% for climate change, 0,51% for acidification and 0,12% for eutrophication.

  15. Stabilization Using Phosphate Bonded Ceramics. Salt Containing Mixed Waste Treatment. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 117

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous mixed waste solids, such as wastewater treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of salts (e.g., nitrates, chlorides, and sulfates) makes traditional treatment of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. One alternative is low-temperature stabilization by chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). The process involves reacting magnesium oxide with monopotassium phosphate with the salt waste to produce a dense monolith. The ceramic makes a strong environmental barrier, and the metals are converted to insoluble, low-leaching phosphate salts. The process has been tested on a variety of surrogates and actual mixed waste streams, including soils, wastewater, flyashes, and crushed debris. It has also been demonstrated at scales ranging from 5 to 55 gallons. In some applications, the CBPC technology provides higher waste loadings and a more durable salt waste form than the baseline method of cementitious grouting. Waste form test specimens were subjected to a variety of performance tests. Results of waste form performance testing concluded that CBPC forms made with salt wastes meet or exceed both RCRA and recommended Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) low-level waste (LLW) disposal criteria. Application of a polymer coating to the CBPC may decrease the leaching of salt anions, but continued waste form evaluations are needed to fully assess the deteriorating effects of this leaching, if any, over time.

  16. Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

    2004-05-01

    Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

  17. Packed bed reactor treatment of liquid hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Tennant, R.A.; Wantuck, P.J.; Vargas, R.

    1992-01-01

    We are developing thermal-based packed bed reactor (PBR) technology as an alternative to incineration for treatment of hazardous organic liquid wastes. The waste streams targeted by this technology are machining fluids contaminated with chlorocarbons and/or chlorofluorocarbons and low levels of plutonium or tritium The PBR offers several distinct advantages including simplistic design, rugged construction, ambient pressure processing, economical operations, as well as ease of scalability and maintainability. In this paper, we provide a description of the apparatus as well as test results using prepared mixtures of machining oils/emulsions with trichloroethylene (TCE), carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), trichloroethane (TCA), and Freon TF. The current treatment system is configured as a two stage device with the PBR (1st stage) coupled to a silent discharge plasma (SDP) cell. The SDP serves as a second stage for further treatment of the gaseous effluent from the PBR. One of the primary advantages of this two stage system is that its suitability for closed loop operation where radioactive components are well contained and even CO{sub 2} is not released to the environment.

  18. Packed bed reactor treatment of liquid hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Tennant, R.A.; Wantuck, P.J.; Vargas, R.

    1992-05-01

    We are developing thermal-based packed bed reactor (PBR) technology as an alternative to incineration for treatment of hazardous organic liquid wastes. The waste streams targeted by this technology are machining fluids contaminated with chlorocarbons and/or chlorofluorocarbons and low levels of plutonium or tritium The PBR offers several distinct advantages including simplistic design, rugged construction, ambient pressure processing, economical operations, as well as ease of scalability and maintainability. In this paper, we provide a description of the apparatus as well as test results using prepared mixtures of machining oils/emulsions with trichloroethylene (TCE), carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), trichloroethane (TCA), and Freon TF. The current treatment system is configured as a two stage device with the PBR (1st stage) coupled to a silent discharge plasma (SDP) cell. The SDP serves as a second stage for further treatment of the gaseous effluent from the PBR. One of the primary advantages of this two stage system is that its suitability for closed loop operation where radioactive components are well contained and even CO{sub 2} is not released to the environment.

  19. Anti-VEGF antibody treatment accelerates polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Raina, Shagun; Honer, Michael; Krämer, Stefanie D; Liu, Yang; Wang, Xueqi; Segerer, Stephan; Wüthrich, Rudolf P; Serra, Andreas L

    2011-10-01

    Polycystic kidney growth implies expansion of the vasculature, suggesting that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-dependent processes play a critical role and that VEGF is a putative therapeutic target. Whether an anti-VEGF antibody improves renal cystic disease has not been determined. We administrated 5 mg/kg B20.4.1, an anti-VEGF-A antibody, or vehicle intraperitoneally twice weekly to 4-wk-old male normal (+/+) and cystic (Cy/+) Han:SPRD rats for 6 wk. Renal function, urinary protein excretion, organ/body weight ratios, cyst volume, tubular epithelial cell (TEC) proliferation, renal VEGF, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and -2α expression, renal histology, and kidney hypoxia visualized by [(18)F]fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography were assessed. The treated compared with untreated +/+ rats had lower TEC proliferation rates, whereas Cy/+ rats receiving B20.4.1 displayed an increased proximal TEC proliferation rate, causing enhanced cyst and kidney growth. The +/+ and Cy/+ rats receiving B20.4.1 had severe renal failure and extensive glomerular damage. Proteinuria, which was highest in anti-VEGF-treated Cy/+ and lowest in untreated normal littermates, was positively correlated with renal HIF-1α and negatively correlated with VEGF expression. The untreated Cy/+ vs. +/+ rats had higher overall [(18)F]fluoromisonidazole uptake. The +/+ rats receiving B20.4.1 vs. untreated had increased [(18)F]fluoromisonidazole uptake, whereas the uptake was unchanged among treated vs. untreated Cy/+ animals. In conclusion, B20.4.1 caused an exaggerated cystic response of the proximal tubules in cystic rats and severe kidney injury that was associated with low renal VEGF and high HIF-1α levels. Anti-VEGF drug therapy may therefore not be a treatment option for polycystic kidney disease. PMID:21677148

  20. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF COMBINED POTATO PROCESSING AND MUNICIPAL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Demonstration and evaluation of the treatment of combined potato processing waste-water and domestic wastes using various combinations of anaerobic and aerated lagoons. Measured parameters included: BOD, COD, TSS, VSS, nitrogen, phosphorus, volatile acids, total coliform, fecal c...

  1. Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.

    2006-05-26

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

  2. [The treatment of wastes from antibiotic manufacture by using pyrolusite].

    PubMed

    Faĭngol'd, Z L; Zav'ialova, E V; Karpukhin, V F; Agafonova, V A

    1987-11-01

    Data on laboratory studies with real liquid sewage from antibiotic manufacture are presented. Two schemes are discussed: treatment of the sewage in an electrolysis plant followed by its afterpurification either in a column with pyrolusite or during a joint process of electrochemical purification with catalyst location on the plant bottom under the electrodes. The afterpurification of electrochemically treated liquid sewage on waste pyrolusite can provide and additional effect i.e. lower consumption of oxygen and decoloration at average by 15 and 25 per cent respectively. PMID:3439788

  3. Shielding design of a treatment room for an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.F.; Blue, T.E.

    1995-12-31

    For several years, research has been ongoing in the Ohio State University (OSU) Nuclear Engineering Program toward the development of an accelerator-based irradiation facility (ANIF) neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The ANIF, which is planned to be built in a hospital, has been conceptually designed and analyzed. After Qu, an OSU researcher, determined that the shielding design of a 6-MV X-ray treatment room was inadequate to protect personnel from an accelerator neutron source operating at 30 mA, we decided to analyze and determine the shielding requirements of a treatment room for an ANIF. We determined the amount of shielding that would be sufficient to protect facility personnel from excessive radiation exposure caused by operation of the accelerator at 30 mA.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from mechanical and biological waste treatment of municipal waste.

    PubMed

    Clemens, J; Cuhls, C

    2003-06-01

    The mechanical and biological waste treatment (MBT) is an increasingly important technology for the treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) before landfilling. This process includes composting of the material with intensive aeration in order to minimize the organic fraction that may induce methane and leachate emissions after landfilling. The exhaust air is treated by biofilters to remove odorous and volatile organic compounds. The emission of direct and indirect greenhouse gases, namely methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) was studied in four existing treatment plants. All gases except NO were emitted from the composting material. The emission factors were 12 to 185 kg ton(-1) substrate for CO2, 6-12 x 10(3) g ton(-1) substrate for CH4, 1.44 to 378 g ton(-1) substrate for N2O and 18-1150 g ton(-1) for NH3. In general, emission factors increased with increasing treatment time. The biofilters had no net effect on CH4, but removed 13-89% of the NH3. For CO2 the biofilters were a small, for N2O a major and for NO the exclusive source. Approximately 26% of the NH3-N that was removed in the biofilter was transformed into N2O when NH3 was the exclusive nitrogen source. Assuming that all municipal waste was treated by MBT, the emissions would account for 0.3 to 5% of the N2O and for 0.1 to 3% of the CH4 emissions in Germany, respectively. Optimising aeration and removing NH3 before the exhaust gas enters the biofilter could lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:12868530

  5. Dynamics of industrial waste stabilization pond treatment process.

    PubMed

    Veeresh, Mangala; Veeresh, A V; Huddar, Basvaraj D; Hosetti, Basaling B

    2010-10-01

    Waste stabilization pond is an artificial ecosystem; its performance is governed by the nature of the biological communities it supports. These are primarily used as secondary effluent treatment plants to polish the effluents. However, they are also used to treat the raw sewage and industrial effluents. In the present study, the functioning of a waste stabilization pond system from an industrial complex located in Goa was taken up. The raw waste released by the industrial complex and the final effluent released from the stabilization ponds were analyzed for pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand, phosphate content, chlorophyll content, and algal diversity and density. Also, the activities of the enzymes catalase and phosphatase were measured. The study was carried out for a period of 1 year and the data covering pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons are tabulated. The study revealed that DO, chlorophyll content, and algal count were maximum during pre-monsoon when compared to monsoon and post-monsoon. Similarly, maximum enzymatic activity was recorded during pre-monsoon and also maximum removal of biological oxygen demand and phosphate was recorded during this period than in monsoon and post-monsoon. PMID:19731057

  6. Thermal treatment of medical waste in a rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Bujak, J

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of an experimental system with thermal treatment (incineration) of medical waste conducted at a large complex of hospital facilities. The studies were conducted for a period of one month. The processing system was analysed in terms of the energy, environmental and economic aspects. A rotary combustion chamber was designed and built with the strictly assumed length to inner diameter ratio of 4:1. In terms of energy, the temperature distribution was tested in the rotary kiln, secondary combustion (afterburner) chamber and heat recovery system. Calorific value of medical waste was 25.0 MJ/kg and the thermal efficiency of the entire system equalled 66.8%. Next, measurements of the pollutant emissions into the atmosphere were performed. Due to the nature of the disposed waste, particular attention was paid to the one-minute average values of carbon oxide and volatile organic compounds as well as hydrochloride, hydrogen fluoride, sulphur dioxide and total dust. Maximum content of non-oxidized organic compounds in slag and bottom ash were also verified during the analyses. The best rotary speed for the combustion chamber was selected to obtain proper afterburning of the bottom slag. Total organic carbon content was 2.9%. The test results were used to determine the basic economic indicators of the test system for evaluating the profitability of its construction. Simple payback time (SPB) for capital expenditures on the implementation of the project was 4 years. PMID:26241929

  7. Quantifying capital goods for biological treatment of organic waste.

    PubMed

    Brogaard, Line K; Petersen, Per H; Nielsen, Peter D; Christensen, Thomas H

    2015-02-01

    Materials and energy used for construction of anaerobic digestion (AD) and windrow composting plants were quantified in detail. The two technologies were quantified in collaboration with consultants and producers of the parts used to construct the plants. The composting plants were quantified based on the different sizes for the three different types of waste (garden and park waste, food waste and sludge from wastewater treatment) in amounts of 10,000 or 50,000 tonnes per year. The AD plant was quantified for a capacity of 80,000 tonnes per year. Concrete and steel for the tanks were the main materials for the AD plant. For the composting plants, gravel and concrete slabs for the pavement were used in large amounts. To frame the quantification, environmental impact assessments (EIAs) showed that the steel used for tanks at the AD plant and the concrete slabs at the composting plants made the highest contribution to Global Warming. The total impact on Global Warming from the capital goods compared to the operation reported in the literature on the AD plant showed an insignificant contribution of 1-2%. For the composting plants, the capital goods accounted for 10-22% of the total impact on Global Warming from composting. PMID:25595291

  8. Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin; Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles

    2012-07-01

    Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

  9. Assessment of incineration and melting treatment technologies for RWMC buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Geimer, R.; Hertzler, T.; Gillins, R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report provides an identification, description, and ranking evaluation of the available thermal treatment technologies potentially capable of treating the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried mixed waste. The ranking evaluation focused separately upon incinerators for treatment of combustible wastes and melters for noncombustible wastes. The highest rank incinerators are rotary kilns and controlled air furnaces, while the highest rank melters are the hearth configuration plasma torch, graphite electrode arc, and joule-heated melters. 4 refs.

  10. Waste treatment: Beverage industry. (Latest citations from Food Science & Technology Abstracts (FSTA)). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment in the alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverage industries. Brewery effluent and wastewater management and disposal are reviewed. References cover aerobic treatment, sources of effluents, waste reduction, waste fermentation, effluent purification, and cost-effectiveness evaluation. The use of wastes for biogas production and for building material manufacture is examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Microbial treatment of sulfur-contaminated industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ramírez, Marlenne; Zarco-Tovar, Karina; Aburto, Jorge; de León, Roberto García; Rojas-Avelizapa, Norma G

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the microbial removal of sulfur from a solid industrial waste in liquid culture under laboratory conditions. The study involved the use of two bacteria Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53987 and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans AZCT-M125-5 isolated from a Mexican soil. Experimentation for industrial waste biotreatment was done in liquid culture using 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 30 mL Starkey modified culture medium and incubated at 30°C during 7 days. The industrial waste was added at different pulp densities (8.25-100% w/v) corresponding to different sulfur contents from 0.7 to 8.63% (w/w). Sulfur-oxidizing activity of the strain AZCT-M125-5 produced 281 and 262 mg/g of sulfate and a sulfur removal of 60% and 45.7% when the pulp density was set at 8.25 and 16.5% (w/v), respectively. In comparison, the strain A. ferrooxidans ATCC 53987 showed a lower sulfur-oxidizing activity with a sulfate production of 25.6 and 12.7 mg/g and a sulfur removal of 6% and 2.5% at the same pulp densities, respectively. Microbial growth was limited by pulp densities higher than 25% (w/v) of industrial waste with minimal sulfur-oxidizing activity and sulfur removal. The rate of sulfur removal for Acidithiobacillus thioxidans AZCT-M125-5 and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53987 was 0.185 and 0.0159 mg S g(-1) h(-1) with a pulp density of 16.5% (w/v), respectively. This study demonstrated that Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans AZCT-M125-5 possesses a high sulfur-oxidizing activity, even at high sulfur concentration, which allows the treatment of hazardous materials. PMID:24171423

  12. Successful Waste Treatment Methods at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Rast, D.M.; Thompson, J.J.; Cooper, T.W.; Stockham, D.J

    2007-07-01

    During the remediation of the waste landfills at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico nine drums of mock high explosives were generated. This mixed waste stream was proposed to several offsite vendors for treatment and prices ranged from $2.50 to $10 per gram a total cost estimated to be in excess of $2 million dollars. This cost represents more than 30 percent of the annual budget for the Sandia Waste Management Operations. Concentrated solutions of common oxidizers, such as nitrates, nitrites, and peroxides, will also act as oxidizers and will give positive results in the Hazard Categorization oxidizer test. These solutions carry an EPA Hazardous Waste Number D001, Ignitable Waste, and Oxidizer as defined in 49 CFR 173.151. Sandia decided that given budget and time constraints to meet a Federal Facilities Compliance Act milestone, a process for onsite treatment should be evaluated. Clean samples of mock high explosive materials were obtained from Pantex excess inventory and treatability studies initiated to develop a treatment formula and process. The following process was developed and implemented in the summer of 2006: - Size reduction to allow for dissolution of the barium nitrate in water; - Dissolution of the Mock HE in water; - Deactivation of the oxidizer; - Stabilization of the barium and the cadmium contamination present as an underlying hazardous constituent. This project was completed and the treatment milestone achieved for less than $300,000. The Disassembly Sanitization Operation (DSO) is a process that was implemented to support weapon disassembly and disposition using recycling and waste minimization while achieving the demilitarization mission. The Department of Energy is faced with disassembling and disposition of a huge inventory of retired weapons, components, training equipment, spare parts, and weapon maintenance equipment. Environmental regulations have caused a dramatic increase for information needed to support the

  13. On-Line Learning Modules For Waste Treatment, Waste Disposal and Waste Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Soos, Lubomir; Brokes, Peter

    2011-12-01

    This contribution is devoted to the development of an advanced vocational education and training system for professionals working in (or intending to enter) the waste management industry realized through the Leonardo project WASTRE. The consortium of the Project WASTRE includes 3 well known Technical Universities in Central Europe (TU Vienna, CVUT Prague and STU Bratislava). The project implements new didactical tools from projects EDUET, ELEVATE, RESNET and MENUET developed by MultiMedia SunShine, headed by Prof. Paul Callaghan for this education and training system. This system will be tested within courses organized by at least 3 institutions of vocational education and training: the Technical and vocational secondary school Tlmace, CHEWCON Humenne and the Union of Chambers of Craftsmen and Tradesmen of ESKISEHIR. The faculty of Mechanical Engineering (FME) of STU will coordinate the project WASTRE and will participate in the preparation of e-learning materials, organization of the courses and in the design of syllabuses, curricula, assessment and evaluation methods for the courses, the testing of developed learning materials, evaluating experiences from a pilot course and developing the e-learning materials according to the needs of end-users.

  14. Croatian refiner meets waste water treatment standards, reduces fines

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, A.L.; Nikolic, O.

    1995-11-27

    A new approach to waste water treatment at a refinery in Croatia produces effluent that not only meets the region`s regulations for disposal into the Adriatic Sea, but also surpasses the refinery`s specifications for recycling process water. Key to the dramatic reduction in pollutants was the installation of a Sandfloat unit developed by Krofta Engineering Corp. The Sandfloat unit is a dissolved air flotation clarifier that combines flocculation, flotation, and multilayer filtration to produce high-quality effluent. In fact, the effluent from the unit has a lower hydrocarbon concentration than water from the underground wells that supply process water to the refinery. While similar systems have been used for decades in industrial applications, this is the first time a Sandfloat unit has been installed in an oil refinery. The article describes the problem, refinery operations, treatment costs, and effluent recycling.

  15. Tank waste remediation system optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility.

  16. Thermophilic slurry-phase treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon waste sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldi, F.J.; Bombaugh, K.J.; McFarland, B.

    1995-12-31

    Chemoheterotrophic thermophilic bacteria were used to achieve enhanced hydrocarbon degradation during slurry-phase treatment of oily waste sludges from petroleum refinery operations. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were examined under thermophilic conditions to assess the effects of mode of metabolism on the potential for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. The study determined that both aerobic and anaerobic thermophilic bacteria are capable of growth on petroleum hydrocarbons. Thermophilic methanogenesis is feasible during the degradation of hydrocarbons when a strict anaerobic condition is achieved in a slurry bioreactor. Aerobic thermophilic bacteria achieved the largest apparent reduction in chemical oxygen demand, freon extractable oil, total and volatile solid,s and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when treating oily waste sludges. The observed shift with time in the molecular weight distribution of hydrocarbon material was more pronounced under aerobic metabolic conditions than under strict anaerobic conditions. The changes in the hydrocarbon molecular weight distribution, infrared spectra, and PAH concentrations during slurry-phase treatment indicate that the aerobic thermophilic bioslurry achieved a higher degree of hydrocarbon degradation than the anaerobic thermophilic bioslurry during the same time period.

  17. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit GFSI Risk Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    W. A. Owca

    2007-06-21

    This GFSI Risk Management Plan (RMP) describes the strategy for assessing and managing project risks for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that are specifically within the control and purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and identifies the risks that formed the basis for the DOE contingency included in the performance baseline. DOE-held contingency is required to cover cost and schedule impacts of DOE activities. Prior to approval of the performance baseline (Critical Decision-2) project cost contingency was evaluated during a joint meeting of the Contractor Management Team and the Integrated Project Team for both contractor and DOE risks to schedule and cost. At that time, the contractor cost and schedule risk value was $41.3M and the DOE cost and schedule risk contingency value is $39.0M. The contractor cost and schedule risk value of $41.3M was retained in the performance baseline as the contractor's management reserve for risk contingency. The DOE cost and schedule risk value of $39.0M has been retained in the performance baseline as the DOE Contingency. The performance baseline for the project was approved in December 2006 (Garman 2006). The project will continue to manage to the performance baseline and change control thresholds identified in PLN-1963, ''Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Project Execution Plan'' (PEP).

  18. Biological waste-water treatment of azo dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Shaul, G.M.; Dempsey, C.R.; Dostal, K.A.

    1988-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Toxic Substances evaluates existing chemicals under Section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and Premanufacture Notification (PMN) submissions under Section 5 of TSCA. Azo dyes constitute a significant portion of these PMN submissions and specific azo dyes have recently been added to the priority list for considerations in the development of test rules under Section 4. Azo dyes are of concern because some of the dyes, dye precurors, and/or their degradation products such as aromatic amines (which are also dye precurors) have been shown to be, or are suspected to be, carcinogenic. The fate of azo dyes in biological waste-water treatment systems was studied to aid in the review of PMN submissions and to assist in the possible development of test rules. Results from extensive pilot-scale activated-sludge process testing for 18 azo dyes are presented. Results from fate studies of C.I. Disperse Blue 79 in aerobic and anaerobic waste-water treatment will also be presented.

