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Sample records for acceleration measurement system-ii

  1. Space Acceleration Measurement System-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, William

    2009-01-01

    Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS-II) is an ongoing study of the small forces (vibrations and accelerations) on the ISS that result from the operation of hardware, crew activities, as well as dockings and maneuvering. Results will be used to generalize the types of vibrations affecting vibration-sensitive experiments. Investigators seek to better understand the vibration environment on the space station to enable future research.

  2. Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, William

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) is an ongoing study of the small forces (vibrations and accelerations) on the ISS that result from the operation of hardware, crew activities, as well as dockings and maneuvering. Results will be used to generalize the types of vibrations affecting vibration-sensitive experiments. Investigators seek to better understand the vibration environment on the space station to enable future research.

  3. SAMS Acceleration Measurements on MIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskowitz, Milton E.; Hrovat, Kenneth; Finkelstein, Robert; Reckart, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    During NASA Increment 3 (September 1996 to January 1997), about 5 gigabytes of acceleration data were collected by the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) onboard the Russian Space Station, Mir. The data were recorded on 11 optical disks and were returned to Earth on STS-81. During this time, SAMS data were collected in the Priroda module to support the following experiments: the Mir Structural Dynamics Experiment (MiSDE) and Binary Colloidal Alloy Tests (BCAT). This report points out some of the salient features of the microgravity environment to which these experiments were exposed. Also documented are mission events of interest such as the docked phase of STS-81 operations, a Progress engine burn, attitude control thruster operation, and crew exercise. Also included are a description of the Mir module orientations, and the panel notations within the modules. This report presents an overview of the SAMS acceleration measurements recorded by 10 Hz and 100 Hz sensor heads. Variations in the acceleration environment caused by unique activities such as crew exercise and life-support fans are presented. The analyses included herein complement those presented in previous mission summary reports published by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services (PIMS) group.

  4. Measurement of Coriolis Acceleration with a Smartphone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaku, Asif; Kraft, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate physics laboratories seldom have experiments that measure the Coriolis acceleration. This has traditionally been the case owing to the inherent complexities of making such measurements. Articles on the experimental determination of the Coriolis acceleration are few and far between in the physics literature. However, because modern…

  5. A Microcomputer-Controlled Measurement of Acceleration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crandall, A. Jared; Stoner, Ronald

    1982-01-01

    Describes apparatus and method used to allow rapid and repeated measurement of acceleration of a ball rolling down an inclined plane. Acceleration measurements can be performed in an hour with the apparatus interfaced to a Commodore PET microcomputer. A copy of the BASIC program is available from the authors. (Author/JN)

  6. Measurement and Data Distribution for Microgravity Accelerations on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPherson, Kevin; Hrovat, Kenneth

    1999-01-01

    Two accelerometer systems will be available on the International Space Station to support microgravity payloads with information about the quasi-steady and vibratory acceleration environment of the research facilities. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System will record contributions to the quasi-steady microgravity environment, including the influences of aerodynamic drag, vehicle rotation, and venting effects. The Space Acceleration Measurement System-II will measure vibratory disturbances on-board due to vehicle, crew, and equipment disturbances. Due to the dynamic nature of the microgravity environment and its potential to influence sensitive experiments, NASA's Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project has initiated a plan through which the data from these instruments will be distributed to researchers in a timely and meaningful fashion. Beyond the obvious benefit of correlation between accelerations and the scientific phenomena being studied, such information is also useful for hardware developers who can gain qualitative and quantitative feedback about their facility acceleration output to station.

  7. Measurement of Coriolis Acceleration with a Smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakur, Asif; Kraft, Jakob

    2016-05-01

    Undergraduate physics laboratories seldom have experiments that measure the Coriolis acceleration. This has traditionally been the case owing to the inherent complexities of making such measurements. Articles on the experimental determination of the Coriolis acceleration are few and far between in the physics literature. However, because modern smartphones come with a raft of built-in sensors, we have a unique opportunity to experimentally determine the Coriolis acceleration conveniently in a pedagogically enlightening environment at modest cost by using student-owned smartphones. Here we employ the gyroscope and accelerometer in a smartphone to verify the dependence of Coriolis acceleration on the angular velocity of a rotatingtrack and the speed of the sliding smartphone.

