Science.gov

Sample records for acceleration deceleration effect

  1. Do ungulates accelerate or decelerate nitrogen cycling?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, F.J.; Schoenecker, K.A.

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient for plants and animals, and N may be limiting in many western US grassland and shrubland ungulate winter ranges. Ungulates may influence N pools and they may alter N inputs and outputs (losses) to the ecosystem in a number of ways. In this paper we compare the ecosystem effects of ungulate herbivory in two western national parks, Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado, and Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming. We compare ungulate herbivory effects on N pools, N fluxes, N yields, and plant productivity in the context of the accelerating and decelerating nutrient cycling scenarios [Ecology 79 (1998) 165]. We concluded that the YNP grasslands fit the accelerating nutrient cycling scenario for ungulate herbivory: in response to grazing, grassland plant species abundance was largely unaltered, net annual aboveground primary productivity (NAPP) was stimulated (except during drought), consumption of key N-rich forages by ungulates was moderate and their abundance was sustained, soil N mineralization rates doubled, N pools increased, aboveground N yield increased, and N concentrations increased in most grassland plant species. Grazing in grasslands in RMNP resulted in no consistent detectable acceleration or deceleration of nutrient cycling. Grazing effects in short willow and aspen vegetation types in RMNP fit the decelerating nutrient cycling scenario of Ritchie et al. [Ecology 79 (1998) 165]. Key N-rich forages declined due to herbivory (willows, aspen, herbaceous vegetation). Aboveground production declined, soil N mineralization rates declined, N pools declined (NO3− pools were 30% that of ungrazed controls), and aboveground N yield declined. We believe that the higher ungulate densities and rates of plant consumption in RMNP, large declines in N-rich forage plants, and possibly a tendency of ungulates to move N from willow and aspen vegetation types to other types in RMNP, contributed to deceleration of nutrient

  2. The effect of the acceleration/deceleration trauma in angioid streaks: A pathogenic hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Fajardo Sánchez, J; Chau Ramos, C E; Mazagatos Used, P J; Aparicio Hernandez-Lastras, M J

    2016-09-01

    A 59-year-old male with acceleration/deceleration cranial trauma (ADT), caused by a car accident. After one month, he presented with loss of visual acuity in the right eye. A fluorescein angiography test was performed and it detected centrifugal hyperfluorescent lines from the optic nerve head, a characteristic compatible with the diagnosis of angioid streaks. The loss of visual acuity was demonstrated by the discovery of a juxtafoveal choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV). ADT can cause hyper-extension of the eyeball in its equator line, producing the rupture of fragile structures such as the Bruch membrane (MB) in patients with angioid streaks and the subsequent formation of CNV. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. 30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062 Section 56.19062 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating...

  4. 30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062 Section 57.19062 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating...

  5. Stereoscopic camera and viewing systems with undistorted depth presentation and reduced or eliminated erroneous acceleration and deceleration perceptions, or with perceptions produced or enhanced for special effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Methods for providing stereoscopic image presentation and stereoscopic configurations using stereoscopic viewing systems having converged or parallel cameras may be set up to reduce or eliminate erroneously perceived accelerations and decelerations by proper selection of parameters, such as an image magnification factor, q, and intercamera distance, 2w. For converged cameras, q is selected to be equal to Ve - qwl = 0, where V is the camera distance, e is half the interocular distance of an observer, w is half the intercamera distance, and l is the actual distance from the first nodal point of each camera to the convergence point, and for parallel cameras, q is selected to be equal to e/w. While converged cameras cannot be set up to provide fully undistorted three-dimensional views, they can be set up to provide a linear relationship between real and apparent depth and thus minimize erroneously perceived accelerations and decelerations for three sagittal planes, x = -w, x = 0, and x = +w which are indicated to the observer. Parallel cameras can be set up to provide fully undistorted three-dimensional views by controlling the location of the observer and by magnification and shifting of left and right images. In addition, the teachings of this disclosure can be used to provide methods of stereoscopic image presentation and stereoscopic camera configurations to produce a nonlinear relation between perceived and real depth, and erroneously produce or enhance perceived accelerations and decelerations in order to provide special effects for entertainment, training, or educational purposes.

  6. Accelerated and decelerated expansion in a causal dissipative cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Miguel; Cruz, Norman; Lepe, Samuel

    2017-12-01

    In this work we explore a new cosmological solution for an universe filled with one dissipative fluid, described by a barotropic equation of state (EoS) p =ω ρ , in the framework of the full Israel-Stewart theory. The form of the bulk viscosity has been assumed of the form ξ =ξ0ρ1 /2. The relaxation time is taken to be a function of the EoS, the bulk viscosity and the speed of bulk viscous perturbations, cb. The solution presents an initial singularity, where the curvature scalar diverges as the scale factor goes to zero. Depending on the values for ω , ξ0, cb accelerated and decelerated cosmic expansion can be obtained. In the case of accelerated expansion, the viscosity drives the effective EoS to be of quintessence type, for the single fluid with positive pressure. Nevertheless, we show that only the solution with decelerated expansion satisfies the thermodynamics conditions d S /d t >0 (growth of the entropy) and d2S /d t2<0 (convexity condition). We show that an exact stiff matter EoS is not allowed in the framework of the full causal thermodynamic approach; and in the case of a EoS very close to the stiff matter regime, we found that dissipative effects becomes negligible so the entropy remains constant. Finally, we show numerically that the solution is stable under small perturbations.

  7. Effects of drop acceleration and deceleration on particle capture in a cross-flow gravity tower at intermediate drop Reynolds numbers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anoop; Gupta, S K; Kale, S R

    2007-04-01

    Cross-flow gravity towers are particle scrubbing devices in which water is sprayed from the top into particle-laden flow moving horizontally. Models for predicting particle capture assume drops traveling at terminal velocity and potential flow (ReD > 1000) around it, however, Reynolds numbers in the intermediate range of 1 to 1000 are common in gravity towers. Drops are usually injected at velocities greater than their terminal velocities (as in nozzles) or from near rest (perforated tray) and they accelerate/decelerate to their terminal velocity in the tower. Also, the effects of intermediate drop Reynolds number on capture efficiency have been simulated for (a) drops at their terminal velocity and (b) drops accelerating/decelerating to their terminal velocity. Tower efficiency based on potential flow about the drop is 40%-50% greater than for 200 mm drops traveling at their terminal velocity. The corresponding values for 500 mm drops are about 10%-20%. The drop injection velocity is important operating parameter. Increase in tower efficiency by about 40% for particles smaller than 5 mm is observed for increase in injection velocity from 0 to 20 m/s for 200 and 500mm drops.

  8. Free electron laser using Rf coupled accelerating and decelerating structures

    DOEpatents

    Brau, Charles A.; Swenson, Donald A.; Boyd, Jr., Thomas J.

    1984-01-01

    A free electron laser and free electron laser amplifier using beam transport devices for guiding an electron beam to a wiggler of a free electron laser and returning the electron beam to decelerating cavities disposed adjacent to the accelerating cavities of the free electron laser. Rf energy is generated from the energy depleted electron beam after it emerges from the wiggler by means of the decelerating cavities which are closely coupled to the accelerating cavities, or by means of a second bore within a single set of cavities. Rf energy generated from the decelerated electron beam is used to supplement energy provided by an external source, such as a klystron, to thereby enhance overall efficiency of the system.

  9. Changes in Acceleration and Deceleration Capacity Throughout Professional Soccer Match-Play.

    PubMed

    Russell, Mark; Sparkes, William; Northeast, Jonny; Cook, Christian J; Love, Tom D; Bracken, Richard M; Kilduff, Liam P

    2016-10-01

    Russell, M, Sparkes, W, Northeast, J, Cook, CJ, Love, TD, Bracken, RM, and Kilduff, LP. Changes in acceleration and deceleration capacity throughout professional soccer match-play. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2839-2844, 2016-As the acceleration and deceleration demands of soccer are currently not well understood, this study aimed to profile markers of acceleration and deceleration capacity during professional soccer match-play. This within-player observational study required reserve team players from a Premier League club to wear 10-Hz Global Positioning System units throughout competitive matches played in the 2013-14 competitive season. Data are presented for players who completed 4 or more games during the season (n = 11), and variables are presented according to six 15-minute intervals (I1-6: 00:00-14:59 minutes, 15:00-29:59 minutes, 30:00-44:59 minutes, 45:00-59:59 minutes, 60:00-74:59 minutes, and 75:00-89:59 minutes, respectively). During I6, the distance covered (total, per minute, and at high intensity), number of sprints, accelerations (total and high intensity), decelerations (total and high intensity), and impacts were reduced compared with I1 (all p ≤ 0.05). The number of high-intensity impacts remained unchanged throughout match-play (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that high-intensity actions and markers of acceleration and deceleration capacity are reduced in the last 15 minutes of the normal duration of match-play. Such information can be used to increase the specificity of training programs designed for soccer players while also giving further insight in to the effects of 90 minutes of soccer-specific exercise. Interventions that seek to maintain the acceleration and deceleration capacity of players throughout the full duration of a soccer match warrant investigation.

  10. Influence of angular acceleration-deceleration pulse shapes on regional brain strains.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Li, Jianrong; Zhang, Jiangyue; Pintar, Frank A; Gennarelli, Thomas A

    2008-07-19

    Recognizing the association of angular loading with brain injuries and inconsistency in previous studies in the application of the biphasic loads to animal, physical, and experimental models, the present study examined the role of the acceleration-deceleration pulse shapes on region-specific strains. An experimentally validated two-dimensional finite element model representing the adult male human head was used. The model simulated the skull and falx as a linear elastic material, cerebrospinal fluid as a hydrodynamic material, and cerebrum as a linear viscoelastic material. The angular loading matrix consisted coronal plane rotation about a center of rotation that was acceleration-only (4.5 ms duration, 7.8 krad/s/s peak), deceleration-only (20 ms, 1.4 krad/s/s peak), acceleration-deceleration, and deceleration-acceleration pulses. Both biphasic pulses had peaks separated by intervals ranging from 0 to 25 ms. Principal strains were determined at the corpus callosum, base of the postcentral sulcus, and cerebral cortex of the parietal lobe. The cerebrum was divided into 17 regions and peak values of average maximum principal strains were determined. In all simulations, the corpus callosum responded with the highest strains. Strains were the least under all simulations in the lower parietal lobes. In all regions peak strains were the same for both monophase pulses suggesting that the angular velocity may be a better metric than peak acceleration or deceleration. In contrast, for the biphasic pulse, peak strains were region- and pulse-shape specific. Peak values were lower in both biphasic pulses when there was no time separation between the pulses than the corresponding monophase pulse. Increasing separation time intervals increased strains, albeit non-uniformly. Acceleration followed by deceleration pulse produced greater strains in all regions than the other form of biphasic pulse. Thus, pulse shape appears to have an effect on regional strains in the brain.

  11. Asymmetric acceleration/deceleration dynamics in heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Echeverria, J. C.; Meraz, M.; Rodriguez, E.

    2017-08-01

    The heart rate variability (HRV) is an important physiological signal used either to assess the risk of cardiac death or to model the cardiovascular regulatory dynamics. Asymmetries in HRV data have been observed using 2D Poincare plots, which have been linked to a non-equilibrium operation of the cardiac autonomic system. This work further explores the presence of asymmetries but in the serial correlations of the dynamics of HRV data. To this end, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) was used to estimate the Hurst exponent both when the heart rate is accelerating and when it is decelerating. The analysis is conducted using data collected from subjects under normal sinus rhythm (NSR), congestive heart failure (CHF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) . For the NSR cases, it was found that correlations are stronger (p < 0 . 05) when the heart rate is accelerating than when it is decelerating over different scales in the range 20-40 beats. In contrast, the opposite behavior was detected for the CHF and AF patients. Possible links between asymmetric correlations in the dynamics and the mechanisms controlling the operation of the heart rate are discussed, as well as their implications for modeling the cardiovascular regulatory dynamics.

  12. Periodic components of hand acceleration/deceleration impulses during telemanipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.

    1994-01-01

    Responsiveness is the ability of a telemanipulator to recreate user trajectories and impedance in time and space. For trajectory production, a key determinant of responsiveness is the ability of the system to accept user inputs, which are forces on the master handle generated by user hand acceleration/deceleration (a/d) impulses, and translate them into slave arm acceleration/deceleration. This paper presents observations of master controller a/d impulses during completion of a simple target acquisition task. Power spectral density functions (PSDF`s) calculated from hand controller a/d impulses were used to assess impulse waveform. The relative contributions of frequency intervals ranging up to 25more » Hz for three spatially different versions of the task were used to determine which frequencies were most important. The highest relative power was observed in frequencies between 1 Hz and 6 Hz. The key frequencies related to task difficulty were in the range from 2 Hz to 8 Hz. the results provide clues to the source of the performance inhibition.« less

  13. Dynamic response of a poroelastic half-space to accelerating or decelerating trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhigang; Boström, Anders

    2013-05-01

    The dynamic response of a fully saturated poroelastic half-space due to accelerating or decelerating trains is investigated by a semi-analytical method. The ground is modeled as a saturated poroelastic half-space and Biot's theory is applied to characterize the soil medium, taking the coupling effects between the soil skeleton and the pore fluid into account. A detailed track system is considered incorporating rails, sleepers and embankment, which are modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beams, an anisotropic Kirchhoff plate, and an elastic layer, respectively. The acceleration or deceleration of the train is simulated by properly choosing the time history of the train speed using Fourier transforms combined with Fresnel integrals in the transformed domain. The time domain results are obtained by the fast Fourier transform (FFT). It is found that the deceleration of moving trains can cause a significant increase to the ground vibrations as well as the excess pore water pressure responses at the train speed 200 km/h. Furthermore, the single-phase elastic soil model would underestimate the vertical displacement responses caused by both the accelerating and decelerating trains at the speed 200 km/h.

  14. Brain sparing effect in growth-restricted fetuses is associated with decreased cardiac acceleration and deceleration capacities: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Stampalija, T; Casati, D; Monasta, L; Sassi, R; Rivolta, M W; Muggiasca, M L; Bauer, A; Ferrazzi, E

    2016-11-01

    Phase rectified signal averaging (PRSA) is a new method of fetal heart rate variability (fHRV) analysis that quantifies the average acceleration (AC) and deceleration capacity (DC) of the heart. The aim of this study was to evaluate AC and DC of fHR [recorded by trans-abdominal fetal electrocardiogram (ta-fECG)] in relation to Doppler velocimetry characteristics of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Prospective case-control study. Single third referral centre. IUGR (n = 66) between 25 and 40 gestational weeks and uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 79). In IUGR the nearest ta-fECG monitoring to delivery was used for PRSA analysis and Doppler velocimetry parameters obtained within 48 hours. AC and DC were computed at s = T = 9. The relation was evaluated between either AC or DC and Doppler velocimetry parameters adjusting for gestational age at monitoring, as well as the association between either AC or DC and IUGR with or without brain sparing. In IUGRs there was a significant association between either AC and DC and middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (PI; P = 0.01; P = 0.005), but the same was not true for uterine or umbilical artery PI (P > 0.05). Both IUGR fetuses with and without brain sparing had lower AC and DC than controls, but this association was stronger for IUGRs with brain sparing. Our study observed for the first time that AC and DC at PRSA analysis are associated with middle cerebral artery PI, but not with uterine or umbilical artery PI, and that there is a significant decrease of AC and DC in association with brain sparing in IUGR fetuses from 25 weeks of gestation to term. Brain sparing in IUGR fetuses is associated with decreased acceleration and deceleration capacities of the heart. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Stopping power: Effect of the projectile deceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Kompaneets, Roman, E-mail: kompaneets@mpe.mpg.de; Ivlev, Alexei V.; Morfill, Gregor E.

    2014-11-15

    The stopping force is the force exerted on the projectile by its wake. Since the wake does not instantly adjust to the projectile velocity, the stopping force should be affected by the projectile deceleration caused by the stopping force itself. We address this effect by deriving the corresponding correction to the stopping force in the cold plasma approximation. By using the derived expression, we estimate that if the projectile is an ion passing through an electron-proton plasma, the correction is small when the stopping force is due to the plasma electrons, but can be significant when the stopping force ismore » due to the protons.« less

  16. Position-Specific Acceleration and Deceleration Profiles in Elite Youth and Senior Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Vigh-Larsen, Jeppe F; Dalgas, Ulrik; Andersen, Thomas B

    2018-04-01

    Vigh-Larsen, JF, Dalgas, U, and Andersen, TB. Position-specific acceleration and deceleration profiles in elite youth and senior soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1114-1122, 2018-The purpose of the study was to characterize and compare the position-specific activity profiles of young and senior elite soccer players with special emphasis put on accelerations and decelerations. Eight professional senior matches were tracked using the ZXY tracking system and analyzed for the number of accelerations and decelerations and running distances within different speed zones. Likewise, 4 U19 and 5 U17 matches were analyzed for comparison between youth and senior players. In senior players, the total distance (TD) was 10,776 ± 107 m with 668 ± 28 and 143 ± 10 m being high-intensity running (HIR) and sprinting, respectively. Number of accelerations and decelerations were 81 ± 2 and 84 ± 3, respectively, with central defenders performing the lowest and wide players the highest number. Declines were found between first and second halves for accelerations and decelerations (11 ± 3%), HIR (6 ± 4%), and TD (5 ± 1%), whereas sprinting distance did not differ. U19 players performed a higher number of accelerations, decelerations, and TD compared with senior players. In conclusion, differences in the number and distribution of accelerations and decelerations appeared between player positions, which is of importance when monitoring training and match loads and when prescribing specific training exercises. Furthermore, youth players performed as much high-intensity activities as senior players, indicating that this is not a discriminating physiological parameter between these players.

  17. Study of Car Acceleration and Deceleration Characteristics at Dangerous Route FT050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, N.; Prasetijo, J.; Daniel, B. D.; Abdullah, M. A. E.; Ismail, I.

    2018-04-01

    Individual vehicle acceleration and deceleration are important to generate vehicles speed profile. This study covered acceleration and deceleration characteristics of passenger car in Federal Route FT050 Jalan Batu Pahat-Ayer Hitam that was the top ranking dangerous road. Global Positioning System was used to record 10 cars speed to develop speed profile with clustering zone. At the acceleration manoeuver, the acceleration rate becomes lower as the drivers get near to desired speed. While, at deceleration manoeuver, vehicles with high speed needs more time to stop compare to low speed vehicle. This is because, the drivers need to accelerate more from zero speed to achieve desired speed and drivers need more distance and time to stop their vehicles. However, it was found out that 30% to 50% are driving in dangerous condition that was proven in clustering acceleration and deceleration speed profile. As conclusion, this excessive drivers are the factor that creating high risk in rear-end collision that inline FT050 as dangerous road in Malaysia

  18. Unsteady forces on a spherical particle accelerating or decelerating in an initially stagnant fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshav, Yashas Mudlapur Phaneesh

    Flows with particles play an important role in a number of engineering applications. These include trajectories of droplets in sprays in fuel-injected-reciprocating-piston and gas-turbine engines, erosion of materials due to particle impact on a surface, and deposition of materials on surfaces by impinging droplets or particles that could solidify or bond on impact. For these applications, it is important to understand the forces that act on the particles so that their trajectories could be predicted. Considerable work has been done on understanding the forces acting on spherical particles, where the Reynolds numbers (Rep) based on the particle diameter and the relative speed between the particle and the fluid is less than unity. When Rep is larger than unity and when the particle is accelerating or decelerating, the added-mass effect and the Basset forces are not well understood. In this study, time-accurate numerical simulations were performed to study laminar incompressible flow induced by a single non-rotating rigid spherical particle that is accelerated or decelerated at a constant rate in an initially stagnant fluid, where the unsteady flow about the spherical particle is resolved. The Rep studied range from 0.01 to 100, and the acceleration number (Ac), where A c is the square of the relative velocity between the particle and the fluid divided by the acceleration times the particle diameter studied was in the range 2.13x-7 < |Ac |< 21337. Results obtained show the added mass effect for Rep up to 100 has the same functional form as those based on potential theory where the Rep is infinite and creeping flow where Rep is less than unity. The Basset force, however, differs considerably from those under creeping flow conditions and depends on Rep and the acceleration number (Ac). A model was developed to provide the magnitude of the added-mass effect and the Basset force in the range of Rep and Ac studied. Results obtained also show the effect of unsteadiness to

  19. Effects of deceleration and rate of deceleration on live seated human subjects

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-10-01

    This report describes the testing of live, seated human subjects to determine : the maximum deceleration and associated rate of change of deceleration (jerk) at : which the majority of potential users of automated guideway transportation (ACT) : syst...

  20. Slip Ratio Estimation and Regenerative Brake Control for Decelerating Electric Vehicles without Detection of Vehicle Velocity and Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toru; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    In slip ratio control systems, it is necessary to detect the vehicle velocity in order to obtain the slip ratio. However, it is very difficult to measure this velocity directly. We have proposed slip ratio estimation and control methods that do not require the vehicle velocity with acceleration. In this paper, the slip ratio estimation and control methods are proposed without detecting the vehicle velocity and acceleration when it is decelerating. We carried out simulations and experiments by using an electric vehicle to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Braking and Propulsive Impulses Increase with Speed during Accelerated and Decelerated Walking

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Carrie L.; Kautz, Steven A.; Neptune, Richard R.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to accelerate and decelerate is important for daily activities and likely more demanding than maintaining a steady-state walking speed. Walking speed is modulated by anterior-posterior (AP) ground reaction force (GRF) impulses. The purpose of this study was to investigate AP impulses across a wide range of speeds during accelerated and decelerated walking. Kinematic and GRF data were collected from ten healthy subjects walking on an instrumented treadmill. Subjects completed trials at steady-state speeds and at four rates of acceleration and deceleration across a speed range of 0 to 1.8 m/s. Mixed regression models were generated to predict AP impulses, step length and frequency from speed, and joint moment impulses from AP impulses during non-steady-state walking. Braking and propulsive impulses were positively related to speed. The braking impulse had a greater relationship with speed than the propulsive impulse, suggesting that subjects modulate the braking impulse more than the propulsive impulse to change speed. Hip and knee extensor, and ankle plantarflexor moment impulses were positively related to the braking impulse, and knee flexor and ankle plantarflexor moment impulses were positively related to the propulsive impulse. Step length and frequency increased with speed and were near the subjects’ preferred combination at steady-state speeds, at which metabolic cost is minimized in nondisabled walking. Thus, these variables may be modulated to minimize metabolic cost while accelerating and decelerating. The outcomes of this work provide the foundation to investigate motor coordination in pathological subjects in response to the increased task demands of non-steady-state walking. PMID:21356590

  2. From cosmic deceleration to acceleration: new constraints from SN Ia and BAO/CMB

    SciTech Connect

    Giostri, R.; Santos, M. Vargas dos; Waga, I.

    2012-03-01

    We use type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) data in combination with recent baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations to constrain a kink-like parametrization of the deceleration parameter (q). This q-parametrization can be written in terms of the initial (q{sub i}) and present (q{sub 0}) values of the deceleration parameter, the redshift of the cosmic transition from deceleration to acceleration (z{sub t}) and the redshift width of such transition (τ). By assuming a flat space geometry, q{sub i} = 1/2 and adopting a likelihood approach to deal with the SN Ia data we obtain, at the 68%more » confidence level (C.L.), that: z{sub t} = 0.56{sup +0.13}{sub −0.10}, τ = 0.47{sup +0.16}{sub −0.20} and q{sub 0} = −0.31{sup +0.11}{sub −0.11} when we combine BAO/CMB observations with SN Ia data processed with the MLCS2k2 light-curve fitter. When in this combination we use the SALT2 fitter we get instead, at the same C.L.: z{sub t} = 0.64{sup +0.13}{sub −0.07}, τ = 0.36{sup +0.11}{sub −0.17} and q{sub 0} = −0.53{sup +0.17}{sub −0.13}. Our results indicate, with a quite general and model independent approach, that MLCS2k2 favors Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati-like cosmological models, while SALT2 favors ΛCDM-like ones. Progress in determining the transition redshift and/or the present value of the deceleration parameter depends crucially on solving the issue of the difference obtained when using these two light-curve fitters.« less

  3. Canine fetal heart rate: do accelerations or decelerations predict the parturition day in bitches?

    PubMed

    Gil, E M U; Garcia, D A A; Giannico, A T; Froes, T R

    2014-10-15

    Ultrasonography is a safe and efficient technique for monitoring fetal development and viability. One of the most important and widely used parameters to verify fetal viability is the fetal heart rate (HR). In human medicine, the fetal HR normally oscillates during labor in transient accelerations and decelerations associated with uterine contractions. The present study investigated whether these variations also occur in canine fetuses and its relationship to parturition. A cohort study was conducted in 15 pregnant bitches undergoing two-dimensional high-resolution ultrasonographic examination during the 8th and 9th week of gestation. Fetal HR was assessed in M-mode for 5 minutes in each fetus in all bitches. In addition, the bitches were monitored for clinical signs of imminent parturition. Associations between the HR, antepartum time, and delivery characteristics were evaluated with a Poisson regression model. Fetal HR acceleration and deceleration occurred in canine fetuses and predicted the optimal time of parturition. These findings can help veterinarians and sonographers better understand this phenomenon in canine fetuses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Player Load, Acceleration, and Deceleration During Forty-Five Competitive Matches of Elite Soccer.

    PubMed

    Dalen, Terje; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Ettema, Gertjan; Hjelde, Geir Havard; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2016-02-01

    The use of time-motion analysis has advanced our understanding of position-specific work rate profiles and the physical requirements of soccer players. Still, many of the typical soccer activities can be neglected, as these systems only examine activities measured by distance and speed variables. This study used triaxial accelerometer and time-motion analysis to obtain new knowledge about elite soccer players' match load. Furthermore, we determined acceleration/deceleration profiles of elite soccer players and their contribution to the players' match load. The data set includes every domestic home game (n = 45) covering 3 full seasons (2009, 2010, and 2011) for the participating team (Rosenborg FC), and includes 8 central defenders (n = 68), 9 fullbacks (n = 83), 9 central midfielders (n = 70), 7 wide midfielders (n = 39), and 5 attackers (A, n = 50). A novel finding was that accelerations contributed to 7-10% of the total player load for all player positions, whereas decelerations contributed to 5-7%. Furthermore, the results indicate that other activities besides the high-intensity movements contribute significantly to the players' total match workload. Therefore, motion analysis alone may underestimate player load because many high-intensity actions are without a change in location at the pitch or they are classified as low-speed activity according to current standards. This new knowledge may help coaches to better understand the different ways players achieve match load and could be used in developing individualized programs that better meet the "positional physical demands" in elite soccer.

  5. Effects of deceleration on the humoral antibody response in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barone, R. P.; Caren, L. D.; Oyama, J.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of hypergravity, simulated by chronic centrifugation, followed by a return to normal G (deceleration) on the immune system of rats were investigated. Two groups of male rats (28 days at 2.1 G, and 3.1 G) were compared to the control group (1.0 G). The animals were immunized by i.p. injections of sheep red blood cells on days 29, 42, and 57, and bled on days 36, 47, and 62. While the centrifuged rats ate and gainedsignificantly less than the control rats, the antibody titers and the organ/body mass ratios for the adrenal glands, kidneys, lungs, heart, and thymus were unaffected by gravity exposures, as were the values of the hematocrit and the white blood cell counts. It is concluded that deceleration does not adversely affect these particular aspects of the immune system.

  6. Observation of acceleration and deceleration in gigaelectron-volt-per-metre gradient dielectric wakefield accelerators

    PubMed Central

    O'Shea, B. D.; Andonian, G.; Barber, S. K.; Fitzmorris, K. L.; Hakimi, S.; Harrison, J.; Hoang, P. D.; Hogan, M. J.; Naranjo, B.; Williams, O. B.; Yakimenko, V.; Rosenzweig, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    There is urgent need to develop new acceleration techniques capable of exceeding gigaelectron-volt-per-metre (GeV m−1) gradients in order to enable future generations of both light sources and high-energy physics experiments. To address this need, short wavelength accelerators based on wakefields, where an intense relativistic electron beam radiates the demanded fields directly into the accelerator structure or medium, are currently under intense investigation. One such wakefield based accelerator, the dielectric wakefield accelerator, uses a dielectric lined-waveguide to support a wakefield used for acceleration. Here we show gradients of 1.347±0.020 GeV m−1 using a dielectric wakefield accelerator of 15 cm length, with sub-millimetre transverse aperture, by measuring changes of the kinetic state of relativistic electron beams. We follow this measurement by demonstrating accelerating gradients of 320±17 MeV m−1. Both measurements improve on previous measurements by and order of magnitude and show promise for dielectric wakefield accelerators as sources of high-energy electrons. PMID:27624348

  7. Observation of acceleration and deceleration in gigaelectron-volt-per-metre gradient dielectric wakefield accelerators

    DOE PAGES

    O’Shea, B. D.; Andonian, G.; Barber, S. K.; ...

    2016-09-14

    There is urgent need to develop new acceleration techniques capable of exceeding gigaelectron-volt-per-metre (GeV m –1) gradients in order to enable future generations of both light sources and high-energy physics experiments. To address this need, short wavelength accelerators based on wakefields, where an intense relativistic electron beam radiates the demanded fields directly into the accelerator structure or medium, are currently under intense investigation. One such wakefield based accelerator, the dielectric wakefield accelerator, uses a dielectric lined-waveguide to support a wakefield used for acceleration. Here we show gradients of 1.347±0.020 GeV m –1 using a dielectric wakefield accelerator of 15 cmmore » length, with sub-millimetre transverse aperture, by measuring changes of the kinetic state of relativistic electron beams. We follow this measurement by demonstrating accelerating gradients of 320±17 MeV m –1. As a result, both measurements improve on previous measurements by and order of magnitude and show promise for dielectric wakefield accelerators as sources of high-energy electrons.« less

  8. An investigation of accelerating mode and decelerating mode constant-momentum mass spectrometry and their application to a residual gas analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Y. S.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of constant momentum mass spectrometry was made. A maximum resolving power for the decelerating mode constant momentum mass spectrometer was shown theoretically to exist for a beam of ions of known energy. A vacuum system and an electron beam ionization source was constructed. Supporting electronics for a residual gas analyzer were built. Experimental investigations of various types of accelerating and decelerating impulsive modes of a constant momentum mass spectrometer as applied to a residual gas analyzer were made. The data indicate that the resolving power for the decelerating mode is comparable to that of the accelerating mode.

  9. Changes of deceleration and acceleration capacity of heart rate in patients with acute hemispheric ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Hong; Wang, Xing-De; Yang, Jia-Jun; Zhou, Li; Pan, Yong-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is common after stroke, which is correlated with unfavorable outcome. Phase-rectified signal averaging is a newly developed technique for assessing cardiac autonomic function, by detecting sympathetic and vagal nerve activity separately through calculating acceleration capacity (AC) and deceleration capacity (DC) of heart rate. In this study, we used this technique for the first time to investigate the cardiac autonomic function of patients with acute hemispheric ischemic stroke. A 24-hour Holter monitoring was performed in 63 patients with first-ever acute ischemic stroke in hemisphere and sinus rhythm, as well as in 50 controls with high risk of stroke. DC, AC, heart rate variability parameters, standard deviation of all normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), and square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent normal-to-normal intervals (RMSSD) were calculated. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was used to assess the severity of stroke. We analyzed the changes of DC, AC, SDNN, and RMSSD and also studied the correlations between these parameters and NIHSS scores. The R-R (R wave to R wave on electrocardiogram) intervals, DC, AC, and SDNN in the cerebral infarction group were lower than those in controls (P=0.003, P=0.002, P=0.006, and P=0.043), but the difference of RMSSD and the D-value and ratio between absolute value of AC (|AC|) and DC were not statistically significant compared with those in controls. The DC of the infarction group was significantly correlated with |AC|, SDNN, and RMSSD (r=0.857, r=0.619, and r=0.358; P=0.000, P=0.000, and P=0.004). Correlation analysis also showed that DC, |AC|, and SDNN were negatively correlated with NIHSS scores (r=-0.279, r=-0.266, and r=-0.319; P=0.027, P=0.035, and P=0.011). Both DC and AC of heart rate decreased in patients with hemispheric infarction, reflecting a decrease in both vagal and sympathetic modulation. Both DC and AC were correlated

  10. The impact of surfactants on Fe(III)-TAML-catalyzed oxidations by peroxides: accelerations, decelerations, and loss of activity.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Deboshri; Apollo, Frank M; Ryabov, Alexander D; Collins, Terrence J

    2009-10-05

    Iron(III) complexes of tetraamidato macrocyclic ligands (TAMLs), [Fe{4-XC(6)H(3)-1,2-(NCOCMe(2)NCO)(2)CR(2)}(OH(2))](-), 1 (1 a: X = H, R = Me; 1 b: X = COOH, R = Me); 1 c: X = CONH(CH(2))(2)COOH, R = Me; 1 d: CONH(CH(2))(2)NMe(2), R = Me; 1 e: X = CONH(CH(2))(2)NMe(3) (+), R = Me; 1 f: X = H, R = F), have been tested as catalysts for the oxidative decolorization of Orange II and Sudan III dyes by hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide in the presence of micelles that are neutral (Triton X-100), positively charged (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB), and negatively charged (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS). The previously reported mechanism of catalysis involves the formation of an oxidized intermediate from 1 and ROOH (k(I)) followed by dye bleaching (k(II)). The micellar effects on k(I) and k(II) have been separately studied and analyzed by using the Berezin pseudophase model of micellar catalysis. The largest micellar acceleration in terms of k(I) occurs for the 1 a-tBuOOH-CTAB system. At pH 9.0-10.5 the rate constant k(I) increased by approximately five times with increasing CTAB concentration and then gradually decreased. There was no acceleration at higher pH, presumably owing to the deprotonation of the axial water ligand of 1 a in this pH range. The k(I) value was only slightly affected by SDS (in the oxidation of Orange II), but was strongly decelerated by Triton X-100. No oxidation of the water-insoluble, hydrophobic dye Sudan III was observed in the presence of the SDS micelles. The k(II) value was accelerated by cationic CTAB micelles when the hydrophobic primary oxidant tert-butyl hydroperoxide was used. It is hypothesized that tBuOOH may affect the CTAB micelles and increase the binding of the oxidized catalysts. The tBuOOH-CTAB combination accelerated both of the catalysis steps k(I) and k(II).

  11. The cost of transport of human running is not affected, as in walking, by wide acceleration/deceleration cycles.

    PubMed

    Minetti, Alberto E; Gaudino, Paolo; Seminati, Elena; Cazzola, Dario

    2013-02-15

    Although most of the literature on locomotion energetics and biomechanics is about constant-speed experiments, humans and animals tend to move at variable speeds in their daily life. This study addresses the following questions: 1) how much extra metabolic energy is associated with traveling a unit distance by adopting acceleration/deceleration cycles in walking and running, with respect to constant speed, and 2) how can biomechanics explain those metabolic findings. Ten males and ten females walked and ran at fluctuating speeds (5 ± 0, ± 1, ± 1.5, ± 2, ± 2.5 km/h for treadmill walking, 11 ± 0, ± 1, ± 2, ± 3, ± 4 km/h for treadmill and field running) in cycles lasting 6 s. Field experiments, consisting of subjects following a laser spot projected from a computer-controlled astronomic telescope, were necessary to check the noninertial bias of the oscillating-speed treadmill. Metabolic cost of transport was found to be almost constant at all speed oscillations for running and up to ±2 km/h for walking, with no remarkable differences between laboratory and field results. The substantial constancy of the metabolic cost is not explained by the predicted cost of pure acceleration/deceleration. As for walking, results from speed-oscillation running suggest that the inherent within-stride, elastic energy-free accelerations/decelerations when moving at constant speed work as a mechanical buffer for among-stride speed fluctuations, with no extra metabolic cost. Also, a recent theory about the analogy between sprint (level) running and constant-speed running on gradients, together with the mechanical determinants of gradient locomotion, helps to interpret the present findings.

  12. Accelerated acidosis in response to variable fetal heart rate decelerations in chronically hypoxic ovine fetuses.

    PubMed

    Amaya, Kevin E; Matushewski, Brad; Durosier, L Daniel; Frasch, Martin G; Richardson, Bryan S; Ross, Michael G

    2016-02-01

    Due to limitations of technology, clinicians are typically unable to determine if human fetuses are normoxic or moderately, chronically hypoxic. Risk factors for chronic hypoxia include fetal growth restriction, which is associated with an increased incidence of oligohydramnios and thus a risk for umbilical cord occlusion (UCO) and variable fetal heart rate (FHR) decelerations. At delivery, fetal growth restriction infants (<3rd percentile) have nearly twice the incidence of low Apgar scores and umbilical pH <7.0. Despite the risks of oligohydramnios and intermittent UCO, there is little understanding of the acid/base responses rates of chronically hypoxic fetuses to variable FHR decelerations as might occur during human labor. We sought to compare the increase in base deficit (BD) among chronically hypoxic as compared to normoxic ovine fetuses in response to simulated mild, moderate, and severe variable FHR decelerations. Near-term ovine fetuses were chronically prepared with brachial artery catheters and an inflatable umbilical cuff occluder. Following a recovery period, normoxic (n = 9) and spontaneously hypoxic (n = 5) fetuses were identified (arterial O2 saturation ≤55%). Both animal groups underwent graded, 1-minute occlusions every 2.5 minutes with 1 hour of mild (∼30 beats/min [bpm] decrease from baseline), 1 hour of moderate (∼60 bpm decrease from baseline), and up to 2 hours of severe (∼90 bpm decrease from baseline) variable FHR decelerations until fetal arterial pH reached 7.00, when occlusions were stopped. Repetitive UCO resulted in development of acidosis (pH <7.0) in both groups. Hypoxic and normoxic fetuses demonstrated similar BD increases in response to both mild (0.39, interquartile range [IQR] 0.28-0.45 vs 0.26, IQR 0.01-0.30 mEq/L/10 min, P = .25) and severe (1.97, IQR 1.50-2.43 vs 1.51, IQR 0.97-2.45 mEq/L/10 min, P = .63) variable decelerations. However, moderate variable decelerations increased BD in hypoxic fetuses at 2.5 times the

  13. GDP-GTP exchange processes of G{alpha}i1 protein are accelerated/decelerated depending on the type and the concentration of added detergents.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Makoto; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Wakamatsu, Kaori

    2009-12-01

    Although detergents have been widely used in G-protein studies to increase solubility and stability of the protein, we noticed that detergents modulate the nucleotide-binding properties of G-proteins. Hence, we analysed the effects of detergents on guanine nucleotide exchange reactions of Galpha(i1). Lubrol PX, a non-ionic detergent, which has been widely used in nucleotide dissociation/binding assays, was found to accelerate both GDP dissociation and GTPgammaS binding from/to Galpha in parallel at above its critical micelle concentration (cmc). Sodium cholate, an anionic detergent, which have been used to extract G-proteins from animal tissues, decelerated and accelerated GDP dissociation below and above its cmc, respectively. Surprisingly, micellar cholate decelerated GTPgammaS binding, and the binding rate constant was decreased by three orders of magnitude in the presence of 2% cholate. These results demonstrate that the guanine nucleotide exchange reactions of Galpha(i1) are drastically modulated by detergents differently depending on the type and the state (monomeric or micellar) of the detergents and that dissociation of GDP from Galpha(i1) does not necessarily lead to immediate binding of GTP to Galpha(i1) in some cases. These effects of detergents on G-proteins must be taken into account in G-protein experiments.

  14. Short-term metal particulate exposures decrease cardiac acceleration and deceleration capacities in welders: a repeated-measures panel study.

    PubMed

    Umukoro, Peter E; Cavallari, Jennifer M; Fang, Shona C; Lu, Chensheng; Lin, Xihong; Mittleman, Murray A; Christiani, David C

    2016-02-01

    Acceleration (AC) and deceleration (DC) capacities measure heart rate variability during speeding up and slowing down of the heart, respectively. We investigated associations between AC and DC with occupational short-term metal PM2.5 exposures. A panel of 48 male welders had particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) exposure measurements over 4-6 h repeated over 5 sampling periods between January 2010 and June 2012. We simultaneously obtained continuous recordings of digital ECG using a Holter monitor. We analysed ECG data in the time domain to obtain hourly AC and DC. Linear mixed models were used to assess the associations between hourly PM2.5 exposure and each of hourly AC and DC, controlling for age, smoking status, active smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke, season/time of day when ECG reading was obtained and baseline AC or DC. We also ran lagged exposure response models for each successive hour up to 3 h after onset of exposure. Mean (SD) shift PM2.5 exposure during welding was 0.47 (0.43) mg/m(3). Significant exposure-response associations were found for AC and DC with increased PM2.5 exposure. In our adjusted models without any lag between exposure and response, a 1 mg/m(3) increase of PM2.5 was associated with a decrease of 1.46 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.92) ms in AC and a decrease of 1.00 (95% CI 0.53 to 1.46) ms in DC. The effect of PM2.5 on AC and DC was maximal immediately postexposure and lasted 1 h following exposure. There are short-term effects of metal particulates on AC and DC. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Ubiquinol-10 Supplementation Activates Mitochondria Functions to Decelerate Senescence in Senescence-Accelerated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Geng; Sawashita, Jinko; Kubo, Hiroshi; Nishio, Shin-ya; Hashimoto, Shigenari; Suzuki, Nobuyoshi; Yoshimura, Hidekane; Tsuruoka, Mineko; Wang, Yaoyong; Liu, Yingye; Luo, Hongming; Xu, Zhe; Mori, Masayuki; Kitano, Mitsuaki; Hosoe, Kazunori; Takeda, Toshio; Usami, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aim: The present study was conducted to define the relationship between the anti-aging effect of ubiquinol-10 supplementation and mitochondrial activation in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 1 (SAMP1) mice. Results: Here, we report that dietary supplementation with ubiquinol-10 prevents age-related decreases in the expression of sirtuin gene family members, which results in the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a major factor that controls mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration, as well as superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2), which are major mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes. Ubiquinol-10 supplementation can also increase mitochondrial complex I activity and decrease levels of oxidative stress markers, including protein carbonyls, apurinic/apyrimidinic sites, malondialdehydes, and increase the reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio. Furthermore, ubiquinol-10 may activate Sirt1 and PGC-1α by increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels that, in turn, activate cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Innovation and Conclusion: These results show that ubiquinol-10 may enhance mitochondrial activity by increasing levels of SIRT1, PGC-1α, and SIRT3 that slow the rate of age-related hearing loss and protect against the progression of aging and symptoms of age-related diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2606–2620 PMID:24124769

  16. Ubiquinol-10 supplementation activates mitochondria functions to decelerate senescence in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Tian, Geng; Sawashita, Jinko; Kubo, Hiroshi; Nishio, Shin-ya; Hashimoto, Shigenari; Suzuki, Nobuyoshi; Yoshimura, Hidekane; Tsuruoka, Mineko; Wang, Yaoyong; Liu, Yingye; Luo, Hongming; Xu, Zhe; Mori, Masayuki; Kitano, Mitsuaki; Hosoe, Kazunori; Takeda, Toshio; Usami, Shin-ichi; Higuchi, Keiichi

    2014-06-01

    The present study was conducted to define the relationship between the anti-aging effect of ubiquinol-10 supplementation and mitochondrial activation in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 1 (SAMP1) mice. Here, we report that dietary supplementation with ubiquinol-10 prevents age-related decreases in the expression of sirtuin gene family members, which results in the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a major factor that controls mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration, as well as superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2), which are major mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes. Ubiquinol-10 supplementation can also increase mitochondrial complex I activity and decrease levels of oxidative stress markers, including protein carbonyls, apurinic/apyrimidinic sites, malondialdehydes, and increase the reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio. Furthermore, ubiquinol-10 may activate Sirt1 and PGC-1α by increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels that, in turn, activate cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). These results show that ubiquinol-10 may enhance mitochondrial activity by increasing levels of SIRT1, PGC-1α, and SIRT3 that slow the rate of age-related hearing loss and protect against the progression of aging and symptoms of age-related diseases.

  17. Redshift-Drift as a Test for Discriminating Between Decelerating Inhomogeneous and Accelerating Universe Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Priti; Célérier, Marie-Noëlle Singh, Tejinder P.

    2015-01-01

    Exact inhomogeneous solutions of Einstein's equations have been used in the literature to build models reproducing the cosmological data without dark energy. However, owing to the degrees of freedom pertaining to these models, it is necessary to get rid of the degeneracy often exhibited by the problem of distinguishing between them and accelerating universe models. We give an overview of redshift drift in inhomogeneous cosmologies, and explain how it serves to this purpose. One class of models which fits the data is the Szekeres Swiss-cheese class where non-spherically symmetric voids exhibit a typical size of about 400 Mpc. We present our calculation of the redshift drift in this model, and compare it with the results obtained by other authors for alternate scenarios.

  18. From catastrophic acceleration to deceleration of liquid plugs in prewetted capillary tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magniez, Juan; Baudoin, Michael; Zoueshtiagh, Farzam; Lemac/Lics Team

    2016-11-01

    Liquid/gas flows in capillaries are involved in a multitude of systems including flow in porous media, petroleum extraction, imbibition of paper or flows in pulmonary airways in pathological conditions. Liquid plugs, witch compose the biphasic flows, can have a dramatic impact on patients with pulmonary obstructive diseases, since they considerably alter the circulation of air in the airways and thus can lead to severe breathing difficulties. Here, the dynamics of liquid plugs in prewetted capillary tube is investigated experimentally and theoretically, with a particular emphasis on the role of the prewetting films and of the driving condition (constant flow rate, constant pressure). For both driving conditions, the plugs can either experience a continuous increase or decrease of their size. While this phenomenon is regular in the case of imposed flow rate, a constant pressure head can lead to a catastrophic acceleration of the plug and eventually its rupture or a dramatic increase of the plug size. A theoretical model is proposed to explain the transition between theses two regimes. These results give a new insight on the critical pressure required for airways obstruction and reopening. IEMN, International Laboratory LEMAC/LICS, UMR CNRS 8520, University of Lille.

  19. Constraining the cosmic deceleration-acceleration transition with type Ia supernova, BAO/CMB and H(z) data

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, M. Vargas dos; Reis, R.R.R.; Waga, I., E-mail: vargas@if.ufrj.br, E-mail: ribamar@if.ufrj.br, E-mail: ioav@if.ufrj.br

    2016-02-01

    We revisit the kink-like parametrization of the deceleration parameter q(z) [1], which considers a transition, at redshift z{sub t}, from cosmic deceleration to acceleration. In this parametrization the initial, at z >> z{sub t}, value of the q-parameter is q{sub i}, its final, z=−1, value is q{sub f} and the duration of the transition is parametrized by τ. By assuming a flat space geometry we obtain constraints on the free parameters of the model using recent data from type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the Hubble parameter H(z). The use of H(z) data introducesmore » an explicit dependence of the combined likelihood on the present value of the Hubble parameter H{sub 0}, allowing us to explore the influence of different priors when marginalizing over this parameter. We also study the importance of the CMB information in the results by considering data from WMAP7, WMAP9 (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe—7 and 9 years) and Planck 2015. We show that the contours and best fit do not depend much on the different CMB data used and that the considered new BAO data is responsible for most of the improvement in the results. Assuming a flat space geometry, q{sub i}=1/2 and expressing the present value of the deceleration parameter q{sub 0} as a function of the other three free parameters, we obtain z{sub t}=0.67{sup +0.10}{sub −0.08}, τ=0.26{sup +0.14}{sub −0.10} and q{sub 0}=−0.48{sup +0.11}{sub −0.13}, at 68% of confidence level, with an uniform prior over H{sub 0}. If in addition we fix q{sub f}=−1, as in flat ΛCDM, DGP and Chaplygin quartessence that are special models described by our parametrization, we get z{sub t}=0.66{sup +0.03}{sub −0.04}, τ=0.33{sup +0.04}{sub −0.04} and q{sub 0}=−0.54{sup +0.05}{sub −0.07}, in excellent agreement with flat ΛCDM for which τ=1/3. We also obtain for flat wCDM, another dark energy model described by our parametrization, the

  20. Multistage Zeeman decelerator for molecular-scattering studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremers, Theo; Chefdeville, Simon; Janssen, Niek; Sweers, Edwin; Koot, Sven; Claus, Peter; van de Meerakker, Sebastiaan Y. T.

    2017-04-01

    We present a concept for a multistage Zeeman decelerator that is optimized particularly for applications in molecular beam scattering experiments. The decelerator consists of a series of alternating hexapoles and solenoids, that effectively decouple the transverse focusing and longitudinal deceleration properties of the decelerator. It can be operated in a deceleration and acceleration mode, as well as in a hybrid mode that makes it possible to guide a particle beam through the decelerator at constant speed. The deceleration features phase stability, with a relatively large six-dimensional phase-space acceptance. The separated focusing and deceleration elements result in an unequal partitioning of this acceptance between the longitudinal and transverse directions. This is ideal in scattering experiments, which typically benefit from a large longitudinal acceptance combined with narrow transverse distributions. We demonstrate the successful experimental implementation of this concept using a Zeeman decelerator consisting of an array of 25 hexapoles and 24 solenoids. The performance of the decelerator in acceleration, deceleration, and guiding modes is characterized using beams of metastable helium (3S ) atoms. Up to 60% of the kinetic energy was removed for He atoms that have an initial velocity of 520 m/s. The hexapoles consist of permanent magnets, whereas the solenoids are produced from a single hollow copper capillary through which cooling liquid is passed. The solenoid design allows for excellent thermal properties and enables the use of readily available and cheap electronics components to pulse high currents through the solenoids. The Zeeman decelerator demonstrated here is mechanically easy to build, can be operated with cost-effective electronics, and can run at repetition rates up to 10 Hz.

  1. Accelerators/decelerators of achieving universal access to sexual and reproductive health services: a case study of Iranian health system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background At the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo, the global community agreed to the goal of achieving universal access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and rights by 2015. This research explores the accelerators and decelerators of achieving universal access to the sexual and reproductive health targets and accordingly makes some suggestions. Method We have critically reviewed the latest national reports and extracted the background data on each SRH indicator. The key stakeholders, both national and international, were visited and interviewed at two sites. A total of 55 in-depth interviews were conducted with religious leaders, policy-makers, senior managers, senior academics, and health care managers. Six focus-group discussions were also held among health care providers. The study was qualitative in nature. Results Obstacles on the road to achieving universal access to SRH can be viewed from two perspectives. One gap exists between current achievements and the targets. The other gap arises due to age, marital status, and residency status. The most recently observed trends in the indicators of the universal access to SRH shows that the achievements in the “unmet need for family planning” have been poor. Unmet need for family planning could directly be translated to unwanted pregnancies and unwanted childbirths; the former calls for sexual education to underserved people, including adolescents; and the latter calls for access to safe abortion. Local religious leaders have not actively attended international goal-setting programs. Therefore, they usually do not presume a positive attitude towards these goals. Such negative attitudes seem to be the most important factors hindering the progress towards universal access to SRH. Lack of international donors to fund for SRH programs is also another barrier. In national levels both state and the society are interactively playing their roles. We have used a

  2. Accelerators/decelerators of achieving universal access to sexual and reproductive health services: a case study of Iranian health system.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Nahid; Ramezankhani, Ali; Pazargadi, Mehrnoosh

    2013-07-01

    At the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo, the global community agreed to the goal of achieving universal access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and rights by 2015. This research explores the accelerators and decelerators of achieving universal access to the sexual and reproductive health targets and accordingly makes some suggestions. We have critically reviewed the latest national reports and extracted the background data on each SRH indicator. The key stakeholders, both national and international, were visited and interviewed at two sites. A total of 55 in-depth interviews were conducted with religious leaders, policy-makers, senior managers, senior academics, and health care managers. Six focus-group discussions were also held among health care providers. The study was qualitative in nature. Obstacles on the road to achieving universal access to SRH can be viewed from two perspectives. One gap exists between current achievements and the targets. The other gap arises due to age, marital status, and residency status. The most recently observed trends in the indicators of the universal access to SRH shows that the achievements in the "unmet need for family planning" have been poor. Unmet need for family planning could directly be translated to unwanted pregnancies and unwanted childbirths; the former calls for sexual education to underserved people, including adolescents; and the latter calls for access to safe abortion. Local religious leaders have not actively attended international goal-setting programs. Therefore, they usually do not presume a positive attitude towards these goals. Such negative attitudes seem to be the most important factors hindering the progress towards universal access to SRH. Lack of international donors to fund for SRH programs is also another barrier. In national levels both state and the society are interactively playing their roles. We have used a cascade model for presenting the

  3. Aerocapture Inflatable Decelerator (AID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reza, Sajjad

    2007-01-01

    Forward Attached Inflatable Decelerators, more commonly known as inflatable aeroshells, provide an effective, cost efficient means of decelerating spacecrafts by using atmospheric drag for aerocapture or planetary entry instead of conventional liquid propulsion deceleration systems. Entry into planetary atmospheres results in significant heating and aerodynamic pressures which stress aeroshell systems to their useful limits. Incorporation of lightweight inflatable decelerator surfaces with increased surface-area footprints provides the opportunity to reduce heat flux and induced temperatures, while increasing the payload mass fraction. Furthermore, inflatable aeroshell decelerators provide the needed deceleration at considerably higher altitudes and Mach numbers when compared with conventional rigid aeroshell entry systems. Inflatable aeroshells also provide for stowage in a compact space, with subsequent deployment of a large-area, lightweight heatshield to survive entry heating. Use of a deployable heatshield decelerator not only enables an increase in the spacecraft payload mass fraction and but may also eliminate the need for a spacecraft backshell and cruise stage. This document is the viewgraph slides for the paper's presentation.

  4. Will there be again a transition from acceleration to deceleration in course of the dark energy evolution of the universe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Supriya; Chakraborty, Subenoy

    2013-09-01

    In this work we consider the evolution of the interactive dark fluids in the background of homogeneous and isotropic FRW model of the universe. The dark fluids consist of a warm dark matter and a dark energy and both are described as perfect fluid with barotropic equation of state. The dark species interact non-gravitationally through an additional term in the energy conservation equations. An autonomous system is formed in the energy density spaces and fixed points are analyzed. A general expression for the deceleration parameter has been obtained and it is possible to have more than one zero of the deceleration parameter. Finally, vanishing of the deceleration parameter has been examined with some examples.

  5. The effect of the pressure on the deceleration parameter in inhomogeneous cosmological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrba, David

    2012-07-01

    The cosmological parameters have been recently widely studied within inhomogeneous cosmological models. The investigation is usually done in the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) metric, the spherically symmetric dust solution of Einstein equations. However only little attention has been paid to models with nonzero pressure. Recently it has been pointed out, that pressure gradients can have significant impact on the angular diameter distance redshift relation and it seems to be important to investigate how it effects other cosmological parameters. Here we investigate the influence of the pressure on the backreaction and consequently on the deceleration parameter using the inhomogeneous Lemaitre metric.

  6. The crystal acceleration effect for cold neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Braginetz, Yu. P., E-mail: aiver@pnpi.spb.ru; Berdnikov, Ya. A.; Fedorov, V. V., E-mail: vfedorov@pnpi.spb.ru

    A new mechanism of neutron acceleration is discussed and studied experimentally in detail for cold neutrons passing through the accelerated perfect crystal with the energies close to the Bragg one. The effect arises due to the following reason. The crystal refraction index (neutron-crystal interaction potential) for neutron in the vicinity of the Bragg resonance sharply depends on the parameter of deviation from the exact Bragg condition, i.e. on the crystal-neutron relative velocity. Therefore the neutrons enter into accelerated crystal with one neutron-crystal interaction potential and exit with the other. Neutron kinetic energy cannot vary inside the crystal due to itsmore » homogeneity. So after passage through such a crystal neutrons will be accelerated or decelerated because of the different energy change at the entrance and exit crystal boundaries.« less

  7. Effects of Vertical Direction and Aperture Size on the Perception of Visual Acceleration.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Alexandra S; González, Esther G; McNorgan, Chris; Steinbach, Martin J; Timney, Brian

    2016-02-06

    It is not well understood whether the distance over which moving stimuli are visible affects our sensitivity to the presence of acceleration or our ability to track such stimuli. It is also uncertain whether our experience with gravity creates anisotropies in how we detect vertical acceleration and deceleration. To address these questions, we varied the vertical extent of the aperture through which we presented vertically accelerating and decelerating random dot arrays. We hypothesized that observers would better detect and pursue accelerating and decelerating stimuli that extend over larger than smaller distances. In Experiment 1, we tested the effects of vertical direction and aperture size on acceleration and deceleration detection accuracy. Results indicated that detection is better for downward motion and for large apertures, but there is no difference between vertical acceleration and deceleration detection. A control experiment revealed that our manipulation of vertical aperture size affects the ability to track vertical motion. Smooth pursuit is better (i.e., with higher peak velocities) for large apertures than for small apertures. Our findings suggest that the ability to detect vertical acceleration and deceleration varies as a function of the direction and vertical extent over which an observer can track the moving stimulus. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Effect of static shape deformation on aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics of hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jinghui; Lin, Guiping; Bu, Xueqin; Fu, Shiming; Chao, Yanmeng

    2017-07-01

    The inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (IAD), which allows heavier and larger payloads and offers flexibility in landing site selection at higher altitudes, possesses potential superiority in next generation space transport system. However, due to the flexibilities of material and structure assembly, IAD inevitably experiences surface deformation during atmospheric entry, which in turn alters the flowfield around the vehicle and leads to the variations of aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics. In the current study, the effect of the static shape deformation on the hypersonic aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics of a stacked tori Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) is demonstrated and analyzed in detail by solving compressible Navier-Stokes equations with Menter's shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model. The deformed shape is obtained by structural modeling in the presence of maximum aerodynamic pressure during entry. The numerical results show that the undulating shape deformation makes significant difference to flow structure. In particular, the more curved outboard forebody surface results in local flow separations and reattachments in valleys, which consequently yields remarkable fluctuations of surface conditions with pressure rising in valleys yet dropping on crests while shear stress and heat flux falling in valleys yet rising on crests. Accordingly, compared with the initial (undeformed) shape, the corresponding differences of surface conditions get more striking outboard, with maximum augmentations of 379 pa, 2224 pa, and 19.0 W/cm2, i.e., 9.8%, 305.9%, and 101.6% for the pressure, shear stress and heat flux respectively. Moreover, it is found that, with the increase of angle of attack, the aerodynamic characters and surface heating vary and the aeroheating disparities are evident between the deformed and initial shape. For the deformable HIAD model investigated in this study, the more intense surface conditions and changed flight

  9. Differential longitudinal changes in cortical thickness, surface area and volume across the adult life span: regions of accelerating and decelerating change.

    PubMed

    Storsve, Andreas B; Fjell, Anders M; Tamnes, Christian K; Westlye, Lars T; Overbye, Knut; Aasland, Hilde W; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2014-06-18

    Human cortical thickness and surface area are genetically independent, emerge through different neurobiological events during development, and are sensitive to different clinical conditions. However, the relationship between changes in the two over time is unknown. Additionally, longitudinal studies have almost invariably been restricted to older adults, precluding the delineation of adult life span trajectories of change in cortical structure. In this longitudinal study, we investigated changes in cortical thickness, surface area, and volume after an average interval of 3.6 years in 207 well screened healthy adults aged 23-87 years. We hypothesized that the relationships among metrics are dynamic across the life span, that the primary contributor to cortical volume reductions in aging is cortical thinning, and that magnitude of change varies with age and region. Changes over time were seen in cortical area (mean annual percentage change [APC], -0.19), thickness (APC, -0.35), and volume (APC, -0.51) in most regions. Volume changes were primarily explained by changes in thickness rather than area. A negative relationship between change in thickness and surface area was found across several regions, where more thinning was associated with less decrease in area, and vice versa. Accelerating changes with increasing age was seen in temporal and occipital cortices. In contrast, decelerating changes were seen in prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. In conclusion, a dynamic relationship between cortical thickness and surface area changes exists throughout the adult life span. The mixture of accelerating and decelerating changes further demonstrates the importance of studying these metrics across the entire adult life span. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/348488-11$15.00/0.

  10. Decelerated medical education.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Brian; McQuail, Diane

    2004-09-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain information regarding the prevalence, structure, student characteristics and outcomes of formal decelerated medical education programs. A 13-item survey was mailed to all US medical schools examining characteristics of decelerated curricular programs. Responses were received from 77 schools (62% response). Some 24 (31%) indicated a formal decelerated option; 13 (57%) decelerate the first year while four (17%) decelerate year 1 or year 2. Participants may be selected before matriculation or after difficulty in 14 (61%) programs while four (17%) select only after encountering difficulty. Students may unilaterally choose deceleration in 10 (43%); 4.3% (0.1-12) of total matriculants were decelerated. The proportion of decelerated students identified as underrepresented minority (URM) was 37% (0-100), representing 10.5% (0-43) of total URM enrollment. Twelve (52%) programs do not provide unique support beyond deceleration. Standards for advancement are identical for decelerated and regular students in 17 schools (81%). In total, 10% (0-100) of decelerated students were dismissed within the last five years, representing 24% (0-90) of all dismissals. Few schools provided grade point average (GPA) or Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) data but the limited responses indicate that many decelerated students are at risk for academic difficulty. It is concluded that decelerated curricular options are available at a significant number of US medical schools. Decelerated students comprise a small proportion of total enrollment but URM matriculants represent a disproportionate share of participants. Decelerated programs appear to be successful as measured by dismissal rates if one accepts attrition which exceeds that for regular MD students. Variation in dismissal rates is difficult to interpret given the lack of GPA and MCAT data. One half of all programs offer no additional support activities beyond deceleration. More data are needed to

  11. Aerocapture Inflatable Decelerator for Planetary Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reza, Sajjad; Hund, Richard; Kustas, Frank; Willcockson, William; Songer, Jarvis; Brown, Glen

    2007-01-01

    Forward Attached Inflatable Decelerators, more commonly known as inflatable aeroshells, provide an effective, cost efficient means of decelerating spacecrafts by using atmospheric drag for aerocapture or planetary entry instead of conventional liquid propulsion deceleration systems. Entry into planetary atmospheres results in significant heating and aerodynamic pressures which stress aeroshell systems to their useful limits. Incorporation of lightweight inflatable decelerator surfaces with increased surface-area footprints provides the opportunity to reduce heat flux and induced temperatures, while increasing the payload mass fraction. Furthermore, inflatable aeroshell decelerators provide the needed deceleration at considerably higher altitudes and Mach numbers when compared with conventional rigid aeroshell entry systems. Inflatable aeroshells also provide for stowage in a compact space, with subsequent deployment of a large-area, lightweight heatshield to survive entry heating. Use of a deployable heatshield decelerator enables an increase in the spacecraft payload mass fraction and may eliminate the need for a spacecraft backshell.

  12. Enveloping Aerodynamic Decelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nock, Kerry T. (Inventor); Aaron, Kim M. (Inventor); McRonald, Angus D. (Inventor); Gates, Kristin L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An inflatable aerodynamic deceleration method and system is provided for use with an atmospheric entry payload. The inflatable aerodynamic decelerator includes an inflatable envelope and an inflatant, wherein the inflatant is configured to fill the inflatable envelope to an inflated state such that the inflatable envelope surrounds the atmospheric entry payload, causing aerodynamic forces to decelerate the atmospheric entry payload.

  13. Finite Atwood Number Effects on Deceleration-Phase Instability in Room-Temperature Direct-Drive Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S.; Knauer, J. P.; Radha, P. B.; Goncharov, V. N.

    2017-10-01

    Performance degradation in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion implosions can be caused by several effects, one of which is Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth during the deceleration phase. In room-temperature plastic target implosions, this deceleration-phase RT growth is enhanced by the density discontinuity and finite Atwood numbers at the fuel-pusher interface. For the first time, an experimental campaign at the Omega Laser Facility systematically varied the ratio of deuterium-to-tritium (D-to-T) within the DT gas fill to change the Atwood number. The goal of the experiment was to understand the effects of Atwood number variation on observables like apparent ion temperature, yield, and variations in areal density and bulk fluid motion, which lead to broadening of neutron spectra along different lines of sight. Simulations by the hydrodynamic codes LILAC and DRACO were used to study growth rates for different D-to-T ratios and identify observable quantities effected by Atwood number variation. Results from simulations and the experiment are presented. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  14. Rapid deceleration mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conners, Timothy R.; Nobbs, Steven G.; Orme, John S.

    1995-01-01

    Aircraft with flight capability above 1.4 normally have an RPM lockup or similar feature to prevent inlet buzz that would occur at low engine airflows. This RPM lockup has the effect of holding the engine thrust level at the intermediate power (maximum non-afterburning). For aircraft such as military fighters or supersonic transports, the need exists to be able to rapidly slow from supersonic to subsonic speeds. For example, a supersonic transport that experiences a cabin decompression needs to be able to slow/descend rapidly, and this requirement may size the cabin environmental control system. For a fighter, there may be a desire to slow/descend rapidly, and while doing so to minimize fuel usage and engine exhaust temperature. Both of these needs can be aided by achieving the minimum possible overall net propulsive force. As the intermediate power thrust levels of engines increase, it becomes even more difficult to slow rapidly from supersonic speeds. Therefore, a mode of the performance seeking control (PSC) system to minimize overall propulsion system thrust has been developed and tested. The rapid deceleration mode reduces the engine airflow consistent with avoiding inlet buzz. The engine controls are trimmed to minimize the thrust produced by this reduced airflow, and moves the inlet geometry to degrade the inlet performance. As in the case of the other PSC modes, the best overall performance (in this case the least net propulsive force) requires an integrated optimization of inlet, engine, and nozzle variables. This paper presents the predicted and measured results for the supersonic minimum thrust mode, including the overall effects on aircraft deceleration.

  15. Acceleration or deceleration of self-motion by the Marangoni effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Yui; Suematsu, Nobuhiko J.; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Ikura, Yumihiko S.; Nakata, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the water-depth dependence of the self-motion of a camphor disk and camphor boat. With increasing water depth, the speed of motion of the camphor disk increased, but that of the camphor boat decreased in an annular one-dimensional system. We discussed the difference in the water-depth dependence of the speed of the camphor objects in relation to Marangoni flow. We concluded that Marangoni flow, which became stronger with increasing the water depth, positively and negatively affected the speed of the disk and boat, respectively.