  19. Hanford Waste Simulants Created to Support the Research and Development on the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R.E.

    2001-07-26

    The development of nonradioactive waste simulants to support the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant bench and pilot-scale testing is crucial to the design of the facility. The report documents the simulants development to support the SRTC programs and the strategies used to produce the simulants.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULK VITRIFICATION TREATMENT PROCESS FOR THE LOW ACTIVITY FRACTION OF HANFORD SINGLE SHELL TANK WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.E.; Lowery, P.S.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; Snyder, T.; McElroy, J.L.

    2003-02-27

    AMEC Earth & Environmental, Inc. and RWE NUKEM Corporation have teamed to develop and apply a waste pre-treatment and bulk vitrification process for low activity waste (LAW) from Hanford Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). The pretreatment and bulk vitrification process utilizes technologies that have been successfully deployed to remediate both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes at nuclear power plants, DOE sites, and commercial waste sites in the US and abroad. The process represents an integrated systems approach. The proposed AMEC/NUKEM process follow the extraction and initial segregation activities applied to the tank wastes carried out by others. The first stage of the process will utilize NUKEM's concentrate dryer (CD) system to concentrate the liquid waste stream. The concentrate will then be mixed with soil or glass formers and loaded into refractory-lined steel containers for bulk vitrification treatment using AMEC's In-Container Vitrification (ICV) process. Following the vitrification step, a lid will be placed on the container of cooled, solidified vitrified waste, and the container transported to the disposal site. The container serves as the melter vessel, the transport container and the disposal container. AMEC and NUKEM participated in the Mission Acceleration Initiative Workshop held in Richland, Washington in April 2000 [1]. An objective of the workshop was to identify selected technologies that could be combined into viable treatment options for treatment of the LAW fraction from selected Hanford waste tanks. AMEC's ICV process combined with NUKEM's CD system and other remote operating capabilities were presented as an integrated solution. The Team's proposed process received some of the highest ratings from the Workshop's review panel. The proposed approach compliments the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) by reducing the amount of waste that the WTP would have to process. When combined with the capabilities of the WTP, the proposed approach

  1. Advanced Off-Gas Control System Design For Radioactive And Mixed Waste Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg

    2005-09-01

    Treatment of radioactive and mixed wastes is often required to destroy or immobilize hazardous constituents, reduce waste volume, and convert the waste to a form suitable for final disposal. These kinds of treatments usually evolve off-gas. Air emission regulations have become increasingly stringent in recent years. Mixed waste thermal treatment in the United States is now generally regulated under the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. These standards impose unprecedented requirements for operation, monitoring and control, and emissions control. Off-gas control technologies and system designs that were satisfactorily proven in mixed waste operation prior to the implementation of new regulatory standards are in some cases no longer suitable in new mixed waste treatment system designs. Some mixed waste treatment facilities have been shut down rather than have excessively restrictive feed rate limits or facility upgrades to comply with the new standards. New mixed waste treatment facilities in the U. S. are being designed to operate in compliance with the HWC MACT standards. Activities have been underway for the past 10 years at the INL and elsewhere to identify, develop, demonstrate, and design technologies for enabling HWC MACT compliance for mixed waste treatment facilities. Some specific off-gas control technologies and system designs have been identified and tested to show that even the stringent HWC MACT standards can be met, while minimizing treatment facility size and cost.

  2. MOBILITY AND DEGRADATION OF RESIDUES AT HAZARDOUS WASTE LAND TREATMENT SITES AT CLOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil treatment systems that are designed and managed based on a knowledge of soil-waste interactions may represent a significant technology for simultaneous treatment and ultimate disposal of selected hazardous wastes in an environmentally acceptable manner. hese soil treatment s...

  3. Solar enhanced wastewater treatment in waste stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Agunwamba, J C; Utsev, J T; Okonkwo, W I

    2009-05-01

    One of the most popular off-site wastewater treatment plants used in the tropics is the waste stabilization pond (WSP). Although it has several advantages, its use in urban areas is limited because of its large land area requirement. Hence, this research is aimed at investigating if a solar-enhanced WSP (SEWSP) can increase treatment efficiency and consequently reduce the land area requirement. The SEWSPs of varying sizes, made of a metallic tank with inlet and outlet valves and a solar reflector, were constructed to increase the incident sunlight intensity. Wastewater samples collected from the inlet and outlet of the SEWSPs were examined for physio-chemical and biological characteristics for a period of 2 months. The parameters examined were total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), coliform, and Escherichia coli. The efficiencies of the SEWSPs, with respect to these parameters, fluctuated with temperature variation, with the shallowest SEWSP giving the highest treatment efficiency. The research revealed that the cost of treating wastewater using SEWSPs was approximately 2 times lower than the conventional WSP for the same treatment efficiencies. PMID:19472946

  4. Biofilm treatment of soil for waste containment and remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.P.; Dennis, M.L.; Osman, Y.A.; Chase, J.; Bulla, L.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper examines the potential for creating low-permeability reactive barriers for waste treatment and containment by treating soils with Beijerinckia indica, a bacterium which produces an exopolysaccharide film. The biofilm adheres to soil particles and causes a decrease in soil hydraulic conductivity. In addition, B. Indica biodegrades a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chemical carcinogens. The combination of low soil hydraulic conductivity and biodegradation capabilities creates the potential for constructing reactive biofilm barriers from soil and bacteria. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of B. Indica on the hydraulic conductivity of a silty sand. Soil specimens were molded with a bacterial and nutrient solution, compacted at optimum moisture content, permeated with a nutrient solution, and tested for k{sub sat} using a flexible-wall permeameter. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (k{sub sat}) was reduced from 1 x 10{sup -5} cm/sec to 2 x 10{sup -8} cm/sec: by biofilm treatment. Permeation with saline, acidic, and basic solutions following formation of a biofilm was found to have negligible effect on the reduced k{sub sat}, for up to three pore volumes of flow. Applications of biofilm treatment for creating low-permeability reactive barriers are discussed, including compacted liners for bottom barriers and caps and creation of vertical barriers by in situ treatment.

  5. Advanced treatment planning methods for efficient radiation therapy with laser accelerated proton and ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, Stefan; Wilkens, Jan J.

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: Laser plasma acceleration can potentially replace large and expensive cyclotrons or synchrotrons for radiotherapy with protons and ions. On the way toward a clinical implementation, various challenges such as the maximum obtainable energy still remain to be solved. In any case, laser accelerated particles exhibit differences compared to particles from conventional accelerators. They typically have a wide energy spread and the beam is extremely pulsed (i.e., quantized) due to the pulsed nature of the employed lasers. The energy spread leads to depth dose curves that do not show a pristine Bragg peak but a wide high dose area, making precise radiotherapy impossible without an additional energy selection system. Problems with the beam quantization include the limited repetition rate and the number of accelerated particles per laser shot. This number might be too low, which requires a high repetition rate, or it might be too high, which requires an additional fluence selection system to reduce the number of particles. Trying to use laser accelerated particles in a conventional way such as spot scanning leads to long treatment times and a high amount of secondary radiation produced when blocking unwanted particles. Methods: The authors present methods of beam delivery and treatment planning that are specifically adapted to laser accelerated particles. In general, it is not necessary to fully utilize the energy selection system to create monoenergetic beams for the whole treatment plan. Instead, within wide parts of the target volume, beams with broader energy spectra can be used to simultaneously cover multiple axially adjacent spots of a conventional dose delivery grid as applied in intensity modulated particle therapy. If one laser shot produces too many particles, they can be distributed over a wider area with the help of a scattering foil and a multileaf collimator to cover multiple lateral spot positions at the same time. These methods are called axial and

  6. MINERALIZING, STEAM REFORMING TREATMENT OF HANFORD LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE (a.k.a. INEEL/EXT-05-02526)

    SciTech Connect

    A. L. Olson; N. R. Soelberg; D. W. Marshall; G. L. Anderson

    2005-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented, in 2002, a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization.'' The plan identified steam reforming technology as a candidate for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was completed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel. The pilot scale facility was equipped with a cyclone separator and heated sintered metal filters for particulate removal, a thermal oxidizer for reduced gas species and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for residual volatile species capture. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, but located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Pilot scale testing was performed August 2–5, 2004. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Science Application International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, personnel performed actual pilot scale operation. The pilot scale test achieved a total of 68.4 hours of cumulative/continuous processing operation before termination in response to a bed de-fluidization condition. 178 kg of LAW surrogate were processed that resulted in 148 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 17%. The process achieved

  7. Evaluation of prospective hazardous waste treatment technologies for use in processing low-level mixed wastes at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    McGlochlin, S.C.; Harder, R.V.; Jensen, R.T.; Pettis, S.A.; Roggenthen, D.K.

    1990-09-18

    Several technologies for destroying or decontaminating hazardous wastes were evaluated (during early 1988) as potential processes for treating low-level mixed wastes destined for destruction in the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. The processes that showed promise were retained for further consideration and placed into one (or more) of three categories based on projected availability: short, intermediate, and long-term. Three potential short-term options were identified for managing low-level mixed wastes generated or stored at the Rocky Flats Plant (operated by Rockwell International in 1988). These options are: (1) Continue storing at Rocky Flats, (2) Ship to Nevada Test Site for landfill disposal, or (3) Ship to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for incineration in the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility. The third option is preferable because the wastes will be destroyed. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has received interim status for processing solid and liquid low-level mixed wastes. However, low-level mixed wastes will continue to be stored at Rocky Flats until the Department of Energy approval is received to ship to the Nevada Test Site or Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Potential intermediate and long-term processes were identified; however, these processes should be combined into complete waste treatment systems'' that may serve as alternatives to the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Waste treatment systems will be the subject of later work. 59 refs., 2 figs.

  8. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT FOR HANFORD'S LOW ACTIVITY WASTE AND SECONDARY WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-02-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides

  9. Plasma-chemical waste treatment of acid gases

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Daniels, E.J.

    1993-09-01

    The research to date has shown that a H{sub 2}S waste-treatment process based on plasma-chemical dissociation technology is compatible with refinery and high-carbon-oxide acid-gas streams. The minor amounts of impurities produced in the plasma-chemical reactor should be treatable by an internal catalytic reduction step. Furthermore, the plasma-chemical technology appears to be more efficient and more economical than the current technology. The principal key to achieving high conversions with relatively low energies of dissociation is the concept of the high-velocity, cyclonic-flow pattern in the plasma reaction zone coupled with the recycling of unconverted hydrogen sulfide. Future work will include testing the effects of components that might be carried over to the plasma reactor by ``upset`` conditions in the amine purification system of a plant and testing the plasma-chemical process on other industrial wastes streams that contain potentially valuable chemical reagents. The strategy for the commercialization of this technology is to form a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Institute of Hydrogen Energy and Plasma Technology of the Russian Scientific Center/Kurchatov Institute and with an American start-up company to develop an ``American`` version of the process and to build a commercial-scale demonstration unit in the United States. The timetable proposed would involve building a ``field test`` facility which would test the plasma-chemical reactor and sulfur recovery unit operations on an industrial hydrogen sulfide waste s at a scale large enough to obtain the energy and material balance data required for a final analysis of the commercial potential of this technology. The field test would then be followed by construction of a commercial demonstration unit in two to three years. The commercial demonstration unit would be a fully integrated plant consisting of one commercial-scale module.

  10. Study on the behavior of heavy metals during thermal treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) components.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Sun, Lushi; Wang, Ben; Qiao, Yu; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Yao, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the volatilization behavior of heavy metals during pyrolysis and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) components at different heating rates and temperatures. The waste fractions comprised waste paper (Paper), disposable chopstick (DC), garbage bag (GB), PVC plastic (PVC), and waste tire (Tire). Generally, the release trend of heavy metals from all MSW fractions in rapid-heating combustion was superior to that in low-heating combustion. Due to the different characteristics of MSW fractions, the behavior of heavy metals varied. Cd exhibited higher volatility than the rest of heavy metals. For Paper, DC, and PVC, the vaporization of Cd can reach as high as 75% at 500 °C in the rapid-heating combustion due to violent combustion, whereas a gradual increase was observed for Tire and GB. Zn and Pb showed a moderate volatilization in rapid-heating combustion, but their volatilities were depressed in slow-heating combustion. During thermal treatment, the additives such as kaolin and calcium can react or adsorb Pb and Zn forming stable metal compounds, thus decreasing their volatilities. The formation of stable compounds can be strengthened in slow-heating combustion. The volatility of Cu was comparatively low in both high and slow-heating combustion partially due to the existence of Al, Si, or Fe in residuals. Generally, in the reducing atmosphere, the volatility of Cd, Pb, and Zn was accelerated for Paper, DC, GB, and Tire due to the formation of elemental metal vapor. TG analysis also showed the reduction of metal oxides by chars forming elemental metal vapor. Cu2S was the dominant Cu species in reducing atmosphere below 900 °C, which was responsible for the low volatility of Cu. The addition of PVC in wastes may enhance the release of heavy metals, while GB and Tire may play an opposite effect. In controlling heavy metal emission, aluminosilicate- and calcium-based sorbents can be co-treated with fuels. Moreover

  11. State-of-the-art report on low-level radioactive waste treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibbey, A. H.; Godbee, H. W.

    1980-09-01

    An attempt is made to identify the main sources of low-level radioactive wastes that are generated in the United States. To place the waste problem in perspective, rough estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of waste that is generated. Most of the wet solid wastes arise from the cleanup of gaseous and liquid radioactive streams prior to discharge or recycle. The treatment of the process streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described for each type of government or fuel cycle installation. Similarly, the institutional wet wastes are also described. The dry wastes from all sources have similar physical and chemical characteristics in that they can be classified as compactible, noncompactible, combustible, noncombustible, or combinations thereof. The various treatment options for concentrated or solid wet wastes and for dry wastes are discussed. The treatment of radioactive medical and bioresearch wastes is described. Recovery of waste metals and treatment of hazardous contaminated wastes are discussed briefly.

  12. 40 CFR 268.41 - Treatment standards expressed as concentrations in waste extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... concentrations in waste extract. 268.41 Section 268.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... standards expressed as concentrations in waste extract. For the requirements previously found in this section and for treatment standards in Table CCWE—Constituent Concentrations in Waste Extracts, refer...

  13. 40 CFR 268.41 - Treatment standards expressed as concentrations in waste extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... concentrations in waste extract. 268.41 Section 268.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... standards expressed as concentrations in waste extract. For the requirements previously found in this section and for treatment standards in Table CCWE—Constituent Concentrations in Waste Extracts, refer...

  14. 40 CFR 268.41 - Treatment standards expressed as concentrations in waste extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... concentrations in waste extract. 268.41 Section 268.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... standards expressed as concentrations in waste extract. For the requirements previously found in this section and for treatment standards in Table CCWE—Constituent Concentrations in Waste Extracts, refer...

  15. 40 CFR 268.41 - Treatment standards expressed as concentrations in waste extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... concentrations in waste extract. 268.41 Section 268.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... standards expressed as concentrations in waste extract. For the requirements previously found in this section and for treatment standards in Table CCWE—Constituent Concentrations in Waste Extracts, refer...

  16. 40 CFR 268.41 - Treatment standards expressed as concentrations in waste extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concentrations in waste extract. 268.41 Section 268.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... standards expressed as concentrations in waste extract. For the requirements previously found in this section and for treatment standards in Table CCWE—Constituent Concentrations in Waste Extracts, refer...

  17. Waste Management, Treatment, and Disposal for the Food Processing Industry. Special Circular 113.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This publication contains information relating to waste prevention, treatment and disposal, and waste product utilization. Its primary purpose is to provide information that will help the food industry executive recognize waste problems and make wise management decisions. The discussion of the methods, techniques, and the state-of-the-art is…

  18. Thermal treatment of harzardous waste for heavy metal recovery.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Gaston; Schirmer, Matthias; Bilitewski, Bernd; Kaszás Savos, Melania

    2007-07-16

    In this study, a new method for recovering heavy metals from hazardous waste is introduced. The process is characterized by a separation of heavy metals and residues during the thermal treatment under a sub-stoichiometric atmosphere in a rotary kiln. After leaving the rotary kiln the separated heavy metals are precipitated in a hot gas ceramic filter. Using this technology, hazardous materials, both liquids and pasty hazardous waste containing heavy metals, can be treated and a product with a quasi-raw material condition can be formed. In contrast to current methods,the harmful substances should not be immobilized and disposed. In fact, a saleable product highly concentrated with heavy metals should be formed. During preliminary investigations with a solution containing sodium chromate tetrahydrate, the process was tested in a pilot plant. Here,the separation of chromium could be demonstrated with leaching tests and characterization of the filter dust. Analysis concerning the disposability of the residues had not been carried out because only the process and the characteristic of the filter dust were in the centre of attention. PMID:17691119

  19. Preliminary analysis of treatment strategies for transuranic wastes from reprocessing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Schneider, K.J.; Swanson, J.L.; Yasutake, K.M.; Allen, R.P.

    1985-07-01

    This document provides a comparison of six treatment options for transuranic wastes (TRUW) resulting from the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel. Projected transuranic waste streams from the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP), the reference fuel reprocessing plant in this report, were grouped into the five categories of hulls and hardware, failed equipment, filters, fluorinator solids, and general process trash (GPT) and sample and analytical cell (SAC) wastes. Six potential treatment options were selected for the five categories of waste. These options represent six basic treatment objectives: (1) no treatment, (2) minimum treatment (compaction), (3) minimum number of processes and products (cementing or grouting), (4) maximum volume reduction without decontamination (melting, incinerating, hot pressing), (5) maximum volume reduction with decontamination (decontamination, treatment of residues), and (6) noncombustible waste forms (melting, incinerating, cementing). Schemes for treatment of each waste type were selected and developed for each treatment option and each type of waste. From these schemes, transuranic waste volumes were found to vary from 1 m/sup 3//MTU for no treatment to as low as 0.02 m/sup 3//MTU. Based on conceptual design requirements, life-cycle costs were estimated for treatment plus on-site storage, transportation, and disposal of both high-level and transuranic wastes (and incremental low-level wastes) from 70,000 MTU. The study concludes that extensive treatment is warranted from both cost and waste form characteristics considerations, and that the characteristics of most of the processing systems used are acceptable. The study recommends that additional combinations of treatment methods or strategies be evaluated and that in the interim, melting, incineration, and cementing be further developed for commercial TRUW. 45 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  20. Separation technologies for the treatment of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, T.; Herbst, S.

    1996-10-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is collaborating with several DOE and international organizations to develop and evaluate: technologies for the treatment of acidic high-level radioactive wastes. The focus on the treatment of high-level radioactive wastes is on the removal of cesium and strontium from wastes typically 1 to 3 M in acidity. Technologies to treat groundwater contaminated with radionuclides and/or toxic metals. Technologies to remove toxic metals from hazardous or mixed waste streams, for neutral pH to 3 M acidic waste streams.

  1. Gasifier waste water treatment: Phase I cooling tower assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Willson, W.G.; Hendrikson, J.G.; Winton, S.L.

    1985-02-01

    Details of an advanced study of the treatability of waste waters from the fixed-bed gasification of lignite describe the test equipment and results at a pilot plant in North Dakota using stripped-gas liquor (SGL) as cooling tower makeup. Ammonia, alkalinity, phenol, and other non-hydantoin organics were removed from the cooling water by stripping and/or biological degradation, with the phenol concentration in the exhaust air exceeding the odor threshold. It will be necessary to control foaming of the circulating water, but both glycol and silicon based agents performed well during the test. It will also be necessary to reduce the high level of biofouling on heat transfer surfaces, although stainless steel fouling was not a major problem. The conclusion is that SGL is limited by potentially serious operating problems without additional treatment. 5 references, 4 figures, 7 tables.

  2. Parameter identification in dynamical models of anaerobic waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Müller, T G; Noykova, N; Gyllenberg, M; Timmer, J

    2002-01-01

    Biochemical reactions can often be formulated mathematically as ordinary differential equations. In the process of modeling, the main questions that arise are concerned with structural identifiability, parameter estimation and practical identifiability. To clarify these questions and the methods how to solve them, we analyze two different second order models for anaerobic waste water treatment processes using two data sets obtained from different experimental setups. In both experiments only biogas production rate was measured which complicates the analysis considerably. We show that proving structural identifiability of the mathematical models with currently used methods fails. Therefore, we introduce a new, general method based on the asymptotic behavior of the maximum likelihood estimator to show local structural identifiability. For parameter estimation we use the multiple shooting approach which is described. Additionally we show that the Hessian matrix approach to compute confidence intervals fails in our examples while a method based on Monte Carlo Simulation works well. PMID:11965253

  3. Innovative Process for Comprehensive Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste - 12551

    SciTech Connect

    Penzin, R.A.; Sarychev, G.A.