  8. Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment: Calibration Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James R.; Larman, Kevin T.

    1995-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), which has flown on STS-40, STS-50, and STS-58, contains a three-axis accelerometer with a single, nonpendulous, electrostatically suspended proofmass, which can resolve accelerations to the 10(sub -9) g level. The experiment also contains a full calibration station to permit in situ bias and scale-factor calibration. This on-orbit calibration capability eliminates the large uncertainty of ground-based calibrations encountered with accelerometers flown in the past on the Orbiter, and thus provides absolute acceleration measurement accuracy heretofore unachievable. This is the first time accelerometer scale-factor measurements have been performed on orbit. A detailed analysis of the calibration process is given, along with results of the calibration factors from the on-orbit OARE flight measurements on STS-58. In addition, the analysis of OARE flight-maneuver data used to validate the scale-factor measurements in the sensor's most sensitive range are also presented. Estimates on calibration uncertainties are discussed. These uncertainty estimates provides bounds on the STS-58 absolute acceleration measurements for future applications.

  9. Miniature piezoelectric triaxial accelerometer measures cranial accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deboo, G. J.; Rogallo, V. L.

    1966-01-01

    Tiny triaxial accelerometer whose sensing elements are piezoelectric ceramic beams measures human cranial accelerations when a subject is exposed to a centrifuge or other simulators of g environments. This device could be considered for application in dental, medical, and automotive safety research.

  10. Gravity Acceleration Measurements Using a Soundcard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abellan-Garcia, Francisco J.; Garcia-Gamuz, Jose Antonio; Valerdi-Perez, Ramon P.; Ibanez-Mengual, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the acceleration due to gravity "g", using a simple and low-cost experimental device. The time taken for a metallic ball to travel a predetermined distance is measured and recorded by a series of optical sensors. Four pairs of sensors are placed along the external surface of a vertical methacrylate tube at…

  11. Advanced Microgravity Acceleration Measurement Systems Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sicker, Ronald J.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Microgravity Acceleration Measurement Systems (AMAMS) project at the NASA Glenn Research Center is part of the Instrument Technology Development program to develop advanced sensor systems. The primary focus of the AMAMS project is to develop microelectromechanical (MEMS) acceleration sensor systems to replace existing electromechanical-sensor-based systems presently used to assess relative gravity levels aboard spacecraft. These systems are used in characterizing both vehicle and payload responses to low-gravity vibroacoustic environments. The collection of microgravity acceleration data has cross-disciplinary utility to the microgravity life and physical sciences and the structural dynamics communities. The inherent advantages of semiconductor-based systems are reduced size, mass, and power consumption, while providing enhanced stability.

  12. Atomic References for Measuring Small Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, Lute; Yu, Nan

    2009-01-01

    Accelerometer systems that would combine the best features of both conventional (e.g., mechanical) accelerometers and atom interferometer accelerometers (AIAs) have been proposed. These systems are intended mainly for use in scientific research aboard spacecraft but may also be useful on Earth in special military, geological, and civil-engineering applications. Conventional accelerometers can be sensitive, can have high dynamic range, and can have high frequency response, but they lack accuracy and long-term stability. AIAs have low frequency response, but they offer high sensitivity, and high accuracy for measuring small accelerations. In a system according to the proposal, a conventional accelerometer would be used to perform short-term measurements of higher-frequency components of acceleration, while an AIA would be used to provide consistent calibration of, and correction of errors in, the measurements of the conventional accelerometer in the lower-frequency range over the long term. A brief description of an AIA is prerequisite to a meaningful description of a system according to the proposal. An AIA includes a retroreflector next to one end of a cell that contains a cold cloud of atoms in an ultrahigh vacuum. The atoms in the cloud are in free fall. The retroreflector is mounted on the object, the acceleration of which is to be measured. Raman laser beams are directed through the cell from the end opposite the retroreflector, then pass back through the cell after striking the retroreflector. The Raman laser beams together with the cold atoms measure the relative acceleration, through the readout of the AIA, between the cold atoms and the retroreflector.