  16. Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Parachute Decelerator System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallon, John C.; Clark, Ian G.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; Adams, Douglas S.; Witkowski, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Project has undertaken the task of developing and testing a large supersonic ringsail parachute. The parachute under development is intended to provide mission planners more options for parachutes larger than the Mars Science Laboratory's 21.5m parachute. During its development, this new parachute will be taken through a series of tests in order to bring the parachute to a TRL-6 readiness level and make the technology available for future Mars missions. This effort is primarily focused on two tests, a subsonic structural verification test done at sea level atmospheric conditions and a supersonic flight behind a blunt body in low-density atmospheric conditions. The preferred method of deploying a parachute behind a decelerating blunt body robotic spacecraft in a supersonic flow-field is via mortar deployment. Due to the configuration constraints in the design of the test vehicle used in the supersonic testing it is not possible to perform a mortar deployment. As a result of this limitation an alternative deployment process using a ballute as a pilot is being developed. The intent in this alternate approach is to preserve the requisite features of a mortar deployment during canopy extraction in a supersonic flow. Doing so will allow future Mars missions to either choose to mortar deploy or pilot deploy the parachute that is being developed.

  17. A fast wind-farm boundary-layer model to investigate gravity wave effects and upstream flow deceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan

    2017-11-01

    Wind farm design and control often relies on fast analytical wake models to predict turbine wake interactions and associated power losses. Essential input to these models are the inflow velocity and turbulent intensity at hub height, which come from prior measurement campaigns or wind-atlas data. Recent LES studies showed that in some situations large wind farms excite atmospheric gravity waves, which in turn affect the upstream wind conditions. In the current study, we develop a fast boundary-layer model that computes the excitation of gravity waves and the perturbation of the boundary-layer flow in response to an applied force. The core of the model is constituted by height-averaged, linearised Navier-Stokes equations for the inner and outer layer, and the effect of atmospheric gravity waves (excited by the boundary-layer displacement) is included via the pressure gradient. Coupling with analytical wake models allows us to study wind-farm wakes and upstream flow deceleration in various atmospheric conditions. Comparison with wind-farm LES results shows excellent agreement in terms of pressure and boundary-layer displacement levels. The authors acknowledge support from the European Research Council (FP7-Ideas, Grant No. 306471).

  18. Biodegradable Sonobuoy Decelerators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    material. Two materials studied were polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Single and multilayered PVOH films were evaluated as well...readiness point for technology transition. 15. SUBJECT TERMS biodegrade, decelerator, sonobuoy, polyvinyl alcohol, polyhydroxyalkanoate , marine...Center NGO non-governmental organizations NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration PHA polyhydroxyalkanoate PIA Parachute Industry

  19. Electron Cloud Effects in Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.A.

    Abstract We present a brief summary of various aspects of the electron-cloud effect (ECE) in accelerators. For further details, the reader is encouraged to refer to the proceedings of many prior workshops, either dedicated to EC or with significant EC contents, including the entire ?ECLOUD? series [1?22]. In addition, the proceedings of the various flavors of Particle Accelerator Conferences [23] contain a large number of EC-related publications. The ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter series [24] contains one dedicated issue, and several occasional articles, on EC. An extensive reference database is the LHC website on EC [25].

  20. Decelerations of Parachute Opening Shock in Skydivers.

    PubMed

    Gladh, Kristofer; Lo Martire, Riccardo; Äng, Björn O; Lindholm, Peter; Nilsson, Jenny; Westman, Anton

    2017-02-01

    High prevalence of neck pain among skydivers is related to parachute opening shock (POS) exposure, but few investigations of POS deceleration have been made. Existing data incorporate equipment movements, limiting its representability of skydiver deceleration. This study aims to describe POS decelerations and compare human- with equipment-attached data. Wearing two triaxial accelerometers placed on the skydiver (neck-sensor) and equipment (rig-sensor), 20 participants made 2 skydives each. Due to technical issues, data from 35 skydives made by 19 participants were collected. Missing data were replaced using data substitution techniques. Acceleration axes were defined as posterior to anterior (+ax), lateral right (+ay), and caudal to cranial (+az). Deceleration magnitude [amax (G)] and jerks (G · s-1) during POS were analyzed. Two distinct phases related to skydiver positioning and acceleration direction were observed: 1) the x-phase (characterized by -ax, rotating the skydiver); and 2) the z-phase (characterized by +az, skydiver vertically oriented). Compared to the rig-sensor, the neck-sensor yielded lower amax (3.16 G vs. 6.96 G) and jerk (56.3 G · s-1 vs. 149.0 G · s-1) during the x-phase, and lower jerk (27.7 G · s-1 vs. 54.5 G · s-1) during the z-phase. The identified phases during POS should be considered in future neck pain preventive strategies. Accelerometer data differed, suggesting human-placed accelerometry to be more valid for measuring human acceleration.Gladh K, Lo Martire R, Äng BO, Lindholm P, Nilsson J, Westman A. Decelerations of parachute opening shock in skydivers. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(2):121-127.

  1. Deceleration efficiencies of shrub windbreaks in a wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoxu; Zou, Xueyong; Zhou, Na; Zhang, Chunlai; Shi, Sha

    2015-03-01

    Artemisia and Salix are dominant shrub species for windbreaks in arid areas of China, and they show similar features to shrubs in other arid areas of the world. We compared the mean velocity fields and shelter effects of two shrub windbreaks with different layouts. For a single plant of Artemisia, the higher the free airflow velocity is, the more the wind velocity around two sides of the plant increases. The velocity gradient around a single plant of Salix is smaller than that around an Artemisia plant due to the difference in the plant shapes. Seven new velocity zones in the horizontal direction appear when airflow passes through an Artemisia windbreak, including four deceleration zones and three acceleration zones. The mean velocity field that is affected by a Salix windbreak can be divided into a deceleration zone in the front, an acceleration zone above, a vortex zone behind and a restoration zone downwind of the vortex zone. Shelter effects of the shrub windbreaks vary with the wind velocity and are influenced by the construct of the windbreaks. Shrub windbreaks that have a complex construction have better shelter effects than simple ones. The shelter effects of plant windbreaks are also influenced by the growth features of the plants. Considering the plant characteristics and the shelter effects of Salix and Artemisia windbreaks, it is optimal to plant these two windbreaks together in a sand-control system. This research is intended to be useful for sand movement control in arid areas.

  2. Aerodynamic Decelerators for Planetary Exploration: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Juna R.; Lingard, J. Stephen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, aerodynamic decelerators are defined as textile devices intended to be deployed at Mach numbers below five. Such aerodynamic decelerators include parachutes and inflatable aerodynamic decelerators (often known as ballutes). Aerodynamic decelerators play a key role in the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) of planetary exploration vehicles. Among the functions performed by aerodynamic decelerators for such vehicles are deceleration (often from supersonic to subsonic speeds), minimization of descent rate, providing specific descent rates (so that scientific measurements can be obtained), providing stability (drogue function - either to prevent aeroshell tumbling or to meet instrumentation requirements), effecting further aerodynamic decelerator system deployment (pilot function), providing differences in ballistic coefficients of components to enable separation events, and providing height and timeline to allow for completion of the EDL sequence. Challenging aspects in the development of aerodynamic decelerators for planetary exploration missions include: deployment in the unusual combination of high Mach numbers and low dynamic pressures, deployment in the wake behind a blunt-body entry vehicle, stringent mass and volume constraints, and the requirement for high drag and stability. Furthermore, these aerodynamic decelerators must be qualified for flight without access to the exotic operating environment where they are expected to operate. This paper is an introduction to the development and application of aerodynamic decelerators for robotic planetary exploration missions (including Earth sample return missions) from the earliest work in the 1960s to new ideas and technologies with possible application to future missions. An extensive list of references is provided for additional study.

  3. Psychological effects of thought acceleration.

    PubMed

    Pronin, Emily; Jacobs, Elana; Wegner, Daniel M

    2008-10-01

    Six experiments found that manipulations that increase thought speed also yield positive affect. These experiments varied in both the methods used for accelerating thought (i.e., instructions to brainstorm freely, exposure to multiple ideas, encouragement to plagiarize others' ideas, performance of easy cognitive tasks, narration of a silent video in fast-forward, and experimentally controlled reading speed) and the contents of the thoughts that were induced (from thoughts about money-making schemes to thoughts of five-letter words). The results suggested that effects of thought speed on mood are partially rooted in the subjective experience of thought speed. The results also suggested that these effects can be attributed to the joy-enhancing effects of fast thinking (rather than only to the joy-killing effects of slow thinking). This work is inspired by observations of a link between "racing thoughts" and euphoria in cases of clinical mania, and potential implications of that observed link are discussed. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Turbulent pipe flows subjected to temporal decelerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Wongwan; Lee, Jae Hwa

    2016-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations of temporally decelerating turbulent pipe flows were performed to examine effects of temporal decelerations on turbulence. The simulations were started with a fully developed turbulent pipe flow at a Reynolds number, ReD =24380, based on the pipe radius (R) and the laminar centerline velocity (Uc 0). Three different temporal decelerations were imposed to the initial flow with f= | d Ub / dt | =0.00127, 0.00625 and 0.025, where Ub is the bulk mean velocity. Comparison of Reynolds stresses and turbulent production terms with those for steady flow at a similar Reynolds number showed that turbulence is highly intensified with increasing f due to delay effects. Furthermore, inspection of the Reynolds shear stress profiles showed that strong second- and fourth-quadrant Reynolds shear stresses are greatly increased, while first- and third-quadrant components are also increased. Decomposition of streamwise Reynolds normal stress with streamwise cutoff wavelength (λx) 1 R revealed that the turbulence delay is dominantly originated from delay of strong large-scale turbulent structures in the outer layer, although small-scale motions throughout the wall layer adjusted more rapidly to the temporal decelerations. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2014R1A1A2057031).

  5. Flow Studies of Decelerators at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests recorded the effect of decelerators on flow at various supersonic speeds. Rigid parachute models were tested for the effects of porosity, shroud length, and number of shrouds. Flexible model parachutes were tested for effects of porosity and conical-shaped canopy. Ribbon dive brakes on a missile-shaped body were tested for effect of tension cable type and ribbon flare type. The final test involved a plastic sphere on riser lines.

  6. On the electrostatic deceleration of argon atoms in high Rydberg states by time-dependent inhomogeneous electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vliegen, E.; Merkt, F.

    2005-06-01

    Argon atoms in a pulsed supersonic expansion are prepared in selected Stark components of Rydberg states with effective principal quantum number in the range n* = 15-25. When traversing regions of inhomogeneous electric fields, these atoms get accelerated or decelerated depending on whether the Stark states are low- or high-field seeking states. Using a compact electrode design, which enables the application of highly inhomogeneous and time-dependent electric fields, the Rydberg atoms experience kinetic energy changes of up to 1.2 × 10-21 J (i.e. 60 cm-1 in spectroscopic units) in a single acceleration/deceleration stage of 3 mm length. The resulting differences in the velocities of the low- and high-field seeking states are large enough that the corresponding distributions of times of flight to the Rydberg particle detector are fully separated. As a result, efficient spectral searches of the Rydberg states best suited for acceleration/deceleration experiments are possible. Numerical simulations of the particle trajectories are used to analyse the time-of-flight distributions and to optimize the time dependence of the inhomogeneous electric fields. The decay of the Rydberg states by fluorescence, collisions and transitions induced by black-body radiation takes place on a timescale long enough not to interfere significantly with the deceleration during the first ~5 µs.

  7. Collective Deceleration: Toward a Compact Beam Dump

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H.-C.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst. Quantenopt.; Tajima, T.

    With the increasing development of laser accelerators, the electron energy is already beyond GeV and even higher in near future. Conventional beam dump based on ionization or radiation loss mechanism is cumbersome and costly, also has radiological hazards. We revisit the stopping power of high-energy charged particles in matter and discuss the associated problem of beam dump from the point of view of collective deceleration. The collective stopping length in an ionized gas can be several orders of magnitude shorter than the Bethe-Bloch and multiple electromagnetic cascades stopping length in solid. At the mean time, the tenuous density of themore » gas makes the radioactivation negligible. Such a compact and non-radioactivating beam dump works well for short and dense bunches, which is typically generated from laser wakefield accelerator.« less

  8. Randomized trial of intermittent or continuous amnioinfusion for variable decelerations.

    PubMed

    Rinehart, B K; Terrone, D A; Barrow, J H; Isler, C M; Barrilleaux, P S; Roberts, W E

    2000-10-01

    To determine whether continuous or intermittent bolus amnioinfusion is more effective in relieving variable decelerations. Patients with repetitive variable decelerations were randomized to an intermittent bolus or continuous amnioinfusion. The intermittent bolus infusion group received boluses of 500 mL of normal saline, each over 30 minutes, with boluses repeated if variable decelerations recurred. The continuous infusion group received a bolus infusion of 500 mL of normal saline over 30 minutes and then 3 mL per minute until delivery occurred. The ability of the amnioinfusion to abolish variable decelerations was analyzed, as were maternal demographic and pregnancy outcome variables. Power analysis indicated that 64 patients would be required. Thirty-five patients were randomized to intermittent infusion and 30 to continuous infusion. There were no differences between groups in terms of maternal demographics, gestational age, delivery mode, neonatal outcome, median time to resolution of variable decelerations, or the number of times variable decelerations recurred. The median volume infused in the intermittent infusion group (500 mL) was significantly less than that in the continuous infusion group (905 mL, P =.003). Intermittent bolus amnioinfusion is as effective as continuous infusion in relieving variable decelerations in labor. Further investigation is necessary to determine whether either of these techniques is associated with increased occurrence of rare complications such as cord prolapse or uterine rupture.

  9. Automated Fetal Heart Rate Analysis in Labor: Decelerations and Overshoots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, A. E.; Payne, S. J.; Moulden, M.; Redman, C. W. G.

    2010-10-01

    Electronic fetal heart rate (FHR) recording is a standard way of monitoring fetal health in labor. Decelerations and accelerations usually indicate fetal distress and normality respectively. But one type of acceleration may differ, namely an overshoot that may atypically reflect fetal stress. Here we describe a new method for detecting decelerations, accelerations and overshoots as part of a novel system for computerized FHR analysis (OxSyS). There was poor agreement between clinicians when identifying these FHR features visually, which precluded setting a gold standard of interpretation. We therefore introduced `modified' Sensitivity (SE°) and `modified' Positive Predictive Value (PPV°) as appropriate performance measures with which the algorithm was optimized. The relation between overshoots and fetal compromise in labor was studied in 15 cases and 15 controls. Overshoots showed promise as an indicator of fetal compromise. Unlike ordinary accelerations, overshoots cannot be considered to be reassuring features of fetal health.

  10. Deceleration-Limiting Roadway Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C. (Inventor); Locke, P. James (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Roadway barrier system and method are disclosed for decelerating a moving vehicle in a controlled manner and for retaining the decelerated vehicle. A net or mesh of the roadway barrier system receives and captures the moving vehicle. The net or mesh is secured to anchors by energy absorbing straps. The energy absorbing straps deploy under a tensional load to decelerate the moving vehicle, the straps providing a controlled resistance to the tensional load over a predefined displacement or stroke to bring the moving vehicle to rest. Additional features include a sacrificial panel or sheet in front of the net that holds up the net or mesh while deflecting vehicles that collide only tangentially with the roadway barrier system.

  11. Radiation effects in accelerator components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borden, M. J.

    1995-05-01

    A review of basic radiation effects is presented. The fundamental definitions of radioactivity are given for alpha, beta, positron decay, gamma-ray emission and electron capture. The interaction of neutrons with material is covered including: absorption through radiative capture, neutron-proton interaction, alpha particle emission, neutron-multi-neutron reactions and fission. Basic equations defining inelastic and elastic scattering are presented with examples of neutron energy loss per collision for several elements. Photon interactions are considered for gamma-rays and x-rays. Photoelectric collisions, the Compton effect and pair production are reviewed. Electron-proton interactions are discussed with emphasis placed on defect production. Basic displacement damage mechanisms for photon and particle interaction are presented. Several examples of radiation effects to plastics, electronics and ceramics are presented. Extended references are given for each example.

  12. Projectile Combustion Effects on Ram Accelerator Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitale, Saarth Anjali

    University of Washington Abstract Projectile Combustion Effects on Ram Accelerator Performance Saarth Anjali Chitale Chair of the Supervisory Committee: Prof. Carl Knowlen William E. Boeing Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics The ram accelerator facility at the University of Washington is used to propel projectiles at supersonic velocities. This concept is similar to an air-breathing ramjet engine in that sub-caliber projectiles, shaped like the ramjet engine center-body, are shot through smooth-bore steel-walled tubes having an internal diameter of 38 mm. The ram accelerator propulsive cycles operate between Mach 2 to 10 and have the potential to accelerate projectile to velocities greater than 8 km/s. The theoretical thrust versus Mach number characteristics can be obtained using knowledge of gas dynamics and thermodynamics that goes into the design of the ram accelerator. The corresponding velocity versus distance profiles obtained from the test runs at the University of Washington, however, are often not consistent with the theoretical predictions after the projectiles reach in-tube Mach numbers greater than 4. The experimental velocities are typically greater than the expected theoretical predictions; which has led to the proposition that the combustion process may be moving up onto the projectile. An alternative explanation for higher than predicted thrust, which is explored here, is that the performance differences can be attributed to the ablation of the projectile body which results in molten metal being added to the flow of the gaseous combustible mixture around the projectile. This molten metal is assumed to mix uniformly and react with the gaseous propellant; thereby enhancing the propellant energy release and altering the predicted thrust-Mach characteristics. This theory predicts at what Mach number the projectile will first experience enhanced thrust and the corresponding velocity-distance profile. Preliminary results are in good agreement

  13. Acceleration effects in solid propellant rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langhenry, M. T.

    1986-01-01

    The performance variations due to acceleration loads imposed on spinning solid propellant rocket motors are investigated. The four potentially most significant modes of acceleration-induced phenomena are identified from a study of the literature and modeled. The four modes are a mechanical mode which deals with deformations of the propellant and case: a thermodynamic mode which covers acceleration-induced combustion phenomena; a stress mode which covers the stressed propellant's effect on burn rate; and a gas dynamic mode which deals with changes in gas flow in the chamber and through the nozzle. Simplified models of each mode are developed or taken from the literature and are added to an internal ballistics evaluation computer program. The resulting analysis is the first to include all of the modes. In order to do this an original analysis of the mechanical and stress modes was necessary. However, the analysis shows that the stress mode is not important for the circular perforated grains studied. The other effects are shown to have a significant influence on solid rocket motor performance. The magnitude of the different mode effects are such that one may not be ignored over the others as has been done in the past. The results of the analysis are compared to published rocket motor data. The comparisons indicate an erosive burning effect that is a function of spin rate. A qualitative explanation of the erosive effect is presented.

  14. A scheme for reducing deceleration-phase Rayleigh–Taylor growth in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L. F., E-mail: wang-lifeng@iapcm.ac.cn; Ye, W. H.; Liu, Jie

    It is demonstrated that the growth of acceleration-phase instabilities in inertial confinement fusion implosions can be controlled, especially in the high-foot implosions [O. A. Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility. However, the excessive growth of the deceleration-phase instabilities can still destroy the hot spot ignition. A scheme is proposed to retard the deceleration-phase Rayleigh–Taylor instability growth by shock collision near the waist of the inner shell surface. Two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations confirm the improved deceleration-phase hot spot stability properties without sacrificing the fuel compression.

  15. A scheme for reducing deceleration-phase Rayleigh-Taylor growth in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H.; Wu, J. F.; Liu, Jie; Zhang, W. Y.; He, X. T.

    2016-05-01

    It is demonstrated that the growth of acceleration-phase instabilities in inertial confinement fusion implosions can be controlled, especially in the high-foot implosions [O. A. Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility. However, the excessive growth of the deceleration-phase instabilities can still destroy the hot spot ignition. A scheme is proposed to retard the deceleration-phase Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth by shock collision near the waist of the inner shell surface. Two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations confirm the improved deceleration-phase hot spot stability properties without sacrificing the fuel compression.

  16. Reduction of Effective Acceleration to Microgravity Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, James P.

    2000-01-01

    Acceleration due to earth's gravity causes buoyancy driven convection and sedimentation in solutions. In addition. pressure gradients occur as a function of the height within a liquid column. Hence gravity effects both equilbria conditions and phase transitions as a result of hydrostatic pressure gradients. The affect of gravity on the rate of heat and man transfer in solutal processes can be particularly important in polymer processing due to the high sensitivity of polymeric materials to processing conditions. The term microgravity has been coined to describe an environment in which the affects of gravitational acceleration am greatly reduced. It may seem odd to talk in term of reducing the effects of gravitational acceleration since gravitational attraction is a basic property of matter. However, die presence of gravity on in situ processing or measurements can be negated by achieving conditions in which the laboratory, or more specifically the container of the experimental materials, a subjected to the same acceleration as the materials themselves. With regard to the laboratory reference frame, there is virtually no force on the experimental solutions. This is difficult to achieve but can be done. A short review of Newtonian physics provides an explanation on both how processes we affected by gravity and how microgravity conditions are achieved. The fact that fluids deform when subject to a force bid solids do not indicates that solids have a structure able to exert an opposing force that negates an externally applied force. Liquids deform when a force is applied, indicating that a liquid structure cannot completely negate an applied force. Just how easily a liquid resists deformation is related to its viscosity. Spaceflight provides an environment in which the laboratory reference frame i.e. the spacecraft and all the equipment therein an experiencing virtually identical forces. There is no solid foundation underneath such a laboratory, so the laboratory

  17. Optimization of vehicle deceleration to reduce occupant injury risks in frontal impact.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Koji; Itakura, Takuya; Hirabayashi, Satoko; Tanaka, Eiichi; Ito, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    In vehicle frontal impacts, vehicle acceleration has a large effect on occupant loadings and injury risks. In this research, an optimal vehicle crash pulse was determined systematically to reduce injury measures of rear seat occupants by using mathematical simulations. The vehicle crash pulse was optimized based on a vehicle deceleration-deformation diagram under the conditions that the initial velocity and the maximum vehicle deformation were constant. Initially, a spring-mass model was used to understand the fundamental parameters for optimization. In order to investigate the optimization under a more realistic situation, the vehicle crash pulse was also optimized using a multibody model of a Hybrid III dummy seated in the rear seat for the objective functions of chest acceleration and chest deflection. A sled test using a Hybrid III dummy was carried out to confirm the simulation results. Finally, the optimal crash pulses determined from the multibody simulation were applied to a human finite element (FE) model. The optimized crash pulse to minimize the occupant deceleration had a concave shape: a high deceleration in the initial phase, low in the middle phase, and high again in the final phase. This crash pulse shape depended on the occupant restraint stiffness. The optimized crash pulse determined from the multibody simulation was comparable to that from the spring-mass model. From the sled test, it was demonstrated that the optimized crash pulse was effective for the reduction of chest acceleration. The crash pulse was also optimized for the objective function of chest deflection. The optimized crash pulse in the final phase was lower than that obtained for the minimization of chest acceleration. In the FE analysis of the human FE model, the optimized pulse for the objective function of the Hybrid III chest deflection was effective in reducing rib fracture risks. The optimized crash pulse has a concave shape and is dependent on the occupant restraint

  18. Deceleration system for kinematic linkages of positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, G.

    2017-08-01

    Flexible automation is used more and more in various production processes, so that both machining itself on CNC machine tools and workpiece handling means are performed through programming the needed working cycle. In order to obtain a successful precise positioning, each motion degree needs a certain deceleration before stopping at a programmed point. The increase of motion speed of moving elements within the manipulators structure depends directly on deceleration duty quality before the programmed stop. Proportional valves as well as servo-valves that can perform hydraulic decelerations are well known, but they feature several disadvantages, such as: high price, severe conditions for oil filtering and low reliability under industrial conditions. This work presents a new deceleration system that allows adjustment of deceleration slope according to actual conditions: inertial mass, speed etc. The new solution of hydraulic decelerator allows its integration to a position loop or its usage in case of positioning large elements that only perform fixed cycles. The results being obtained on the positioning accuracy of a linear axis using the new solution of the hydraulic decelerator are presented, too. The price of the new deceleration system is much lower compared to the price of proportional valves or servo-valves.

  19. Effect of knee flexion angle on ground reaction forces, knee moments and muscle co-contraction during an impact-like deceleration landing: implications for the non-contact mechanism of ACL injury.

    PubMed

    Podraza, Jeffery T; White, Scott C

    2010-08-01

    Investigating landing kinetics and neuromuscular control strategies during rapid deceleration movements is a prerequisite to understanding the non-contact mechanism of ACL injury. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of knee flexion angle on ground reaction forces, net knee joint moments, muscle co-contraction and lower extremity muscles during an impact-like, deceleration task. Ground reaction forces and knee joint moments were determined from video and force plate records of 10 healthy male subjects performing rapid deceleration single leg landings from a 10.5 cm height with different degrees of knee flexion at landing. Muscle co-contraction was based on muscle moments calculated from an EMG-to-moment processing model. Ground reaction forces and co-contraction indices decreased while knee extensor moments increased significantly with increased degrees of knee flexion at landing (all p<0.005). Higher ground reaction forces when landing in an extended knee position suggests they are a contributing factor in non-contact ACL injuries. Increased knee extensor moments and less co-contraction with flexed knee landings suggest that quadriceps overload may not be the primary cause of non-contact ACL injuries. The results bring into question the counterbalancing role of the hamstrings during dynamic movements. The soleus may be a valuable synergist stabilizing the tibia against anterior translation at landing. Movement strategies that lessen the propagation of reaction forces up the kinetic chain may help prevent non-contact ACL injuries. The relative interaction of all involved thigh and lower leg muscles, not just the quadriceps and hamstrings should be considered when interpreting non-contact ACL injury mechanisms. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Design considerations and test facilities for accelerated radiation effects testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, W. E.; Miller, C. G.; Parker, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Test design parameters for accelerated dose rate radiation effects tests for spacecraft parts and subsystems used in long term mission (years) are detailed. A facility for use in long term accelerated and unaccelerated testing is described.

  1. Effective Teaching in Accelerated Learning Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Drick

    2004-01-01

    According to Wlodkowski (2003), "accelerated learning programs are one of the fastest growing transformations in higher education" (p. 5). The Center for the Study of Accelerated Learning at Regis University has documented at least 250 colleges or universities that offer accelerated learning programs for working adults. By definition, accelerated…

  2. Impact accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vongierke, H. E.; Brinkley, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The degree to which impact acceleration is an important factor in space flight environments depends primarily upon the technology of capsule landing deceleration and the weight permissible for the associated hardware: parachutes or deceleration rockets, inflatable air bags, or other impact attenuation systems. The problem most specific to space medicine is the potential change of impact tolerance due to reduced bone mass and muscle strength caused by prolonged weightlessness and physical inactivity. Impact hazards, tolerance limits, and human impact tolerance related to space missions are described.

  3. Magnetic circuit for hall effect plasma accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David H. (Inventor); Jacobson, David T. (Inventor); Hofer, Richard (Inventor); Peterson, Peter (Inventor); Jankovsky, Robert S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A Hall effect plasma accelerator includes inner and outer electromagnets, circumferentially surrounding the inner electromagnet along a thruster centerline axis and separated therefrom, inner and outer magnetic conductors, in physical connection with their respective inner and outer electromagnets, with the inner magnetic conductor having a mostly circular shape and the outer magnetic conductor having a mostly annular shape, a discharge chamber, located between the inner and outer magnetic conductors, a magnetically conducting back plate, in magnetic contact with the inner and outer magnetic conductors, and a combined anode electrode/gaseous propellant distributor, located at a bottom portion of the discharge chamber. The inner and outer electromagnets, the inner and outer magnetic conductors and the magnetically conducting back plate form a magnetic circuit that produces a magnetic field that is largely axial and radially symmetric with respect to the thruster centerline.

  4. Before the Drop: Engineers Ready Supersonic Decelerator

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-21

    A saucer-shaped vehicle part of NASA Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator LDSD project designed to test interplanetary landing devices hangs on a tower in preparation for launch at the Pacific Missile Range Facility in Kauai, Hawaii.

  5. Effects of Shock and Turbulence Properties on Electron Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, G.; Kong, F.-J.; Zhang, L.-H.

    2018-06-01

    Using test particle simulations, we study electron acceleration at collisionless shocks with a two-component model turbulent magnetic field with slab component including dissipation range. We investigate the importance of the shock-normal angle θ Bn, magnetic turbulence level {(b/{B}0)}2, and shock thickness on the acceleration efficiency of electrons. It is shown that at perpendicular shocks the electron acceleration efficiency is enhanced with the decrease of {(b/{B}0)}2, and at {(b/{B}0)}2=0.01 the acceleration becomes significant due to a strong drift electric field with long time particles staying near the shock front for shock drift acceleration (SDA). In addition, at parallel shocks the electron acceleration efficiency is increasing with the increase of {(b/{B}0)}2, and at {(b/{B}0)}2=10.0 the acceleration is very strong due to sufficient pitch-angle scattering for first-order Fermi acceleration, as well as due to the large local component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the shock-normal angle for SDA. On the other hand, the high perpendicular shock acceleration with {(b/{B}0)}2=0.01 is stronger than the high parallel shock acceleration with {(b/{B}0)}2=10.0, the reason might be the assumption that SDA is more efficient than first-order Fermi acceleration. Furthermore, for oblique shocks, the acceleration efficiency is small no matter whether the turbulence level is low or high. Moreover, for the effect of shock thickness on electron acceleration at perpendicular shocks, we show that there exists the bendover thickness, L diff,b. The acceleration efficiency does not noticeably change if the shock thickness is much smaller than L diff,b. However, if the shock thickness is much larger than L diff,b, the acceleration efficiency starts to drop abruptly.

  6. Rocket Sled Propelled Testing of a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meacham, Michael B.; Kennett, Andrew; Townsend, Derik J.; Marti, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Decelerators (IADs) have traditionally been tested in wind tunnels. As the limitations of these test facilities are reached, other avenues must be pursued. The IAD being tested is a Supersonic IAD (SIAD), which attaches just aft of the heatshield around the perimeter of an entry body. This 'attached torus' SIAD is meant to improve the accuracy of landing for robotic class missions to Mars and allow for potentially increased payloads. The SIAD Design Verification (SDV) test aims to qualify the SIAD by applying a targeted aerodynamic load to the vehicle. While many test architectures were researched, a rocket sled track was ultimately chosen to be the most cost effective way to achieve the desired dynamic pressures. The Supersonic Naval Ordnance Research Track (SNORT) at the Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (NAWCWD) China Lake is a four mile test track, traditionally used for warhead and ejection seat testing. Prior to SDV, inflatable drag bodies have been tested on this particular track. Teams at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and NAWCWD collaborate together to design and fabricate one of the largest sleds ever built. The SDV sled is comprised of three individual sleds: a Pusher Sled which holds the solid booster rockets, an Item Sled which supports the test vehicle, and a Camera Sled that is pushed in front for in-situ footage and measurements. The JPL-designed Test Vehicle has a full-scale heatshield shape and contains all instrumentation and inflation systems necessary to inflate and test a SIAD. The first campaign that is run at SNORT tested all hardware and instrumentation before the SIAD was ready to be tested. For each of the three tests in this campaign, the number of rockets and top speed was increased and the data analyzed to ensure the hardware is safe at the necessary accelerations and aerodynamic loads.

  7. Tanning accelerators: prevalence, predictors of use, and adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Jennifer L; Cunningham, Rachel; Cantor, Alan; Elewski, Boni E; Elmets, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    Tanning accelerators are topical products used by indoor tanners to augment and hasten the tanning process. These products contain tyrosine, psoralens, and/or other chemicals. We sought to better define the population using accelerators, identify predictors of their use, and describe any related adverse effects. This cross-sectional study surveyed 200 indoor tanners about their tanning practices and accelerator use. Primary analysis compared accelerator users with nonusers with respect to questionnaire variables. Descriptive statistics and χ(2) contingency tables were applied to identify statistically significant variables. Of respondents, 53% used accelerators; 97% were female and 3% were male with a median age of 22 years (range: 19-67). Users were more likely to spray tan, tan frequently, and be addicted to tanning. Acne and rashes were more common in accelerator users. Adverse reactions to accelerators prevented their further use 31% of the time. A limited adult population was evaluated; exact accelerator ingredients were not examined. Tanning accelerator users are high-risk indoor tanners who tan more frequently and who are more likely addicted to tanning. Acne and rashes are more common with these products and act as only mild deterrents to continued use. Additional research should investigate accelerators' longer-term health effects. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Continuous centrifuge decelerator for polar molecules.

    PubMed

    Chervenkov, S; Wu, X; Bayerl, J; Rohlfes, A; Gantner, T; Zeppenfeld, M; Rempe, G

    2014-01-10

    Producing large samples of slow molecules from thermal-velocity ensembles is a formidable challenge. Here we employ a centrifugal force to produce a continuous molecular beam with a high flux at near-zero velocities. We demonstrate deceleration of three electrically guided molecular species, CH3F, CF3H, and CF3CCH, with input velocities of up to 200  m s(-1) to obtain beams with velocities below 15  m s(-1) and intensities of several 10(9)  mm(-2) s(-1). The centrifuge decelerator is easy to operate and can, in principle, slow down any guidable particle. It has the potential to become a standard technique for continuous deceleration of molecules.

  9. Task-control of arousal and the effects of repeated unidirectional angular acceleration on human vestibular responses.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1963-11-01

    Subjects were exposed to a 10-day habituation series of 200 CW accelerations in total darkness while performing attention-demanding tasks. Decelerations were sub-threshold. Preliminary and post-tests indicated that slow-phase nystagmus and duration o...

  10. Rotary Wing Deceleration Use on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Steiner, Ted J.

    2011-01-01

    Rotary wing decelerator (RWD) systems were compared against other methods of atmospheric deceleration and were determined to show significant potential for application to a system requiring controlled descent, low-velocity landing, and atmospheric research capability on Titan. Design space exploration and down-selection results in a system with a single rotor utilizing cyclic pitch control. Models were developed for selection of a RWD descent system for use on Titan and to determine the relationships between the key design parameters of such a system and the time of descent. The possibility of extracting power from the system during descent was also investigated.

  11. Radiobiological effectiveness of laser accelerated electrons in comparison to electron beams from a conventional linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Laschinsky, Lydia; Baumann, Michael; Beyreuther, Elke; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Kaluza, Malte; Karsch, Leonhard; Lessmann, Elisabeth; Naumburger, Doreen; Nicolai, Maria; Richter, Christian; Sauerbrey, Roland; Schlenvoigt, Hans-Peter; Pawelke, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The notable progress in laser particle acceleration technology promises potential medical application in cancer therapy through compact and cost effective laser devices that are suitable for already existing clinics. Previously, consequences on the radiobiological response by laser driven particle beams characterised by an ultra high peak dose rate have to be investigated. Therefore, tumour and non-malignant cells were irradiated with pulsed laser accelerated electrons at the JETI facility for the comparison with continuous electrons of a conventional therapy LINAC. Dose response curves were measured for the biological endpoints clonogenic survival and residual DNA double strand breaks. The overall results show no significant differences in radiobiological response for in vitro cell experiments between laser accelerated pulsed and clinical used electron beams. These first systematic in vitro cell response studies with precise dosimetry to laser driven electron beams represent a first step toward the long term aim of the application of laser accelerated particles in radiotherapy.

  12. Holographic dark energy and late cosmic acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavón, Diego

    2007-06-01

    It has been persuasively argued that the number of effective degrees of freedom of a macroscopic system is proportional to its area rather than to its volume. This entails interesting consequences for cosmology. Here we present a model based on this 'holographic principle' that accounts for the present stage of accelerated expansion of the Universe and significantly alleviates the coincidence problem also for non-spatially flat cosmologies. Likewise, we comment on a recently proposed late transition to a fresh decelerated phase.

  13. Effects of Mathematics Acceleration on Middle School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boysworth, Sylvia Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The researcher's purpose in the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an Accelerated Mathematics Program (AMPS) for sixth and seventh grades, using the accelerative practice of curriculum telescoping in a rural school district in North Carolina. The mathematics achievement of students served in the locally developed Accelerated Mathematics…

  14. Safer Roadside Crash Walls Would Limit Deceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C.; Locke, James P.

    2003-01-01

    The figure depicts the aspects of a proposed deceleration-limiting design for crash walls at the sides of racetracks and highways. The proposal is intended to overcome the disadvantages of both rigid barriers and kinetic-energy-absorbing barriers of prior design. Rigid barriers can keep high-speed crashing motor vehicles from leaving roadways and thereby prevent injury to nearby persons and objects, but they can also subject the occupants of the vehicles to deceleration levels high enough to cause injury or death. Kinetic-energy-absorbing barriers of prior design reduce deceleration levels somewhat, but are not designed to soften impacts optimally; moreover, some of them allow debris to bounce back onto roadways or onto roadside areas, and, in cases of glancingly incident vehicles, some of them can trap the vehicles in such a manner as to cause more injury than would occur if the vehicles were allowed to skid along the rigid barriers. The proposed crash walls would (1) allow tangentially impacting vehicles to continue sliding along the racetrack without catching them, (2) catch directly impacting vehicles to prevent them from injuring nearby persons and objects, and (3) absorb kinetic energy in a more nearly optimum way to limit decelerations to levels that human occupants could survive.

  15. Designing cylindrical implosion experiments on NIF to study deceleration phase of Rayleigh-Taylor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazirani, N.; Kline, J. L.; Loomis, E.; Sauppe, J. P.; Palaniyappan, S.; Flippo, K.; Srinivasan, B.; Malka, E.; Bose, A.; Shvarts, D.

    2017-10-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) hydrodynamic instability occurs when a lower density fluid pushes on a higher density fluid. This occurs in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions at each of the capsule interfaces during the initial acceleration and the deceleration as it stagnates. The RT instabilities mix capsule material into the fusion fuel degrading the Deuterium-Tritium reactivity and ultimately play a key role in limiting target performance. While significant effort has focused on understanding RT at the outer capsule surface, little work has gone into understanding the inner surface RT instability growth during the deceleration phase. Direct measurements of the RT instability are difficult to make at high convergence in a spherical implosion. Here we present the design of a cylindrical implosion system for the National Ignition Facility for studying deceleration phase RT. We will discuss the experimental design, the estimated instability growth, and our outstanding concerns.

  16. Tunnel flexibility effect on the ground surface acceleration response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baziar, Mohammad Hassan; Moghadam, Masoud Rabeti; Choo, Yun Wook; Kim, Dong-Soo

    2016-09-01

    Flexibility of underground structures relative to the surrounding medium, referred to as the flexibility ratio, is an important factor that influences their dynamic interaction. This study investigates the flexibility effect of a box-shaped subway tunnel, resting directly on bedrock, on the ground surface acceleration response using a numerical model verified against dynamic centrifuge test results. A comparison of the ground surface acceleration response for tunnel models with different flexibility ratios revealed that the tunnels with different flexibility ratios influence the acceleration response at the ground surface in different ways. Tunnels with lower flexibility ratios have higher acceleration responses at short periods, whereas tunnels with higher flexibility ratios have higher acceleration responses at longer periods. The effect of the flexibility ratio on ground surface acceleration is more prominent in the high range of frequencies. Furthermore, as the flexibility ratio of the tunnel system increases, the acceleration response moves away from the free field response and shifts towards the longer periods. Therefore, the flexibility ratio of the underground tunnels influences the peak ground acceleration (PGA) at the ground surface, and may need to be considered in the seismic zonation of urban areas.

  17. C IV BROAD ABSORPTION LINE ACCELERATION IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Grier, C. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Trump, J. R.

    2016-06-20

    We present results from the largest systematic investigation of broad absorption line (BAL) acceleration to date. We use spectra of 140 quasars from three Sloan Digital Sky Survey programs to search for global velocity offsets in BALs over timescales of ≈2.5–5.5 years in the quasar rest frame. We carefully select acceleration candidates by requiring monolithic velocity shifts over the entire BAL trough, avoiding BALs with velocity shifts that might be caused by profile variability. The C iv BALs of two quasars show velocity shifts consistent with the expected signatures of BAL acceleration, and the BAL of one quasar shows amore » velocity-shift signature of deceleration. In our two acceleration candidates, we see evidence that the magnitude of the acceleration is not constant over time; the magnitudes of the change in acceleration for both acceleration candidates are difficult to produce with a standard disk-wind model or via geometric projection effects. We measure upper limits to acceleration and deceleration for 76 additional BAL troughs and find that the majority of BALs are stable to within about 3% of their mean velocities. The lack of widespread acceleration/deceleration could indicate that the gas producing most BALs is located at large radii from the central black hole and/or is not currently strongly interacting with ambient material within the host galaxy along our line of sight.« less

  18. Continuous all-optical deceleration of molecular beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayich, Andrew; Chen, Gary; Long, Xueping; Wang, Anna; Campbell, Wesley

    2014-05-01

    A significant impediment to generating ultracold molecules is slowing a molecular beam to velocities where the molecules can be cooled and trapped. We report on progress toward addressing this issue with a general optical deceleration technique for molecular and atomic beams. We propose addressing the molecular beam with a pump and dump pulse sequence from a mode-locked laser. The pump pulse counter-propagates with respect to the beam and drives the molecules to the excited state. The dump pulse co-propagates and stimulates emission, driving the molecules back to the ground state. This cycle transfers 2 ℏk of momentum and can generate very large optical forces, not limited by the spontaneous emission lifetime of the molecule or atom. Importantly, avoiding spontaneous emission limits the branching to dark states. This technique can later be augmented with cooling and trapping. We are working towards demonstrating this optical force by accelerating a cold atomic sample.

  19. Gunshot residue particle velocity and deceleration.

    PubMed

    De Forest, Peter R; Martir, Kirby; Pizzola, Peter A

    2004-11-01

    The velocity of over 800 gunshot residue particles from eight different sources was determined using high speed stroboscopic photography (spark gap light source). These particles were found to have an average velocity of 500 to 600 ft per second. Many particles acquired considerably higher velocities. Thus, the particles have sufficient energy to embed themselves within certain nearby targets like skin or fabric. The relatively high velocity that the particles acquire explain the formation of stippling on skin in close proximity to a muzzle discharge. These findings also indicate little influence of air currents on particle behavior near the muzzle. The deceleration of less than 100 particles during a 100-microsecond interval was also calculated. The particles experienced rapid rates of deceleration which would explain why few particles are found in test firings beyond 3 ft from the muzzle of a discharged firearm. Because of their relatively high velocity, normal wind velocity would not be expected to significantly influence their motion near the muzzle.

  20. EARTH’S ROTATIONAL DECELERATION: DETERMINATION OF TIDAL FRICTION INDEPENDENT OF TIMESCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Deines, Steven D.; Williams, Carol A., E-mail: steven.deines@gmail.com, E-mail: cw@math.usf.edu

    This paper determines Earth's rotational deceleration without relying on atomic or ephemeris timescales. Earth's rotation defines the civil time standard called Universal Time (UT). Our previous paper did not examine tidal friction in depth when analyzing the timescale divergence between UT and International Atomic Time (TAI). We examine all available paleontological fossils and deposits for the direct measurements of Earth's past rotation rates, because that record includes all contributing effects. We examine paleontological reports that date Earth's rotation rate using corals, bivalves, brachiopods, rhythmites, and stromatolites. Contributions that vary Earth's moment of inertia, such as continental plate drifts, coastline changes, icemore » age formations, and viscous glacial rebounds, are superimposed with the secular deceleration. The average deceleration of Earth's rotation rate from all available fossil data is found to be (5.969 ± 1.762) × 10{sup −7} rad yr{sup −2}. Our value is 99.8% of the total rotational deceleration determined by Christodoulidis et al., who used artificial satellite data, and our value is 96.6% of the expected tidal friction value obtained by Stephenson and Morrison. Taking the derivative of conserved angular momentum, the predicted lunar orbital deceleration caused by the average rotational deceleration corresponds closely to lunar models. When evaluating the significant time gaps between UT and TAI, Earth's rotational deceleration is a minor contributing factor. Also, the secular deceleration rate is necessary to correctly date ancient astronomical events. We strongly encourage that more ocean paleontological evidence be found to supplement the record to separate the many periodic variations embedded in these data.« less

  1. Earth’s Rotational Deceleration: Determination of Tidal Friction Independent of Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deines, Steven D.; Williams, Carol A.

    2016-04-01

    This paper determines Earth's rotational deceleration without relying on atomic or ephemeris timescales. Earth's rotation defines the civil time standard called Universal Time (UT). Our previous paper did not examine tidal friction in depth when analyzing the timescale divergence between UT and International Atomic Time (TAI). We examine all available paleontological fossils and deposits for the direct measurements of Earth's past rotation rates, because that record includes all contributing effects. We examine paleontological reports that date Earth's rotation rate using corals, bivalves, brachiopods, rhythmites, and stromatolites. Contributions that vary Earth's moment of inertia, such as continental plate drifts, coastline changes, ice age formations, and viscous glacial rebounds, are superimposed with the secular deceleration. The average deceleration of Earth's rotation rate from all available fossil data is found to be (5.969 ± 1.762) × 10-7 rad yr-2. Our value is 99.8% of the total rotational deceleration determined by Christodoulidis et al., who used artificial satellite data, and our value is 96.6% of the expected tidal friction value obtained by Stephenson and Morrison. Taking the derivative of conserved angular momentum, the predicted lunar orbital deceleration caused by the average rotational deceleration corresponds closely to lunar models. When evaluating the significant time gaps between UT and TAI, Earth's rotational deceleration is a minor contributing factor. Also, the secular deceleration rate is necessary to correctly date ancient astronomical events. We strongly encourage that more ocean paleontological evidence be found to supplement the record to separate the many periodic variations embedded in these data.

  2. Effects of Horizontal Acceleration on Human Visual Acuity and Stereopsis

    PubMed Central

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Tsai, Ming-Ling; Chang, Wei-Kang; Yang, Tzu-Hung; Yauan, Chien-Han; Wang, Chih-Hung; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Wu, Yi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of horizontal acceleration on human visual acuity and stereopsis is demonstrated in this study. Twenty participants (mean age 22.6 years) were enrolled in the experiment. Acceleration from two different directions was performed at the Taiwan High-Speed Rail Laboratory. Gx and Gy (< and >0.1 g) were produced on an accelerating platform where the subjects stood. The visual acuity and stereopsis of the right eye were measured before and during the acceleration. Acceleration <0.1 g in the X- or Y-axis did not affect dynamic vision and stereopsis. Vision decreased (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.25 logMAR) and stereopsis declined significantly (mean from 40 s to 60.2 s of arc) when Gx > 0.1 g. Visual acuity worsened (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.19 logMAR) and poor stereopsis was noted (mean from 40 s to 50.2 s of arc) when Gy > 0.1 g. The effect of acceleration from the X-axis on the visual system was higher than that from the Y-axis. During acceleration, most subjects complained of ocular strain when reading. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the exact levels of visual function loss during Gx and Gy. PMID:25607601

  3. Measurement of ultra-low ion energy of decelerated ion beam using a deflecting electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thopan, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U.; Yu, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    In investigation on ultra-low-energy ion bombardment effect on DNA, an ion beam deceleration lens was developed for high-quality ultra-low-energy ion beam. Measurement of the ion energy after deceleration was necessary to confirm the ion beam really decelerated as theoretically predicted. In contrast to conventional methods, this work used a simple deflecting electrostatic field after the deceleration lens to bend the ion beam. The beam bending distance depended on the ion energy and was described and simulated. A system for the measurement of the ion beam energy was constructed. It consisted of a pair of parallel electrode plates to generate the deflecting electrical field, a copper rod measurement piece to detect ion beam current, a vernier caliper to mark the beam position, a stepping motor to translate the measurement rod, and a webcam-camera to read the beam bending distance. The entire system was installed after the ion-beam deceleration lens inside the large chamber of the bioengineering vertical ion beam line. Moving the measurement rod across the decelerated ion beam enabled to obtain beam profiles, from which the beam bending distance could be known and the ion beam energy could be calculated. The measurement results were in good agreement with theoretical and simulated results.

  4. The effect of stochastic re-acceleration on the energy spectrum of shock-accelerated protons

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasiev, Alexandr; Vainio, Rami; Kocharov, Leon

    2014-07-20

    The energy spectra of particles in gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events do not always have a power-law form attributed to the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. In particular, the observed spectra in major SEP events can take the form of a broken (double) power law. In this paper, we study the effect of a process that can modify the power-law spectral form produced by the diffusive shock acceleration: the stochastic re-acceleration of energetic protons by enhanced Alfvénic turbulence in the downstream region of a shock wave. There are arguments suggesting that this process can be important when the shock propagatesmore » in the corona. We consider a coronal magnetic loop traversed by a shock and perform Monte Carlo simulations of interactions of shock-accelerated protons with Alfvén waves in the loop. The wave-particle interactions are treated self-consistently, so the finiteness of the available turbulent energy is taken into account. The initial energy spectrum of particles is taken to be a power law. The simulations reveal that the stochastic re-acceleration leads either to the formation of a spectrum that is described in a wide energy range by a power law (although the resulting power-law index is different from the initial one) or to a broken power-law spectrum. The resulting spectral form is determined by the ratio of the energy density of shock-accelerated protons to the wave energy density in the shock's downstream region.« less

  5. Effects of radial direction and eccentricity on acceleration perception.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Alexandra S; Timney, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Radial optic flow can elicit impressions of self-motion--vection--or of objects moving relative to the observer, but there is disagreement as to whether humans have greater sensitivity to expanding or to contracting optic flow. Although most studies agree there is an anisotropy in sensitivity to radial optic flow, it is unclear whether this asymmetry is a function of eccentricity. The issue is further complicated by the fact that few studies have examined how acceleration sensitivity is affected, even though observers and objects in the environment seldom move at a constant speed. To address these issues, we investigated the effects of direction and eccentricity on the ability to detect acceleration in radial optic flow. Our results indicate that observers are better at detecting acceleration when viewing contraction compared with expansion and that eccentricity has no effect on the ability to detect accelerating radial optic flow. Ecological interpretations are discussed.

  6. The effect of accelerated aging on the wear of UHMWPE.

    PubMed

    Sakoda, H; Fisher, J; Lu, S; Buchanan, F

    2001-01-01

    Oxidative degradation of UHMWPE has been found to be a cause of elevated wear rate of the polymer in total joint replacement leading to failure of these devices. In order to evaluate long term stability of polymers, various accelerated aging methods have been developed. In this study, wear rates of shelf aged UHMWPE and "accelerated aged" UHMWPE were compared using a multi-directional pin-on-plate wear test machine in order to evaluate the effect of the accelerated aging on wear. Wear factors of the aged materials were found to depend on their density, which is a measure of oxidation level. Finally, accelerated aging was calibrated against shelf aging in terms of wear rate. Copyright 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  7. Estimates of effects of residual acceleration on USML-1 experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study effort was to develop analytical models to describe the effects of residual accelerations on the experiments to be carried on the first U.S. Microgravity Lab mission (USML-1) and to test the accuracy of these models by comparing the pre-flight predicted effects with the post-flight measured effects. After surveying the experiments to be performed on USML-1, it became evident that the anticipated residual accelerations during the USML-1 mission were well below the threshold for most of the primary experiments and all of the secondary (Glovebox) experiments and that the only set of experiments that could provide quantifiable effects, and thus provide a definitive test of the analytical models, were the three melt growth experiments using the Bridgman-Stockbarger type Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF). This class of experiments is by far the most sensitive to low level quasi-steady accelerations that are unavoidable on space craft operating in low earth orbit. Because of this, they have been the drivers for the acceleration requirements imposed on the Space Station. Therefore, it is appropriate that the models on which these requirements are based are tested experimentally. Also, since solidification proceeds directionally over a long period of time, the solidified ingot provides a more or less continuous record of the effects from acceleration disturbances.

  8. Responses to deceleration during car following: roles of optic flow, warnings, expectations, and interruptions.

    PubMed

    DeLucia, Patricia R; Tharanathan, Anand

    2009-12-01

    More than 25% of accidents are rear-end collisions. It is essential to identify the factors that contribute to such collisions. One such factor is a driver's ability to respond to the deceleration of the car ahead. In Experiment 1, we measured effects of optic flow information and discrete visual and auditory warnings (brake lights, tones) on responses to deceleration during car following. With computer simulations of car-following scenes, university students pressed a button when the lead car decelerated. Both classes of information affected responses. Observers relied on discrete warnings when optic flow information was relatively less effective as determined by the lead car's headway and deceleration rate. This is consistent with DeLucia's (2008) conceptual framework of space perception that emphasized the importance of viewing distance and motion (and task). In Experiment 2, we measured responses to deceleration after a visual interruption. Scenes were designed to tease apart the role of expectations and optic flow. Responses mostly were consistent with optic flow information presented after the interruption rather than with putative mental expectations that were set up by the lead car's motion prior to the interruption. The theoretical implication of the present results is that responses to deceleration are based on multiple sources of information, including optical size, optical expansion rate and tau, and discrete warnings that are independent of optic flow. The practical implication is that in-vehicle collision-avoidance warning systems may be more useful when optic flow is less effective (e.g., slow deceleration rates), implicating a role for adaptive collision-warning systems. Copyright 2009 APA

  9. Detrimental effects of discectomy on intervertebral disc biology can be decelerated by growth factor treatment during surgery: a large animal organ culture model.

    PubMed

    Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Lu, Young; Purmessur, Devina; Mayer, Jillian E; Walter, Benjamin A; Roughley, Peter J; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Hecht, Andrew C; Iatridis, James C

    2014-11-01

    Lumbar discectomies are common surgical interventions that treat radiculopathy by removing herniated and loose intervertebral disc (IVD) tissues. However, remaining IVD tissue can continue to degenerate resulting in long-term clinical problems. Little information is available on the effects of discectomy on IVD biology. Currently, no treatments exist that can suspend or reverse the degeneration of the remaining IVD. To improve the knowledge on how discectomy procedures influence IVD physiology and to assess the potential of growth factor treatment as an augmentation during surgery. To determine effects of discectomy on IVDs with and without transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFβ3) augmentation using bovine IVD organ culture. This study determined effects of discectomy with and without TGFβ3 injection using 1-, 6-, and 19-day organ culture experiments. Treated IVDs were injected with 0.2 μg TGFβ3 in 20 μL phosphate-buffered saline+bovine serum albumin into several locations of the discectomy site. Cell viability, gene expression, nitric oxide (NO) release, IVD height, aggrecan degradation, and proteoglycan content were determined. Discectomy significantly increased cell death, aggrecan degradation, and NO release in healthy IVDs. Transforming growth factor beta 3 injection treatment prevented or mitigated these effects for the 19-day culture period. Discectomy procedures induced cell death, catabolism, and NO production in healthy IVDs, and we conclude that post-discectomy degeneration is likely to be associated with cell death and matrix degradation. Transforming growth factor beta 3 injection augmented discectomy procedures by acting to protect IVD tissues by maintaining cell viability, limiting matrix degradation, and suppressing NO. We conclude that discectomy procedures can be improved with injectable therapies at the time of surgery although further in vivo and human studies are required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermal effects in an accelerating thrust bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doo, R.; Rodkiewicz, C. M.; Gupta, R. N.

    1985-01-01

    This study is mainly concerned with the development of transient temperatures in a thrust bearing. The effect of Prandtl number on temperatures was also investigated. All lubricant properties were assumed to be constant. It was found that the location of highest temperatures depended on the bearing ratio. The effect of Prandtl number on temperatures was small. However, its effect on the heat transfer at the surfaces was significant.

  11. Detachment of secondary dendrite arm in a directionally solidified Sn-Ni peritectic alloy under deceleration growth condition

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Peng; Li, Xinzhong; Li, Jiangong; Su, Yanqing; Guo, Jingjie; Fu, Hengzhi

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand the detachment mechanism of secondary dendrite arm during peritectic solidification, the detachment of secondary dendrite arm from the primary dendrite arms in directionally solidified Sn-36at.%Ni peritectic alloys is investigated at different deceleration rates. Extensive detachment of secondary dendrite arms from primary stem is observed below peritectic reaction temperature TP. And an analytical model is established to characterize the detachment process in terms of the secondary dendrite arm spacing λ2, the root radius of detached arms and the specific surface area (SV) of dendrites. It is found that the detachment mechanism is caused by not only curvature difference between the tips and roots of secondary branches, but also that between the thicker secondary branches and the thinner ones. Besides, this detachment process is significantly accelerated by the temperature gradient zone melting (TGZM) effect during peritectic solidification. It is demonstrated that the reaction constant (f) which is used to characterize the kinetics of peritectic reaction is crucial for the determination of the detachment process. The value of f not only changes with growth rate but also with solidification time at a given deceleration rate. In conclusion, these findings help the better understanding of the detachment mechanism. PMID:27270334

  12. Deformation and deceleration of coronal wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Z. K.; Qu, Z. Q.; Yan, X. L.; Zhao, L.; Ma, L.

    2013-08-01

    Aims: We studied the kinematics and morphology of two coronal waves to better understand the nature and origin of coronal waves. Methods: Using multi-wavelength observations of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) on board the twin spacecraft Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO), we present morphological and dynamic characteristics of consecutive coronal waves on 2011 March 24. We also show the coronal magnetic field based on the potential field source surface model. Results: This event contains several interesting aspects. The first coronal wave initially appeared after a surge-like eruption. Its front was changed and deformed significantly from a convex shape to a line-shaped appearance, and then to a concave configuration during its propagation to the northwest. The initial speeds ranged from 947 km s-1 to 560 km s-1. The first wave decelerated significantly after it passed through a filament channel. After the deceleration, the final propagation speeds of the wave were from 430 km s-1 to 312 km s-1. The second wave was found to appear after the first wave in the northwest side of the filament channel. Its wave front was more diffused and the speed was around 250 km s-1, much slower than that of the first wave. Conclusions: The deformation of the first coronal wave was caused by the different speeds along different paths. The sudden deceleration implies that the refraction of the first wave took place at the boundary of the filament channel. The event provides evidence that the first coronal wave may be a coronal MHD shock wave, and the second wave may be the apparent propagation of the brightenings caused by successive stretching of the magnetic field lines.

  13. High Altitude Supersonic Decelerator Test Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Brant T.; Blando, Guillermo; Kennett, Andrew; Von Der Heydt, Max; Wolff, John Luke; Yerdon, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project is tasked by NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) to advance the state of the art in Mars entry and descent technology in order to allow for larger payloads to be delivered to Mars at higher altitudes with better accuracy. The project will develop a 33.5 m Do Supersonic Ringsail (SSRS) parachute, 6m attached torus, robotic class Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD-R), and an 8 m attached isotensoid, exploration class Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD-E). The SSRS and SIAD-R should be brought to TRL-6, while the SIAD-E should be brought to TRL-5. As part of the qualification and development program, LDSD must perform a Mach-scaled Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) in order to demonstrate successful free flight dynamic deployments at Mars equivalent altitude, of all three technologies. In order to perform these tests, LDSD must design and build a test vehicle to deliver all technologies to approximately 180,000 ft and Mach 4, deploy a SIAD, free fly to approximately Mach 2, deploy the SSRS, record high-speed and high-resolution imagery of both deployments, as well as record data from an instrumentation suite capable of characterizing the technology induced vehicle dynamics. The vehicle must also be recoverable after splashdown into the ocean under a nominal flight, while guaranteeing forensic data protection in an off nominal catastrophic failure of a test article that could result in a terminal velocity, tumbling water impact.

  14. Decelerating and Trapping Large Polar Molecules.

    PubMed

    Patterson, David

    2016-11-18

    Manipulating the motion of large polyatomic molecules, such as benzonitrile (C 6 H 5 CN), presents significant difficulties compared to the manipulation of diatomic molecules. Although recent impressive results have demonstrated manipulation, trapping, and cooling of molecules as large as CH 3 F, no general technique for trapping such molecules has been demonstrated, and cold neutral molecules larger than 5 atoms have not been trapped (M. Zeppenfeld, B. G. U. Englert, R. Glöckner, A. Prehn, M. Mielenz, C. Sommer, L. D. van Buuren, M. Motsch, G. Rempe, Nature 2012, 491, 570-573). In particular, extending Stark deceleration and electrostatic trapping to such species remains challenging. Here, we propose to combine a novel "asymmetric doublet state" Stark decelerator with recently demonstrated slow, cold, buffer-gas-cooled beams of closed-shell volatile molecules to realize a general system for decelerating and trapping samples of a broad range of volatile neutral polar prolate asymmetric top molecules. The technique is applicable to most stable volatile molecules in the 100-500 AMU range, and would be capable of producing trapped samples in a single rotational state and at a motional temperature of hundreds of mK. Such samples would immediately allow for spectroscopy of unprecedented resolution, and extensions would allow for further cooling and direct observation of slow intramolecular processes such as vibrational relaxation and Hertz-level tunneling dynamics. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Unsteady flow over a decelerating rotating sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkyilmazoglu, M.

    2018-03-01

    Unsteady flow analysis induced by a decelerating rotating sphere is the main concern of this paper. A revolving sphere in a still fluid is supposed to slow down at an angular velocity rate that is inversely proportional to time. The governing partial differential equations of motion are scaled in accordance with the literature, reducing to the well-documented von Kármán equations in the special circumstance near the pole. Both numerical and perturbation approaches are pursued to identify the velocity fields, shear stresses, and suction velocity far above the sphere. It is detected that an induced flow surrounding the sphere acts accordingly to adapt to the motion of the sphere up to some critical unsteadiness parameters at certain latitudes. Afterward, the decay rate of rotation ceases such that the flow at the remaining azimuths starts revolving freely. At a critical unsteadiness parameter corresponding to s = -0.681, the decelerating sphere rotates freely and requires no more torque. At a value of s exactly matching the rotating disk flow at the pole identified in the literature, the entire flow field around the sphere starts revolving faster than the disk itself. Increasing values of -s almost diminish the radial outflow. This results in jet flows in both the latitudinal and meridional directions, concentrated near the wall region. The presented mean flow results will be useful for analyzing the instability features of the flow, whether of a convective or absolute nature.

  16. Delivery Ring Lattice Modifications for Transitionless Deceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, J. A.; Syphers, M. J.

    2016-10-09

    A portion of the remnant Tevatron program infrastruc- ture at Fermilab is being reconfigured to be used for the generation and delivery of proton and muon beams for new high-precision particle physics experiments. With the 8 GeV Booster as its primary source, the Mu2e exper- iment will receive 8.9 GeV/c bunched beam on target, after being stored and slow spilled from the Delivery Ring (DR) -- a refurbished debuncher ring from Tevatron anti- proton production. For the Muon g-2 experiment, the DR will be tuned for 3.1 GeV/c to capture muons off of a target before sending them to thismore » experiment's Storage Ring. The apertures in the beam transport systems are optimized for the large muon beams of this lower-energy experiment. In order to provide further flexibility in the operation of the DR for future possible low-energy, high- intensity particle physics experiments (REDTOP[1], for example) and detector development, investigations are underway into the feasibility of decelerating beams from its maximum kinetic energy of 8 GeV level to lower en- ergies, down to 1-2 GeV. In this paper we look at possi- ble lattice modifications to the DR to avoid a transition crossing during the deceleration process. Hardware re- quirements and other operational implications of this scheme will also be discussed.« less

  17. Inflatable Aerocapture Decelerators for Mars Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Glen J.; Lingard, J. Stephen; Darley, Matthew G.; Underwood, John C.

    2007-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary research program was recently completed, sponsored by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, on the subject of aerocapture of spacecraft weighing up to 5 metric tons at Mars. Heavier spacecraft will require deployable drag area beyond the dimensional limits of current and planned launch fairings. This research focuses on the approach of lightweight inflatable decelerators constructed with thin films, using fiber reinforcement and having a temperature limitation of 500 C. Trajectory analysis defines trajectories for a range of low ballistic coefficients for which convective heat flux is compatible with the material set. Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) tools are expanded to include the rarified flow regime. Several non-symmetrical configurations are evaluated for their capability to develop lift as part of the necessary trajectory control strategy. Manufacturing technology is developed for 3-D stretch forming of polyimide films and for tailored fiber reinforcement of thin films. Finally, the mass of the decelerator is estimated and compared to the mass of a traditional rigid aeroshell.

  18. Effects of chronic acceleration on body composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of the centrifugation of adult rats showed an unexpected decrease in the mass of fat-free muscle and bone, in spite of the added load induced by centrifugation. It is suggested that the lower but constant fat-free body mass was probably regulated during centrifugation. Rats placed in weightless conditions for 18.5 days gave indirect but strong evidence that the muscle had increased in mass. Other changes in the rats placed in weightless conditions included a smaller fraction of skeletal mineral, a smaller fraction of water in the total fat-free body, and a net shift of fluid from skin to viscera. Adult rats centrifuged throughout the post-weaning growth period exhibited smaller masses of bone and central nervous system (probably attributable to slower growth of the total body), and a larger mass of skin than controls at 1 G. Efforts at simulating the effects of weightlessness or centrifugation on the body composition of rats by regimens at terrestrial gravity were inconclusive.

  19. Flight-Path Characteristics for Decelerating From Supercircular Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luidens, Roger W.

    1961-01-01

    Characteristics of the following six flight paths for decelerating from a supercircular speed are developed in closed form: constant angle of attack, constant net acceleration, constant altitude" constant free-stream Reynolds number, and "modulated roll." The vehicles were required to remain in or near the atmosphere, and to stay within the aerodynamic capabilities of a vehicle with a maximum lift-drag ratio of 1.0 and within a maximum net acceleration G of 10 g's. The local Reynolds number for all the flight paths for a vehicle with a gross weight of 10,000 pounds and a 600 swept wing was found to be about 0.7 x 10(exp 6). With the assumption of a laminar boundary layer, the heating of the vehicle is studied as a function of type of flight path, initial G load, and initial velocity. The following heating parameters were considered: the distribution of the heating rate over the vehicle, the distribution of the heat per square foot over the vehicle, and the total heat input to the vehicle. The constant G load path at limiting G was found to give the lowest total heat input for a given initial velocity. For a vehicle with a maximum lift-drag ratio of 1.0 and a flight path with a maximum G of 10 g's, entry velocities of twice circular appear thermo- dynamically feasible, and entries at velocities of 2.8 times circular are aerodynamically possible. The predominant heating (about 85 percent) occurs at the leading edge of the vehicle. The total ablated weight for a 10,000-pound-gross-weight vehicle decelerating from an initial velocity of twice circular velocity is estimated to be 5 percent of gross weight. Modifying the constant G load flight path by a constant-angle-of-attack segment through a flight- to circular-velocity ratio of 1.0 gives essentially a "point landing" capability but also results in an increased total heat input to the vehicle.