    2012-07-01

    the necessity to take emergency measures and to use marine water for cooling of reactor zone in contravention of the technological regulations. In these cases significant amount of liquid radioactive wastes of complex physicochemical composition is being generated, the purification of which by traditional methods is close to impossible. According to the practice of elimination of the accident after-effects at NPP 'Fukushima' there are still no technical means for the efficient purification of liquid radioactive wastes of complex composition like marine water from radionuclides. Therefore development of state-of-the-art highly efficient facilities capable of fast and safe purification of big amounts of liquid radioactive wastes of complex physicochemical composition from radionuclides turns to be utterly topical problem. Cesium radionuclides, being extremely dangerous for the environment, present over 90% of total radioactivity contained in liquid radioactive wastes left as a result of accidents at nuclear power objects. For the purpose of radiation accidents aftereffects liquidation VNIIHT proposes to create a plant for LRW reprocessing, consisting of 4 major technological modules: Module of LRW pretreatment to remove mechanical and organic impurities including oil products; Module of sorption purification of LWR by means of selective inorganic sorbents; Module of reverse osmotic purification and desalination; Module of deep evaporation of LRW concentrates. The first free modules are based on completed technological and designing concepts implemented by VNIIHT in the framework of LLRW Project in the period of 2000-2001 in Russia for comprehensive treatment of LWR of atomic fleet. These industrial plants proved to be highly efficient and secure during their long operation life. Module of deep evaporation is a new technological development. It will ensure conduction of evaporation and purification of LRW of different physicochemical composition, including those

  4. Characterization and electrical properties of chitosan for waste water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saengkaew, Phannee; Chantanachai, Kanittha; Cheewajaroen, Kulthawat; Nimsiri, Woraporn

    2016-05-01

    Chitosan extracted from shrimp shell waste was characterized in order to use for the industrial wastewater treatment. By XRF technique, the qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of pure chitosan were performed with the relative compositions of Ca, Mg, Si, Fe, Al, and Na of 0.321%, 0.738%, 0.713%, 0.363%, 0.338%, and 3.858%, respectively. In the case of two types of the contaminated chitosan from the wastewater treatment before and after a process of a primary H2O2-treatment, the relative compositions of Ca, Mg, Si and Fe were obtained with an increasing of 0.356%, 1.321%, 1.536%, 0.451% and 0.406%, 1.105%, 1.178%, 0.591%, respectively. This shows that the suspended materials in the wastewater were absorbed by chitosan. By I-V Measurements, the across-through voltage of the pure chitosan disc was 0.245V±0.053 at the applied voltage of 17V, and resistance of 53.9MΩ ±10.3 at the applied voltage of 590V. After the utilization for the wastewater treatment, the across voltage of chitosan discs from two cases were 0.133V±0.047 and 0.223V±0.063, and the resistance of 122.8MΩ ±16.1 and 24.8MΩ ±5.1. The used chitosan has a lower conductivity because of a decreasing in the chitosan's electrical dipoles by combining with the suspended ions in the wastewater. Moreover, the adsorption efficiencies of chitosan for formaldehyde in the wastewater of two cases were 31.08% and 25.40%. In summary, chitosan is efficiently utilized in the wastewater treatment by absorption of the suspended materials and formaldehyde due to its molecular structure providing a good electrical property.

  5. Evaluation of water treatment sludge for ameliorating acid mine waste.

    PubMed

    Van Rensburg, L; Morgenthal, T L

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the liming effect of water treatment sludge on acid mine spoils. The study was conducted with sludge from a water purification plant along the Vaal River catchments in South Africa. The optimum application rate for liming acid spoils and the speed and depth with which the sludge reacted with the mine waste were investigated. Chemical analysis indicated that the sludge is suitable as a liming agent because of its alkaline pH (8.08), high bicarbonate concentration (183.03 mg L(-1)), and low salinity (electrical conductivity = 76 mS m(-1)). The high cation exchange capacity of 15.47 cmol(c) kg(-1) and elevated nitrate concentration (73.16 mg L(-1)) also increase its value as an ameliorative material. The soluble concentrations for manganese, aluminum, lead, and selenium were high at a pH of 5 although only selenium (0.83 mg L(-1)) warranted some concern. According to experimental results, the application of 10 Mg ha(-1) of sludge to acid gold tailings increased the leach water pH from 4.5 to more than 7.5 and also increased the medium pH from 2.4 to 7.5. The addition of sludge further reduced the solubility of iron, manganese, copper, and zinc in the ameliorated gold tailings, but increased the electrical conductivity. The liming tempo was highest in the coal discard profile that had a coarse particle size distribution and took the longest to move through the gold tailings that had a fine particle size distribution. Results from this study indicate that the water treatment sludge investigated is suitable as a liming agent for rehabilitation of acid mine waste. PMID:14535306

  6. Mixed-waste treatment -- What about the residuals?. A compartive analysis of MSO and incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, T.; Carpenter, C.; Cummins, L.; Haas, P.; MacInnis, J.; Maxwell, C.

    1993-11-01

    Incineration currently is the best demonstrated available technology for the large inventory of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed waste. However, molten salt oxidation (MSO) is an alternative thermal treatment technology with the potential to treat a number of these wastes. Of concern for both technologies is the final waste forms, or residuals, that are generated by the treatment process. An evaluation of the two technologies focuses on 10 existing DOE waste streams and current hazardous-waste regulations, specifically for the delisting of ``derived-from`` residuals. Major findings include that final disposal options are more significantly impacted by the type of waste treated and existing regulations than by the type of treatment technology; typical DOE waste streams are not good candidates for delisting; and mass balance calculations indicate that MSO and incineration generate similar quantities (dry) and types of residuals.

  7. The 1996 meeting of the national technical workgroup on mixed waste thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The National Technical Workgroup on Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment held its annual meeting in Atlanta Georgia on March 12-14, 1996. The National Technical Workgroup (NTW) and this meeting were sponsored under an interagency agreement between EPA and DOE. The 1996 Annual Meeting was hosted by US DOE Oak Ridge Operations in conjunction with Lockheed Martin Energy Systems - Center for Waste Management. A new feature of the annual meeting was the Permit Writer Panel Session which provided an opportunity for the state and federal permit writers to discuss issues and potential solutions to permitting mixed waste treatment systems. In addition, there was substantial discussion on the impacts of the Waste Combustion Performance Standards on mixed waste thermal treatment which are expected to proposed very soon. The 1996 meeting also focussed on two draft technical resource documents produced by NTW on Waste Analysis Plans and Compliance Test Procedures. Issues discussed included public involvement, waste characterization, and emission issues.

  8. Options assessment report: Treatment of nitrate salt waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Bruce Alan; Stevens, Patrice Ann

    2015-09-16

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognized that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL's preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  9. Evaluation of Decomposition Treatment for Halogenized Compounds by Acceleration of Electrons from Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaura, Michiteru; Uchida, Shigeaki; Fujita, Masayuki; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Yamanaka, Chiyoe

    2007-10-01

    A novel decomposition treatment for halogenized compounds using a carbon nanotube (CNT) electron source is proposed [1]. It is observed that high concentrations of chlorophenols can be significantly decreased by using a CNT electron source. The concentration is reduced to a maximum level of less than 1/1000 after only a few minutes of treatment. The input energy required for 1 g of chlorophenol is 46 J when the injection power is 0.5 W. The input energy is only 1/161 times lesser than that required for the treatment using barrier discharge. The proposed treatment using CNTs has a high efficiency because the input energy is provided only by the accelerated electrons. A harmless and high-efficiency decomposition treatment for halogenized compounds using an electron source with carbon nanotubes is discussed. [1] M.Yamaura, et al. Chem. Phys. Lett 435, 148 (2007).

  10. Treatment of cheese whey and soft drink bottling wastes in an anaerboic biological fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, R.; Owens, R.

    1982-11-01

    This report describes the development of an anaerobic system to produce combustible gas from cheese whey, soft drink bottling plant wastes, and other organic wastes. Experiments conducted using whey and soft drink wastes in a small scale reactor determined the optimum operating conditions to maximize combustible gas yield and minimize operating costs. Economic analyses are presented in the report which demonstrate that anaerobic treatment of these wastes in a fluidized bed reactor is a highly cost-effective process.

  11. Home and community composting for on-site treatment of urban organic waste: perspective for Europe and Canada.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bijaya K; Trémier, Anne; Martinez, José; Barrington, Suzelle

    2010-11-01

    As a result of urbanization and economic prosperity, which has accelerated the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) along with its organic fraction, the management of MSW is a challenge faced by urban centres worldwide, including the European Union (EU) and Canada. Within a concept of waste recovery, the source separation and on-site treatment of urban organic waste (UOW) can resolve some of the major economic issues faced by urban centres along with the environmental and social issues associated with landfilling. In this context and in a comparison with the traditional landfilling practice, this paper examines on-site UOW composting strategies using a combination of centralized composting facilities, community composting centres and home composting. This study consisted of a feasibility and economic study based on available data and waste management costs. The results indicate that on-site treatment of UOW using practices such as home and community composting can lower management costs by 50, 37 and 34% for the rich European countries (annual GDP over US$25,000), the poorer European countries (annual GDP under US$25 000), and Canada, respectively. Furthermore, on-site composting can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 40% for Europe and Canada, despite gas capture practices on landfill sites. However, the performance of home composters and the quality of the compost products are issues to be further addressed for the successful implementation of UOW on-site composting. PMID:20571148

  12. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group.

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.; Laidler, J.; McDeavitt, S.; Thompson, M.; Toth, M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.

    1999-08-12

    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD&D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years.

  13. Mixed Waste Focus Area mercury contamination product line: An integrated approach to mercury waste treatment and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, G.A.; Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.

    1998-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is tasked with ensuring that solutions are available for the mixed waste treatment problems of the DOE complex. During the MWFA`s initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury-contaminated mixed waste. The focus area grouped mercury-waste-treatment activities into the mercury contamination product line under which development, demonstration, and deployment efforts are coordinated to provide tested technologies to meet the site needs. The Mercury Working Group (HgWG), a selected group of representatives from DOE sites with significant mercury waste inventories, is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded under the product line that will address DOE`s needs for separation/removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the MWFA to date through these various activities.

  14. The possibility of garbage, medical and other toxic waste treatment by plasma chemical method

    SciTech Connect

    Rutberg, P.G.; Safronov, A.A.; Bratsev, A.N.; Kuznetsov, V.E.

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes the creation of plasma facility for treatment of toxic waste. All industrialized countries are greatly interested in plasma chemical technology application for the destruction of different types of industrial, building, purification works toxic waste and waste of plants for garbage treatment. On the basis of three-phase plasma generators with power 0.1--1 MW intended for work in air a row of pilot facilities were created for carrying out of experiments on destruction of medical waste and fluorine-chlorine containing substances. The obtained results allow to design and create pilot-commercial plants with treatment productivity of 200 t/24 hours.

  15. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for treatment of INEL Low-Level Waste and low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgensen-Waters, M.J.; Edinborough, C.R.

    1992-06-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) project was established in 1991 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office to provide treatment capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This report identifies and evaluates the alternatives for treating that waste. Twelve treatment alternatives, ranging from ``no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWTF, are identified and evaluated. Evaluations include facility performance, environmental, safety, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decision making. Analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of future waste volumes and characteristics from the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. It is also recommended that conceptual design begin as scheduled on the MLLWTF, maximum treatment alternative while re-evaluating the waste volume projections.

  16. 76 FR 34147 - Land Disposal Restrictions: Revision of the Treatment Standards for Carbamate Wastes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... carbamates (61 FR 15583). These treatment standards were based on data for similar wastes for which EPA promulgated UTS in1994 (59 FR 47982) and on analytical detection limits compiled from sampling and analysis... CFR 268.48. EPA promulgated numeric treatment standards for these carbamate wastes in 1994 (59...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10636 - Slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., wastewater treatment, solid waste. 721.10636 Section 721.10636 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., wastewater treatment, solid waste. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10636 - Slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., wastewater treatment, solid waste. 721.10636 Section 721.10636 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., wastewater treatment, solid waste. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater...

  19. Bacterial population dynamics in diary waste during aerobic and anaerobic treatment and subsequent storage.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to model a typical dairy waste stream and monitor the chemical and bacterial population dynamics that occur during aerobic or anaerobic treatment and subsequent storage in a simulated lagoon, and compare them to waste held without treatment in a simulated lagoon. Both...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10667 - Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron... iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste (PMN P-12-560; CAS No. 1391739-82-4;...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10667 - Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron... iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste (PMN P-12-560; CAS No. 1391739-82-4;...

  2. State-of-the-art report on low-level radioactive waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kibbey, A.H.; Godbee, H.W.

    1980-09-01

    An attempt is made to identify the main sources of low-level radioactive wastes that are generated in the United States. To place the waste problem in perspective, rough estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of waste that is generated. Most of the wet solid wastes arise from the cleanup of gaseous and liquid radioactive streams prior to discharge or recycle. The treatment of the process streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described for each type of government or fuel cycle installation. Similarly, the institutional wet wastes are also described. The dry wastes from all sources have smilar physical and chemical characteristics in that they can be classified as compactible, noncompactible, combustible, noncombustible, or combinations thereof. The various treatment options for concentrated or solid wet wastes and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry-waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting, and shredding. Organic materials can usually be incinerated or, in some cases, biodegraded. The filter sludges, spent resins, incinerator ashes, and concentrated liquids are usually solidified in cement, urea-formaldehyde, or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Asphalt has not yet been used as a solidificaton agent in the United States, but it probably will be used in the near future. The treatment of radioactive medical and bioresearch wastes is described, but the waste from radiochenmical, pharmaceutical, and other industries is not well defined at the present time. Recovery of waste metals and treatment of hazardous contaminated wastes are discussed briefly. Some areas appearing to need more research, development, and demonstration are specifically pointed out.

  3. Recycling of PVC Waste via Environmental Friendly Vapor Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xin; Jin, Fangming; Zhang, Guangyi; Duan, Xiaokun

    2010-11-01

    This paper focused on the dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a plastic which is widely used in the human life and thereby is leading to serious "white pollution", via vapor treatment process to recycle PVC wastes. In the process, HCl emitted was captured into water solution to avoid hazardous gas pollution and corruption, and remaining polymers free of chlorine could be thermally degraded for further energy recovery. Optimal conditions for the dechlorination of PVC using vapor treatment was investigated, and economic feasibility of this method was also analyzed based on the experimental data. The results showed that the efficiency of dechlorination increased as the temperature increased from 200° C to 250° C, and the rate of dechlorination up to 100% was obtained at the temperature near 250° C. Meanwhile, about 12% of total organic carbon was detected in water solution, which indicated that PVC was slightly degraded in this process. The main products in solution were identified to be acetone, benzene and toluene. In addition, the effects of alkali catalysis on dechlorination were also studied in this paper, and it showed that alkali could not improve the efficiency of the dechlorination of PVC.

  4. Geothermal waste treatment biotechnology: Progress and advantages to the utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Jin, J.

    1992-03-01

    Development of biotechnology for treatment of geothermal residual waste is aimed at the application of low-cost biochemical processes for the surface treatment and disposal of residual geothermal sludges. These processes, in addition to the lowering of disposal cost, are designed to be environmentally acceptable. Recent studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have shown that optimization of several process variables results in fast rates (<24h) of metal removal from residual sludges at acidic pH ({minus}1--2). Optimization of the process variables also enables the removal of radioactive isotopes. In addition, the aqueous phase produced during the bioprocessing which contains solubilized metals can be further treated in a manner which precipitates out the metals and renders the aqueous effluent toxic metal free. In this paper, the various process options will be discussed in terms of biotreatment variables. Chemical composition before and after biotreatment will also be discussed in terms of long-range effects, quality assurance and potential disposal costs.

  5. Investigation of Accelerated Casing Corrosion in Two Wells at Waste Management Area A-AX

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R JEFFREY.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Valenta, Michelle M.; LeGore, Virginia L.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2005-08-29

    The sidewall core samples from well 299-E24-19, which were comprised of a mixture of bentonite and silt lens material, had an average porewater chloride concentration of 376 mg/L. The sidewall core samples collected from well 299-E25-46 had calculated porewater chloride concentrations ranging from 1,200 to more than 10,000 mg/L. Clearly, the sidewall core samples tested were capable of generating porewaters with sufficient chloride concentrations to cause corrosion of the stainless steel well casing. Furthermore, analysis of the sidewall core samples yielded a clear relationship between chloride concentration and well casing corrosion. The sidewall core samples containing the greatest amount of chloride, 3000 {micro}g/g of sediment, came from the well that experienced the longest length of casing failure (4.2 feet in well 299-E25-46). All of the sidewall core samples tested from both decommissioned wells contained more chloride than the Wyoming bentonite test material. However, since chloride was present as a trace constituent in all of the sidewall core samples (less than 0.4 weight percent), it is possible that it could have been introduced to the system as a ''contaminant'' contained in the bentonite backfill material. Therefore, it is likely that chloride leached from the bentonite material and/or chloride carried by/as a constituent of the liquid waste stream caused the advanced well casing corrosion found at wells 299-E24-19 and 299-E25-46 via crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The sample of Enviroplug{trademark} No.8 high swelling Wyoming bentonite was characterized for its potential to generate porewaters of sufficient chlorinity to lead to accelerated corrosion of type 304L stainless steel. Overall, the bentonite sample had considerably high water extractable concentrations of sodium, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and alkalinity (measured as calcium carbonate). Interpretation of the laboratory data indicated that the Wyoming bentonite test

  6. A model for optimal operation of land-treatment sites for oily wastes.

    PubMed

    Unlü, K; Kivanç, S

    2001-06-01

    Land treatment as a disposal technology has been extensively used for the disposal of oily wastes. Effective management of land treatment sites require optimal operation of the system in order to achieve the fastest and most complete degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons without contamination of the environment. This paper describes a model that can be used for optimising the operation of land treatment sites for oily wastes. The model is composed of system simulator and optimisation submodels. Conceptually, the system simulation submodel is composed of a waste mixing zone, lower treatment zone and aquifer modules. The system simulation model allows for periodic waste applications and determines the spatial and temporal variation of the state variables such as phase summed (total) and aqueous phase contaminant concentrations and water content in the system. The optimisation submodel coupled with the system simulator determines the optimal values of system control variables, such as waste loading rate, infiltration rate, water content, frequency of waste application and the dimensions of the land treatment site. Optimisation of these system control variables is accomplished by maximising the hydrocarbon mass removal from the waste mixing zone under the constraint of satisfying a prespecified water quality criteria in the aquifer. Selected model applications are presented to demonstrate the applicability and utility of the model. Such model applications include determination of the optimal operating conditions for the land treatment of oily wastes under various different site and soil environmental conditions and practical waste disposal scenarios. PMID:11699857

  7. A consistent approach for the treatment of Fermi acceleration in time-dependent billiards.

    PubMed

    Karlis, A K; Diakonos, F K; Constantoudis, V

    2012-06-01

    The standard description of Fermi acceleration, developing in a class of time-dependent billiards, is given in terms of a diffusion process taking place in momentum space. Within this framework, the evolution of the probability density function (PDF) of the magnitude of particle velocities as a function of the number of collisions n is determined by the Fokker-Planck equation (FPE). In the literature, the FPE is constructed by identifying the transport coefficients with the ensemble averages of the change of the magnitude of particle velocity and its square in the course of one collision. Although this treatment leads to the correct solution after a sufficiently large number of collisions have been reached, the transient part of the evolution of the PDF is not described. Moreover, in the case of the Fermi-Ulam model (FUM), if a standard simplification is employed, the solution of the FPE is even inconsistent with the values of the transport coefficients used for its derivation. The goal of our work is to provide a self-consistent methodology for the treatment of Fermi acceleration in time-dependent billiards. The proposed approach obviates any assumptions for the continuity of the random process and the existence of the limits formally defining the transport coefficients of the FPE. Specifically, we suggest, instead of the calculation of ensemble averages, the derivation of the one-step transition probability function and the use of the Chapman-Kolmogorov forward equation. This approach is generic and can be applied to any time-dependent billiard for the treatment of Fermi-acceleration. As a first step, we apply this methodology to the FUM, being the archetype of time-dependent billiards to exhibit Fermi acceleration. PMID:22757579

  8. A consistent approach for the treatment of Fermi acceleration in time-dependent billiards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlis, A. K.; Diakonos, F. K.; Constantoudis, V.

    2012-06-01

    The standard description of Fermi acceleration, developing in a class of time-dependent billiards, is given in terms of a diffusion process taking place in momentum space. Within this framework, the evolution of the probability density function (PDF) of the magnitude of particle velocities as a function of the number of collisions n is determined by the Fokker-Planck equation (FPE). In the literature, the FPE is constructed by identifying the transport coefficients with the ensemble averages of the change of the magnitude of particle velocity and its square in the course of one collision. Although this treatment leads to the correct solution after a sufficiently large number of collisions have been reached, the transient part of the evolution of the PDF is not described. Moreover, in the case of the Fermi-Ulam model (FUM), if a standard simplification is employed, the solution of the FPE is even inconsistent with the values of the transport coefficients used for its derivation. The goal of our work is to provide a self-consistent methodology for the treatment of Fermi acceleration in time-dependent billiards. The proposed approach obviates any assumptions for the continuity of the random process and the existence of the limits formally defining the transport coefficients of the FPE. Specifically, we suggest, instead of the calculation of ensemble averages, the derivation of the one-step transition probability function and the use of the Chapman-Kolmogorov forward equation. This approach is generic and can be applied to any time-dependent billiard for the treatment of Fermi-acceleration. As a first step, we apply this methodology to the FUM, being the archetype of time-dependent billiards to exhibit Fermi acceleration.