  13. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  14. Microgravity acceleration measurement and environment characterization science (17-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) is a general purpose instrumentation system designed to measure the accelerations onboard the Shuttle Orbiter and Shuttle/Spacelab vehicles. These measurements are used to support microgravity experiments and investigation into the microgravity environment of the vehicle. Acceleration measurements can be made at locations remote from the SAMS main instrumentation unit by the use of up to three remote triaxial sensor heads. The prime objective for SAMS on the International Microgravity Lab (IML-1) mission will be to measure the accelerations experienced by the Fluid Experiment System (FES). The SAMS acceleration measurements for FES will be complemented by low level, low frequency acceleration measurements made by the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) installed on the shuttle. Secondary objectives for SAMS will be to measure accelerations at several specific locations to enable the acceleration transfer function of the Spacelab module to be analyzed. This analysis effort will be in conjunction with similar measurements analyses on other Spacelab missions.

  15. Emittance measurements from the LLUMC proton accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutrakon, G.; Gillespie, G. H.; Hubbard, J.; Sanders, E.

    2005-12-01

    A new method of calculating beam emittances at the extraction point of a particle accelerator is presented. The technique uses the optimization programs NPSOL and MINOS developed at Stanford University in order to determine the initial values of beam size, divergence and correlation parameters (i.e. beam sigma matrix, σij) that best fit measured beam parameters. These σij elements are then used to compute the Twiss parameters α, β, and the phase space area, ε, of the beam at the extraction point. Beam size measurements in X and Y throughout the transport line were input to the optimizer along with the magnetic elements of bends, quads, and drifts. The σij parameters were optimized at the accelerator's extraction point by finding the best agreement between these measured beam sizes and those predicted by TRANSPORT. This expands upon a previous study in which a "trial and error" technique was used instead of the optimizer software, and which yielded similar results. The Particle Beam Optics Laboratory (PBO Lab™) program used for this paper integrates particle beam optics and other codes into a single intuitive graphically-based computing environment. This new software provides a seamless interface between the NPSOL and MINOS optimizer and TRANSPORT calculations. The results of these emittance searches are presented here for the eight clinical energies between 70 and 250 MeV currently being used at LLUMC.

  16. Polarization measurement of laser-accelerated protons

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, Natascha; Engels, Ralf; Engin, Ilhan; Greven, Patrick; Holler, Astrid; Lehrach, Andreas; Maier, Rudolf; Büscher, Markus; Cerchez, Mirela; Swantusch, Marco; Toncian, Monika; Toncian, Toma; Willi, Oswald; Gibbon, Paul; Karmakar, Anupam

    2014-02-15

    We report on the successful use of a laser-driven few-MeV proton source to measure the differential cross section of a hadronic scattering reaction as well as on the measurement and simulation study of polarization observables of the laser-accelerated charged particle beams. These investigations were carried out with thin foil targets, illuminated by 100 TW laser pulses at the Arcturus laser facility; the polarization measurement is based on the spin dependence of hadronic proton scattering off nuclei in a Silicon target. We find proton beam polarizations consistent with zero magnitude which indicates that for these particular laser-target parameters the particle spins are not aligned by the strong magnetic fields inside the laser-generated plasmas.