  20. Female acceleration tolerance: effects of menstrual state and physical condition.

    PubMed

    Heaps, C L; Fischer, M D; Hill, R C

    1997-06-01

    The literature contains a paucity of information on female tolerance to high sustained acceleration. With women now flying high-performance aircraft, gender-specific factors that may affect female acceleration tolerance have become increasingly important. The purpose of this investigation was to determine how menstrual state and physical condition affect acceleration tolerance. We hypothesized the menstrual cycle would have no effect on acceleration tolerance and that a positive correlation would exist between physical fitness level and tolerance to high sustained acceleration. Centrifuge exposures on 8 female subjects consisted of a relaxed gradual-onset run (0.1 G.s-1) to the visual endpoint, a rapid-onset run (6 G.s-1) to +5 GZ for 15 s, and a +4.5 to +7 GZ simulated aerial combat maneuver (SACM) to physical exhaustion. Acceleration tolerance data were collected at onset of menstruation and 1, 2 and 3 weeks following the onset for two complete menstrual cycles. On separate days, body composition, anaerobic power output and peak oxygen uptake were determined. Retrospective data from 10 male subjects who had performed the +4.5 to +7 GZ SACM were analyzed and compared to these data. Analysis of variance revealed no significant difference in relaxed tolerance or SACM duration between the four selected menstrual cycle time points. Time-to-fatigue on the +4.5 to +7 GZ SACM was positively (p < or = 0.05) correlated with absolute fat-free mass (r = 0.87) and anaerobic power production (r = 0.76) in female subjects. However, when these variables were adjusted for total body mass, the significant correlations no longer existed. No correlation was found between SACM duration and absolute (L min-1) nor relative (ml.kg-1.min-1) aerobic fitness. Time-to-fatigue during the SACM was not significantly different between male and female subjects (250 +/- 97 and 246 +/- 149 s, respectively).

  1. Photogrammetry of a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, Laura Kathryn; Littell, Justin D.; Cassell, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, two large-scale models of a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic decelerator were tested in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. One of the objectives of this test was to measure model deflections under aerodynamic loading that approximated expected flight conditions. The measurements were acquired using stereo photogrammetry. Four pairs of stereo cameras were mounted inside the NFAC test section, each imaging a particular section of the HIAD. The views were then stitched together post-test to create a surface deformation profile. The data from the photogram- metry system will largely be used for comparisons to and refinement of Fluid Structure Interaction models. This paper describes how a commercial photogrammetry system was adapted to make the measurements and presents some preliminary results.

  2. Holocene deceleration of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Joseph A; Colgan, William T; Fahnestock, Mark A; Morlighem, Mathieu; Catania, Ginny A; Paden, John D; Gogineni, S Prasad

    2016-02-05

    Recent peripheral thinning of the Greenland Ice Sheet is partly offset by interior thickening and is overprinted on its poorly constrained Holocene evolution. On the basis of the ice sheet's radiostratigraphy, ice flow in its interior is slower now than the average speed over the past nine millennia. Generally higher Holocene accumulation rates relative to modern estimates can only partially explain this millennial-scale deceleration. The ice sheet's dynamic response to the decreasing proportion of softer ice from the last glacial period and the deglacial collapse of the ice bridge across Nares Strait also contributed to this pattern. Thus, recent interior thickening of the Greenland Ice Sheet is partly an ongoing dynamic response to the last deglaciation that is large enough to affect interpretation of its mass balance from altimetry. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Beam deceleration for block-face scanning electron microscopy of embedded biological tissue.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Keisuke; Sadayama, Shoji; Togo, Akinobu; Higashi, Ryuhei; Tanoue, Ryuichiro; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro

    2012-04-01

    The beam deceleration (BD) method for scanning electron microscopes (SEM) also referred to as "retarding" was applied to back-scattered electron (BSE) imaging of the flat block face of a resin embedded biological specimen under low accelerating voltage and low beam current conditions. BSE imaging was performed with 0-4 kV of BD on en bloc stained rat hepatocyte. BD drastically enhanced the compositional contrast of the specimen and also improved the resolution at low landing energy levels (1.5-3 keV) and a low beam current (10 pA). These effects also functioned in long working distance observation, however, stage tilting caused uncorrectable astigmatism in BD observation. Stage tilting is mechanically required for a FIB/SEM, so we designed a novel specimen holder to minimize the unfavorable tilting effect. The FIB/SEM 3D reconstruction using the new holder showed a reasonable contrast and resolution high enough to analyze individual cell organelles and also the mitochondrial cristae structures (~5 nm) of the hepatocyte. These results indicate the advantages of BD for block face imaging of biological materials such as cells and tissues under low-voltage and low beam current conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Plasma Radiation and Acceleration Effectiveness of CME-driven Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Schmidt, J. M.

    2008-05-01

    CME-driven shocks are effective radio radiation generators and accelerators for Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). We present simulated 3 D time-dependent radio maps of second order plasma radiation generated by CME- driven shocks. The CME with its shock is simulated with the 3 D BATS-R-US CME model developed at the University of Michigan. The radiation is simulated using a kinetic plasma model that includes shock drift acceleration of electrons and stochastic growth theory of Langmuir waves. We find that in a realistic 3 D environment of magnetic field and solar wind outflow of the Sun the CME-driven shock shows a detailed spatial structure of the density, which is responsible for the fine structure of type II radio bursts. We also show realistic 3 D reconstructions of the magnetic cloud field of the CME, which is accelerated outward by magnetic buoyancy forces in the diverging magnetic field of the Sun. The CME-driven shock is reconstructed by tomography using the maximum jump in the gradient of the entropy. In the vicinity of the shock we determine the Alfven speed of the plasma. This speed profile controls how steep the shock can grow and how stable the shock remains while propagating away from the Sun. Only a steep shock can provide for an effective particle acceleration.

  5. Plasma radiation and acceleration effectiveness of CME-driven shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Joachim

    CME-driven shocks are effective radio radiation generators and accelerators for Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). We present simulated 3 D time-dependent radio maps of second order plasma radiation generated by CME-driven shocks. The CME with its shock is simulated with the 3 D BATS-R-US CME model developed at the University of Michigan. The radiation is simulated using a kinetic plasma model that includes shock drift acceleration of electrons and stochastic growth theory of Langmuir waves. We find that in a realistic 3 D environment of magnetic field and solar wind outflow of the Sun the CME-driven shock shows a detailed spatial structure of the density, which is responsible for the fine structure of type II radio bursts. We also show realistic 3 D reconstructions of the magnetic cloud field of the CME, which is accelerated outward by magnetic buoyancy forces in the diverging magnetic field of the Sun. The CME-driven shock is reconstructed by tomography using the maximum jump in the gradient of the entropy. In the vicinity of the shock we determine the Alfven speed of the plasma. This speed profile controls how steep the shock can grow and how stable the shock remains while propagating away from the Sun. Only a steep shock can provide for an effective particle acceleration.

  6. Deceleration of Antiprotons in Support of Antiproton Storage/Utilization Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Jackson, Gerald P.; Pearson, J. Boise; Lewis, Raymond A.

    2005-02-01

    Antimatter has the highest energy density known to mankind. Many concepts have been studied that use antimatter for propulsion. All of these concepts require the development of high density storage. Hbar Technologies, under contract with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, has undertaken the first step toward development of high density storage. Demonstration of the ability to store antiprotons in a Penning Trap provides the technology to pursue research in alternative storage methods that may lead to eventually to high density concepts. Hbar Technologies has undertaken research activity on the detailed design and operations required to decelerate and redirect the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) antiproton beam to lay the groundwork for a source of low energy antiprotons. We have performed a detailed assessment of an antiproton deceleration scheme using the FNAL Main Injector, outlining the requirements to significantly and efficiently lower the energy of antiprotons. This task shall require a combination of: theoretical/computation simulations, development of specialized accelerator controls programming, modification of specific Main Injector hardware, and experimental testing of the modified system. Testing shall be performed to characterize the system with a goal of reducing the beam momentum from 8.9 GeV/c to a level of 1 GeV/c or less. We have designed an antiproton degrader system that will integrate with the FNAL decelerated/transferred beam. The degrader shall be designed to maximize the number of low energy antiprotons with a beam spot sized for acceptance by the Mark I test hardware.

  7. A driving simulator study of driver performance on deceleration lanes.

    PubMed

    Calvi, A; Benedetto, A; De Blasiis, M R

    2012-03-01

    Deceleration lanes are important because they help drivers transition from high-speed lanes to low-speed ramps. Although they are designed to allow vehicles to depart the freeway safely and efficiently, many studies report high accident rates on exit ramps with the highest percentage of crashes taking place in deceleration lanes. This paper describes the results of a driving simulator study that focused on driving performance while approaching a divergence area and decelerating during the exiting maneuver. Three different traffic scenarios were simulated to analyze the influence of traffic volume on driving performance. Thirty drivers drove in the simulator in these scenarios while data on their lateral position, speed and deceleration were collected. Our results indicate there are considerable differences between the main assumptions of models generally used to design deceleration lanes and actual driving performance. In particular, diverging drivers begin to decelerate before arriving at the deceleration lane, causing interference with the main flow. Moreover, speeds recorded at the end of the deceleration lane exceed those for which the ramp's curves are designed; this creates risky driving conditions that could explain the high crash rates found in studies of exit ramps. Finally, statistical analyses demonstrate significant influences of traffic volume on some aspects of exiting drivers' performance: lower traffic volume results in elevated exiting speed and deceleration, and diverging drivers begin to decelerate earlier along the main lane when traffic volume is low. However, speeds at the end of the deceleration lane and the site of lane changing are not significantly influenced by traffic volume. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Continuous all-optical deceleration of molecular beams and demonstration with Rb atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Xueping; Jayich, Andrew; Campbell, Wesley

    2017-04-01

    Ultracold samples of molecules are desirable for a variety of applications, such as many-body physics, precision measurement and quantum information science. However, the pursuit of ultracold molecules has achieved limited success: spontaneous emission into many different dark states makes it hard to optically decelerate molecules to trappable speed. We propose to address this problem with a general optical deceleration technique that exploits a pump-dump pulse pair from a mode-locked laser. A molecular beam is first excited by a counter-propagating ``pump'' pulse. The molecular beam is then driven back to the initial ground state by a co-propagating ``dump'' pulse via stimulated emission. The delay between the pump and dump pulse is set to be shorter than the excited state lifetimes in order to limit decays to dark states. We report progress benchmarking this stimulated force by accelerating a cold sample of neutral Rb atoms.

  9. The drag characteristics of several airships determined by deceleration tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, F L; Kirschbaum, H W

    1932-01-01

    This report presents the results of deceleration tests conducted for the purpose of determining the drag characteristics of six airships. The tests were made with airships of various shapes and sizes belonging to the Army, the Navy, and the Goodyear-Zeppelin Corporation. Drag coefficients for the following airships are shown: Army TC-6, TC-10, and TE-2; Navy Los Angeles and ZMC-2; Goodyear Puritan. The coefficients vary from about 0.045 for the small blunt airships to 0.023 for the relatively large slender Los Angeles. This variation may be due to a combination of effects, but the most important of these is probably the effect of length-diameter ratio.

  10. Modified hydraulic braking system limits angular deceleration to safe values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, R. S.; Council, M.; Green, P. M.

    1966-01-01

    Conventional spring actuated, hydraulically released, fail-safe disk braking system is modified to control the angular deceleration of a massive antenna. The hydraulic system provides an immediate preset pressure to the spring-loaded brake shoes and holds it at this value to decelerate the antenna at the desired rate.

  11. Lightweight, variable solidity knitted parachute fabric. [for aerodynamic decelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, F. R., Jr.; White, E. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A parachute fabric for aerodynamic decelerator applications is described. The fabric will permit deployment of the decelerator at high altitudes and low density conditions. The fabric consists of lightweight, highly open, circular knitted parachute fabric with ribbon-like yarns to assist in air deflection.

  12. Speed Profiles for Deceleration Guidance During Rollout and Turnoff (ROTO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. Keith; Hankins, Walter W., III; Hueschen, Richard M.

    1999-01-01

    Two NASA goals are to enhance airport safety and to improve capacity in all weather conditions. This paper contributes to these goals by examining speed guidance profiles to aid a pilot in decelerating along the runway to an exit. A speed profile essentially tells the pilot what the airplane's speed should be as a function of where the airplane is on the runway. While it is important to get off the runway as soon as possible (when striving to minimize runway occupancy time), the deceleration along a speed profile should be constrained by passenger comfort. Several speed profiles are examined with respect to their maximum decelerations and times to reach exit speed. One profile varies speed linearly with distance; another has constant deceleration; and two related nonlinear profiles delay maximum deceleration (braking) to reduce time spent on the runway.

  13. Predictive value of late decelerations for fetal acidemia in unselective low-risk pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Sameshima, Hiroshi; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical significance of late decelerations (LD) of intrapartum fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring to detect low pH (< 7.1) in low-risk pregnancies. We selected two secondary and two tertiary-level institutions where 10,030 women delivered. Among them, 5522 were low-risk pregnancies. The last 2 hours of FHR patterns before delivery were interpreted according to the guidelines of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. The correlation between the incidence of LD (occasional, < 50%; recurrent, > or = 50%) and severity (reduced baseline FHR accelerations and variability) of LD, and low pH (< 7.1) were evaluated. Statistical analyses included a contingency table with chi2 and the Fisher test, and one-way analysis of variance with the Bonferroni/Dunn test. In the 5522 low-risk pregnancies, 301 showed occasional LD and 99 showed recurrent LD. Blood gases and pH values deteriorated as the incidence of LD increased and as baseline accelerations or variability was decreased. Positive predictive value for low pH (< 7.1) was exponentially elevated from 0% at no deceleration, 1% in occasional LD, and > 50% in recurrent LD with no baseline FHR accelerations and reduced variability. In low-risk pregnancies, information on LD combined with acceleration and baseline variability enables us to predict the potential incidence of fetal acidemia.

  14. Development flight tests of the Viking decelerator system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murrow, H. N.; Eckstrom, C. V.; Henke, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    Significant aspects of a low altitude flight test phase of the overall Viking decelerator system development are given. This test series included nine aircraft drop tests that were conducted at the Joint Parachute Test Facility, El Centro, California, between September 1971 and May 1972. The test technique and analytical planning method utilized to best simulate loading conditions in a low density environment are presented and some test results are shown to assess their adequacy. Performance effects relating to suspension line lengths of 1.7 D sub o with different canopy loadings are noted. System hardware developments are described, in particular the utilization of a fabric deployment mortar cover which remained attached to the parachute canopy. Finally, the contribution of this test series to the overall program is assessed.

  15. Was There a Decelerating Past for the Universe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Moncy V.

    2006-03-01

    Some analyzes of the apparent magnitude-redshift data of type Ia supernovas indicate that the suspected dark energy in the universe cannot be regarded as a cosmological constant of general relativistic origin or as the vacuum energy encountered in quantum field theories. If this is the case, our knowledge of the physical world remains deficient since no tested theory involves such a dark energy. Under this circumstance, an equation of state of the form p = wρ is not well-motivated and one is unable to use the Einstein equation in this case as well. I argue that the very method of analysing the data by assuming exotic energy densities with strange equations of state itself is misleading and the reasonable remaining option is to make a model-independent analysis of SNe data, without reference to the energy densities. In this basically kinematic approach, we limit ourselves to the observationally justifiable assumptions of homogeneity and isotropy, i.e., to the assumption that the universe has a RW metric. This cosmographic approach is historically the original one in cosmology. The analysis was performed by expanding the scale factor into a fifth-order polynomial, an assumption that can be further generalized to any order. The values obtained for the present expansion rates h, q0, r0 etc. are relevant, since any cosmological solution would ultimately need to explain them. Using this method, we address an important question relevant to cosmology: Was there a decelerating past for the universe? To answer this, the Bayes's probability theory is employed, which is the most appropriate tool for quantifying our knowledge when it changes through the acquisition of new data. The cosmographic approach helps to sort out models which were always accelerating from those which decelerated for at least some time in the period of interest. Bayesian model comparison technique is used to discriminate these rival hypotheses with the aid of recent releases of supernova data. It is

  16. Background Pressure Effects on Krypton Hall Effect Thruster Internal Acceleration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    This was also previously seen for xenon. Several interpretations of the continued velocity dis- tribution broadening of the high pressure case of...acceleration region into the thruster rel- ative to lower background pressures. We have at- tributed this behavior to increased electron mobility...density. While the data presented thus far does shown some changes in the breadth of the velocity Kr II dis- tributions with increasing

  17. Multi-dimensional effects in radiation pressure acceleration of ions

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, V. K., E-mail: tripathivipin@yahoo.co.in

    A laser carries momentum. On reflection from an ultra-thin overdense plasma foil, it deposits recoil momentum on the foil, i.e. exerts radiation pressure on the foil electrons and pushes them to the rear. The space charge field thus created takes the ions along, accelerating the electron-ion double layer as a single unit. When the foil has surface ripple, of wavelength comparable to laser wavelength, the radiation pressure acts non-uniformly on the foil and the perturbation grows as Reyleigh-Taylor (RT) instability as the foil moves. The finite spot size of the laser causes foil to bend. These effects limit the quasi-monomore » energy acceleration of ions. Multi-ion foils, e.g., diamond like carbon foil embedded with protons offer the possibility of suppressing RT instability.« less

  18. Responses to Deceleration during Car Following: Roles of Optic Flow, Warnings, Expectations, and Interruptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia, Patricia R.; Tharanathan, Anand

    2009-01-01

    More than 25% of accidents are rear-end collisions. It is essential to identify the factors that contribute to such collisions. One such factor is a driver's ability to respond to the deceleration of the car ahead. In Experiment 1, we measured effects of optic flow information and discrete visual and auditory warnings (brake lights, tones) on…

  19. Rotary-Wing Decelerators for Probe Descent Through the Atmosphere of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Briggs, Geoffrey; Aiken, Edwin; Pisanich, Greg

    2005-01-01

    An innovative concept is proposed for atmospheric entry probe deceleration, wherein one or more deployed rotors (in autorotation or wind-turbine flow states) on the aft end of the probe effect controlled descent. This concept is particularly oriented toward probes intended to land safely on the surface of Venus. Initial work on design trade studies is discussed.

  20. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator Ground Test Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Corso, Jospeh A.; Hughes, Stephen; Cheatwood, Neil; Johnson, Keith; Calomino, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology readiness levels have been incrementally matured by NASA over the last thirteen years, with most recent support from NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP). Recently STMD GCDP has authorized funding and support through fiscal year 2015 (FY15) for continued HIAD ground developments which support a Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) study. The Mars study will assess the viability of various EDL architectures to enable a Mars human architecture pathfinder mission planned for mid-2020. At its conclusion in November 2014, NASA's first HIAD ground development effort had demonstrated success with fabricating a 50 W/cm2 modular thermal protection system, a 400 C capable inflatable structure, a 10-meter scale aeroshell manufacturing capability, together with calibrated thermal and structural models. Despite the unquestionable success of the first HIAD ground development effort, it was recognized that additional investment was needed in order to realize the full potential of the HIAD technology capability to enable future flight opportunities. The second HIAD ground development effort will focus on extending performance capability in key technology areas that include thermal protection system, lifting-body structures, inflation systems, flight control, stage transitions, and 15-meter aeroshell scalability. This paper presents an overview of the accomplishments under the baseline HIAD development effort and current plans for a follow-on development effort focused on extending those critical technologies needed to enable a Mars Pathfinder mission.

  1. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the landing/deceleration subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, J. M.; Beaird, H. G.; Weissinger, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Landing/Deceleration Subsystem hardware. The Landing/Deceleration Subsystem is utilized to allow the Orbiter to perform a safe landing, allowing for landing-gear deploy activities, steering and braking control throughout the landing rollout to wheel-stop, and to allow for ground-handling capability during the ground-processing phase of the flight cycle. Specifically, the Landing/Deceleration hardware consists of the following components: Nose Landing Gear (NLG); Main Landing Gear (MLG); Brake and Antiskid (B and AS) Electrical Power Distribution and Controls (EPD and C); Nose Wheel Steering (NWS); and Hydraulics Actuators. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. Due to the lack of redundancy in the Landing/Deceleration Subsystems there is a high number of critical items.

  2. Single event effects in high-energy accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Alía, Rubén; Brugger, Markus; Danzeca, Salvatore; Cerutti, Francesco; de Carvalho Saraiva, Joao Pedro; Denz, Reiner; Ferrari, Alfredo; Foro, Lionel L.; Peronnard, Paul; Røed, Ketil; Secondo, Raffaello; Steckert, Jens; Thurel, Yves; Toccafondo, Iacocpo; Uznanski, Slawosz

    2017-03-01

    The radiation environment encountered at high-energy hadron accelerators strongly differs from the environment relevant for space applications. The mixed-field expected at modern accelerators is composed of charged and neutral hadrons (protons, pions, kaons and neutrons), photons, electrons, positrons and muons, ranging from very low (thermal) energies up to the TeV range. This complex field, which is extensively simulated by Monte Carlo codes (e.g. FLUKA) is due to beam losses in the experimental areas, distributed along the machine (e.g. collimation points) and deriving from the interaction with the residual gas inside the beam pipe. The resulting intensity, energy distribution and proportion of the different particles largely depends on the distance and angle with respect to the interaction point as well as the amount of installed shielding material. Electronics operating in the vicinity of the accelerator will therefore be subject to both cumulative damage from radiation (total ionizing dose, displacement damage) as well as single event effects which can seriously compromise the operation of the machine. This, combined with the extensive use of commercial-off-the-shelf components due to budget, performance and availability reasons, results in the need to carefully characterize the response of the devices and systems to representative radiation conditions.

  3. Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Flight Dynamics Test-1 Flight Design and Targeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, Mark

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) program was established to identify, develop, and eventually qualify to Test [i.e. Technology] Readiness Level (TRL) - 6 aerodynamic decelerators for eventual use on Mars. Through comprehensive Mars application studies, two distinct Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) designs were chosen that afforded the optimum balance of benefit, cost, and development risk. In addition, a Supersonic Disk Sail (SSDS) parachute design was chosen that satisfied the same criteria. The final phase of the multi-tiered qualification process involves Earth Supersonic Flight Dynamics Tests (SFDTs) within environmental conditions similar to those that would be experienced during a Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) mission. The first of these flight tests (i.e. SFDT-1) was completed on June 28, 2014 with two more tests scheduled for the summer of 2015 and 2016, respectively. The basic flight design for all the SFDT flights is for the SFDT test vehicle to be ferried to a float altitude of 120 kilo-feet by a 34 thousand cubic feet (Mcf) heavy lift helium balloon. Once float altitude is reached, the test vehicle is released from the balloon, spun-up for stability, and accelerated to supersonic speeds using a Star48 solid rocket motor. After burnout of the Star48 motor the vehicle decelerates to pre-flight selected test conditions for the deployment of the SIAD system. After further deceleration with the SIAD deployed, the SSDS parachute is then deployed stressing the performance of the parachute in the wake of the SIAD augmented blunt body. The test vehicle/SIAD/parachute system then descends to splashdown in the Pacific Ocean for eventual recovery. This paper will discuss the development of both the test vehicle and the trajectory sequence including design trade-offs resulting from the interaction of both engineering efforts. In addition, the SFDT-1 nominal trajectory design and associated sensitivities will be discussed

  4. Effect of Exercise Training and +Gz Acceleration Training on Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Simonson, Shawn R.; Stocks, Jodie M.; Evans, Joyce; Knapp, Charles F.; Cowell, Stephenie A.; Pemberton, Kendra N.; Wilson, Heather W.; Vener, Jamie M.; Evetts, Simon N.

    2001-01-01

    Countermeasures for reduction in work capacity (maximal oxygen uptake and strength) during spaceflight and enhanced orthostatic intolerance during re-entry, landing and egress from the return vehicle are continuing problems. The purpose for this study was to test the hypothesis that passive-acceleration training; supine, interval, exercise plus acceleration training and exercise combined with acceleration training would improve orthostatic tolerance in ambulatory men; and that addition of the aerobic exercise conditioning would not alter this improved tolerance from that of passive-acceleration training. Seven men (24-38 yr) underwent "Passive" training on the Ames human-powered centrifuge (HPC) for 30 min, "Exercise" training on the cycle ergometer with constant +Gz acceleration; and "Combined" exercise training at 40% to 90% of the HPC +Gz(max) exercise level. Maximal supine exercise loads increased significant (P<0.05) by 8.3% (Passive), 12.6% (Exercise), and by 15.4% (Combined) after training, but their post-training maximal oxygen uptakes and maximal heart rates were unchanged. Maximal time to fatigue (endurance) was unchanged with Passive was increased (P<0.05) with Exercise and Combined training. Thus, the exercise in the Exercise and Combined training Phases resulted in greater maximal loads and endurance without effect on maximal oxygen uptake or heart rate. There was a 4% to 6% increase (P<0.05) in all four quadriceps muscle volumes (right and left) after post-Combined training. Resting pre-tilt heart rate was elevated by 12.9% (P<0.05) only after Passive training suggesting that the exercise training attenuated the HR response. Plasma volume (% Delta) was uniformly decreased by 8% to 14% (P<0.05) at tilt-tolerance pre- vs. post-training indicating essentially no effect of training on the level of hypovolemia. Post-training tilt-tolerance time and heart rate were increased (P<0.05) only with Passive training by 37.8% and by 29.1%, respectively. Thus

  5. Accelerated infliximab infusions for inflammatory bowel disease improve effectiveness.

    PubMed

    McConnell, John; Parvulescu-Codrea, Simona; Behm, Brian; Hill, Beth; Dunkle, Elizabeth; Finke, Karen; Snyder, Kathryn; Tuskey, Anne; Cox, Debbie; Woodward, Beth

    2012-10-06

    To study the safety and effectiveness associated with accelerated infliximab infusion protocols in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Original protocols and infusion rates were developed for the administration of infliximab over 90-min and 60-min. Then the IBD patients on stable maintenance infliximab therapy were offered accelerated infusions. To be eligible for the study, patients needed a minimum of four prior infusions. An initial infusion of 90-min was given to each patient; those tolerating the accelerated infusion were transitioned to a 60-min infusion protocol at their next and all subsequent visits. Any patient having significant infusion reactions would be reverted to the standard 120-min protocol. A change in a patient's dose mandated a single 120-min infusion before accelerated infusions could be administered again. The University of Virginia Medical Center's Institutional Review Board approved this study. Fifty IBD patients treated with infliximab 5 mg/kg, 7.5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg were offered accelerated infusions. Forty-six patients consented to participate in the study. Nineteen (41.3%) were female, five (10.9%) were African American and nine (19.6%) had ulcerative colitis. The mean age was 42.6 years old. Patients under age 18 were excluded. Ten patients used immunosuppressive drugs concurrently out of which six were taking azathioprine, three were taking 6-mercaptopurine and one was taking methotrexate. One of the 46 study patients used corticosteroid therapy for his IBD. Seventeen of the patients used prophylactic medications prior to receiving infusions; six patients received corticosteroids as pre-medication. Four patients had a history of distant transfusion reactions to infliximab. These reactions included shortness of breath, chest tightness, flushing, pruritus and urticaria. These patients all took prophylactic medications before receiving infusions. 46 patients (27 males and 19 females) received a total of fifty 90-min infusions

  6. Aerodynamic Models for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Test Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Norman, John W.; Dyakonov, Artem; Schoenenberger, Mark; Davis, Jody; Muppidi, Suman; Tang, Chun; Bose, Deepak; Mobley, Brandon; Clark, Ian

    2016-01-01

    An overview of aerodynamic models for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) campaign test vehicle is presented, with comparisons to reconstructed flight data and discussion of model updates. The SFDT campaign objective is to test Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) and large supersonic parachute technologies at high altitude Earth conditions relevant to entry, descent, and landing (EDL) at Mars. Nominal SIAD test conditions are attained by lifting a test vehicle (TV) to 36 km altitude with a helium balloon, then accelerating the TV to Mach 4 and 53 km altitude with a solid rocket motor. Test flights conducted in June of 2014 (SFDT-1) and 2015 (SFDT-2) each successfully delivered a 6 meter diameter decelerator (SIAD-R) to test conditions and several seconds of flight, and were successful in demonstrating the SFDT flight system concept and SIAD-R technology. Aerodynamic models and uncertainties developed for the SFDT campaign are presented, including the methods used to generate them and their implementation within an aerodynamic database (ADB) routine for flight simulations. Pre- and post-flight aerodynamic models are compared against reconstructed flight data and model changes based upon knowledge gained from the flights are discussed. The pre-flight powered phase model is shown to have a significant contribution to off-nominal SFDT trajectory lofting, while coast and SIAD phase models behaved much as predicted.

  7. Cardiac Deceleration in Newborns: Habituation, Dishabituation, and Offset Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkinson, Cheryl D.; Berg, W. Keith

    1976-01-01

    A total of 20 neonates were presented with mild intensity blue or blue-green light during presentation of habituation and dishabituation stimuli. Orienting and defensive responses were measured by monitoring heart rate deceleration. (GO)

  8. 5.0 Aerodynamic and Propulsive Decelerator Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Juan R.; Powell, Richard; Masciarelli, James; Brown, Glenn; Witkowski, Al; Guernsey, Carl

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Introduction. Capability Breakdown Structure. Decelerator Functions. Candidate Solutions. Performance and Technology. Capability State-of-the-Art. Performance Needs. Candidate Configurations. Possible Technology Roadmaps. Capability Roadmaps.

  9. Qualification flight tests of the Viking decelerator system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moog, R. D.; Bendura, R. J.; Timmons, J. D.; Lau, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The Balloon Launched Decelerator Test (BLDT) series conducted at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) during July and August of 1972 flight qualified the NASA Viking '75 decelerator system at conditions bracketing those expected for Mars. This paper discusses the decelerator system design requiremnts, compares the test results with prior work, and discusses significant considerations leading to successful qualification in earth's atmosphere. The Viking decelerator system consists of a single-stage mortar-deployed 53-foot nominal diameter disk-gap-band parachute. Full-scale parachutes were deployed behind a full-scale simulated Viking vehicle at Mach numbers from 0.47 to 2.18 and dynamic pressures from 6.9 to 14.6 psf. Analyses show that the system is qualified with sufficient margin to perform successfully for the Viking mission.

  10. Mutagenic effect of accelerated heavy ions on bacterial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreyko, A. V.; Krasavin, E. A.

    2011-11-01

    The heavy ion accelerators of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research were used to study the regularities and mechanisms of formation of different types of mutations in prokaryote cells. The induction of direct (lac-, ton B-, col B) mutations for Esherichia coli cells and reverse his- → His+ mutations of Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis cells under the action of radiation in a wide range of linear energy transfer (LET) was studied. The regularities of formation of gene and structural (tonB trp-) mutations for Esherichia coli bacteria under the action of accelerated heavy ions were studied. It was demonstrated that the rate of gene mutations as a function of the dose under the action of Γ rays and accelerated heavy ions is described by linear-quadratic functions. For structural mutations, linear "dose-effect" dependences are typical. The quadratic character of mutagenesis dose curves is determined by the "interaction" of two independent "hitting" events in the course of SOS repair of genetic structures. The conclusion made was that gene mutations under the action of accelerated heavy ions are induced by δ electron regions of charged particle tracks. The methods of SOS chromotest, SOS lux test, and λ prophage induction were used to study the regularities of SOS response of cells under the action of radiations in a wide LET range. The following proposition was substantiated: the molecular basis for formation of gene mutations are cluster single-strand DNA breaks, and that for structural mutations, double-strand DNA breaks. It was found out that the LET dependence of the relative biological efficiency of accelerated ions is described by curves with a local maximum. It was demonstrated that the biological efficiency of ionizing radiations with different physical characteristics on cells with different genotype, estimated by the lethal action, induction of gene and deletion mutations, precision excision of transposons, is determined by the specific

  11. Parachute Decelerator System Performance During the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Program's First Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallon, John C.; Clark, Ian G.; Witkowski, Allen

    2015-01-01

    During the first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT-1) for NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Program, the Parachute Decelerator System (PDS) was successfully tested. The main parachute in the PDS was a 30.5-meter supersonic Disksail parachute. The term Disksail is derived from the canopy's constructional geometry, as it combined the aspects of a ringsail and a flat circular round (disk) canopy. The crown area of the canopy contained the disk feature, as a large flat circular disk that extended from the canopy's vent down to the upper gap. From this upper gap to the skirt-band the canopy was constructed with characteristics of sails seen in a ringsail. There was a second lower gap present in this sail region. The canopy maintained a nearly 10x forebody diameter trailing distance with 1.7 Do suspension line lengths. During the test, the parachute was deployed at the targeted Mach and dynamic pressure. Although the supersonic Disksail parachute experienced an anomaly during the inflation process, the system was tested successfully in the environment it was designed to operate within. The nature of the failure seen originated in the disk portion of the canopy. High-speed and high-resolution imagery of the anomaly was captured and has been used to aid in the forensics of the failure cause. In addition to the imagery, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) recorded test vehicle dynamics and loadcells captured the bridle termination forces. In reviewing the imagery and load data a number of hypothesizes have been generated in an attempt to explain the cause of the anomaly.

  12. Energy recapture through deceleration - regenerative braking in electric vehicles from a user perspective.

    PubMed

    Cocron, Peter; Bühler, Franziska; Franke, Thomas; Neumann, Isabel; Dielmann, Benno; Krems, Josef F

    2013-01-01

    We report results from a 1-year field study (N = 80) on user interactions with regenerative braking in electric vehicles. Designed to recapture energy in vehicles with electric powertrains, regenerative braking has an important influence on both the task of driving and energy consumption. Results from user assessments and data from onboard data loggers indicate that most drivers quickly learned to interact with the system, which was triggered via accelerator. Further, conventional braking manoeuvres decreased significantly as the majority of deceleration episodes could only be executed through regenerative braking. Still, some drivers reported difficulties when adapting to the system. These difficulties could be addressed by offering different levels of regeneration so that the intensity of the deceleration could be individually modified. In general, the system is trusted and regarded as a valuable tool for prolonging range. Regenerative braking in electric vehicles has direct implications for the driving task. We found that drivers quickly learn to use and accept a system, which is triggered via accelerator. For those reporting difficulties in the interaction, it appears reasonable to integrate options to customise or switch off the system.

  13. Peculiar motions, accelerated expansion, and the cosmological axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsagas, Christos G.

    2011-09-01

    Peculiar velocities change the expansion rate of any observer moving relative to the smooth Hubble flow. As a result, observers in a galaxy like our Milky Way can experience accelerated expansion within a globally decelerating universe, even when the drift velocities are small. The effect is local, but the affected scales can be large enough to give the false impression that the whole cosmos has recently entered an accelerating phase. Generally, peculiar velocities are also associated with dipolelike anisotropies, triggered by the fact that they introduce a preferred spatial direction. This implies that observers experiencing locally accelerated expansion, as a result of their own drift motion, may also find that the acceleration is maximized in one direction and minimized in the opposite. We argue that, typically, such a dipole anisotropy should be relatively small and the axis should probably lie fairly close to the one seen in the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background.

  14. Deceleration of arginine kinase refolding by induced helical structures.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Long; Zhou, Sheng-Mei; Park, Daeui; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Chung, Hae Young; Yang, Jun-Mo; Meng, Fan-Guo; Hu, Wei-Jiang

    2012-04-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) is a key metabolic enzyme for keeping energy balance in invertebrates. Therefore, regulation of the enzymatic activity and the folding studies of AK from the various invertebrates have been the focus of investigation. We studied the effects of helical structures by using hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) on AK folding. Folding kinetic studies showed that the folding rates of the urea-denatured AKs were significantly decelerated after being induced in various concentrations of HFIP. AK lost its activity completely at concentrations greater than 60%. The results indicated that the HFIP-induced helical structures in the denatured state play a negative role in protein folding, and the helical structures induced in 5% (v/v) HFIP act as the most effective barrier against AK taking its native structure. The computational docking simulations (binding energies for -2.19 kcal/mol for AutoDock4.2 and -20.47 kcal/mol for Dock6.3) suggested that HFIP interacts with the several important residues that are predicted by both programs. The excessively pre-organized helical structures not only hampered the folding process, but also ultimately brought about changes in the three-dimensional conformation and biological function of AK.

  15. Whole-body γ-irradiation decelerates rat hepatocyte polyploidization.

    PubMed

    Ikhtiar, Adnan M

    2015-07-01

    To characterize hepatocyte polyploidization induced by intermediate dose of γ-ray. Male Wistar strain rats were whole-body irradiated (WBI) with 2 Gy of γ-ray at the age of 1 month, and 5-6 rats were sacrificed monthly at 0-25 months after irradiation. The nuclear DNA content of individual hepatocytes was measured by flow cytometry, then hepatocytes were classified into various ploidy classes. Survival percentage, after exposure up to the end of the study, did not indicate any differences between the irradiated groups and controls. The degree of polyploidization in hepatocytes of irradiated rats, was significantly lower than that for the control after 1 month of exposure, and it continued to be lower after up to 8 months. Thereafter, the degree of polyploidization in the irradiated group slowly returned to the control level when the irradiated rats reached the age of 10 months. Intermediate dose of ionizing radiation, in contrast to high doses, decelerate hepatocyte polyploidization, which may coincides with the hypothesis of the beneficial effects of low doses of ionizing radiation.

  16. Modal Test of Six-Meter Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Nijo; Buehrle, Ralph; Templeton, Justin; Lindell, Mike; Hancock, Sean M.

    2014-01-01

    A modal test was performed on the six-meter Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) test article to gain a firm understanding of the dynamic characteristics of the unloaded structure within the low frequency range. The tests involved various configurations of the HIAD to understand the influence of the tri-torus, the varying pressure within the toroids and the influence of straps. The primary test was conducted utilizing an eletrodynamic shaker and the results were verified using a step relaxation technique. The analysis results show an increase in the structure's stiffness with respect to increasing pressure. The results also show the rise of coupled modes with the tri-torus configurations. During the testing activity, the attached straps exhibited a behavior that is similar to that described as fuzzy structures in the literature. Therefore extensive tests were also performed by utilizing foam to mitigate these effects as well as understand the modal parameters of these fuzzy sub structures. Results are being utilized to update the finite element model of the six-meter HIAD and to gain a better understanding of the modeling of complex inflatable structures.

  17. Use of induced acceleration to quantify the (de)stabilization effect of external and internal forces on postural responses.

    PubMed

    van Asseldonk, Edwin H F; Carpenter, Mark G; van der Helm, Frans C T; van der Kooij, Herman

    2007-12-01

    Due to the mechanical coupling between the body segments, it is impossible to see with the naked eye the causes of body movements and understand the interaction between movements of different body parts. The goal of this paper is to investigate the use of induced acceleration analysis to reveal the causes of body movements. We derive the analytical equations to calculate induced accelerations and evaluate its potential to study human postural responses to support-surface translations. We measured the kinematic and kinetic responses of a subject to sudden forward and backward translations of a moving platform. The kinematic and kinetics served as input to the induced acceleration analyses. The induced accelerations showed explicitly that the platform acceleration and deceleration contributed to the destabilization and restabilization of standing balance, respectively. Furthermore, the joint torques, coriolis and centrifugal forces caused by swinging of the arms, contributed positively to stabilization of the Center of Mass. It is concluded that induced acceleration analyses is a valuable tool in understanding balance responses to different kinds of perturbations and may help to identify the causes of movement in different pathologies.

  18. Numerical investigation on the effects of acceleration reversal times in Rayleigh-Taylor Instability with multiple reversals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Zachary; Aslangil, Denis; Banerjee, Arindam; Lawrie, Andrew G. W.

    2017-11-01

    An implicit large eddy simulation (ILES) code, MOBILE, is used to explore the growth rate of the mixing layer width of the acceleration-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) under variable acceleration histories. The sets of computations performed consist of a series of accel-decel-accel (ADA) cases in addition to baseline constant acceleration and accel-decel (AD) cases. The ADA cases are a series of varied times for the second acceleration reversal (t2) and show drastic differences in the growth rates. Upon the deceleration phase, the kinetic energy of the flow is shifted into internal wavelike patterns. These waves are evidenced by the examined differences in growth rate in the second acceleration phase for the set of ADA cases. Here, we investigate global parameters that include mixing width, growth rates and the anisotropy tensor for the kinetic energy to better understand the behavior of the growth during the re-acceleration period. Authors acknowledge financial support from DOE-SSAA (DE-NA0003195) and NSF CAREER (#1453056) awards.

  19. Some effects of acceleration in man and chimpanzees. [gravitational effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, E. H.; Sass, D. J.; Ritman, E. L.; Greenleaf, J. F.; Coulam, C. M.; Nathan, D.; Nolan, E. C.

    1977-01-01

    Early physiologic experiments using dogs and humans in centrifuges are reviewed. Because of the close similarity between the shape and dimensions of the thoraces of chimpanzees and humans, the former were used to obtain roentgenograms and photokymographic recordings of multiple physiologic variables before and during exposure to +5.8 Gy to study the effects of changes in the gravitational-inertial force environment on the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems during long duration space flight. A computer-controlled sciscanning system was used to obtain a two dimensional map of the amount of radiation emanating from the dorsal and ventricle surfaces after insertion of radioactive microspheres in the right ventricle. By using four different batches of microspheres tagged with isotopes of different energies, the spatial distribution of pulmonary blood flow under four conditions was determined.

  20. Effects of Current Guides Destruction at Ultra-fast Acceleration of Macrobodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataev, V. N.; Boriskin, A. S.; Golosov, S. N.; Demidov, V. A.; Klimashov, M. V.; Korolev, P. V.; Makartsev, G. F.; Pikar, A. S.; Russkov, A. S.; Shapovalov, E. V.; Shibitov, Yu. M.

    2006-08-01

    The paper is devoted to discussion of current guides destruction effects in different accelerators: thermal-electric and electro-magnetic rail accelerator at macrobodies acceleration value of 108-109 m/s2. Experimental results with thermal-electric accelerators powering from megajoule capacitor battery and helical magneto-cumulative generator MCG-100 at currents up to 3.5 MA are analyzed. The process of rails destruction at railgun at pressure magnetic field excess over the limit of metal fluidity is presented. Methods of efficiency coefficient increase of capacitive storage energy transmission to kinetic energy of accelerating body are discussed.

  1. Drag Characteristics of Several Towed Decelerator Models at Mach 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miserentino, Robert; Bohon, Herman L.

    1970-01-01

    An investigation has been made to determine the possibility of using toroid-membrane and wide-angle conical shapes as towed decelerators. Parameter variations were investigated which might render toroid-membrane models and wide-angle- cone models stable without loss of the high drag coefficients obtainable with sting-mounted models. The parameters varied included location of center of gravity, location of the pivot between the towline and the model, and configuration modifications of the aft end as the addition of a corner radius and the addition of a skirt. The toroid membrane can be made into a stable towed decelerator with a suitable configuration modification of the aft end.

  2. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Torus Mechanical Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Tony; Moholt, Matthew R.; Hudson, Larry D.

    2017-01-01

    The Armstrong Flight Research Center has performed loads testing of a series of developmental atmospheric entry decelerator structural components. Test setup hardware were designed and fabricated. In addition, test plan and checklist were developed for the consistent and efficient execution of the tests. Eight test articles were successfully tested in over one hundred test runs as test objectives were met. Test article buckling shapes and buckling loads were observed. Displacements and strains were also recorded as various load cases were applied. The test data was sent to Langley Research Center to help with the construction of the finite element model of the decelerator assembly.

  3. Impact-induced acceleration by obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, N. A.; Hanna, J. A.; Royston, W. R.; Singh, H.; Warner, R. B.

    2018-05-01

    We explore a surprising phenomenon in which an obstruction accelerates, rather than decelerates, a moving flexible object. It has been claimed that the right kind of discrete chain falling onto a table falls faster than a free-falling body. We confirm and quantify this effect, reveal its complicated dependence on angle of incidence, and identify multiple operative mechanisms. Prior theories for direct impact onto flat surfaces, which involve a single constitutive parameter, match our data well if we account for a characteristic delay length that must impinge before the onset of excess acceleration. Our measurements provide a robust determination of this parameter. This supports the possibility of modeling such discrete structures as continuous bodies with a complicated constitutive law of impact that includes angle of incidence as an input.

  4. Flight investigation of manual and automatic VTOL decelerating instrument approaches and landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, J. R.; Niessen, F. R.; Thibodeaux, J. J.; Yenni, K. R.; Garren, J. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A flight investigation was undertaken to study the problems associated with manual and automatic control of steep, decelerating instrument approaches and landings under simulated instrument conditions. The study was conducted with a research helicopter equipped with a three-cue flight-director indicator. The scope of the investigation included variations in the flight-director control laws, glide-path angle, deceleration profile, and control response characteristics. Investigation of the automatic-control problem resulted in the first automated approach and landing to a predetermined spot ever accomplished with a helicopter. Although well-controlled approaches and landings could be performed manually with the flight-director concept, pilot comments indicated the need for a better display which would more effectively integrate command and situation information.

  5. Thermodynamic equilibrium with acceleration and the Unruh effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becattini, F.

    2018-04-01

    We address the problem of thermodynamic equilibrium with constant acceleration along the velocity field lines in a quantum relativistic statistical mechanics framework. We show that for a free scalar quantum field, after vacuum subtraction, all mean values vanish when the local temperature T is as low as the Unruh temperature TU=A /2 π where A is the magnitude of the acceleration four-vector. We argue that the Unruh temperature is an absolute lower bound for the temperature of any accelerated fluid at global thermodynamic equilibrium. We discuss the conditions of this bound to be applicable in a local thermodynamic equilibrium situation.

  6. Effect of gravitational acceleration, hypokinesia and hypodynamia on the structure of the intestinal vascular bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikitin, M. V.

    1980-01-01

    A series of experiments comparing single and combined effects of hypokinesia and gravitational acceleration on morphology of intestinal blood vessels are discussed. Results indicate that hypokinesia has a whole body nonspecific effect reflected even in an organ whose activity shows little or no change due to hypokinesia. In early hypokinetic stages blood redistribution caused anorexia, intestinal atonia, and secretory disruption. Destructive changes from further exposure include aneurisms, varicoses, extravascular movement of blood elements, and vascular wall muscle fiber degeneration. The effect of acceleration is greatest in the ventrodorsal direction. Changes due to acceleration then hypokinesia are like those due to hypokinesia alone; changes due to acceleration before and after hypokinesia are like those due to acceleration. Adaptation raises acceleration tolerance but the effects do not survive four-week hypokinesia.

  7. Accelerated life testing effects on CMOS microcircuit characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The 250 C, 200C and 125C accelerated tests are described. The wear-out distributions from the 250 and 200 C tests were used to estimate the activation energy between the two test temperatures. The duration of the 125 C test was not sufficient to bring the test devices into the wear-out region. It was estimated that, for the most complex of the three devices types, the activation energy between 200 C and 125 C should be at least as high as that between 250 C and 200 C. The practicality of the use of high temperature for the accelerated life tests from the point of view of durability of equipment is assessed. Guidlines for the development of accelerated life-test conditions are proposed. The use of the silicon nitride overcoat to improve the high temperature accelerated life-test characteristics of CMOS microcircuits is described.

  8. [Cumulative effect of Coriolis acceleration on coronary hemodynamics].

    PubMed

    Lapaev, E V; Bednenko, V S

    1985-01-01

    Time-course variations in coronary circulation and cardiac output were measured in 29 healthy test subjects who performed tests with a continuous cumulation of Coriolis accelerations and in 12 healthy test subjects who were exposed to Coriolis accelerations combined with acute hypoxia. Adaptive changes in coronary circulation were seen. It is recommended to monitor coronary circulation during vestibulometric tests as part of medical expertise of the flying personnel.

  9. Effects of angular acceleration on man - Choice reaction time using visual and rotary motion information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.; Stewart, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    This experiment was concerned with the effects of rotary acceleration on choice reaction time (RTc) to the motion of a luminous line on a cathode-ray tube. Specifically, it compared the (RTc) to rotary acceleration alone, visual acceleration alone, and simultaneous, double stimulation by both rotary and visual acceleration. Thirteen airline pilots were rotated about an earth-vertical axis in a precision rotation device while they observed a vertical line. The stimuli were 7 rotary and visual accelerations which were matched for rise time. The pilot responded as quickly as possible by displacing a vertical controller to the right or left. The results showed a decreasing (RTc) with increasing acceleration for all conditions, while the (RTc) to rotary motion alone was substantially longer than for all other conditions. The (RTc) to the double stimulation was significantly longer than that for visual acceleration alone.

  10. Heart rate deceleration runs for postinfarction risk prediction.

    PubMed

    Guzik, Przemyslaw; Piskorski, Jaroslaw; Barthel, Petra; Bauer, Axel; Müller, Alexander; Junk, Nadine; Ulm, Kurt; Malik, Marek; Schmidt, Georg

    2012-01-01

    A method for counting episodes of uninterrupted beat-to-beat heart rate decelerations was developed. The method was set up and evaluated using 24-hour electrocardiogram Holter recordings of 1455 (training sample) and 946 (validation sample) postinfarction patients. During a median follow-up of 24 months, 70, 46, and 19 patients of the training sample suffered from total, cardiac, and sudden cardiac mortality, respectively. In the validation sample, these numbers were 39, 25, and 15. Episodes of consecutive beat-to-beat heart rate decelerations (deceleration runs [DRs]) were characterized by their length. Deceleration runs of 2 to 10 cycles were significantly less frequent in nonsurvivors. Multivariate model of DRs of 2, 4, and 8 cycles identified low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups. In these groups of the training sample, the total mortalities were 1.8%, 6.1%, and 24%, respectively. In the validation sample, these numbers were 1.8%, 4.1%, and 21.9%. Infrequent DRs during 24-hour Holter indicate high risk of postinfarction mortality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Oscillation Amplitude Growth for a Decelerating Object with Constant Pitch Damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenenberger, Mark; Queen, Eric M.; Litton, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The equations governing the deceleration and oscillation of a blunt body moving along a planar trajectory are re-expressed in the form of the Euler-Cauchy equation. An analytic solution of this equation describes the oscillation amplitude growth and frequency dilation with time for a statically stable decelerating body with constant pitch damping. The oscillation histories for several constant pitch damping values, predicted by the solution of the Euler-Cauchy equation are compared to POST six degree-of-freedom (6-DoF) trajectory simulations. The simulations use simplified aerodynamic coefficients matching the Euler-Cauchy approximations. Agreement between the model predictions and simulation results are excellent. Euler-Cauchy curves are also fit through nonlinear 6-DoF simulations and ballistic range data to identify static stability and pitch damping coefficients. The model os shown to closely fit through the data points and capture the behavior of the blunt body observed in simulation and experiment. The extracted coefficients are in reasonable agreement with higher fidelity, nonlinear parameter identification results. Finally, a nondimensional version of the Euler-Cauchy equation is presented and shown to be a simple and effective tool for designing dynamically scaled experiments for decelerating blunt capsule flight.

  12. Magnetized strange quark matter in f(R, T) gravity with bilinear and special form of time varying deceleration parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, P. K.; Sahoo, Parbati; Bishi, Binaya K.; Aygün, Sezgin

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we have studied homogeneous and anisotropic locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type-I model with magnetized strange quark matter (MSQM) distribution and cosmological constant Λ in f(R, T) gravity where R is the Ricci scalar and T the trace of matter source. The exact solutions of the field equations are obtained under bilinear and special form of time varying deceleration parameter (DP). Firstly, we have considered two specific forms of bilinear DP with a single parameter of the form: q = α(1-t)/1+t and q = -αt/1+t, which leads to the constant or linear nature of the function based on the constant α. Second one is the special form of the DP as q = - 1 + β/1+aβ. From the results obtained here, one can observe that in the early universe magnetic flux has more effects and it reduces gradually in the later stage. For t → ∞, we get p → -Bc and ρ → Bc. The behaviour of strange quark matter along with magnetic epoch gives an idea of accelerated expansion of the universe as per the observations of the type Ia Supernovae.

  13. Holographic dark energy with linearly varying deceleration parameter and escaping big rip singularity of the Bianchi type-V universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Sanjay

    2014-08-01

    The present work deals with the accretion of two minimally interacting fluids: dark matter and a hypothetical isotropic fluid as the holographic dark energy components onto black hole and wormhole in a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-V universe. To obtain an exact solution of the Einstein's field equations, we use the assumption of linearly varying deceleration parameter. Solution describes effectively the actual acceleration and indicates a big rip type future singularity of the universe. We have studied the evolution of the mass of black hole and the wormhole embedded in this anisotropic universe in order to reproduce a stable universe protected against future-time singularity. It is observed that the accretion of these dark components leads to a gradual decrease and increase of black hole and wormhole mass respectively. Finally, we have found that contrary to our previous case (Sarkar in Astrophys. Space. Sci. 341:651, 2014a), the big rip singularity of the universe with a divergent Hubble parameter of this dark energy model may be avoided by a big trip.

  14. Acceleration in Elementary School: Using Propensity Score Matching to Estimate the Effects on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmann, Julia; Vock, Miriam; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Using German data, we examined the effects of one specific type of acceleration--grade skipping--on academic performance. Prior research on the effects of acceleration has suffered from methodological restrictions, especially due to a lack of appropriate comparison groups and a priori measurements. For this reason, propensity score matching was…

  15. Modeling experiments on the deceleration and reactivation of Kangerlussuup Sermusa, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezvanbehbahani, S.; Stearns, L. A.; van der Veen, C. J.; Catania, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal variations in outlet glacier velocity due to basal sliding are well-documented and typically involve acceleration early in the melt season due to enhanced sliding as a result of inefficient drainage of surface water reaching the bed. However, velocity observations from Kangerlussuup Sermusa (KS) in West Greenland contradict this pattern. Instead, ice velocity at KS shows no significant change in early spring compared with the previous winter. This sluggish response of the glacier to spring melt is often followed by an extreme, and short-lived, deceleration. For example, in August 2010, the lower 20 km of the trunk decelerated from about 1600 m a-1 to less than 250 m a-1; this event was followed by a rapid reactivation back to the previous velocity in less than 60 days. Available records since 2006 show that the sequence of steady spring velocity, followed by summer deceleration, and rapid fall reactivation occurs annually; however, the magnitudes of deceleration vary. In this regard, the response of KS to regional environmental forcings is unique compared to its neighboring glaciers. In this study, we investigate whether the unique behavior of KS can be explained by the interaction between changes in basal conditions and the local geometry of the glacier. We model the glacier flow by solving full-Stokes equations using the finite element method in the open-source FEniCS framework. Assuming isothermal ice within the lower trunk, we run experiments on the mechanical properties and boundary conditions of the glacier. These experiments include spatio-temporal changes in basal slipperiness, periodic melt-water influx to the bed, and ice viscosity variations due to changes in melt-water supply to the bed. We also conduct sensitivity analyses on the glacier flow with different ice geometries (e.g. thickness and surface slope) to investigate conditions under which we can produce the unique seasonal behavior of KS. Finally, we assess the impact of the combination

  16. Effects of Spatial Gradients on Electron Runaway Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacNeice, Peter; Ljepojevic, N. N.

    1996-01-01

    The runaway process is known to accelerate electrons in many laboratory plasmas and has been suggested as an acceleration mechanism in some astrophysical plasmas, including solar flares. Current calculations of the electron velocity distributions resulting from the runaway process are greatly restricted because they impose spatial homogeneity on the distribution. We have computed runaway distributions which include consistent development of spatial gradients in the energetic tail. Our solution for the electron velocity distribution is presented as a function of distance along a finite length acceleration region, and is compared with the equivalent distribution for the infinitely long homogenous system (i.e., no spatial gradients), as considered in the existing literature. All these results are for the weak field regime. We also discuss the severe restrictiveness of this weak field assumption.

  17. The Effects of Training and Subject Reproducibility during Vertical Impact Acceleration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    configuration. Subjects were evaluated for reproducibility at 6, 8, and 10G with varying helmet weights. The head and sternum accelerations in the Z direction...helmet inertial properties, subject anthropometry, and the recorded head accelerations. The results from the study revealed no effect of training on the...Seat pan, seat cushion, sternum, and head accelerations were collected using an on-board data acquisition system, and neck loads were calculated to

  18. Effect of electromagnetic field emitted by cellular phones on fetal heart rate patterns.

    PubMed

    Celik, Onder; Hascalik, Seyma

    2004-01-15

    The study was planned to determine the effects of electromagnetic fields produced by cellular phones on baseline fetal heart rate, acceleration and deceleration. Forty pregnant women undergoing non-stress test were admitted to the study. Non-stress test was obtained while the subjects were holding the CP on stand by mode and on dialing mode, each for 5 min. Similar recordings were taken while there were no phones around for 10 min. Electromagnetic fields produced by cellular phones do not cause any demonstrable affect in fetal heart rate, acceleration and deceleration.

  19. Accelerated life testing effects on CMOS microcircuit characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This report covers the time period from May 1976 to December 1979 and encompasses the three phases of accelerated testing: Phase 1, the 250 C testing; Phase 2, the 200 C testing; and Phase 3, the 125 C testing. The duration of the test in Phase 1 and Phase 2 was sufficient to take the devices into the wear out region. The wear out distributions were used to estimate the activation energy between the 250 C and the 200 C test temperatures. The duration of the 125 C test, 20,000 hours, was not sufficient to bring the test devices into the wear out region; consequently the third data point at 125 C for determining the consistency of activation energy could not be obtained. It was estimated that, for the most complex of the three device types, the activation energy between 200 C and 125 C should be at least as high as that between 250 C and 200 C. The practicality of the use of high temperature for the accelerated life tests from the point of view of durability of equipment was assessed. Guidelines for the development of accelerated life test conditions were proposed. The use of the silicon nitride overcoat to improve the high temperature accelerated life test characteristics of CMOS microcircuits was explored in Phase 4 of this study and is attached as an appendix to this report.

  20. Accelerated life testing effects on CMOS microcircuit characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Accelerated life tests were performed on CMOS microcircuits to predict their long term reliability. The consistency of the CMOS microcircuit activation energy between the range of 125 C to 200 C and the range 200 C to 250 C was determined. Results indicate CMOS complexity and the amount of moisture detected inside the devices after testing influences time to failure of tested CMOS devices.

  1. [Current recommendations for deceleration of myopia progression].

    PubMed

    Lagrèze, W A; Joachimsen, L; Schaeffel, F

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiologic data demonstrate a rise in myopia prevalence. Therefore interventions to reduce the risk of myopia and its progression are needed and increasingly often asked for. Systematic literature search via PubMed in MEDLINE. Myopia progression can be reduced by the following means which are listed according to their efficacy: (1) Atropine eye drops low dosed to avoid clinically relevant side effects, (2) optical means aiming at the correction of peripheral hyperopic defocus, e. g., multifocal contact lenses, and (3) increased daylight exposure. Daylight exposure reduces the risk of incident myopia. Children should be advised to spend sufficient time outdoors, especially before and in primary school. Myopia progression can be effectively attenuated by low-dose topical atropine and multifocal contact lenses.

  2. Long-term administration of pDC-Stimulative Lactococcus lactis strain decelerates senescence and prolongs the lifespan of mice.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Tetsu; Jounai, Kenta; Ohshio, Konomi; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Kirisako, Takayoshi; Sugihara, Yoshihiko; Fujiwara, Daisuke

    2018-05-01

    The decline in immune function caused by aging increases the risk of infectious diseases, tumorigeneses and chronic inflammation, resulting in accelerating senescence. We previously reported a lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus lactis strain Plasma (synonym of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis JCM 5805, Lc-Plasma), that stimulates plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), which play a crucial role in phylaxis from viral infection. In this study, we investigated the anti-aging effects of long-term oral administration of Lc-Plasma in a senescence-accelerated mouse strain, SAMP6. Mice given Lc-Plasma showed a significant improvement in survival rate at 82 weeks and a decreased senescence score as compared with control mice throughout this study. Anatomic analysis at 82 weeks revealed that the frequency of altered hepatocellular foci was significantly lower, and the incidence of other pathological findings in the liver and lungs tended to be lower in Lc-Plasma mice than in control mice. Transcription level of the IL-1β gene in lungs also tended to be lower in Lc-Plasma mice. Furthermore, the thinning of skin and age-related decrease in muscle mass were also significantly suppressed in the Lc-Plasma group as compared with the control group. Consistent with these phenotypic features, pDCs activity was significantly higher in Lc-Plasma mice than in control mice. In conclusion, long-term administration of Lc-Plasma can decelerate senescence and prolong lifespan via maintenance of the immune system due to activation of pDCs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of a Mathematics Cognitive Acceleration Program on Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finau, Teukava; Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of a cognitive acceleration program in mathematics classes on Tongan students' achievements, motivation and self-regulation. Cognitive Acceleration in Mathematics Education (CAME) is a program developed at King's College and implemented worldwide with the aim of improving students' thinking skills, mathematics…

  4. Mechanism of Isoflavone Aglycone's Effect on Cognitive Performance of Senescence-Accelerated Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hong; Jin, Guifang; Ren, Dongdong; Luo, Sijing; Zhou, Tianhong

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of isoflavone aglycone (IA) on the learning and memory performance of senescence-accelerated mice, and explored its neural protective mechanism. Results showed that SAM-P/8 senescence-accelerated mice treated with IA performed significantly better in the Y-maze cognitive test than the no treatment control (P less…

  5. Constraints on a generalized deceleration parameter from cosmic chronometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamon, Abdulla Al

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a generalized parametrization for the deceleration parameter q in order to study the evolutionary history of the universe. We have shown that the proposed model can reproduce three well known q-parametrized models for some specific values of the model parameter α. We have used the latest compilation of the Hubble parameter measurements obtained from the cosmic chronometer (CC) method (in combination with the local value of the Hubble constant H0) and the Type Ia supernova (SNIa) data to place constraints on the parameters of the model for different values of α. We have found that the resulting constraints on the deceleration parameter and the dark energy equation of state support the ΛCDM model within 1σ confidence level at the present epoch.

  6. An electrostatic deceleration lens for highly charged ions.

    PubMed

    Rajput, J; Roy, A; Kanjilal, D; Ahuja, R; Safvan, C P

    2010-04-01

    The design and implementation of a purely electrostatic deceleration lens used to obtain beams of highly charged ions at very low energies is presented. The design of the lens is such that it can be used with parallel as well as diverging incoming beams and delivers a well focused low energy beam at the target. In addition, tuning of the final energy of the beam over a wide range (1 eV/q to several hundred eV/q, where q is the beam charge state) is possible without any change in hardware configuration. The deceleration lens was tested with Ar(8+), extracted from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source, having an initial energy of 30 keV/q and final energies as low as 70 eV/q have been achieved.

  7. Development and Testing of a New Family of Supersonic Decelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Ian G.; Adler, Mark; Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    2013-01-01

    The state of the art in Entry, Descent, and Landing systems for Mars applications is largely based on technologies developed in the late 1960's and early 1970's for the Viking Lander program. Although the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory has made advances in EDL technology, these are predominantly in the areas of entry (new thermal protection systems and guided hypersonic flight) and landing (the sky crane architecture). Increases in entry mass, landed mass, and landed altitude beyond MSL capabilities will require advances predominantly in the field of supersonic decelerators. With this in mind, a multi-year program has been initiated to advance three new types of supersonic decelerators that would enable future large-robotic and human-precursor class missions to Mars.

  8. Accelerated life testing effects on CMOS microcircuit characteristics, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maximow, B.

    1976-01-01

    An accelerated life test of sufficient duration to generate a minimum of 50% cumulative failures in lots of CMOS devices was conducted to provide a basis for determining the consistency of activation energy at 250 C. An investigation was made to determine whether any thresholds were exceeded during the high temperature testing, which could trigger failure mechanisms unique to that temperature. The usefulness of the 250 C temperature test as a predictor of long term reliability was evaluated.

  9. Effects of Ionization in a Laser Wakefield Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    McGuffey, C.; Schumaker, W.; Matsuoka, T.

    2010-11-04

    Experimental results are presented from studies of the ionization injection process in laser wakefield acceleration using the Hercules laser with laser power up to 100 TW. Gas jet targets consisting of gas mixtures reduced the density threshold required for electron injection and increased the maximum beam charge. Gas mixture targets produced smooth beams even at densities which would produce severe beam breakup in pure He targets and the divergence was found to increase with gas mixture pressure.

  10. Aero-Structural Assessment of an Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheta, Essam F.; Venugopalan, Vinod; Tan, X. G.; Liever, Peter A.; Habchi, Sami D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is conducting an Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study to determine the key technology development projects that should be undertaken for enabling the landing of large payloads on Mars for both human and robotic missions. Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (IADs) are one of the candidate technologies. A variety of EDL architectures are under consideration. The current effort is conducted for development and simulations of computational framework for inflatable structures.

  11. Space shuttle program solid rocket booster decelerator subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnard, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    The recovery of the Solid Rocket Boosters presented a major challenge. The SRB represents the largest payload ever recovered and presents the added complication that it is continually emitting hot gases and burning particles of insulation and other debris. Some items, such as portions of the nozzle, are large enough to burn through the nylon parachute material. The SRB Decelerator Subsystem program was highly successful in that no SRB has been lost as a result of inadequate performance of the DSS.

  12. An advanced technique for the prediction of decelerator system dynamics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talay, T. A.; Morris, W. D.; Whitlock, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    An advanced two-body six-degree-of-freedom computer model employing an indeterminate structures approach has been developed for the parachute deployment process. The program determines both vehicular and decelerator responses to aerodynamic and physical property inputs. A better insight into the dynamic processes that occur during parachute deployment has been developed. The model is of value in sensitivity studies to isolate important parameters that affect the vehicular response.

  13. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Technology Development Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Stephen J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Calomino, Anthony M.; Wright, Henry S.; Wusk, Mary E.; Hughes, Monica F.

    2013-01-01

    The successful flight of the Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE)-3 has further demonstrated the potential value of Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology. This technology development effort is funded by NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP). This paper provides an overview of a multi-year HIAD technology development effort, detailing the projects completed to date and the additional testing planned for the future.