  9. SU-E-T-197: Helical Cranial-Spinal Treatments with a Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J; Bernard, D; Liao, Y; Templeton, A; Turian, J; Chu, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) of systemic disease requires a high level of beam intensity modulation to reduce dose to bone marrow and other critical structures. Current helical delivery machines can take 30 minutes or more of beam-on time to complete these treatments. This pilot study aims to test the feasibility of performing helical treatments with a conventional linear accelerator using longitudinal couch travel during multiple gantry revolutions. Methods: The VMAT optimization package of the Eclipse 10.0 treatment planning system was used to optimize pseudo-helical CSI plans of 5 clinical patient scans. Each gantry revolution was divided into three 120° arcs with each isocenter shifted longitudinally. Treatments requiring more than the maximum 10 arcs used multiple plans with each plan after the first being optimized including the dose of the others (Figure 1). The beam pitch was varied between 0.2 and 0.9 (couch speed 5- 20cm/revolution and field width of 22cm) and dose-volume histograms of critical organs were compared to tomotherapy plans. Results: Viable pseudo-helical plans were achieved using Eclipse. Decreasing the pitch from 0.9 to 0.2 lowered the maximum lens dose by 40%, the mean bone marrow dose by 2.1% and the maximum esophagus dose by 17.5%. (Figure 2). Linac-based helical plans showed dose results comparable to tomotherapy delivery for both target coverage and critical organ sparing, with the D50 of bone marrow and esophagus respectively 12% and 31% lower in the helical linear accelerator plan (Figure 3). Total mean beam-on time for the linear accelerator plan was 8.3 minutes, 54% faster than the tomotherapy average for the same plans. Conclusions: This pilot study has demonstrated the feasibility of planning pseudo-helical treatments for CSI targets using a conventional linac and dynamic couch movement, and supports the ongoing development of true helical optimization and delivery.

  10. Nutrient fate in aquacultural systems for waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dontje, J.H.; Clanton, C.J.

    1999-08-01

    Twelve small, recirculating aquacultural systems were operated for livestock waste treatment to determine nutrient fate. Each system consisted of a 730-L fish tank coupled in a recirculating loop with three sand beds (serving as biofilters) in parallel. Fish (Tilapia species) were grown in the tanks while cattails, reed canary grass, and tomatoes were grown in separate sand beds. Swine waste was added to the fish tanks every other day at average rates of 50, 72, 95, and 118 kg-COD/ha/day of fish tank surface (three replications of each loading rate). Water from the fish tanks was filtered through the sand beds three times per day with 20% of the tank volume passing through the sand each day. The systems were operated in a greenhouse for eight months (21 July to 8 March). Aboveground plant matter was harvested at eight-week intervals. The fish were removed after four months and the tanks were restocked with fingerlings. Initial and final nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) contents of the system components, as well as that of the harvested plants and fish, were determined. Nutrient balance calculations revealed that 30 to 68% of added N was lost from the systems, probably via denitrification. Nutrient removal by plants was 6 to 18% for N, 8 to 21% for P, and 25 to 71% for K, with tomatoes (foliage and fruit) accounting for the majority of the removal. Plant growth was limited by growing conditions (particularly day length), not be nutrient availability. Fish growth was limited by temperature; thus nutrient extraction by the fish was minimal. Under the conditions of this experiment, the system required supplemental aeration.

  11. Non radiological issues in the treatment of low-level liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Welbergen, Jeroen; Verhoef, Ewoud; Eijke, Anton; Best, Alex de; Hengst, Jan; Codee, Hans

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In the Netherlands there are some 200 producers of radioactive waste. Most of them generate only small volumes of low and medium level waste. These small volumes however cover a wide range of waste forms: solids, liquids of all nature, slurries, etc. Because of the resulting wide spectrum of radiological and chemical contaminations, a certain amount of flexibility is required in both solid and liquid waste treatment. In addition, the Nuclear Energy Act license requires a five yearly evaluation of the waste processing installation with respect to the Best Practicable Technologies. The bulk of the solid waste are compacted, conditioned as cemented packages and stored for at least hundred years. The low-level liquid waste is treated batch-wise as the volumes of liquid waste are too small to operate a continuous system. Moreover, batch-wise processing enables more flexibility. Discharge of treated water is bounded by concentration limits of chemicals and total activity per nuclide. Evaluation of the installation showed that the radiological constraints provide a larger degree of freedom to discharge, and the waste water treatment can effectively meet the required limits. The limits of concentration of chemicals are more restrictive. The liquid waste often has more chemical contamination than radiological. This paper describes the evaluation of the waste water treatment. (authors)

  12. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic

  13. Implementing separate waste collection and mechanical biological waste treatment in South Africa: a comparison with Austria and England.

    PubMed

    Trois, Cristina; Simelane, Oscar T

    2010-01-01

    The degradation of organic compounds found in municipal solid waste (MSW) under the anaerobic landfill conditions produces gas and liquid emissions that can protract well into the landfill after-care period. The European Landfill Directives regulate the amount and nature of the organic compounds disposed into landfills. In South Africa and other developing countries, MSW is still landfilled without any kind of pre-treatment. This paper presents a pilot project of mechanical biological waste treatment (MBWT) in South Africa implemented at municipal level in the city of Durban using passively aerated open windrows. Based on case studies from Austria, England and South Africa, a waste minimisation model which can facilitate full-scale implementation of MBWT in developing countries is presented. MSW was treated in open windrows for 8 weeks. Composting temperature reached a maximum of 65 degrees C in less than 10 days. The results of eluate tests on waste samples from the windrows at the end of composting show a reduction of BOD(5) and BOD(5)/COD ratios equal to 35.7% and 16.7%, respectively. The percent waste composition of the treated MSW was 28.3% putrescibles, 17.4% garden refuse, 13.3% plastic, 12.4% fabrics, 12% paper and other elements. The waste composition shows that more than 40% of un-treated organic material and also more than 40% non-biodegradable and recyclable materials are still landfilled without any form of biological treatment or resource recovery. A simple wet and dry waste collection model can promote recycling, treatment of biological waste before landfilling, resource recovery, labour intensive jobs and hence sustainable landfilling in the South African scenario as well as in similar developing countries. PMID:20116993

  14. Acceleration of tooth movement during orthodontic treatment--a frontier in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Nimeri, Ghada; Kau, Chung H; Abou-Kheir, Nadia S; Corona, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, there is an increased tendency for researches to focus on accelerating methods for tooth movement due to the huge demand for adults for a shorter orthodontic treatment time. Unfortunately, long orthodontic treatment time poses several disadvantages like higher predisposition to caries, gingival recession, and root resorption. This increases the demand to find the best method to increase tooth movement with the least possible disadvantages. The purpose of this study is to view the successful approaches in tooth movement and to highlight the newest technique in tooth movement. A total of 74 articles were reviewed in tooth movement and related discipline from 1959 to 2013. There is a high amount of researches done on the biological method for tooth movement; unfortunately, the majority of them were done on animals. Cytokine, PTH, vitamin D, and RANKL/RANK/OPG show promising results; on the other hand, relaxin does not accelerate tooth movement, but increases the tooth mobility. Low-level laser therapy has shown positive outcome, but further investigation should be done for the best energy and duration to achieve the highest success rate. Surgical approach has the most predictable outcomes but with limited application due to its aggressiveness. Piezocision technique is considered one of the best surgical approaches because it poses good periodontal tissue response and excellent aesthetic outcome. Due to the advantages and disadvantages of each approach, further investigations should be done to determine the best method to accelerate tooth movement. PMID:24326040

  15. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L.; McCabe, Daniel J.

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  16. Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processing. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of reverse osmosis and membrane processing in sewage and industrial waste treatment. Citations discuss ultrafiltration, industrial water reuse, hazardous waste treatment, municipal wastes, and materials recovery. Waste reduction and recycling in electroplating, metal finishing, and circuit board manufacturing are considered. (Contains a minimum of 245 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processing. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of reverse osmosis and membrane processing in sewage and industrial waste treatment. Citations discuss ultrafiltration, industrial water reuse, hazardous waste treatment, municipal wastes, and materials recovery. Waste reduction and recycling in electroplating, metal finishing, and circuit board manufacturing are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Characterisation and Evaluation of Wastes for Treatment in the Batch Pyrolysis Plant in Studsvik, Sweden - 13586

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Maria; Oesterberg, Carl; Vernersson, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The new batch pyrolysis plant in Studsvik is built primarily for treatment of uranium containing dry active waste, 'DAW'. Several other waste types have been identified that are considered or assumed suitable for treatment in the pyrolysis plant because of the possibility to carefully control the atmosphere and temperature of the thermal treatment. These waste types must be characterised and an evaluation must be made with a BAT perspective. Studsvik have performed or plan to perform lab scale pyrolysis tests on a number of different waste types. These include: - Pyrophoric materials (uranium shavings), - Uranium chemicals that must be oxidised prior to being deposited in repository, - Sludges and oil soaks (this category includes NORM-materials), - Ion exchange resins (both 'free' and solidified/stabilised), - Bitumen solidified waste. Methodology and assessment criteria for various waste types, together with results obtained for the lab scale tests that have been performed, are described. (authors)

  19. Technical Basis for Certification of Seismic Design Criteria for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, T.M.; Rohay, A.C.; Youngs, R.R.; Costantino, C.J.; Miller, L.F.

    2008-07-01

    In August 2007, Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman approved the final seismic and ground motion criteria for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Construction of the WTP began in 2002 based on seismic design criteria established in 1999 and a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis completed in 1996. The design criteria were reevaluated in 2005 to address questions from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB), resulting in an increase by up to 40% in the seismic design basis. DOE announced in 2006 the suspension of construction on the pretreatment and high-level waste vitrification facilities within the WTP to validate the design with more stringent seismic criteria. In 2007, the U.S. Congress mandated that the Secretary of Energy certify the final seismic and ground motion criteria prior to expenditure of funds on construction of these two facilities. With the Secretary's approval of the final seismic criteria in the summer of 2007, DOE authorized restart of construction of the pretreatment and high-level waste vitrification facilities. The technical basis for the certification of seismic design criteria resulted from a two-year Seismic Boreholes Project that planned, collected, and analyzed geological data from four new boreholes drilled to depths of approximately 1400 feet below ground surface on the WTP site. A key uncertainty identified in the 2005 analyses was the velocity contrasts between the basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds below the WTP. The absence of directly-measured seismic shear wave velocities in the sedimentary interbeds resulted in the use of a wider and more conservative range of velocities in the 2005 analyses. The Seismic Boreholes Project was designed to directly measure the velocities and velocity contrasts in the basalts and sediments below the WTP, reanalyze the ground motion response, and assess the level of conservatism in the 2005 seismic design criteria

  20. Pyrolysis/Steam Reforming Technology for Treatment of TRU Orphan Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J. B.; McKibbin, J.; Schmoker, D.; Bacala, P.

    2003-02-27

    Certain transuranic (TRU) waste streams within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex cannot be disposed of at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) because they do not meet the shipping requirements of the TRUPACT-II or the disposal requirements of the Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) in the WIPP RCRA Part B Permit. These waste streams, referred to as orphan wastes, cannot be shipped or disposed of because they contain one or more prohibited items, such as liquids, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hydrogen gas, corrosive acids or bases, reactive metals, or high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), etc. The patented, non-incineration, pyrolysis and steam reforming processes marketed by THOR Treatment Technologies LLC removes all of these prohibited items from drums of TRU waste and produces a dry, inert, inorganic waste material that meets the existing TRUPACT-II requirements for shipping, as well as the existing WAP requirements for disposal of TRU waste at WIPP. THOR Treatment Technologies is a joint venture formed in June 2002 by Studsvik, Inc. (Studsvik) and Westinghouse Government Environmental Services Company LLC (WGES) to further develop and deploy Studsvik's patented THORSM technology within the DOE and Department of Defense (DoD) markets. The THORSM treatment process is a commercially proven system that has treated over 100,000 cu. ft. of nuclear waste from commercial power plants since 1999. Some of this waste has had contact dose rates of up to 400 R/hr. A distinguishing characteristic of the THORSM process for TRU waste treatment is the ability to treat drums of waste without removing the waste contents from the drum. This feature greatly minimizes criticality and contamination issues for processing of plutonium-containing wastes. The novel features described herein are protected by issued and pending patents.

  1. Decommissioning and Dismantling of Liquid Waste Storage and Liquid Waste Treatment Facility from Paldiski Nuclear Site, Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Varvas, M.; Putnik, H.; Johnsson, B.

    2006-07-01

    The Paldiski Nuclear Facility in Estonia, with two nuclear reactors was owned by the Soviet Navy and was used for training the navy personnel to operate submarine nuclear reactors. After collapse of Soviet Union the Facility was shut down and handed over to the Estonian government in 1995. In co-operation with the Paldiski International Expert Reference Group (PIERG) decommission strategy was worked out and started to implement. Conditioning of solid and liquid operational waste and dismantling of contaminated installations and buildings were among the key issues of the Strategy. Most of the liquid waste volume, remained at the Facility, was processed in the frames of an Estonian-Finnish co-operation project using a mobile wastewater purification unit NURES (IVO International OY) and water was discharged prior to the site take-over. In 1999-2002 ca 120 m{sup 3} of semi-liquid tank sediments (a mixture of ion exchange resins, sand filters, evaporator and flocculation slurry), remained after treatment of liquid waste were solidified in steel containers and stored into interim storage. The project was carried out under the Swedish - Estonian co-operation program on radiation protection and nuclear safety. Contaminated installations in buildings, used for treatment and storage of liquid waste (Liquid Waste Treatment Facility and Liquid Waste Storage) were then dismantled and the buildings demolished in 2001-2004. (authors)

  2. Strategies for the cost effective treatment of Oak Ridge legacy wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Wilson, D.F.

    1998-03-01

    Research and development treatment strategies for treatment or elimination of several Oak Ridge plant liquid, solid, and legacy wastes are detailed in this report. Treatment strategies for volumetrically contaminated nickel; enriched uranium-contaminated alkali metal fluorides; uranium-contaminated aluminum compressor blades; large, mercury-contaminated lithium isotope separations equipment; lithium process chlorine gas streams; high-concentration aluminum nitrate wastes, and high-volume, low-level nitrate wastes are discussed. Research needed to support engineering development of treatment processes is detailed.

  3. Importance of biological systems in industrial waste treatment potential application to the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revis, Nathaniel; Holdsworth, George

    1990-01-01

    In addition to having applications for waste management issues on planet Earth, microbial systems have application in reducing waste volumes aboard spacecraft. A candidate for such an application is the space station. Many of the planned experiments generate aqueous waste. To recycle air and water the contaminants from previous experiments must be removed before the air and water can be used for other experiments. This can be achieved using microorganisms in a bioreactor. Potential bioreactors (inorganics, organics, and etchants) are discussed. Current technologies that may be applied to waste treatment are described. Examples of how biological systems may be used in treating waste on the space station.

  4. Microwave energy for post-calcination treatment of high-level nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Gombert, D.; Priebe, S.J.; Berreth, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes generated from nuclear fuel reprocessing require treatment for effective long-term storage. Heating by microwave energy is explored in processing of two possible waste forms: (1) drying of a pelleted form of calcined waste; and (2) vitrification of calcined waste. It is shown that residence times for these processes can be greatly reduced when using microwave energy rather than conventional heating sources, without affecting product properties. Compounds in the waste and in the glass frit additives couple very well with the 2.45 GHz microwave field so that no special microwave absorbers are necessary.

  5. Accelerated carbonation using municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater: Performance evaluation and reaction kinetics.

    PubMed

    Chang, E-E; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Yang, Liuhanzi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Kim, Hyunook; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-09-01

    Accelerated carbonation of alkaline wastes including municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWI-BA) and the cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was investigated for carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation under different operating conditions, i.e., reaction time, CO2 concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, particle size, and CO2 flow rate. The MSWI-BA before and after carbonation process were analyzed by the thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The MSWI-BA exhibits a high carbonation conversion of 90.7%, corresponding to a CO2 fixation capacity of 102g perkg of ash. Meanwhile, the carbonation kinetics was evaluated by the shrinking core model. In addition, the effect of different operating parameters on carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was statistically evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) using experimental data to predict the maximum carbonation conversion. Furthermore, the amount of CO2 reduction and energy consumption for operating the proposed process in refuse incinerator were estimated. Capsule abstract: CO2 fixation process by alkaline wastes including bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater was developed, which should be a viable method due to high conversion. PMID:26025583

  6. DEMONSTRATION OF SIMULATED WASTE TRANSFERS FROM TANK AY-102 TO THE HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, D.; Poirier, M.; Steeper, T.

    2009-12-03

    In support of Hanford's AY-102 Tank waste certification and delivery of the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked by the Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the effectiveness of mixing and transferring the waste in the Double Shell Tank (DST) to the WTP Receipt Tank. This work is a follow-on to the previous 'Demonstration of Internal Structures Impacts on Double Shell Tank Mixing Effectiveness' task conducted at SRNL 1. The objective of these transfers was to qualitatively demonstrate how well waste can be transferred out of a mixed DST tank and to provide insights into the consistency between the batches being transferred. Twelve (12) different transfer demonstrations were performed, varying one parameter at a time, in the Batch Transfer Demonstration System. The work focused on visual comparisons of the results from transferring six batches of slurry from a 1/22nd scale (geometric by diameter) Mixing Demonstration Tank (MDT) to six Receipt Tanks, where the consistency of solids in each batch could be compared. The simulant used in this demonstration was composed of simulated Hanford Tank AZ-101 supernate, gibbsite particles, and silicon carbide particles, the same simulant/solid particles used in the previous mixing demonstration. Changing a test parameter may have had a small impact on total solids transferred from the MDT on a given test, but the data indicates that there is essentially no impact on the consistency of solids transferred batch to batch. Of the multiple parameters varied during testing, it was found that changing the nozzle velocity of the Mixer Jet Pumps (MJPs) had the biggest impact on the amount of solids transferred. When the MJPs were operating at 8.0 gpm (22.4 ft/s nozzle velocity, U{sub o}D=0.504 ft{sup 2}/s), the solid particles were more effectively suspended, thus producing a higher volume of solids transferred. When the MJP flow rate was

  7. Characterization of oil and gas waste disposal practices and assessment of treatment costs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bedient, P.B.

    1995-01-16

    This study examines wastes associated with the onshore exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas in the US. The objective of this study was to update and enhance the current state of knowledge with regard to oil and gas waste quantities, the potential environmental impact of these wastes, potential methods of treatment, and the costs associated with meeting various degrees of treatment. To meet this objective, the study consisted of three tasks: (1) the development of a production Environmental Database (PED) for the purpose of assessing current oil and gas waste volumes by state and for investigating the potential environmental impacts associated with current waste disposal practices on a local scale; (2) the evaluation of available and developing technologies for treating produced water waste streams and the identification of unit process configurations; and (3) the evaluation of the costs associated with various degrees of treatment achievable by different treatment configurations. The evaluation of feasible technologies for the treatment of produced water waste streams was handled in the context of comparing the level of treatment achievable with the associated cost of treatment. Treatment processes were evaluated for the removal of four categories of produced water contaminants: particulate material, volatile organic compounds, adsorbable organic compounds, and dissolved inorganic species. Results showed dissolved inorganic species to be the most costly to remove. The potential cost of treating all 18.3 billion barrels of produced water generated in a year amounts to some 15 billion dollars annually.

  8. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files: Part 2, Low-level waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report documents those studies so the project can continue with an evaluation of programmatic options, system tradeoff studies, and the conceptual design phase of the project. This report, appendix B, comprises the engineering design files for this project study. The engineering design files document each waste steam, its characteristics, and identified treatment strategies.

  9. Treatment of chromic tannery wastes using coal ashes from fluidized bed combustion of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bulewicz, E.M.; Kozak, A.; Kowalski, Z.

    1997-10-01

    A new method of treatment for chromic tannery wastes containing chrome and large amounts organic substances has been investigated. It has been found that the addition of certain types of coal ash from fluid bed combustion technologies, at a suitable temperature and pH, results in effective removal of Cr(III) compounds present in the wastes. The wastes could then be subjected to further processing in conventional biological treatment units. The method is very simple, cheap, and effective and could be used for chromic tannery wastes of different compositions.

  10. The status and developments of leather solid waste treatment: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huiyan; Liu, Junsheng; Han, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Leather making is one of the most widespread industries in the world. The production of leather goods generates different types of solid wastes and wastewater. These wastes will pollute the environment and threat the health of human beings if they are not well treated. Consequently, the treatment of pollution caused by the wastes from leather tanning is really important. In comparison with the disposal of leather wastewater, the treatment of leather solid wastes is more intractable. Hence, the treatment of leather solid wastes needs more innovations. To keep up with the rapid development of the modern leather industry, various innovative techniques have been newly developed. In this mini-review article, the major achievements in the treatment of leather solid wastes are highlighted. Emphasis will be placed on the treatment of chromium-tanned solid wastes; some new approaches are also discussed. We hope that this mini-review can provide some valuable information to promote the broad understanding and effective treatment of leather solid wastes in the leather industry. PMID:26944068

  11. Evaluation of pristine lignin for hazardous-waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, D.J.; Newman, C.J.; Chian, E.S.K.; Gao, H.

    1987-05-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to assess the utilization of lignin, isolated from a steam-exploded hardwood (Tulip poplar) with 95% ethanol and 0.1n NaOH, as a potential adsorbent for hazardous-waste treatment. Eight organic compounds and two heavy metals were selected to allow comparison of lignin isolates with activated carbon. It was found that the adsorption capacity of lignin for heavy metals (chromium and lead) is comparable to activated carbon, despite a huge divergence in surface area (0.1 mS/g vs. 1000 mS/g). The surface area discrepancy and the extensive aromatic substitution in lignin macromolecule impeded the achievement of an adsorption capacity of lignin for polar organic compounds which would allow it to be cost-competitive with activated carbon although results with phenol and, to a lesser degree, naphthalene indicate significant potential for achieving competitive capacities. A recommended plan for surface area and structural enhancement is presented on the basis that lignin can be developed as an effective and low-cost adsorbent for polar priority pollutants and/or as an ion-exchange resins for heavy-metal wastewater clean-up.