  17. Tritium measurements with a tandem accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, R.; Klein, J.; Fink, D.

    1990-06-01

    Tritium concentrations ( 3H: 2H) of less than 10 -15 are readily measurable with almost any tandem accelerator and with an overall detection efficiency as high as 4.5%. The isobar, 3He, and other potential sources of interference (mainly 6Li, 2H and 1H) can all be removed by an absorber in front of the triton detector, so there is little need for analyzing elements other than the negative-and positive-ion magnets found on most tandems. The technique is particularly well suited for detecting tritium in deuterium absorbed in a metal and testing for cold fusion. We caution that tritium can occur in commercial deuterium and heavy water from sources other than cold fusion; one sample was observed to have a tritium-to-deuterium ratio of 10 -10.

  18. Gravity acceleration measurements using a soundcard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abellán-García, Francisco J.; García-Gamuz, José Antonio; Valerdi-Pérez, Ramón P.; Ibáñez-Mengual, José A.

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the acceleration due to gravity g, using a simple and low-cost experimental device. The time taken for a metallic ball to travel a predetermined distance is measured and recorded by a series of optical sensors. Four pairs of sensors are placed along the external surface of a vertical methacrylate tube at regular intervals. The metallic ball is fired by a simple spring device placed at the bottom of the tube. As the metallic ball passes through the tube it interrupts the path of infrared light radiating from each sensor and its corresponding photo-diode. As a result, an electric signal is received by an input microphone, digitized and subsequently processed by computer software (Audacity). The program allows us to view a frequency graph and therefore allows us to identify the exact time between two consecutive events, which is necessary to determine the value of g. In this paper, the Audacity measurements were exported as a .wav file.

  19. Scalar field as an intrinsic time measure in coupled dynamical matter-geometry systems. II. Electrically charged gravitational collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakonieczna, Anna; Yeom, Dong-han

    2016-05-01

    Investigating the dynamics of gravitational systems, especially in the regime of quantum gravity, poses a problem of measuring time during the evolution. One of the approaches to this issue is using one of the internal degrees of freedom as a time variable. The objective of our research was to check whether a scalar field or any other dynamical quantity being a part of a coupled multi-component matter-geometry system can be treated as a `clock' during its evolution. We investigated a collapse of a self-gravitating electrically charged scalar field in the Einstein and Brans-Dicke theories using the 2+2 formalism. Our findings concentrated on the spacetime region of high curvature existing in the vicinity of the emerging singularity, which is essential for the quantum gravity applications. We investigated several values of the Brans-Dicke coupling constant and the coupling between the Brans-Dicke and the electrically charged scalar fields. It turned out that both evolving scalar fields and a function which measures the amount of electric charge within a sphere of a given radius can be used to quantify time nearby the singularity in the dynamical spacetime part, in which the apparent horizon surrounding the singularity is spacelike. Using them in this respect in the asymptotic spacetime region is possible only when both fields are present in the system and, moreover, they are coupled to each other. The only nonzero component of the Maxwell field four-potential cannot be used to quantify time during the considered process in the neighborhood of the whole central singularity. None of the investigated dynamical quantities is a good candidate for measuring time nearby the Cauchy horizon, which is also singular due to the mass inflation phenomenon.

  20. Don't Use Airtracks to Measure Gravity Acceleration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluk, Edward; Lopez, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Presents one way, using simple materials available in hardware stores, to obtain accurate measurements of gravity acceleration in student laboratories. Analyzes a time-of-flight measuring scheme and discusses the experimental arrangements to make the measurements. (MDH)

  1. Sixteen Years of Ulysses Interstellar Dust Measurements in the Solar System. II. Fluctuations in the Dust Flow from the Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strub, Peter; Krüger, Harald; Sterken, Veerle J.