  14. Physiological Effects of Acceleration Observed During a Centrifuge Study of Pilot Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedal, Harald A.; Creer, Brent Y.; Wingrove, Rodney C.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation was conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Ames Research Center, and the Naval Air Development Center, Aviation Medical Acceleration Laboratory, to study the effects of acceleration on pilot performance and to obtain some meaningful data for use in establishing tolerance to acceleration levels. The flight simulator used in the study was the Johnsville centrifuge operated as a closed loop system. The pilot was required to perform a control task in various sustained acceleration fields typical of those that Might be encountered by a pilot flying an entry vehicle in which he is seated in a forward-facing position. A special restraint system was developed and designed to increase the pilot's tolerance to these accelerations. The results of this study demonstrated that a well-trained subject, such as a test pilot, can adequately carry out a control task during moderately high accelerations for prolonged periods of time. The maximum levels of acceleration tolerated were approximately 6 times that of gravity for approximately 6 minutes, and varied slightly with the acceleration direction. The tolerance runs were in each case terminated by the subject. In all but two instances, the cause was extreme fatigue. On two occasions the subject terminated the run when he "grayed out." Although there were subjective and objective findings involving the visual and cardiovascular systems, the respiratory system yielded the more critical limiting factors. It would appear that these limiting factors were less severe during the "eyeballs-out" accelerations when compared with the "eyeballs-in" accelerations. These findings are explained on the basis of the influence that the inertial forces of acceleration have on the mechanics of respiration. A condensed version of this report was presented at the Annual Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, Miami Beach, May 5-11, 1960, in a paper entitled "Ability of Pilots to Perform a Control Task in

  15. Summary of the First High-Altitude, Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test for the Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Ian G.; Adler, Mark; Manning, Rob

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator Project is developing and testing the next generation of supersonic aerodynamic decelerators for planetary entry. A key element of that development is the testing of full-scale articles in conditions relevant to their intended use, primarily the tenuous Mars atmosphere. To achieve this testing, the LDSD project developed a test architecture similar to that used by the Viking Project in the early 1970's for the qualification of their supersonic parachute. A large, helium filled scientific balloon is used to hoist a 4.7 m blunt body test vehicle to an altitude of approximately 32 kilometers. The test vehicle is released from the balloon, spun up for gyroscopic stability, and accelerated to over four times the speed of sound and an altitude of 50 kilometers using a large solid rocket motor. Once at those conditions, the vehicle is despun and the test period begins. The first flight of this architecture occurred on June 28th of 2014. Though primarily a shake out flight of the new test system, the flight was also able to achieve an early test of two of the LDSD technologies, a large 6 m diameter Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) and a large, 30.5 m nominal diameter supersonic parachute. This paper summarizes this first flight.

  16. Tragedy and delight: the ethics of decelerated ageing

    PubMed Central

    Gems, David

    2011-01-01

    Biogerontology is sometimes viewed as similar to other forms of biomedical research in that it seeks to understand and treat a pathological process. Yet the prospect of treating ageing is extraordinary in terms of the profound changes to the human condition that would result. Recent advances in biogerontology allow a clearer view of the ethical issues and dilemmas that confront humanity with respect to treating ageing. For example, they imply that organismal senescence is a disease process with a broad spectrum of pathological consequences in late life (causing or exascerbating cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurodegenerative disease and many others). Moreover, in laboratory animals, it is possible to decelerate ageing, extend healthy adulthood and reduce the age-incidence of a broad spectrum of ageing-related diseases. This is accompanied by an overall extension of lifespan, sometimes of a large magnitude. Discussions of the ethics of treating ageing sometimes involve hand-wringing about detrimental consequences (e.g. to society) of marked life extension which, arguably, would be a form of enhancement technology. Yet given the great improvements in health that decelerated ageing could provide, it would seem that the only possible ethical course is to pursue it energetically. Thus, decelerated ageing has an element of tragic inevitability: its benefits to health compel us to pursue it, despite the transformation of human society, and even human nature, that this could entail. PMID:21115537

  17. Physiological constraints on deceleration during the aerocapture of manned vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyne, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    The peak deceleration load allowed for aerobraking of manned vehicles is a critical parameter in planning future excursions to Mars. However, considerable variation exists in the limits used by various investigators. The goal of this study was to determine the most appropriate level for this limit. Methods: Since previous U.S. space flights have been limited to 84 days duration, Soviet flight results were examined. Published details of Soviet entry trajectories were not available. However, personal communication with Soviet cosmonauts suggested that peak entry loads of 5-6 G had been encountered upon return from 8 months in orbit. Soyuz entry capsule's characteristics were established and the capsule's entry trajectory was numerically calculated. The results confirm a peak load of 5 to 6 G. Results: Although the Soviet flights were of shorter duration than expected Mars missions, evidence exists that the deceleration experience is applicable. G tolerance has been shown to stabilize after 1 to 3 months in space if adequate countermeasures are used. The calculated Soyuz deceleration histories are graphically compared with those expected for Mars aerobraking. Conclusions: Previous spaceflight experience supports the use of a 5 G limit for the aerocapture of a manned vehicle at Mars.

  18. Accelerated Reader[R]: What Are the Lasting Effects on the Reading Habits of Middle School Students Exposed to Accelerated Reader[R] in Elementary Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavonetti, Linda M.; Brimmer, Kathryn M.; Cipielewski, James F.

    Promoted by effective advertising and disseminated by word of mouth, many schools have adopted Accelerated Reader[R] as a supplementary reading program or as their primary reading program. Accelerated Reader[R]'s philosophy is that by using the system, students are motivated to read more and better books. A study investigated whether seventh grade…

  19. Solar wind deceleration and MHD turbulence in the earth's foreshock region - ISEE 1 and 2 and IMP 8 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonifazi, C.; Moreno, G.; Russell, C. T.; Lazarus, A. J.; Sullivan, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction of the solar wind with ions backstreaming from the earth's bow shock is investigated using plasma and magnetic field measurements on ISEE 1 and 2 and IMP 8 at widely separated positions in the earth's foreshock. This technique separates temporal and spatial variations within the foreshock. It is found that the solar wind acceleration associated with backstreaming ions is correlated with the amplitude of the MHD turbulence, and that the largest decelerations are seen close to the bow shock. The density of the backstreaming ion beam is strongly correlated with distance from the shock, and decreases by about a factor of three in a distance of about 3R(e).

  20. Abrupt plate acceleration during rifted margin formation: Cause and effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon; Butterworth, Nathaniel; Müller, Dietmar

    2017-04-01

    Extension rate is known to control key processes during rifted margin formation such as crust-mantle coupling, decompression melting, magmatism, and serpentinisation. Here we build on recent advances in plate tectonic reconstructions by quantifying the extension velocity history of Earth's major rifted margins during the last 240 million years. We find that many successful rifts start with a slow phase of extension followed by rapid acceleration that introduces a fast phase. The transition from slow to fast rifting takes place long before crustal break-up: approximately half of the present day rifted margin area was created during the slow, and the other half during the fast rift phase. We reproduce the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. In these models, rift velocities are not imposed but instead evolve naturally in response to the changing strength of the rift. Our results demonstrate that abrupt plate acceleration during continental rifting is controlled by a rift-intrinsic strength-velocity feedback. The abruptness of rift acceleration is thereby governed by the nonlinearity of lithospheric localization. Realistic brittle and power-law rheologies lead to a speed-up duration between two and ten million years. For successful rifts that generate a new ocean basin, the duration of rift speed-up is notably almost independent of the applied extensional force. Instead, the force controls the duration of the slow phase: higher forces shorten the slow phase while lower forces prolong it. If the force is too low, however, delocalisation processes prevent the rift from reaching the point of speed-up and produce a failed rift, even if the extensional system was active for many million years.

  1. Effect of the Diurnal Atmospheric Bulge on Satellite Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Stanley P.

    1961-01-01

    Formulas are developed to express the secular acceleration of a satellite on passing through an atmosphere which bulges in the sunward direction and in which the scale height increases with height, these two properties of the high atmosphere having previously been established from satellite observations. Comparison of the new formulas with those for a spherically symmetric atmosphere of constant scale height indicates that deduced atmospheric densities may be systematically incorrect by up to 50 or 60 percent at heights of 500 to 600 km when the earlier and simpler equations are used.

  2. Effects of acceleration rate on Rayleigh-Taylor instability in elastic-plastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Arindam; Polavarapu, Rinosh

    2016-11-01

    The effect of acceleration rate in the elastic-plastic transition stage of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in an accelerated non-Newtonian material is investigated experimentally using a rotating wheel experiment. A non-Newtonian material (mayonnaise) was accelerated at different rates by varying the angular acceleration of a rotating wheel and growth patterns of single mode perturbations with different combinations of amplitude and wavelength were analyzed. Experiments were run at two different acceleration rates to compare with experiments presented in prior years at APS DFD meetings and the peak amplitude responses are captured using a high-speed camera. Similar to the instability acceleration, the elastic-plastic transition acceleration is found to be increasing with increase in acceleration rate for a given amplitude and wavelength. The experimental results will be compared to various analytical strength models and prior experimental studies using Newtonian fluids. Authors acknowledge funding support from Los Alamos National Lab subcontract(370333) and DOE-SSAA Grant (DE-NA0001975).

  3. Accreting X-ray pulsar atmospheres heated by Coulomb deceleration of protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, P.; Harding, A. K.; Kirk, J. G.; Galloway, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented from detailed self-consistent models of accreting magnetized neutron star atmospheres, heated by the gradual deceleration of infalling protons via Coulomb encounters. The temperature and density gradients are calculated assuming momentum and energy balance, coupled with the radiative transfer for two polarizations. The cyclotron resonance effects were treated approximately. These models are characterized by power-law energy spectra, with single pulses at higher frequencies and multiple pulses at lower ones for some aspect angles, as well as a phase-dependent spectral index.

  4. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Acceleration Disturbances on Microgravity Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan

    2000-01-01

    Normal vibrational modes on large spacecraft are excited by crew activity, operating machinery, and other mechanical disturbances. Periodic engine burns for maintaining vehicle attitude and random impulse type disturbances also contribute to the acceleration environment of a Spacecraft. Accelerations from these vibrations (often referred to as g-jitter) are several orders of magnitude larger than the residual accelerations from atmospheric drag and gravity gradient effects. Naturally, the effects of such accelerations have been a concern to prospective experimenters wishing to take advantage of the microgravity environment offered by spacecraft operating in low Earth orbit and the topic has been studied extensively, both numerically and analytically. However, these studies have not produced a general theory that predicts the effects of multi-spectral periodic accelerations on a general class of experiments nor have they produced scaling laws that a prospective experimenter could use to assess how his/her experiment might be affected by this acceleration environment. Furthermore, there are no actual flight experimental data that correlates heat or mass transport with measurements of the periodic acceleration environment. The present investigation approaches this problem with carefully conducted terrestrial experiments and rigorous numerical modeling thereby providing comparative theoretical and experimental data. The modeling, it is hoped will provide a predictive tool that can be used for assessing experiment response to Spacecraft vibrations.

  5. Effects of cosmic acceleration on black hole thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Abhijit

    2016-07-01

    Direct local impacts of cosmic acceleration upon a black hole are matters of interest. Babichev et. al. had published before that the Friedmann equations which are prevailing the part of fluid filled up in the universe to lead (or to be very specific, `dominate') the other constituents of universe and are forcing the universe to undergo present-day accelerating phase (or to lead to violate the strong energy condition and latter the week energy condition), will themselves tell that the rate of change of mass of the central black hole due to such exotic fluid's accretion will essentially shrink the mass of the black hole. But this is a global impact indeed. The local changes in the space time geometry next to the black hole can be analysed from a modified metric governing the surrounding space time of a black hole. A charged deSitter black hole solution encircled by quintessence field is chosen for this purpose. Different thermodynamic parameters are analysed for different values of quintessence equation of state parameter, ω_q. Specific jumps in the nature of the thermodynamic space near to the quintessence or phantom barrier are noted and physically interpreted as far as possible. Nature of phase transitions and the situations at which these transitions are taking place are also explored. It is determined that before quintessence starts to work (ω_q=-0.33>-1/3) it was preferable to have a small unstable black hole followed by a large stable one. But in quintessence (-1/3>ω_q>-1), black holes are destined to be unstable large ones pre-quelled by stable/ unstable small/ intermediate mass black holes.

  6. An investigation into the effectiveness of smartphone experiments on students’ conceptual knowledge about acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzella, Alessandra; Testa, Italo

    2016-09-01

    This study is a first attempt to investigate effectiveness of smartphone-based activities on students’ conceptual understanding of acceleration. 143 secondary school students (15-16 years old) were involved in two types of activities: smartphone- and non-smartphone activities. The latter consisted in data logging and ‘cookbook’ activities. For the sake of comparison, all activities featured the same phenomena, i.e., the motion on an inclined plane and pendulum oscillations. A pre-post design was adopted, using open questionnaires as probes. Results show only weak statistical differences between the smartphone and non-smartphone groups. Students who followed smartphone activities were more able to design an experiment to measure acceleration and to correctly describe acceleration in a free fall motion. However, students of both groups had many difficulties in drawing acceleration vector along the trajectory of the studied motion. Results suggest that smartphone-based activities may be effective substitutes of traditional experimental settings and represent a valuable aid for teachers who want to implement laboratory activities at secondary school level. However, to achieve a deeper conceptual understanding of acceleration, some issues need to be addressed: what is the reference system of the built-in smartphone sensor; relationships between smartphone acceleration graphs and experimental setup; vector representation of the measured acceleration.

  7. Advanced High-Temperature Flexible TPS for Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelCorso, Joseph A.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Bruce, Walter E., III; Hughes, Stephen J.; Calomino, Anthony M.

    2011-01-01

    Typical entry vehicle aeroshells are limited in size by the launch vehicle shroud. Inflatable aerodynamic decelerators allow larger aeroshell diameters for entry vehicles because they are not constrained to the launch vehicle shroud diameter. During launch, the hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (HIAD) is packed in a stowed configuration. Prior to atmospheric entry, the HIAD is deployed to produce a drag device many times larger than the launch shroud diameter. The large surface area of the inflatable aeroshell provides deceleration of high-mass entry vehicles at relatively low ballistic coefficients. Even for these low ballistic coefficients there is still appreciable heating, requiring the HIAD to employ a thermal protection system (TPS). This TPS must be capable of surviving the heat pulse, and the rigors of fabrication handling, high density packing, deployment, and aerodynamic loading. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of flexible TPS tests and results, conducted over the last three years. This paper also includes an overview of each test facility, the general approach for testing flexible TPS, the thermal analysis methodology and results, and a comparison with 8-foot High Temperature Tunnel, Laser-Hardened Materials Evaluation Laboratory, and Panel Test Facility test data. Results are presented for a baseline TPS layup that can withstand a 20 W/cm2 heat flux, silicon carbide (SiC) based TPS layup, and polyimide insulator TPS layup. Recent work has focused on developing material layups expected to survive heat flux loads up to 50 W/cm2 (which is adequate for many potential applications), future work will consider concepts capable of withstanding more than 100 W/cm2 incident radiant heat flux. This paper provides an overview of the experimental setup, material layup configurations, facility conditions, and planned future flexible TPS activities.

  8. A micrometeoroid deceleration and capture experiment: Conceptual experiment design description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, J. H.; Ballard, R. W.; Carle, G. C.; Bunch, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    The preliminary conceptual design for a cosmic dust collector is described. For the case of low Earth orbit (LEO), dust particles enter the collector through the collimator at a few volts negative potential due to charging in the ionosphere, at a velocity of 1 to 50 km/sec. The particles then pass through an electron stream and are charged to about 1 KV negative (regardless of incoming polarity). The 1 KV negatively charged particle then passes through three sensing grids coupled to charge sensitive preamps (CSP). The comparison of the two pulses provided by S(1) and S(2) are utilized by the microprocessor to determine the charge, q, on the particle (pulse amplitude) and its velocity, v (by time of flight). The third sensing grid, S(3), is kept at about 20 KV negative so that the dust particle will now be decelerated in passing from S(2) (zero potential) to S(3). S(3) is capacitively coupled to its CSP and the pulse from S(3) is utilized by the microprocessor to determine the particle's energy, E, and therefore its mass, m (again by time of flight) by comparison with the pulses from S(1) and S(2). The microprocessor can now precisely program the high-voltage switching network for the proper timing in the grounding of the successive deceleration grids. As determined by the microprocessor, each successive deceleration grid is grounded just after the dust particle passes, thus reducing the particle's energy by the amount q*100 KV at each stage. The microprocessor also determines at which stage the particle will fall below a certain critical energy where all remaining grids remain unswitched so that the particle will drift to the collector. The collector is kept at about 100V positive and is covered with gold foil to eliminate contamination and is removable for subsequent return to earth for detailed analysis.

  9. Time-spatial drift of decelerating electromagnetic pulses.

    PubMed

    Nerukh, Alexander G; Nerukh, Dmitry A

    2013-07-15

    A time dependent electromagnetic pulse generated by a current running laterally to the direction of the pulse propagation is considered in paraxial approximation. It is shown that the pulse envelope moves in the time-spatial coordinates on the surface of a parabolic cylinder for the Airy pulse and a hyperbolic cylinder for the Gaussian. These pulses propagate in time with deceleration along the dominant propagation direction and drift uniformly in the lateral direction. The Airy pulse stops at infinity while the asymptotic velocity of the Gaussian is nonzero.

  10. Ares I First Stage Booster Deceleration System: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Ron; Hengel, John E.; Wolf, Dean

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the Congressional NASA Authorization Act enacted a new space exploration program, the "Vision for Space Exploratien". The Constellation Program was formed to oversee the implementation of this new mission. With an intent not simply to support the International Space Station, but to build a permanent outpost on the Moon and then travel on to explore ever more distant terrains, the Constellation Program is supervising the development of a brand new fleet of launch vehicles, the Ares. The Ares lineup will include two new launch vehicles: the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle. A crew exploration vehicle, Orion, will be launched on the Ares I. It will be capable of docking with the Space Station, the lunar lander, Altair, and the Earth Departure Stage of Ares V. The Ares V will be capable of lifting both large-scale hardware and the Altair into space. The Ares First Stage Team is tasked with developing the propulsion system necessary to liftoff from the Earth and loft the entire Ares vehicle stack toward low Earth orbit. The Ares I First Stage booster is a 12-foot diameter, five-segment, reusable solid rocket booster derived from the Space Shuttle's four segment reusable solid rocket booster (SRB). It is separated from the Upper Stage through the use of a Deceleration Subsystem (DSS). Booster Tumble Motors are used to induce the pitch tumble following separation from the Upper Stage. The spent Ares I booster must be recoverable using a parachute deceleration system similar to that of the Shuttle SRB heritage system. Since Ares I is much heavier and reenters the Earth's atmosphere from a higher altitude at a much higher velocity than the SRB, all of the parachutes must be redesigned to reliably meet the operational requisites of the new launch vehicles. This paper presents an overview of this new booster deceleration system. It includes comprehensive detail of the parachute deceleration system, its design and deployment sequences

  11. Coiling, Entrainment, and Hydrodynamic Coupling of Decelerated Fluid Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombrowski, Christopher; Lewellyn, Braddon; Pesci, Adriana I.; Restrepo, Juan M.; Kessler, John O.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2005-10-01

    From algal suspensions to magma upwellings, one finds jets which exhibit complex symmetry-breaking instabilities as they are decelerated by their surroundings. We consider here a model system—a saline jet descending through a salinity gradient—which produces dynamics unlike those of standard momentum jets or plumes. The jet coils like a corkscrew within a conduit of viscously entrained fluid, whose upward recirculation braids the jet, and nearly confines transverse mixing to the narrow conduit. We show that the underlying jet structure and certain scaling relations follow from similarity solutions to the fluid equations and the physics of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities.

  12. Balloon launched decelerator test program: Post-flight test report, BLDT vehicle AV-2, Viking 1975 project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, D.; Hicks, F.; Schlemmer, J.; Michel, F.; Moog, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The pertinent events concerned with the launch, float, and flight of balloon launched decelerator test vehicle AV-2 are discussed. The performance of the decelerator system is analyzed. Data on the flight trajectory and decelerator test points at the time of decelerator deployment are provided. A description of the time history of vehicle events and anomalies encounters during the mission is included.

  13. Balloon launched decelerator test program: Post-flight test report, BLDT vehicle AV-3, Viking 1975 project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, D.; Hicks, F.; Schlemmer, J.; Michel, F.; Moog, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    The pertinent events concerned with the launch, float, and flight of balloon launched decelerator test vehicle AV-3 are discussed. The performance of the decelerator system is analyzed. Data on the flight trajectory and decelerator test points at the time of decelerator deployment are provided. A description of the time history of vehicle events and anaomalies encounters during the mission is included.

  14. Effect of polarization and focusing on laser pulse driven auto-resonant particle acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Sagar, Vikram; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman

    2014-04-15

    The effect of laser polarization and focusing is theoretically studied on the final energy gain of a particle in the Auto-resonant acceleration scheme using a finite duration laser pulse with Gaussian shaped temporal envelope. The exact expressions for dynamical variables viz. position, momentum, and energy are obtained by analytically solving the relativistic equation of motion describing particle dynamics in the combined field of an elliptically polarized finite duration pulse and homogeneous static axial magnetic field. From the solutions, it is shown that for a given set of laser parameters viz. intensity and pulse length along with static magnetic field, themore » energy gain by a positively charged particle is maximum for a right circularly polarized laser pulse. Further, a new scheme is proposed for particle acceleration by subjecting it to the combined field of a focused finite duration laser pulse and static axial magnetic field. In this scheme, the particle is initially accelerated by the focused laser field, which drives the non-resonant particle to second stage of acceleration by cyclotron Auto-resonance. The new scheme is found to be efficient over two individual schemes, i.e., auto-resonant acceleration and direct acceleration by focused laser field, as significant particle acceleration can be achieved at one order lesser values of static axial magnetic field and laser intensity.« less

  15. Production of clinically useful positron emitter beams during carbon ion deceleration.

    PubMed

    Lazzeroni, M; Brahme, A

    2011-03-21

    In external beam radiation therapy, radioactive beams offer the best clinical solution to simultaneously treat and in vivo monitor the dose delivery and tumor response using PET or PET-CT imaging. However, difficulties mainly linked to the low production efficiency have so far limited their use. This study is devoted to the analysis of the production of high energy (11)C fragments, preferably by projectile fragmentation of a stable monodirectional and monoenergetic primary (12)C beam in different absorbing materials (decelerators) in order to identify the optimal elemental composition. The study was performed using the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT07. The track length and fluence of generated secondary particles were scored in a uniform absorber of 300 cm length and 10 cm radius, divided into slices of 1 cm thickness. The (11)C fluence build-up and mean energy variation with increasing decelerator depth are presented. Furthermore, the fluence of the secondary (11)C beam was studied as a function of its mean energy and the corresponding remaining range in water. It is shown that the maximum (11)C fluence build-up is high in compounds where the fraction by weight of hydrogen is high, being the highest in liquid hydrogen. Furthermore, a cost effective alternative solution to the single medium initially envisaged is presented: a two-media decelerator that comprises a first liquid hydrogen section followed by a second decelerating section made of a hydrogen-rich material, such as polyethylene (C(2)H(4)). The purpose of the first section is to achieve a fast initial (11)C fluence build-up, while the second section is primarily designed to modulate the mean energy of the generated (11)C beam in order to reach the tumor depth. Finally, it was demonstrated that, if the intensity of the primary (12)C beam can be increased by an order of magnitude, a sufficient intensity of the secondary (11)C beam is achieved for therapy and subsequent therapeutic PET imaging sessions. Such an

  16. EDITORIAL: Laser and plasma accelerators Laser and plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Robert

    2009-02-01

    by Chen et al where the driver, instead of being a laser, is a whistler wave known as the magnetowave plasma accelerator. The application to electron--positron plasmas that are found around pulsars is studied in the paper by Shukla, and to muon acceleration by Peano et al. Electron wakefield experiments are now concentrating on control and optimisation of high-quality beams that can be used as drivers for novel radiation sources. Studies by Thomas et al show that filamentation has a deleterious effect on the production of high quality mono-energetic electron beams and is caused by non-optimal choice of focusing geometry and/or electron density. It is crucial to match the focusing with the right plasma parameters and new types of plasma channels are being developed, such as the magnetically controlled plasma waveguide reported by Froula et al. The magnetic field provides a pressure profile shaping the channel to match the guiding conditions of the incident laser, resulting in predicted electron energies of 3GeV. In the forced laser-wakefield experiment Fang et al show that pump depletion reduces or inhibits the acceleration of electrons. One of the earlier laser acceleration concepts known as the beat wave may be revived due to the work by Kalmykov et al who report on all-optical control of nonlinear focusing of laser beams, allowing for stable propagation over several Rayleigh lengths with pre-injected electrons accelerated beyond 100 MeV. With the increasing number of petawatt lasers, attention is being focused on different acceleration regimes such as stochastic acceleration by counterpropagating laser pulses, the relativistic mirror, or the snow-plough effect leading to single-step acceleration reported by Mendonca. During wakefield acceleration the leading edge of the pulse undergoes frequency downshifting and head erosion as the laser energy is transferred to the wake while the trailing edge of the laser pulse undergoes frequency up-shift. This is commonly known

  17. Voltage stress effects on microcircuit accelerated life test failure rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of Arrhenius and Eyring reaction rate models for describing microcircuit aging characteristics as a function of junction temperature and applied voltage was evaluated. The results of a matrix of accelerated life tests with a single metal oxide semiconductor microcircuit operated at six different combinations of temperature and voltage were used to evaluate the models. A total of 450 devices from two different lots were tested at ambient temperatures between 200 C and 250 C and applied voltages between 5 Vdc and 15 Vdc. A statistical analysis of the surface related failure data resulted in bimodal failure distributions comprising two lognormal distributions; a 'freak' distribution observed early in time, and a 'main' distribution observed later in time. The Arrhenius model was shown to provide a good description of device aging as a function of temperature at a fixed voltage. The Eyring model also appeared to provide a reasonable description of main distribution device aging as a function of temperature and voltage. Circuit diagrams are shown.

  18. Viscous cosmology in new holographic dark energy model and the cosmic acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, C. P.; Srivastava, Milan

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we study a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe filled with dark matter and viscous new holographic dark energy. We present four possible solutions of the model depending on the choice of the viscous term. We obtain the evolution of the cosmological quantities such as scale factor, deceleration parameter and transition redshift to observe the effect of viscosity in the evolution. We also emphasis upon the two independent geometrical diagnostics for our model, namely the statefinder and the Om diagnostics. In the first case we study new holographic dark energy model without viscous and obtain power-law expansion of the universe which gives constant deceleration parameter and statefinder parameters. In the limit of the parameter, the model approaches to Λ CDM model. In new holographic dark energy model with viscous, the bulk viscous coefficient is assumed as ζ =ζ 0+ζ 1H, where ζ 0 and ζ 1 are constants, and H is the Hubble parameter. In this model, we obtain all possible solutions with viscous term and analyze the expansion history of the universe. We draw the evolution graphs of the scale factor and deceleration parameter. It is observed that the universe transits from deceleration to acceleration for small values of ζ in late time. However, it accelerates very fast from the beginning for large values of ζ . By illustrating the evolutionary trajectories in r-s and r-q planes, we find that our model behaves as an quintessence like for small values of viscous coefficient and a Chaplygin gas like for large values of bulk viscous coefficient at early stage. However, model has close resemblance to that of the Λ CDM cosmology in late time. The Om has positive and negative curvatures for phantom and quintessence models, respectively depending on ζ . Our study shows that the bulk viscosity plays very important role in the expansion history of the universe.

  19. Temperature effects on snapping performance in the common snapper Chelydra serpentina (Reptilia, Testudines).

    PubMed

    Vervust, Bart; Brecko, Jonathan; Herrel, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the effect of temperature on whole-animal performance traits other than locomotion are rare. Here we investigate the effects of temperature on the performance of the turtle feeding apparatus in a defensive context. We measured bite force and the kinematics of snapping in the Common Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentina) over a wide range of body temperatures. Bite force performance was thermally insensitive over the broad range of temperatures typically experienced by these turtles in nature. In contrast, neck extension (velocity, acceleration, and deceleration) and jaw movements (velocity, acceleration, and deceleration) showed clear temperature dependence with peak acceleration and deceleration capacity increasing with increasing temperatures. Our results regarding the temperature dependence of defensive behavior are reflected by the ecology and overall behavior of this species. These data illustrate the necessity for carefully controlling T(b) when carrying out behavioral and functional studies on turtles as temperature affects the velocity, acceleration, and deceleration of jaw and neck extension movements. More generally, these data add to the limited but increasing number of studies showing that temperature may have important effects on feeding and defensive performance in ectotherms. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Decelerated invasion and waning-moon patterns in public goods games with delayed distribution.

    PubMed

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2013-05-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in the spatial public goods game, focusing on the effects that are brought about by the delayed distribution of goods that accumulate in groups due to the continuous investments of cooperators. We find that intermediate delays enhance network reciprocity because of a decelerated invasion of defectors, who are unable to reap the same high short-term benefits as they do in the absence of delayed distribution. Long delays, however, introduce a risk because the large accumulated wealth might fall into the wrong hands. Indeed, as soon as the curvature of a cooperative cluster turns negative, the engulfed defectors can collect the heritage of many generations of cooperators and by doing so start a waning-moon pattern that nullifies the benefits of decelerated invasion. Accidental meeting points of growing cooperative clusters may also act as triggers for the waning-moon effect, thus linking the success of cooperators with their propensity to fail in a rather bizarre way. Our results highlight that "investing in the future" is a good idea only if that future is sufficiently near and not likely to be burdened by inflation.

  1. Estimating Mass of Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators Using Dimensionless Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for estimating mass for inflatable aerodynamic decelerators. The technique uses dimensional analysis to identify a set of dimensionless parameters for inflation pressure, mass of inflation gas, and mass of flexible material. The dimensionless parameters enable scaling of an inflatable concept with geometry parameters (e.g., diameter), environmental conditions (e.g., dynamic pressure), inflation gas properties (e.g., molecular mass), and mass growth allowance. This technique is applicable for attached (e.g., tension cone, hypercone, and stacked toroid) and trailing inflatable aerodynamic decelerators. The technique uses simple engineering approximations that were developed by NASA in the 1960s and 1970s, as well as some recent important developments. The NASA Mars Entry and Descent Landing System Analysis (EDL-SA) project used this technique to estimate the masses of the inflatable concepts that were used in the analysis. The EDL-SA results compared well with two independent sets of high-fidelity finite element analyses.

  2. The challenges of integrating instrumentation with inflatable aerodynamic decelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Gregory T.; Cassell, Alan M.; Hughes, Stephen J.; Johnson, R. Keith; Calomino, Anthony M.

    New Entry, Decent, and Landing (EDL) technologies are being explored to facilitate the landing of high mass vehicles. Current EDL technologies are limited due to mass and volume constraints dictated by launch vehicle fairings. Therefore, past and present technologies are now being considered to provide a mass and volume efficient solution, including Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (IADs). To better define the instrumentation challenges posed by IAD technology development, a survey was conducted to identify valuable measurements for ground and flight testing of the flexible materials and structures used in their design. From this survey many sensing technologies and systems were explored specific to the stacked torus IAD, resulting in a down-selection to the most viable prospects. The majority of these systems, including wireless data acquisition, were then rapid prototyped and evaluated during component level testing to determine the best integration techniques specific to a 3m and 6m diameter stacked toroid IAD. Each sensing system was then integrated in support of the Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator ground test campaign. In this paper these IAD instrumentation systems are described along with their challenges in comparison to traditional rigid aeroshell systems. Requirements resulting from the survey are listed and instrumentation integration techniques and data acquisition are discussed.

  3. Overview of the Mars Science Laboratory Parachute Decelerator Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengupta, Anita; Steltzner, Adam; Witkowski, Al; Rowan, Jerry; Cruz, Juan

    2007-01-01

    In 2010 the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will deliver NASA's largest and most capable rover to the surface of Mars. MSL will explore previously unattainable landing sites due to the implementation of a high precision Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) system. The parachute decelerator subsystem (PDS) is an integral prat of the EDL system, providing a mass and volume efficient some of aerodynamic drag to decelerate the entry vehicle from Mach 2 to subsonic speeds prior to final propulsive descent to the sutface. The PDS for MSL is a mortar deployed 19.7m Viking type Disk-Gap-Band (DGB) parachute; chosen to meet the EDL timeline requirements and to utilize the heritage parachute systems from Viking, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Exploration Rover, and Phoenix NASA Mars Lander Programs. The preliminary design of the parachute soft goods including materials selection, stress analysis, fabrication approach, and development testing will be discussed. The preliminary design of mortar deployment system including mortar system sizing and performance predictions, gas generator design, and development mortar testing will also be presented.

  4. Long-Term Effectiveness of Accelerated Hepatitis B Vaccination Schedule in Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Dimpy P.; Grimes, Carolyn Z.; Nguyen, Anh T.; Lai, Dejian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We demonstrated the effectiveness of an accelerated hepatitis B vaccination schedule in drug users. Methods. We compared the long-term effectiveness of accelerated (0–1–2 months) and standard (0–1–6 months) hepatitis B vaccination schedules in preventing hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and anti-hepatitis B (anti-HBs) antibody loss during 2-year follow-up in 707 drug users (HIV and HBV negative at enrollment and completed 3 vaccine doses) from February 2004 to October 2009. Results. Drug users in the accelerated schedule group had significantly lower HBV infection rates, but had a similar rate of anti-HBs antibody loss compared with the standard schedule group over 2 years of follow-up. No chronic HBV infections were observed. Hepatitis C positivity at enrollment and age younger than 40 years were independent risk factors for HBV infection and antibody loss, respectively. Conclusions. An accelerated vaccination schedule was more preferable than a standard vaccination schedule in preventing HBV infections in drug users. To overcome the disadvantages of a standard vaccination schedule, an accelerated vaccination schedule should be considered in drug users with low adherence. Our study should be repeated in different cohorts to validate our findings and establish the role of an accelerated schedule in hepatitis B vaccination guidelines for drug users. PMID:25880946

  5. Effects of Frequency and Acceleration Amplitude on Osteoblast Mechanical Vibration Responses: A Finite Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hung-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Bone cells are deformed according to mechanical stimulation they receive and their mechanical characteristics. However, how osteoblasts are affected by mechanical vibration frequency and acceleration amplitude remains unclear. By developing 3D osteoblast finite element (FE) models, this study investigated the effect of cell shapes on vibration characteristics and effect of acceleration (vibration intensity) on vibrational responses of cultured osteoblasts. Firstly, the developed FE models predicted natural frequencies of osteoblasts within 6.85–48.69 Hz. Then, three different levels of acceleration of base excitation were selected (0.5, 1, and 2 g) to simulate vibrational responses, and acceleration of base excitation was found to have no influence on natural frequencies of osteoblasts. However, vibration response values of displacement, stress, and strain increased with the increase of acceleration. Finally, stress and stress distributions of osteoblast models under 0.5 g acceleration in Z-direction were investigated further. It was revealed that resonance frequencies can be a monotonic function of cell height or bottom area when cell volumes and material properties were assumed as constants. These findings will be useful in understanding how forces are transferred and influence osteoblast mechanical responses during vibrations and in providing guidance for cell culture and external vibration loading in experimental and clinical osteogenesis studies. PMID:28074178

  6. Principles and Design of a Zeeman–Sisyphus Decelerator for Molecular Beams

    PubMed Central

    Tarbutt, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We explore a technique for decelerating molecules using a static magnetic field and optical pumping. Molecules travel through a spatially varying magnetic field and are repeatedly pumped into a weak‐field seeking state as they move towards each strong field region, and into a strong‐field seeking state as they move towards weak field. The method is time‐independent and so is suitable for decelerating both pulsed and continuous molecular beams. By using guiding magnets at each weak field region, the beam can be simultaneously guided and decelerated. By tapering the magnetic field strength in the strong field regions, and exploiting the Doppler shift, the velocity distribution can be compressed during deceleration. We develop the principles of this deceleration technique, provide a realistic design, use numerical simulations to evaluate its performance for a beam of CaF, and compare this performance to other deceleration methods. PMID:27629547

  7. Angular distribution of Cherenkov radiation from relativistic heavy ions taking into account deceleration in the radiator

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanov, O. V., E-mail: bov@tpu.ru; Fiks, E. I.; Pivovarov, Yu. L.

    2012-09-15

    Numerical methods are used to study the dependence of the structure and the width of the angular distribution of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation with a fixed wavelength in the vicinity of the Cherenkov cone on the radiator parameters (thickness and refractive index), as well as on the parameters of the relativistic heavy ion beam (charge and initial energy). The deceleration of relativistic heavy ions in the radiator, which decreases the velocity of ions, modifies the condition of structural interference of the waves emitted from various segments of the trajectory; as a result, a complex distribution of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation appears. The main quantitymore » is the stopping power of a thin layer of the radiator (average loss of the ion energy), which is calculated by the Bethe-Bloch formula and using the SRIM code package. A simple formula is obtained to estimate the angular distribution width of Cherenkov radiation (with a fixed wavelength) from relativistic heavy ions taking into account the deceleration in the radiator. The measurement of this width can provide direct information on the charge of the ion that passes through the radiator, which extends the potentialities of Cherenkov detectors. The isotopic effect (dependence of the angular distribution of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation on the ion mass) is also considered.« less

  8. Abrupt deceleration of molecular evolution linked to the origin of arborescence in ferns.

    PubMed

    Korall, Petra; Schuettpelz, Eric; Pryer, Kathleen M

    2010-09-01

    Molecular rate heterogeneity, whereby rates of molecular evolution vary among groups of organisms, is a well-documented phenomenon. Nonetheless, its causes are poorly understood. For animals, generation time is frequently cited because longer-lived species tend to have slower rates of molecular evolution than their shorter-lived counterparts. Although a similar pattern has been uncovered in flowering plants, using proxies such as growth form, the underlying process has remained elusive. Here, we find a deceleration of molecular evolutionary rate to be coupled with the origin of arborescence in ferns. Phylogenetic branch lengths within the “tree fern” clade are considerably shorter than those of closely related lineages, and our analyses demonstrate that this is due to a significant difference in molecular evolutionary rate. Reconstructions reveal that an abrupt rate deceleration coincided with the evolution of the long-lived tree-like habit at the base of the tree fern clade. This suggests that a generation time effect may well be ubiquitous across the green tree of life, and that the search for a responsible mechanism must focus on characteristics shared by all vascular plants. Discriminating among the possibilities will require contributions from various biological disciplines,but will be necessary for a full appreciation of molecular evolution.

  9. A study of the solar wind deceleration in the Earth's foreshock region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, T.-L.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Russell, C. T.

    1995-01-01

    Previous observations have shown that the solar wind is decelerated and deflected in the earth's upstream region populated by long-period waves. This deceleration is corelated with the 'diffuse' but not with the 'reflected' ion population. The speed of the solar wind may decrease tens of km/s in the foreshock region. The solar wind dynamic pressure exerted on the magnetopause may vary due to the fluctuation of the solar wind speed and density in the foreshock region. In this study, we examine this solar wind deceleration and determine how the solar wind deceleration varies in the foreshock region.

  10. Effects of dimensionality on kinetic simulations of laser-ion acceleration in the transparency regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, D. J.; Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Guo, F.

    2017-05-01

    A particle-in-cell study of laser-ion acceleration mechanisms in the transparency regime illustrates how two-dimensional (2D) S and P simulations (laser polarization in and out of the simulation plane, respectively) capture different physics characterizing these systems, visible in their entirety often in cost-prohibitive three-dimensional (3D) simulations. The electron momentum anisotropy induced in the target by a laser pulse is dramatically different in the two 2D cases, manifested in differences in target expansion timescales, electric field strengths, and density thresholds for the onset of relativistically induced transparency. In particular, 2D-P simulations exhibit dramatically greater electron heating in the simulation plane, whereas 2D-S ones show a much more isotropic energy distribution, similar to 3D. An ion trajectory analysis allows one to isolate the fields responsible for ion acceleration and to characterize the acceleration regimes in time and space. The artificial longitudinal electron heating in 2D-P exaggerates the effectiveness of target-normal sheath acceleration into its dominant acceleration mechanism throughout the laser-plasma interaction, whereas 2D-S and 3D both have sizable populations accelerated preferentially during transparency.

  11. Effects of dimensionality on kinetic simulations of laser-ion acceleration in the transparency regime

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, David James; Yin, Lin; Albright, Brian James

    2017-05-03

    A particle-in-cell study of laser-ion acceleration mechanisms in the transparency regime illustrates how two-dimensional (2D) S and P simulations (laser polarization in and out of the simulation plane, respectively) capture different physics characterizing these systems, visible in their entirety in often cost-prohibitive three-dimensional (3D) simulations. The electron momentum anisotropy induced in the target by the laser pulse is dramatically different in the two 2D cases, manifested in differences in target expansion timescales, electric field strengths, and density thresholds for the onset of relativistically induced transparency. In particular, 2D-P simulations exhibit dramatically greater electron heating in the simulation plane, whereas 2D-Smore » ones show a much more isotropic energy distribution, similar to 3D. An ion trajectory analysis allows one to isolate the fields responsible for ion acceleration and to characterize the acceleration regimes in time and space. The artificial longitudinal electron heating in 2D-P exaggerates the effectiveness of target-normal sheath acceleration into its dominant acceleration mechanism throughout the laser-plasma interaction, whereas 2D-S and 3D both have sizable populations accelerated preferentially during transparency.« less

  12. Aerothermodynamic environment for a Titan probe with deployable decelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. J.; Swenson, B. L.; Balakrishnan, A.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that further exploration of Titan, Saturn's largest moon, is of current interest to the scientific community, particularly from the standpoint of the organic chemical evolution of its atmosphere. For a suitable study of this Saturnian satellite, a mission involving a Titan atmospheric entry probe is to be conducted. The probe is to employ a deployable decelerator with the aim to allow scientific measurements in the haze layer. The present investigation is concerned with an assessment of the aerothermodynamic environment for the considered probe during its hypervelocity, low-Reynolds-number entry. Attention is given to the employed computational method, the Titan probe configuration, the Titan probe trajectory, the viscous-layer regime of the aerothermodynamic environment, and the incipient merged-layer regime.

  13. Balloon launched decelerator test program: Post-test test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, D.; Schlemmer, J.; Hicks, F.; Michel, F.; Moog, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Balloon Launched Decelerator Test (BLDT) flights were conducted during the summer of 1972 over the White Sands Missile Range. The purpose of these tests was to qualify the Viking disk-gap band parachute system behind a full-scale simulator of the Viking Entry Vehicle over the maximum range of entry conditions anticipated in the Viking '75 soft landing on Mars. Test concerns centered on the ability of a minimum weight parachute system to operate without structural damage in the turbulent wake of the blunt-body entry vehicle (140 deg, 11.5 diameter cone). This is the first known instance of parachute operation at supersonic speeds in the wake of such a large blunt body. The flight tests utilized the largest successful balloon-payload weight combination known to get to high altitude (120kft) where rocket engines were employed to boost the test vehicle to supersonic speeds and dynamic pressures simulating the range of conditions on Mars.

  14. Instrumentation Development for Large Scale Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Gregory T.; Cassell, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology is currently being considered for multiple atmospheric entry applications as the limitations of traditional entry vehicles have been reached. The Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) has successfully demonstrated this technology as a viable candidate with a 3.0 m diameter vehicle sub-orbital flight. To further this technology, large scale HIADs (6.0 8.5 m) must be developed and tested. To characterize the performance of large scale HIAD technology new instrumentation concepts must be developed to accommodate the flexible nature inflatable aeroshell. Many of the concepts that are under consideration for the HIAD FY12 subsonic wind tunnel test series are discussed below.

  15. Technology Development for Deployable Aerodynamic Decelerators at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masciarelli, James P.

    2002-01-01

    Parachutes used for Mars landing missions are only certified for deployment at Mars behind blunt bodies flying at low angles of attack, Mach numbers up to 2.2, and dynamic pressures of up to 800 Pa. NASA is currently studying entry vehicle concepts for future robotic missions to Mars that would require parachutes to be deployed at higher Mach numbers and dynamic pressures. This paper demonstrates the need for expanding the parachute deployment envelope, and describes a three-phase technology development activity that has been initiated to address the need. The end result of the technology development program will be a aerodynamic decelerator system that can be deployed at Mach numbers of up to 3.1 and dynamic pressures of up to 1400 Pa.

  16. Technology development for deployable aerodynamic decelerators at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masciarelli, James P.

    2002-01-01

    Parachutes used for Mars landing missions are only certified for deployment at Mars behind blunt bodies flying at low angles of attack, Mach numbers up to 2.2, and dynamic pressures of up to 800 Pa. NASA is currently studying entry vehicle concepts for future robotic missions to Mars that would require parachutes to be deployed at higher Mach numbers and dynamic pressures. This paper demonstrates the need for expanding the parachute deployment envelope, and describes a three-phase technology development activity that has been initiated to address the need. The end result of the technology development program will be a aerodynamic decelerator system that can be deployed at Mach numbers of up to 3.1 and dynamic pressures of up to 1400 Pa. .

  17. Apparent cosmic acceleration from Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam, Lawrence H.; Heinesen, Asta; Wiltshire, David L.

    2017-11-01

    Parameters that quantify the acceleration of cosmic expansion are conventionally determined within the standard Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) model, which fixes spatial curvature to be homogeneous. Generic averages of Einstein's equations in inhomogeneous cosmology lead to models with non-rigidly evolving average spatial curvature, and different parametrizations of apparent cosmic acceleration. The timescape cosmology is a viable example of such a model without dark energy. Using the largest available supernova data set, the JLA catalogue, we find that the timescape model fits the luminosity distance-redshift data with a likelihood that is statistically indistinguishable from the standard spatially flat Λ cold dark matter cosmology by Bayesian comparison. In the timescape case cosmic acceleration is non-zero but has a marginal amplitude, with best-fitting apparent deceleration parameter, q_{0}=-0.043^{+0.004}_{-0.000}. Systematic issues regarding standardization of supernova light curves are analysed. Cuts of data at the statistical homogeneity scale affect light-curve parameter fits independent of cosmology. A cosmological model dependence of empirical changes to the mean colour parameter is also found. Irrespective of which model ultimately fits better, we argue that as a competitive model with a non-FLRW expansion history, the timescape model may prove a useful diagnostic tool for disentangling selection effects and astrophysical systematics from the underlying expansion history.

  18. Impact Accelerations of Barefoot and Shod Running.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M; Seegmiller, J; McGowan, C P

    2016-05-01

    During the ground contact phase of running, the body's mass is rapidly decelerated resulting in forces that propagate through the musculoskeletal system. The repetitive attenuation of these impact forces is thought to contribute to overuse injuries. Modern running shoes are designed to reduce impact forces, with the goal to minimize running related overuse injuries. Additionally, the fore/mid foot strike pattern that is adopted by most individuals when running barefoot may reduce impact force transmission. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of the barefoot running form (fore/mid foot strike & decreased stride length) and running shoes on running kinetics and impact accelerations. 10 healthy, physically active, heel strike runners ran in 3 conditions: shod, barefoot and barefoot while heel striking, during which 3-dimensional motion analysis, ground reaction force and accelerometer data were collected. Shod running was associated with increased ground reaction force and impact peak magnitudes, but decreased impact accelerations, suggesting that the midsole of running shoes helps to attenuate impact forces. Barefoot running exhibited a similar decrease in impact accelerations, as well as decreased impact peak magnitude, which appears to be due to a decrease in stride length and/or a more plantarflexed position at ground contact. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Effect of Reprocessing and Accelerated Weathering on Impact-Modified Recycled Blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, V.; Mohanty, Smita; Biswal, Manoranjan; Nayak, Sanjay K.

    2015-12-01

    Recovery of recycled polycarbonate, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, high-impact polystyrene, and its blends from waste electrical and electronic equipment plastics products properties were enhanced by the addition of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier. The optimized blend formulation was processed through five cycles, at processing temperature, 220-240 °C and accelerated weathering up to 700 h. Moreover, the effect of reprocessing and accelerated weathering in the physical properties of the modified blends was investigated by mechanical, thermal, rheological, and morphological studies. The results show that in each reprocessing cycle, the tensile strength and impact strength decreased significantly and the similar behavior has been observed from accelerated weathering. Subsequently, the viscosity decreases and this decrease becomes the effect of thermal and photo-oxidative degradation. This can be correlated with FTIR analysis.

  20. Effect of hypovolemia, infusion, and oral rehydration on gradual onset +Gz acceleration tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Brock, P. J.; Haines, R. F.; Rositano, S. A.; Montgomery, L. D.; Keil, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of blood withdrawal, blood infusion, and oral fluid intake on +Gz tolerance at an acceleration rate of 0.5 G/min. Six healthy men aged 21-27 yr were centrifuged after the withdrawal of 400 ml of blood (hypovolemia) from each man; they were centrifuged again following blood infusion (Phase I). Three weeks later the men were accelerated after similar hypovolemia and again after consuming 800 ml of an isotonic NaCl drink (Phase II). Phase I hypovolemia resulted in a reduction in tolerance in all subjects from a mean control level of 6.42 + or - 0.35 min to 5.45 + or - 0.17 min (-15.1%, p less than 0.05). Both infusion and drinking returned tolerances to control levels. During acceleration there were significant (p less than 0.05) increases in plasma vasopressin levels to 35 pg/ml; these were not influenced appreciably by infusion or drinking. In all acceleration runs there was an obligatory shift (loss) of plasma volume and electrolytes, especially potassium, regardless of the experimental treatments. Oral rehydration is shown to be as effective as blood replacement in restoring +Gz acceleration tolerance decrements due to hypovolemia.

  1. Computer Modeling of Acceleration Effects on Cerebral Oxygen Saturation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    a significant physiological threat to etrate the cranium and enter the cerebral cortex. Hongo high-performance aircraft pilots since the development...et al. and Hongo et al. (7,8). blackened out and all that could be seen was the target, The primary focus of this effort was to build a model i.e...O6GInduced.html. 87:402. 12. Tripp LD, Arnold A, Bagian J, et al. Psychophysiological effects 8. Hongo K, Kobayashi S, Okudera H, et al. Noninvasive cerebral of

  2. Analytical tool for measuring emissions impact of acceleration and deceleration lanes : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-04-01

    Air quality has become one of the important factors to be considered in making transportation improvement : decisions. Thus, tools are expected to help such decision-makings. On the other hand, MOBILE5 model, which : has been widely used in evaluatin...

  3. Driving simulator study of J-Turn acceleration/deceleration lane and U-turn spacing.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-11-01

    Carlos Sun : http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8857-9648 : The J-turn, also known as RCUT (Restricted Crossing U-Turn) and Superstreet, is an innovative geometric design that can improve intersection safety. Even though this design has been in use in severa...

  4. Gravitationally neutral dark matter-dark antimatter universe crystal with epochs of decelerated and accelerated expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribov, I. A.; Trigger, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    A large-scale self-similar crystallized phase of finite gravitationally neutral universe (GNU)—huge GNU-ball—with spherical 2D-boundary immersed into an endless empty 3D- space is considered. The main principal assumptions of this universe model are: (1) existence of stable elementary particles-antiparticles with the opposite gravitational “charges” (M+gr and M -gr), which have the same positive inertial mass M in = |M ±gr | ≥ 0 and are equally presented in the universe during all universe evolution epochs; (2) the gravitational interaction between the masses of the opposite charges” is repulsive; (3) the unbroken baryon-antibaryon symmetry; (4) M+gr-M-gr “charges” symmetry, valid for two equally presented matter-antimatter GNU-components: (a) ordinary matter (OM)-ordinary antimatter (OAM), (b) dark matter (DM)-dark antimatter (DAM). The GNU-ball is weightless crystallized dust of equally presented, mutually repulsive (OM+DM) clusters and (OAM+DAM) anticlusters. Newtonian GNU-hydrodynamics gives the observable spatial flatness and ideal Hubble flow. The GNU in the obtained large-scale self-similar crystallized phase preserves absence of the cluster-anticluster collisions and simultaneously explains the observable large-scale universe phenomena: (1) the absence of the matter-antimatter clusters annihilation, (2) the self-similar Hubble flow stability and homogeneity, (3) flatness, (4) bubble and cosmic-net structures as 3D-2D-1D decrystallization phases with decelerative (a ≤ 0) and accelerative (a ≥ 0) expansion epochs, (5) the dark energy (DE) phenomena with Λ VACUUM = 0, (6) the DE and DM fine-tuning nature and predicts (7) evaporation into isolated huge M±gr superclusters without Big Rip.

  5. Accelerating Recovery from Poverty: Prevention Effects for Recently Separated Mothers.

    PubMed

    Forgatch, Marion S; Degarmo, David S

    2007-01-15

    This study evaluated benefits of a preventive intervention to the living standards of recently separated mothers. In the Oregon Divorce Study's randomized experimental design, data were collected 5 times over 30 months and evaluated with Hierarchical Linear Growth Models. Relative to their no-intervention control counterparts, experimental mothers had greater improvements in gross annual income, discretionary annual income, poverty threshold, income-to-needs ratios, and financial stress. Comparisons showed the intervention to produce a greater increase in income-to-needs and a greater rise-above-poverty threshold. Benefits to income-to-needs were statistically independent of maternal depressed mood, divorce status, child support, and repartnering. Financial stress reductions were explained by the intervention effect on income-to-needs. The importance of helping disadvantaged families with evidence-based programs is discussed.

  6. Accelerating Recovery from Poverty: Prevention Effects for Recently Separated Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Forgatch, Marion S.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated benefits of a preventive intervention to the living standards of recently separated mothers. In the Oregon Divorce Study’s randomized experimental design, data were collected 5 times over 30 months and evaluated with Hierarchical Linear Growth Models. Relative to their no-intervention control counterparts, experimental mothers had greater improvements in gross annual income, discretionary annual income, poverty threshold, income-to-needs ratios, and financial stress. Comparisons showed the intervention to produce a greater increase in income-to-needs and a greater rise-above-poverty threshold. Benefits to income-to-needs were statistically independent of maternal depressed mood, divorce status, child support, and repartnering. Financial stress reductions were explained by the intervention effect on income-to-needs. The importance of helping disadvantaged families with evidence-based programs is discussed. PMID:19043620

  7. Untangling the Effect of Head Acceleration on Brain Responses to Blast Waves

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Haojie; Unnikrishnan, Ginu; Rakesh, Vineet; Reifman, Jaques

    2015-01-01

    Multiple injury-causing mechanisms, such as wave propagation, skull flexure, cavitation, and head acceleration, have been proposed to explain blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI). An accurate, quantitative description of the individual contribution of each of these mechanisms may be necessary to develop preventive strategies against bTBI. However, to date, despite numerous experimental and computational studies of bTBI, this question remains elusive. In this study, using a two-dimensional (2D) rat head model, we quantified the contribution of head acceleration to the biomechanical response of brain tissues when exposed to blast waves in a shock tube. We compared brain pressure at the coup, middle, and contre-coup regions between a 2D rat head model capable of simulating all mechanisms (i.e., the all-effects model) and an acceleration-only model. From our simulations, we determined that head acceleration contributed 36–45% of the maximum brain pressure at the coup region, had a negligible effect on the pressure at the middle region, and was responsible for the low pressure at the contre-coup region. Our findings also demonstrate that the current practice of measuring rat brain pressures close to the center of the brain would record only two-thirds of the maximum pressure observed at the coup region. Therefore, to accurately capture the effects of acceleration in experiments, we recommend placing a pressure sensor near the coup region, especially when investigating the acceleration mechanism using different experimental setups. PMID:26458125

  8. Effect of accelerated global expansion on the bending of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghili, Mir Emad; Bolen, Brett; Bombelli, Luca

    2017-01-01

    In 2007 Rindler and Ishak showed that, contrary to previous claims, the value of the cosmological constant does have an effect on light deflection by a gravitating object in an expanding universe. In their work they considered a Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) spacetime, which has a constant asymptotic expansion rate H_0. A model with a time-dependent H( t) was studied by Kantowski et al., who consider in their 2010 paper a "Swiss-cheese" model of a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetime with an embedded SdS bubble. In this paper, we generalize the Rindler and Ishak model to time-varying H( t) in another way, by considering light bending in a McVittie metric representing a gravitating object in a FLRW cosmological background. We carry out numerical simulations of the propagation of null geodesics in different McVittie spacetimes, in which we keep the values of the distances from the observer to the lensing object and to the source fixed, and vary the form of H( t).

  9. Salt Effect Accelerates Site-Selective Cysteine Bioconjugation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Highly efficient and selective chemical reactions are desired. For small molecule chemistry, the reaction rate can be varied by changing the concentration, temperature, and solvent used. In contrast for large biomolecules, the reaction rate is difficult to modify by adjusting these variables because stringent biocompatible reaction conditions are required. Here we show that adding salts can change the rate constant over 4 orders of magnitude for an arylation bioconjugation reaction between a cysteine residue within a four-residue sequence (π-clamp) and a perfluoroaryl electrophile. Biocompatible ammonium sulfate significantly enhances the reaction rate without influencing the site-specificity of π-clamp mediated arylation, enabling the fast synthesis of two site-specific antibody–drug conjugates that selectively kill HER2-positive breast cancer cells. Computational and structure–reactivity studies indicate that salts may tune the reaction rate through modulating the interactions between the π-clamp hydrophobic side chains and the electrophile. On the basis of this understanding, the salt effect is extended to other bioconjugation chemistry, and a new regioselective alkylation reaction at π-clamp cysteine is developed. PMID:27725962

  10. Effect of accelerated weathering on surface chemistry of modified wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temiz, Ali; Terziev, Nasko; Eikenes, Morten; Hafren, Jonas

    2007-04-01

    In this study, the effects of UV-light irradiation and water spray on colour and surface chemistry of scots pine sapwood samples were investigated. The specimens were treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA), a metal-free propiconazol-based formulation, chitosan, furfuryl alcohol and linseed and tall oils. The weathering experiment was performed by cycles of 2 h UV-light irradiation followed by water spray for 18 min. The changes at the surface of the weathered samples were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR); colour characterizations were performed by measuring CIELab parameters. The results show that all treatment methods except chitosan treatment provided lower colour changes than the control groups after 800 h exposure in weathering test cycle, but differences between chitosan and control were also small. The lowest colour changes were found on linseed oil (full cell process) and CCA treated wood. FT-IR results show that oil treatment (linseed and tall oil) decreased the intensities of a lignin specific peak (1500-1515 cm -1). Absorption band changes at 1630-1660 cm -1 were reduced by all treatments.

  11. The algorithm for duration acceleration of repetitive projects considering the learning effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongtao; Wang, Keke; Du, Yang; Wang, Liwan

    2018-03-01

    Repetitive project optimization problem is common in project scheduling. Repetitive Scheduling Method (RSM) has many irreplaceable advantages in the field of repetitive projects. As the same or similar work is repeated, the proficiency of workers will be correspondingly low to high, and workers will gain experience and improve the efficiency of operations. This is learning effect. Learning effect is one of the important factors affecting the optimization results in repetitive project scheduling. This paper analyzes the influence of the learning effect on the controlling path in RSM from two aspects: one is that the learning effect changes the controlling path, the other is that the learning effect doesn't change the controlling path. This paper proposes corresponding methods to accelerate duration for different types of critical activities and proposes the algorithm for duration acceleration based on the learning effect in RSM. And the paper chooses graphical method to identity activities' types and considers the impacts of the learning effect on duration. The method meets the requirement of duration while ensuring the lowest acceleration cost. A concrete bridge construction project is given to verify the effectiveness of the method. The results of this study will help project managers understand the impacts of the learning effect on repetitive projects, and use the learning effect to optimize project scheduling.

  12. Accelerated Reader Can Be an Effective Tool to Encourage and Bolster Student Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solley, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Accelerated Reader's impact on student reading achievement has been debated in educational circles for some time. The effectiveness of this tool to motivate students and build reading comprehension depends on its usage and the training provided to teachers using it. In its training seminars, Renaissance Learning stresses that AR is to be used as a…

  13. Effects of accelerated ageing on viability, leachate exudation, and fatty acid content of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb

    Treesearch

    R.C. Thapliyal; K.F. Connor

    1997-01-01

    Accelerated ageing of seeds of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb., a multi-purpose tropical legume tree, was effective as a vigour test only at temperatures in excess of 43 deg C for 72 h. Increased leakage of solutes accompanied the decrease in viability, but there was no relationship between seed size and conductivity. Analyses of D. sissoo...

  14. Effect of precipitation pattern on leaching of preservative from treated wood and implications for accelerated testing

    Treesearch

    Stan Lebow

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to develop improved accelerated test methods for evaluating the leaching of wood preservatives from treated wood exposed to precipitation. In this study the effects of rate of rainfall and length of intervals between rainfall events on leaching was evaluated by exposing specimens to varying patterns of simulated rainfall under controlled laboratory...

  15. The Effects of Accelerated Math Utilization on Grade Equivalency Score at a Selected Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kariuki, Patrick; Gentry, Christi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Accelerated Math utilization on students' grade equivalency scores. Twelve students for both experimental and control groups were randomly selected from 37 students enrolled in math in grades four through six. The experimental group consisted of the students who actively participated in…

  16. Accelerated Reader and Its Effect on Fifth-Grade Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Jan Shelton

    2013-01-01

    Schools in the United States have been using the Accelerated Reader (AR) program since the mid-1980s. A search of the literature related to the effectiveness of the AR program revealed that many of the studies were conducted more than a decade ago, and a large number of those studies failed to utilize a control group to provide comparative data.…

  17. Effects of a Cognitive Acceleration Programme in a Low Socioeconomic High School in Regional Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady; Adey, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents research on the effects of a cognitive acceleration intervention in science lessons on low socioeconomic students in a government high school in regional Western Australia. "Thinking Science Australia" is a programme currently being implemented in Australian junior high school classes. The research was conducted for…

  18. The Effects of Math Acceleration in Middle School at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossenbach, Chris Payton

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods capstone is to investigate the effectiveness of the math acceleration initiative that began in the studied school district in 2009 and the impact the initiative has had on mathematics enrollment at the high school level. This research project followed cohorts of students during the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 school…

  19. Procedure of practical exercise with students on the pathogenic effect of accelerations on the organism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyrtyshnikov, I. M.; Tarasenko, L. M.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of acceleration alone and coupled with administration of either aminazine (chlorpromazine- a sedative) or caffeine (a stimulant) on the development of kinetoses in mice were studied. The problem is presented as a method to teach students and to demonstrate the role of the nervous factor in the development of kinetosis.

  20. Effect of accelerated aging on the viscoelastic properties of a medical grade silicone.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Aziza; Hukins, David W L; Kukureka, Stephen N

    2015-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of cylinders (diameter 5 mm, height 2.2 ± 0.2 mm) of Nagor silicone elastomer of medium hardness, were investigated before and after the specimens had undergone accelerated aging in saline solution at 70°C for 38, 76 and 114 days (to simulate aging at 37°C, for 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively). All sets of specimens were immersed in physiological saline solution at 37°C during testing and the properties were measured using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). A sinusoidal cyclic compression of 40 N ± 5 N was applied over a frequency range, f, of 0.02-25 Hz. Values of the storage, E', and loss, E″, moduli were found to depend on f; the dependence of E' or E″ on the logarithm (base 10) of f was represented by a second-order polynomial. After accelerated aging, the E' and E″ values did not increase significantly (p<0.05). Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that accelerated aging did not affect the surface morphology of silicone. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) showed that accelerated aging had a negligible effect on the surface chemical structures of the material. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed no changes to the bulk properties of silicone, following accelerated aging.

  1. The effect of cosmic-ray acceleration on supernova blast wave dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pais, M.; Pfrommer, C.; Ehlert, K.; Pakmor, R.

    2018-05-01

    Non-relativistic shocks accelerate ions to highly relativistic energies provided that the orientation of the magnetic field is closely aligned with the shock normal (quasi-parallel shock configuration). In contrast, quasi-perpendicular shocks do not efficiently accelerate ions. We model this obliquity-dependent acceleration process in a spherically expanding blast wave setup with the moving-mesh code AREPO for different magnetic field morphologies, ranging from homogeneous to turbulent configurations. A Sedov-Taylor explosion in a homogeneous magnetic field generates an oblate ellipsoidal shock surface due to the slower propagating blast wave in the direction of the magnetic field. This is because of the efficient cosmic ray (CR) production in the quasi-parallel polar cap regions, which softens the equation of state and increases the compressibility of the post-shock gas. We find that the solution remains self-similar because the ellipticity of the propagating blast wave stays constant in time. This enables us to derive an effective ratio of specific heats for a composite of thermal gas and CRs as a function of the maximum acceleration efficiency. We finally discuss the behavior of supernova remnants expanding into a turbulent magnetic field with varying coherence lengths. For a maximum CR acceleration efficiency of about 15 per cent at quasi-parallel shocks (as suggested by kinetic plasma simulations), we find an average efficiency of about 5 per cent, independent of the assumed magnetic coherence length.

  2. Enabling cost-effective high-current burst-mode operation in superconducting accelerators

    DOE PAGES

    Sheffield, Richard L.

    2015-06-01

    Superconducting (SC) accelerators are very efficient for CW or long-pulse operation, and normal conducting (NC) accelerators are cost effective for short-pulse operation. The addition of a short NC linac section to a SC linac can correct for the energy droop that occurs when pulsed high-current operation is required that exceeds the capability of the klystrons to replenish the cavity RF fields due to the long field fill-times of SC structures, or a requirement to support a broad range of beam currents results in variable beam loading. This paper describes the implementation of this technique to enable microseconds of high beam-current,more » 90 mA or more, in a 12 GeV SC long-pulse accelerator designed for the MaRIE 42-keV XFEL proposed for Los Alamos National Laboratory.« less

  3. Astronaut mass measurement using linear acceleration method and the effect of body non-rigidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hui; Li, LuMing; Hu, ChunHua; Chen, Hao; Hao, HongWei

    2011-04-01

    Astronaut's body mass is an essential factor of health monitoring in space. The latest mass measurement device for the International Space Station (ISS) has employed a linear acceleration method. The principle of this method is that the device generates a constant pulling force, and the astronaut is accelerated on a parallelogram motion guide which rotates at a large radius to achieve a nearly linear trajectory. The acceleration is calculated by regression analysis of the displacement versus time trajectory and the body mass is calculated by using the formula m= F/ a. However, in actual flight, the device is instable that the deviation between runs could be 6-7 kg. This paper considers the body non-rigidity as the major cause of error and instability and analyzes the effects of body non-rigidity from different aspects. Body non-rigidity makes the acceleration of the center of mass (C.M.) oscillate and fall behind the point where force is applied. Actual acceleration curves showed that the overall effect of body non-rigidity is an oscillation at about 7 Hz and a deviation of about 25%. To enhance body rigidity, better body restraints were introduced and a prototype based on linear acceleration method was built. Measurement experiment was carried out on ground on an air table. Three human subjects weighing 60-70 kg were measured. The average variance was 0.04 kg and the average measurement error was 0.4%. This study will provide reference for future development of China's own mass measurement device.