  12. Utilization of Waste Materials for Microbial Carrier in Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Le, H T; Jantarat, N; Khanitchaidecha, W; Ratananikom, K; Nakaruk, A

    2016-01-01

    This research focused on the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) removal from the domestic wastewater using the attached growth reactors. Two types of waste material of corncob (biodegradable material) and concrete (nonbiodegradable material) were used as the carrier for microorganisms' attachment. During operation, both reactors achieved absolutely high performance of ammonium removal (up to 99%) and total nitrogen removal (up to 95%). The significant advantage of corncob carrier was that the corncob was able to be a source of carbon for biological denitrification, leading to no external carbon requirement for operating the system. However, the corncob caused an increasing turbidity of the effluent. On the other hand, the concrete carrier required the minimal external carbon of 3.5 C/N ratio to reach the good performance. Moreover, a longer period for microorganisms' adaptation was found in the concrete carrier rather than the corncob carrier. Further, the same physiological and biochemical characteristics of active bacteria were found at the two carriers, which were negative gram, cocci shape, and smooth and white-turbid colony. Due to the effluent quality, the concrete was more appropriate carrier than the corncob for wastewater treatment. PMID:27525274

  13. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility Discharges in 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Del Signore, John C.

    2012-05-16

    This report documents radioactive discharges from the TA50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facilities (RLWTF) during calendar 2011. During 2011, three pathways were available for the discharge of treated water to the environment: discharge as water through NPDES Outfall 051 into Mortandad Canyon, evaporation via the TA50 cooling towers, and evaporation using the newly-installed natural-gas effluent evaporator at TA50. Only one of these pathways was used; all treated water (3,352,890 liters) was fed to the effluent evaporator. The quality of treated water was established by collecting a weekly grab sample of water being fed to the effluent evaporator. Forty weekly samples were collected; each was analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Weekly samples were also composited at the end of each month. These flow-weighted composite samples were then analyzed for 37 radioisotopes: nine alpha-emitting isotopes, 27 beta emitters, and tritium. These monthly analyses were used to estimate the radioactive content of treated water fed to the effluent evaporator. Table 1 summarizes this information. The concentrations and quantities of radioactivity in Table 1 are for treated water fed to the evaporator. Amounts of radioactivity discharged to the environment through the evaporator stack were likely smaller since only entrained materials would exit via the evaporator stack.

  14. Treatment of phosphogypsum waste produced from phosphate ore processing.

    PubMed

    El-Didamony, H; Gado, H S; Awwad, N S; Fawzy, M M; Attallah, M F

    2013-01-15

    Phosphogypsum (PG), primary byproduct from phosphoric acid production, is accumulated in large stockpiles and occupies vast areas of land. Phosphogypsum is a technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TE-NORM) that contains radionuclides from (238)U and (232)Th decay series which are of most radio-toxicity. The reduction in concentration of radionuclides content from PG was based on leaching of (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (238)U and (40)K using tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) and tri-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) in kerosene. The factors which affect the leaching process such as contact time, concentration of the solvent and temperature were optimized. Based on the experimental results, about 92.1, 88.9, 83.4, 94.6% of (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (238)U and (40)K respectively were successfully removed from the PG. The reduction in the concentration of radionuclides was accompanied by reduction in the concentration of rare earth elements (∑REE) equals to 80.1%. Using the desired organic extractant under optimum conditions for treatment of the PG waste leads to obtain a decontaminated product that can be safely used in many industrial applications. PMID:23195600

  15. Wastewater treatment plant expansion encounters unexpected hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, J.

    1994-11-01

    On the face of it, it should have been a straightforward project. The contract provided for the expansion and upgrade of an 8-mgd wastewater treatment facility in Pottstown, Pennsylvania. Essentially, it entailed the expansion of the plant`s capacity to 15 mgd and the replacement of process tankage with activated sludge and tertiary facilities designed to achieve superior effluent quality as mandated by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources (PADER). The entire project was to have been completed in a three-year period at a cost of just over $17 million. However, the discovery of PCB contaminated soils on the site after the work had already begun led to a series of complications that ultimately turned the project into a much more arduous and costly one than could have been foreseen. The complications involved issues ranging from a determination of pollution levels, to waste disposal permitting, to compliance with OSHA standards for health and safety training, to insurance coverage, to the need to modify operating procedures and reschedule the work. As an added contingency measure, the owner of the plant, the Pottstown Borough Authority, decided to retain a hazardous materials contractor to excavate, transport, and dispose of any further contaminated soils that might be encountered later on.

  16. Sampling and Analysis Plan Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, Thomas M.

    2007-07-15

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the Saddle Mountains Basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities. Revision 3 incorporates all interim change notices (ICN) that were issued to Revision 2 prior to completion of sampling and analysis activities for the WTP Seismic Boreholes Project. This revision also incorporates changes to the exact number of samples submitted for dynamic testing as directed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Revision 3 represents the final version of the SAP.

  17. Dual Torch Plasma Arc Furnace for Medical Waste Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Kikuchi, M.; Li, Heping; Iwao, T.; Inaba, T.

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, characteristics of a dual torch plasma arc used for hazardous waste treatment and operated at atmospheric pressure are studied, and also compared with those of the multi-torch plasma arc and the single torch plasma arc. The dual torch plasma arc is generated between the cathode and anode with argon as the working gas. The temperature distributions of the plasma arc are measured using a spectroscope and line pair method with the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) for the DC arc current I = 100 A and argon flow rate Q = 15 slpm. The measurements show that the temperatures of the dual torch arc plasma in the regions near the cathode, the anode and the center point are 10,000 K, 11,000 K and 9,000 K, respectively. And the high temperature region of the multi torch plasma arc is of double or much wider size than that of a conventional dual torch plasma arc and single plasma torch. Based on the preceding studies, a dual torch plasma arc furnace is developed in this study. The measured gas temperature at the center region of the argon arc is about 11,000 K for the case of I = 200 A and Q = 30 slpm operated in atmosphere.

  18. Utilization of Waste Materials for Microbial Carrier in Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Le, H. T.; Jantarat, N.

    2016-01-01

    This research focused on the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) removal from the domestic wastewater using the attached growth reactors. Two types of waste material of corncob (biodegradable material) and concrete (nonbiodegradable material) were used as the carrier for microorganisms' attachment. During operation, both reactors achieved absolutely high performance of ammonium removal (up to 99%) and total nitrogen removal (up to 95%). The significant advantage of corncob carrier was that the corncob was able to be a source of carbon for biological denitrification, leading to no external carbon requirement for operating the system. However, the corncob caused an increasing turbidity of the effluent. On the other hand, the concrete carrier required the minimal external carbon of 3.5 C/N ratio to reach the good performance. Moreover, a longer period for microorganisms' adaptation was found in the concrete carrier rather than the corncob carrier. Further, the same physiological and biochemical characteristics of active bacteria were found at the two carriers, which were negative gram, cocci shape, and smooth and white-turbid colony. Due to the effluent quality, the concrete was more appropriate carrier than the corncob for wastewater treatment. PMID:27525274

  19. Accelerator-driven destruction of long-lived radioactive waste and energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Schriber, S.O.

    1997-12-31

    Nuclear waste management involves many issues. ATW is an option that can assist a repository by enhancing its capability and thereby assist nuclear waste management. Technology advances and the recent release of liquid metal coolant information from Russia has had an enormous impact on the viability of an ATW system. It now appears economic with many repository enhancing attributes. In time, an ATW option added to present repository activities will provide the public with a nuclear fuel cycle that is acceptable from economic and environmental points of view.

  20. Economies of density for on-site waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Eggimann, Sven; Truffer, Bernhard; Maurer, Max

    2016-09-15

    Decentralised wastewater treatment is increasingly gaining interest as a means of responding to sustainability challenges. Cost comparisons are a crucial element of any sustainability assessment. While the cost characteristics of centralised waste water management systems (WMS) have been studied extensively, the economics of decentralised WMS are less understood. A key motivation for studying the costs of decentralised WMS is to compare the cost of centralised and decentralised WMS in order to decide on cost-efficient sanitation solutions. This paper outlines a model designed to assess those costs which depend on the spatial density of decentralised wastewater treatment plants in a region. Density-related costs are mostly linked to operation and maintenance activities which depend on transportation, like sludge removal or the visits of professionals to the plants for control, servicing or repairs. We first specify a modelled cost-density relationship for a region in a geometric two-dimensional space by means of heuristic routing algorithms that consider time and load-capacity restrictions. The generic model is then applied to a Swiss case study for which we specify a broad range of modelling parameters. As a result, we identify a 'hockey-stick'-shaped cost curve that is characterised by strong cost reductions at high density values which level out at around 1 to 1.5 plants per km(2). Variations in the cost curves are mostly due to differences in management approaches (scheduled or unscheduled emptying). In addition to the well-known diseconomies of scale in the case of centralised sanitation, we find a similar generic cost behaviour for decentralised sanitation due to economies of density. Low densities in sparsely populated regions thus result in higher costs for both centralised and decentralised system. Policy implications are that efforts to introduce decentralised options in a region should consider the low-density/high-cost problem when comparing centralised

  1. Fluid dynamic demonstrations for waste retrieval and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, E.L. Jr.; Hylton, T.D.; Berry, J.B.; Cummins, R.L.; Ruppel, F.R.; Hanks, R.W.

    1994-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop or identify flow correlations for predicting the flow parameters needed for the design and operation of slurry pipeline systems for transporting radioactive waste of the type stored in the Hanford single-shell tanks and the type stored at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This was done by studying the flow characteristics of simulated waste with rheological properties similar to those of the actual waste. Chemical simulants with rheological properties similar to those of the waste stored in the Hanford single-shell tanks were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories, and simulated waste with properties similar to those of ORNL waste was developed at ORNL for use in the tests. Rheological properties and flow characteristics of the simulated slurry were studied in a test loop in which the slurry was circulated through three pipeline viscometers (constructed of 1/2-, 3/4-, and 1-in. schedule 40 pipe) at flow rates up to 35 gal/min. Runs were made with ORNL simulated waste at 54 wt % to 65 wt % total solids and temperatures of 25{degree}C and 55{degree}C. Grinding was done prior to one run to study the effect of reduced particle size. Runs were made with simulated Hanford single-shell tank waste at approximately 43 wt % total solids and at temperatures of 25{degree}C and 50{degree}C. The rheology of simulated Hanford and ORNL waste supernatant liquid was also measured.

  2. Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste and production of {sup 233}U using an accelerator-driven reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Takashita, Hirofumi; Chen, Xinyi

    1994-08-01

    Reactor safety, the disposal of high-level nuclear waste, and nonproliferation of nuclear material for military purposes are the problems of greatest concern for nuclear energy. Technologies for accelerators developed in the field of high-energy physics can contribute to solving these problems. For reactor safety, especially for that of a Na-cooled fast reactor, the use of an accelerator, even a small one, can enhance the safety using a slightly subcritical reactor. There is growing concern about how we can deal with weapons-grade Pu, and about the large amount of Pu accumulating from the operation of commercial reactors. It has been suggested that this Pu could be incinerated, using the reactor and a proton accelerator. However, because Pu is a very valuable material with future potential for generating nuclear energy, we should consider transforming it into a proliferation-resistant material that cannot be used for making bombs, rather than simply eliminating the Pu. An accelerator-driven fast reactor (700 MWt), run in a subcritical condition, and fueled with MOX can generate {sup 233}U more safely and efficiently than can a critical reactor. We evaluate the production of {sup 233}U, {sup 239}Pu, and the transmutation of the long-lived fission products of {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I, which are loaded with YH{sub 1.7} between the fast core and blanket, by reducing the conversion factor of Pu to {sup 233}U. And we assessed the rates of radiation damage, hydrogen production, and helium production in a target window and in the surrounding vessel.

  3. Report: transboundary hazardous waste management. part II: performance auditing of treatment facilities in importing countries.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tien-Chin; Ni, Shih-Piao; Fan, Kuo-Shuh; Lee, Ching-Hwa

    2006-06-01

    Before implementing the self-monitoring model programme of the Basel Convention in the Asia, Taiwan has conducted a comprehensive 4-year follow-up project to visit the governmental authorities and waste-disposal facilities in the countries that import waste from Taiwan. A total of nine treatment facilities, six of which are reported in this paper, and the five countries where the plants are located were visited in 2001-2002. France, Belgium and Finland primarily handled polychlorinated biphenyl capacitors, steel mill dust and metal waste. The United States accepted metal sludge, mainly electroplating sludge, from Taiwan. Waste printed circuit boards, waste wires and cables, and a mixture of waste metals and electronics were the major items exported to China. Relatively speaking, most treatment plants for hazardous waste paid close attention to environmental management, such as pollution control and monitoring, site zoning, system management regarding occupational safety and hygiene, data management, permits application, and image promotion. Under the tight restrictions formulated by the central environment agency, waste treatment plants in China managed the environmental issues seriously. For example, one of the treatment plants had ISO 14001 certification. It is believed that with continuous implementation of regulations, more improvement is foreseeable. Meanwhile, Taiwan and China should also continuously enhance their collaboration regarding the transboundary management of hazardous waste. PMID:16784171

  4. Steam Reforming Application for Treatment of DOE Sodium Bearing Tank Wastes at INL for ICP

    SciTech Connect

    J. Bradley Mason; Kevin Ryan; Scott Roesener; Michael Cowen; Duane Schmoker; Pat Bacala; Bill Landman

    2006-03-01

    The patented THOR® steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected as the technology of choice for treatment of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP). SBW is an acidic tank waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at INL. It consists primarily of waste from decontamination activities and laboratory wastes. SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid, alkali and aluminum nitrates, with minor amounts of many inorganic compounds including radionuclides, mainly cesium and strontium. The THOR® steam reforming process will convert the SBW tank waste feed into a dry, solid, granular product. The THOR® technology was selected to treat SBW, in part, because it can provide flexible disposal options to accommodate the final disposition path selected for SBW. THOR® can produce a final end-product that will meet anticipated requirements for disposal as Remote-Handled TRU (RH-TRU) waste; and, with modifications, THOR® can also produce a final endproduct that could be qualified for disposal as High Level Waste (HLW). SBW treatment will be take place within the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU), a new facility that will be located at the INTEC. This paper provides an overview of the THOR® process chemistry and process equipment being designed for the IWTU.

  5. Advanced waste form and Melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, James; Kim, Dong -Sang; Maio, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these “troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (also with high Al2O3 concentrations). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group. An extended duration CCIM melter test was conducted on an AZ-101 waste simulant using the CCIM platform at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The melter was continually operated for approximately 80 hours demonstrating that the AZ-101 high waste loading glass composition could be readily processed using the CCIM technology. The resulting glass was close to the targeted composition and exhibited excellent durability in both

  6. Accelerated seeded precipitation pre-treatment of municipal wastewater to reduce scaling.

    PubMed

    Sanciolo, Peter; Zou, Linda; Gray, Stephen; Leslie, Greg; Stevens, Daryl

    2008-05-01

    Membrane based treatment processes are very effective in removing salt from wastewater, but are hindered by calcium scale deposit formation. This study investigates the feasibility of removing calcium from treated sewage wastewater using accelerated seeded precipitation. The rate of calcium removal was measured during bench scale batch mode seeded precipitation experiments at pH 9.5 using various quantities of calcium carbonate as seed material. The results indicate that accelerated seeded precipitation may be a feasible option for the decrease of calcium in reverse osmosis concentrate streams during the desalination of treated sewage wastewater for irrigation purposes, promising decreased incidence of scaling and the option to control the sodium adsorption ratio and nutritional properties of the desalted water. It was found that accelerated seeded precipitation of calcium from treated sewage wastewater was largely ineffective if carried out without pre-treatment of the wastewater. Evidence was presented that suggests that phosphate may be a major interfering substance for the seeded precipitation of calcium from this type of wastewater. A pH adjustment to 9.5 followed by a 1-h equilibration period was found to be an effective pre-treatment for the removal of interferences. Calcium carbonate seed addition at 10 g l(-1) to wastewater that had been pre-treated in this way was found to result in calcium precipitation from supersaturated level at 60 mg l(-1) to saturated level at 5 mg l(-1). Approximately 90% reduction of the calcium level occurred 5 min after seed addition. A further 10% reduction was achieved 30 min after seed addition. PMID:18328536

  7. Application of transformational roasting to the treatment of metallurgical wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Preston Carl

    Transformational roasting involves the heating of a material along with specific additives to induce mineralogical changes in the starting material. By controlling the chemical composition, roasting atmosphere, temperature and time of reaction, the mineral transformations induced during roasting can be engineered to control the distribution of valuable or harmful metals and to produce new mineral assemblages that are more amenable to conventional methods of metals recovery or to environmentally safe disposal. However, to date, transformational roasting processes have only been applied to the recovery of a limited number of metals from a limited number of materials. A generalized procedure for the application of transformational roasting techniques to the treatment of new materials was proposed that utilized a combination of thermodynamic analysis, scoping tests, Design of Experiments (DOE) testing, mineralogical studies, process optimization and analysis of the deportment of minor elements to identify promising roasting systems for further study. This procedure was developed, tested and refined through the application of these techniques to four different industrial metallurgical wastes, including oil sands fly ash from Suncor in northern Alberta, zinc ferrite residue from Doe Run Peru, electric are furnace (EAF) dust from Altasteel's operations in Edmonton, Alberta, and copper-nickel-arsenic sulphide residue from Inco's refinery in Thompson, Manitoba. A large number of potential reagents were identified and tested for the latter three materials and transformational roasting was effectively used to induce mineral transformations during the roasting of these wastes which increased the solubility of valuable elements, decreased the solubility of major impurities, produced a differential solubility between valuable and harmful elements or controlled the volatilization of harmful elements. Comprehensive studies of these mineralogical transformations and the solubility

  8. Plutonium Finishing Plan (PFP) Treatment and Storage Unit Waste Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    PRIGNANO, A.L.

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document waste analysis activities associated with the Plutonium Finishing Plant Treatment and Storage Unit (PFP Treatment and Storage Unit) to comply with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-300(1), (2), (4)(a) and (5). The PFP Treatment and Storage Unit is an interim status container management unit for plutonium bearing mixed waste radiologically managed as transuranic (TRU) waste. TRU mixed (TRUM) waste managed at the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit is destined for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and therefore is not subject to land disposal restrictions [WAC 173-303-140 and 40 CFR 268]. The PFP Treatment and Storage Unit is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland Washington (Figure 1). Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  9. Second international symposium on extraction and processing for the treatment and minimization of wastes - 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, V.; Nesbitt, C.C.

    1996-12-31

    This volume contains 71 papers presented at the Second International symposium on Extraction and Processing for the Treatment and Minimization of Wastes. 21 papers were selected for the database. The papers selected covered topics in chemical, environmental, and mechanical engineering related to radioactive and nonradioactive wastes. Specific topics include spent catalyst processing of petroleum refinery wastes; redox alloy for water treatment; thermodynamic modeling of uranium fluoride waste processing; calcination of radioactive wastes; geochemical modeling of radioactive waste processing; removal and/or stabilization of arsenic, selenium, mercury, lead and other metals from soils and ground water; pond dredging and dewatering; options for complying with water quality based metal limitations; removal of thorium from ilmenite; and electroslag remelting of fusion reactor vanadium alloy.

  10. FORUM ON INNOVATIVE HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES: DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a result of the high level of interest in innovative hazardous waste control technologies, U.S. EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) and Risk Reduction Engineering Lab (RREL) jointly conducted this conference. he conference consisted of presentations of t...

  11. Progress for the treatment of the combustible portion of domestic waste for briquetting and apparatus therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Riemann, H.H.; Sonneschein, H.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for the treatment of the combustible portion of crushed domestic waste is disclosed. The waste is pre-dried and separated from dense-medium material such as metal and glass prior to processing. A dried waste moisture level of about 8-10% is maintained throughout the process. High heat value briquets are produced without the addition of a bonding agent by sifting out fine inert material and plastic material prior to briquetting.

  12. A Thorium/Uranium fuel cycle for an advanced accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste concept

    SciTech Connect

    Truebenbach, M.T.; Henderson, D.L.; Venneri, F.

    1993-12-31

    Utilizing the high thermal neutron flux of an accelerator driven transmuter to drive a Thorium-Uranium fuel production scheme, it is possible to produce enough energy in the transmuter not only to power the accelerator, but to have enough excess power available for commercial use. A parametric study has been initiated to determine the ``optimum`` equilibrium operation point in terms of the minimization of the equilibrium actinide inventory and the fuel {alpha} for various residence times in the High Flux Region (HFR) and in the Low Flux Region (LFR). For the cases considered, the ``optimum`` equilibrium operation point was achieved for a HFR residence time of 45 days and a LFR residence time of 60 days. For this case, the total actinide inventory in the system is about 20 tonnes and the fuel {alpha} approximately 1.46.

  13. Modeling Hydrogen Generation Rates in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Camaioni, Donald M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Sherwood, David J.; Stock, Leon M.