    2015-10-01

    The Ulysses spacecraft provided the first opportunity to identify and study interstellar dust (ISD) in situ in the solar system between 1992 and 2007. Here we present the first comprehensive analysis of the ISD component in the entire Ulysses dust data set. We analyzed several parameters of the ISD flow in a time-resolved fashion: flux, flow direction, mass index, and flow width. The general picture is in agreement with a time-dependent focusing/defocusing of the charged dust particles due to long-term variations of the solar magnetic field throughout a solar magnetic cycle of 22 years. In addition, we confirm a shift in dust direction of 50° ± 7° in 2005, along with a steep, size-dependent increase in flux by a factor of 4 within 8 months. To date, this is difficult to interpret and has to be examined in more detail by new dynamical simulations. This work is part of a series of three papers. This paper concentrates on the time-dependent flux and direction of the ISD. In a companion paper we analyze the overall mass distribution of the ISD measured by Ulysses, and a third paper discusses the results of modeling the flow of the ISD as seen by Ulysses.

  2. SIXTEEN YEARS OF ULYSSES INTERSTELLAR DUST MEASUREMENTS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM. II. FLUCTUATIONS IN THE DUST FLOW FROM THE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Strub, Peter; Krüger, Harald; Sterken, Veerle J.

    2015-10-20

    The Ulysses spacecraft provided the first opportunity to identify and study interstellar dust (ISD) in situ in the solar system between 1992 and 2007. Here we present the first comprehensive analysis of the ISD component in the entire Ulysses dust data set. We analyzed several parameters of the ISD flow in a time-resolved fashion: flux, flow direction, mass index, and flow width. The general picture is in agreement with a time-dependent focusing/defocusing of the charged dust particles due to long-term variations of the solar magnetic field throughout a solar magnetic cycle of 22 years. In addition, we confirm a shift in dust direction of 50° ± 7° in 2005, along with a steep, size-dependent increase in flux by a factor of 4 within 8 months. To date, this is difficult to interpret and has to be examined in more detail by new dynamical simulations. This work is part of a series of three papers. This paper concentrates on the time-dependent flux and direction of the ISD. In a companion paper we analyze the overall mass distribution of the ISD measured by Ulysses, and a third paper discusses the results of modeling the flow of the ISD as seen by Ulysses.

  3. Improvement of Space Shuttle Main Engine Low Frequency Acceleration Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stec, Robert C.

    1999-01-01

    The noise floor of low frequency acceleration data acquired on the Space Shuttle Main Engines is higher than desirable. Difficulties of acquiring high quality acceleration data on this engine are discussed. The approach presented in this paper for reducing the acceleration noise floor focuses on a search for an accelerometer more capable of measuring low frequency accelerations. An overview is given of the current measurement system used to acquire engine vibratory data. The severity of vibration, temperature, and moisture environments are considered. Vibratory measurements from both laboratory and rocket engine tests are presented.

  4. Acceleration and Velocity Sensing from Measured Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi; Truax, Roger

    2016-01-01

    A simple approach for computing acceleration and velocity of a structure from the strain is proposed in this study. First, deflection and slope of the structure are computed from the strain using a two-step theory. Frequencies of the structure are computed from the time histories of strain using a parameter estimation technique together with an Autoregressive Moving Average model. From deflection, slope, and frequencies of the structure, acceleration and velocity of the structure can be obtained using the proposed approach. shape sensing, fiber optic strain sensor, system equivalent reduction and expansion process.

  5. Acceleration and Velocity Sensing from Measured Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi; Truax, Roger

    2015-01-01

    A simple approach for computing acceleration and velocity of a structure from the strain is proposed in this study. First, deflection and slope of the structure are computed from the strain using a two-step theory. Frequencies of the structure are computed from the time histories of strain using a parameter estimation technique together with an autoregressive moving average model. From deflection, slope, and frequencies of the structure, acceleration and velocity of the structure can be obtained using the proposed approach. Simple harmonic motion is assumed for the acceleration computations, and the central difference equation with a linear autoregressive model is used for the computations of velocity. A cantilevered rectangular wing model is used to validate the simple approach. Quality of the computed deflection, acceleration, and velocity values are independent of the number of fibers. The central difference equation with a linear autoregressive model proposed in this study follows the target response with reasonable accuracy. Therefore, the handicap of the backward difference equation, phase shift, is successfully overcome.