  4. Development of new platforms for hydrodynamic instability and asymmetry measurements in deceleration phase of indirectly-driven implosions on NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickworth, Louisa

    2017-10-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities and asymmetries are a major obstacle in the quest to achieve ignition as they cause pre-existing capsule perturbations to grow and ultimately quench the fusion burn in experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This talk will review recent developments of the experimental platforms and techniques to measure high-mode instabilities and low-mode asymmetries in the deceleration phase of implosions. These new platforms provide a natural link between the acceleration-phase experiments and neutron performance of layered deuterium-tritium implosions. In one innovative technique, self-emission from the hot spot was enhanced with argon dopant to ``self-backlight'' the shell in-flight around peak compression. Experiments with pre-imposed 2-D perturbations measured instability growth factors, while experiments with 3-D, ``native-roughness'' perturbations measured shell integrity in the deceleration phase of implosions. In a complimentary technique, the inner surface of the shell, along with its low-mode asymmetries and high-mode perturbations were visualized in implosions using x-ray emission of a high-Z dopant added to the inner surface of the capsule. These new measurements were instrumental in revealing unexpected surprises and providing improved understanding of the role of instabilities and asymmetries on implosion performance. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Protective Effects of Hydroxychloroquine against Accelerated Atherosclerosis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Cauli, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality are a challenge in management of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Higher risk of CV disease in SLE patients is mostly related to accelerated atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in SLE patients does not fully explain the increased CV risk. Despite the pathological bases of accelerated atherosclerosis are not fully understood, it is thought that this process is driven by the complex interplay between SLE and atherosclerosis pathogenesis. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a cornerstone in treatment of SLE patients and has been thought to exert a broad spectrum of beneficial effects on disease activity, prevention of damage accrual, and mortality. Furthermore, HCQ is thought to protect against accelerated atherosclerosis targeting toll-like receptor signaling, cytokine production, T-cell and monocyte activation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. HCQ was also described to have beneficial effects on traditional CV risk factors, such as dyslipidemia and diabetes. In conclusion, despite lacking randomized controlled trials unambiguously proving the protection of HCQ against accelerated atherosclerosis and incidence of CV events in SLE patients, evidence analyzed in this review is in favor of its beneficial effect. PMID:29670462

  6. Quantitative Approach to Failure Mode and Effect Analysis for Linear Accelerator Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect

    O'Daniel, Jennifer C., E-mail: jennifer.odaniel@duke.edu; Yin, Fang-Fang

    Purpose: To determine clinic-specific linear accelerator quality assurance (QA) TG-142 test frequencies, to maximize physicist time efficiency and patient treatment quality. Methods and Materials: A novel quantitative approach to failure mode and effect analysis is proposed. Nine linear accelerator-years of QA records provided data on failure occurrence rates. The severity of test failure was modeled by introducing corresponding errors into head and neck intensity modulated radiation therapy treatment plans. The relative risk of daily linear accelerator QA was calculated as a function of frequency of test performance. Results: Although the failure severity was greatest for daily imaging QA (imaging vsmore » treatment isocenter and imaging positioning/repositioning), the failure occurrence rate was greatest for output and laser testing. The composite ranking results suggest that performing output and lasers tests daily, imaging versus treatment isocenter and imaging positioning/repositioning tests weekly, and optical distance indicator and jaws versus light field tests biweekly would be acceptable for non-stereotactic radiosurgery/stereotactic body radiation therapy linear accelerators. Conclusions: Failure mode and effect analysis is a useful tool to determine the relative importance of QA tests from TG-142. Because there are practical time limitations on how many QA tests can be performed, this analysis highlights which tests are the most important and suggests the frequency of testing based on each test's risk priority number.« less

  7. Effect of Exercise Program Speed, Agility, and Quickness (SAQ) in Improving Speed, Agility, and Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, K.; Kusnanik, N. W.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of speed, agility and quickness training program to increase in speed, agility and acceleration. This study was conducted at 26 soccer players and divided into 2 groups with 13 players each group. Group 1 was given SAQ training program, and Group 2 conventional training program for 8 weeks. This study used a quantitative approach with quasi-experimental method. The design of this study used a matching-only design. Data was collected by testing 30-meter sprint (speed), agility t-test (agility), and run 10 meters (acceleration) during the pretest and posttest. Furthermore, the data was analyzed using paired sample t-test and independent t-test. The results showed: that there was a significant effect of speed, agility and quickness training program in improving in speed, agility and acceleration. In summary, it can be concluded that the speed, agility and quickness training program can improve the speed, agility and acceleration of the soccer players.

  8. The effect of buccal corticotomy on accelerating orthodontic tooth movement of maxillary canine

    PubMed Central

    Jahanbakhshi, Mohammad Reza; Motamedi, Ali Mohammad Kalantar; Feizbakhsh, Masoud; Mogharehabed, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Selective alveolar corticotomy is defined as an intentional injury to cortical bone. This technique is an effective means of accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of buccal corticotomy in accelerating maxillary canine retraction. Materials and Methods: The sample in this clinical trial study consisted of 15 adult female patients with therapeutic need for extraction of maxillary first premolars and maximum canine retraction. By use of split-mouth design, at the time of premolars extraction, buccal corticotomy was performed around the maxillary first premolar, randomly on one side of maxilla, and the other side was reserved as the control side. Canine retraction was performed by use of friction – less mechanic with simple vertical loop. Every 2 weeks, distance between canines and second premolars was measured until complete space closure. The velocity of space closure was calculated to evaluate the effect of this technique in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using independent t-test, and the significance was set at 0.05. Results: The rate of canine retraction was significantly higher on the corticotomy side than the control side by an average of 1.8 mm/month versus 1.1 mm/month in the corticotomy side and control side, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Based on result of this study, corticotomy can accelerates the rate of orthodontic tooth movement about two times faster than conventional orthodontics and it is significant in early stages after surgical porsedure. Therefore Buccal corticotomy is a useful adjunct technique for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:27605986

  9. Deceleration-stats save much time during phototrophic culture optimization.

    PubMed

    Hoekema, Sebastiaan; Rinzema, Arjen; Tramper, Johannes; Wijffels, René H; Janssen, Marcel

    2014-04-01

    In case of phototrophic cultures, photobioreactor costs contribute significantly to the total operating costs. Therefore one of the most important parameters to be determined is the maximum biomass production rate, if biomass or a biomass associated product is the desired product. This is traditionally determined in time consuming series of chemostat cultivations. The goal of this work is to assess the experimental time that can be saved by applying the deceleration stat (D-stat) technique to assess the maximum biomass production rate of a phototrophic cultivation system, instead of a series of chemostat cultures. A mathematical model developed by Geider and co-workers was adapted in order to describe the rate of photosynthesis as a function of the local light intensity. This is essential for the accurate description of biomass productivity in phototrophic cultures. The presented simulations demonstrate that D-stat experiments executed in the absence of pseudo steady-state (i.e., the arbitrary situation that the observed specific growth rate deviates <5% from the dilution rate) can still be used to accurately determine the maximum biomass productivity of the system. Moreover, this approach saves up to 94% of the time required to perform a series of chemostat experiments that has the same accuracy. In case more information on the properties of the system is required, the reduction in experimental time is reduced but still significant. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Flexible Thermal Protection System Development for Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelCorso, Joseph A.; Bruce, Walter E., III; Hughes, Stephen J.; Dec, John A.; Rezin, Marc D.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Guo, Haiquan; Fletcher, Douglas G.; Calomino, Anthony M.; Cheatwood, McNeil

    2012-01-01

    The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIAD) project has invested in development of multiple thermal protection system (TPS) candidates to be used in inflatable, high downmass, technology flight projects. Flexible TPS is one element of the HIAD project which is tasked with the research and development of the technology ranging from direct ground tests, modelling and simulation, characterization of TPS systems, manufacturing and handling, and standards and policy definition. The intent of flexible TPS is to enable large deployable aeroshell technologies, which increase the drag performance while significantly reducing the ballistic coefficient of high-mass entry vehicles. A HIAD requires a flexible TPS capable of surviving aerothermal loads, and durable enough to survive the rigors of construction, handling, high density packing, long duration exposure to extrinsic, in-situ environments, and deployment. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of key work being performed within the Flexible TPS element of the HIAD project. Included in this paper is an overview of, and results from, each Flexible TPS research and development activity, which includes ground testing, physics-based thermal modelling, age testing, margins policy, catalysis, materials characterization, and recent developments with new TPS materials.

  11. Biological effectiveness of accelerated particles for the induction of chromosome damage: track structure effects.

    PubMed

    George, Kerry A; Hada, Megumi; Chappell, Lori; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2013-07-01

    We have investigated how radiation quality affects the induction of chromosomal aberrations in human cells. Human lymphocytes were irradiated in vitro with various energies of accelerated high charge and energy (HZE) particles including oxygen, neon, silicon, titanium and iron. Chromosome damage was assessed using three-color FISH chromosome painting in chemically induced premature chromosome condensation samples collected at first cell division after irradiation. The LET values for these particles ranged from 30 to 195 keV/μm, and their energies ranged from about 55 MeV/u to more than 1,000 MeV/u. The 89 and 142 MeV/u neon particles produced the most simple-type reciprocal exchanges per unit dose. For complex-type exchanges, 64 MeV/u neon and 450 MeV/u iron were equally effective and induced the greatest amount of complex damage. Track structure models predict that at a fixed value of LET, particles with lower charge number (Z) will have a higher biological effectiveness compared to particles with a higher Z, and that a saturation cross section will be observed for different radiation qualities. Our results are consistent with model expectations within the limitation of experimental error, and provide the most extensive data that have been reported on the radiation quality dependences of chromosomal aberrations. © 2013 by Radiation Research Society

  12. Effects of horizontal acceleration on the superconducting gravimeter CT #036 at Ishigakijima, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanishi, Yuichi; Nawa, Kazunari; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    In the gravity sensor of a superconducting gravimeter, a superconducting sphere as a test mass is levitated in a magnetic field. Such a sensor is susceptible to applied horizontal as well as vertical acceleration, because the translational degrees of freedom of the mass are not perfectly limited to the vertical direction. In the case of the superconducting gravimeter CT #036 installed at Ishigakijima, Japan, horizontal ground acceleration excited by the movements of a nearby VLBI antenna induces systematic step noise within the gravity recordings. We investigate this effect in terms of the static and dynamic properties of the gravity sensor using data from a collocated seismometer. It is shown that this effect can be effectively modeled by the coupling between the horizontal and vertical components in the gravity sensor. It is also found that the mechanical eigenfrequency for horizontal translation of the levitating sphere is approximately 3 Hz.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Effects of morphine and naloxone on feline colonic transit

    SciTech Connect

    Krevsky, B.; Libster, B.; Maurer, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of endogenous and exogenous opioid substances on feline colonic transit were evaluated using colonic transit scintigraphy. Naloxone accelerated emptying of the cecum and ascending colon, and filling of the transverse colon. Endogenous opioid peptides thus appear to play a significant role in the regulation of colonic transit. At a moderate dose of morphine cecum and ascending colon transit was accelerated, while at a larger dose morphine had no effect. Since naloxone, a relatively nonspecific opioid antagonist, and morphine, a principally mu opioid receptor agonist, both accelerate proximal colonic transit, a decelerating role for at least one of themore » other opioid receptors is inferred.« less

  14. The effectiveness of wrist guards for reducing wrist and elbow accelerations resulting from simulated forward falls.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Timothy A; Andrews, David M

    2010-08-01

    The effectiveness of wrist guards and modifying elbow posture for reducing impact-induced accelerations at the wrist and elbow, for the purpose of decreasing upper extremity injury risk during forward fall arrest, has not yet been documented in living people. A seated human pendulum was used to simulate the impact conditions consistent with landing on outstretched arms during a forward fall. Accelerometers measured the wrist and elbow response characteristics of 28 subjects following impacts with and without a wrist guard, and with elbows straight or slightly bent. Overall, the wrist guard was very effective, with significant reductions in peak accelerations at the elbow in the axial and off-axis directions, and in the off-axis direction at the wrist by almost 50%. The effect of elbow posture as an intervention strategy was mixed; a change in magnitude and direction of the acceleration response was documented at the elbow, while there was little effect at the wrist. Unique evidence was presented in support of wrist guard use in activities like in-line skating where impacts to the hands are common. The elbow response clearly shows that more proximal anatomical structures also need to be monitored when assessing the effectiveness of injury prevention strategies.

  15. The myths and physiology surrounding intrapartum decelerations: the critical role of the peripheral chemoreflex

    PubMed Central

    Lear, Christopher A.; Galinsky, Robert; Wassink, Guido; Yamaguchi, Kyohei; Davidson, Joanne O.; Westgate, Jenny A.; Bennet, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A distinctive pattern of recurrent rapid falls in fetal heart rate, called decelerations, are commonly associated with uterine contractions during labour. These brief decelerations are mediated by vagal activation. The reflex triggering this vagal response has been variably attributed to a mechanoreceptor response to fetal head compression, to baroreflex activation following increased blood pressure during umbilical cord compression, and/or a Bezold–Jarisch reflex response to reduced venous return from the placenta. Although these complex explanations are still widespread today, there is no consistent evidence that they are common during labour. Instead, the only mechanism that has been systematically investigated, proven to be reliably active during labour and, crucially, capable of producing rapid decelerations is the peripheral chemoreflex. The peripheral chemoreflex is triggered by transient periods of asphyxia that are a normal phenomenon associated with all uterine contractions. This should not cause concern as the healthy fetus has a remarkable ability to adapt to these repeated but short periods of asphyxia. This means that the healthy fetus is typically not at risk of hypotension and injury during uncomplicated labour even during repeated brief decelerations. The physiologically incorrect theories surrounding decelerations that ignore the natural occurrence of repeated asphyxia probably gained widespread support to help explain why many babies are born healthy despite repeated decelerations during labour. We propose that a unified and physiological understanding of intrapartum decelerations that accepts the true nature of labour is critical to improve interpretation of intrapartum fetal heart rate patterns. PMID:27328617

  16. Effects of Different Backpack Loads in Acceleration Transmission during Recreational Distance Walking.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Cuevas, Angel G; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Bush, Michael; Crossman, Aaron; Llana, Salvador; Cortell-Tormo, Juan M; Pérez-Turpin, José A

    2013-01-01

    It is well established nowadays the benefits that physical activity can have on the health of individuals. Walking is considered a fundamental method of movement and using a backpack is a common and economical manner of carrying load weight. Nevertheless, the shock wave produced by the impact forces when carrying a backpack can have detrimental effects on health status. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in the accelerations placed on males and females whilst carrying different loads when walking. Twenty nine sports science students (16 males and 13 females) participated in the study under 3 different conditions: no weight, 10% and 20% body weight (BW) added in a backpack. Accelerometers were attached to the right shank and the centre of the forehead. Results showed that males have lower accelerations than females both in the head (2.62 ± 0.43G compared to 2.83 + 0.47G) and shank (1.37 ± 0.14G compared to 1.52 ± 0.15G; p<0.01). Accelerations for males and females were consistent throughout each backpack condition (p>0.05). The body acts as a natural shock absorber, reducing the amount of force that transmits through the body between the foot (impact point) and head. Anthropometric and body mass distribution differences between males and females may result in women receiving greater impact acceleration compared to men when the same load is carried.

  17. Effects of Different Backpack Loads in Acceleration Transmission during Recreational Distance Walking

    PubMed Central

    Lucas-Cuevas, Angel G.; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Bush, Michael; Crossman, Aaron; Llana, Salvador; Cortell-Tormo, Juan M.; Pérez-Turpin, José A.

    It is well established nowadays the benefits that physical activity can have on the health of individuals. Walking is considered a fundamental method of movement and using a backpack is a common and economical manner of carrying load weight. Nevertheless, the shock wave produced by the impact forces when carrying a backpack can have detrimental effects on health status. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in the accelerations placed on males and females whilst carrying different loads when walking. Twenty nine sports science students (16 males and 13 females) participated in the study under 3 different conditions: no weight, 10% and 20% body weight (BW) added in a backpack. Accelerometers were attached to the right shank and the centre of the forehead. Results showed that males have lower accelerations than females both in the head (2.62 ± 0.43G compared to 2.83 + 0.47G) and shank (1.37 ± 0.14G compared to 1.52 ± 0.15G; p<0.01). Accelerations for males and females were consistent throughout each backpack condition (p>0.05). The body acts as a natural shock absorber, reducing the amount of force that transmits through the body between the foot (impact point) and head. Anthropometric and body mass distribution differences between males and females may result in women receiving greater impact acceleration compared to men when the same load is carried. PMID:24146708

  18. Cosmic transparency and acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holanda, R. F. L.; Pereira, S. H.; Jain, Deepak

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, by considering an absorption probability independent of photon wavelength, we show that current type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and gamma-ray burst (GRB) observations plus high-redshift measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation temperature support cosmic acceleration regardless of the transparent-universe assumption. Two flat scenarios are considered in our analyses: the Λ CDM model and a kinematic model. We consider τ (z )=2 ln (1 +z )ɛ, where τ (z ) denotes the opacity between an observer at z =0 and a source at z . This choice is equivalent to deforming the cosmic distance duality relation as DLDA-1=(1 +z )2+ɛ and, if the absorption probability is independent of photon wavelength, the CMB temperature evolution law is TCMB(z )=T0(1 +z )1+2 ɛ /3. By marginalizing on the ɛ parameter, our analyses rule out a decelerating universe at 99.99% C.L. for all scenarios considered. Interestingly, by considering only SNe Ia and GRBs observations, we obtain that a decelerated universe—indicated by ΩΛ≤0.33 and q0>0 —is ruled out around 1.5 σ C.L. and 2 σ C.L., respectively, regardless of the transparent-universe assumption.

  19. Association between vascular access creation and deceleration of estimated glomerular filtration rate decline in late-stage chronic kidney disease patients transitioning to end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Keiichi; Molnar, Miklos Z; Potukuchi, Praveen K; Thomas, Fridtjof; Lu, Jun Ling; Ravel, Vanessa A; Soohoo, Melissa; Rhee, Connie M; Streja, Elani; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2017-08-01

    Prior studies have suggested that arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or graft (AVG) creation may be associated with slowing of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline. It is unclear if this is attributable to the physiological benefits of a mature access on systemic circulation versus confounding factors. We examined a nationwide cohort of 3026 US veterans with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) transitioning to dialysis between 2007 and 2011 who had a pre-dialysis AVF/AVG and had at least three outpatient eGFR measurements both before and after AVF/AVG creation. Slopes of eGFR were estimated using mixed-effects models adjusted for fixed and time-dependent confounders, and compared separately for the pre- and post-AVF/AVG period overall and in patients stratified by AVF/AVG maturation. In all, 3514 patients without AVF/AVG who started dialysis with a catheter served as comparators, using an arbitrary 6-month index date before dialysis initiation to assess change in eGFR slopes. Of the 3026 patients with AVF/AVG (mean age 67 years, 98% male, 75% diabetic), 71% had a mature AVF/AVG at dialysis initiation. eGFR decline accelerated in the last 6 months prior to dialysis in patients with a catheter (median, from -6.0 to -16.3 mL/min/1.73 m2/year, P < 0.001), while a significant deceleration of eGFR decline was seen after vascular access creation in those with AVF/AVG (median, from -5.6 to -4.1 mL/min/1.73 m2/year, P < 0.001). Findings were independent of AVF/AVG maturation status and were robust in adjusted models. The creation of pre-dialysis AVF/AVG appears to be associated with eGFR slope deceleration and, consequently, may delay the onset of dialysis initiation in advanced CKD patients. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. State-of-the-Art Study for High-speed Deceleration and Stabilization Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, W. C.; Lau, R. A.

    1966-01-01

    Documented aerodynamic deployable decelerator performance data above Mach 1. 0 is presented. The state of the art of drag and stability characteristics for reentry and recovery applications is defined for a wide range of decelerator configurations. Structural and material data and other design information also are presented. Emphasis is given to presentation of basic aero, thermal, and structural design data, which points out basic problem areas and voids in existing technology. The basic problems and voids include supersonic "buzzing" of towed porous decelerators in the wake of the forebody, the complete lack of dynamic stability data, and the general lack of aerothermal data at speeds above Mach 5.

  1. Early Acceleration of Mathematics Students and its Effect on Growth in Self-esteem: A Longitudinal Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xin

    2002-11-01

    The Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY) database was employed to examine the educational practice of early acceleration of students of mathematics on the development of their self-esteem across the entire secondary grade levels. Students were classified into three different academic categories (gifted, honors, and regular). Results indicated that, in terms of the development of their self-esteem, gifted students benefited from early acceleration, honors students neither benefited nor were harmed by early acceleration, and regular students were harmed by early acceleration. Early acceleration in mathematics promoted significant growth in self-esteem among gifted male students and among gifted, honors, and regular minority students. When students were accelerated, schools showed similar average growth in self-esteem among gifted students and regular students and a large effect of general support for mathematics on the average growth in self-esteem among honors students.

  2. Acceleration Tolerance: Effect of Exercise, Acceleration Training; Bed Rest and Weightlessness Deconditioning. A Compendium of Research (1950-1996)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, J. L.; McKenzie, M. A.; Stad, N. J.; Barnes, P. R.; Jackson, C. G. R.; Ghiasvand, F.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    This compendium includes abstracts and annotations of clinical observations and of more basic studies involving physiological mechanisms concerning interaction of acceleration, training and deconditioning. If the author's abstract or summary was appropriate, it was included. In other cases a more detailed annotation of the paper was prepared under the subheadings Purpose, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Author and keyword indices are provided, plus an additional selected bibliography of related work and of those papers received after the volume was prepared for publication. This volume includes material published from 1950-1996.

  3. Comparing the Effects of Various Whole-Body Vibration Accelerations on Counter-Movement Jump Performance

    PubMed Central

    Bazett-Jones, David M.; Finch, Holmes W.; Dugan, Eric L.

    2008-01-01

    While it seems that whole body vibration (WBV) might be an effective modality to enhance physical performance, the proper prescription of WBV for performance enhancement remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effect of various WBV accelerations on counter movement jump (CMJ) height, the duration of any effect, and differences between men and women. Forty-four participants (33 men, 11 women) participated in no less than four CMJ familiarization sessions and completed all vibration sessions. Participants performed a pre-test (three maximal CMJs), followed randomly by one of five WBV accelerations; 1g (no-WBV control), 2.16g, 2.80g, 4.87g, and 5.83g. Participants performed three maximal CMJs immediately, five, and 10 minutes following each 45 sec WBV session. The mean of the three performances was used and calculated as a percentage of the pre-vibration mean value. A Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA; acceleration x time x gender) model was used to analyze the data. The two-way interactions of acceleration-gender (p = 0.033) and time-gender (p = 0.050) were significant. Women performed significantly better following the 2.80g (p = 0.0064) and 5.83g (p = 0. 0125) WBV sessions compared to the 1g (control) session. Men, however, did not experience performance enhancing effects following any of the vibration sessions. While significant differences did not occur between time in either gender, the effects of the 45 sec WBV session in women were transient, lasting approximately five minutes. During the prescription of WBV, gender should be considered given that the results of this study seem to indicate that men and women respond differently to WBV. The results of this study suggest that WBV might be a useful modality as applied during the pre-competition warm-up. Key points WBV accelerations of 2.80g (40 Hz, 2-4 mm) and 5.83g (50 Hz, 4-6 mm) seem to elicit a performance enhancement effect following short-duration (45 sec

  4. Detection of linear ego-acceleration from optic flow.

    PubMed

    Festl, Freya; Recktenwald, Fabian; Yuan, Chunrong; Mallot, Hanspeter A

    2012-07-20

    Human observers are able to estimate various ego-motion parameters from optic flow, including rotation, translational heading, time-to-collision (TTC), time-to-passage (TTP), etc. The perception of linear ego-acceleration or deceleration, i.e., changes of translational velocity, is less well understood. While time-to-passage experiments indicate that ego-acceleration is neglected, subjects are able to keep their (perceived) speed constant under changing conditions, indicating that some sense of ego-acceleration or velocity change must be present. In this paper, we analyze the relation of ego-acceleration estimates and geometrical parameters of the environment using simulated flights through cylindrical and conic (narrowing or widening) corridors. Theoretical analysis shows that a logarithmic ego-acceleration parameter, called the acceleration rate ρ, can be calculated from retinal acceleration measurements. This parameter is independent of the geometrical layout of the scene; if veridical ego-motion is known at some instant in time, acceleration rate allows updating of ego-motion without further depth-velocity calibration. Results indicate, however, that subjects systematically confuse ego-acceleration with corridor narrowing and ego-deceleration with corridor widening, while veridically judging ego-acceleration in straight corridors. We conclude that judgments of ego-acceleration are based on first-order retinal flow and do not make use of acceleration rate or retinal acceleration.

  5. Effects of prolonged acceleration with or without clinostat rotation on seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.; Dahl, A. O.; Loercher, L.

    1974-01-01

    Three 21-day tests of the effects of chronic centrifugation were carried out on populations of Arabidopsis thaliana. In addition to 1 g the resultant g-forces tested were: 2,4,6,8,16, and 20 g. Observed end points included gross morphological characters such as size of plant organs and, at the other extreme, features of sub-cellular structure and ultrastructure. Plants were grown on banks of clinostats. The acceleration vector was directed either parallel with the plants' axes or transverse to the axes. Plant responses to chronic axial acceleration and to transverse acceleration with clinostated plants were determined. From the data obtained it was possible in some cases: (1) to determine the g-functions of specific plant developmental characters; (2) to extrapolate those functions to the hypothetical value at zero g in order to predict (tentatively) the morphology of a plant grown in space, (3) to describe morphological effects of clinostat rotation, (4) to determine which of those effects was influenced by the prevailing g-force, and (5) to put to direct test the assumption that clinostat rotation nullifies or compensates for the influence of gravity.

  6. Investigation into the effect of water chemistry on corrosion product formation in areas of accelerated flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrady, John; Scenini, Fabio; Duff, Jonathan; Stevens, Nicholas; Cassineri, Stefano; Curioni, Michele; Banks, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    The deposition of CRUD (Chalk River Unidentified Deposit) in the primary circuit of a Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) is known to preferentially occur in regions of the circuit where flow acceleration of coolant occurs. A micro-fluidic flow cell was used to recreate accelerated flow under simulated PWR conditions, by flowing water through a disc with a central micro-orifice. CRUD deposition was reproduced on the disc, and CRUD Build-Up Rates (BUR) in various regions of the disc were analysed. The effect of the local environment on BUR was investigated. In particular, the effect of flow velocity, specimen material and Fe concentration were considered. The morphology and composition of the deposits were analysed with respect to experimental conditions. The BUR of CRUD was found to be sensitive to flow velocity and Fe concentration, suggesting that mass transfer is an important factor. The morphology of the deposit was affected by the specimen material indicating a dependence on surface/particle electrostatics meaning surface chemistry plays an important role in deposition. The preferential deposition of CRUD in accelerated flow regions due to electrokinetic effects was observed and it was shown that higher Fe concentrations in solution increased BURs within the orifice whereas increased flow velocity reduced BURs.

  7. The Differential Effect of Arm Movements during Gait on the Forward Acceleration of the Centre of Mass in Children with Cerebral Palsy and Typically Developing Children.

    PubMed

    Meyns, Pieter; Molenaers, Guy; Duysens, Jacques; Jonkers, Ilse

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to study the contribution of upper limb movements to propulsion during walking in typically developing (TD) children ( n = 5) and children with hemiplegic and diplegic cerebral palsy (CP; n = 5 and n = 4, respectively). Methods: Using integrated three-dimensional motion capture data and a scaled generic musculoskeletal model that included upper limbs, we generated torque driven simulations of gait in OpenSim. Induced acceleration analyses were then used to determine the contributions of the individual actuators located at the relevant degrees of freedoms of the upper and lower limb joints to the forward acceleration of the COM at each time point of the gait simulation. The mean values of the contribution of the actuators of upper limbs, lower limbs, and gravity in different phases of the gait cycle were compared between the three groups. Findings: The results indicated a limited contribution of the upper limb actuators to COM forward acceleration compared to the contribution of lower limbs and gravity, in the three groups. In diplegic CP, the contribution of the upper limbs seemed larger compared to TD during the preswing and swing phases of gait. In hemiplegic CP, the unaffected arm seemed to contribute more to COM deceleration during (pre)swing, while the affected side contributed to COM acceleration. Interpretation: These findings suggest that in the presence of lower limb dysfunction, the contribution of the upper limbs to forward propulsion is altered, although they remain negligible compared to the lower limbs and gravity.

  8. The Effectiveness of Accelerated Learning on Student Achievement in Developmental Courses Offered at a Rural Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Anika Z.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the accelerated course learning format on student achievement in developmental English and math courses offered at a rural community college. Due to a rise in the number of underprepared students who enroll in community college, some college officials implemented the accelerated course…

  9. Suppression of the chain nuclear fusion reaction based on the p+{sup 11}B reaction because of the deceleration of alpha particles

    SciTech Connect

    Shmatov, M. L., E-mail: M.Shmatov@mail.ioffe.ru

    2016-09-15

    It is shown that a rapid deceleration of alpha particles in matter of electron temperature up to 100 keV leads a strong suppression of the chain nuclear fusion reaction on the basis of the p+{sup 11}B reaction with the reproduction of fast protons in the α+{sup 11}B and n+{sup 10}B reactions. The statement that the chain nuclear fusion reaction based on the p+{sup 11}B reaction with an acceleration of {sup 11}B nuclei because of elastic alpha-particle scattering manifests itself in experiments at the PALS (Prague Asterix Laser System) facility is analyzed.

  10. Diaphragm opening effects on shock wave formation and acceleration in a rectangular cross section channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakdaman, S. A.; Garcia, M.; Teh, E.; Lincoln, D.; Trivedi, M.; Alves, M.; Johansen, C.

    2016-11-01

    Shock wave formation and acceleration in a high-aspect ratio cross section shock tube were studied experimentally and numerically. The relative importance of geometric effects and diaphragm opening time on shock formation are assessed. The diaphragm opening time was controlled through the use of slit-type (fast opening time) and petal-type (slow opening time) diaphragms. A novel method of fabricating the petal-type diaphragms, which results in a consistent burst pressure and symmetric opening without fragmentation, is presented. High-speed schlieren photography was used to visualize the unsteady propagation of the lead shock wave and trailing gas dynamic structures. Surface-mounted pressure sensors were used to capture the spatial and temporal development of the pressure field. Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulation predictions using the shear-stress-transport turbulence model are compared to the experimental data. Simulation results are used to explain the presence of high-frequency pressure oscillations observed experimentally in the driver section as well as the cause of the initial acceleration and subsequent rapid decay of shock velocity measured along the top and bottom channel surfaces. A one-dimensional theoretical model predicting the effect of the finite opening time of the diaphragm on the rate of driver depressurization and shock acceleration is proposed. The model removes the large amount of empiricism that accompanies existing models published in the literature. Model accuracy is assessed through comparisons with experiments and simulations. Limitations of and potential improvements in the model are discussed.

  11. In vitro cytotoxicity of maxillofacial silicone elastomers: effect of accelerated aging.

    PubMed

    Bal, Bilge Turhan; Yilmaz, Handan; Aydin, Cemal; Karakoca, Seçil; Yilmaz, Sükran

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of three maxillofacial silicone elastomers at 24, 48, and 72 h on L-929 cells and to determine the effect of accelerated aging on the cytotoxicity of these silicone elastomers. Disc-shaped test samples of maxillofacial silicone elastomers (Cosmesil, Episil, Multisil) were fabricated according to manufacturers' instructions under aseptic conditions. Samples were then divided into three groups: (1) not aged; (2) aged for 150 h with an accelerated weathering tester; and (3) aged for 300 h. Then the samples were placed in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium/Ham's F12 (DMEM/F12) for 24, 48, and 72 h. After the incubation periods, cytotoxicity of the extracts to cultured fibroblasts (L-929) was measured by MTT assay. The degree of cytotoxicity of each sample was determined according to the reference value represented by the cells with a control (culture without sample). Statistical significance was determined by repeated measurement ANOVA (p < 0.01) followed by Duncan's test (p < 0.05). All test materials in each group demonstrated high survival rates in MTT assay (Episil; 93.84%, Multisil; 88.30%, Cosmesil; 87.50%, respectively); however, in all groups, Episil material demonstrated significantly higher cell survival rate after each of the experimental incubation periods (p < 0.05). Accelerated aging for 150 and 300 h had no significant effect on the biocompatibility of maxillofacial silicone elastomers tested (p > 0.05).

  12. Effects of Background Pressure on Relativistic Laser-Plasma Interaction Ion Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Andrew; Orban, C.; Feister, S.; Ngirmang, G.; Smith, J. T.; Klim, A.; Frische, K.; Morrison, J.; Chowdhury, E.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2016-10-01

    Typically, ultra-intense laser-accelerated ion experiments are carried out under high-vacuum conditions and with a repetition rate up to several shots per day. Looking to the future there is a need to perform these experiments with a much larger repetition rate. A continuously flowing liquid target is more suitable than a solid target for this purpose. However liquids vaporize below their vapor pressure, and the experiment cannot be performed under high-vacuum conditions. The effects of this non-negligible high chamber pressure acceleration of charged particles is not yet well understood. We investigate this phenomena using Particle-in-Cell simulations, exploring the effect of the background pressure on the accelerated ion spectrum. Experiments in this regime are being performed at the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. This research was sponsored by the Quantum and Non-Equilibrium Processes Division of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, under the management of Dr. Enrique Parra, Program Manager and significant support from the DOD HPCMP Internship Program.

  13. Acceleration effects observed in optical data taken in Spacelab 3 FES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trolinger, James; Lal, Ravindra; Ruff, Rudy

    1990-01-01

    Optical instrumentation in the Fluids Experiment System (FES) is briefly described. Samples of the data produced by the schlieren and holography systems during the Spacelab 3 flight are then presented with some of the holographic interferometry data being presented for the first time. Acceleration effects that can be observed in these data are discussed and the potential for using them as a basis for measurement is explored. This includes the tracking of deliberately introduced tracer particles and density gradients in the FES, the analysis of the existing concentration gradients, and a new fiber optic G-meter concept. Finally, some of the plans for acceleration measurement in the upcoming International Microgravity-1/FES are described.

  14. Accelerating effect of silica on the indicator reaction o-dianisidine-H(2)O(2).

    PubMed

    Beklemishev, M K; Kapanadze, A L; Bakhilina, N V; Dolmanova, I F

    2000-02-07

    Reaction of oxidation of o-dianisidine (o-D) with H(2)O(2) which is widely used in catalytic methods of analysis in solution has been conducted on silica plates for thin-layer chromatography. The rate of the reaction catalyzed by model compounds (p-toluenesulphonyl chloride, methyl benzoate, benzoic acid, and acrylamide) is noticeably higher on silica than in solution in comparable conditions. The degree of acceleration varies depending on the catalyst and is more pronounced at its lower concentrations. By use of p-toluenesulphonyl chloride determination as an example it has been shown that the accelerating effect of silica enables to decrease the detection limit down to 0.07 nmol cm(-2) (as compared with 4 nmol.cm(-2) in solution); the accuracy is not diminished. It is concluded that catalytic indicator reactions on solid supports may represent high interest for analytical chemists.

  15. Paraelectric gas flow accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, Daniel M. (Inventor); Wilkinson, Stephen P. (Inventor); Roth, J. Reece (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A substrate is configured with first and second sets of electrodes, where the second set of electrodes is positioned asymmetrically between the first set of electrodes. When a RF voltage is applied to the electrodes sufficient to generate a discharge plasma (e.g., a one-atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma) in the gas adjacent to the substrate, the asymmetry in the electrode configuration results in force being applied to the active species in the plasma and in turn to the neutral background gas. Depending on the relative orientation of the electrodes to the gas, the present invention can be used to accelerate or decelerate the gas. The present invention has many potential applications, including increasing or decreasing aerodynamic drag or turbulence, and controlling the flow of active and/or neutral species for such uses as flow separation, altering heat flow, plasma cleaning, sterilization, deposition, etching, or alteration in wettability, printability, and/or adhesion.

  16. Focal spot motion of linear accelerators and its effect on portal image analysis.

    PubMed

    Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Brand, Bob; van Herk, Marcel

    2003-06-01

    The focal spot of a linear accelerator is often considered to have a fully stable position. In practice, however, the beam control loop of a linear accelerator needs to stabilize after the beam is turned on. As a result, some motion of the focal spot might occur during the start-up phase of irradiation. When acquiring portal images, this motion will affect the projected position of anatomy and field edges, especially when low exposures are used. In this paper, the motion of the focal spot and the effect of this motion on portal image analysis are quantified. A slightly tilted narrow slit phantom was placed at the isocenter of several linear accelerators and images were acquired (3.5 frames per second) by means of an amorphous silicon flat panel imager positioned approximately 0.7 m below the isocenter. The motion of the focal spot was determined by converting the tilted slit images to subpixel accurate line spread functions. The error in portal image analysis due to focal spot motionwas estimated by a subtraction of the relative displacement of the projected slit from the relative displacement of the field edges. It was found that the motion of the focal spot depends on the control system and design of the accelerator. The shift of the focal spot at the start of irradiation ranges between 0.05-0.7 mm in the gun-target (GT) direction. In the left-right (AB) direction the shift is generally smaller. The resulting error in portal image analysis due to focal spotmotion ranges between 0.05-1.1 mm for a dose corresponding to two monitor units (MUs). For 20 MUs, the effect of the focal spot motion reduces to 0.01-0.3 mm. The error in portal image analysis due to focal spot motion can be reduced by reducing the applied dose rate.

  17. Aerodynamic and Thermal Performance Characteristics of Supersonic-X Type Decelerators at Mach Number 8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    SUPERSONIC -X TYPE DECELERATORS AT MACH NUMBER 8 t’z.r I # I JJ’, o,. VON KARMAN GAS DYNAMICS FACILITY ARNOLD ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT CENTER AIR FORCE...AERODYNAMIC AND THERMAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPERSONIC - X TYPE DECELERATORS AT MACH NUMBER 8 ’ 7 AU THORCs,: p ; J . D. Corce , ARO, Inc...pe r fo rmance cha rac t e r i s t i c s of model nylon, Kevlar 29, and Bisbenzimidazobenzophenanthroline Supersonic -X type parachutes behind a

  18. Engineering design manual of parachute decelerator characteristics for space shuttle solid rocket booster recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansfield, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The design criteria and characteristics of parachutes for recovery of the solid rocket boosters used with the space shuttle launch are presented. A computer program for analyzing the requirements of the parachute decelerators is described. The computer inputs for both the drogue and main parachute decelerators are; (1) parachute size, (2) deployment conditions, (3) inflation times, (4) reefing times, (5) mass properties, (6) spring properties, and (7) aerodynamic coefficients. Graphs of the parachute performance are included.

  19. Mode-Locked Deceleration of Molecular Beams: Physics with Ultracold Molecules

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-07

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0035 Mode-Locked Deceleration of Molecular Beams: Physics with Ultracold Molecules Wesley Campbell UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA...REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) April 2013 - June 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mode-Locked Deceleration of Molecular Beams: Physics with...of Molecular Beams: Physics with Ultracold Molecules" P.I. Wesley C. Campbell Report Period: April 1, 2013- March 30, 2016 As a direct result of

  20. Fetal heart rate deceleration detection using a discrete cosine transform implementation of singular spectrum analysis.

    PubMed

    Warrick, P A; Precup, D; Hamilton, E F; Kearney, R E

    2007-01-01

    To develop a singular-spectrum analysis (SSA) based change-point detection algorithm applicable to fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring to improve the detection of deceleration events. We present a method for decomposing a signal into near-orthogonal components via the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and apply this in a novel online manner to change-point detection based on SSA. The SSA technique forms models of the underlying signal that can be compared over time; models that are sufficiently different indicate signal change points. To adapt the algorithm to deceleration detection where many successive similar change events can occur, we modify the standard SSA algorithm to hold the reference model constant under such conditions, an approach that we term "base-hold SSA". The algorithm is applied to a database of 15 FHR tracings that have been preprocessed to locate candidate decelerations and is compared to the markings of an expert obstetrician. Of the 528 true and 1285 false decelerations presented to the algorithm, the base-hold approach improved on standard SSA, reducing the number of missed decelerations from 64 to 49 (21.9%) while maintaining the same reduction in false-positives (278). The standard SSA assumption that changes are infrequent does not apply to FHR analysis where decelerations can occur successively and in close proximity; our base-hold SSA modification improves detection of these types of event series.

  1. Bianchi Type-I Anisotropic Dark Energy Model with Constant Deceleration Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Anirudh; Amirhashchi, H.; Saha, Bijan

    2011-09-01

    A new dark energy model in anisotropic Bianchi type-I (B-I) space-time with time dependent equation of state (EoS) parameter and constant deceleration parameter has been investigated in the present paper. The Einstein's field equations have been solved by applying a variation law for generalized Hubble's parameter (Berman in Il Nuovo Cimento B 74:182, 1983) which generates two types of solutions, one is of power-law type and other is of the exponential form. The existing range of the dark energy EoS parameter ω for derived model is found to be in good agreement with the three recent observations (i) SNe Ia data (Knop et al. in Astrophys. J. 598:102, 2003), (ii) SNe Ia data collaborated with CMBR anisotropy and galaxy clustering statistics (Tegmark et al. in Astrophys. J. 606:702, 2004) and (iii) a combination of cosmological datasets coming from CMB anisotropies, luminosity distances of high redshift type Ia supernovae and galaxy clustering (Hinshaw et al. in Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 180:225, 2009 and Komatsu et al. in Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 180:330, 2009). The cosmological constant Λ is found to be a decreasing function of time and it approaches a small positive value at the present epoch which is corroborated by results from recent supernovae Ia observations. It has also been suggested that the dark energy that explains the observed accelerating universe may arise due to the contribution to the vacuum energy of the EoS in a time dependent background. Geometric and kinematic properties of the model and the behaviour of the anisotropy of the dark energy have been carried out.

  2. Deceleration of High-velocity Interstellar Photon Sails into Bound Orbits at α Centauri

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, René; Hippke, Michael, E-mail: heller@mps.mpg.de, E-mail: hippke@ifda.eu

    At a distance of about 4.22 ly, it would take about 100,000 years for humans to visit our closest stellar neighbor Proxima Centauri using modern chemical thrusters. New technologies are now being developed that involve high-power lasers firing at 1 gram solar sails in near-Earth orbits, accelerating them to 20% the speed of light ( c ) within minutes. Although such an interstellar probe could reach Proxima 20 years after launch, without propellant to slow it down it would traverse the system within hours. Here we demonstrate how the stellar photon pressures of the stellar triple α Cen A, B,more » and C (Proxima) can be used together with gravity assists to decelerate incoming solar sails from Earth. The maximum injection speed at α Cen A to park a sail with a mass-to-surface ratio ( σ ) similar to graphene (7.6 × 10{sup −4} gram m{sup −2}) in orbit around Proxima is about 13,800 km s{sup −1} (4.6% c ), implying travel times from Earth to α Cen A and B of about 95 years and another 46 years (with a residual velocity of 1280 km s{sup −1}) to Proxima. The size of such a low- σ sail required to carry a payload of 10 grams is about 10{sup 5} m{sup 2} = (316 m){sup 2}. Such a sail could use solar photons instead of an expensive laser system to gain interstellar velocities at departure. Photogravitational assists allow visits of three stellar systems and an Earth-sized potentially habitable planet in one shot, promising extremely high scientific yields.« less

  3. Deceleration of High-velocity Interstellar Photon Sails into Bound Orbits at α Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, René; Hippke, Michael

    2017-02-01

    At a distance of about 4.22 ly, it would take about 100,000 years for humans to visit our closest stellar neighbor Proxima Centauri using modern chemical thrusters. New technologies are now being developed that involve high-power lasers firing at 1 gram solar sails in near-Earth orbits, accelerating them to 20% the speed of light (c) within minutes. Although such an interstellar probe could reach Proxima 20 years after launch, without propellant to slow it down it would traverse the system within hours. Here we demonstrate how the stellar photon pressures of the stellar triple α Cen A, B, and C (Proxima) can be used together with gravity assists to decelerate incoming solar sails from Earth. The maximum injection speed at α Cen A to park a sail with a mass-to-surface ratio (σ) similar to graphene (7.6 × 10-4 gram m-2) in orbit around Proxima is about 13,800 km s-1 (4.6% c), implying travel times from Earth to α Cen A and B of about 95 years and another 46 years (with a residual velocity of 1280 km s-1) to Proxima. The size of such a low-σ sail required to carry a payload of 10 grams is about 105 m2 = (316 m)2. Such a sail could use solar photons instead of an expensive laser system to gain interstellar velocities at departure. Photogravitational assists allow visits of three stellar systems and an Earth-sized potentially habitable planet in one shot, promising extremely high scientific yields.

  4. Biochar Decelerates Soil Organic Nitrogen Cycling but Stimulates Soil Nitrification in a Temperate Arable Field Trial

    PubMed Central

    Prommer, Judith; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Trojan, Daniela; Offre, Pierre; Urich, Tim; Schleper, Christa; Sassmann, Stefan; Kitzler, Barbara; Soja, Gerhard; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca Clare

    2014-01-01

    Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N) cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem) in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50–80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers) and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies. PMID:24497947

  5. Biochar decelerates soil organic nitrogen cycling but stimulates soil nitrification in a temperate arable field trial.

    PubMed

    Prommer, Judith; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Trojan, Daniela; Offre, Pierre; Urich, Tim; Schleper, Christa; Sassmann, Stefan; Kitzler, Barbara; Soja, Gerhard; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca Clare

    2014-01-01

    Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N) cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem) in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50-80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers) and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies.

  6. Failure modes and effects criticality analysis and accelerated life testing of LEDs for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, M.; Christou, A.

    2012-12-01

    While use of LEDs in Fiber Optics and lighting applications is common, their use in medical diagnostic applications is not very extensive. Since the precise value of light intensity will be used to interpret patient results, understanding failure modes [1-4] is very important. We used the Failure Modes and Effects Criticality Analysis (FMECA) tool to identify the critical failure modes of the LEDs. FMECA involves identification of various failure modes, their effects on the system (LED optical output in this context), their frequency of occurrence, severity and the criticality of the failure modes. The competing failure modes/mechanisms were degradation of: active layer (where electron-hole recombination occurs to emit light), electrodes (provides electrical contact to the semiconductor chip), Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) surface layer (used to improve current spreading and light extraction), plastic encapsulation (protective polymer layer) and packaging failures (bond wires, heat sink separation). A FMECA table is constructed and the criticality is calculated by estimating the failure effect probability (β), failure mode ratio (α), failure rate (λ) and the operating time. Once the critical failure modes were identified, the next steps were generation of prior time to failure distribution and comparing with our accelerated life test data. To generate the prior distributions, data and results from previous investigations were utilized [5-33] where reliability test results of similar LEDs were reported. From the graphs or tabular data, we extracted the time required for the optical power output to reach 80% of its initial value. This is our failure criterion for the medical diagnostic application. Analysis of published data for different LED materials (AlGaInP, GaN, AlGaAs), the Semiconductor Structures (DH, MQW) and the mode of testing (DC, Pulsed) was carried out. The data was categorized according to the materials system and LED structure such as AlGaInP-DH-DC, Al

  7. Manufacturing Error Effects on Mechanical Properties and Dynamic Characteristics of Rotor Parts under High Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Mei-Hui; Wang, Cheng-Lin; Ren, Bin

    2017-07-01

    Stress, strain and vibration characteristics of rotor parts should be changed significantly under high acceleration, manufacturing error is one of the most important reason. However, current research on this problem has not been carried out. A rotor with an acceleration of 150,000 g is considered as the objective, the effects of manufacturing errors on rotor mechanical properties and dynamic characteristics are executed by the selection of the key affecting factors. Through the force balance equation of the rotor infinitesimal unit establishment, a theoretical model of stress calculation based on slice method is proposed and established, a formula for the rotor stress at any point derives. A finite element model (FEM) of rotor with holes is established with manufacturing errors. The changes of the stresses and strains of a rotor in parallelism and symmetry errors are analyzed, which verify the validity of the theoretical model. The pre-stressing modal analysis is performed based on the aforementioned static analysis. The key dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The results demonstrated that, as the parallelism and symmetry errors increase, the equivalent stresses and strains of the rotor slowly increase linearly, the highest growth rate does not exceed 4%, the maximum change rate of natural frequency is 0.1%. The rotor vibration mode is not significantly affected. The FEM construction method of the rotor with manufacturing errors can be utilized for the quantitative research on rotor characteristics, which will assist in the active control of rotor component reliability under high acceleration.

  8. Accelerated aging effects on surface hardness and roughness of lingual retainer adhesives.

    PubMed

    Ramoglu, Sabri Ilhan; Usumez, Serdar; Buyukyilmaz, Tamer

    2008-01-01

    To test the null hypothesis that accelerated aging has no effect on the surface microhardness and roughness of two light-cured lingual retainer adhesives. Ten samples of light-cured materials, Transbond Lingual Retainer (3M Unitek) and Light Cure Retainer (Reliance) were cured with a halogen light for 40 seconds. Vickers hardness and surface roughness were measured before and after accelerated aging of 300 hours in a weathering tester. Differences between mean values were analyzed for statistical significance using a t-test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < .05. The mean Vickers hardness of Transbond Lingual Retainer was 62.8 +/- 3.5 and 79.6 +/- 4.9 before and after aging, respectively. The mean Vickers hardness of Light Cure Retainer was 40.3 +/- 2.6 and 58.3 +/- 4.3 before and after aging, respectively. Differences in both groups were statistically significant (P < .001). Following aging, mean surface roughness was changed from 0.039 microm to 0.121 microm and from 0.021 microm to 0.031 microm for Transbond Lingual Retainer and Light Cure Retainer, respectively. The roughening of Transbond Lingual Retainer with aging was statistically significant (P < .05), while the change in the surface roughness of Light Cure Retainer was not (P > .05). Accelerated aging significantly increased the surface microhardness of both light-cured retainer adhesives tested. It also significantly increased the surface roughness of the Transbond Lingual Retainer.

  9. Effect of accelerated environmental aging on tensile properties of oil palm/jute hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawaid, M.; Saba, N.; Alothman, O.; Paridah, M. T.

    2016-11-01

    Recently natural fibre based hybrid composites are receiving growing consideration due to environmental and biodegradability properties. In order to look behaviour of hybrid composites in outdoor applications, its environmental degradation properties such as UV accelerated weathering properties need to analyze. In this study oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and jute fibres reinforced hybrid composites, pure EFB, pure jute and epoxy composites were fabricated through hand lay-up techniques. Hybrid composites with different layering pattern (EFB/jute/EFB and Jute/EFB/jute) while maintaining 40 wt. % total fibre loading were fabricates to compared with EFB and jute composites. Effect of UV accelerated environmental aging on tensile properties of epoxy, pure EFB, pure jute, and hybrid composites were assessed and evaluate under UV exposure. Tensile samples of all composites were subjected to accelerated weathering for 100h, at temperature (75°C), relative humidity (35%), Light (125 W/m2), and water spray off. Obtained results indicated that there is reduction in tensile strength, modulus and elongation at break values of hybrid and pure composites due to degradation of lignin and fibre-matrix interfacial bonding.

  10. The effect of a longitudinal density gradient on electron plasma wake field acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiklauri, David

    2016-12-01

    Three-dimensional, particle-in-cell, fully electromagnetic simulations of electron plasma wake field acceleration in the blow-out regime are presented. Earlier results are extended by (i) studying the effect of a longitudinal density gradient, (ii) avoiding the use of a co-moving simulation box, (iii) inclusion of ion motion, and (iv) studying fully electromagnetic plasma wake fields. It is established that injecting driving and trailing electron bunches into a positive density gradient of 10-fold increasing density over 10 cm long lithium vapour plasma results in spatially more compact and three times larger, compared with the uniform density case, electric fields (-6.4×1010 V m-1), leading to acceleration of the trailing bunch up to 24.4 GeV (starting from an initial 20.4 GeV), with energy transfer efficiencies from the leading to trailing bunch of 75%. In the uniform density case, a -2.5×1010 V m-1 wake is created leading to acceleration of the trailing bunch up to 22.4 GeV, with energy transfer efficiencies of 65%. It is also established that injecting the electron bunches into a negative density gradient of 10-fold decreasing density over 10 cm long plasma results in spatially more spread and two and a half smaller electric fields (-1.0×1010 V m-1), leading to a weaker acceleration of the trailing bunch up to 21.4 GeV, with energy transfer efficiencies of 45%. Taking ion motions into consideration shows that in the plasma wake ion number density can increase over a few times the background value. It is also shown that transverse electromagnetic fields in a plasma wake are of the same order as the longitudinal (electrostatic) ones.

  11. Effects of Frequency and Motion Paradigm on Perception of Tilt and Translation During Periodic Linear Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaton, K. H.; Holly, J. E.; Clement, G. R.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an effect of frequency on the gain of tilt and translation perception. Results from different motion paradigms are often combined to extend the stimulus frequency range. For example, Off-Vertical Axis Rotation (OVAR) and Variable Radius Centrifugation (VRC) are useful to test low frequencies of linear acceleration at amplitudes that would require impractical sled lengths. The purpose of this study was to compare roll-tilt and lateral translation motion perception in 12 healthy subjects across four paradigms: OVAR, VRC, sled translation and rotation about an earth-horizontal axis. Subjects were oscillated in darkness at six frequencies from 0.01875 to 0.6 Hz (peak acceleration equivalent to 10 deg, less for sled motion below 0.15 Hz). Subjects verbally described the amplitude of perceived tilt and translation, and used a joystick to indicate the direction of motion. Consistent with previous reports, tilt perception gain decreased as a function of stimulus frequency in the motion paradigms without concordant canal tilt cues (OVAR, VRC and Sled). Translation perception gain was negligible at low stimulus frequencies and increased at higher frequencies. There were no significant differences between the phase of tilt and translation, nor did the phase significantly vary across stimulus frequency. There were differences in perception gain across the different paradigms. Paradigms that included actual tilt stimuli had the larger tilt gains, and paradigms that included actual translation stimuli had larger translation gains. In addition, the frequency at which there was a crossover of tilt and translation gains appeared to vary across motion paradigm between 0.15 and 0.3 Hz. Since the linear acceleration in the head lateral plane was equivalent across paradigms, differences in gain may be attributable to the presence of linear accelerations in orthogonal directions and/or cognitive aspects based on the expected motion paths.

  12. Interlaboratory study of the ion source memory effect in 36Cl accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavetich, Stefan; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Arnold, Maurice; Aumaître, Georges; Bourlès, Didier; Buchriegler, Josef; Golser, Robin; Keddadouche, Karim; Martschini, Martin; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Steier, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Understanding and minimization of contaminations in the ion source due to cross-contamination and long-term memory effect is one of the key issues for accurate accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements of volatile elements. The focus of this work is on the investigation of the long-term memory effect for the volatile element chlorine, and the minimization of this effect in the ion source of the Dresden accelerator mass spectrometry facility (DREAMS). For this purpose, one of the two original HVE ion sources at the DREAMS facility was modified, allowing the use of larger sample holders having individual target apertures. Additionally, a more open geometry was used to improve the vacuum level. To evaluate this improvement in comparison to other up-to-date ion sources, an interlaboratory comparison had been initiated. The long-term memory effect of the four Cs sputter ion sources at DREAMS (two sources: original and modified), ASTER (Accélérateur pour les Sciences de la Terre, Environnement, Risques) and VERA (Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator) had been investigated by measuring samples of natural 35Cl/37Cl-ratio and samples highly-enriched in 35Cl (35Cl/37Cl ∼ 999). Besides investigating and comparing the individual levels of long-term memory, recovery time constants could be calculated. The tests show that all four sources suffer from long-term memory, but the modified DREAMS ion source showed the lowest level of contamination. The recovery times of the four ion sources were widely spread between 61 and 1390 s, where the modified DREAMS ion source with values between 156 and 262 s showed the fastest recovery in 80% of the measurements.

  13. Nonlinear dynamics of autonomous vehicles with limits on acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. C.

    2014-07-01

    The stability of autonomous vehicle platoons with limits on acceleration and deceleration is determined. If the leading-vehicle acceleration remains within the limits, all vehicles in the platoon remain within the limits when the relative-velocity feedback coefficient is equal to the headway time constant [k=1/h]. Furthermore, if the sensitivity α>1/h, no collisions occur. String stability for small perturbations is assumed and the initial condition is taken as the equilibrium state. Other values of k and α that give stability with no collisions are found from simulations. For vehicles with non-negligible mechanical response, simulations indicate that the acceleration-feedback-control gain might have to be dynamically adjusted to obtain optimal performance as the response time changes with engine speed. Stability is demonstrated for some perturbations that cause initial acceleration or deceleration greater than the limits, yet do not cause collisions.

  14. Perturbations for transient acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Cristofher Zuñiga; Zimdahl, Winfried; Hipólito-Ricaldi, Wiliam S., E-mail: win_unac@hotmail.com, E-mail: hipolito@ceunes.ufes.br, E-mail: winfried.zimdahl@pq.cnpq.br

    2012-04-01

    According to the standard ΛCDM model, the accelerated expansion of the Universe will go on forever. Motivated by recent observational results, we explore the possibility of a finite phase of acceleration which asymptotically approaches another period of decelerated expansion. Extending an earlier study on a corresponding homogeneous and isotropic dynamics, in which interactions between dark matter and dark energy are crucial, the present paper also investigates the dynamics of the matter perturbations both on the Newtonian and General Relativistic (GR) levels and quantifies the potential relevance of perturbations of the dark-energy component. In the background, the model is tested againstmore » the Supernova type Ia (SNIa) data of the Constitution set and on the perturbative level against growth rate data, among them those of the WiggleZ survey, and the data of the 2dFGRS project. Our results indicate that a transient phase of accelerated expansion is not excluded by current observations.« less

  15. Small-scale laser based electron accelerators for biology and medicine: a comparative study of the biological effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labate, Luca; Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Baffigi, Federica; Basta, Giuseppina; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Borghini, Andrea; Candiano, Giuliana C.; Casarino, Carlo; Cresci, Monica; Di Martino, Fabio; Fulgentini, Lorenzo; Ghetti, Francesco; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Giulietti, Antonio; Köster, Petra; Lenci, Francesco; Levato, Tadzio; Oishi, Yuji; Russo, Giorgio; Sgarbossa, Antonella; Traino, Claudio; Gizzi, Leonida A.

    2013-05-01

    Laser-driven electron accelerators based on the Laser Wakefield Acceleration process has entered a mature phase to be considered as alternative devices to conventional radiofrequency linear accelerators used in medical applications. Before entering the medical practice, however, deep studies of the radiobiological effects of such short bunches as the ones produced by laser-driven accelerators have to be performed. Here we report on the setup, characterization and first test of a small-scale laser accelerator for radiobiology experiments. A brief description of the experimental setup will be given at first, followed by an overview of the electron bunch characterization, in particular in terms of dose delivered to the samples. Finally, the first results from the irradiation of biological samples will be briefly discussed.

  16. Effects of Experiment Location and Orbiter Attitude on the Residual Acceleration On-Board STS-73 (USML-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakimzadeh, Roshanak; McPherson, Kevin M.; Matisak, Brian P.; Wagar, William O.

    1997-01-01

    A knowledge of the quasi-steady acceleration environment on the NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter is of particular importance for materials processing experiments which are limited by slow diffusive processes. The quasi-steady (less than 1 HZ) acceleration environment on STS-73 (USML-2) was measured using the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) accelerometer. One of the facilities flown on USML-2 was the Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF), which was used by several Principal Investigators (PIS) to grow crystals. In this paper the OARE data mapped to the sample melt location within this furnace is presented. The ratio of the axial to radial components of the quasi-steady acceleration at the melt site is presented. Effects of Orbiter attitude on the acceleration data is discussed.

  17. The effects of resisted sprint training on acceleration performance and kinematics in soccer, rugby union, and Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Spinks, Christopher D; Murphy, Aron J; Spinks, Warwick L; Lockie, Robert G

    2007-02-01

    Acceleration is a significant feature of game-deciding situations in the various codes of football. However little is known about the acceleration characteristics of football players, the effects of acceleration training, or the effectiveness of different training modalities. This study examined the effects of resisted sprint (RS) training (weighted sled towing) on acceleration performance (0-15 m), leg power (countermovement jump [CMJ], 5-bound test [5BT], and 50-cm drop jump [50DJ]), gait (foot contact time, stride length, stride frequency, step length, and flight time), and joint (shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee) kinematics in men (N = 30) currently playing soccer, rugby union, or Australian football. Gait and kinematic measurements were derived from the first and second strides of an acceleration effort. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment conditions: (a) 8-week sprint training of two 1-h sessions x wk(-1) plus RS training (RS group, n = 10), (b) 8-week nonresisted sprint training program of two 1-h sessions x wk(-1) (NRS group, n = 10), or (c) control (n = 10). The results indicated that an 8-week RS training program (a) significantly improves acceleration and leg power (CMJ and 5BT) performance but is no more effective than an 8-week NRS training program, (b) significantly improves reactive strength (50DJ), and (c) has minimal impact on gait and upper- and lower-body kinematics during acceleration performance compared to an 8-week NRS training program. These findings suggest that RS training will not adversely affect acceleration kinematics and gait. Although apparently no more effective than NRS training, this training modality provides an overload stimulus to acceleration mechanics and recruitment of the hip and knee extensors, resulting in greater application of horizontal power.

  18. Generalized fractional diffusion equations for accelerating subdiffusion and truncated Lévy flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chechkin, A. V.; Gonchar, V. Yu.; Gorenflo, R.; Korabel, N.; Sokolov, I. M.

    2008-08-01

    Fractional diffusion equations are widely used to describe anomalous diffusion processes where the characteristic displacement scales as a power of time. For processes lacking such scaling the corresponding description may be given by diffusion equations with fractional derivatives of distributed order. Such equations were introduced in A. V. Chechkin, R. Gorenflo, and I. Sokolov [Phys. Rev. E 66, 046129 (2002)] for the description of the processes getting more anomalous in the course of time (decelerating subdiffusion and accelerating superdiffusion). Here we discuss the properties of diffusion equations with fractional derivatives of the distributed order for the description of anomalous relaxation and diffusion phenomena getting less anomalous in the course of time, which we call, respectively, accelerating subdiffusion and decelerating superdiffusion. For the former process, by taking a relatively simple particular example with two fixed anomalous diffusion exponents we show that the proposed equation effectively describes the subdiffusion phenomenon with diffusion exponent varying in time. For the latter process we demonstrate by a particular example how the power-law truncated Lévy stable distribution evolves in time to the distribution with power-law asymptotics and Gaussian shape in the central part. The special case of two different orders is characteristic for the general situation in which the extreme orders dominate the asymptotics.

  19. Effect of Austenite Deformation on the Microstructure Evolution and Grain Refinement Under Accelerated Cooling Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H.; Palmiere, E. J.

    2017-07-01

    Although there has been much research regarding the effect of austenite deformation on accelerated cooled microstructures in microalloyed steels, there is still a lack of accurate data on boundary densities and effective grain sizes. Previous results observed from optical micrographs are not accurate enough, because, for displacive transformation products, a substantial part of the boundaries have disorientation angles below 15 deg. Therefore, in this research, a niobium microalloyed steel was used and electron backscattering diffraction mappings were performed on all of the transformed microstructures to obtain accurate results on boundary densities and grain refinement. It was found that with strain rising from 0 to 0.5, a transition from bainitic ferrite to acicular ferrite occurs and the effective grain size reduces from 5.7 to 3.1 μm. When further increasing strain from 0.5 to 0.7, dynamic recrystallization was triggered and postdynamic softening occurred during the accelerated cooling, leading to an inhomogeneous and coarse transformed microstructure. In the entire strain range, the density changes of boundaries with different disorientation angles are distinct, due to different boundary formation mechanisms. Finally, the controversial influence of austenite deformation on effective grain size of low-temperature transformation products was argued to be related to the differences in transformation conditions and final microstructures.

  20. Effects of Prenatal Irradiation with an Accelerated Heavy-Ion Beam on Postnatal Development in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Fujita, K.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Effects on postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring were studied following exposure of pregnant Wistar rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV mu m at a dose range from 0 1 Gy to 2 0Gy on the 15th day of gestation The age at which four physiologic markers appeared and five reflexes were acquired was examined prior to weaning Gain in body weight was monitored until the offspring were 3 months old Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison Our previous study on carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV mu m was also cited to elucidate a possible LET-related effect For most of the endpoints at early age significant alteration was even observed in offspring prenatally received 0 1 Gy of accelerated neon ions while neither X rays nor carbon-ions under the same dose resulted in such a significant alteration compared to that from the sham-irradiated dams All offspring whose mothers received 2 0 Gy died prior to weaning Offspring from dams irradiated with accelerated neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death and preweaning mortality markedly delayed accomplishment in their physiological markers and reflexes and gain in body weight compared to those exposed to X-rays or carbon ions at doses of 0 1 to 1 5 Gy Significantly reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight at postnatal ages of 30 60 and 90 days were also observed

  1. Passive Thermal Control for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Test Vehicle Spin Motors Sub-System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmond, Matthew; Mastropietro, A. J.; Pauken, Michael; Mobley, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Future missions to Mars will require improved entry, descent, and landing (EDL) technology over the Viking-heritage systems which recently landed the largest payload to date, the 900 kg Mars Science Laboratory. As a result, NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project is working to advance the state of the art in Mars EDL systems by developing and testing three key technologies which will enable heavier payloads and higher altitude landing sites on the red planet. These technologies consist of a large 33.5 m diameter Supersonic Disk Sail (SSDS) parachute and two different Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) devices - a robotic class that inflates to a 6 m diameter torus (SIAD-R), and an exploration class that inflates to an 8 m diameter isotensoid (SIADE). All three technologies will be demonstrated on test vehicles at high earth altitudes in order to simulate the Mars EDL environment. Each vehicle will be carried to altitude by a large helium balloon, released, spun up using spin motors to stabilize the vehicle's trajectory, and accelerated to supersonic speeds using a large solid rocket motor. The vehicle will then be spun down using another set of spin motors, and will deploy either the SIAD-R or SIAD-E, followed by the SSDS parachute until the vehicle lands in the ocean. Component level testing and bounding analysis are used to ensure the survival of system components in extreme thermal environments and predict temperatures throughout the flight. This paper presents a general description of the thermal testing, model correlation, and analysis of the spin motor passive thermal control sub-system to maintain spin motor performance, prescribed vehicle trajectory, and structural integrity of the test vehicle. The spin motor subsystem is predicted to meet its requirements with margin.