    2004-03-29

    This presentation describes a project in which Hanford Site and Environmental Management Science Program investigators addressed issues concerning hydrogen generation rates in the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant. The hydrogen generation rates of radioactive wastes must be estimated to provide for safe operations. While an existing model satisfactorily predicts rates for quiescent wastes in Hanford underground storage tanks, pretreatment operations will alter the conditions and chemical composition of these wastes. Review of the treatment process flowsheet identified specific issues requiring study to ascertain whether the model would provide conservative values for waste streams in the plant. These include effects of adding hydroxide ion, alpha radiolysis, saturation with air (oxygen) from pulse-jet mixing, treatment with potassium permanganate, organic compounds from degraded ion exchange resins and addition of glass-former chemicals. The effects were systematically investigated through literature review, technical analyses and experimental work.

  14. HIGH TEMPERATURE TREATMENT OF INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES - SIA RADON EXPERIENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, I.A.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Lifanov, F.A.; Kobelev, A.P.; Popkov, V.N.; Polkanov, M.A.; Savkin, A.E.; Varlakov, A.P.; Karlin, S.V.; Stefanovsky, S.V.; Karlina, O.K.; Semenov, K.N.

    2003-02-27

    This review describes high temperature methods of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) treatment currently used at SIA Radon. Solid and liquid organic and mixed organic and inorganic wastes are subjected to plasma heating in a shaft furnace with formation of stable leach resistant slag suitable for disposal in near-surface repositories. Liquid inorganic radioactive waste is vitrified in a cold crucible based plant with borosilicate glass productivity up to 75 kg/h. Radioactive silts from settlers are heat-treated at 500-700 0C in electric furnace forming cake following by cake crushing, charging into 200 L barrels and soaking with cement grout. Various thermochemical technologies for decontamination of metallic, asphalt, and concrete surfaces, treatment of organic wastes (spent ion-exchange resins, polymers, medical and biological wastes), batch vitrification of incinerator ashes, calcines, spent inorganic sorbents, contaminated soil, treatment of carbon containing 14C nuclide, reactor graphite, lubricants have been developed and implemented.

  15. Mixed Waste Treatment Cost Analysis for a Range of GeoMelt Vitrification Process Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L. E.

    2002-02-27

    GeoMelt is a batch vitrification process used for contaminated site remediation and waste treatment. GeoMelt can be applied in several different configurations ranging from deep subsurface in situ treatment to aboveground batch plants. The process has been successfully used to treat a wide range of contaminated wastes and debris including: mixed low-level radioactive wastes; mixed transuranic wastes; polychlorinated biphenyls; pesticides; dioxins; and a range of heavy metals. Hypothetical cost estimates for the treatment of mixed low-level radioactive waste were prepared for the GeoMelt subsurface planar and in-container vitrification methods. The subsurface planar method involves in situ treatment and the in-container vitrification method involves treatment in an aboveground batch plant. The projected costs for the subsurface planar method range from $355-$461 per ton. These costs equate to 18-20 cents per pound. The projected cost for the in-container method is $1585 per ton. This cost equates to 80 cents per pound. These treatment costs are ten or more times lower than the treatment costs for alternative mixed waste treatment technologies according to a 1996 study by the US Department of Energy.

  16. On-site or off-site treatment of medical waste: a challenge.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Hassan; Mohammadyarei, Taher; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohamad; Asl Hashemi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Treating hazardous-infectious medical waste can be carried out on-site or off-site of health-care establishments. Nevertheless, the selection between on-site and off-site locations for treating medical waste sometimes is a controversial subject. Currently in Iran, due to policies of Health Ministry, the hospitals have selected on-site-treating method as the preferred treatment. The objectives of this study were to assess the current condition of on-site medical waste treatment facilities, compare on-site medical waste treatment facilities with off-site systems and find the best location of medical waste treatment. To assess the current on-site facilities, four provinces (and 40 active hospitals) were selected to participate in the survey. For comparison of on-site and off-site facilities (due to non availability of an installed off-site facility) Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was employed. The result indicated that most on-site medical waste treating systems have problems in financing, planning, determining capacity of installations, operation and maintenance. AHP synthesis (with inconsistency ratio of 0.01 < 0.1) revealed that, in total, the off-site treatment of medical waste was in much higher priority than the on-site treatment (64.1% versus 35.9%). According to the results of study it was concluded that the off-site central treatment can be considered as an alternative. An amendment could be made to Iran's current medical waste regulations to have infectious-hazardous waste sent to a central off-site installation for treatment. To begin and test this plan and also receive the official approval, a central off-site can be put into practice, at least as a pilot in one province. Next, if it was practically successful, it could be expanded to other provinces and cities. PMID:24739145

  17. Dynamic analysis of an accelerator-driven fluid-fueled subcritical radioactive waste burning system

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, M.L. Jr.; Rydin, R.A.

    1998-05-01

    The recent revival of interest in accelerator-driven subcritical fluid-fueled systems is documented. Several important applications of these systems are mentioned, and this is used to motivate the need for dynamic analysis of the nuclear kinetics of such systems. A physical description of the Los alamos National Laboratory accelerator-based conversion (ABC) concept is provided. This system is used as the basis for the kinetics study in this research. The current approach to the dynamic simulation of an accelerator-driven subcritical fluid-fueled system includes four functional elements: a discrete ordinates model is used to calculate the flux distribution for the source-driven system; a nodal convection model is used to calculate time-dependent isotope and temperature distributions that impact reactivity; a nodal importance weighting model is used to calculate the reactivity impact of temperature and isotope distributions and to feed this information back to the time-dependent nodal convection model; and a transient driver is used to simulate transients, model the balance of plant, and record simulation data. Specific transients that have been analyzed with the current modeling system are discussed. These transients include loss-of-flow and loss-of-cooling accidents, xenon and samarium transients, and cold-plug and overfueling events. The results of various transients have uncovered unpredictable behavior, unresolved design issues, and the need for active control. The need for the development of a nodal-coupling spatial kinetics model is mentioned.

  18. Effect of co-managing organic waste using municipal wastewater and solid waste treatment systems in megacities.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Mizuno, Tadao

    2014-01-01

    A model was developed to calculate the mass and heat balances of wastewater and municipal solid waste treatment plants when these plants operate either separately or together with a mutual dependence on mass and energy. Then the energy consumption, life cycle costs (LCCs), greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and effluent quality were evaluated under various scenarios to identify the most effective co-management and treatment system. The results indicated that co-digestion of kitchen waste and sewage sludge, and their co-combustion reduced LCCs by 30%, energy consumption by 54% and GHG emissions by 41% compared to the base case. However, co-digestion increased the total nitrogen load in the wastewater treatment plant effluent. Even if an advanced wastewater treatment system was applied to improve total nitrogen concentration, the above indicators were affected but still reduced compared to the base case. Therefore, it was confirmed that the integrated system was beneficial for megacities. PMID:24647179

  19. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval And Delivery Of The Hanford Tank Wastes For Vitrification In The Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, Benton J.; Kacich, Richard M.; Skwarek, Raymond J.

    2012-12-20

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank

  20. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval and Delivery of Hanford Tank Wastes for Vitrification in the Waste Treatment Plant - 13234

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, Benton J.; Kacich, Richard M.; Skwarek, Raymond J.

    2013-07-01

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety-conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank

  1. Biological Information Document, Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, J.

    1995-12-31

    This document is intended to act as a baseline source material for risk assessments which can be used in Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. The current Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) does not meet current General Design Criteria for Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities and could be shut down affecting several DOE programs. This Biological Information Document summarizes various biological studies that have been conducted in the vicinity of new Proposed RLWTF site and an Alternative site. The Proposed site is located on Mesita del Buey, a mess top, and the Alternative site is located in Mortandad Canyon. The Proposed Site is devoid of overstory species due to previous disturbance and is dominated by a mixture of grasses, forbs, and scattered low-growing shrubs. Vegetation immediately adjacent to the site is a pinyon-juniper woodland. The Mortandad canyon bottom overstory is dominated by ponderosa pine, willow, and rush. The south-facing slope was dominated by ponderosa pine, mountain mahogany, oak, and muhly. The north-facing slope is dominated by Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and oak. Studies on wildlife species are limited in the vicinity of the proposed project and further studies will be necessary to accurately identify wildlife populations and to what extent they utilize the project area. Some information is provided on invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, and small mammals. Additional species information from other nearby locations is discussed in detail. Habitat requirements exist in the project area for one federally threatened wildlife species, the peregrine falcon, and one federal candidate species, the spotted bat. However, based on surveys outside of the project area but in similar habitats, these species are not expected to occur in either the Proposed or Alternative RLWTF sites. Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate ecological functioning in the project area.

  2. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-02-28

    In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the

  3. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  4. Bioaugmentation for the treatment of oilfield drilling waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, T.P.

    1997-06-01

    Disposal of oilfield drilling pit waste is a problem for the petroleum industry. In the past, drilling pits were covered with dirt of the waste was excavated and hauled to a landfill. Bioremediation can clean-up the waste and save the oilfield drillers money and headaches. Bioremediation is the technique of using microbes capable of metabolizing hydrocarbons into environmentally safe water and carbon dioxide. Drilling companies can utilize bioremediation to treat the petroleum wastes in-situ rather than transport the waste. BioGEE has developed a procedure to use in-situ bioremediation on drilling wastes. After environmental conditions are adjusted, hydrocarbon degrading microbes and nutrients are applied. Drilling wastes consist primarily of hydrocarbons. An average well has a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) level of 44,880 PPM. Using BioGEE`s bioremediation technology, TPH levels have successfully been lowered to below the maximum allowable level of 10,000 PPM to 6,486 PPM of TPH in 47 days.

  5. Inventory and treatment of compost maturation emissions in a municipal solid waste treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Dorado, Antonio D; Husni, Shafik; Pascual, Guillem; Puigdellivol, Carles; Gabriel, David

    2014-02-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the compost maturation building in a municipal solid waste treatment facility were inventoried by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A large diversity of chemical classes and compounds were found. The highest concentrations were found for n-butanol, methyl ethyl ketone and limonene (ppmv level). Also, a range of compounds exceeded their odor threshold evidencing that treatment was needed. Performance of a chemical scrubber followed by two parallel biofilters packed with an advanced packing material and treating an average airflow of 99,300 m(3) h(-1) was assessed in the treatment of the VOCs inventoried. Performance of the odor abatement system was evaluated in terms of removal efficiency by comparing inlet and outlet abundances. Outlet concentrations of selected VOCs permitted to identify critical odorants emitted to the atmosphere. In particular, limonene was found as the most critical VOC in the present study. Only six compounds from the odorant group were removed with efficiencies higher than 90%. Low removal efficiencies were found for most of the compounds present in the emission showing a significant relation with their chemical properties (functionality and solubility) and operational parameters (temperature, pH and inlet concentration). Interestingly, benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol were found to be produced in the treatment system. PMID:24326160

  6. A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN616). Camera facing southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN-616). Camera facing southwest. Oblique view of east and north walls. Note three corrugated pipes at lower left indicating location of underground hot waste storage tanks. Photographer: Ron Paarmann. Date: September 22, 1997. INEEL negative no. HD-20-1-4 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. 40 CFR 268.43 - Treatment standards expressed as waste concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... concentrations. 268.43 Section 268.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID... as waste concentrations. For the requirements previously found in this section and for treatment standards in Table CCW—Constituent Concentrations in Wastes, refer to § 268.40....

  8. 40 CFR 268.43 - Treatment standards expressed as waste concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... concentrations. 268.43 Section 268.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID... as waste concentrations. For the requirements previously found in this section and for treatment standards in Table CCW—Constituent Concentrations in Wastes, refer to § 268.40....

  9. 40 CFR 268.43 - Treatment standards expressed as waste concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... concentrations. 268.43 Section 268.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID... as waste concentrations. For the requirements previously found in this section and for treatment standards in Table CCW—Constituent Concentrations in Wastes, refer to § 268.40....

  10. Waste Treatment in the Undergraduate Laboratory: Let the Students Do It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, John J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents the details of a waste treatment experiment that enables students to employ much of the chemistry they have learned in class to solve a real chemical problem. Heightens students' awareness of the potential environmental impact associated with the waste they have generated. Contains 21 references. (JRH)

  11. 40 CFR 268.43 - Treatment standards expressed as waste concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concentrations. 268.43 Section 268.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID... as waste concentrations. For the requirements previously found in this section and for treatment standards in Table CCW—Constituent Concentrations in Wastes, refer to § 268.40....

  12. 40 CFR 268.43 - Treatment standards expressed as waste concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... concentrations. 268.43 Section 268.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID... as waste concentrations. For the requirements previously found in this section and for treatment standards in Table CCW—Constituent Concentrations in Wastes, refer to § 268.40....

  13. Project Execution Plan for the River Protection Project Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    MELLINGER, G.B.

    2003-05-03

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), Project W-530, is the cornerstone in the mission of the Hanford Site's cleanup of more than 50 million gallons of highly toxic, high-level radioactive waste contained in aging underground storage tanks.

  14. Treatment with 5-Azacytidine Accelerates Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Leukemogenesis in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Scaglioni, Pier Paolo; Cai, Lu Fan; Majid, Samia M.; Yung, Thomas M.; Socci, Nicholas D.; Kogan, Scott C.; Kopelovich, Levy; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A key oncogenic force in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is the ability of the promyelocytic leukemia–retinoic acid receptor α (PML-RARA) oncoprotein to recruit transcriptional repressors and DNA methyltransferases at retinoic acid–responsive elements. Pharmacological doses of retinoic acid relieve transcriptional repression inducing terminal differentiation/apoptosis of the leukemic blasts. APL blasts often harbor additional recurrent chromosomal abnormalities, and significantly, APL prevalence is increased in Latino populations. These observations suggest that multiple genetic and environmental/dietary factors are likely implicated in APL. We tested whether dietary or targeted chemopreventive strategies relieving PML-RARA transcriptional repression would be effective in a transgenic mouse model. Surprisingly, we found that 1) treatment with a demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine, results in a striking acceleration of APL; 2) a high fat, low folate/choline–containing diet resulted in a substantial but nonsignificant APL acceleration; and 3) all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is ineffective in preventing leukemia and results in ATRA-resistant APL. Our findings have important clinical implications because ATRA is a drug of choice for APL treatment and indicate that global demethylation, whether through dietary manipulations or through the use of a pharmacologic agent such as 5-azacytidine, may have unintended and detrimental consequences in chemopreventive regimens. PMID:21779489

  15. Accelerating the development of improved analgesic treatments: the ACTION public-private partnership.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Robert H; Turk, Dennis C

    2011-07-01

    There has been considerable progress identifying pathophysiologic mechanisms of neuropathic pain, but analgesic medications with improved efficacy, safety, and tolerability still represent an unmet public health need. Numerous treatments examined in recent randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have failed to show efficacy for neuropathic pain, including treatments that had previously demonstrated efficacy. This suggests that at least some negative results reflect limited assay sensitivity of RCTs to distinguish efficacious treatments from placebo. Patient characteristics, clinical trial research designs and methods, outcome measures, approaches to data analysis, and statistical power may all play a role in accounting for difficulties in demonstrating the benefits of efficacious analgesic treatments vs placebo. The identification of specific clinical trial characteristics associated with assay sensitivity in existing data has the potential to provide an evidence-based approach to the design of analgesic clinical trials. The US Food and Drug Administration recently launched the Analgesic Clinical Trial Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTION) public-private partnership, which is designed to facilitate the discovery and development of analgesics with improved efficacy, safety, and tolerability for acute and chronic pain conditions. ACTION will establish a collaborative effort to prioritize research objectives, develop a standardized analgesic database platform, and conduct methodologically focused studies to increase the assay sensitivity and efficiency of analgesic clinical trials. The results of these activities have the potential to inform and accelerate the development of improved pain management interventions of all types, not just pharmacologic treatments. PMID:21752182

  16. REMEDIAL ACTION, TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTE: PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTEENTH ANNUAL HAZARDOUS WASTE RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sixteenth Annual Research Symposium on Remedial Action, Treatment and Disposal of Hazardous Waste was held in Cincinnati, Ohio, April 3-5, 1990. he purpose of this Symposium was to present the latest significant research findings from ongoing and recently completed projects f...

  17. REMEDIAL ACTION, TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTE: PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL HAZARDOUS WASTE RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Seventeenth Annual RREL Research Symposium on Remedial Action, Treatment and Disposal of Hazardous Waste was held in Cincinnati, Ohio, April 9-11, 1991. he purpose of this Symposium was to present the latest significant research findings from ongoing and recently completed pr...

  18. Treatment of radioactive laboratory waste for mercury removal

    SciTech Connect

    Osteen, A.B.; Bibler, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Routine analyses of Savannah River Laboratory wastes at the Savannah River Site occasionally reveal mercury concentrations in the waste in excess of the 0.200 {mu}g/L RCRA limit. An ion exchange resin has been demonstrated to be effective for the removal of dissolved mercury from laboratory waste in a special permitted project. The ion exchange material is Duolite{trademark} GT-73, a polystyrene/divinylbenzene resin with thiol functional groups. As a result of the decontamination demonstration, the resin is in use or under consideration for use with several other SRS radwaste streams as a reliable medium for mercury removal.

  19. Treatment of radioactive laboratory waste for mercury removal. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Osteen, A.B.; Bibler, J.P.

    1990-12-31

    Routine analyses of Savannah River Laboratory wastes at the Savannah River Site occasionally reveal mercury concentrations in the waste in excess of the 0.200 {mu}g/L RCRA limit. An ion exchange resin has been demonstrated to be effective for the removal of dissolved mercury from laboratory waste in a special permitted project. The ion exchange material is Duolite{trademark} GT-73, a polystyrene/divinylbenzene resin with thiol functional groups. As a result of the decontamination demonstration, the resin is in use or under consideration for use with several other SRS radwaste streams as a reliable medium for mercury removal.

  20. Proposal of an environmental performance index to assess solid waste treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Goulart Coelho, Hosmanny Mauro; Lange, Lisete Celina; Coelho, Lineker Max Goulart

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proposal of a new concept in waste management: Cleaner Treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of an index to assess quantitatively waste treatment technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Delphi Method was carried out so as to define environmental indicators. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental performance evaluation of waste-to-energy plants. - Abstract: Although the concern with sustainable development and environment protection has considerably grown in the last years it is noted that the majority of decision making models and tools are still either excessively tied to economic aspects or geared to the production process. Moreover, existing models focus on the priority steps of solid waste management, beyond waste energy recovery and disposal. So, in order to help the lack of models and tools aiming at the waste treatment and final disposal, a new concept is proposed: the Cleaner Treatment, which is based on the Cleaner Production principles. This paper focuses on the development and validation of the Cleaner Treatment Index (CTI), to assess environmental performance of waste treatment technologies based on the Cleaner Treatment concept. The index is formed by aggregation (summation or product) of several indicators that consists in operational parameters. The weights of the indicator were established by Delphi Method and Brazilian Environmental Laws. In addition, sensitivity analyses were carried out comparing both aggregation methods. Finally, index validation was carried out by applying the CTI to 10 waste-to-energy plants data. From sensitivity analysis and validation results it is possible to infer that summation model is the most suitable aggregation method. For summation method, CTI results were superior to 0.5 (in a scale from 0 to 1) for most facilities evaluated. So, this study demonstrates that CTI is a simple and robust tool to assess and compare the environmental performance of different

  1. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project. Executive summary: Volume 1, Program summary information; Volume 2, Waste stream technical summary: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. The engineering studies, initiated in July 1991, identified 37 mixed waste streams, and 55 low-level waste streams. This report documents the waste stream information and potential treatment strategies, as well as the regulatory requirements for the Department of Energy-owned treatment facility option. The total report comprises three volumes and two appendices. This report consists of Volume 1, which explains the overall program mission, the guiding assumptions for the engineering studies, and summarizes the waste stream and regulatory information, and Volume 2, the Waste Stream Technical Summary which, encompasses the studies conducted to identify the INEL`s waste streams and their potential treatment strategies.

  2. Pyrolysis Autoclave Technology Demonstration Program for Treatment of DOE Solidified Organic Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Roesener, W.S.; Mason, J.B.; Ryan, K.; Bryson, S.; Eldredge, H.B.