  6. Presentation on a Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Theodore L.

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of the Space Acceleration Measurement Systems (SAMS) project is to provide an acceleration measurement system capable of serving a wide variety of space experiments. The design of the system being developed under this project takes into consideration requirements for experiments located in the middeck, in the orbiter bay, and in Spacelab. In addition to measuring, conditioning, and recording accelerations, the system will be capable of performing complex calculations and interactive control. The main components consist of a remote triaxial optical storage device. In operation, the triaxial sensor head produces output signals in response to acceleration inputs. These signals are preamplified, filtered and converted into digital data which is then transferred to optical memory. The system design is modular, facilitating both software and hardware upgrading as technology advances. Two complete acceleration measurement flight systems will be build and tested under this project.

  7. [Tomodensitometry measurements of proximal tibia and acceleration in marathon athletes].

    PubMed

    Gremion, Gérald; Cordey, Jacques; Leyvraz, Pierre-François; Rizzoli, René; Crettenand, Antoinette; Gobelet, Charles; Dériaz, Olivier; Crettenand, Andre

    2004-02-01

    We evaluated bone adaptation of the tibia to mechanical stresses in male marathon runners and in sedentary controls in function of the ground impact measured by accelerometry and of the bone mineral density assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Sixty-three subjects (51 runners and 12 controls) were enrolled. All had measurements of bone mineral density of the proximal tibia and of acceleration at the same site during a jogging at 9 km/hour. The results show a significant higher cortical BMD in runners with the higher value of late accelerations (at 50 ms after the contact with the ground). The late acceleration might be related to muscle contraction.

  8. Measurement of electron clouds in large accelerators by microwave dispersion.

    PubMed

    De Santis, S; Byrd, J M; Caspers, F; Krasnykh, A; Kroyer, T; Pivi, M T F; Sonnad, K G

    2008-03-01

    Clouds of low energy electrons in the vacuum beam pipes of accelerators of positively charged particle beams present a serious limitation for operation at high currents. Furthermore, it is difficult to probe their density over substantial lengths of the beam pipe. We have developed a novel technique to directly measure the electron cloud density via the phase shift induced in a TE wave transmitted over a section of the accelerator and used it to measure the average electron cloud density over a 50 m section in the positron ring of the PEP-II collider at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  9. Accelerator physics measurements at the damping ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivkin, L.; Delahaye, J. P.; Wille, K.; Allen, M. A.; Bane, K.; Fieguth, T.; Hofmann, A.; Button, A.; Lee, M.; Linebarger, W.

    1985-05-01

    Besides the optics measurements described elsewhere, machine experiments were done at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) damping ring to determine some of its parameters. The synchrotron radiation energy loss which gives the damping rates was measured by observing the RF-voltage dependence of the synchronous phase angle. The emittance was obtained from the synchrotron light monitor, scraper measurements and by extracting the beam through a doublet and measuring its size for different quadrupole settings. Current dependent effects such as parasitic mode losses, head tail instabilities, synchrotron and betatron frequency shifts were measured to estimate the impedance. RF-cavity beam loading and its compensation were also studied and ion collection was investigated. All results agree reasonably well with expectations and indicate no limitations to the design performance.

  10. Two wire wakefield measurements of the DARHT accelerator cell

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.D.; Vella, M.

    1998-05-01

    One of the characteristics specifying the performance of an accelerator cell as it relates to the electron beam, is the Wakefield impedance. The real part of the transverse wakefield impedance relates to offsets of the beam as it travels through the accelerator cell. To verify that the cell operates as expected, and that simulations and design predictions of the cell are within acceptable parameters (before building more cells) it is desirable to measure the wakefield impedance using the traditional two-wire technique. This technique benefits from its reproducibility and physical simplicity but is complicated by the need to fabricate a test fixture. But once the fixture is fabricated, it is simple to measure any number of accelerator cells. The following is a description of the two-wire measurement technique as performed at Lawrence Berkeley Lab (LBL) on a prototype DARHT accelerator cell.