  2. Characterization of Vinyl Ester Composites Filled with Carbonized Jatropha seed shell: effect of accelerated weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sri Aprilia, N. A.; Khalil, H. P. S. Abdul; Amin, Amri; Meurah Rosnelly, Cut; Fathanah, Ummi; Mariana

    2018-05-01

    The effect of accelerated weathering test of carbonized jatropha seed shell filled vinyl ester biocomposites was investigated. In this study, four loading of carbonized jatropha seed shell and one without loading of vinyl ester biocomposites were used. The samples exposure at several circles time in QUV chamber. The durability of vinyl ester biocomposites filled carbonized jatropha seed shell changes in mechanical properties and weight loss during exposure in UV and condensation. The tensile test and flexural indicated decrease with increasing of carbonized jatropha seed shell loading. The SEM fracture surface of biocomposites looks rough and some carbonized out of the matrix.

  3. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Technology Development Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Stephen J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Calomino, Anthony M.; Wright, Henry S.

    2013-01-01

    The successful flight of the Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE)-3 has further demonstrated the potential value of Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology. This technology development effort is funded by NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP). This paper provides an overview of a multi-year HIAD technology development effort, detailing the projects completed to date and the additional testing planned for the future. The effort was divided into three areas: Flexible Systems Development (FSD), Mission Advanced Entry Concepts (AEC), and Flight Validation. FSD consists of a Flexible Thermal Protection Systems (FTPS) element, which is investigating high temperature materials, coatings, and additives for use in the bladder, insulator, and heat shield layers; and an Inflatable Structures (IS) element which includes manufacture and testing (laboratory and wind tunnel) of inflatable structures and their associated structural elements. AEC consists of the Mission Applications element developing concepts (including payload interfaces) for missions at multiple destinations for the purpose of demonstrating the benefits and need for the HIAD technology as well as the Next Generation Subsystems element. Ground test development has been pursued in parallel with the Flight Validation IRVE-3 flight test. A larger scale (6m diameter) HIAD inflatable structure was constructed and aerodynamically tested in the National Full-scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40ft by 80ft test section along with a duplicate of the IRVE-3 3m article. Both the 6m and 3m articles were tested with instrumented aerodynamic covers which incorporated an array of pressure taps to capture surface pressure distribution to validate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model predictions of surface pressure distribution. The 3m article also had a duplicate IRVE-3 Thermal Protection System (TPS) to test in addition to testing with the

  4. The Challenges of Integrating Instrumentation with Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Gregory T.; Cassell, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    To realize the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) goal of landing humans on Mars, development of technologies to facilitate the landing of heavy payloads are being explored. Current entry, decent, and landing technologies are not practical when utilizing these heavy payloads due to mass and volume constraints dictated by limitations imposed by current launch vehicle fairings. Therefore, past and present technologies are now being considered to provide a mass and volume efficient solution, including Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (IADs) [1]. IAD ground and flight tests are currently being conducted to develop and characterize their performance under flight-like conditions. The integrated instrumentation systems, which are key to the performance characterization in each of these tests, have proven to be a challenge compared to the instrumentation of traditional rigid aeroshells. To overcome these challenges, flexible and embedded sensing systems have been developed, along with improved instrumenting techniques. This development opportunity faces many difficult aspects specific to inflatable structures in extreme environments. These include but are not limited to: physical flexibility, packaging, temperature, structural integration and data acquisition [2]. To better define the instrumentation challenges posed by IAD technology development, a survey was conducted to identify valuable measurements for ground and flight testing. From this survey many sensing technologies were explored, resulting in a down-selection to the most viable prospects. These systems were then iterated upon in design to determine the best integration techniques specific to a 3m and 6m stacked torus IAD. Each sensing system was then integrated and employed to support the IAD testing in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40 x 80 wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center in the summer of 2012. Another challenge that has been explored is the data acquisition of IAD

  5. Effect of accelerated carbonation and zero valent iron on metal leaching from bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, M; Andreas, L; Lagerkvist, A

    2016-05-01

    . The effects of Fe(0) addition can be related to binding of the studied elements to newly formed iron oxides. The effects of Fe(0) addition were often more distinct at pH values between 7 and 9, which indicates that a single treatment with only Fe addition would be less effective and a combined treatment is recommended. The pHstat results showed that accelerated carbonation in combination with Fe(0)(0) addition widens the pH range for low solubility of about one unit for several of the studied elements. This indicates that pre-treating the bottom ash with a combination of accelerated carbonation and Fe(0) addition makes the leaching properties of the ash less sensitive to pH changes that may occur during reuse. All in all, the addition of Fe(0) in combination with carbonation could be an effective pre-treatment method for decreasing the mobility of potentially harmful components in bottom ash. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation reaction effect on laser driven auto-resonant particle acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Sagar, Vikram; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, P. K.

    2015-12-15

    The effects of radiation reaction force on laser driven auto-resonant particle acceleration scheme are studied using Landau-Lifshitz equation of motion. These studies are carried out for both linear and circularly polarized laser fields in the presence of static axial magnetic field. From the parametric study, a radiation reaction dominated region has been identified in which the particle dynamics is greatly effected by this force. In the radiation reaction dominated region, the two significant effects on particle dynamics are seen, viz., (1) saturation in energy gain by the initially resonant particle and (2) net energy gain by an initially non-resonant particlemore » which is caused due to resonance broadening. It has been further shown that with the relaxation of resonance condition and with optimum choice of parameters, this scheme may become competitive with the other present-day laser driven particle acceleration schemes. The quantum corrections to the Landau-Lifshitz equation of motion have also been taken into account. The difference in the energy gain estimates of the particle by the quantum corrected and classical Landau-Lifshitz equation is found to be insignificant for the present day as well as upcoming laser facilities.« less

  7. The Effect of Background Pressure on Electron Acceleration from Ultra-Intense Laser-Matter Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Manh; Ngirmang, Gregory; Orban, Chris; Morrison, John; Chowdhury, Enam; Roquemore, William

    2017-10-01

    We present two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations that investigate the role of background pressure on the acceleration of electrons from ultra intense laser interaction at normal incidence with liquid density ethylene glycol targets. The interaction was simulated at ten different pressures varying from 7.8 mTorr to 26 Torr. We calculated conversion efficiencies from the simulation results and plotted the efficiencies with respect to the background pressure. The results revealed that the laser to > 100 keV electron conversion efficiency remained flat around 0.35% from 7.8 mTorr to 1.2 Torr and increased exponentially from 1.2 Torr onward to about 1.47% at 26 Torr. Increasing the background pressure clearly has a dramatic effect on the acceleration of electrons from the target. We explain how electrostatic effects, in particular the neutralization of the target by the background plasma, allows electrons to escape more easily and that this effect is strengthened with higher densities. This work could facilitate the design of future experiments in increasing laser to electron conversion efficiency and generating substantial bursts of electrons with relativistic energies. This research is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under LRIR Project 17RQCOR504 under the management of Dr. Riq Parra and Dr. Jean-Luc Cambier. Support was also provided by the DOD HPCMP Internship Program.

  8. Can superhorizon cosmological perturbations explain the acceleration of the universe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Christopher M.; Seljak, Uroš

    2005-10-01

    We investigate the recent suggestions by Barausse et al. and Kolb et al. that the acceleration of the universe could be explained by large superhorizon fluctuations generated by inflation. We show that no acceleration can be produced by this mechanism. We begin by showing how the application of Raychaudhuri equation to inhomogeneous cosmologies results in several “no go” theorems for accelerated expansion. Next we derive an exact solution for a specific case of initial perturbations, for which application of the Kolb et al. expressions leads to an acceleration, while the exact solution reveals that no acceleration is present. We show that the discrepancy can be traced to higher-order terms that were dropped in the Kolb et al. analysis. We proceed with the analysis of initial value formulation of general relativity to argue that causality severely limits what observable effects can be derived from superhorizon perturbations. By constructing a Riemann normal coordinate system on initial slice we show that no infrared divergence terms arise in this coordinate system. Thus any divergences found previously can be eliminated by a local rescaling of coordinates and are unobservable. We perform an explicit analysis of the variance of the deceleration parameter for the case of single-field inflation using usual coordinates and show that the infrared-divergent terms found by Barausse et al. and Kolb et al. cancel against several additional terms not considered in their analysis. Finally, we argue that introducing isocurvature perturbations does not alter our conclusion that the accelerating expansion of the universe cannot be explained by superhorizon modes.

  9. Effect of epithalon on the incidence of chromosome aberrations in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, S V; Togo, E F; Mikheev, V S; Popovich, I G; Khavinson, V Kh; Anisimov, V N

    2002-03-01

    The incidence of chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells of 12-month-old SAMP-1 female mice characterized by accelerated aging was 1.8 times higher than in wild-type SAMR-1 females and 2.2 times higher than in SHR females of the same age. Treatment with Epithalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly) starting from the age of 2 months decreased the incidence of chromosome aberrations in SAMP-1, SAMR-1, and SHR mice by 20%, 30.1%, and 17.9%, respectively, compared to age-matched controls (p<0.05). Treatment with melatonin (given with drinking water in a dose of 20 mg/liter in night hours) had no effect on the incidence of chromosome aberrations in SHR mice. These data indicate antimutagenic effect of Epithalon, which probably underlies the geroprotective effect of this peptide.

  10. The effect of acceleration versus displacement methods on steady-state boundary forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    This study describes the acceleration and displacement methods for use in the recovery of coupled system boundary forces. A simple two degree of freedom system has been used for illustration. The effect of the choice of method for use with indeterminate or over-constrained boundaries has been investigated. It has specifically looked at results from a simple two dimensional beam problem using both methods. Much work has been done on the effect of Craig-Bampton modal truncation system displacements and forces, however, little work has been done on system level modal truncation. The findings of this study indicate that the effect of this system level truncation is significant. This may be particularly true for the 35 Hz system cutoff frequency that is required by the space shuttle. From this study's findings, recommendations for areas of study with space shuttle payload systems are made.

  11. Three-grid accelerator system for an ion propulsion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus is presented for an ion engine comprising a three-grid accelerator system with the decelerator grid biased negative of the beam plasma. This arrangement substantially reduces the charge-exchange ion current reaching the accelerator grid at high tank pressures, which minimizes erosion of the accelerator grid due to charge exchange ion sputtering, known to be the major accelerator grid wear mechanism. An improved method for life testing ion engines is also provided using the disclosed apparatus. In addition, the invention can also be applied in materials processing.

  12. Generalized essential energy space random walks to more effectively accelerate solute sampling in aqueous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Chao; Zheng, Lianqing; Yang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Molecular dynamics sampling can be enhanced via the promoting of potential energy fluctuations, for instance, based on a Hamiltonian modified with the addition of a potential-energy-dependent biasing term. To overcome the diffusion sampling issue, which reveals the fact that enlargement of event-irrelevant energy fluctuations may abolish sampling efficiency, the essential energy space random walk (EESRW) approach was proposed earlier. To more effectively accelerate the sampling of solute conformations in aqueous environment, in the current work, we generalized the EESRW method to a two-dimension-EESRW (2D-EESRW) strategy. Specifically, the essential internal energy component of a focused region and the essential interaction energy component between the focused region and the environmental region are employed to define the two-dimensional essential energy space. This proposal is motivated by the general observation that in different conformational events, the two essential energy components have distinctive interplays. Model studies on the alanine dipeptide and the aspartate-arginine peptide demonstrate sampling improvement over the original one-dimension-EESRW strategy; with the same biasing level, the present generalization allows more effective acceleration of the sampling of conformational transitions in aqueous solution. The 2D-EESRW generalization is readily extended to higher dimension schemes and employed in more advanced enhanced-sampling schemes, such as the recent orthogonal space random walk method.

  13. The effect of mathematical model development on the instruction of acceleration to introductory physics students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Tim Allen

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of utilizing student constructed theoretical math models when teaching acceleration to high school introductory physics students. The goal of the study was for the students to be able to utilize mathematical modeling strategies to improve their problem solving skills, as well as their standardized scientific and conceptual understanding. This study was based on mathematical modeling research, conceptual change research and constructivist theory of learning, all of which suggest that mathematical modeling is an effective way to influence students' conceptual connectiveness and sense making of formulaic equations and problem solving. A total of 48 students in two sections of high school introductory physics classes received constructivist, inquiry-based, cooperative learning, and conceptual change-oriented instruction. The difference in the instruction for the 24 students in the mathematical modeling treatment group was that they constructed every formula they needed to solve problems from data they collected. In contrast, the instructional design for the control group of 24 students allowed the same instruction with assigned problems solved with formulas given to them without explanation. The results indicated that the mathematical modeling students were able to solve less familiar and more complicated problems with greater confidence and mental flexibility than the control group students. The mathematical modeling group maintained fewer alternative conceptions consistently in the interviews than did the control group. The implications for acceleration instruction from these results were discussed.

  14. Effective Acceleration Model for the Arrival Time of Interplanetary Shocks driven by Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paouris, Evangelos; Mavromichalaki, Helen

    2017-12-01

    In a previous work (Paouris and Mavromichalaki in Solar Phys. 292, 30, 2017), we presented a total of 266 interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) with as much information as possible. We developed a new empirical model for estimating the acceleration of these events in the interplanetary medium from this analysis. In this work, we present a new approach on the effective acceleration model (EAM) for predicting the arrival time of the shock that preceds a CME, using data of a total of 214 ICMEs. For the first time, the projection effects of the linear speed of CMEs are taken into account in this empirical model, which significantly improves the prediction of the arrival time of the shock. In particular, the mean value of the time difference between the observed time of the shock and the predicted time was equal to +3.03 hours with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 18.58 hours and a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 22.47 hours. After the improvement of this model, the mean value of the time difference is decreased to -0.28 hours with an MAE of 17.65 hours and an RMSE of 21.55 hours. This improved version was applied to a set of three recent Earth-directed CMEs reported in May, June, and July of 2017, and we compare our results with the values predicted by other related models.

  15. Subclinical decelerations during developing hypotension in preterm fetal sheep after acute on chronic lipopolysaccharide exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lear, Christopher A.; Davidson, Joanne O.; Galinsky, Robert; Yuill, Caroline A.; Wassink, Guido; Booth, Lindsea C.; Drury, Paul P.; Bennet, Laura; Gunn, Alistair J.

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical (shallow) heart rate decelerations occur during neonatal sepsis, but there is limited information on their relationship with hypotension or whether they occur before birth. We examined whether subclinical decelerations, a fall in fetal heart rate (FHR) that remained above 100 bpm, were associated with hypotension in preterm fetal sheep exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Chronically-instrumented fetal sheep at 0.7 gestation received continuous low-dose LPS infusions (n = 15, 100 ng/kg over 24 h, followed by 250 ng/kg/24 h for 96 h) or saline (n = 8). Boluses of 1 μg LPS or saline were given at 48 and 72 h. FHR variability (FHRV) was calculated, and sample asymmetry was used to assess the severity and frequency of decelerations. Low-dose LPS infusion did not affect FHR. After the first LPS bolus, 7 fetuses remained normotensive, while 8 developed hypotension (a fall in mean arterial blood pressure of ≥5 mmHg). Developing hypotension was associated with subclinical decelerations, with a corresponding increase in sample asymmetry and FHRV (p < 0.05). The second LPS bolus was associated with similar but attenuated changes in FHR and blood pressure (p < 0.05). In conclusion, subclinical decelerations are not consistently seen during prenatal exposure to LPS, but may be a useful marker of developing inflammation-related hypotension before birth. PMID:26537688

  16. Getting a grip on the transverse motion in a Zeeman decelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Dulitz, Katrin; Softley, Timothy P., E-mail: tim.softley@chem.ox.ac.uk; Motsch, Michael

    2014-03-14

    Zeeman deceleration is an experimental technique in which inhomogeneous, time-dependent magnetic fields generated inside an array of solenoid coils are used to manipulate the velocity of a supersonic beam. A 12-stage Zeeman decelerator has been built and characterized using hydrogen atoms as a test system. The instrument has several original features including the possibility to replace each deceleration coil individually. In this article, we give a detailed description of the experimental setup, and illustrate its performance. We demonstrate that the overall acceptance in a Zeeman decelerator can be significantly increased with only minor changes to the setup itself. This ismore » achieved by applying a rather low, anti-parallel magnetic field in one of the solenoid coils that forms a temporally varying quadrupole field, and improves particle confinement in the transverse direction. The results are reproduced by three-dimensional numerical particle trajectory simulations thus allowing for a rigorous analysis of the experimental data. The findings suggest the use of a modified coil configuration to improve transverse focusing during the deceleration process.« less

  17. Effect of Peripheral μ-, δ-, and κ-Opioid Ligands on the Development of Tolerance to Ethanol-Induced Analgesia.

    PubMed

    Sudakov, S K; Alekseeva, E V; Nazarova, G A

    2017-06-01

    We studied the rate of development of tolerance to the ethanol-induced analgesia under the effect of μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid agonists and antagonists not crossing the blood-brain barrier and rapidly inactivated by gastric and duodenal proteolytic enzymes. Activation of gastric κ-opioid receptors eliminated the analgesic effect of ethanol and accelerated the development of tolerance to ethanol-induced analgesia. In contrast, activation of gastric μ-opioid receptors decelerated the development of this tolerance. Activation of gastric δ-opioid receptors produced no effect on examined tolerance. μ-Opioid receptor antagonist decelerated and δ-opioid receptor antagonist accelerated the development of tolerance to ethanol-induced analgesia. Thus, the state of gastric opioid receptors affects the manifestation of ethanol-induced analgesia and the development of tolerance to this effect.

  18. Effects of Alfvénic Drift on Diffusive Shock Acceleration at Weak Cluster Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu

    2018-03-01

    Non-detection of γ-ray emission from galaxy clusters has challenged diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) of cosmic-ray (CR) protons at weak collisionless shocks that are expected to form in the intracluster medium. As an effort to address this problem, we here explore possible roles of Alfvén waves self-excited via resonant streaming instability during the CR acceleration at parallel shocks. The mean drift of Alfvén waves may either increase or decrease the scattering center compression ratio, depending on the postshock cross-helicity, leading to either flatter or steeper CR spectra. We first examine such effects at planar shocks, based on the transport of Alfvén waves in the small amplitude limit. For the shock parameters relevant to cluster shocks, Alfvénic drift flattens the CR spectrum slightly, resulting in a small increase of the CR acceleration efficiency, η. We then consider two additional, physically motivated cases: (1) postshock waves are isotropized via MHD and plasma processes across the shock transition, and (2) postshock waves contain only forward waves propagating along with the flow due to a possible gradient of CR pressure behind the shock. In these cases, Alfvénic drift could reduce η by as much as a factor of five for weak cluster shocks. For the canonical parameters adopted here, we suggest η ∼ 10‑4–10‑2 for shocks with sonic Mach number M s ≈ 2–3. The possible reduction of η may help ease the tension between non-detection of γ-rays from galaxy clusters and DSA predictions.

  19. Acute Effect of Different Combined Stretching Methods on Acceleration and Speed in Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Amiri-Khorasani, Mohammadtaghi; Calleja-Gonzalez, Julio; Mogharabi-Manzari, Mansooreh

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of different stretching methods, during a warm-up, on the acceleration and speed of soccer players. The acceleration performance of 20 collegiate soccer players (body height: 177.25 ± 5.31 cm; body mass: 65.10 ± 5.62 kg; age: 16.85 ± 0.87 years; BMI: 20.70 ± 5.54; experience: 8.46 ± 1.49 years) was evaluated after different warm-up procedures, using 10 and 20 m tests. Subjects performed five types of a warm-up: static, dynamic, combined static + dynamic, combined dynamic + static, and no-stretching. Subjects were divided into five groups. Each group performed five different warm-up protocols in five non-consecutive days. The warm-up protocol used for each group was randomly assigned. The protocols consisted of 4 min jogging, a 1 min stretching program (except for the no-stretching protocol), and 2 min rest periods, followed by the 10 and 20 m sprint test, on the same day. The current findings showed significant differences in the 10 and 20 m tests after dynamic stretching compared with static, combined, and no-stretching protocols. There were also significant differences between the combined stretching compared with static and no-stretching protocols. We concluded that soccer players performed better with respect to acceleration and speed, after dynamic and combined stretching, as they were able to produce more force for a faster execution.

  20. Time effect of erosion by solid particle impingement on ductile materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, P. V.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Erosion and morphological studies of several metals and alloys eroded by normal impingement jets of spherical glass beads and angular crushed-glass erodent particles were conducted. Erosion morphology (the width, depth, and width-depth ratio of the pit) was studied in order to fully investigate the effect of time on erosion rate. The eroded surfaces were studied with a scanning electron microscope, and surface profiles were measured with a profilometer. A large amount of experimental data reported in the literature was also analyzed in order to understand the effect of variables such as the type of device, the erodent particle size and shape, the impact velocity, and the abrasive charge on erosion-rate-versus-time curves. In the present experiments the pit-width-versus-time or pit-depth-versus-time curves were similar to erosion-versus-time curves for glass-bead impingement. The pit-depth-rate-versus-time curves were similar to erosion-rate-versus-time curves for crushed-glass impingement. Analysis of experimental data with two forms of glass resulted in four types of erosion-rate-versus-time curves: (1) incubation, acceleration, and steady-state periods (type I), (2) incubation, acceleration, deceleration, and steady-state periods (type III), (3) incubation, acceleration, peak rate, and deceleration periods (type IV), and (4) incubation, acceleration, steady-state, and deceleration periods (type V).

  1. PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Teng, L.C.

    1960-01-19

    ABS>A combination of two accelerators, a cyclotron and a ring-shaped accelerator which has a portion disposed tangentially to the cyclotron, is described. Means are provided to transfer particles from the cyclotron to the ring accelerator including a magnetic deflector within the cyclotron, a magnetic shield between the ring accelerator and the cyclotron, and a magnetic inflector within the ring accelerator.

  2. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  3. Obstetrics at Decisive Crossroads Regarding Pattern-Recognition of Fetal Heart Rate Decelerations: Scientific Principles and Lessons From Memetics.

    PubMed

    Sholapurkar, Shashikant L

    2018-04-01

    The survival of cardiotocography (CTG) as a tool for intrapartum fetal monitoring seems threatened somewhat unjustifiably and unwittingly despite the absence of better alternatives. Fetal heart rate (FHR) decelerations are center-stage (most important) in the interpretation of CTG with maximum impact on three-tier classification. The pattern-discrimination of FHR decelerations is inexorably linked to their nomenclature. Unscientific or flawed nomenclature of decelerations can explain the dysfunctional CTG interpretation leading to errors in detection of acidemic fetuses. There are three contrasting concepts about categorization of FHR decelerations: 1) all rapid decelerations (the vast majority) should be grouped as "variable" because they are predominantly due to cord-compression, 2) all decelerations are due to chemoreflex from fetal hypoxemia hence their timing is not important, and 3) FHR decelerations should be categorized into "early/late/variable" based primarily on their time relationship to contractions. These theoretical concepts are like memes (ideas/beliefs). Lessons from "memetics" are that the most popular, attractive or established beliefs may not necessarily be true, scientific, beneficial or even without harm. Decelerations coincident with contractions with trough corresponding to the peak of contractions cannot be explained by cord-compression or increasing hypoxia (from compromised uteroplacental perfusion, cord-compression or even cerebral hypoperfusion/anoxia purportedly conceivable from head-compression). Decelerations due to hypoxemia would be associated with delayed recovery of decelerations (lag phase). It is a scientific imperative to cast away disproven/falsified theories. Practices based on unscientific theories lead to patient harm. Clinicians should urgently adopt the categorization of FHR decelerations based primarily of the time relationship to contractions as originally proposed by Hon and Caldeyro-Barcia. This analytical review

  4. Mission and Design Sensitivities for Human Mars Landers Using Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polsgrove, Tara P.; Thomas, Herbert D.; Collins, Tim; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Samareh, Jamshid

    2017-01-01

    Landing humans on Mars is one of NASA's long term goals. The Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) is focused on evaluating architectural trade options to define the capabilities and elements needed for a sustainable human presence on the surface of Mars. The EMC study teams have considered a variety of in-space propulsion options and surface mission options. As we seek to better understand how these choices affect the performance of the lander, this work informs and influences requirements for transportation systems to deliver the landers to Mars and enable these missions. This paper presents the effects of mission and vehicle design options on lander mass and performance. Beginning with Earth launch, options include fairing size assumptions, co-manifesting other elements with the lander, and Earth-Moon vicinity operations. Capturing into Mars orbit using either aerocapture or propulsive capture is assessed. For entry, descent, and landing both storable as well as oxygen and methane propellant combinations are considered, engine thrust level is assessed, and sensitivity to landed payload mass is presented. This paper focuses on lander designs using the Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIAD), one of several entry system technologies currently considered for human missions.

  5. Mission and Design Sensitivities for Human Mars Landers Using Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polsgrove, Tara P.; Thomas, Herbert D.; Dwyer Ciancio, Alicia; Collins, Tim; Samareh, Jamshid

    2017-01-01

    Landing humans on Mars is one of NASA's long term goals. NASA's Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) is focused on evaluating architectural trade options to define the capabilities and elements needed to sustain human presence on the surface of Mars. The EMC study teams have considered a variety of in-space propulsion options and surface mission options. Understanding how these choices affect the performance of the lander will allow a balanced optimization of this complex system of systems problem. This paper presents the effects of mission and vehicle design options on lander mass and performance. Beginning with Earth launch, options include fairing size assumptions, co-manifesting elements with the lander, and Earth-Moon vicinity operations. Capturing into Mars orbit using either aerocapture or propulsive capture is assessed. For entry, descent, and landing both storable as well as oxygen and methane propellant combinations are considered, engine thrust level is assessed, and sensitivity to landed payload mass is presented. This paper focuses on lander designs using the Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators, one of several entry system technologies currently considered for human missions.

  6. Flight Dynamics of an Aeroshell Using an Attached Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Juan R.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Axdahl, Erik; Wilhite, Alan

    2009-01-01

    An aeroelastic analysis of the behavior of an entry vehicle utilizing an attached inflatable aerodynamic decelerator during supersonic flight is presented. The analysis consists of a planar, four degree of freedom simulation. The aeroshell and the IAD are assumed to be separate, rigid bodies connected with a spring-damper at an interface point constraining the relative motion of the two bodies. Aerodynamic forces and moments are modeled using modified Newtonian aerodynamics. The analysis includes the contribution of static aerodynamic forces and moments as well as pitch damping. Two cases are considered in the analysis: constant velocity flight and planar free flight. For the constant velocity and free flight cases with neutral pitch damping, configurations with highly-stiff interfaces exhibit statically stable but dynamically unstable aeroshell angle of attack. Moderately stiff interfaces exhibit static and dynamic stability of aeroshell angle of attack due to damping induced by the pitch angle rate lag between the aeroshell and IAD. For the free-flight case, low values of both the interface stiffness and damping cause divergence of the aeroshell angle of attack due to the offset of the IAD drag force with respect to the aeroshell center of mass. The presence of dynamic aerodynamic moments was found to influence the stability characteristics of the vehicle. The effect of gravity on the aeroshell angle of attack stability characteristics was determined to be negligible for the cases investigated.

  7. Preliminary Structural Sensitivity Study of Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator Using Probabilistic Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyle, Karen H.

    2014-01-01

    Acceptance of new spacecraft structural architectures and concepts requires validated design methods to minimize the expense involved with technology validation via flighttesting. This paper explores the implementation of probabilistic methods in the sensitivity analysis of the structural response of a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD). HIAD architectures are attractive for spacecraft deceleration because they are lightweight, store compactly, and utilize the atmosphere to decelerate a spacecraft during re-entry. However, designers are hesitant to include these inflatable approaches for large payloads or spacecraft because of the lack of flight validation. In the example presented here, the structural parameters of an existing HIAD model have been varied to illustrate the design approach utilizing uncertainty-based methods. Surrogate models have been used to reduce computational expense several orders of magnitude. The suitability of the design is based on assessing variation in the resulting cone angle. The acceptable cone angle variation would rely on the aerodynamic requirements.

  8. Simultaneous, Unsteady PIV and Photogrammetry Measurements of a Tension-Cone Decelerator in Subsonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schairer, Edward T.; Heineck, James T.; Walker, Louise Ann; Kushner, Laura Kathryn; Zilliac, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes simultaneous, synchronized, high-frequency measurements of both unsteady flow in the wake of a tension-cone decelerator in subsonic flow (by PIV) and the unsteady shape of the decelerator (by photogrammetry). The purpose of these measurements was to develop the test techniques necessary to validate numerical methods for computing fluid-structure interactions of flexible decelerators. A critical need for this effort is to map fabric surfaces that have buckled or wrinkled so that code developers can accurately represent them. This paper describes a new photogrammetric technique that performs this measurement. The work was done in support of the Entry, Descent, and Landing discipline within the Supersonics Project of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program.

  9. Comparison of Analysis with Test for Static Loading of Two Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyle, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    Acceptance of new spacecraft structural architectures and concepts requires validated design methods to minimize the expense involved with technology demonstration via flight-testing. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) architectures are attractive for spacecraft deceleration because they are lightweight, store compactly, and utilize the atmosphere to decelerate a spacecraft during entry. However, designers are hesitant to include these inflatable approaches for large payloads or spacecraft because of the lack of flight validation. This publication summarizes results comparing analytical results with test data for two concepts subjected to representative entry, static loading. The level of agreement and ability to predict the load distribution is considered sufficient to enable analytical predictions to be used in the design process.

  10. Post-Flight Aerodynamic and Aerothermal Model Validation of a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Chun; Muppidi, Suman; Bose, Deepak; Van Norman, John W.; Tanimoto, Rebekah; Clark, Ian

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Program is developing new technologies that will enable the landing of heavier payloads in low density environments, such as Mars. A recent flight experiment conducted high above the Hawaiian Islands has demonstrated the performance of several decelerator technologies. In particular, the deployment of the Robotic class Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD-R) was highly successful, and valuable data were collected during the test flight. This paper outlines the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis used to estimate the aerodynamic and aerothermal characteristics of the SIAD-R. Pre-flight and post-flight predictions are compared with the flight data, and a very good agreement in aerodynamic force and moment coefficients is observed between the CFD solutions and the reconstructed flight data.

  11. The Effects of Height and Distance on the Force Production and Acceleration in Martial Arts Strikes

    PubMed Central

    Bolander, Richard P.; Neto, Osmar Pinto; Bir, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    Almost all cultures have roots in some sort of self defence system and yet there is relatively little research in this area, outside of a sports related environment. This project investigated different applications of strikes from Kung Fu practitioners that have not been addressed before in the literature. Punch and palm strikes were directly compared from different heights and distances, with the use of a load cell, accelerometers, and high speed video. The data indicated that the arm accelerations of both strikes were similar, although the force and resulting acceleration of the target were significantly greater for the palm strikes. Additionally, the relative height at which the strike was delivered was also investigated. The overall conclusion is that the palm strike is a more effective strike for transferring force to an object. It can also be concluded that an attack to the chest would be ideal for maximizing impact force and moving an opponent off balance. Key Points It has been determined that the palm strike is more effective than the punch for developing force and for transferring momentum, most likely the result of a reduced number of rigid links and joints. A strike at head level is less effective than a strike at chest level for developing force and transferring momentum. Distance plays an effect on the overall force and momentum changes, and most likely is dependent on the velocity of the limb and alignment of the bones prior to impact. The teaching of self defence for novices and law enforcement would benefit from including the palm strike as a high priority technique. PMID:24474886

  12. Resonant ion acceleration by plasma jets: Effects of jet breaking and the magnetic-field curvature.

    PubMed

    Artemyev, A V; Vasiliev, A A

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we consider resonant ion acceleration by a plasma jet originating from the magnetic reconnection region. Such jets propagate in the background magnetic field with significantly curved magnetic-field lines. Decoupling of ion and electron motions at the leading edge of the jet results in generation of strong electrostatic fields. Ions can be trapped by this field and get accelerated along the jet front. This mechanism of resonant acceleration resembles surfing acceleration of charged particles at a shock wave. To describe resonant acceleration of ions, we use adiabatic theory of resonant phenomena. We show that particle motion along the curved field lines significantly influences the acceleration rate. The maximum gain of energy is determined by the particle's escape from the system due to this motion. Applications of the proposed mechanism to charged-particle acceleration in the planetary magnetospheres and the solar corona are discussed.

  13. A new look at liming as an approach to accelerate recovery from acidic deposition effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Burns, Douglas A.; Murray, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Acidic deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion has degraded aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in North America for over four decades. The only management option other than emissions reductions for combating the effects of acidic deposition has been the application of lime to neutralize acidity after it has been deposited on the landscape. For this reason, liming has been a part of acid rain science from the beginning. However, continued declines in acidic deposition have led to partial recovery of surface water chemistry, and the start of soil recovery. Liming is therefore no longer needed to prevent further damage, so the question becomes whether liming would be useful for accelerating recovery of systems where improvement has lagged. As more is learned about recovering ecosystems, it has become clear that recovery rates vary with watershed characteristics and among ecosystem components. Lakes appear to show the strongest recovery, but recovery in streams is sluggish and recovery of soils appears to be in the early stages. The method in which lime is applied is therefore critical in achieving the goal of accelerated recovery. Application of lime to a watershed provides the advantage of increasing Ca availability and reducing or preventing mobilization of toxic Al, an outcome that is beneficial to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the goal should not be complete neutralization of soil acidity, which is naturally produced. Liming of naturally acidic areas such as wetlands should also be avoided to prevent damage to indigenous species that rely on an acidic environment.

  14. Effect of prolonged bedrest and plus Gz acceleration on peripheral visual response time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    Peripheral visual response time changes during +G sub z acceleration following fourteen days of bedrest are considered as well as what effect prolonged bedrest has upon this response. Eighteen test lights, placed 10 deg are apart along the horizontal meridian of the subject's field of view, were presented in a random sequence. The subject was instructed to press a button as soon as a light appeared. Response time testing occurred periodically during bedrest and continuously during centrifugation testing. The results indicate that: (1) mean response time is significantly longer to stimuli imaged in the far periphery than to stimuli imaged closer to the line of sight; (2) mean response time at each stimulus position tends to be longer at plateau g than during the preacceleration baseline period; (3) mean response time tends to lengthen as the g level is increased; (4) peripheral visual response time during +G sub x acceleration at 2, 3.2, and 3.8 g was not a reliable advanced indicator that blackout was going to occur; and (5) the subject's field of view collapsed rapidly just before blackout. Bedrest data showed that the distribution of response times to stimuli imaged across the subject's horizontal retinal meridian remained remarkably constant from day to day during both the bedrest and recovery periods.

  15. The Interaction of Motor Performance and Psycho-Physiological Effects During Acceleration to Hypergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardiera, Simon; Schneider, Stefan

    2008-06-01

    Several studies reported that human motor performance is impaired during acceleration to hypergravity. While physiological explanations (e.g. vestibular activity) are widely discussed, psycho-physiological reasons (e.g. stress) are less considered. The present study therefore evaluates the interaction between psycho-physiological effects and motor performance in hypergravity. Eleven subjects performed a manual tracking task. Additionally, stress hormone concentration, EEG and subjective mood were evaluated. All measurements were performed in normal (+1Gz), and in (or directly after) three times gravitational acceleration (+3Gz). Motor performance decreased, while all determined stress hormone concentrations increased in +3Gz. EEG analysis revealed an increase of brain cortical activity in right frontal lobe in +3Gz. Subjective mood decreased due to +3Gz. Our data confirm, that motor performance is decreased in hypergravity, whereas an increase in psychophysiological stress markers could be obtained. We conclude that psycho-physiological changes have to be regarded as a possible explanation for deficits in motor performance in hypergravity.

  16. A new look at liming as an approach to accelerate recovery from acidic deposition effects.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Burns, Douglas A; Riva-Murray, Karen

    2016-08-15

    Acidic deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion has degraded aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in North America for over four decades. The only management option other than emissions reductions for combating the effects of acidic deposition has been the application of lime to neutralize acidity after it has been deposited on the landscape. For this reason, liming has been a part of acid rain science from the beginning. However, continued declines in acidic deposition have led to partial recovery of surface water chemistry, and the start of soil recovery. Liming is therefore no longer needed to prevent further damage, so the question becomes whether liming would be useful for accelerating recovery of systems where improvement has lagged. As more is learned about recovering ecosystems, it has become clear that recovery rates vary with watershed characteristics and among ecosystem components. Lakes appear to show the strongest recovery, but recovery in streams is sluggish and recovery of soils appears to be in the early stages. The method in which lime is applied is therefore critical in achieving the goal of accelerated recovery. Application of lime to a watershed provides the advantage of increasing Ca availability and reducing or preventing mobilization of toxic Al, an outcome that is beneficial to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the goal should not be complete neutralization of soil acidity, which is naturally produced. Liming of naturally acidic areas such as wetlands should also be avoided to prevent damage to indigenous species that rely on an acidic environment. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Aerodynamic Interactions of Propulsive Deceleration and Reaction Control System Jets on Mars-Entry Aeroshells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkandry, Hicham

    Future missions to Mars, including sample-return and human-exploration missions, may require alternative entry, descent, and landing technologies in order to perform pinpoint landing of heavy vehicles. Two such alternatives are propulsive deceleration (PD) and reaction control systems (RCS). PD can slow the vehicle during Mars atmospheric descent by directing thrusters into the incoming freestream. RCS can provide vehicle control and steering by inducing moments using thrusters on the hack of the entry capsule. The use of these PD and RCS jets, however, involves complex flow interactions that are still not well understood. The fluid interactions induced by PD and RCS jets for Mars-entry vehicles in hypersonic freestream conditions are investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The effects of central and peripheral PD configurations using both sonic and supersonic jets at various thrust conditions are examined in this dissertation. The RCS jet is directed either parallel or transverse to the freestream flow at different thrust conditions in order to examine the effects of the thruster orientation with respect to the center of gravity of the aeroshell. The physical accuracy of the computational method is also assessed by comparing the numerical results with available experimental data. The central PD configuration decreases the drag force acting on the entry capsule due to a shielding effect that prevents mass and momentum in the hypersonic freestream from reaching the aeroshell. The peripheral PD configuration also decreases the drag force by obstructing the flow around the aeroshell and creating low surface pressure regions downstream of the PD nozzles. The Mach number of the PD jets, however, does not have a significant effect on the induced fluid interactions. The reaction control system also alters the flowfield, surface, and aerodynamic properties of the aeroshell, while the jet orientation can have a significant effect on the control effectiveness

  18. ACCELERATED FAILURE TIME MODELS PROVIDE A USEFUL STATISTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR AGING RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    Swindell, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Survivorship experiments play a central role in aging research and are performed to evaluate whether interventions alter the rate of aging and increase lifespan. The accelerated failure time (AFT) model is seldom used to analyze survivorship data, but offers a potentially useful statistical approach that is based upon the survival curve rather than the hazard function. In this study, AFT models were used to analyze data from 16 survivorship experiments that evaluated the effects of one or more genetic manipulations on mouse lifespan. Most genetic manipulations were found to have a multiplicative effect on survivorship that is independent of age and well-characterized by the AFT model “deceleration factor”. AFT model deceleration factors also provided a more intuitive measure of treatment effect than the hazard ratio, and were robust to departures from modeling assumptions. Age-dependent treatment effects, when present, were investigated using quantile regression modeling. These results provide an informative and quantitative summary of survivorship data associated with currently known long-lived mouse models. In addition, from the standpoint of aging research, these statistical approaches have appealing properties and provide valuable tools for the analysis of survivorship data. PMID:19007875

  19. Accelerated failure time models provide a useful statistical framework for aging research.

    PubMed

    Swindell, William R

    2009-03-01

    Survivorship experiments play a central role in aging research and are performed to evaluate whether interventions alter the rate of aging and increase lifespan. The accelerated failure time (AFT) model is seldom used to analyze survivorship data, but offers a potentially useful statistical approach that is based upon the survival curve rather than the hazard function. In this study, AFT models were used to analyze data from 16 survivorship experiments that evaluated the effects of one or more genetic manipulations on mouse lifespan. Most genetic manipulations were found to have a multiplicative effect on survivorship that is independent of age and well-characterized by the AFT model "deceleration factor". AFT model deceleration factors also provided a more intuitive measure of treatment effect than the hazard ratio, and were robust to departures from modeling assumptions. Age-dependent treatment effects, when present, were investigated using quantile regression modeling. These results provide an informative and quantitative summary of survivorship data associated with currently known long-lived mouse models. In addition, from the standpoint of aging research, these statistical approaches have appealing properties and provide valuable tools for the analysis of survivorship data.

  20. The effect of viscosity on steady transonic flow with a nodal solution topology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owocki, Stanley P.; Zank, Gary P.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of viscosity on a steady, transonic flow for which the inviscid limit has a nodal solution topology near the critical point is investigated. For the accelerating case, viscous solutions tend to repel each other, so that a very delicate choice of initial conditions is required to prevent them from diverging. Only the two critical solutions extend to arbitrarily large distances into both the subsonic and supersonic flows. For the decelerating case, the solutions tend to attract, and so an entire two-parameter family of solutions now extends over large distances. The general effect of viscosity on the solution degeneracy of a nodal topology is thus to reduce or limit it for the accelerating case and to enhance it for the decelerating case. The astrophysical implications of these findings are addressed.

  1. Rapid deceleration-driven wetting transition during pendant drop deposition on superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuk-Min; Paxson, Adam T; Varanasi, Kripa K; Patankar, Neelesh A

    2011-01-21

    A hitherto unknown mechanism for wetting transition is reported. When a pendant drop settles upon deposition, there is a virtual "collision" where its center of gravity undergoes rapid deceleration. This induces a high water hammer-type pressure that causes wetting transition. A new phase diagram shows that both large and small droplets can transition to wetted states due to the new deceleration driven and the previously known Laplace mechanisms, respectively. It is explained how the attainment of a nonwetted Cassie-Baxter state is more restrictive than previously known.

  2. Rapid Deceleration-Driven Wetting Transition during Pendant Drop Deposition on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Min; Paxson, Adam T.; Varanasi, Kripa K.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2011-01-01

    A hitherto unknown mechanism for wetting transition is reported. When a pendant drop settles upon deposition, there is a virtual “collision” where its center of gravity undergoes rapid deceleration. This induces a high water hammer-type pressure that causes wetting transition. A new phase diagram shows that both large and small droplets can transition to wetted states due to the new deceleration driven and the previously known Laplace mechanisms, respectively. It is explained how the attainment of a nonwetted Cassie-Baxter state is more restrictive than previously known.

  3. The Mars Exploration Rovers Entry Descent and Landing and the Use of Aerodynamic Decelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, Adam; Desai, Prasun; Lee, Wayne; Bruno, Robin

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) project, the next United States mission to the surface of Mars, uses aerodynamic decelerators in during its entry, descent and landing (EDL) phase. These two identical missions (MER-A and MER-B), which deliver NASA s largest mobile science suite to date to the surface of Mars, employ hypersonic entry with an ablative energy dissipating aeroshell, a supersonic/subsonic disk-gap-band parachute and an airbag landing system within EDL. This paper gives an overview of the MER EDL system and speaks to some of the challenges faced by the various aerodynamic decelerators.

  4. Physical condition for the slowing down of cosmic acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming-Jian; Xia, Jun-Qing

    2018-04-01

    The possible slowing down of cosmic acceleration was widely studied. However, judgment on this effect in different dark energy parameterizations was very ambiguous. Moreover, the reason of generating these uncertainties was still unknown. In the present paper, we analyze the derivative of deceleration parameter q‧ (z) using the Gaussian processes. This model-independent reconstruction suggests that no slowing down of acceleration is presented within 95% C.L. from the Union2.1 and JLA supernova data. However, q‧ (z) from the observational H (z) data is a little smaller than zero at 95% C.L., which indicates that future H (z) data may have a potential to test this effect. From the evolution of q‧ (z), we present an interesting constraint on the dark energy and observational data. The physical constraint clearly solves the problem of why some dark energy models cannot produce this effect in previous work. Comparison between the constraint and observational data also shows that most of current data are not in the allowed regions. This implies a reason of why current data cannot convincingly measure this effect.

  5. Using Power Ultrasound to Accelerate Food Freezing Processes: Effects on Freezing Efficiency and Food Microstructure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peizhi; Zhu, Zhiwei; Sun, Da-Wen

    2018-05-31

    Freezing is an effective way of food preservation. However, traditional freezing methods have the disadvantages of low freezing efficiency and generation of large ice crystals, leading to possible damage of food quality. Power ultrasound assisted freezing as a novel technique can effectively reduce the adverse effects during freezing process. This paper gives an overview on recent researches of power ultrasound technique to accelerate the food freezing processes and illustrates the main principles of power ultrasound assisted freezing. The effects of power ultrasound on liquid food, model solid food as well as fruit and vegetables are discussed, respectively, from the aspects of increasing freezing rate and improving microstructure. It is shown that ultrasound assisted freezing can effectively improve the freezing efficiency and promote the formation of small and evenly distributed ice crystals, resulting in better food quality. Different inherent properties of food samples affect the effectiveness of ultrasound application and optimum ultrasound parameters depend on the nature of the samples. The application of ultrasound to the food industry is more likely on certain types of food products and more efforts are still needed to realize the industrial translation of laboratory results.

  6. Experimental setup for Single Event Effects at the São Paulo 8UD Pelletron Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, V. A. P.; Added, N.; Medina, N. H.; Macchione, E. L. A.; Tabacniks, M. H.; Aguirre, F. R.; Silveira, M. A. G.; Santos, R. B. B.; Seixas, L. E.

    2014-08-01

    In this work we present an experimental setup mounted in one of the beam lines at the São Paulo 8UD Pelletron Accelerator in order to study Single Event Effects in electronic devices. The basic idea is to use elastic scattering collisions to achieve a low-flux with a high-uniformity ion beam to irradiate several devices. 12C, 16O, 28Si, 35Cl and 63Cu beams were used to test the experimental setup. In this system it is possible to use efficiently LET values of 17 MeV/mg/cm2 for an external beam arrangement and up to 32 MeV/mg/cm2 for in-vacuum irradiation.

  7. Big Data and Comparative Effectiveness Research in Radiation Oncology: Synergy and Accelerated Discovery.

    PubMed

    Trifiletti, Daniel M; Showalter, Timothy N

    2015-01-01

    Several advances in large data set collection and processing have the potential to provide a wave of new insights and improvements in the use of radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The era of electronic health records, genomics, and improving information technology resources creates the opportunity to leverage these developments to create a learning healthcare system that can rapidly deliver informative clinical evidence. By merging concepts from comparative effectiveness research with the tools and analytic approaches of "big data," it is hoped that this union will accelerate discovery, improve evidence for decision making, and increase the availability of highly relevant, personalized information. This combination offers the potential to provide data and analysis that can be leveraged for ultra-personalized medicine and high-quality, cutting-edge radiation therapy.

  8. Big Data and Comparative Effectiveness Research in Radiation Oncology: Synergy and Accelerated Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Trifiletti, Daniel M.; Showalter, Timothy N.

    2015-01-01

    Several advances in large data set collection and processing have the potential to provide a wave of new insights and improvements in the use of radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The era of electronic health records, genomics, and improving information technology resources creates the opportunity to leverage these developments to create a learning healthcare system that can rapidly deliver informative clinical evidence. By merging concepts from comparative effectiveness research with the tools and analytic approaches of “big data,” it is hoped that this union will accelerate discovery, improve evidence for decision making, and increase the availability of highly relevant, personalized information. This combination offers the potential to provide data and analysis that can be leveraged for ultra-personalized medicine and high-quality, cutting-edge radiation therapy. PMID:26697409

  9. GPU-accelerated computational tool for studying the effectiveness of asteroid disruption techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Ben J.; Wie, Bong

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the development of a new Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) accelerated computational tool for asteroid disruption techniques. Numerical simulations are completed using the high-order spectral difference (SD) method. Due to the compact nature of the SD method, it is well suited for implementation with the GPU architecture, hence solutions are generated at orders of magnitude faster than the Central Processing Unit (CPU) counterpart. A multiphase model integrated with the SD method is introduced, and several asteroid disruption simulations are conducted, including kinetic-energy impactors, multi-kinetic energy impactor systems, and nuclear options. Results illustrate the benefits of using multi-kinetic energy impactor systems when compared to a single impactor system. In addition, the effectiveness of nuclear options is observed.

  10. Track Structure and the Biological Effectiveness of Accelerated Particles for the Induction of Chromosome Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, K.; Hada, M.; Chappell, L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    Track structure models predict that at a fixed value of LET, particles with lower charge number, Z will have a higher biological effectiveness compared to particles with a higher Z. In this report we investigated how track structure effects induction of chromosomal aberration in human cells. Human lymphocytes were irradiated in vitro with various energies of accelerated iron, silicon, neon, or titanium ions and chromosome damage was assessed in using three color FISH chromosome painting in chemically induced PCC samples collected a first cell division post irradiation. The LET values for these ions ranged from 30 to195 keV/micron. Of the particles studied, Neon ions have the highest biological effectiveness for induction of total chromosome damage, which is consistent with track structure model predictions. For complex-type exchanges 64 MeV/ u Neon and 450 MeV/u Iron were equally effective and induced the most complex damage. In addition we present data on chromosomes exchanges induced by six different energies of protons (5 MeV/u to 2.5 GeV/u). The linear dose response term was similar for all energies of protons suggesting that the effect of the higher LET at low proton energies is balanced by the production of nuclear secondaries from the high energy protons.

  11. An accelerator-based neutron microbeam system for studies of radiation effects

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Marino, Stephen A.; Bigelow, Alan W.; Akselrod, Mark S.; Sykora, Jeff G.; Brenner, David J.

    2011-01-01

    A novel neutron microbeam is being developed at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) of Columbia University. The RARAF microbeam facility has been used for studies of radiation bystander effects in mammalian cells for many years. Now a prototype neutron microbeam is being developed that can be used for bystander effect studies. The neutron microbeam design here is based on the existing charged particle microbeam technology at the RARAF. The principle of the neutron microbeam is to use the proton beam with a micrometre-sized diameter impinging on a very thin lithium fluoride target system. From the kinematics of the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction near the threshold of 1.881 MeV, the neutron beam is confined within a narrow, forward solid angle. Calculations show that the neutron spot using a target with a 17-µm thick gold backing foil will be <20 µm in diameter for cells attached to a 3.8-µm thick propylene-bottomed cell dish in contact with the target backing. The neutron flux will roughly be 2000 per second based on the current beam setup at the RARAF singleton accelerator. The dose rate will be about 200 mGy min−1. The principle of this neutron microbeam system has been preliminarily tested at the RARAF using a collimated proton beam. The imaging of the neutron beam was performed using novel fluorescent nuclear track detector technology based on Mg-doped luminescent aluminum oxide single crystals and confocal laser scanning fluorescent microscopy. PMID:21131327

  12. Solar Wind Acceleration: Modeling Effects of Turbulent Heating in Open Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolsey, Lauren N.; Cranmer, Steven R.

    2014-06-01

    We present two self-consistent coronal heating models that determine the properties of the solar wind generated and accelerated in magnetic field geometries that are open to the heliosphere. These models require only the radial magnetic field profile as input. The first code, ZEPHYR (Cranmer et al. 2007) is a 1D MHD code that includes the effects of turbulent heating created by counter-propagating Alfven waves rather than relying on empirical heating functions. We present the analysis of a large grid of modeled flux tubes (> 400) and the resulting solar wind properties. From the models and results, we recreate the observed anti-correlation between wind speed at 1 AU and the so-called expansion factor, a parameterization of the magnetic field profile. We also find that our models follow the same observationally-derived relation between temperature at 1 AU and wind speed at 1 AU. We continue our analysis with a newly-developed code written in Python called TEMPEST (The Efficient Modified-Parker-Equation-Solving Tool) that runs an order of magnitude faster than ZEPHYR due to a set of simplifying relations between the input magnetic field profile and the temperature and wave reflection coefficient profiles. We present these simplifying relations as a useful result in themselves as well as the anti-correlation between wind speed and expansion factor also found with TEMPEST. Due to the nature of the algorithm TEMPEST utilizes to find solar wind solutions, we can effectively separate the two primary ways in which Alfven waves contribute to solar wind acceleration: 1) heating the surrounding gas through a turbulent cascade and 2) providing a separate source of wave pressure. We intend to make TEMPEST easily available to the public and suggest that TEMPEST can be used as a valuable tool in the forecasting of space weather, either as a stand-alone code or within an existing modeling framework.

  13. The Effect of Acceleration Sprint and Zig-zag Drill Combination to Increase Students’ Speed and Agility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bana, O.; Mintarto, E.; Kusnanik, N. W.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the following factors: (1) how far the effect of exercise acceleration sprint on the speed and agility (2) how much influence the zig-zag drill combination to the speed and agility (3) and is there any difference between the effects of exercise acceleration sprint and practice zig-zag drill combination of the speed and agility. This research is quantitative with quasi-experimental approach. The design of this study is matching only design.This study was conducted on 33 male students who take part in extracurricular and divided into 3 groups with 11 students in each group. Group 1 was given training of acceleration sprint, group 2 was given zig-zag training combination drills of conventional and exercises for group 3, for 8 weeks. The data collection was using sprint 30 meter to test the speed and agility t-test to test agility. Data were analyzed using t-test and analysis of variance. The conclusion of the research is (1) there is a significant effect of exercise acceleration sprint for the speed and agility, (2) there is a significant influence combination zig-zag drills, on speed and agility (3) and exercise acceleration sprint have more effect on the speed and agility.

  14. High efficiency ion beam accelerator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.

    1981-01-01

    An ion accelerator system that successfully combines geometrical and electrostatic focusing principles is presented. This accelerator system uses thin, concave, multiple-hole, closely spaced graphite screen and focusing grids which are coupled to single slot accelerator and decelerator grids to provide high ion extraction efficiency and good focusing. Tests with the system showed a substantial improvement in ion beam current density and collimation as compared with a Pierce electrode configuration. Durability of the thin graphite screen and focusing grids has been proven, and tests are being performed to determine the minimum screen and focusing grid spacing and thickness required to extract the maximum reliable beam current density. Compared with present neutral beam injector accelerator systems, this one has more efficient ion extraction, easier grid alignment, easier fabrication, a less cumbersome design, and the capacity to be constructed in a modular fashion. Conceptual neutral beam injector designs using this modular approach have electrostatic beam deflection plates downstream of each module.

  15. Radially dependent angular acceleration of twisted light.

    PubMed

    Webster, Jason; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Forbes, Andrew

    2017-02-15

    While photons travel in a straight line at constant velocity in free space, the intensity profile of structured light may be tailored for acceleration in any degree of freedom. Here we propose a simple approach to control the angular acceleration of light. Using Laguerre-Gaussian modes as our twisted beams carrying orbital angular momentum, we show that superpositions of opposite handedness result in a radially dependent angular acceleration as they pass through a focus (waist plane). Due to conservation of orbital angular momentum, we find that propagation dynamics are complex despite the free-space medium: the outer part of the beam (rings) rotates in an opposite direction to the inner part (petals), and while the outer part accelerates, the inner part decelerates. We outline the concepts theoretically and confirm them experimentally. Such exotic structured light beams are topical due to their many applications, for instance in optical trapping and tweezing, metrology, and fundamental studies in optics.

  16. Preferential acceleration and magnetic field enhancement in plasmas with e{sup +}/e{sup −} beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Huynh, Cong Tuan; Ryu, Chang-Mo, E-mail: ryu201@postech.ac.kr

    A theoretical model of current filaments predicting preferential acceleration/deceleration and magnetic field enhancement in a plasma with e{sup +}/e{sup −} beam injection is presented. When the e{sup +}/e{sup −} beams are injected into a plasma, current filaments are formed. The beam particles are accelerated or decelerated depending on the types of current filaments in which they are trapped. It is found that in the electron/ion ambient plasma, the e{sup +} beam particles are preferentially accelerated, while the e{sup −} beam particles are preferentially decelerated. The preferential particle acceleration/deceleration is absent when the ambient plasma is the e{sup +}/e{sup −} plasma.more » We also find that the particle momentum decrease can explain the magnetic field increase during the development of Weibel/filamentation instability. Supporting simulation results of particle acceleration/deceleration and magnetic field enhancement are presented. Our findings can be applied to a wide range of astrophysical plasmas with the e{sup +}/e{sup −} beam injection.« less

  17. Maternal deprivation decelerates postnatal morphological lung development of F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Hupa, Katharina Luise; Schmiedl, Andreas; Pabst, Reinhard; Von Hörsten, Stephan; Stephan, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Intensive medical care at premature born infants is often associated with separation of neonates from their mothers. Here, early artificial prolonged separation of rat pups from their dams (Maternal Deprivation, MD) was used to study potential impact on morphological lung maturation. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of an endogenous deficiency of the neuropeptide-cleaving dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), since the effects of MD are known to be partly mediated via neuropeptidergic effects, hypothesizing that MD will lead to a retardation of postnatal lung development, DPP4-dependendly. We used wild type and CD26/DPP4 deficient rats. For MD, the dam was placed each day into a separate cage for 2 h, while the pups remained in the nest on their own. Morphological lung maturation and cell proliferation at the postnatal days 7, 10, 14, and 21 were determined morphometrically. Maternally deprived wild types showed a retarded postnatal lung development compared with untreated controls in both substrains. During alveolarization, an increased thickness of alveolar septa and a decreased surface of septa about 50% were found. At the end of the morphological lung maturation, the surface of the alveolar septa was decreased at about 25% and the septal thickness remained increased about 20%. The proliferation rate was also decreased about 50% on day 14. However, the MD induced effects were less pronounced in DPP4-deficient rats, due to a significant deceleration already induced by DPP4-deficiency. Thus, MD as a model for postnatal stress experience influences remarkably postnatal development of rats, which is significantly modulated by the DPP4-system. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Deceleration and dispersion of large-scale coronal bright fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, D. M.; Gallagher, P. T.; McAteer, R. T. J.; Bloomfield, D. S.

    2011-07-01

    Context. One of the most dramatic manifestations of solar activity are large-scale coronal bright fronts (CBFs) observed in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images of the solar atmosphere. To date, the energetics and kinematics of CBFs remain poorly understood, due to the low image cadence and sensitivity of previous EUV imagers and the limited methods used to extract the features. Aims: In this paper, the trajectory and morphology of CBFs was determined in order to investigate the varying properties of a sample of CBFs, including their kinematics and pulse shape, dispersion, and dissipation. Methods: We have developed a semi-automatic intensity profiling technique to extract the morphology and accurate positions of CBFs in 2.5-10 min cadence images from STEREO/EUVI. The technique was applied to sequences of 171 Å and 195 Å images from STEREO/EUVI in order to measure the wave properties of four separate CBF events. Results: Following launch at velocities of ~240-450 km s-1 each of the four events studied showed significant negative acceleration ranging from ~-290 to -60 m s-2. The CBF spatial and temporal widths were found to increase from ~50 Mm to ~200 Mm and ~100 s to ~1500 s respectively, suggesting that they are dispersive in nature. The variation in position-angle averaged pulse-integrated intensity with propagation shows no clear trend across the four events studied. These results are most consistent with CBFs being dispersive magnetoacoustic waves. Figures 3-8, 10, 11, 13-15, 17, 18 and the movie are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Accelerating effects of cellulase in the removal of denture adhesives from acrylic denture bases.

    PubMed

    Harada-Hada, Kae; Mimura, Sumiyo; Hong, Guang; Hashida, Tatsumi; Abekura, Hitoshi; Murata, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Masahiro; Nikawa, Hiroki

    2017-04-01

    Studies of effective methods for the easy removal of denture adhesives from a denture base are not well represented in the literature. We previously assessed the removability of denture adhesives by immersing within denture cleaners, showing that some cleaners have a weak effect, insufficiently effective in daily use. In this study, we prepared a cellulase, as a potential component for denture adhesive removers, and we examined whether the addition of cellulase to denture cleaners is effective in the removal of cream denture adhesives. We prepared the cellulase Meicelase as one component for the liquefaction of denture adhesives. We used two denture cleaners and two cream adhesives. After the immersion of plates in sample solutions, we evaluated the area of the sample plate still covered with adhesives. Biofilm removal assay was also performed using denture cleaners containing cellulase. The addition of cellulase accelerated the removal of cream adhesives in immersion experiments to a rate faster than that of water and denture cleaners. However, it did not influence the removability of Candida albicans biofilms from acrylic resin specimens. Cellulase hastened the liquefaction of cream adhesives. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Probing kinematics and fate of the Universe with linearly time-varying deceleration parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akarsu, Özgür; Dereli, Tekin; Kumar, Suresh; Xu, Lixin

    2014-02-01

    The parametrizations q = q 0+ q 1 z and q = q 0+ q 1(1 - a/ a 0) (Chevallier-Polarski-Linder parametrization) of the deceleration parameter, which are linear in cosmic redshift z and scale factor a , have been frequently utilized in the literature to study the kinematics of the Universe. In this paper, we follow a strategy that leads to these two well-known parametrizations of the deceleration parameter as well as an additional new parametrization, q = q 0+ q 1(1 - t/ t 0), which is linear in cosmic time t. We study the features of this linearly time-varying deceleration parameter in contrast with the other two linear parametrizations. We investigate in detail the kinematics of the Universe by confronting the three models with the latest observational data. We further study the dynamics of the Universe by considering the linearly time-varying deceleration parameter model in comparison with the standard ΛCDM model. We also discuss the future of the Universe in the context of the models under consideration.

  1. Comparative Assessment of Torso and Seat Mounted Restraint Systems using Manikins on the Vertical Deceleration Tower

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    experimental effort involving a series of +z-axis impact tests was conducted on the 711th Human Performance Wing’s Vertical Deceleration Tower (VDT...parameters) and a JSF-styled ejection seat configuration (combined non -baseline test parameters) produced similar biodynamic response parameters for the LOIS...Photography .............................................................................. 12 6.0 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

  2. Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) Plume Induced Environment Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobley, B. L.; Smith, S. D.; Van Norman, J. W.; Muppidi, S.; Clark, I

    2016-01-01

    Provide plume induced heating (radiation & convection) predictions in support of the LDSD thermal design (pre-flight SFDT-1) Predict plume induced aerodynamics in support of flight dynamics, to achieve targeted freestream conditions to test supersonic deceleration technologies (post-flight SFDT-1, pre-flight SFDT-2)

  3. Does Missing Classes Decelerate Student Exam Performance Progress? Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tin-Chun

    2014-01-01

    A total of 389 business students in undergraduate introductory microeconomics classes in spring 2007, 2009, and 2011, and fall 2012 participated in an exam performance progress study. Empirical evidence suggested that missing classes decelerates and hampers high-performing students' exam performance progress. Nevertheless, the evidence does…

  4. Application of energy derivative method to determine the structural components' contribution to deceleration in crashes.

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Kei; Mizuno, Koji; Thomson, Robert

    2018-03-26

    For occupant protection, it is important to understand how a car's deceleration time history in crashes can be designed using efficient of energy absorption by a car body's structure. In a previous paper, the authors proposed an energy derivative method to determine each structural component's contribution to the longitudinal deceleration of a car passenger compartment in crashes. In this study, this method was extended to 2 dimensions in order to analyze various crash test conditions. The contribution of each structure estimated from the energy derivative method was compared to that from a conventional finite element (FE) analysis method using cross-sectional forces. A 2-dimensional energy derivative method was established. A simple FE model with a structural column connected to a rigid body was used to confirm the validity of this method and to compare with the result of cross-sectional forces determined using conventional analysis. Applying this method to a full-width frontal impact simulation of a car FE model, the contribution and the cross-sectional forces of the front rails were compared. In addition, this method was applied to a pedestrian headform FE simulation in order to determine the influence of the structural and inertia forces of the hood structures on the deceleration of the headform undergoing planar motion. In an oblique impact of the simple column and rigid body model, the sum of the contributions of each part agrees with the rigid body deceleration, which indicates the validity of the 2-dimensional energy derivative method. Using the energy derivative method, it was observed that each part of the column contributes to the deceleration of the rigid body by collapsing in the sequence from front to rear, whereas the cross-sectional force at the rear of the column cannot detect the continuous collapse. In the full-width impact of a car, the contributions of the front rails estimated in the energy derivative method was smaller than that using the

  5. Effects of TEA·HCl hardening accelerator on the workability of cement-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wenhao; Ding, Zhaoyang; Chen, Yanwen

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the test is to research the influence rules of TEA·HCl on the workability of cement paste and concrete. Based on the features of the new hardening accelerator, an experimental analysis system were established through different dosages of hardening accelerator, and the feasibility of such accelerator to satisfy the need of practical engineering was verified. The results show that adding of the hardening accelerator can accelerate the cement hydration, and what’s more, when the dosage was 0.04%, the setting time was the shortest while the initial setting time and final setting time were 130 min and 180 min, respectively. The initial fluidity of cement paste of adding accelerator was roughly equivalent compared with that of blank. After 30 min, fluidity loss would decrease with the dosage increasing, but fluidity may increase. The application of the hardening accelerator can make the early workability of concrete enhance, especially the slump loss of 30 min can improve more significantly. The bleeding rate of concrete significantly decreases after adding TEA·HCl. The conclusion is that the new hardening accelerator can meet the need of the workability of cement-based materials in the optimum dosage range.