    2006-07-01

    In the summer of 2005, MSE Technologies Applications, Inc. (MSE) and THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT) conducted a demonstration test of the Thermal Organic Reduction (THOR{sup sm}) in-drum pyrolysis autoclave system under contract to the Department of Energy. The purpose of the test was to demonstrate that the THOR{sup sm} pyrolysis autoclave system could successfully treat solidified organic waste to remove organics from the waste drums. The target waste was created at Rocky Flats and currently resides at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Removing the organics from these drums would allow them to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for disposal. Two drums of simulated organic setup waste were successfully treated. The simulated waste was virtually identical to the expected waste except for the absence of radioactive components. The simulated waste included carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, Texaco Regal oil, and other organics mixed with calcium silicate and Portland cement stabilization agents. The two-stage process consisted of the THOR{sup sm} electrically heated pyrolysis autoclave followed by the MSE off gas treatment system. The treatment resulted in a final waste composition that meets the requirements for WIPP transportation and disposal. There were no detectable volatile organic compounds in the treated solid residues. The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) for total organics in the two drums ranged from >99.999% to >99.9999%. The operation of the process proved to be easily controllable using the pyrolysis autoclave heaters. Complete treatment of a fully loaded surrogate waste drum including heat-up and cooldown took place over a two-day period. This paper discusses the results of the successful pyrolysis autoclave demonstration testing. (authors)

  3. Analyzing Nuclear Fuel Cycles from Isotopic Ratios of Waste Products Applicable to Measurement by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Biegalski, S R; Whitney, S M; Buchholz, B

    2005-08-24

    An extensive study was conducted to determine isotopic ratios of nuclides in spent fuel that may be utilized to reveal historical characteristics of a nuclear reactor cycle. This forensic information is important to determine the origin of unknown nuclear waste. The distribution of isotopes in waste products provides information about a nuclear fuel cycle, even when the isotopes of uranium and plutonium are removed through chemical processing. Several different reactor cycles of the PWR, BWR, CANDU, and LMFBR were simulated for this work with the ORIGEN-ARP and ORIGEN 2.2 codes. The spent fuel nuclide concentrations of these reactors were analyzed to find the most informative isotopic ratios indicative of irradiation cycle length and reactor design. Special focus was given to long-lived and stable fission products that would be present many years after their creation. For such nuclides, mass spectrometry analysis methods often have better detection limits than classic gamma-ray spectroscopy. The isotopic ratios {sup 151}Sm/{sup 146}Sm, {sup 149}Sm/{sup 146}Sm, and {sup 244}Cm/{sup 246}Cm were found to be good indicators of fuel cycle length and are well suited for analysis by accelerator mass spectroscopy.

  4. Modelling of environmental impacts from biological treatment of organic municipal waste in EASEWASTE.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Alessio; Neidel, Trine Lund; Damgaard, Anders; Bhander, Gurbakhash S; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-04-01

    The waste-LCA model EASEWASTE quantifies potential environmental effects from biological treatment of organic waste, based on mass and energy flows, emissions to air, water, soil and groundwater as well as effects from upstream and downstream processes. Default technologies for composting, anaerobic digestion and combinations hereof are available in the model, but the user can change all key parameters in the biological treatment module so that specific local plants and processes can be modelled. EASEWASTE is one of the newest waste LCA models and the biological treatment module was built partly on features of earlier waste-LCA models, but offers additional facilities, more flexibility, transparency and user-friendliness. The paper presents the main features of the module and provides some examples illustrating the capability of the model in environmentally assessing and discriminating the environmental performance of alternative biological treatment technologies in relation to their mass flows, energy consumption, gaseous emissions, biogas recovery and compost/digestate utilization. PMID:21169006

  5. Numerical simulation of plasma treatment of charge used in vitrification of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Krasovskaya, L.I.; Svidunovich, N.A.; Vasil`kov, V.E.

    1995-12-01

    The process of plasma treatment of charge used in vitrification of radioactive wastes is simulated numerically. Optimum conditions providing heating of particles in the charge to vitrification temperatures are determined for a 200-k W reactor.

  6. FY 1995 separation studies for liquid low-level waste treatment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D.; Burgess, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    During FY 1995, studies were continued to develop improved methods for centralized treatment of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Focus in this reporting period was on (1) identifying the parameters that affect the selective removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, two of the principal radioactive contaminants expected in the waste; (2) validating the effectiveness of the treatment methods by testing an ac Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate; (3) evaluating the optimum solid/liquid separation techniques for the waste; (4) identifying potential treatment methods for removal of technetium from LLLW; and (5) identifying potential methods for stabilizing the high-activity secondary solid wastes generated by the treatment.

  7. SELENIUM TREATMENT/REMOVAL ALTERNATIVES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM ACTIVITY III, PROJECT 20

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the final report for EPA's Mine WAste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 20--Selenium Treatment/Removal Alternatives Demonstration project. Selenium contamination originates from many sources including mining operations, mineral processing, abandoned...

  8. CONTROL OF CHELATOR-BASED UPSETS IN SURFACE FINISHING SHOP WASTE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Actual surface finishing shop examples are used to illustrate the use of process chemistry understanding and analyses to identify immediate, interim and permanent response options for industrial waste water treatment plant (IWTP) upset problems caused by chelating agents. There i...

  9. Site-Specific Seismic Site Response Model for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, Alan C.; Reidel, Steve P.

    2005-02-24

    This interim report documents the collection of site-specific geologic and geophysical data characterizing the Waste Treatment Plant site and the modeling of the site-specific structure response to earthquake ground motions.

  10. TOXICITY APPROACHES TO ASSESSING MINING IMPACTS AND MINE WASTE TREATMENT EFFECTIVENESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Office of Research and Development's National Exposure Research Laboratory and National Risk Management Research Laboratory have been evaluating the impact of mining sites on receiving streams and the effectiveness of waste treatment technologies in removing toxicity fo...

  11. Integrated Passive Biological Treatment System/ Mine Waste Technology Program Report #16

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 16, Integrated, Passive Biological Treatment System, funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the United States Depar...

  12. Role of thermochemical conversion in livestock waste-to-energy treatments: Obstacles and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrating thermochemical conversion (TCC) technologies with current animal waste treatment practices can treat and reduce quantities of manure from consolidated animal feeding operations. Additionally, TCC technologies can produce value-added, renewable energy products. These products can meet hea...

  13. Department of Energy treatment capabilities for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Morrell, D.K.; Fischer, D.K.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides brief profiles for 26 low-level and high-level waste treatment capabilities available at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Plant (WVDP). Six of the treatments have potential use for greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW). They include: (a) the glass ceramic process and (b) the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility incinerator at INEL; (c) the Super Compaction and Repackaging Facility and (d) microwave melting solidification at RFP; (e) the vitrification plant at SRS; and (f) the vitrification plant at WVDP. No individual treatment has the capability to treat all GTCC LLW streams. It is recommended that complete physical and chemical characterizations be performed for each GTCC waste stream, to permit using multiple treatments for GTCC LLW.

  14. Advanced waste form and melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, James; Kim, Dong -Sang; Maio, Vincent

    2015-09-02

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these "troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approached to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.

  15. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-27

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  16. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, andradionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

    2004-06-15

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel.

  17. Treatment of Asbestos Wastes Using the GeoMelt Vitrification Process

    SciTech Connect

    Finucane, K.G.; Thompson, L.E.; Abuku, T.; Nakauchi, H.

    2008-07-01

    The disposal of waste asbestos from decommissioning activities is becoming problematic in countries which have limited disposal space. A particular challenge is the disposal of asbestos wastes from the decommissioning of nuclear sites because some of it is radioactively contaminated or activated and disposal space for such wastes is limited. GeoMelt{sup R} vitrification is being developed as a treatment method for volume and toxicity minimization and radionuclide immobilization for UK radioactive asbestos mixed waste. The common practice to date for asbestos wastes is disposal in licensed landfills. In some cases, compaction techniques are used to minimize the disposal space requirements. However, such practices are becoming less practical. Social pressures have resulted in changes to disposal regulations which, in turn, have resulted in the closure of some landfills and increased disposal costs. In the UK, tens of thousands of tonnes of asbestos waste will result from the decommissioning of nuclear sites over the next 20 years. In Japan, it is estimated that over 40 million tonnes of asbestos materials used in construction will require disposal. Methods for the safe and cost effective volume reduction of asbestos wastes are being evaluated for many sites. The GeoMelt{sup R} vitrification process is being demonstrated at full-scale in Japan for the Japan Ministry of Environment and plans are being developed for the GeoMelt treatment of UK nuclear site decommissioning-related asbestos wastes. The full-scale treatment operations in Japan have also included contaminated soils and debris. The GeoMelt{sup R} vitrification process result in the maximum possible volume reduction, destroys the asbestos fibers, treats problematic debris associated with asbestos wastes, and immobilizes radiological contaminants within the resulting glass matrix. Results from recent full-scale treatment operations in Japan are discussed and plans for GeoMelt treatment of UK nuclear site

  18. Accelerated carbonation using municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater: Performance evaluation and reaction kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, E-E; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Yang, Liuhanzi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Kim, Hyunook; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Carbonation was performed using CO{sub 2}, wastewater and bottom ash in a slurry reactor. • A maximum capture capacity of 102 g CO{sub 2} per kg BA was achieved at mild conditions. • A maximum carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was predicted to be 95% by RSM. • The CO{sub 2} emission from Bali incinerator could be expected to reduce by 6480 ton/y. • The process energy consumption per ton CO{sub 2} captured was estimated to be 180 kW h. - Abstract: Accelerated carbonation of alkaline wastes including municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWI-BA) and the cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was investigated for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) fixation under different operating conditions, i.e., reaction time, CO{sub 2} concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, particle size, and CO{sub 2} flow rate. The MSWI-BA before and after carbonation process were analyzed by the thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The MSWI-BA exhibits a high carbonation conversion of 90.7%, corresponding to a CO{sub 2} fixation capacity of 102 g per kg of ash. Meanwhile, the carbonation kinetics was evaluated by the shrinking core model. In addition, the effect of different operating parameters on carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was statistically evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) using experimental data to predict the maximum carbonation conversion. Furthermore, the amount of CO{sub 2} reduction and energy consumption for operating the proposed process in refuse incinerator were estimated. Capsule abstract: CO{sub 2} fixation process by alkaline wastes including bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater was developed, which should be a viable method due to high conversion.

  19. Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Waste treatment by dialysis. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of dialysis in the treatment of wastewaters. Techniques for the removal of metals, ammonia, waste acids, nitrates, and phosphates are described. Special attention is given to the desalination of liquid wastes. Applications of this technology to the treatment of effluent from the agrochemical, petrochemical, tanning, and electroplating industries are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Waste treatment by dialysis. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of dialysis in the treatment of wastewaters. Techniques for the removal of metals, ammonia, waste acids, nitrates, and phosphates are described. Special attention is given to the desalination of liquid wastes. Applications of this technology to the treatment of effluent from the agrochemical, petrochemical, tanning, and electroplating industries are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 60 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Mechanical-biological waste treatment and the associated occupational hygiene in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Tolvanen, Outi K. . E-mail: outolvan@bytl.jyu.fi; Haenninen, Kari I.

    2006-07-01

    A special feature of waste management in Finland has been the emphasis on the source separation of kitchen biowaste (catering waste); more than two-thirds of the Finnish population participates in this separation. Source-separated biowaste is usually treated by composting. The biowaste of about 5% of the population is handled by mechanical-biological treatment. A waste treatment plant at Mustasaari is the only plant in Finland using digestion for kitchen biowaste. For the protection of their employees, the plant owners commissioned a study on environmental factors and occupational hygiene in the plant area. During 1998-2000 the concentrations of dust, microbes and endotoxins and noise levels were investigated to identify possible problems at the plant. Three different work areas were investigated: the pre-processing and crushing hall, the bioreactor hall and the drying hall. Employees were asked about work-related health problems. Some problems with occupational hygiene were identified: concentrations of microbes and endotoxins may increase to levels harmful to health during waste crushing and in the bioreactor hall. Because employees complained of symptoms such as dry cough and rash or itching appearing once or twice a month, it is advisable to use respirator masks (class P3) during dusty working phases. The noise level in the drying hall exceeded the Finnish threshold value of 85 dBA. Qualitatively harmful factors for the health of employees are similar in all closed waste treatment plants in Finland. Quantitatively, however, the situation at the Mustasaari treatment plant is better than at some Finnish dry waste treatment plants. Therefore is reasonable to conclude that mechanical sorting, which produces a dry waste fraction for combustion and a biowaste fraction for anaerobic treatment, is in terms of occupational hygiene better for employees than combined aerobic treatment and dry waste treatment.

  5. Mixed waste treatment using the ChemChar thermolytic detoxification technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchynka, D.

    1995-10-01

    The diversity of mixed waste matrices contained at Department of Energy sites that require treatment preclude a single, universal treatment technology capable of handling sludges, solids, heterogeneous debris, aqueous and organic liquids and soils. This report describes the ChemChar thermolytic detoxification process. The process is a thermal, chemically reductive technology that converts the organic portion of mixed wastes to a synthesis gas, while simultaneously absorbing volatile inorganics on a carbon-based char.

  6. [Linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiation treatment of patients with medial middle fossa meningiomas].

    PubMed

    Golanov, A V; Cherekaev, V A; Serova, N K; Pronin, I N; Gorlachev, G E; Kotel'nikova, T M; Podoprigora, A E; Kudriavtseva, P A; Galkin, M V

    2010-01-01

    Medial middle fossa meningiomas are challenging for neurosurgical treatment. Invasion of cranial nerves and vessels leads to high risk of complications after removal of such meningiomas. Currently methods of conformal stereotactic radiation treatment are applied wider and wider for the discussed lesions. During a 3.5-year period 80 patients with medial middle fossa meningiomas were treated in Burdenko Moscow Neurosurgical Institute using linear accelerator "Novalis". In 31 case radiation treatment was preceded by surgical resection. In majority of patients symptoms included cranial nerve dysfunction: oculomotor disturbances in 62.5%, trigeminal impairment--in 37.5%, visual deficit--in 43.8%, facial nerve palsy--in 1.25%. 74 patients underwent radiotherapy with classical fractioning, 2--in hypofractionated mode and 4 received radiosurgery. In cases of classical fractioning mean marginal dose reached 46.3 Gy during 28-33 fractions, in hypofractioning (7 fractions)--31.5 Gy, in radiosurgery--16.25 Gy. Mean follow-up period was 18.4 months (6-42 months). Control of tumor growth was achieved in 97.5% of cases (78 patients): in 42 (52.5%) lesion shrinked, in 36 (45%) stabilization was observed. Clinical examination revealed improvement of visual function in 15 patients (18%) and deterioration in 2 (2.5%). No new neuropathies were found. Stereotactic radiation treatment is the method of choice for medial anterior and middle fossa meningiomas due to effective control of tumor progression and minimal rate of complications. PMID:20429360

  7. A Database for Reviewing and Selecting Radioactive Waste Treatment Technologies and Vendors

    SciTech Connect

    Schwinkendorf, William Erich; Marushia, Patrick Charles

    1999-07-01

    Several attempts have been made in past years to collate and present waste management technologies and solutions to waste generators. These efforts have been manifested as reports, buyers’ guides, and databases. While this information is helpful at the time it is assembled, their principal weakness is maintaining the timeliness and accuracy of the information over time. In many cases, updates have to be published or developed as soon as the product is disseminated. The recently developed National Low-Level Waste Management Program’s Technologies Database is a vendor-updated Internet based database designed to overcome this problem. The National Low-Level Waste Management Program’s Technologies Database contains information about waste types, treatment technologies, and vendor information. Information is presented about waste types, typical treatments, and the vendors who provide those treatment methods. The vendors who provide services update their own contact information, their treatment processes, and the types of wastes for which their treatment process is applicable. This information is queriable by a generator of low-level or mixed low-level radioactive waste who is seeking information on waste treatment methods and the vendors who provide them. Timeliness of the information in the database is assured using time clocks and automated messaging to remind featured vendors to keep their information current. Failure to keep the entries current results in a vendor being warned and then ultimately dropped from the database. This assures that the user is dealing with the most current information available and the vendors who are active in reaching and serving their market.

  8. A Database for Reviewing and Selecting Radioactive Waste Treatment Technologies and Vendors

    SciTech Connect

    P. C. Marushia; W. E. Schwinkendorf

    1999-07-01

    Several attempts have been made in past years to collate and present waste management technologies and solutions to waste generators. These efforts have been manifested as reports, buyers' guides, and databases. While this information is helpful at the time it is assembled, the principal weakness is maintaining the timeliness and accuracy of the information over time. In many cases, updates have to be published or developed as soon as the product is disseminated. The recently developed National Low-Level Waste Management Program's Technologies Database is a vendor-updated Internet based database designed to overcome this problem. The National Low-Level Waste Management Program's Technologies Database contains information about waste types, treatment technologies, and vendor information. Information is presented about waste types, typical treatments, and the vendors who provide those treatment methods. The vendors who provide services update their own contact information, their treatment processes, and the types of wastes for which their treatment process is applicable. This information is queriable by a generator of low-level or mixed low-level radioactive waste who is seeking information on waste treatment methods and the vendors who provide them. Timeliness of the information in the database is assured using time clocks and automated messaging to remind featured vendors to keep their information current. Failure to keep the entries current results in a vendor being warned and then ultimately dropped from the database. This assures that the user is dealing with the most current information available and the vendors who are active in reaching and serving their market.

  9. Wine wastes as carbon source for biological treatment of acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Costa, M C; Santos, E S; Barros, R J; Pires, C; Martins, M

    2009-05-01

    Possible use of wine wastes containing ethanol as carbon and energy source for sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) growth and activity in the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) is studied for the first time. The experiments were performed using anaerobic down-flow packed bed reactors in semi-continuous systems. The performance of two bioreactors fed with wine wastes or ethanol as carbon sources is compared in terms of sulphate reduction, metals removal and neutralization. The results show that efficient neutralization and high sulphate removal (>90%) were attained with the use of wine wastes as substrate allowing the production of effluents with concentrations below the required local legislation for irrigation waters. This is only possible provided that the AMD and wine wastes are contacted with calcite tailing, a waste material that neutralizes and provides buffer capacity to the medium. The removal of metals using wine wastes as carbon source was 61-91% for Fe and 97% for both Zn and Cu. The lower removal of iron, when wine waste is used instead of ethanol, may be due to the presence of iron-chelating compounds in the waste, which prevent the formation of iron sulphide, and partial unavailability of sulphide because of re-oxidation to elemental sulphur. However, that did not affect significantly the quality of the effluent for irrigation. This work demonstrates that wine wastes are a potential alternative to traditional SRB substrates. This finding has direct implication to sustainable operation of SRB bioreactors for AMD treatment. PMID:19201010

  10. WASTE TREATMENT & IMMOBILIZATION PLANT (WTP) HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) CANISTER PRODUCTION ESTIMATES TO SUPPORT ANALYSES BY THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    HAMEL, W.F.

    2004-09-09

    This document summarizes estimates of the range of chemical and radiochemical compositions for the immobilized HLW (IHLW) canisters to be generated from the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that will be operated at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. These estimates have been derived from DOE planning, WTP Project and Hanford tank waste characterization information. The IHLW canister composition estimates include three Cases that bound the expected number of IHLW canisters to be produced in the WTP (termed the WTP Program Case, WTP Planning Case and WTP Technology Case) and production of the maximum radionuclide content IHLW canister.

  11. MWIP: Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 4, Wastewater treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Stevenson, R.J.; Richmond, A.A.; Bickford, D.F.

    1994-01-01

    The category of sludges, filter cakes, and other waste processing residuals represent the largest volume of low-level mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes within the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Treatment of these wastes to minimize the mobility of contaminants, and to eliminate the presence of free water, is required under the Federal Facility Compliance Act agreements between DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency. In the text, we summarize the currently available data for several of the high priority mixed-waste sludge inventories within DOE. Los Alamos National Laboratory TA-50 Sludge and Rocky Flats Plant By-Pass Sludge are transuranic (TRU)-contaminated sludges that were isolated with the use of silica-based filter aids. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant West End Treatment Facility Sludge is predominantly calcium carbonate and biomass. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site Pond Waste is a large-volume waste stream, containing clay, silt, and other debris in addition to precipitated metal hydroxides. We formulate ``simulants`` for the waste streams described above, using cerium oxide as a surrogate for the uranium or plutonium present in the authentic material. Use of nonradiological surrogates greatly simplifies material handling requirements for initial treatability studies. The use of synthetic mixtures for initial treatability testing will facilitate compositional variation for use in conjunction with statistical design experiments; this approach may help to identify any ``operating window`` limitations. The initial treatability testing demonstrations utilizing these ``simulants`` will be based upon vitrification, although the materials are also amenable to testing grout-based and other stabilization procedures. After the feasibility of treatment and the initial evaluation of treatment performance has been demonstrated, performance must be verified using authentic samples of the candidate waste stream.

  12. [Organic waste treatment by earthworm vermicomposting and larvae bioconversion: review and perspective].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-jian; Liu, Meng; Zhu, Jun

    2013-05-01

    There is a growing attention on the environmental pollution and loss of potential regeneration of resources due to the poor handling of organic wastes, while earthworm vermicomposting and larvae bioconversion are well-known as two promising biotechnologies for sustainable wastes treatments, where earthworms or housefly larvae are employed to convert the organic wastes into humus like material, together with value-added worm product. Taken earthworm ( Eisenia foetida) and housefly larvae ( Musca domestica) as model species, this work illustrates fundamental definition and principle, operational process, technical mechanism, main factors, and bio-chemical features of organisms of these two technologies. Integrated with the physical and biochemical mechanisms, processes of biomass conversion, intestinal digestion, enzyme degradation and microflora decomposition are comprehensively reviewed on waste treatments with purposes of waste reduction, value-addition, and stabilization. PMID:23914515

  13. Evaluating non-incinerative treatment of organically contaminated low level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shuck, D.L.; Skriba, M.C.; Wade, J.F.

    1993-03-01

    This investigation examines the feasibility of using non-incinerator technologies effectively to treat organically contaminated mixed waste. If such a system is feasible now, it would be easier to license because it would avoid the stigma that incineration has in the publics` perception. As other DOE facilities face similar problems, this evaluation is expected to be of interest to both DOE and the attendees of WM`93. This investigation considered treatment to land disposal restriction (LDR) standards of 21 different low level mixed (LLM) waste streams covered by the Rocky Flats Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Typically the hazardous components consists of organic solvent wastes and the radioactive component consists of uranic/transuranic wastes. Limited amounts of cyanide and lead wastes are also involved. The primary objective of this investigation was to identify the minimum number of non-thermal unit processes needed to effectively treat this collection of mixed waste streams.