  6. The effect of massage on acceleration and sprint performance in track & field athletes.

    PubMed

    Moran, Ryan N; Hauth, John M; Rabena, Robert

    2018-02-01

    To examine the acute effects of pre-competition massage on acceleration and sprint performance in collegiate track and field athletes. Seventeen collegiate male (n = 9) and female (N = 8) track and field athletes participated in the study. Athletes were assigned to a counterbalanced, repeated measures designed experiment testing four treatment conditions of a pre-competition massage, dynamic warm-up, combination of a massage and warm-up, and a placebo ultrasound. The reliability between treatments was very high (ICC range: 0.94-0.98) and displayed a high internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.96). Inter-item correlations for treatments were strong at all time intervals (20-m r = 0.74-0.90; 30-m r = 0.87-0.95; 60-m r = 0.88-0.95). There were no significant differences between the four treatments and performance (p = 0.70). Massage decreased 60-meter sprint performance in comparison to the traditional warm-up, although the combination of the massage and warm-up appeared to have no greater difference than the warm-up alone. Massage prior to competition remains questionable due to a lack of effectiveness in improving sprint performance. Further, pre-competition massage may not be more effective as a pre-event modality, over a traditional warm-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Effectiveness of selective alveolar decortication in accelerating orthodontic treatment: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Fau, Victor; Diep, Dany; Bader, Gérard; Brézulier, Damien; Sorel, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    The number of scientific publications on accelerating orthodontic treatment, and especially surgical alveolar corticotomies techniques, has grown exponentially over the years. The objective of this systematic literature review was to assess the effectiveness of these corticotomies basing on human studies. The review was conducted from Medline and Web of Science Core Collection to identify prospective controlled clinical trials with duration of orthodontic treatment or the tooth movement rate for primary endpoint. Eleven studies respected all inclusion criteria. Six investigated the duration of treatment and found shorter values in experimental group than in control group, with a gain of 8 to 34 weeks. Five investigated the tooth movement rate and found 2.3 times higher values on average during the first month in experimental groups, 1.9 times during the second and third months, and 1.3 times during the fourth month. The technique also seemed to decrease the risk of root resorption and improve molar anchorage. Moreover, it exhibited good periodontal tolerance. Current literature highlights the effectiveness of surgical decortications during the first three to four months after surgery. Longer prospective studies are needed to assess their long term effects. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2017.

  8. Sucrose accelerates flower opening and delays senescence through a hormonal effect in cut lily flowers.

    PubMed

    Arrom, Laia; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2012-06-01

    Sugars are generally used to extend the vase life of cut flowers. Such beneficial effects have been associated with an improvement of water relations and an increase in available energy for respiration by floral tissues. In this study we aimed at evaluating to what extent (i) endogenous levels of sugars in outer and inner tepals, androecium and gynoecium are altered during opening and senescence of lily flowers; (ii) sugar levels increase in various floral tissues after sucrose addition to the vase solution; and (iii) sucrose addition alters the hormonal balance of floral tissues. Results showed that endogenous glucose levels increased during flower opening and decreased during senescence in all floral organs, while sucrose levels increased in outer and inner tepals and the androecium during senescence. Sucrose treatment accelerated flower opening, and delayed senescence, but did not affect tepal abscission. Such effects appeared to be exerted through a specific increase in the endogenous levels of sucrose in the gynoecium and of glucose in all floral tissues. The hormonal balance was altered in the gynoecium as well as in other floral tissues. Aside from cytokinin and auxin increases in the gynoecium; cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid and salicylic acid levels increased in the androecium, while abscisic acid decreased in outer tepals. It is concluded that sucrose addition to the vase solution exerts an effect on flower opening and senescence by, among other factors, altering the hormonal balance of several floral tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mei, Winne Sia Chiaw; Ismail, Amin; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Akowuah, Gabriel Akyirem; Wai, Ho Chun; Seng, Yim Hip

    2014-05-09

    The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II) in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX) values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the control. Generally, the partially fractionated fraction was more effective than the crude extract. With a 2-year storage period at ambient temperature, the fractionated fraction of the extract, SF II at 300 ppm, was observed to work more effectively than the synthetic antioxidant, t-Tocopherol, and it possessed a protective effect comparable with butylatedhydrioxynanisole (BHA). Therefore, rambutan extract could be used as a potential alternative source of antioxidant in the oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation.

  10. [Effects of bushen yinao tablet on physiology and cerebral gene expression in senescence-accelerated mice].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chong; Wang, Jin-gang; Yang, Ting

    2006-06-01

    To study the effects of Bushen Yin' ao Tablet (BSYNT) on physiology and cerebral gene expression in senescence-accelerated mice (SAM). The change of cerebral tissues mRNA expression in SAM was analyzed and compared by messenger ribonucleic acids reverse transcription differential display polymerase chain reaction (mRNA DDRT-PCR) between the medicated group and the control group. BSYNT could increase the level of hemoglobin (Hb) and amount of erythrocyte (RBC) of blood deficiency mice, improve the spatial learning and memory function and the escape response by conditional stimulus. In this study, 14 differential display bands had been discerned, and three of them had been sequenced. The sequence of the three fragments was similar to fatty acid binding protein 7, ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductase complex (7. 2 kD) and 60S ribosomal protein L21 respectively. And the homogeneity was 97% , 100% , and 99% , respectively. BSYNT has effect on the physiological changing of mice, and its effect on cerebral tissues mRNA expression maybe play an important role in anti-aging on the molecular level.

  11. The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Winne Sia Chiaw; Ismail, Amin; Mohd. Esa, Norhaizan; Akowuah, Gabriel Akyirem; Wai, Ho Chun; Seng, Yim Hip

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II) in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX) values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the control. Generally, the partially fractionated fraction was more effective than the crude extract. With a 2-year storage period at ambient temperature, the fractionated fraction of the extract, SF II at 300 ppm, was observed to work more effectively than the synthetic antioxidant, t-Tocopherol, and it possessed a protective effect comparable with butylatedhydrioxynanisole (BHA). Therefore, rambutan extract could be used as a potential alternative source of antioxidant in the oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation. PMID:26784877

  12. Biological basis of neuroprotection and neurotherapeutic effects of Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (pGz).

    PubMed

    Adams, Jose A; Uryash, Arkady; Bassuk, Jorge; Sackner, Marvin A; Kurlansky, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Exercise is a well known neuroprotective and neurotherapeutic strategy in animal models and humans with brain injury and cognitive dysfunction. In part, exercise induced beneficial effects relate to endothelial derived nitric oxide (eNO) production and induction of the neurotrophins; Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Glial Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF). Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (WBPA (pGz), is the motion of the supine body headward to footward in a sinusoidal fashion, at frequencies of 100-160 cycles/min, inducing pulsatile shear stress to the vascular endothelium. WBPA (pGz) increases eNO in the cardiovascular system in animal models and humans. We hypothesized that WBPA (pGz) has neuroprotective and neurotherapeutic effects due to enhancement of biological pathways that include eNOS, BDNF and GDNF. We discuss protein expression analysis of these in brain of rodents. Animal and observational human data affirm a neuroprotective and neurotherapeutic role for WBPA (pGz). These findings suggest that WBPA (pGz) in addition to its well known beneficial cardiovascular effects can be a simple non-invasive neuroprotective and neurotherapeutic strategy with far reaching health benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance Acceleration on Production Machines Using the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansur, A.; Rayendra, R.; Mastur, MI

    2016-01-01

    Mistakes during working can trigger a decrease in production level that may lead financial loss to the company. The factors that affect the mistakes are called losses, such as breakdown loss, set up/ adjustment loss, idling and minor stoppage loss, reduced speed loss, reduced yield loss, and rework loss. The objective of the research is to accelerate the performance of the JSW 330T machine in PT. YogyaPresisiTehnikatamaIndustri. JSW 330T is a machine that has the highest downtime numbers. The method for measuring the effectiveness is using the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE). The results of the research show that the JWQ 330T has average rate of the effectiveness (OEE) of 52.66%, availability ratioof 73.43%, performance efficiency rate of 83.58% and quality rate of 84.6%. From the six big losses calculation, the factor that affects the most on the low score of OEE is the breakdown loss which is 58.85% with total time loss of 929.65 hours in a year.

  14. Validation of a computerized algorithm to quantify fetal heart rate deceleration area.

    PubMed

    Gyllencreutz, Erika; Lu, Ke; Lindecrantz, Kaj; Lindqvist, Pelle G; Nordstrom, Lennart; Holzmann, Malin; Abtahi, Farhad

    2018-05-16

    Reliability in visual cardiotocography interpretation is unsatisfying, which has led to development of computerized cardiotocography. Computerized analysis is well established for antenatal fetal surveillance, but has yet not performed sufficiently during labor. We aimed to investigate the capacity of a new computerized algorithm compared to visual assessment in identifying intrapartum fetal heart rate baseline and decelerations. Three-hundred-and-twelve intrapartum cardiotocography tracings with variable decelerations were analysed by the computerized algorithm and visually examined by two observers, blinded to each other and the computer analysis. The width, depth and area of each deceleration was measured. Four cases (>100 variable decelerations) were subject to in-depth detailed analysis. The outcome measures were bias in seconds (width), beats per minute (depth), and beats (area) between computer and observers by using Bland-Altman analysis. Interobserver reliability was determined by calculating intraclass correlation and Spearman rank analysis. The analysis (312 cases) showed excellent intraclass correlation (0.89-0.95) and very strong Spearman correlation (0.82-0.91). The detailed analysis of > 100 decelerations in 4 cases revealed low bias between the computer and the two observers; width 1.4 and 1.4 seconds, depth 5.1 and 0.7 beats per minute, and area 0.1 and -1.7 beats. This was comparable to the bias between the two observers; 0.3 seconds (width), 4.4 beats per minute (depth), and 1.7 beats (area). The intraclass correlation was excellent (0.90-0.98). A novel computerized algorithm for intrapartum cardiotocography analysis is as accurate as gold standard visual assessment with high correlation and low bias. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Older drivers and rapid deceleration events: Salisbury Eye Evaluation Driving Study.

    PubMed

    Keay, Lisa; Munoz, Beatriz; Duncan, Donald D; Hahn, Daniel; Baldwin, Kevin; Turano, Kathleen A; Munro, Cynthia A; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; West, Sheila K

    2013-09-01

    Drivers who rapidly change speed while driving may be more at risk for a crash. We sought to determine the relationship of demographic, vision, and cognitive variables with episodes of rapid decelerations during five days of normal driving in a cohort of older drivers. In the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Driving Study, 1425 older drivers aged 67-87 were recruited from the Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration's rolls for licensees in Salisbury, Maryland. Participants had several measures of vision tested: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual fields, and the attentional visual field. Participants were also tested for various domains of cognitive function including executive function, attention, psychomotor speed, and visual search. A custom created driving monitoring system (DMS) was used to capture rapid deceleration events (RDEs), defined as at least 350 milli-g deceleration, during a five day period of monitoring. The rate of RDE per mile driven was modeled using a negative binomial regression model with an offset of the logarithm of the number of miles driven. We found that 30% of older drivers had one or more RDE during a five day period, and of those, about 1/3 had four or more. The rate of RDE per mile driven was highest for those drivers driving<59 miles during the 5-day period of monitoring. However, older drivers with RDE's were more likely to have better scores in cognitive tests of psychomotor speed and visual search, and have faster brake reaction time. Further, greater average speed and maximum speed per driving segment was protective against RDE events. In conclusion, contrary to our hypothesis, older drivers who perform rapid decelerations tend to be more "fit", with better measures of vision and cognition compared to those who do not have events of rapid deceleration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Older Drivers and Rapid Deceleration Events: Salisbury Eye Evaluation Driving Study

    PubMed Central

    Keay, Lisa; Munoz, Beatriz; Duncan, Donald D; Hahn, Daniel; Baldwin, Kevin; Turano, Kathleen A; Munro, Cynthia A; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; West, Sheila K

    2012-01-01

    Drivers who rapidly change speed while driving may be more at risk for a crash. We sought to determine the relationship of demographic, vision, and cognitive variables with episodes of rapid decelerations during five days of normal driving in a cohort of older drivers. In the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Driving Study, 1425 older drivers ages 67 to 87 were recruited from the Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration’s rolls for licensees in Salisbury, Maryland. Participants had several measures of vision tested: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual fields, and the attentional visual field. Participants were also tested for various domains of cognitive function including executive function, attention, psychomotor speed, and visual search. A custom created Driving Monitor System (DMS) was used to capture rapid deceleration events (RDE), defined as at least 350 milli-g deceleration, during a five day period of monitoring. The rate of RDE per mile driven was modeled using a negative binomial regression model with an offset of the logarithm of the number of miles driven. We found that 30% of older drivers had one or more RDE during a five day period, and of those, about 1/3 had four or more. The rate of RDE per mile driven was highest for those drivers driving <59 miles during the 5-day period of monitoring. However, older drivers with RDE’s were more likely to have better scores in cognitive tests of psychomotor speed and visual search, and have faster brake reaction time. Further, greater average speed and maximum speed per driving segment was protective against RDE events. In conclusion, contrary to our hypothesis, older drivers who perform rapid decelerations tend to be more “fit”, with better measures of vision and cognition compared to those who do not have events of rapid deceleration. PMID:22742775

  17. Alpha2-adrenoceptor blockade accelerates the neurogenic, neurotrophic, and behavioral effects of chronic antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Yanpallewar, Sudhirkumar U; Fernandes, Kimberly; Marathe, Swananda V; Vadodaria, Krishna C; Jhaveri, Dhanisha; Rommelfanger, Karen; Ladiwala, Uma; Jha, Shanker; Muthig, Verena; Hein, Lutz; Bartlett, Perry; Weinshenker, David; Vaidya, Vidita A

    2010-01-20

    Slow-onset adaptive changes that arise from sustained antidepressant treatment, such as enhanced adult hippocampal neurogenesis and increased trophic factor expression, play a key role in the behavioral effects of antidepressants. alpha(2)-Adrenoceptors contribute to the modulation of mood and are potential targets for the development of faster acting antidepressants. We investigated the influence of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors on adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Our results indicate that alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists, clonidine and guanabenz, decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis through a selective effect on the proliferation, but not the survival or differentiation, of progenitors. These effects persist in dopamine beta-hydroxylase knock-out (Dbh(-/-)) mice lacking norepinephrine, supporting a role for alpha(2)-heteroceptors on progenitor cells, rather than alpha(2)-autoreceptors on noradrenergic neurons that inhibit norepinephrine release. Adult hippocampal progenitors in vitro express all the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes, and decreased neurosphere frequency and BrdU incorporation indicate direct effects of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor stimulation on progenitors. Furthermore, coadministration of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine with the antidepressant imipramine significantly accelerates effects on hippocampal progenitor proliferation, the morphological maturation of newborn neurons, and the increase in expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor implicated in the neurogenic and behavioral effects of antidepressants. Finally, short-duration (7 d) yohimbine and imipramine treatment results in robust behavioral responses in the novelty suppressed feeding test, which normally requires 3 weeks of treatment with classical antidepressants. Our results demonstrate that alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, expressed by progenitor cells, decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis, while their blockade speeds up antidepressant action

  18. α2-adrenoceptor blockade accelerates the neurogenic, neurotrophic, and behavioral effects of chronic antidepressant treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yanpallewar, Sudhirkumar U.; Fernandes, Kimberly; Marathe, Swananda V.; Vadodaria, Krishna C.; Jhaveri, Dhanisha; Rommelfanger, Karen; Ladiwala, Uma; Jha, Shanker; Muthig, Verena; Hein, Lutz; Bartlett, Perry; Weinshenker, David; Vaidya, Vidita A.

    2010-01-01

    Slow-onset adaptive changes that arise from sustained antidepressant treatment, such as enhanced adult hippocampal neurogenesis and increased trophic factor expression, play a key role in the behavioral effects of antidepressants. α2-adrenoceptors contribute to the modulation of mood and are potential targets for the development of faster acting antidepressants. We investigated the influence of α2-adrenoceptors on adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Our results indicate that α2-adrenoceptor agonists, clonidine and guanabenz, decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis through a selective effect on the proliferation, but not the survival or differentiation, of progenitors. These effects persist in dopamine β-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh −/−) mice lacking norepinephrine, supporting a role for α2-heteroceptors on progenitor cells, rather than α2-autoreceptors on noradrenergic neurons that inhibit norepinephrine release. Adult hippocampal progenitors in vitro express all the α2-adrenoceptor subtypes, and decreased neurosphere frequency and BrdU incorporation indicate direct effects of α2-adrenoceptor stimulation on progenitors. Further, co-administration of the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine with the antidepressant imipramine significantly accelerates effects on hippocampal progenitor proliferation, the morphological maturation of newborn neurons, and the increase in expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor implicated in the neurogenic and behavioral effects of antidepressants. Finally, short duration (7 day) yohimbine and imipramine treatment results in robust behavioral responses in the novelty suppressed feeding test, which normally requires 3 weeks of treatment with classical antidepressants. Our results demonstrate that α2-adrenoceptors, expressed by progenitor cells, decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis, while their blockade speeds up antidepressant action, highlighting their importance as targets for

  19. Flow stagnation at Enceladus: The effects of neutral gas and charged dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidi, N.; Tokar, R. L.; Averkamp, T.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Wang, Z.

    2012-06-01

    Enceladus is one of Saturn's most active moons. It ejects neutral gas and dust particles from its southern plumes with velocities of hundreds of meters per second. The interaction between the ejected material and the corotating plasma in Saturn's magnetosphere leads to flow deceleration in ways that remain to be understood. The most effective mechanism for the interaction between the corotating plasma and the neutral gas is charge exchange which replaces the hotter corotating ions with nearly stationary cold ions that are subsequently accelerated by the motional electric field. Dust particles in the plume can become electrically charged through electron absorption and couple to the plasma through the motional electric field. The objective of this study is to determine the level of flow deceleration associated with each of these processes using Cassini RPWS dust impact rates, Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) plasma data, and 3-D electromagnetic hybrid (kinetic ions, fluid electrons) simulations. Hybrid simulations show that the degree of flow deceleration by charged dust varies considerably with the spatial distribution of dust particles. Based on the RPWS observations of dust impacts during the E7 Cassini flyby of Enceladus, we have constructed a dust model consisting of multiple plumes. Using this model in the hybrid simulation shows that when the dust density is high enough for complete absorption of electrons at the point of maximum dust density, the corotating flow is decelerated by only a few km/s. This is not sufficient to account for the CAPS observation of flow stagnation in the interaction region. On the other hand, charge exchange with neutral gas plumes similar to the modeled dust plumes but with base (plume opening) densities of ˜109 cm-3 result in flow deceleration similar to that observed by CAPS. The results indicate that charge exchange with neutral gas is the dominant mechanism for flow deceleration at Enceladus.

  20. Experimental Study of Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Aeroshell with Axisymmetric Surface Deflection Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Hollingsworth, Kevin E.

    2017-01-01

    A wind tunnel test program was conducted to obtain aeroheating environment data on Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator aeroshells with flexible thermal protection systems. Data were obtained on a set of rigid wind tunnel models with surface deflection patterns of various heights that simulated a range of potential in-flight aeroshell deformations. Wind tunnel testing was conducted at Mach 6 at unit Reynolds numbers from 2.1 × 10(exp 6)/ft to 8.3 × 10(exp 6)/ft and angles of attack from 0 deg to 18 deg. Boundary-layer transition onset and global surface heating distribution measurements were performed using phosphor thermography and flow field images were obtained through schlieren photography. Surface deflections were found to both promote early transition of the boundary layer and to augment heating levels for both laminar and turbulent flows. A complimentary computational flow field study was also performed to provide heating predictions for comparison with the measurements as well as boundary layer flow field properties for use in correlating the data. Correlations of the wind tunnel data were developed to predict deflection effects on boundary layer transition and surface heating and were applied to both the wind tunnel test conditions and to the trajectory of NASA's successful IRVE-3 flight test. In general, the correlations produced at least qualitative agreement with the wind tunnel data, although the heating levels were underpredicted for some of the larger surface deflections. For the flight conditions, the correlations suggested that peak heating levels on the leeward side conical flank of the IRVE-3 vehicle may have exceeded those at nose for times late in the trajectory after the peak heating time point. However, the flight estimates were based on a conservative assumption of surface deflection magnitude (i.e., larger) than likely was produced in flight.

  1. Role of Oxytocin in deceleration of early atherosclerotic inflammatory processes in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Marwa A; ELosaily, Gehan M

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study aimed to examine the effect of exogenous OT administration on the inflammation and atherosclerosis in adult male rats and its possible mechanisms. Thirty adult male rats equally divided into three groups. Control group fed regular diet; group II fed control diet supplemented with L-methionine for 10 weeks. Group III received L-methionine and oxytocin treatment for 10 weeks. RT-PCR analysis showed that OT administration increased oxytocin receptor mRNA (2 fold, P, 0.05). Blood samples were evaluated for total homocysteine, interlukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoatrratant protein-1 (MCP-1) and C-reactive protein (CRP) by ELIZA, lipid profile, nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were determined. Specimens from aorta were processed for immunohistochemical staining for Aorta nuclear factor _B (NF-κB) p65 protein. Result showed that OT administration to group III decreased the plasma levels IL-6, MCP-1 and CRP levels which were elevated in group II. Moreover, there was decrease of the oxidative stress of group III in terms of increased plasma levels of NO and GSH and decreased plasma levels of MDA in blood. In addition, rats of group II showed histological abnormalities manifested by thickening and ulceration of the aortic wall. Marked increased expression of NF-κB in aorta of in group II was detected. However, OT administration restores the histological structure of the aorta and decreased the expression of NF-κB in aorta of group III similar to the control group. Conclusion: OT has anti inflammatory pathway in atherosclerosis as it decelerates atherosclerosis by decreasing the proinflammatory responses through many mechanisms, mainly the up regulation of its receptors. PMID:21977229

  2. Effect of an Additional, Parallel Capacitor on Pulsed Inductive Plasma Accelerator Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Sivak, Amy D.; Balla, Joseph V.

    2011-01-01

    A model of pulsed inductive plasma thrusters consisting of a set of coupled circuit equations and a one-dimensional momentum equation has been used to study the effects of adding a second, parallel capacitor into the system. The equations were nondimensionalized, permitting the recovery of several already-known scaling parameters and leading to the identification of a parameter that is unique to the particular topology studied. The current rise rate through the inductive acceleration coil was used as a proxy measurement of the effectiveness of inductive propellant ionization since higher rise rates produce stronger, potentially better ionizing electric fields at the coil face. Contour plots representing thruster performance (exhaust velocity and efficiency) and current rise rate in the coil were generated numerically as a function of the scaling parameters. The analysis reveals that when the value of the second capacitor is much less than the first capacitor, the performance of the two-capacitor system approaches that of the single-capacitor system. In addition, as the second capacitor is decreased in value the current rise rate can grow to be twice as great as the rise rate attained in the single capacitor case.

  3. Effects of energy chirp on bunch length measurement in linear accelerator beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabato, L.; Arpaia, P.; Giribono, A.; Liccardo, A.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Vaccarezza, C.; Variola, A.

    2017-08-01

    The effects of assumptions about bunch properties on the accuracy of the measurement method of the bunch length based on radio frequency deflectors (RFDs) in electron linear accelerators (LINACs) are investigated. In particular, when the electron bunch at the RFD has a non-negligible energy chirp (i.e. a correlation between the longitudinal positions and energies of the particle), the measurement is affected by a deterministic intrinsic error, which is directly related to the RFD phase offset. A case study on this effect in the electron LINAC of a gamma beam source at the Extreme Light Infrastructure-Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) is reported. The relative error is estimated by using an electron generation and tracking (ELEGANT) code to define the reference measurements of the bunch length. The relative error is proved to increase linearly with the RFD phase offset. In particular, for an offset of {{7}\\circ} , corresponding to a vertical centroid offset at a screen of about 1 mm, the relative error is 4.5%.

  4. Effects of thin-film accelerated carbonation on steel slag leaching.

    PubMed

    Baciocchi, R; Costa, G; Polettini, A; Pomi, R

    2015-04-09

    This paper discusses the effects of accelerated carbonation on the leaching behaviour of two types of stainless steel slags (electric arc furnace and argon oxygen decarburisation slag). The release of major elements and toxic metals both at the natural pH and at varying pH conditions was addressed. Geochemical modelling of the eluates was used to theoretically describe leaching and derive information about mineralogical changes induced by carbonation. Among the investigated elements, Ca and Si were most appreciably affected by carbonation. A very clear effect of carbonation on leaching was observed for silicate phases; geochemical modelling indicated that the Ca/Si ratio of Ca-controlling minerals shifted from ∼ 1 for the untreated slag to 0.5-0.67 for the carbonated samples, thus showing that the carbonation process left some residual Ca-depleted silicate phases while the extracted Ca precipitated in the form of carbonate minerals. For toxic metals the changes in leaching induced by carbonation appeared to be mainly related to the resulting pH changes, which were as high as ∼ 2 orders of magnitude upon carbonation. Depending on the specific shape of the respective solubility curves, the extent of leaching of toxic metals from the slag was differently affected by carbonation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of different new packaging materials on biscuit quality during accelerated storage.

    PubMed

    Romani, Santina; Tappi, Silvia; Balestra, Federica; Rodriguez Estrada, Maria Teresa; Siracusa, Valentina; Rocculi, Pietro; Dalla Rosa, Marco

    2015-06-01

    The effect of innovative multilayer packaging materials versus a standard one on biscuit quality was studied during accelerated storage at 25, 35, 45 °C and 50% relative humidity for 92 days. Three different packaging materials were used: metalized orientated polypropylene (OPP)/paper (control); metalized poly-lactic acid (PLA)/paper; metalized OPP with ethylene vinyl acetate pro-oxidant additive (EVA-POA)/paper. EVA-POA additive is used to make the plastic layer biodegradable. Various quality sample parameters (moisture, water activity (aw ), texture, peroxide value (PV), hexanal) were analysed during storage. Rate constants (k) and activation energies (Ea ) of hydration reactions and hexanal formation were calculated. No remarkable differences in the evolution of primary and secondary lipid oxidation were observed among differently packed biscuits during storage. All samples maintained PV levels between 4 and 14 meq O2 kg(-1) oil. The product in flexible packaging with PLA reached the highest moisture and aw levels, but they did not significantly and adversely affect the other quality characteristics. The obtained results demonstrate that the new tested packaging materials were suitable for commercial biscuit storage, having similar performance and preservation effects on the overall product quality to those of the standard one. Furthermore, these results could make a contribution to the food industry, encouraging the use of packaging materials with a negligible environmental impact as an alternative to petroleum-based ones. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effect of Response Reduction Factor on Peak Floor Acceleration Demand in Mid-Rise RC Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surana, Mitesh; Singh, Yogendra; Lang, Dominik H.

    2017-06-01

    Estimation of Peak Floor Acceleration (PFA) demand along the height of a building is crucial for the seismic safety of nonstructural components. The effect of the level of inelasticity, controlled by the response reduction factor (strength ratio), is studied using incremental dynamic analysis. A total of 1120 nonlinear dynamic analyses, using a suite of 30 recorded ground motion time histories, are performed on mid-rise reinforced-concrete (RC) moment-resisting frame buildings covering a wide range in terms of their periods of vibration. The obtained PFA demands are compared with some of the major national seismic design and retrofit codes (IS 1893 draft version, ASCE 41, EN 1998, and NZS 1170.4). It is observed that the PFA demand at the building's roof level decreases with increasing period of vibration as well as with strength ratio. However, current seismic building codes do not account for these effects thereby producing very conservative estimates of PFA demands. Based on the identified parameters affecting the PFA demand, a model to obtain the PFA distribution along the height of a building is proposed. The proposed model is validated with spectrum-compatible time history analyses of the considered buildings with different strength ratios.

  7. Study of aerosol effect on accelerated snow melting over the Tibetan Plateau during boreal spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Woo-Seop; Bhawar, Rohini L.; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Sang, Jeong

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, a coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate model (CSIRO-Mk3.6) is used to investigate the role of aerosol forcing agents as drivers of snow melting trends in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) region. Anthropogenic aerosol-induced snow cover changes in a warming climate are calculated from the difference between historical run (HIST) and all forcing except anthropogenic aerosol (NoAA). Absorbing aerosols can influence snow cover by warming the atmosphere, reducing snow reflectance after deposition. The warming the rate of snow melt, exposing darker surfaces below to short-wave radiation sooner, and allowing them to heat up even faster in the Himalayas and TP. The results show a strong spring snow cover decrease over TP when absorbing anthropogenic aerosol forcing is considered, whereas snow cover fraction (SCF) trends in NoAA are weakly negative (but insignificant) during 1951-2005. The enhanced spring snow cover trends in HIST are due to overall effects of different forcing agents: When aerosol forcing (AERO) is considered, a significant reduction of SCF than average can be found over the western TP and Himalayas. The large decreasing trends in SCF over the TP, with the maximum reduction of SCF around 12-15% over the western TP and Himalayas slope. Also accelerated snow melting during spring is due to effects of aerosol on snow albedo, where aerosol deposition cause decreases snow albedo. However, the SCF change in the “NoAA” simulations was observed to be less.

  8. ELECTRON ACCELERATION BY CASCADING RECONNECTION IN THE SOLAR CORONA. II. RESISTIVE ELECTRIC FIELD EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X.; Gan, W.; Liu, S.

    We investigate electron acceleration by electric fields induced by cascading reconnections in current sheets trailing coronal mass ejections via a test particle approach in the framework of the guiding-center approximation. Although the resistive electric field is much weaker than the inductive electric field, the electron acceleration is still dominated by the former. Anomalous resistivity η is switched on only in regions where the current carrier’s drift velocity is large enough. As a consequence, electron acceleration is very sensitive to the spatial distribution of the resistive electric fields, and electrons accelerated in different segments of the current sheet have different characteristics.more » Due to the geometry of the 2.5-dimensional electromagnetic fields and strong resistive electric field accelerations, accelerated high-energy electrons can be trapped in the corona, precipitating into the chromosphere or escaping into interplanetary space. The trapped and precipitating electrons can reach a few MeV within 1 s and have a very hard energy distribution. Spatial structure of the acceleration sites may also introduce breaks in the electron energy distribution. Most of the interplanetary electrons reach hundreds of keV with a softer distribution. To compare with observations of solar flares and electrons in solar energetic particle events, we derive hard X-ray spectra produced by the trapped and precipitating electrons, fluxes of the precipitating and interplanetary electrons, and electron spatial distributions.« less

  9. Effect of low temperature baking on the RF properties of niobium superconducting cavities for particle accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Gianluigi Ciovati

    Radio-frequency superconducting (SRF) cavities are widely used to accelerate a charged particle beam in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities made of bulk niobium has significantly improved over the last ten years and is approaching the theoretical limit for niobium. Nevertheless, RF tests of niobium cavities are still showing some ''anomalous'' losses that require a better understanding in order to reliably obtain better performance. These losses are characterized by a marked dependence of the surface resistance on the surface electromagnetic field and can be detected by measuring the quality factor of the resonator as a function of the peakmore » surface field. A low temperature (100 C-150 C) ''in situ'' bake under ultra-high vacuum has been successfully applied as final preparation of niobium RF cavities by several laboratories over the last few years. The benefits reported consist mainly of an improvement of the cavity quality factor at low field and a recovery from ''anomalous'' losses (so-called ''Q-drop'') without field emission at higher field. A series of experiments with a CEBAF single-cell cavity have been carried out at Jefferson Lab to carefully investigate the effect of baking at progressively higher temperatures for a fixed time on all the relevant material parameters. Measurements of the cavity quality factor in the temperature range 1.37 K-280 K and resonant frequency shift between 6 K-9.3 K provide information about the surface resistance, energy gap, penetration depth and mean free path. The experimental data have been analyzed with the complete BCS theory of superconductivity. The hydrogen content of small niobium samples inserted in the cavity during its surface preparation was analyzed with Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). The single-cell cavity has been tested at three different temperatures before and after baking to gain some insight on thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance and the data are compared with different

  10. Anticipating the effects of visual gravity during simulated self-motion: estimates of time-to-passage along vertical and horizontal paths.

    PubMed

    Indovina, Iole; Maffei, Vincenzo; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    By simulating self-motion on a virtual rollercoaster, we investigated whether acceleration cued by the optic flow affected the estimate of time-to-passage (TTP) to a target. In particular, we studied the role of a visual acceleration (1 g = 9.8 m/s(2)) simulating the effects of gravity in the scene, by manipulating motion law (accelerated or decelerated at 1 g, constant speed) and motion orientation (vertical, horizontal). Thus, 1-g-accelerated motion in the downward direction or decelerated motion in the upward direction was congruent with the effects of visual gravity. We found that acceleration (positive or negative) is taken into account but is overestimated in module in the calculation of TTP, independently of orientation. In addition, participants signaled TTP earlier when the rollercoaster accelerated downward at 1 g (as during free fall), with respect to when the same acceleration occurred along the horizontal orientation. This time shift indicates an influence of the orientation relative to visual gravity on response timing that could be attributed to the anticipation of the effects of visual gravity on self-motion along the vertical, but not the horizontal orientation. Finally, precision in TTP estimates was higher during vertical fall than when traveling at constant speed along the vertical orientation, consistent with a higher noise in TTP estimates when the motion violates gravity constraints.

  11. A system for monitoring the radiation effects of a proton linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Skorkin, V. M., E-mail: skorkin@inr.ru; Belyanski, K. L.; Skorkin, A. V.

    2016-12-15

    The system for real-time monitoring of radioactivity of a high-current proton linear accelerator detects secondary neutron emission from proton beam losses in transport channels and measures the activity of radionuclides in gas and aerosol emissions and the radiation background in the environment affected by a linear accelerator. The data provided by gamma, beta, and neutron detectors are transferred over a computer network to the central server. The system allows one to monitor proton beam losses, the activity of gas and aerosol emissions, and the radiation emission level of a linear accelerator in operation.

  12. Scaling of induction-cell transverse impedance: effect on accelerator design

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, Carl August

    2016-08-09

    The strength of the dangerous beam breakup (BBU) instability in linear induction accelerators (LIAs) is characterized by the transverse coupling impedance Z ⊥. This note addresses the dimensional scaling of Z ⊥, which is important when comparing new LIA designs to existing accelerators with known i BBU growth. Moreover, it is shown that the scaling of Z ⊥ with the accelerating gap size relates BBU growth directly to high-voltage engineering considerations. It is proposed to firmly establish this scaling though a series of AMOS calculations.

  13. A Mixed Method Study of the Effectiveness of the Accelerated Reader Program on Middle School Students' Reading Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, SuHua

    2012-01-01

    The mixed-method explanatory research design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of the Accelerated Reader (AR) program on middle school students' reading achievement and motivation. A total of 211 sixth to eighth-grade students provided quantitative data by completing an AR Survey. Thirty of the 211 students were randomly selected to…

  14. Biomechanical and Histopathologic Effects of Pulsed-Light Accelerated Epithelium-On/-Off Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Sun, Ling; Shen, Yang; Tian, Mi; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Yu; Li, Meiyan; Zhou, Xingtao

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the biomechanical and histopathologic effects of transepithelial and accelerated epithelium-off pulsed-light accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL). A total of 24 New Zealand rabbits were analyzed after sham operation (control) or transepithelial or epithelium-off operation (45 mW/cm for both). The transepithelial group was treated with pulsed-light ultraviolet A for 5 minutes 20 seconds, and the epithelium-off group was treated for 90 seconds. Biomechanical testing, including ultimate stress, Young modulus, and the physiological modulus, was analyzed. Histological changes were evaluated by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The stress-strain curve was nonlinear in both accelerated transepithelial and epithelium-off CXL groups. The stress and elastic moduli were all significantly higher in both experimental groups compared with the control group (P < 0.05), whereas there were no significant differences between the 2 treatment groups (P > 0.05). Six months after the operation, hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy showed that the subcutaneous collagen fibers were arranged in a regular pattern, and the fiber density was higher in the experimental groups. Both transepithelial and accelerated epithelium-off CXL produced biomechanical and histopathologic improvements, which were not significantly different between the 2 pulsed-light accelerated CXL treatments.

  15. Critical Imperative for the Reform of British Interpretation of Fetal Heart Rate Decelerations: Analysis of FIGO and NICE Guidelines, Post-Truth Foundations, Cognitive Fallacies, Myths and Occam's Razor.

    PubMed

    Sholapurkar, Shashikant L

    2017-04-01

    Cardiotocography (CTG) has disappointingly failed to show good predictability for fetal acidemia or neonatal outcomes in several large studies. A complete rethink of CTG interpretation will not be out of place. Fetal heart rate (FHR) decelerations are the most common deviations, benign as well as manifestation of impending fetal hypoxemia/acidemia, much more commonly than FHR baseline or variability. Their specific nomenclature is important (center-stage) because it provides the basic concepts and framework on which the complex "pattern recognition" of CTG interpretation by clinicians depends. Unfortunately, the discrimination of FHR decelerations seems to be muddled since the British obstetrics adopted the concept of vast majority of FHR decelerations being "variable" (cord-compression). With proliferation of confusing waveform criteria, "atypical variables" became the commonest cause of suspicious/pathological CTG. However, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (2014) had to disband the "typical" and "atypical" terminology because of flawed classifying criteria. This analytical review makes a strong case that there are major and fundamental framing and confirmation fallacies (not just biases) in interpretation of FHR decelerations by NICE (2014) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) (2015), probably the biggest in modern medicine. This "post-truth" approach is incompatible with scientific practice. Moreover, it amounts to setting oneself for failure. The inertia to change could be best described as "backfire effect". There is abundant evidence that head-compression (and other non-hypoxic mediators) causes rapid rather than shallow/gradual decelerations. Currently, the vast majority of decelerations are attributed to unproven cord compression underpinned by flawed disproven pathophysiological hypotheses. Their further discrimination based on abstract, random, trial and error criteria remains unresolved suggesting a

  16. Limiting current of intense electron beams in a decelerating gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusinovich, G. S.; Beaudoin, B. L.; Thompson, C.; Karakkad, J. A.; Antonsen, T. M.

    2016-02-01

    For numerous applications, it is desirable to develop electron beam driven efficient sources of electromagnetic radiation that are capable of producing the required power at beam voltages as low as possible. This trend is limited by space charge effects that cause the reduction of electron kinetic energy and can lead to electron reflection. So far, this effect was analyzed for intense beams propagating in uniform metallic pipes. In the present study, the limiting currents of intense electron beams are analyzed for the case of beam propagation in the tubes with gaps. A general treatment is illustrated by an example evaluating the limiting current in a high-power, tunable 1-10 MHz inductive output tube (IOT), which is currently under development for ionospheric modification. Results of the analytical theory are compared to results of numerical simulations. The results obtained allow one to estimate the interaction efficiency of IOTs.

  17. Interjoint coupling effects on muscle contributions to endpoint force and acceleration in a musculoskeletal model of the cat hindlimb

    PubMed Central

    van Antwerp, Keith W.; Burkholder, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    The biomechanical principles underlying the organization of muscle activation patterns during standing balance are poorly understood. The goal of this study was to understand the influence of biomechanical inter-joint coupling on endpoint forces and accelerations induced by the activation of individual muscles during postural tasks. We calculated induced endpoint forces and accelerations of 31 muscles in a 7 degree-of-freedom, 3-dimensional model of the cat hindlimb. To test the effects of inter-joint coupling, we systematically immobilized the joints (excluded kinematic degrees-of-freedom) and evaluated how the endpoint force and acceleration directions changed for each muscle in seven different conditions. We hypothesized that altered inter-joint coupling due to joint immobilization of remote joints would substantially change the induced directions of endpoint force and acceleration of individual muscles. Our results show that for most muscles crossing the knee or the hip, joint immobilization altered the endpoint force or acceleration direction by more than 90° in the dorsal and sagittal planes. Induced endpoint forces were typically consistent with behaviorally-observed forces only when the ankle was immobilized. We then activated a proximal muscle simultaneous with an ankle torque of varying magnitude, which demonstrated that the resulting endpoint force or acceleration direction is modulated by the magnitude of the ankle torque. We argue that this simple manipulation can lend insight into the functional effects of co-activating muscles. We conclude that inter-joint coupling may be an essential biomechanical principle underlying the coordination of proximal and distal muscles to produce functional endpoint actions during motor tasks. PMID:17640652

  18. Thalamic deep brain stimulation decelerates automatic lexical activation.

    PubMed

    Ehlen, Felicitas; Vonberg, Isabelle; Tiedt, Hannes O; Horn, Andreas; Fromm, Ortwin; Kühn, Andrea A; Klostermann, Fabian

    2017-02-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) is a therapeutic option for patients with essential tremor. Despite a generally low risk of side effects, declines in verbal fluency (VF) have previously been reported. We aimed to specify effects of VIM-DBS on major cognitive operations needed for VF task performance, represented by clusters and switches. Clusters are word production spurts, thought to arise from automatic activation of associated information pertaining to a given lexical field. Switches are slow word-to-word transitions, presumed to indicate controlled operations for stepping from one lexical field to another. Thirteen essential tremor patients with VIM-DBS performed verbal fluency tasks in their VIM-DBS ON and OFF conditions. Clusters and switches were formally defined by mathematical criteria. All results were compared to those of fifteen healthy control subjects, and significant OFF-ON-change scores were correlated to stimulation parameters. Patients produced fewer words than healthy controls. DBS ON compared to DBS OFF aggravated this deficit by prolonging the intervals between words within clusters, whereas switches remained unaffected. This stimulation effect correlated with more anterior electrode positions. VIM-DBS seems to influence word output dynamics during verbal fluency tasks on the level of word clustering. This suggests a perturbation of automatic lexical co-activation by thalamic stimulation, particularly if delivered relatively anteriorly. The findings are discussed in the context of the hypothesized role of the thalamus in lexical processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of some motion sickness suppressants on tracking performance during angular accelerations.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-10-01

    The two studies reported here examined the influence of three established antimotion sickness drugs on tracking performance in static (stationary) and dynamic (angular acceleration) conditions and on visual fixation ability during motion. : In Study ...

  20. Accelerated Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Effect-Powder Metallurgy Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, R. S.; Newman, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) research conducted in the near threshold regime has identified a room temperature creep crack growth damage mechanism for a fine grain powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloy (8009). At very low (Delta) K, an abrupt acceleration in room temperature FCG rate occurs at high stress ratio (R = K(sub min)/K(sub max)). The near threshold accelerated FCG rates are exacerbated by increased levels of K(sub max) (K(sub max) = 0.4 K(sub IC)). Detailed fractographic analysis correlates accelerated FCG with the formation of crack-tip process zone micro-void damage. Experimental results show that the near threshold and K(sub max) influenced accelerated crack growth is time and temperature dependent.

  1. Hard-to-cook phenomenon in chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L): effect of accelerated storage on quality.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Moreno, C; Okamura-Esparza, J; Armienta-Rodelo, E; Gómez-Garza, R M; Milán-Carrillo, J

    2000-01-01

    Storage, at high temperature (> or = 25 degrees C) and high relative humidity (> or = 65%), causes development of hard to cook (HTC) phenomenon in grain legumes. The objective of this work was to study the effect of storage simulating tropical conditions on chickpeas quality. The hardening of the Surutato 77, Mocorito 88, and Blanco Sinaloa 92 chickpea varieties was produced using adverse storage (32 +/- 1 degrees C, RH = 75%, 160 days) conditions. For all samples, the Hunter 'L' values decreased and deltaE values increased during storage, meaning a loss of color lightness and development of darkening. Accelerated storage caused a significant decrease in the water absorption capacities and cooking times of whole seeds, cotyledons and seed coats of all samples, being more pronounced in The Blanco Sinaloa 92 variety. Furthermore, storage produced significant decreases in the seed coat tannin content of the three materials; this parameter increased significantly in the cotyledon. In all samples, the levels of phytic acid decreased significantly with the seed hardness. Hardening of chickpea grains caused a decrease in the in vitro protein digestibilities of all varieties. These results suggest that both the cotyledon and seed coat play a significant role in the process of chickpea hardening. Blanco Sinaloa 92 and Mocorito 88 might be classified as varieties with high and low proneness, respectively, to the development of the HTC condition.

  2. Tree growth acceleration and expansion of alpine forests: The synergistic effect of atmospheric and edaphic change

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lucas C. R.; Sun, Geng; Zhu-Barker, Xia; Liang, Qianlong; Wu, Ning; Horwath, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Many forest ecosystems have experienced recent declines in productivity; however, in some alpine regions, tree growth and forest expansion are increasing at marked rates. Dendrochronological analyses at the upper limit of alpine forests in the Tibetan Plateau show a steady increase in tree growth since the early 1900s, which intensified during the 1930s and 1960s, and have reached unprecedented levels since 1760. This recent growth acceleration was observed in small/young and large/old trees and coincided with the establishment of trees outside the forest range, reflecting a connection between the physiological performance of dominant species and shifts in forest distribution. Measurements of stable isotopes (carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen) in tree rings indicate that tree growth has been stimulated by the synergistic effect of rising atmospheric CO2 and a warming-induced increase in water and nutrient availability from thawing permafrost. These findings illustrate the importance of considering soil-plant-atmosphere interactions to understand current and anticipate future changes in productivity and distribution of forest ecosystems. PMID:27652334

  3. Fat-specific Dicer deficiency accelerates aging and mitigates several effects of dietary restriction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Felipe C. G.; Branquinho, Jéssica L. O.; Brandão, Bruna B.; Guerra, Beatriz A.; Silva, Ismael D.; Frontini, Andrea; Thomou, Thomas; Sartini, Loris; Cinti, Saverio; Kahn, C. Ronald; Festuccia, William T.; Kowaltowski, Alicia J.; Mori, Marcelo A.

    2016-01-01

    Aging increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, and this can be prevented by dietary restriction (DR). We have previously shown that DR inhibits the downregulation of miRNAs and their processing enzymes - mainly Dicer - that occurs with aging in mouse white adipose tissue (WAT). Here we used fat-specific Dicer knockout mice (AdicerKO) to understand the contributions of adipose tissue Dicer to the metabolic effects of aging and DR. Metabolomic data uncovered a clear distinction between the serum metabolite profiles of Lox control and AdicerKO mice, with a notable elevation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in AdicerKO. These profiles were associated with reduced oxidative metabolism and increased lactate in WAT of AdicerKO mice and were accompanied by structural and functional changes in mitochondria, particularly under DR. AdicerKO mice displayed increased mTORC1 activation in WAT and skeletal muscle, where Dicer expression is not affected. This was accompanied by accelerated age-associated insulin resistance and premature mortality. Moreover, DR-induced insulin sensitivity was abrogated in AdicerKO mice. This was reverted by rapamycin injection, demonstrating that insulin resistance in AdicerKO mice is caused by mTORC1 hyperactivation. Our study evidences a DR-modulated role for WAT Dicer in controlling metabolism and insulin resistance. PMID:27241713

  4. Carbon nanotubes with high bone-tissue compatibility and bone-formation acceleration effects.

    PubMed

    Usui, Yuki; Aoki, Kaoru; Narita, Nobuyo; Murakami, Narumichi; Nakamura, Isao; Nakamura, Koichi; Ishigaki, Norio; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Kato, Hiroyuki; Taruta, Seiichi; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Endo, Morinobu; Saito, Naoto

    2008-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been used in various fields as composites with other substances or alone to develop highly functional materials. CNTs hold great interest with respect to biomaterials, particularly those to be positioned in contact with bone such as prostheses for arthroplasty, plates or screws for fracture fixation, drug delivery systems, and scaffolding for bone regeneration. Accordingly, bone-tissue compatibility of CNTs and CNT influence on bone formation are important issues, but the effects of CNTs on bone have not been delineated. Here, it is found that multi-walled CNTs adjoining bone induce little local inflammatory reaction, show high bone-tissue compatibility, permit bone repair, become integrated into new bone, and accelerate bone formation stimulated by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). This study provides an initial investigational basis for CNTs in biomaterials that are used adjacent to bone, including uses to promote bone regeneration. These findings should encourage development of clinical treatment modalities involving CNTs.

  5. Effects of Absorbing Aerosols on Accelerated Melting of Snowpack in the Tibetan-Himalayas Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.

    2011-01-01

    The impacts of absorbing aerosol on melting of snowpack in the Hindu-Kush-Tibetan-Himalayas (HKTH) region are studied using NASA satellite and GEOS-5 GCM. Results from GCM experiments shows that a 8-10% in the rate of melting of snowpack over the western Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau can be attributed to the aerosol elevated-heat-pump (EHP) feedback effect (Lau et al. 2008), initiated by the absorption of solar radiation by absorbing aerosols accumulated over the Indo-Gangetic Plain and Himalayas foothills. On the other hand, deposition of black carbon on snow surface was estimated to give rise to a reduction in snow surface albedo of 2 - 5%, and an increased annual runoff of 9-24%. From case studies using satellite observations and re-analysis data, we find consistent signals of possible impacts of dust and black carbon aerosol in blackening snow surface, in accelerating spring melting of snowpack in the HKHT, and consequentially in influencing shifts in long-term Asian summer monsoon rainfall pattern.

  6. Fat-specific Dicer deficiency accelerates aging and mitigates several effects of dietary restriction in mice.

    PubMed

    Reis, Felipe C G; Branquinho, Jéssica L O; Brandão, Bruna B; Guerra, Beatriz A; Silva, Ismael D; Frontini, Andrea; Thomou, Thomas; Sartini, Loris; Cinti, Saverio; Kahn, C Ronald; Festuccia, William T; Kowaltowski, Alicia J; Mori, Marcelo A

    2016-06-01

    Aging increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, and this can be prevented by dietary restriction (DR). We have previously shown that DR inhibits the downregulation of miRNAs and their processing enzymes - mainly Dicer - that occurs with aging in mouse white adipose tissue (WAT). Here we used fat-specific Dicer knockout mice (AdicerKO) to understand the contributions of adipose tissue Dicer to the metabolic effects of aging and DR. Metabolomic data uncovered a clear distinction between the serum metabolite profiles of Lox control and AdicerKO mice, with a notable elevation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in AdicerKO. These profiles were associated with reduced oxidative metabolism and increased lactate in WAT of AdicerKO mice and were accompanied by structural and functional changes in mitochondria, particularly under DR. AdicerKO mice displayed increased mTORC1 activation in WAT and skeletal muscle, where Dicer expression is not affected. This was accompanied by accelerated age-associated insulin resistance and premature mortality. Moreover, DR-induced insulin sensitivity was abrogated in AdicerKO mice. This was reverted by rapamycin injection, demonstrating that insulin resistance in AdicerKO mice is caused by mTORC1 hyperactivation. Our study evidences a DR-modulated role for WAT Dicer in controlling metabolism and insulin resistance.

  7. Tree growth acceleration and expansion of alpine forests: The synergistic effect of atmospheric and edaphic change.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lucas C R; Sun, Geng; Zhu-Barker, Xia; Liang, Qianlong; Wu, Ning; Horwath, William R

    2016-08-01

    Many forest ecosystems have experienced recent declines in productivity; however, in some alpine regions, tree growth and forest expansion are increasing at marked rates. Dendrochronological analyses at the upper limit of alpine forests in the Tibetan Plateau show a steady increase in tree growth since the early 1900s, which intensified during the 1930s and 1960s, and have reached unprecedented levels since 1760. This recent growth acceleration was observed in small/young and large/old trees and coincided with the establishment of trees outside the forest range, reflecting a connection between the physiological performance of dominant species and shifts in forest distribution. Measurements of stable isotopes (carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen) in tree rings indicate that tree growth has been stimulated by the synergistic effect of rising atmospheric CO2 and a warming-induced increase in water and nutrient availability from thawing permafrost. These findings illustrate the importance of considering soil-plant-atmosphere interactions to understand current and anticipate future changes in productivity and distribution of forest ecosystems.

  8. Effects of slow and accelerated rehabilitation protocols on range of motion after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Düzgün, İrem; Baltacı, Gül; Turgut, Elif; Atay, O Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the early initiation of passive and active range of motion exercises following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The study included 40 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Patients were quasi-randomly assigned into accelerated (ACCEL) protocol (n=19) and slow (SLOW) protocol (n=21) groups. Patients in both groups were treated with the same protocol. Active range of motion was begun at the 3rd week in the ACCEL group and the 6th week in the SLOW group. Range of motion was recorded at postoperative weeks 3, 5, 8, 12, and 24. While active range of motion for all measurements improved across weeks, there were no differences between groups, with the exception of active total elevation which was greater at all time point measurements in the ACCEL group (p<0.05). The early initiation of passive and gentle controlled active motion exercise following rotator cuff repairs does not appear to affect range of motion in the first 6 postoperative months.

  9. Small field detector correction factors: effects of the flattening filter for Elekta and Varian linear accelerators

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Paul Z.Y.; Lee, Christopher; McKenzie, David R.; Suchowerska, Natalka

    2016-01-01

    Flattening filter‐free (FFF) beams are becoming the preferred beam type for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR), as they enable an increase in dose rate and a decrease in treatment time. This work assesses the effects of the flattening filter on small field output factors for 6 MV beams generated by both Elekta and Varian linear accelerators, and determines differences between detector response in flattened (FF) and FFF beams. Relative output factors were measured with a range of detectors (diodes, ionization chambers, radiochromic film, and microDiamond) and referenced to the relative output factors measured with an air core fiber optic dosimeter (FOD), a scintillation dosimeter developed at Chris O'Brien Lifehouse, Sydney. Small field correction factors were generated for both FF and FFF beams. Diode measured detector response was compared with a recently published mathematical relation to predict diode response corrections in small fields. The effect of flattening filter removal on detector response was quantified using a ratio of relative detector responses in FFF and FF fields for the same field size. The removal of the flattening filter was found to have a small but measurable effect on ionization chamber response with maximum deviations of less than ±0.9% across all field sizes measured. Solid‐state detectors showed an increased dependence on the flattening filter of up to ±1.6%. Measured diode response was within ±1.1% of the published mathematical relation for all fields up to 30 mm, independent of linac type and presence or absence of a flattening filter. For 6 MV beams, detector correction factors between FFF and FF beams are interchangeable for a linac between FF and FFF modes, providing that an additional uncertainty of up to ±1.6% is accepted. PACS number(s): 87.55.km, 87.56.bd, 87.56.Da PMID:27167280

  10. Application of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis to Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Using Mobile Electron Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ciocca, Mario, E-mail: mario.ciocca@cnao.it; Cantone, Marie-Claire; Veronese, Ivan

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) represents a prospective approach for risk assessment. A multidisciplinary working group of the Italian Association for Medical Physics applied FMEA to electron beam intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) delivered using mobile linear accelerators, aiming at preventing accidental exposures to the patient. Methods and Materials: FMEA was applied to the IORT process, for the stages of the treatment delivery and verification, and consisted of three steps: 1) identification of the involved subprocesses; 2) identification and ranking of the potential failure modes, together with their causes and effects, using the risk probability number (RPN) scoring system,more » based on the product of three parameters (severity, frequency of occurrence and detectability, each ranging from 1 to 10); 3) identification of additional safety measures to be proposed for process quality and safety improvement. RPN upper threshold for little concern of risk was set at 125. Results: Twenty-four subprocesses were identified. Ten potential failure modes were found and scored, in terms of RPN, in the range of 42-216. The most critical failure modes consisted of internal shield misalignment, wrong Monitor Unit calculation and incorrect data entry at treatment console. Potential causes of failure included shield displacement, human errors, such as underestimation of CTV extension, mainly because of lack of adequate training and time pressures, failure in the communication between operators, and machine malfunctioning. The main effects of failure were represented by CTV underdose, wrong dose distribution and/or delivery, unintended normal tissue irradiation. As additional safety measures, the utilization of a dedicated staff for IORT, double-checking of MU calculation and data entry and finally implementation of in vivo dosimetry were suggested. Conclusions: FMEA appeared as a useful tool for prospective evaluation of patient safety in

  11. The Longitudinal Stability of Flying Boats as Determined by Tests of Models in the NACA Tank II : Effect of Variations in Form of Hull on Longitudinal Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Roland E.; Truscott, Starr

    1942-01-01

    Data taken from tests at constant speed to establish trim limits of stability, tests at accelerated speeds to determine stable limits of center of gravity shift, and tests at decelerated speeds to obtain landing characteristics of several model hull forms were used to establish hull design effect on longitudinal stability of porpoising. Results show a reduction of dead rise angle as being the only investigated factor reducing low trim limit. Various methods of reducing afterbody interference increased upper trim limit

  12. Figuring the Acceleration of the Simple Pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberherr, Martin

    2011-12-01

    The centripetal acceleration has been known since Huygens' (1659) and Newton's (1684) time.1,2 The physics to calculate the acceleration of a simple pendulum has been around for more than 300 years, and a fairly complete treatise has been given by C. Schwarz in this journal.3 But sentences like "the acceleration is always directed towards the equilibrium position" beside the picture of a swing on a circular arc can still be found in textbooks, as e.g. in Ref. 4. Vectors have been invented by Grassmann (1844)5 and are conveniently used to describe the acceleration in curved orbits, but acceleration is more often treated as a scalar with or without sign, as the words acceleration/deceleration suggest. The component tangential to the orbit is enough to deduce the period of the simple pendulum, but it is not enough to discuss the forces on the pendulum, as has been pointed out by Santos-Benito and A. Gras-Marti.6 A suitable way to address this problem is a nice figure with a catch for classroom discussions or homework. When I plotted the acceleration vectors of the simple pendulum in their proper positions, pictures as in Fig. 1 appeared on the screen. The endpoints of the acceleration vectors, if properly scaled, seemed to lie on a curve with a familiar shape: a cardioid. Is this true or just an illusion?

  13. Verification and Validation Testing of the Parachute Decelerator System Prior to the First Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallon, John C.; Witkowski, Allen

    2015-01-01

    The Parachute Decelerator System (PDS) is comprised of all components associated with the supersonic parachute and its associated deployment. During the Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT), for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerators Program, the PDS was required to deploy the supersonic parachute in a defined fashion. The PDS hardware includes three major subsystems that must function together. The first subsystem is the Parachute Deployment Device (PDD), which acts as a modified pilot deployment system. It is comprised of a pyrotechnic mortar, a Kevlar ballute, a lanyard actuated pyrotechnic inflation aid, and rigging with its associated thermal protection material (TPS). The second subsystem is the supersonic parachute deployment hardware. This includes all of the parachute specific rigging that includes the parachute stowage can and the rigging including TPS and bridle stiffeners for bridle management during deployment. The third subsystem is the Supersonic Parachute itself, which includes the main parachute and deployment bags. This paper summarizes the verification and validation of the deployment process, from the initialization of the PDS system through parachute bag strip that was done prior to the first SFDT.

  14. PA1 Protein, a New Competitive Decelerator Acting at More than One Step to Impede Glucocorticoid Receptor-mediated Transactivation*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenhuan; Sun, Yunguang; Cho, Young-Wook; Chow, Carson C.; Simons, S. Stoney

    2013-01-01

    Numerous cofactors modulate the gene regulatory activity of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) by affecting one or more of the following three major transcriptional properties: the maximal activity of agonists (Amax), the potency of agonists (EC50), and the partial agonist activity of antisteroids (PAA). Here, we report that the recently described nuclear protein, Pax2 transactivation domain interaction protein (PTIP)-associated protein 1 (PA1), is a new inhibitor of GR transactivation. PA1 suppresses Amax, increases the EC50, and reduces the PAA of an exogenous reporter gene in a manner that is independent of associated PTIP. PA1 is fully active with, and strongly binds to, the C-terminal half of GR. PA1 reverses the effects of the coactivator TIF2 on GR-mediated gene induction but is unable to augment the actions of the corepressor SMRT. Analysis of competition assays between PA1 and TIF2 with an exogenous reporter indicates that the kinetic definition of PA1 action is a competitive decelerator at two sites upstream from where TIF2 acts. With the endogenous genes IGFBP1 and IP6K3, PA1 also represses GR induction, increases the EC50, and decreases the PAA. ChIP and re-ChIP experiments indicate that PA1 accomplishes this inhibition of the two genes via different mechanisms as follows: PA1 appears to increase GR dissociation from and reduce GR transactivation at the IGFBP1 promoter regions but blocks GR binding to the IP6K3 promoter. We conclude that PA1 is a new competitive decelerator of GR transactivation and can act at more than one molecularly defined step in a manner that depends upon the specific gene. PMID:23161582

  15. PA1 protein, a new competitive decelerator acting at more than one step to impede glucocorticoid receptor-mediated transactivation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenhuan; Sun, Yunguang; Cho, Young-Wook; Chow, Carson C; Simons, S Stoney

    2013-01-04

    Numerous cofactors modulate the gene regulatory activity of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) by affecting one or more of the following three major transcriptional properties: the maximal activity of agonists (A(max)), the potency of agonists (EC(50)), and the partial agonist activity of antisteroids (PAA). Here, we report that the recently described nuclear protein, Pax2 transactivation domain interaction protein (PTIP)-associated protein 1 (PA1), is a new inhibitor of GR transactivation. PA1 suppresses A(max), increases the EC(50), and reduces the PAA of an exogenous reporter gene in a manner that is independent of associated PTIP. PA1 is fully active with, and strongly binds to, the C-terminal half of GR. PA1 reverses the effects of the coactivator TIF2 on GR-mediated gene induction but is unable to augment the actions of the corepressor SMRT. Analysis of competition assays between PA1 and TIF2 with an exogenous reporter indicates that the kinetic definition of PA1 action is a competitive decelerator at two sites upstream from where TIF2 acts. With the endogenous genes IGFBP1 and IP6K3, PA1 also represses GR induction, increases the EC(50), and decreases the PAA. ChIP and re-ChIP experiments indicate that PA1 accomplishes this inhibition of the two genes via different mechanisms as follows: PA1 appears to increase GR dissociation from and reduce GR transactivation at the IGFBP1 promoter regions but blocks GR binding to the IP6K3 promoter. We conclude that PA1 is a new competitive decelerator of GR transactivation and can act at more than one molecularly defined step in a manner that depends upon the specific gene.

  16. Flow acceleration structure of Aurelia aurita: implications on propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Tae; Piper, Matthew; Chamorro, Leonardo P.

    2017-11-01

    The jetting and paddling mechanisms used by Aurelia aurita jellyfish allows for one of the most efficient propulsion among other metazoans. Characterization of the induced flow acceleration is critical to uncover distinctive patterns. We found four acceleration structures using 3D measurements of body and flow dynamics in Lagrangian frame of reference. Two intense structures occur near the bell margin and are generated by paddling; the other two around the center of the jellyfish and half magnitude are a result of jetting. Their interaction leads to the maximum flow velocity in the middle of the relaxation, where relatively straight flow trajectories occur. The jellyfish achieves an efficient relaxation by generating flow deceleration with minor body deceleration.

  17. Explaining the Supernova Data Without Accelerating Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuckey, W. M.; McDevitt, T. J.; Silberstein, M.

    2012-10-01

    The 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe through observations of distant supernovae." However, it is not the case that the type Ia supernova data necessitates accelerating expansion. Since we do not have a successful theory of quantum gravity, we should not assume general relativity (GR) will survive unification intact, especially on cosmological scales where tests are scarce. We provide a simple example of how GR cosmology may be modified to produce a decelerating Einstein-de Sitter cosmology (EdS) that accounts for the Union2 Compilation data as well as the accelerating ΛCDM (EdS plus a cosmological constant).

  18. Climate-change effects on soils: Accelerated weathering, soil carbon and elemental cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Qafoku, Nikolla

    2015-04-01

    Climate change [i.e., high atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations (≥400 ppm); increasing air temperatures (2-4°C or greater); significant and/or abrupt changes in daily, seasonal, and inter-annual temperature; changes in the wet/dry cycles; intensive rainfall and/or heavy storms; extended periods of drought; extreme frost; heat waves and increased fire frequency] is and will significantly affect soil properties and fertility, water resources, food quantity and quality, and environmental quality. Biotic processes that consume atmospheric CO2, and create organic carbon (C) that is either reprocessed to CO2 or stored in soils are the subject of active current investigations, with great concern over themore » influence of climate change. In addition, abiotic C cycling and its influence on the inorganic C pool in soils is a fundamental global process in which acidic atmospheric CO2 participates in the weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals, ultimately delivering bicarbonate and Ca2+ or other cations that precipitate in the form of carbonates in soils or are transported to the rivers, lakes, and oceans. Soil responses to climate change will be complex, and there are many uncertainties and unresolved issues. The objective of the review is to initiate and further stimulate a discussion about some important and challenging aspects of climate-change effects on soils, such as accelerated weathering of soil minerals and resulting C and elemental fluxes in and out of soils, soil/geo-engineering methods used to increase C sequestration in soils, soil organic matter (SOM) protection, transformation and mineralization, and SOM temperature sensitivity. This review reports recent discoveries, identifies key research needs, and highlights opportunities offered by the climate-change effects on soils.« less

  19. Application of failure mode and effects analysis to intracranial stereotactic radiation surgery by linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Masini, Laura; Donis, Laura; Loi, Gianfranco; Mones, Eleonora; Molina, Elisa; Bolchini, Cesare; Krengli, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the application of the failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) to intracranial stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS) by linear accelerator in order to identify the potential failure modes in the process tree and adopt appropriate safety measures to prevent adverse events (AEs) and near-misses, thus improving the process quality. A working group was set up to perform FMEA for intracranial SRS in the framework of a quality assurance program. FMEA was performed in 4 consecutive tasks: (1) creation of a visual map of the process; (2) identification of possible failure modes; (3) assignment of a risk probability number (RPN) to each failure mode based on tabulated scores of severity, frequency of occurrence and detectability; and (4) identification of preventive measures to minimize the risk of occurrence. The whole SRS procedure was subdivided into 73 single steps; 116 total possible failure modes were identified and a score of severity, occurrence, and detectability was assigned to each. Based on these scores, RPN was calculated for each failure mode thus obtaining values from 1 to 180. In our analysis, 112/116 (96.6%) RPN values were <60, 2 (1.7%) between 60 and 125 (63, 70), and 2 (1.7%) >125 (135, 180). The 2 highest RPN scores were assigned to the risk of using the wrong collimator's size and incorrect coordinates on the laser target localizer frame. Failure modes and effects analysis is a simple and practical proactive tool for systematic analysis of risks in radiation therapy. In our experience of SRS, FMEA led to the adoption of major changes in various steps of the SRS procedure.

  20. The effect of detonation wave incidence angle on the acceleration of flyers by explosives heavily laden with inert additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, Jason; Georges, William; Frost, David L.; Higgins, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence angle of a detonation wave in a conventional high explosive influences the acceleration and terminal velocity of a metal flyer by increasing the magnitude of the material velocity imparted by the transmitted shock wave as the detonation is tilted towards normal loading. For non-ideal explosives heavily loaded with inert additives, the detonation velocity is typically subsonic relative to the flyer sound speed, leading to shockless accelerations when the detonation is grazing. Further, in a grazing detonation the particles are initially accelerated in the direction of the detonation and only gain velocity normal to the initial orientation of the flyer at later times due to aerodynamic drag as the detonation products expand. If the detonation wave in a non-ideal explosive instead strikes the flyer at normal incidence, a shock is transmitted into the flyer and the first interaction between the particle additives and the flyer occurs due to the imparted material velocity from the passage of the detonation wave. Consequently, the effect of incidence angle and additive properties may play a more prominent role in the flyer acceleration. In the present study we experimentally compared normal detonation loadings to grazing loadings using a 3-mm-thick aluminum slapper to impact-initiate a planar detonation wave in non-ideal explosive-particle admixtures, which subsequently accelerated a second 6.4-mm-thick flyer. Flyer acceleration was measured with heterodyne laser velocimetry (PDV). The explosive mixtures considered were packed beds of glass or steel particles of varying sizes saturated with sensitized nitromethane, and gelled nitromethane mixed with glass microballoons. Results showed that the primary parameter controlling changes in flyer velocity was the presence of a transmitted shock, with additive density and particle size playing only secondary roles. These results are similar to the grazing detonation experiments, however under normal loading the

  1. The evolution of senescence through decelerating selection for system reliability.

    PubMed

    Laird, R A; Sherratt, T N

    2009-05-01

    Senescence is a universal phenomenon in organisms, characterized by increasing mortality and decreasing fecundity with advancing chronological age. Most proximate agents of senescence, such as reactive oxygen species and UV radiation, are thought to operate by causing a gradual build-up of bodily damage. Yet most current evolutionary theories of senescence emphasize the deleterious effects of functioning genes in late life, leaving a gap between proximate and ultimate explanations. Here, we present an evolutionary model of senescence based on reliability theory, in which beneficial genes or gene products gradually get damaged and thereby fail, rather than actively cause harm. Specifically, the model allows organisms to evolve multiple redundant copies of a gene product (or gene) that performs a vital function, assuming that organisms can avoid condition-dependent death so long as at least one copy remains undamaged. We show that organisms with low levels of extrinsic mortality, and high levels of genetic damage, tend to evolve high levels of redundancy, and that mutation-selection balance results in a stable population distribution of the number of redundant elements. In contrast to previous evolutionary models of senescence, the mortality curves that emerge from such populations match empirical senescence patterns in three key respects: they exhibit: (1) an initially low, but rapidly increasing mortality rate at young ages, (2) a plateau in mortality at advanced ages and (3) 'mortality compensation', whereby the height of the mortality plateau is independent of the environmental conditions under which different populations evolved.

  2. Phosphorylation decelerates conformational dynamics in bacterial translation elongation factors

    PubMed Central

    Talavera, Ariel; Hendrix, Jelle; Versées, Wim; Jurėnas, Dukas; Van Nerom, Katleen; Vandenberk, Niels; Singh, Ranjan Kumar; Konijnenberg, Albert; De Gieter, Steven; Castro-Roa, Daniel; Barth, Anders; De Greve, Henri; Sobott, Frank; Hofkens, Johan; Zenkin, Nikolay; Loris, Remy; Garcia-Pino, Abel

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial protein synthesis is intricately connected to metabolic rate. One of the ways in which bacteria respond to environmental stress is through posttranslational modifications of translation factors. Translation elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) is methylated and phosphorylated in response to nutrient starvation upon entering stationary phase, and its phosphorylation is a crucial step in the pathway toward sporulation. We analyze how phosphorylation leads to inactivation of Escherichia coli EF-Tu. We provide structural and biophysical evidence that phosphorylation of EF-Tu at T382 acts as an efficient switch that turns off protein synthesis by decoupling nucleotide binding from the EF-Tu conformational cycle. Direct modifications of the EF-Tu switch I region or modifications in other regions stabilizing the β-hairpin state of switch I result in an effective allosteric trap that restricts the normal dynamics of EF-Tu and enables the evasion of the control exerted by nucleotides on G proteins. These results highlight stabilization of a phosphorylation-induced conformational trap as an essential mechanism for phosphoregulation of bacterial translation and metabolism. We propose that this mechanism may lead to the multisite phosphorylation state observed during dormancy and stationary phase. PMID:29546243

  3. Simulation of decelerating landing approaches on an externally blown flap STOL transport airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Nguyen, L. T.; Deal, P. L.

    1974-01-01

    A fixed-base simulator program was conducted to define the problems and methods for solution associated with performing decelerating landing approaches on a representative STOL transport having a high wing and equipped with an external-flow jet flap in combination with four high-bypass-ratio fan-jet engines. Real-time digital simulation techniques were used. The computer was programed with equations of motion for six degrees of freedom and the aerodynamic inputs were based on measured wind-tunnel data. The pilot's task was to capture the localizer and the glide slope and to maintain them as closely as possible while decelerating from an initial airspeed of 140 knots to a final airspeed of 75 knots, while under IFR conditions.

  4. Deceleration of free aqueous droplets skirting across the surface of a pool of the same fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, Jacob; Akers, Caleb

    2014-11-01

    The non-coalescence of a free droplet atop a pool of the same fluid can be greatly enhanced when the drop has an initial horizontal velocity relative to the pool surface. The glancing impact and viscous interaction between the droplet and the pool impart a significant rotation to the droplet causing it to roll and thus entraining air between the two fluids. The translational speed of such a droplet is shown to decrease exponentially in time but with a time constant that increases linearly in time. This complex deceleration of the drop is in part due to the drop's rotational deceleration, visualized with suspended, neutrally buoyant microbeads. The observed motion is described in terms of viscous dissipation of the rotating drop and a viscous shear force between the droplet and bath.

  5. A unique problem of muscle adaptation from weightlessness: The deceleration deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauber, William T.

    1989-01-01

    Decelerator problems of the knee are emphasized since the lower leg musculature is known to atrophy in response to weightlessness. However, other important decelerator functions are served by the shoulder muscles, in particular the rotator cuff muscles. Problems in these muscles often result in tears and dislocations as seen in baseball pitchers. It is noteworthy that at least one device currently exists that can measure concentric and eccentric muscle loading including a submaximal simulated free weight exercise (i.e., force-controlled) and simultaneously record integrated EMG analysis appropriate for assessment of all muscle functional activities. Studies should be undertaken to provide information as to the performance of maximal and submaximal exercise in space travelers to define potential problems and provide rationale for prevention.

  6. Deceleration of the solar wind in the earth's foreshock region - Isee 2 and Imp 8 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonifazi, C.; Moreno, G.; Lazarus, A. J.; Sullivan, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The deceleration of the solar wind in the region of the interplanetary space filled by ions backstreaming from the earth's bow shock and associated waves is studied using a two-spacecraft technique. This deceleration depends on the solar wind bulk velocity; at low velocities (below 300 km/s) the velocity decrease is about 5 km/s, while at higher velocities (above 400 km/s) the decrease may be as large as 30 km/s. The energy balance shows that the kinetic energy loss far exceeds the thermal energy which is possibly gained by the solar wind; therefore at least part of this energy must go into waves and/or into the backstreaming ions.

  7. The effect of MLC speed and acceleration on the plan delivery accuracy of VMAT

    PubMed Central

    Park, J M; Wu, H-G; Kim, J H; Carlson, J N K

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine a new metric utilizing multileaf collimator (MLC) speeds and accelerations to predict plan delivery accuracy of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods: To verify VMAT delivery accuracy, gamma evaluations, analysis of mechanical parameter difference between plans and log files, and analysis of changes in dose–volumetric parameters between plans and plans reconstructed with log files were performed with 40 VMAT plans. The average proportion of leaf speeds ranging from l to h cm s−1 (Sl–h and l–h = 0–0.4, 0.4–0.8, 0.8–1.2, 1.2–1.6 and 1.6–2.0), mean and standard deviation of MLC speeds were calculated for each VMAT plan. The same was carried out for accelerations in centimetre per second squared (Al–h and l–h = 0–4, 4–8, 8–12, 12–16 and 16–20). The correlations of those indicators to plan delivery accuracy were analysed with Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs). Results: The S1.2–1.6 and mean acceleration of MLCs showed generally higher correlations to plan delivery accuracy than did others. The highest rs values were observed between S1.2–1.6 and global 1%/2 mm (rs = −0.698 with p < 0.001) as well as mean acceleration and global 1%/2 mm (rs = −0.650 with p < 0.001). As the proportion of MLC speeds and accelerations >0.4 and 4 cm s−2 increased, the plan delivery accuracy of VMAT decreased. Conclusion: The variations in MLC speeds and accelerations showed considerable correlations to VMAT delivery accuracy. Advances in knowledge: As the MLC speeds and accelerations increased, VMAT delivery accuracy reduced. PMID:25734490

  8. [Autonomic regulation at emotional stress under hypoxic conditions in the elderly with physiological and accelerated aging: effect of hypoxic training].

    PubMed

    Os'mak, E D; Asanov, É O

    2014-01-01

    The effect of hypoxic training on autonomic regulation in psycho-emotional stress conditions in hypoxic conditions in older people with physiological (25 people) and accelerated (28 people) aging respiratory system. It is shown that hypoxic training leads to an increase in vagal activity indicators (HF) and reduced simpatovagal index (LF/HF), have a normalizing effect on the autonomic balance during stress loads in older people with different types of aging respiratory system.

  9. Obstetrics at Decisive Crossroads Regarding Pattern-Recognition of Fetal Heart Rate Decelerations: Scientific Principles and Lessons From Memetics

    PubMed Central

    Sholapurkar, Shashikant L.

    2018-01-01

    The survival of cardiotocography (CTG) as a tool for intrapartum fetal monitoring seems threatened somewhat unjustifiably and unwittingly despite the absence of better alternatives. Fetal heart rate (FHR) decelerations are center-stage (most important) in the interpretation of CTG with maximum impact on three-tier classification. The pattern-discrimination of FHR decelerations is inexorably linked to their nomenclature. Unscientific or flawed nomenclature of decelerations can explain the dysfunctional CTG interpretation leading to errors in detection of acidemic fetuses. There are three contrasting concepts about categorization of FHR decelerations: 1) all rapid decelerations (the vast majority) should be grouped as “variable” because they are predominantly due to cord-compression, 2) all decelerations are due to chemoreflex from fetal hypoxemia hence their timing is not important, and 3) FHR decelerations should be categorized into “early/late/variable” based primarily on their time relationship to contractions. These theoretical concepts are like memes (ideas/beliefs). Lessons from “memetics” are that the most popular, attractive or established beliefs may not necessarily be true, scientific, beneficial or even without harm. Decelerations coincident with contractions with trough corresponding to the peak of contractions cannot be explained by cord-compression or increasing hypoxia (from compromised uteroplacental perfusion, cord-compression or even cerebral hypoperfusion/anoxia purportedly conceivable from head-compression). Decelerations due to hypoxemia would be associated with delayed recovery of decelerations (lag phase). It is a scientific imperative to cast away disproven/falsified theories. Practices based on unscientific theories lead to patient harm. Clinicians should urgently adopt the categorization of FHR decelerations based primarily of the time relationship to contractions as originally proposed by Hon and Caldeyro-Barcia. This

  10. Rydberg Spectroscopy of Zeeman-Decelerated Beams of Metastable Helium Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Paul; Motsch, Michael; Sprecher, Daniel; Merkt, Frederic

    2014-06-01

    Having three and four electrons, respectively, He_2^+ and He_2 represent systems for which highly accurate ab-initio calculations might become feasible in the near future. With the goal of performing accurate measurements of the rovibrational energy-level structure of He_2^+ by Rydberg spectroscopy of He_2 and multichannel quantum-defect theory extrapolation techniques, we have produced samples of helium molecules in the a ^3Σu^+ state in supersonic beams with velocities tunable down to 100 m/s by combining a cryogenic supersonic-beam source with a multistage Zeeman decelerator. The molecules are formed at an initial velocity of 500 m/s by striking a discharge in the pulsed expansion of helium gas from a reservoir kept at a cryogenic temperature of 10 K. Using rotationally-resolved PFI-ZEKE (pulsed-field-ionization zero-kinetic-energy) photoelectron spectroscopy, we have probed the rotational-state distribution of the molecules produced in the discharge and found vibrational levels up to ν" = 2 and rotational levels up to N"=21 to be populated. The molecular beam is coupled to a multistage Zeeman decelerator that employs pulsed inhomogeneous magnetic fields to further reduce the beam velocity. By measuring the quantum-state distribution of the decelerated sample using photoelectron and photoionization spectroscopy we observed no rotational or vibrational state-selectivity of the deceleration process, but found that one of the three spin-rotation components of the He_2 a ^3Σu^+ rotational levels is eliminated. W.-C. Tung, M. Pavanello, L. Adamowicz, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 104309 (2012). D. Sprecher, J. Liu, T. Krähenmann, M. Schäfer, and F. Merkt, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064304 (2014). M. Motsch, P. Jansen, J. A. Agner, H. Schmutz, and F. Merkt, arXiv:1401.7774. N. Vanhaecke, U. Meier, M. Andrist, B. H. Meier, and F. Merkt, Phys. Rev. A 75, 031402(R) (2007).

  11. Continuous All-Optical Deceleration and Single-Photon Cooling of Molecular Beams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-21

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 89 , 023425 (2014) Continuous all-optical deceleration and single-photon cooling of molecular beams A. M. Jayich,1 A. C. Vutha,2 M...details including multilevel numerical simulations of strontium monohydride. These techniques are applicable to a large number of molecular species and...molecules that are considered difficult to directly laser cool—a class that includes many 1050-2947/2014/ 89 (2)/023425(8) 023425-1 ©2014 American

  12. Venus In Situ Explorer Mission design using a mechanically deployed aerodynamic decelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B.; Venkatapathy, E.; Wercinski, P.; Yount, B.; Prabhu, D.; Gage, P.; Glaze, L.; Baker, C.

    The Venus In Situ Explorer (VISE) Mission addresses the highest priority science questions within the Venus community outlined in the National Research Council's Decadal Survey. The heritage Venus atmospheric entry system architecture, a 45° sphere-cone rigid aeroshell with a carbon phenolic thermal protection system, may no longer be the preferred entry system architecture compared to other viable alternatives being explored at NASA. A mechanically-deployed aerodynamic decelerator, known as the Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT), is an entry system alternative that can provide key operational benefits and risk reduction compared to a rigid aeroshell. This paper describes a mission feasibility study performed with the objectives of identifying potential adverse interactions with other mission elements and establishing requirements on decelerator performance. Feasibility is assessed through a launch-to-landing mission design study where the Venus Intrepid Tessera Lander (VITaL), a VISE science payload designed to inform the Decadal Survey results, is repackaged from a rigid aeroshell into the ADEPT decelerator. It is shown that ADEPT reduces the deceleration load on VITaL by an order of magnitude relative to a rigid aeroshell. The more benign entry environment opens up the VISE mission design environment for increased science return, reduced risk, and reduced cost. The ADEPT-VITAL mission concept of operations is presented and details of the entry vehicle structures and mechanisms are given. Finally, entry aerothermal analysis is presented that defines the operational requirements for a revolutionary structural-TPS material employed by ADEPT: three-dimensionally woven carbon cloth. Ongoing work to mitigate key risks identified in this feasibility study is presented.

  13. Effect of +Gz Acceleration on the Oxygen Uptake-Excercise Load Relationship during Lower Extremity Ergometer Excercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Catherine G. R.

    1996-01-01

    Long term spaceflight and habitation of a space station and/or the moon require that astronauts be provided with sufficient environmental and physiological support so that they can not only function in microgravity but be returned to earth safely. As the duration of habitation in microgravity increase the effects of the concomitant deconditioning of body systems becomes a concern for added exercise in space and for reentry to Earth gravity. Many countermeasures have been proposed to maintain proper functioning of the body, but none have proved sufficient, especially when the cost of crew time spent in these activities is considered. The issue of appropriate countermeasures remains unresolved. Spaceflight deconditioning decreases tolerance to +Gz acceleration, head to foot, the direction which is experienced during reentry; the result is that the crew member is more prone to becoming pre-syncopal or syncopal, thus exacerbating the orthostatic intolerance. All ground-based research using microgravity analogues has produced this same lowered G tolerance. When intermittent exposure to +1 to +4 Gz acceleration training was used, some alleviation of orthosatic intolerance and negative physiological effects of deconditioning occurred. Exercise alone was not as effective; but the added G force was. The physiological responses to acceleration added to exercise training have not been clearly shown. We will test the hypothesis that there will be no difference in the exercise oxygen uptake-exercise load relationship with added +Gz acceleration. We wi also compare oxygen uptake during graded exercise-acceleration loads in the human-powered short arm centrifuge with those from normal supine exercise loads. The human-powered short arm centrifuge was built by NASA engineers at Ames Research Center.

  14. Effect of accelerated aging on the cross-link density of medical grade silicones.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Aziza; Pormehr, Negin Bagheri

    2016-11-25

    Four specimens of Nagor silicone of different hardness (soft, medium and hard) were swollen, until they reached equilibrium (i.e. constant mass) in five liquids at 25°C, before and after accelerated aging. For the specimens swollen before accelerated aging, the greatest swelling was obtained in methyl cyclohexane, while for the specimens swollen after accelerated aging, the greatest swelling was obtained in cyclohexane. The cross-link density, υ, was also calculated from the swelling measurements for all the specimens, before and after accelerated aging, using the Flory-Rehner equation. The softer silicones, which swelled the most, had lower υ values than harder silicones. The amount of swelling (measured in terms of ϕ) and υ varied significantly (p<0.05) in some cases, between the different silicone hardness and between different liquids. Furthermore, the cross-link density, υ, significantly (p<0.05) increased after accelerated aging in most liquids.Note: ϕ is defined as the volume fraction of polymer in its equilibrium swollen state. A probability value of statistical significance of 0.05 or 5% was selected, hence if a p value of less than 0.05 was obtained, the null hypothesis was rejected (i.e. significant if p<0.05).

  15. Initiating running barefoot: Effects on muscle activation and impact accelerations in habitually rearfoot shod runners.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Priego Quesada, José Ignacio; Giménez, José Vicente; Aparicio, Inma; Jimenez-Perez, Irene; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    Runners tend to shift from a rearfoot to a forefoot strike pattern when running barefoot. However, it is unclear how the first attempts at running barefoot affect habitually rearfoot shod runners. Due to the inconsistency of their recently adopted barefoot technique, a number of new barefoot-related running injuries are emerging among novice barefoot runners. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse the influence of three running conditions (natural barefoot [BF], barefoot with a forced rearfoot strike [BRS], and shod [SH]) on muscle activity and impact accelerations in habitually rearfoot shod runners. Twenty-two participants ran at 60% of their maximal aerobic speed while foot strike, tibial and head impact accelerations, and tibialis anterior (TA), peroneus longus (PL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) muscle activity were registered. Only 68% of the runners adopted a non-rearfoot strike pattern during BF. Running BF led to a reduction of TA activity as well as to an increase of GL and GM activity compared to BRS and SH. Furthermore, BRS increased tibial peak acceleration, tibial magnitude and tibial acceleration rate compared to SH and BF. In conclusion, 32% of our runners showed a rearfoot strike pattern at the first attempts at running barefoot, which corresponds to a running style (BRS) that led to increased muscle activation and impact accelerations and thereby to a potentially higher risk of injury compared to running shod.

  16. Centripetal Acceleration Reaction: An Effective and Robust Mechanism for Flapping Flight in Insects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Hedrick, Tyson L.; Mittal, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    Despite intense study by physicists and biologists, we do not fully understand the unsteady aerodynamics that relate insect wing morphology and kinematics to lift generation. Here, we formulate a force partitioning method (FPM) and implement it within a computational fluid dynamic model to provide an unambiguous and physically insightful division of aerodynamic force into components associated with wing kinematics, vorticity, and viscosity. Application of the FPM to hawkmoth and fruit fly flight shows that the leading-edge vortex is the dominant mechanism for lift generation for both these insects and contributes between 72–85% of the net lift. However, there is another, previously unidentified mechanism, the centripetal acceleration reaction, which generates up to 17% of the net lift. The centripetal acceleration reaction is similar to the classical inviscid added-mass in that it depends only on the kinematics (i.e. accelerations) of the body, but is different in that it requires the satisfaction of the no-slip condition, and a combination of tangential motion and rotation of the wing surface. Furthermore, the classical added-mass force is identically zero for cyclic motion but this is not true of the centripetal acceleration reaction. Furthermore, unlike the lift due to vorticity, centripetal acceleration reaction lift is insensitive to Reynolds number and to environmental flow perturbations, making it an important contributor to insect flight stability and miniaturization. This force mechanism also has broad implications for flow-induced deformation and vibration, underwater locomotion and flows involving bubbles and droplets. PMID:26252016

  17. Centripetal Acceleration Reaction: An Effective and Robust Mechanism for Flapping Flight in Insects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Hedrick, Tyson L; Mittal, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    Despite intense study by physicists and biologists, we do not fully understand the unsteady aerodynamics that relate insect wing morphology and kinematics to lift generation. Here, we formulate a force partitioning method (FPM) and implement it within a computational fluid dynamic model to provide an unambiguous and physically insightful division of aerodynamic force into components associated with wing kinematics, vorticity, and viscosity. Application of the FPM to hawkmoth and fruit fly flight shows that the leading-edge vortex is the dominant mechanism for lift generation for both these insects and contributes between 72-85% of the net lift. However, there is another, previously unidentified mechanism, the centripetal acceleration reaction, which generates up to 17% of the net lift. The centripetal acceleration reaction is similar to the classical inviscid added-mass in that it depends only on the kinematics (i.e. accelerations) of the body, but is different in that it requires the satisfaction of the no-slip condition, and a combination of tangential motion and rotation of the wing surface. Furthermore, the classical added-mass force is identically zero for cyclic motion but this is not true of the centripetal acceleration reaction. Furthermore, unlike the lift due to vorticity, centripetal acceleration reaction lift is insensitive to Reynolds number and to environmental flow perturbations, making it an important contributor to insect flight stability and miniaturization. This force mechanism also has broad implications for flow-induced deformation and vibration, underwater locomotion and flows involving bubbles and droplets.

  18. Rigging Test Bed Development for Validation of Multi-Stage Decelerator Extractions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenig, Sivan J.; Gallon, John C.; Adams, Douglas S.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    2013-01-01

    The Low Density Supersonic Decelerator project is developing new decelerator systems for Mars entry which would include testing with a Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test Vehicle. One of the decelerator systems being developed is a large supersonic ringsail parachute. Due to the configuration of the vehicle it is not possible to deploy the parachute with a mortar which would be the preferred method for a spacecraft in a supersonic flow. Alternatively, a multi-stage extraction process using a ballute as a pilot is being developed for the test vehicle. The Rigging Test Bed is a test venue being constructed to perform verification and validation of this extraction process. The test bed consists of a long pneumatic piston device capable of providing a constant force simulating the ballute drag force during the extraction events. The extraction tests will take place both inside a high-bay for frequent tests of individual extraction stages and outdoors using a mobile hydraulic crane for complete deployment tests from initial pack pull out to canopy extraction. These tests will measure line tensions and use photogrammetry to track motion of the elements involved. The resulting data will be used to verify packing and rigging as well, as validate models and identify potential failure modes in order to finalize the design of the extraction system.

  19. In situ observation of penetration process in silica aerogel: Deceleration mechanism of hard spherical projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niimi, Rei; Kadono, Toshihiko; Arakawa, Masahiko; Yasui, Minami; Dohi, Koji; Nakamura, Akiko M.; Iida, Yosuke; Tsuchiyama, Akira

    2011-02-01

    A large number of cometary dust particles were captured with low-density silica aerogels by NASA's Stardust Mission. Knowledge of the details of the capture mechanism of hypervelocity particles in silica aerogel is needed in order to correctly derive the original particle features from impact tracks. However, the mechanism has not been fully understood yet. We shot hard spherical projectiles of several different materials into silica aerogel of density 60 mg cm -3 and observed their penetration processes using an image converter or a high-speed video camera. In order to observe the deceleration of projectiles clearly, we carried out impact experiments at two velocity ranges; ˜4 km s -1 and ˜200 m s -1. From the movies we took, it was indicated that the projectiles were decelerated by hydrodynamic force which was proportional to v2 ( v: projectile velocity) during the faster penetration process (˜4 km s -1) and they were merely overcoming the aerogel crushing strength during the slower penetration process (˜200 m s -1). We applied these deceleration mechanisms for whole capture process to calculate the track length. Our model well explains the track length in the experimental data set by Burchell et al. (Burchell, M.J., Creighton, J.A., Cole, M.J., Mann, J., Kearsley, A.T. [2001]. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 36, 209-221).

  20. Hydrodynamic scaling of the deceleration-phase Rayleigh–Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, A., E-mail: abos@lle.rochester.edu; Woo, K. M.; Betti, R.

    2015-07-15

    The scaling of the deceleration phase of inertial fusion direct-drive implosions is investigated for OMEGA and National Ignition Facility (NIF)-size targets. It is shown that the deceleration-phase Rayleigh–Taylor instability (RTI) does not scale hydro-equivalently with implosion size. This is because ablative stabilization resulting from thermal conduction and radiation transport in a spherically converging geometry is different on the two scales. As a consequence, NIF-scale implosions show lower hot-spot density and mass ablation velocity, allowing for higher RTI growth. On the contrary, stabilization resulting from density-gradient enhancement, caused by reabsorption of radiation emitted from the hot spot, is higher on NIFmore » implosions. Since the RTI mitigation related to thermal conduction and radiation transport scale oppositely with implosion size, the degradation of implosion performance caused by the deceleration RTI is similar for NIF and OMEGA targets. It is found that a minimum threshold for the no-α Lawson ignition parameter of χ{sub Ω} ≈ 0.2 at the OMEGA scale is required to demonstrate hydro-equivalent ignition at the NIF scale for symmetric direct-drive implosions.« less

  1. Hydrodynamic scaling of the deceleration-phase Rayleigh–Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, A.; Woo, K. M.; Nora, R.

    2015-07-02

    The scaling of the deceleration phase of inertial fusion direct-drive implosions is investigated for OMEGA and National Ignition Facility (NIF)-size targets. It is shown that the deceleration-phase Rayleigh–Taylor instability (RTI) does not scale hydro-equivalently with implosion size. This is because ablative stabilization resulting from thermal conduction and radiation transport in a spherically converging geometry is different on the two scales. As a consequence, NIF-scale implosions show lower hot-spot density and mass ablation velocity, allowing for higher RTI growth. On the contrary, stabilization resulting from density-gradient enhancement, caused by reabsorption of radiation emitted from the hot spot, is higher on NIFmore » implosions. Since the RTI mitigation related to thermal conduction and radiation transport scale oppositely with implosion size, the degradation of implosion performance caused by the deceleration RTI is similar for NIF and OMEGA targets. It is found that a minimum threshold for the no-α Lawson ignition parameter of ΧΩ ≈ 0.2 at the OMEGA scale is required to demonstrate hydro-equivalent ignition at the NIF scale for symmetric direct-drive implosions.« less

  2. Deceleration-driven wetting transition of "gently" deposited drops on textured hydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varanasi, Kripa; Kwon, Hyukmin; Paxson, Adam; Patankar, Neelesh

    2010-11-01

    Many applications of rough superhydrophobic surfaces rely on the presence of droplets in a Cassie state on the substrates. A well established understanding is that if sessile droplets are smaller than a critical size, then the large Laplace pressure induces wetting transition from a Cassie to a Wenzel state, i.e., the liquid impales the roughness grooves. Thus, larger droplets are expected to remain in the Cassie state. In this work we report a surprising wetting transition where even a "gentle" deposition of droplets on rough substrates lead to the transition of larger droplets to the Wenzel state. A hitherto unknown mechanism based on rapid deceleration is identified. It is found that modest amount of energy, during the deposition process, is channeled through rapid deceleration into high water hammer pressure which induces wetting transition. A new "phase" diagram is reported which shows that both large and small droplets can transition to Wenzel states due to the deceleration and Laplace mechanisms, respectively. This novel insight reveals for the first time that the attainment of a Cassie state is more restrictive than previous criteria based on the Laplace pressure transition mechanism.

  3. Accelerated test techniques for micro-circuits: Evaluation of high temperature (473 k - 573 K) accelerated life test techniques as effective microcircuit screening methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    The application of high temperature accelerated test techniques was shown to be an effective method of microcircuit defect screening. Comprehensive microcircuit evaluations and a series of high temperature (473 K to 573 K) life tests demonstrated that a freak or early failure population of surface contaminated devices could be completely screened in thirty two hours of test at an ambient temperature of 523 K. Equivalent screening at 398 K, as prescribed by current Military and NASA specifications, would have required in excess of 1,500 hours of test. All testing was accomplished with a Texas Instruments' 54L10, low power triple-3 input NAND gate manufactured with a titanium- tungsten (Ti-W), Gold (Au) metallization system. A number of design and/or manufacturing anomalies were also noted with the Ti-W, Au metallization system. Further study of the exact nature and cause(s) of these anomalies is recommended prior to the use of microcircuits with Ti-W, Au metallization in long life/high reliability applications. Photomicrographs of tested circuits are included.

  4. Enhancing Endogenous Nitric Oxide by Whole Body Periodic Acceleration Elicits Neuroprotective Effects in Dystrophic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Jose R; Uryash, A; Kolster, J; Estève, E; Zhang, R; Adams, J A

    2018-03-26

    We have previously shown that inadequate dystrophin in cortical neurons in mdx mice is associated with age-dependent dyshomeostasis of resting intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and Na + ([Na + ] i ), elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, increase in neuronal damage and cognitive deficit. In this study, we assessed the potential therapeutic properties of the whole body periodic acceleration (pGz) to ameliorate the pathology observed in cortical neurons from the mdx mouse. pGz adds small pulses to the circulation, thereby increasing pulsatile shear stress to the vascular endothelium, which in turn increases production of nitric oxide (NO). We found [Ca 2+ ] i and [Na + ] i overload along with reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in mdx neurons and cognitive dysfunction. mdx neurons showed increased activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, and calpain as well as decreased cell viability. mdx neurons were more susceptible to hypoxia-reoxygenation injury than WT. pGz ameliorated the [Ca 2+ ] i , and [Na + ] i elevation and ROS overproduction and further increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced the malondialdehyde and calpains. pGz diminished cell damage and elevated [Ca 2+ ] i during hypoxia-reoxygenation and improved cognitive function in mdx mice. Moreover, pGz upregulated the expression of utrophin, dystroglycan-β and CAPON, constitutive nitric oxide synthases, prosaposin, brain-derived neurotrophic, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factors. The present study demonstrated that pGz is an effective therapeutic approach to improve mdx neurons function, including cognitive functions.

  5. Effect of Accelerated Artificial Aging on Translucency of Methacrylate and Silorane-Based Composite Resins.

    PubMed

    Shirinzad, Mehdi; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman; Mirtorabi, Maryam Sadat; Vahdatinia, Farshid

    2016-03-01

    Composite restorations must have tooth-like optical properties namely color and translucency and maintain them for a long time. This study aimed to compare the effect of accelerated artificial aging (AAA) on the translucency of three methacrylate-based composites (Filtek Z250, Filtek Z250XT and Filtek Z350XT) and one silorane-based composite resin (Filtek P90). For this in vitro study, 56 composite discs were fabricated (n=14 for each group). Using scanning spectrophotometer, CIE L*a*b* parameters and translucency of each specimen were measured at 24 hours and after AAA for 384 hours. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test and paired t-test at P=0.05 level of significance. The mean (±standard deviation) translucency parameter for Filtek Z250, Filtek Z250XT, Filtek Z350XT and Filtek P90 was 5.67±0.64, 4.59±0.77, 7.87±0.82 and 4.21±0.71 before AAA and 4.25±0.615, 3.53±0.73, 5.94±0.57 and 4.12±0.54 after AAA, respectively. After aging, the translucency of methacrylate-based composites decreased significantly (P<0.05). However, the translucency of Filtek P90 did not change significantly (P>0.05). The AAA significantly decreased the translucency of methacrylate-based composites (Filtek Z250, Filtek Z250XT and Filtek Z350XT) but no change occurred in the translucency of Filtek P90 silorane-based composite.

  6. Triiodothyronine accelerates and enhances the antipsychotic effect of risperidone in acute schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Steibliene, Vesta; Bunevicius, Adomas; Savickas, Arunas; Prange, Arthur J; Nemeroff, Charles B; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2016-02-01

    In acute psychotic schizophrenia patients we investigated if the combination of triiodothyronine (T3) plus risperidone was more effective when compared to risperidone monotherapy. Thirty-two in-patients meeting the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and without thyroid disease received risperidone (flexibly adjusted dose for tolerability) and were randomized to additionally receive either T3 (25 μg daily; risperidone plus T3 group) or placebo (risperidone plus placebo group). Treatment lasted until meeting the response to treatment criteria defined as score of ≤ 3 on the Clinical Global Impression Severity and Improvement scales. Acute psychotic episode symptom severity was evaluated using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) at treatment initiation and at the final study assessment. Fourteen patients were randomized to receive risperidone plus T3 and eighteen to receive risperidone plus placebo. The time until treatment response was shorter in the risperidone plus T3 group relative to the risperidone plus placebo group (25.5 ± 4.4 days vs 32.2 ± 8.2 days, respectively; p = 0.001). Moreover, there was a greater reduction of BPRS-total score (p = 0.01) in the risperidone plus T3 group relative to the risperidone plus placebo group. Treatment with T3 was associated with shorter time to treatment response (β = -0.440, p = 0.022) and with greater improvement in BPRS score (β = 0.240, p = 0.053), independent of patients' gender, age, baseline BPRS score and mean risperidone dose. The study confirms that addition of T3 to risperidone was associated with accelerated and enhanced treatment response in acutely psychotic schizophrenic patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Accelerated Artificial Aging on Translucency of Methacrylate and Silorane-Based Composite Resins

    PubMed Central

    Shirinzad, Mehdi; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman; Mirtorabi, Maryam Sadat; Vahdatinia, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Composite restorations must have tooth-like optical properties namely color and translucency and maintain them for a long time. This study aimed to compare the effect of accelerated artificial aging (AAA) on the translucency of three methacrylate-based composites (Filtek Z250, Filtek Z250XT and Filtek Z350XT) and one silorane-based composite resin (Filtek P90). Materials and Methods: For this in vitro study, 56 composite discs were fabricated (n=14 for each group). Using scanning spectrophotometer, CIE L*a*b* parameters and translucency of each specimen were measured at 24 hours and after AAA for 384 hours. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test and paired t-test at P=0.05 level of significance. Results: The mean (±standard deviation) translucency parameter for Filtek Z250, Filtek Z250XT, Filtek Z350XT and Filtek P90 was 5.67±0.64, 4.59±0.77, 7.87±0.82 and 4.21±0.71 before AAA and 4.25±0.615, 3.53±0.73, 5.94±0.57 and 4.12±0.54 after AAA, respectively. After aging, the translucency of methacrylate-based composites decreased significantly (P<0.05). However, the translucency of Filtek P90 did not change significantly (P>0.05). Conclusions: The AAA significantly decreased the translucency of methacrylate-based composites (Filtek Z250, Filtek Z250XT and Filtek Z350XT) but no change occurred in the translucency of Filtek P90 silorane-based composite. PMID:27928237

  8. Local expansion flows of galaxies: quantifying acceleration effect of dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.

    2013-08-01

    The nearest expansion flow of galaxies observed around the Local group is studied as an archetypical example of the newly discovered local expansion flows around groups and clusters of galaxies in the nearby Universe. The flow is accelerating due to the antigravity produced by the universal dark energy background. We introduce a new acceleration measure of the flow which is the dimensionless ``acceleration parameter" Q (x) = x - x-2 depending on the normalized distance x only. The parameter is zero at the zero-gravity distance x = 1, and Q(x) ∝ x, when x ≫ 1. At the distance x = 3, the parameter Q = 2.9. Since the expansion flows have a self-similar structure in normalized variables, we expect that the result is valid as well for all the other expansion flows around groups and clusters of galaxies on the spatial scales from ˜ 1 to ˜ 10 Mpc everywhere in the Universe.

  9. The effect of team accelerated instruction on students’ mathematics achievement and learning motivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sri Purnami, Agustina; Adi Widodo, Sri; Charitas Indra Prahmana, Rully

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to know the improvement of achievement and motivation of learning mathematics by using Team Accelerated Instruction. The research method used was the experiment with descriptive pre-test post-test experiment. The population in this study was all students of class VIII junior high school in Jogjakarta. The sample was taken using cluster random sampling technique. The instrument used in this research was questionnaire and test. Data analysis technique used was Wilcoxon test. It concluded that there was an increase in motivation and student achievement of class VII on linear equation system material by using the learning model of Team Accelerated Instruction. Based on the results of the learning model Team Accelerated Instruction can be used as a variation model in learning mathematics.

  10. Effect of acoustic coupling on power-law flame acceleration in spherical confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkerman, V'yacheslav; Law, Chung K.

    2013-01-01

    A model describing acoustically-generated parametric instability in a spherical chamber is developed for quasi-one-dimensional, low-Mach number flames. We demonstrate how sound waves generated by a centrally-ignited, outwardly-propagating accelerating flamefront can be incorporated into an existing theory of self-similar flame acceleration in free space [V. Akkerman, C. K. Law, and V. Bychkov, "Self-similar accelerative propagation of expanding wrinkled flames and explosion triggering," Phys. Rev. E 83, 026305 (2011)], 10.1103/PhysRevE.83.026305. Being reflected from the chamber wall, flame-generated acoustics interact with the flamefront and the attendant hydrodynamic flamefront cellular instability. This in turn affects the subsequent flame morphology and propagation speed. It is shown that the acoustics modify the power-law flame acceleration, concomitantly facilitating or inhibiting the transition to detonation in confinement, which allows reconciliation of a discrepancy in experimental measurements of different groups.

  11. Validation of Finite-Element Models of Persistent-Current Effects in Nb 3Sn Accelerator Magnets

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, X.; Ambrosio, G.; Chlachidze, G.; ...

    2015-01-06

    Persistent magnetization currents are induced in superconducting filaments during the current ramping in magnets. The resulting perturbation to the design magnetic field leads to field quality degradation, in particular at low field where the effect is stronger relative to the main field. The effects observed in NbTi accelerator magnets were reproduced well with the critical-state model. However, this approach becomes less accurate for the calculation of the persistent-current effects observed in Nb 3Sn accelerator magnets. Here a finite-element method based on the measured strand magnetization is validated against three state-of-art Nb3Sn accelerator magnets featuring different subelement diameters, critical currents, magnetmore » designs and measurement temperatures. The temperature dependence of the persistent-current effects is reproduced. Based on the validated model, the impact of conductor design on the persistent current effects is discussed. The performance, limitations and possible improvements of the approach are also discussed.« less

  12. The effect of copper, MDA, and accelerated aging on jet fuel thermal stability as measured by the gravimetric JFTOT

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, S.G.; Hardy, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    Thermally unstable jet fuels pose operational problems. In order to adequately identify such fuels, factors that realistically impact on thermal stability were examined. Evaluation was based on a quantitative method of measuring thermal stability, viz., NRL`s recently developed gravimetric JFTOT. This method gives a quantitative measurement of both the strip deposit and filterables formed. The pertinent factors examined, included the individual and interactive effects of: soluble copper, MDA (metal deactivator), and aging. The latter was accelerated to simulate field conditions of approximately six months aging at ambient temperature and pressure. The results indicate that the individual and interactive effects ofmore » copper, MDA, and accelerated aging appear to be fuel dependent. Based on the results, the three test fuels examined (one JP-8 and two JP-5s) were categorized as exhibiting very good, typical, and poor thermal stabilities, respectively. For both the very good and poor thermal stability fuels, the effect of copper in conjunction with accelerated aging did not significantly increase the total thermal deposits of the neat fuels. In contrast, for the typical thermal stability fuel, the combined effects of copper and accelerated aging, did. Furthermore, the addition of MDA prior to aging of the copper-doped, typical stability fuel significantly counteracted the adverse effect of copper and aging. A similar beneficial effect of MDA was not observed for the poor stability fuel. These results focus on the compositional differences among fuels and the need to elucidate these differences (physical and chemical) for a better understanding and prediction of their performance.« less

  13. Effects of laser polarization on electrostatic shock ion acceleration in near-critical plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Kuk; Kang, Teyoun; Hur, Min Sup

    2016-10-01

    Collisionless electrostatic shock ion acceleration has become a major regime of laser-driven ion acceleration owing to generation of quasi-monoenergetic ion beams from moderate parametric conditions of lasers and plasmas in comparison with target-normal-sheath-acceleration or radiation pressure acceleration. In order to construct the shock, plasma heating is an essential condition for satisfying Mach number condition 1.5 acceleration could be achieved via electron heating by relativistic transparency of a circularly polarized (CP) laser pulse. This is different from the usual method of shock generation via the electron heating by oscillating ponderomotive force of a linearly polarized laser pulse. In this poster we show one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation result to compare LP-shock with CP-shock ion acceleration for a broad range of parameters. As the main result, the CP-shock could be formed at lower density plasmas than the LP-shock due to the efficient density compression of CP pulses. This leads to higher shock velocity and ion energy. Comparison of other detailed characteristics such as transmittance, scale length dependence, and other results from the simulations is presented. In addition, two-dimensional simulation is also discussed in association with Weibel instability. This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program (NRF- 2013R1A1A2006353) and the Creative Allied Project (CAP-15-06-ETRI).

  14. Ghosts in the self-accelerating DGP branch with Gauss–Bonnet effect

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yen-Wei; Izumi, Keisuke; Bouhmadi-López, Mariam

    2015-06-01

    The Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati brane-world model provides a possible approach to address the late-time cosmic acceleration. However, it has subsequently been pointed out that a ghost instability will arise on the self-accelerating branch. Here, we carefully investigate whether this ghost problem could be possibly cured by introducing the Gauss–Bonnet term in the five-dimensional bulk action, a natural generalization to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model. Our analysis is carried out for a background where a de Sitter brane is embedded in an anti–de Sitter bulk. Our result shows that the ghost excitations cannot be avoided even in this modified model.

  15. Effects of dimensionality and laser polarization on kinetic simulations of laser-ion acceleration in the transparency regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, David; Yin, Lin; Albright, Brian; Guo, Fan

    2017-10-01

    The often cost-prohibitive nature of three-dimensional (3D) kinetic simulations of laser-plasma interactions has resulted in heavy use of two-dimensional (2D) simulations to extract physics. However, depending on whether the polarization is modeled as 2D-S or 2D-P (laser polarization in and out of the simulation plane, respectively), different results arise. In laser-ion acceleration in the transparency regime, VPIC particle-in-cell simulations show that 2D-S and 2D-P capture different physics that appears in 3D simulations. The electron momentum distribution is virtually two-dimensional in 2D-P, unlike the more isotropic distributions in 2D-S and 3D, leading to greater heating in the simulation plane. As a result, target expansion time scales and density thresholds for the onset of relativistic transparency differ dramatically between 2D-S and 2D-P. The artificial electron heating in 2D-P exaggerates the effectiveness of target-normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) into its dominant acceleration mechanism, whereas 2D-S and 3D both have populations accelerated preferentially during transparency to higher energies than those of TNSA. Funded by the LANL Directed Research and Development Program.

  16. Effectiveness of Accelerator and Inoculum in Fermentation of Goat’s Rumen Contents as Animal Feed Ingredients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakrie, B.; Sente, U.; Mayasari, K.; Syah, R. F.

    2018-02-01

    The goat’s rumen contents is slaughterhouse waste that has potential to be used as animal feed, but it has to be first processed into silage. This study aims to determine the type of accelerator and to investigate whether the addition of inoculum was required during the fermentation process. The research was conducted using a Completely Randomized Factorial Design, consisting of 2 treatment factors and 6 replications. The treatment factors were: a) Accelerator (rice bran or cassava pomade/onggok); b) Inoculum Lactobacillus plantarum (with or without using inoculant). Results showed that there was an increase in crude protein (CP) content with the use of rice bran at after fermentation compared to before fermentation. The CP contents with the use of onggok almost the same at after and before fermentation. Increase in the content of crude fiber (CF) after fermentation was both for using rice bran or onggok. However, the content of CF using onggok was much higher than with rice bran. There was no significant effect for both types of accelerators used in CP and CF contents at after fermentation with or without the addition of Lactobacillus plantarum as the inoculant. It can be concluded that for the fermentation of goat’s rumen contents it is better to use rice bran rather than onggok as the accelerator and inoculant is not required during the fermentationprocess.

  17. The Effect of Detonation Wave Incidence Angle on the Acceleration of Flyers by Explosives Heavily Laden with Inert Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, Jason; Georges, William; Frost, David; Higgins, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    The incidence angle of a detonation wave is often assumed to weakly influence the terminal velocity of an explosively driven flyer. For explosives heavily loaded with dense additives, this may not be true due to differences in momentum and energy transfer between detonation products, additive particles, and the flyer. For tangential incidence the particles are first accelerated against the flyer via an expansion fan, whereas they are first accelerated by the detonation wave in the normal case. In the current study we evaluate the effect of normal versus tangential incidence on the acceleration of flyers by nitromethane heavily loaded with a variety of additives. Normal detonation was initiated via an explosively driven slapper. Flyer acceleration was measured with heterodyne laser interferometry (PDV). The influence of wave angle is evaluated by comparing the terminal velocity in the two cases (i.e., normal and grazing) for the heavily loaded mixtures. The decrement in flyer velocity correlated primarily with additive volume fraction and had a weak dependence on additive density or particle size. The Gurney energy of the heterogeneous explosive was observed to increase with flyer mass, presumably due to the timescale over which impinging particles could transfer momentum.

  18. Amniotic fluid index predicts the relief of variable decelerations after amnioinfusion bolus.

    PubMed

    Spong, C Y; McKindsey, F; Ross, M G

    1996-10-01

    Our purpose was to determine whether intrapartum amniotic fluid index before amnioinfusion can be used to predict response to therapeutic amnioinfusion. Intrapartum patients (n = 85) with repetitive variable decelerations in fetal heart rate that necessitated amnioinfusion (10 ml/min for 60 minutes) underwent determination of amniotic fluid index before and after bolus amnioinfusion. The fetal heart tracing was scored (scorer blinded to amniotic fluid index values) for number and characteristics of variable decelerations before and 1 hour after initiation of amnioinfusion. The amnioinfusion was considered successful if it resulted in a decrease of > or = 50% in total number of variable decelerations or a decrease of > or = 50% in the rate of atypical or severe variable decelerations after administration of the bolus. Spontaneous vaginal births before completion of administration of the bolus (n = 18) were excluded from analysis. The probability of success of amnioinfusion in relation to amniotic fluid index was analyzed with the chi(2) test for progressive sequence. The mean amniotic fluid index before amnioinfusion was 6.2 +/- 3.3 cm. An amniotic fluid index of < or = 5 cm was present in 40% of patients (27/67), and an amniotic fluid index of < or = 8 cm was present in 72% of patients (48/67). The probability of success of amnioinfusion decreased with increasing amniotic fluid index before amnioinfusion (76% [16/21] when initial amniotic fluid index was 0 to 4 cm, 63% [17/27] when initial amniotic fluid index was 4 to 8 cm, 44% [7/16] when initial amniotic fluid index was 8 to 12 cm, and 33% [1/3] when initial amniotic fluid index was > 12 cm, p = 0.03). The incidence of nuchal cords or true umbilical cord knots increased in relation to amniotic fluid index before amnioinfusion. Amniotic fluid index before amnioinfusion can be used to predict the success of amnioinfusion for relief of variable decelerations in fetal heart rate. Failure of amnioinfusion at a high

  19. Anticipating the effects of gravity when intercepting moving objects: differentiating up and down based on nonvisual cues.

    PubMed

    Senot, Patrice; Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco; McIntyre, Joseph

    2005-12-01

    Intercepting an object requires a precise estimate of its time of arrival at the interception point (time to contact or "TTC"). It has been proposed that knowledge about gravitational acceleration can be combined with first-order, visual-field information to provide a better estimate of TTC when catching falling objects. In this experiment, we investigated the relative role of visual and nonvisual information on motor-response timing in an interceptive task. Subjects were immersed in a stereoscopic virtual environment and asked to intercept with a virtual racket a ball falling from above or rising from below. The ball moved with different initial velocities and could accelerate, decelerate, or move at a constant speed. Depending on the direction of motion, the acceleration or deceleration of the ball could therefore be congruent or not with the acceleration that would be expected due to the force of gravity acting on the ball. Although the best success rate was observed for balls moving at a constant velocity, we systematically found a cross-effect of ball direction and acceleration on success rate and response timing. Racket motion was triggered on average 25 ms earlier when the ball fell from above than when it rose from below, whatever the ball's true acceleration. As visual-flow information was the same in both cases, this shift indicates an influence of the ball's direction relative to gravity on response timing, consistent with the anticipation of the effects of gravity on the flight of the ball.

  20. Acceleration of black hole universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T. X.; Frederick, C.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Zhang slightly modified the standard big bang theory and developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain all observations of the universe. Previous studies accounted for the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This paper investigates acceleration of the black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the redshift and luminosity distance measurements of type Ia supernovae. The results indicate that the black hole universe accelerates its expansion when it accretes the ambient matter in an increasing rate. In other words, i.e., when the second-order derivative of the mass of the black hole universe with respect to the time is positive . For a constant deceleration parameter , we can perfectly explain the type Ia supernova measurements with the reduced chi-square to be very close to unity, χ red˜1.0012. The expansion and acceleration of black hole universe are driven by external energy.

  1. City transport of the future - the high speed pedestrian conveyor. Part 1: ergonomic considerations of accelerators, decelerators and transfer sections.

    PubMed

    Browning, A C

    1974-12-01

    In this article, an uncommon form of passenger transport is considered, the moving pavement or pedestrian conveyor running at speeds of up to 16 km/h. There are very little relevant ergonomic data for such devices and some specific laboratory experiments have been carried out using 1000 subjects to represent the general public. It is concluded that whilst high speed pedestrian conveyors are quite feasible, stations along them are likely to be large. The most attractive type is a set of parallel surfaces moving at different speeds and with handholds provided in the form of poles. This type could be extremely convenient for certain locations but will probably have to be restricted in its use to fairly fit adults carrying little luggage, and would find applications in situations where a large number of people need to travel in the same direction. Part 2, Ergonomic considerations of complete conveyor systems, will follow.

  2. Relative biological effectiveness of accelerated heavy ions for induction of morphological transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Z B; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, F; Suzuki, M; Furusawa, Y; Kato, T; Ikenaga, M

    1998-09-01

    Syrian hamster embryo cells were used to study the morphological transformation induced by accelerated heavy ions with different linear energy transfer (LET) ranging from 13 to 400 keV/micron. Exponentially growing cells were irradiated with 12C or 28Si ion beams generated by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), then inoculated to culture dishes. Morphologically altered colonies were scored as transformants. Over the LET range examined, the frequency of transformation induced by the heavy ions increased sharply at very low doses no greater than 5 cGy. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the heavy ions relative to X-rays first increased with LET, reached a maximum value of about 7 at 100 keV/micron, then decreased with the further increase of LET. Our findings confirmed that high LET heavy ions are much more effective than X-rays for the induction of in vitro cell transformation.

  3. Accelerated recovery of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from effects of crowding by swimming.

    PubMed

    Veiseth, Eva; Fjaera, Svein Olav; Bjerkeng, Bjørn; Skjervold, Per Olav

    2006-07-01

    The effects of post-crowding swimming velocity (0, 0.35, and 0.70 m/s) and recovery time (1.5, 6, and 12 h) on physiological recovery and processing quality parameters of adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were determined. Atlantic salmon crowded to a density similar to that of a commercial slaughter process (>200 kg/m(3), 40 min) were transferred to a swimming chamber for recovery treatment. Osmolality and concentrations of cortisol, glucose and lactate in blood plasma were used as physiological stress indicators, whereas image analyses of extent and duration of rigor contraction, and fillet gaping were used as measures of processing quality. Crowded salmon had a 5.8-fold higher plasma cortisol concentration than control salmon (P<0.05). The elevated plasma cortisol concentration was reduced by increasing the swimming velocity, and had returned to control levels after 6 h recovery at high water velocity. Similar effects of swimming velocity were observed for plasma osmolality and lactate concentration. A lower plasma glucose concentration was present in crowded than in control fish (P<0.05), although a typical post-stress elevation in plasma glucose was observed after the recovery treatments. Lower muscle pH was found in crowded compared with control salmon (P<0.05), but muscle pH returned to control levels after 6 h recovery at intermediate and high swimming velocities and after 12 h in the low velocity group. Crowding caused an early onset of rigor mortis contraction. However, subjecting crowded salmon to active swimming for 6 h before slaughter delayed the onset of rigor mortis contraction from 2.5 to 7.5 h post mortem. The extent of rigor mortis contraction was also affected by crowding and post-stress swimming activity (P<0.05), and the largest degree of contraction was found in crowded salmon. In conclusion, active swimming accelerated the return of plasma cortisol, hydromineral balance, and the energy metabolism of adult Atlantic salmon to pre

  4. The Effects of Accelerated Learning on Tertiary Students Learning To Write.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fretz, Barbara L.

    A study investigated how Accelerated Learning (AL), a teaching methodology that purports to increase the quantity and improve the quality of learning, affected tertiary students' knowledge of and skills in writing and their feelings towards writing. AL has its origins in G. Lozanov's "suggestopedia." Believing that formal teaching…

  5. Economic and environmental effects of accelerated tariff liberalization in the forest products sector.

    Treesearch

    D.J. Brooks; J.A. Ferrante; J. Haverkamp; I. Bowles; W. Lange; D. Darr

    2001-01-01

    This study assesses the incremental economic and environmental impacts resulting from changes in the timing and scope of forest products tariff reductions as proposed in the Accelerated Tariff Liberalization (ATL) initiative in forest products. This initiative was proposed for agreement among member countries of the World Trade Organization. The analysis of...

  6. Distribution in energies and acceleration times in DSA, and their effect on the cut-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, A.; Protheroe, R. J.

    2001-08-01

    We have conducted Monte Carlo simulations of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) to determine the distribution of times since injection taken to reach energy E > E0. This distribution of acceleration times for the case of momentum dependent diffusion is compared with that given by Drury and Forman (1983) based on extrapolation of the exact result (Toptygin 1980) for the case of the diffusion coefficient being independent of momentum. As a result of this distribution we find, as suggested by Drury et al. (1999), that Monte Carlo simulations result in smoother cut-offs and pile-ups in spectra of accelerated particles than expected from simple "box model" treatments of shock acceleration (e.g., Protheroe and Stanev 1999, Drury et al. 1999). This is particularly so for the case synchrotron pile-ups, which we find are replaced by a small bump at an energy about a factor of 2 below the expected cut-off, followed by a smooth cut-off with particles extending to energies well beyond the expected cut-off energy.

  7. Performance Effects of Adding a Parallel Capacitor to a Pulse Inductive Plasma Accelerator Powertrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Sivak, Amy D.; Balla, Joseph V.

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed inductive plasma accelerators are electrodeless space propulsion devices where a capacitor is charged to an initial voltage and then discharged through a coil as a high-current pulse that inductively couples energy into the propellant. The field produced by this pulse ionizes the propellant, producing a plasma near the face of the coil. Once a plasma is formed if can be accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity by the Lorentz force arising from the interaction of an induced plasma current and the magnetic field. While there are many coil geometries that can be employed to inductively accelerate a plasma, in this paper the discussion is limit to planar geometries where the coil take the shape of a flat spiral. A recent review of the developmental history of planar-geometry pulsed inductive thrusters can be found in Ref. [1]. Two concepts that have employed this geometry are the Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT) and the Faraday Accelerator with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge (FARAD).

  8. Effect of processing method on accelerated weathering of wood-flour/HDPE composites

    Treesearch

    Nicole M. Stark; Laurent M. Matuana; Craig M. Clemons

    2003-01-01

    Wood-plastic lumber is promoted as a low maintenance high-durability product. When exposed to accelerated weathering, however, wood-plastic composites may experience a color change and/or loss in mechanical properties. Different methods of manufacturing wood-plastic composites lead to different surface characteristics, which can influence weathering, In this study, 50...

  9. The Effect of Accelerated Reader on Reading Scores in a Rural School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Teresa A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the implementation of Accelerated Reader (AR), a computer-assisted supplemental reading program, was investigated as a research-based instructional strategy to assess whether it aided a high-performing, rural school district in meeting adequate yearly progress goals. The theoretical framework was based on Vygotsky's zone of…

  10. Modeling and Demonstrating Regenerative Braking of a Squirrel Cage Induction Motor with Various Deceleration Rates Using V by F Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    DEMONSTRATING REGENERATIVE BRAKING OF A SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR WITH VARIOUS DECELERATION RATES USING V BY F CONTROL by Billy J. Nytko...Regenerative Braking of a Squirrel Cage Induction Motor with Various Deceleration Rates Using V by F Control 6. AUTHOR(S) Billy J. Nytko 5. FUNDING...Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) to model regenerative braking to support energy conservation technologies and to improve the efficiencies within the

  11. The effect of blood acceleration on the ultrasound power Doppler spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matchenko, O. S.; Barannik, E. A.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the present work was to study the influence of blood acceleration and time window length on the power Doppler spectrum for Gaussian ultrasound beams. The work has been carried out on the basis of continuum model of the ultrasound scattering from inhomogeneities in fluid flow. Correlation function of fluctuations has been considered for uniformly accelerated scatterers, and the resulting power Doppler spectra have been calculated. It is shown that within the initial phase of systole uniformly accelerated slow blood flow in pulmonary artery and aorta tends to make the correlation function about 4.89 and 7.83 times wider, respectively, than the sensitivity function of typical probing system. Given peak flow velocities, the sensitivity function becomes, vice versa, about 4.34 and 3.84 times wider, respectively, then the correlation function. In these limiting cases, the resulting spectra can be considered as Gaussian. The optimal time window duration decreases with increasing acceleration of blood flow and equals to 11.62 and 7.54 ms for pulmonary artery and aorta, respectively. The width of the resulting power Doppler spectrum is shown to be defined mostly by the wave vector of the incident field, the duration of signal and the acceleration of scatterers in the case of low flow velocities. In the opposite case geometrical properties of probing field and the average velocity itself are more essential. In the sense of signal-noise ratio, the optimal duration of time window can be found. Abovementioned results may contribute to the improved techniques of Doppler ultrasound diagnostics of cardiovascular system.

  12. Stability condition for the drive bunch in a collinear wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Baturin, S. S.; Zholents, A.

    The beam breakup instability of the drive bunch in the structure-based collinear wakefield accelerator is considered and a stabilizing method is proposed. The method includes using the specially designed beam focusing channel, applying the energy chirp along the electron bunch, and keeping energy chirp constant during the drive bunch deceleration. A stability condition is derived that defines the limit on the accelerating field for the witness bunch.

  13. On The Detection Of Footprints From Strong Electron Acceleration In High-Intensity Laser Fields, Including The Unruh Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirolf, P. G.; Habs, D.; Homma, K.; Hörlein, R.; Karsch, S.; Krausz, F.; Maia, C.; Osterhoff, J.; Popp, A.; Schmid, K.; Schreiber, J.; Schützhold, R.; Tajima, T.; Veisz, L.; Wulz, J.; Yamazaki, T.

    2010-04-01

    The ultra-high fields of high-power short-pulse lasers are expected to contribute to understanding fundamental properties of the quantum vacuum and quantum theory in very strong fields. For example, the neutral QED vacuum breaks down at the Schwinger field strength of 1.3 1018V/m, where a virtual e+e- pair gains its rest mass energy over a Compton wavelength and materializes as a real pair. At such an ultra-high field strength, an electron experiences an acceleration of as = 2 1028 g and hence fundamental phenomena such as the long predicted Unruh effect start to play a role. The Unruh effect implies that the accelerated electron experiences the vacuum as a thermal bath with the Unruh temperature. In its accelerated frame the electron scatters photons off the thermal bath, corresponding to the emission of an entangled pair of photons in the laboratory frame. In upcoming experiments with intense accelerating fields, we will encounter a set of opportunities to experimentally study the radiation from electrons under extreme fields. Even before the Unruh radiation detection, we should run into the copious Larmor radiation. The detection of Larmor radiation and its characterization themselves have never been experimentally carried out to the best of our knowledge, and thus this amounts to a first serious study of physics at extreme acceleration. For example, we can study radiation damping effects like the Landau-Lifshitz radiation. Furthermore, the experiment should be able to confirm or disprove whether the Larmor and Landau-Lifshitz radiation components may be enhanced by a collective (N2) radiation, if a tightly clumped cluster of electrons is accelerated. The technique of laser driven dense electron sheet formation by irradiating a thin DLC foil target should provide such a coherent electron cluster with a very high density. If and when such mildly relativistic electron sheets are realized, a counterpropagating second laser can interact with them coherently. Under

  14. Deceleration of probe beam by stage bias potential improves resolution of serial block-face scanning electron microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Bouwer, James C; Deerinck, Thomas J; Bushong, Eric; Astakhov, Vadim; Ramachandra, Ranjan; Peltier, Steven T; Ellisman, Mark H

    2017-01-01

    Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) is quickly becoming an important imaging tool to explore three-dimensional biological structure across spatial scales. At probe-beam-electron energies of 2.0 keV or lower, the axial resolution should improve, because there is less primary electron penetration into the block face. More specifically, at these lower energies, the interaction volume is much smaller, and therefore, surface detail is more highly resolved. However, the backscattered electron yield for metal contrast agents and the backscattered electron detector sensitivity are both sub-optimal at these lower energies, thus negating the gain in axial resolution. We found that the application of a negative voltage (reversal potential) applied to a modified SBEM stage creates a tunable electric field at the sample. This field can be used to decrease the probe-beam-landing energy and, at the same time, alter the trajectory of the signal to increase the signal collected by the detector. With decelerated low landing-energy electrons, we observed that the probe-beam-electron-penetration depth was reduced to less than 30 nm in epoxy-embedded biological specimens. Concurrently, a large increase in recorded signal occurred due to the re-acceleration of BSEs in the bias field towards the objective pole piece where the detector is located. By tuning the bias field, we were able to manipulate the trajectories of the  primary and secondary electrons, enabling the spatial discrimination of these signals using an advanced ring-type BSE detector configuration or a standard monolithic BSE detector coupled with a blocking aperture.

  15. Acceleration from short-duration blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritzel, D. V.; Van Albert, S.; Sajja, V.; Long, J.

    2018-01-01

    The blast-induced motion of spheres has been studied experimentally where the shock wave is rapidly decaying during the period that quasi-steady acceleration would be developed in the case of a step-function shock wave as considered in most shock-tube studies. The motion of sphere models ranging from 39 to 251 mm in diameter and having a range of densities was assessed using the "free-flight" method in a simulator specially designed to replicate the decaying shock wave profile of spherical blast including negative phase and positive entropy gradient. A standardized blast-wave simulation of 125 kPa and 6-ms positive-phase duration was applied for all experiments. In all cases, there are three phases to the motion: a relatively low "kickoff" velocity from the shock diffraction, acceleration or deceleration during the positive duration, then deceleration through the negative phase and subsequent quiescent air. The unexpected deceleration of larger spheres after their kickoff velocity during the decaying yet high-speed flow of the blast wave seems associated with the persistence of a ring vortex on the downstream side of the sphere. The flow is entirely unsteady with initial forces dominated by the shock diffraction; therefore, the early motion of spheres under such conditions is not governed by quasi-steady drag as in classical aerodynamics. The work will help establish scaling rules for model studies of blast-induced motion relevant to improvised explosive devices, and preliminary results are shown for motion imparted to a human skull surrogate.

  16. Investigation of Microbunching Instabilities in Modern Recirculating Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Cheng

    general linear beamline lattice including horizontal and vertical transport bending elements, and beam acceleration or deceleration. These featured generalizations are required for MBI analysis in recirculation accelerators. (2) Construction of CSR impedance models In addition to the steady-state CSR interaction, it has been found that the exit transient effect (or CSR drift) can even result in more serious MBI in high-brightness recirculation arcs. The onedimensional free-space CSR impedances, especially the exit transients, are derived. The steady-state CSR impedance is also extended to non-ultrarelativistic beam energy for MBI analysis of low-energy merger sections in recirculating accelerators. (3) Numerical implementation of the derived semi-analytical formulation This includes the development of a semi-analytical Vlasov solver for MBI analysis, and also benchmarking of the solver against massive particle tracking simulations. (4) Exploration of multistage amplification behavior of CSR microbunching development The CSR-induced MBI acts as an amplifier, which amplifies the sub-bunch modulation of a beam. The amplification is commonly quantified by the amplification gain. A beam transport system can be considered as a cascaded amplifier. Unlike the two-stage amplification of four-dipole bunch compressor chicanes employed in linacs, the recirculation arcs, which are usually constituted by several tens of bending magnets, show a distinguishing feature of up to six-stage microbunching amplification for our example arc lattices. That is, the maximal CSR amplification gain can be proportional to the peak bunch current up to sixth power. A method to compare lattice performance has been developed in terms of gain coefficients, which nearly depend on the lattice properties only. This method has also proven to be an effective way to quantify the current dependence of the maximal (5) Control of CSR MBI in multibend transport or recirculation arcs The existing mitigation schemes

  17. Effect of physical training in cool and hot environments on +Gz acceleration tolerance in women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, P. J.; Sciaraffa, D.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Acceleration tolerance, plasma volume, and maximal oxygen uptake were measured in 15 healthy women before and after submaximal isotonic exercise training periods in cool and hot environments. The women were divided on the basis of age, maximal oxygen uptake, and +Gz tolerance into three groups: a group that exercised in heat (40.6 C), a group that exercised at a lower temperature (18.7 C), and a sedentary control group that functioned in the cool environment. There was no significant change in the +Gz tolerance in any group after training, and terminal heart rates were similar within each group. It is concluded that induction of moderate acclimation responses without increases in sweat rate or resting plasma volume has no influence on +Gz acceleration tolerance in women.

  18. Accelerated Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of Accelerated Reader, a system of computerized testing and record-keeping that supplements the regular classroom reading program. Accelerated Reader's primary goal is to increase literature-based reading practice. The program offers a computer-aided reading comprehension and management program intended to motivate…

  19. Radical Acceleration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Miraca U. M.; Van Vliet, Helen E.

    2005-01-01

    Research has found that teachers' objections to accelerating gifted students are mainly based on a fear that acceleration will lead to social or emotional damage. Ironically, it is the academic and emotional maturity which characterizes intellectually gifted students, coupled with their high levels of academic achievement, which makes them such…

  20. Evoked Potential Studies of the Effects of Impact Acceleration on the Motor Nervous System,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    experimental animals subjected to -Y ampere) were applied sufficient to obtain good (lateral impact) acceleration and animals sub- afferent evoked...NBDL -Y impact experiments were processed at the EP recorded from these animals before and after Texas Research Institute of Mental Sciences impact were...adjustments were made to playback discriminators and cord in a lateral (-Y) collision. Each and the sampling interval. The final digit. -e d, J animal was