  14. Evaluating non-incinerative treatment of organically contaminated low level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shuck, D.L. . Denver Environmental Services); Skriba, M.C. ); Wade, J.F. )

    1993-01-01

    This investigation examines the feasibility of using non-incinerator technologies effectively to treat organically contaminated mixed waste. If such a system is feasible now, it would be easier to license because it would avoid the stigma that incineration has in the publics' perception. As other DOE facilities face similar problems, this evaluation is expected to be of interest to both DOE and the attendees of WM'93. This investigation considered treatment to land disposal restriction (LDR) standards of 21 different low level mixed (LLM) waste streams covered by the Rocky Flats Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Typically the hazardous components consists of organic solvent wastes and the radioactive component consists of uranic/transuranic wastes. Limited amounts of cyanide and lead wastes are also involved. The primary objective of this investigation was to identify the minimum number of non-thermal unit processes needed to effectively treat this collection of mixed waste streams.

  15. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-05-11

    In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of

  16. Development and demonstration of treatment technologies for the processing of US Department of Energy mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.; Bloom, G.A.; Kuchynka, D.J.

    1994-06-01

    Mixed waste is defined as waste contaminated with chemically hazardous (governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) and radioactive species [governed by US Department of Energy (DOE) orders]. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is responding to the need for DOE mixed waste treatment technologies that meet these dual regulatory requirements. MWIP is developing emerging and innovative treatment technologies to determine process feasibility. Technology demonstrations will be used to determine whether processes are superior to existing technologies in reducing risk, minimizing life-cycle cost, and improving process performance. The Program also provides a forum for stakeholder and customer involvement in the technology development process. MWIP is composed of six technical areas that support a mixed-waste treatment system: (1) systems analysis, (2) materials handling, (3) chemical/physical separation, (4) waste destruction and stabilization, (5) off-gas treatment, and (6) final waste form stabilization. The status of the technical initiatives and the current research, development, and demonstration in each of these areas is described in this paper.

  17. Life Cycle Analysis for Treatment and Disposal of PCB Waste at Ashtabula and Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.I.

    2001-01-11

    This report presents the use of the life cycle analysis (LCA) system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Ohio--the Ashtabula Environmental Management Project near Cleveland and the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati--in assessing treatment and disposal options for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste. We will examine, first, how the LCA process works, then look briefly at the LCA system's ''toolbox,'' and finally, see how the process was applied in analyzing the options available in Ohio. As DOE nuclear weapons facilities carry out planned decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities for site closure and progressively package waste streams, remove buildings, and clean up other structures that have served as temporary waste storage locations, it becomes paramount for each waste stream to have a prescribed and proven outlet for disposition. Some of the most problematic waste streams throughout the DOE complex are PCB low-level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid) and PCB low-level Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) liquid and solid wastes. Several DOE Ohio Field Office (OH) sites have PCB disposition needs that could have an impact on the critical path of the decommissioning work of these closure sites. The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), an OH closure site, has an urgent problem with disposition of soils contaminated by PCB and low-level waste at the edge of the site. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), another OH closure site, has difficulties in timely disposition of its PCB-low-level sludges and its PCB low-level RCRA sludges in order to avoid impacting the critical path of its D&D activities. Evaluation of options for these waste streams is the subject of this report. In the past a few alternatives for disposition of PCB low-level waste and PCB low-level RCRA

  18. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D.; Roberts, D.; Broderick, T.

    1997-12-31

    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates.

  19. Survey of carbonization facilities for municipal solid waste treatment in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Hee; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2010-07-01

    The operations of carbonization facilities for municipal solid waste treatment in Japan were examined. Input waste, system processes, material flows, quality of char and its utilization, fuel and chemical consumption, control of facility emissions, and trouble areas in facility operation were investigated and analyzed. Although carbonization is a technically available thermochemical conversion method for municipal solid waste treatment, problems of energy efficiency and char utilization must be solved for carbonization to be competitive. Possible solutions include (1) optimizing the composition of input waste, treatment scale, organization of unit processes, operational methods, and quality and yield of char on the basis of analysis and feedback of long-term operating data of present operating facilities and (2) securing stable char demands by linking with local industries such as thermal electric power companies, iron manufacturing plants, and cement production plants. PMID:20149627

  20. [Fenton technique for oxidation treatment of solid-waste containing aniline].

    PubMed

    Hu, Li-Fang; Yao, Jun; Lou, Bin; He, Ruo; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    The catalytic oxidation of aniline was evaluated to provide the foundation for risk-based treatment of aniline-contaminated solid-waste using Fenton reagent (catalyzed hydrogen peroxide). The operating conditions of Fenton reaction were investigated and the factors of the chemical treatment were analyzed. The optimal conditions were following: 1.1 mL H2O2 per gram of dried solid waste, V (H2O2) 0.5-1.0 mL x min(-1), addition of Fenton reagent twice or three times at pH = 3.0 in 50 grams of waste, and the aniline removal rate is over 99.86% for 30 min reaction after reagent addition. Furthermore, mechanisms of affecting factors in solid-waste were analyzed; the key and controlling steps of reactions were expounded in the system, which provided safeguard for further treatment ranging from stabilization and solidification to landfill. PMID:18441925

  1. Survey of carbonization facilities for municipal solid waste treatment in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, In-Hee; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2010-07-15

    The operations of carbonization facilities for municipal solid waste treatment in Japan were examined. Input waste, system processes, material flows, quality of char and its utilization, fuel and chemical consumption, control of facility emissions, and trouble areas in facility operation were investigated and analyzed. Although carbonization is a technically available thermochemical conversion method for municipal solid waste treatment, problems of energy efficiency and char utilization must be solved for carbonization to be competitive. Possible solutions include (1) optimizing the composition of input waste, treatment scale, organization of unit processes, operational methods, and quality and yield of char on the basis of analysis and feedback of long-term operating data of present operating facilities and (2) securing stable char demands by linking with local industries such as thermal electric power companies, iron manufacturing plants, and cement production plants.

  2. Photocatalytic post-treatment in waste water reclamation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Gerald; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Verostko, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    A photocatalytic water purification process is described which effectively oxidizes organic impurities common to reclaimed waste waters and humidity condensates to carbon dioxide at ambient temperatures. With this process, total organic carbon concentrations below 500 ppb are readily achieved. The temperature dependence of the process is well described by the Arrhenius equation and an activation energy barrier of 3.5 Kcal/mole. The posttreatment approach for waste water reclamation described here shows potential for integration with closed-loop life support systems.

  3. Wet oxidation as a waste treatment in closed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onisko, B. L.; Wydeven, T.

    1981-01-01

    The chemistry of the wet oxidation process has been investigated in relation to production of plant nutrients from plant and human waste materials as required for a closed life-support system. Hydroponically grown lettuce plants were used as a model plant waste and oxygen gas was used as oxidant. Organic nitrogen content was decreased 88-100% depending on feed material. Production of ammonia and nitrogen gas account for all of the observed decrease in organic nitrogen content. No nitrous oxide (N2O) was detected. The implications of these results for closed life-support systems are discussed.

  4. Wet Oxidation as a Waste Treatment Method in Closed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onisko, B. L.; Wydeven, T.

    1982-01-01

    The chemistry of the wet oxidation process was investigated in relation to production of plant nutrients from plant and human waste materials as required for a closed life support system. Hydroponically grown lettuce plants were used as a model plant waste, and oxygen gas was used as an oxidant. Organic nitrogen content was decreased 88-100%, depending on feed material. Production of ammonia and nitrogen gas accounted for all of the observed decrease in organic nitrogen content. No nitrous oxide (N2O) was detected. The implications of these results for closed life support systems are discussed.

  5. Treatment of radioactive wastes from DOE underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Spencer, B.B.; Chase, C.W.; Anderson, K.K.; Bell, J.T.

    1994-06-01

    Bench-scale batch tests have been conducted with sludge and supernate tank waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation technology process for use in a comprehensive sludge processing flow sheet as a means of concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volumes of storage tank waste at national sites for final disposal. This paper discusses the separation of the sludge solids and supernate, the basic washing of the sludge solids, the acidic dissolution of the sludge solids, and the removal of the radionuclides from the supernate.

  6. Hydrothermal treatment for inactivating some hygienic microbial indicators from food waste-amended animal feed.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yiying; Chen, Ting; Li, Huan

    2012-07-01

    To achieve the hygienic safety of food waste used as animal feed, a hydrothermal treatment process of 60-110 degrees C for 10-60 min was applied on the separated food waste from a university canteen. Based on the microbial analysis of raw waste, the inactivation of hygienic indicators of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TPC), and molds and yeast (MY) were analyzed during the hydrothermal process. Results showed that indicators' concentrations were substantially reduced after hydrothermal treatment, with a greater reduction observed when the waste was treated with a higher temperature and pressure and a longer ramping time. The 110 degrees C hydrothermal treatment for 60 min was sufficient to disinfect food waste as animal feed from the viewpoint of hygienic safety. Results obtained so far indicate that hydrothermal treatment can significantly decrease microbial indicators' concentrations but does not lead to complete sterilization, because MY survived even after 60 min treatment at 110 degrees C. The information from the present study will contribute to the microbial risk control of food waste-amended animal feed, to cope with legislation on food or feed safety. PMID:22866582

  7. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993.

  8. Crizotinib: from discovery to accelerated development to front-line treatment.

    PubMed

    Blackhall, F; Cappuzzo, F

    2016-09-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with a poor prognosis and low survival rates, providing a strong rationale for the development of new treatment options. The discovery of ALK gene rearrangements in a subset of NSCLC specimens and the identification and development of the first-in-class ALK inhibitor crizotinib provided a personalised treatment option for patients with advanced ALK-positive NSCLC. Crizotinib demonstrated rapid and durable responses in advanced ALK-positive NSCLC patients in phase I and II studies, leading to accelerated FDA approval. Subsequent evaluation in phase III studies showed that crizotinib improved progression-free survival compared with platinum-based doublet chemotherapy in previously untreated patients and compared with pemetrexed or docetaxel in previously treated patients. Crizotinib was shown to have an acceptable safety profile and also to improve quality of life and symptom scores. Overall, crizotinib has been shown to provide a valuable first- and second-line treatment option and is now the first-line standard of care for patients with advanced ALK-positive NSCLC. PMID:27573754

  9. In vivo Confocal Microscopy Report after Lasik with Sequential Accelerated Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mazzotta, Cosimo; Balestrazzi, Angelo; Traversi, Claudio; Caragiuli, Stefano; Caporossi, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    We report the first pilot qualitative confocal microscopic analysis of a laser in situ keratomileusis (Lasik) treatment combined with sequential high-fluence accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking, denominated Lasik XTra, by means of HRT II laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy after a 6-month follow-up. After obtaining approval from the Siena University Hospital Institutional Review Board, a 33-year-old female patient underwent a Lasik XTra procedure in her left eye. Confocal analysis demonstrated induced slight corneal microstructural changes by the interaction between UV-A, riboflavin and corneal stromal collagen, beyond the interface to a depth of 160 µm, without adverse events at the interface and endothelial levels. This application may be considered a prophylactic biomechanical treatment, stiffening the intermediate corneal stroma to prevent corneal ectasia and stabilizing the clinical results of refractive surgery. According to our preliminary experiences, this combined approach may be useful in higher-risk Lasik patients for hyperopic treatments, high myopia and lower corneal thicknesses. PMID:24847258

  10. Characteristics of organic, nitrogen and phosphorus species released from ultrasonic treatment of waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Qiu, Zhaofu; Lu, Shuguang; Ying, Weichi

    2010-04-15

    Batch ultrasonic treatments (sonication) were performed on two waste activated sludge (WAS) samples, BNR-WAS from the biological nitrogen removal unit and BNPR-WAS from the biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal unit of two Shanghai municipal WWTPs, to determine the effects of sonication time and intensity on the amount and distribution of the organic, N and P species released from the samples. The concentration profiles of COD, TOC fractions in different molecular weight (MW) ranges (<2 kDa, 2-100 kDa, and >100 kDa), TN, organic-N, NH(3)-N, TP and PO(4)-P were monitored during the treatment at three sonication intensity levels (0.167, 0.330 and 0.500 W/mL). Species releases increased with sonication time and/or intensity; the release rates were accelerated when the sonication intensity was above a critical level between 0.330 and 0.500 W/mL. After 1 h of treatment, 37.9%, 37.5% and 50.8% of the organic content (measured as COD) of BNR-WAS were released, while the same for BNPR-WAS were 40.9%, 55.3% and 56.9%. It also resulted in the release of 40.9%, 38.7%, and 52.1% of total nitrogen from BNR-WAS, relative to 46.2%, 61.6%, and 70.4% of the same from BNPR-WAS; most released nitrogen were organic-N (65.0% and 84.9%), followed by NH(3)-N (34.7% and 14.9%) and trace amounts of nitrate and nitrite. More total phosphorus of a higher orthophosphate content was released from BNRP-WAS (>60% release after 1 h of sonication, 80% was PO(4)-P) than from BNR-WAS (<50% release, 40% was PO(4)-P). The differences in the releases as well as the molecular weight distribution pattern of the soluble TOC species were due to the different structure and composition of the sludge samples. Sonication is a viable sludge treatment process when it is combined with a phosphorus recovery process to remove most of the released PO(4)-P so that the supernatant may be returned for further biological treatment. PMID:20022695

  11. Non-Thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    DOE proposes to transport contact-handled LLMW from the Hanford Site to the Allied Technology Group (ATG) Mixed Waste Facility (MWF) in Richland, Washington, for non-thermal treatment and to return the treated waste to the Hanford Site for eventual land disposal. Over a 3-year period the waste would be staged to the ATG MWF, and treated waste would be returned to the Hanford Site. The ATG MWF would be located on an 18 hectare (ha) (45 acre [at]) ATG Site adjacent to ATG's licensed low-level waste processing facility at 2025 Battelle Boulevard. The ATG MWF is located approximately 0.8 kilometers (km) (0.5 miles [mi]) south of Horn Rapids Road and 1.6 km (1 mi) west of Stevens Drive. The property is located within the Horn Rapids triangle in northern Richland (Figure 2.1). The ATG MWF is to be located on the existing ATG Site, near the DOE Hanford Site, in an industrial area in the City of Richland. The effects of siting, construction, and overall operation of the MWF have been evaluated in a separate State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) EIS (City of Richland 1998). The proposed action includes transporting the LLMW from the Hanford Site to the ATG Facility, non-thermal treatment of the LLMW at the ATG MWF, and transporting the waste from ATG back to the Hanford Site. Impacts fi-om waste treatment operations would be bounded by the ATG SEPA EIS, which included an evaluation of the impacts associated with operating the non-thermal portion of the MWF at maximum design capacity (8,500 metric tons per year) (City of Richland 1998). Up to 50 employees would be required for non-thermal treatment portion of the MWF. This includes 40 employees that would perform waste treatment operations and 10 support staff. Similar numbers were projected for the thermal treatment portion of the MWF (City of Richland 1998).

  12. Treatment plan for aqueous/organic/decontamination wastes under the Oak Ridge Reservation FFCA Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, P.M.; Benson, C.E.; Gilbert, V.P.

    1994-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV have entered into a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) which seeks to facilitate the treatment of low-level mixed wastes currently stored at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in violation of the Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The FFCA establishes schedules for DOE to identify treatment for wastes, referred to as Appendix B wastes, that current have no identified or existing capacity for treatment. A development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DDT&E) program was established to provide the support necessary to identify treatment methods for mixed was meeting the Appendix B criteria. The Program has assembled project teams to address treatment development needs for major categories of the Appendix B wastes based on the waste characteristics and possible treatment technologies. The Aqueous, Organic, and Decontamination (A/O/D) project team was established to identify pretreatment options for aqueous and organic wastes which will render the waste acceptable for treatment in existing waste treatment facilities and to identify the processes to decontaminate heterogeneous debris waste. In addition, the project must also address the treatment of secondary waste generated by other DDT&E projects. This report details the activities to be performed under the A/O/D Project in support of the identification, selection, and evaluation of treatment processes. The goals of this plan are (1) to determine the major aqueous and organic waste streams requiring treatment, (2) to determine the treatment steps necessary to make the aqueous and organic waste acceptable for treatment in existing treatment facilities on the ORR or off-site, and (3) to determine the processes necessary to decontaminate heterogeneous wastes that are considered debris.

  13. Next generation enhancement of cements by the addition of industrial wastes and subsequent treatment with supercritical CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.M.V.; Rubin, J.B.; Carey, J.W.; Jones, R.; Baglin, F.G.

    1997-09-01

    The natural curing reactions which occur in a standard portland cement involve the formation of portlandite, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and calcium silicate hydrates, CSH. Over time, the cured cement abstracts carbon dioxide, CO{sub 2}, from the air, converting the portlandite and CSH to calcium carbonate, CaCO{sub 3}. It turns out, however, that this secondary conversion results in the blockage and/or closure of pores, drastically slowing the reaction rate with time. By exposing a portland cement to supercritical CO{sub 2} (SCCO{sub 2}), it is found that the carbonation reaction can be greatly accelerated. This acceleration is due to (1) the ability of the supercritical fluid to penetrate into the pores of the cement, providing continuous availability of fresh reactant, in hyper-stoichiometric concentrations; and (2) the solubility of the reaction product in the supercritical fluid, facilitating its removal. By accelerating the natural aging reactions, a chemically stable product is formed having reduced porosity, permeability and pH, while at the same time significantly enhancing the mechanical strength. The supercritical CO{sub 2} treatment process also removes a majority of the hydrogenous material from the cement, and sequesters large amounts of carbon dioxide, permanently removing it from the environment. The authors describe the general features of supercritical fluids, as well as the application of these fluids to the treatment of cements containing industrial waste. Some of the issues concerning the economic feasibility of industrial scale-up will be addressed. Finally, some initial results of physical property measurements made on portland cements before and after supercritical fluid CO{sub 2} treatment will be presented.

  14. TREATMENT OF AQUEOUS METAL AND CYANIDE BEARING HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the reauthorization of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the concurrent restrictions on land disposal of hazardous wastes, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is assessing technologies that can be substituted for, or precursors to land disposal. The ...

  15. Assessing Waste Water Treatment Plant Effluent for Thyroid Hormone Disruption

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much information has been coming to light on the estrogenic and androgenic activity of chemicals present in the waste water stream and in surface waters, but much less is known about the presence of chemicals with thyroid activity. To address this issue, we have utilized two assa...

  16. ADVERSE IMPACTS OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT ­ A CASE STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Industrial metal plating processes coat materials with metals, such as chromium, copper and nickel. After the plating process, excess metals are rinsed off and the rinse water is collected and then treated to remove metals prior to discharge of the rinse water into rivers. This waste water is typica...

  17. CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF WASTE PICKLE LIQUOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a demonstration of the feasibility of converting ferrous sulfate (FeSO4.7H2O)--obtained by low-temperature crystallization from H2SO4 waste pickle liquor generated by the acid-cleaning of steel surfaces--to marketable ferric oxide (Fe2O3). A closed-loo...

  18. Bacterial population dynamics of aerobic and anaerobic dairy waste treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Aims: Modern high intensity dairy farms generate large amounts of waste (manure and urine) that is stored in lagoons until it is disposed of by land application on crop fields. This practice has resulted in nutrients leaching into ground and surface waters, poor air quality from volat...

  19. Evaluation of the graphite electrode DC arc furnace for the treatment of INEL buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Surma, J.E.; Freeman, C.J.; Powell, T.D.; Cohn, D.R.; Smatlak, D.L.; Thomas, P.; Woskov, P.P.; Hamilton, R.A.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.

    1993-06-01

    The past practices of DOE and its predecessor agencies in burying radioactive and hazardous wastes have left DOE with the responsibility of remediating large volumes of buried wastes and contaminated soils. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), has chosen to evaluate treatment of buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Because of the characteristics of the buried wastes, the potential for using high-temperature thermal treatment technologies is being evaluated. The soil-waste mixture at INEL, when melted or vitrified, produces a glass/ceramic referred to as iron-enriched basalt (IEB). One potential problem with producing the IEB material is the high melting temperature of the waste and soil (1,400-1,600{degrees}C). One technology that has demonstrated capabilities to process high melting point materials is the plasma arc heated furnace. A three-party program was initiated and the program involved testing an engineering-scale DC arc furnace to gain preliminary operational and waste processibility information. It also included the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a second-generation, pilot-scale graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Widely ranging simulants of INEL buried waste were prepared and processed in the Mark I furnace. The tests included melting of soils with metals, sludges, combustibles, and simulated drums. Very promising results in terms of waste product quality, volume reduction, heating efficiency, and operational reliability and versatility were obtained. The results indicate that the graphite electrode DC arc technology would be very well suited for treating high melting point wastes such as those found at INEL. The graphite electrode DC arc furnace has been demonstrated to be very simple, yet effective, with excellent prospects for remote or semi-remote operation.

  20. Options Assessment Report: Treatment of Nitrate Salt Waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Bruce Alan; Stevens, Patrice Ann

    2015-12-17

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognizes that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and that a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL’s preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.