  11. Measurements of Acceleration Due to Gravity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Bill

    1990-01-01

    The principle means by which g has been measured are summarized. Discussed are "Kater's Reversible Pendulum," falling rules, and interferometry methods. Types of corrections and various sources of uncertainty are considered. (CW)

  12. Model measurements for new accelerating techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Aronson, S.; Haseroth, H.; Knott, J.; Willis, W.

    1988-06-01

    We summarize the work carried out for the past two years, concerning some different ways for achieving high-field gradients, particularly in view of future linear lepton colliders. These studies and measurements on low power models concern the switched power principle and multifrequency excitation of resonant cavities. 15 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Kr II laser-induced fluorescence for measuring plasma acceleration.

    PubMed

    Hargus, W A; Azarnia, G M; Nakles, M R

    2012-10-01

    We present the application of laser-induced fluorescence of singly ionized krypton as a diagnostic technique for quantifying the electrostatic acceleration within the discharge of a laboratory cross-field plasma accelerator also known as a Hall effect thruster, which has heritage as spacecraft propulsion. The 728.98 nm Kr II transition from the metastable 5d(4)D(7/2) to the 5p(4)P(5/2)(∘) state was used for the measurement of laser-induced fluorescence within the plasma discharge. From these measurements, it is possible to measure velocity as krypton ions are accelerated from near rest to approximately 21 km/s (190 eV). Ion temperature and the ion velocity distributions may also be extracted from the fluorescence data since available hyperfine splitting data allow for the Kr II 5d(4)D(7/2)-5p(4)P(5/2)(∘) transition lineshape to be modeled. From the analysis, the fluorescence lineshape appears to be a reasonable estimate for the relatively broad ion velocity distributions. However, due to an apparent overlap of the ion creation and acceleration regions within the discharge, the distributed velocity distributions increase ion temperature determination uncertainty significantly. Using the most probable ion velocity as a representative, or characteristic, measure of the ion acceleration, overall propellant energy deposition, and effective electric fields may be calculated. With this diagnostic technique, it is possible to nonintrusively characterize the ion acceleration both within the discharge and in the plume.

  14. Advanced Microgravity Acceleration Measurement Systems (AMAMS) Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sicker, Ronald J.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Microgravity Acceleration Measurement Systems (AMAMS) project is part of NASA s Instrument Technology Development program to develop advanced sensor systems. The primary focus of the AMAMS project is to develop microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for acceleration sensor systems to replace existing electromechanical sensor systems presently used to assess relative gravity levels aboard spacecraft. These systems are used to characterize both vehicle and payload responses to low-gravity vibroacoustic environments. The collection of microgravity acceleration data is useful to the microgravity life sciences, microgravity physical sciences, and structural dynamics communities. The inherent advantages of semiconductor-based systems are reduced size, mass, and power consumption, with enhanced long-term calibration stability.

  15. Measurement of Impact Acceleration: Mouthpiece Accelerometer Versus Helmet Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Michael; Halstead, P. David; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Barlow, David

    2007-01-01

    Context: Instrumented helmets have been used to estimate impact acceleration imparted to the head during helmet impacts. These instrumented helmets may not accurately measure the actual amount of acceleration experienced by the head due to factors such as helmet-to-head fit. Objective: To determine if an accelerometer attached to a mouthpiece (MP) provides a more accurate representation of headform center of gravity (HFCOG) acceleration during impact than does an accelerometer attached to a helmet fitted on the headform. Design: Single-factor research design in which the independent variable was accelerometer position (HFCOG, helmet, MP) and the dependent variables were g and Severity Index (SI). Setting: Independent impact research laboratory. Intervention(s): The helmeted headform was dropped (n = 168) using a National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) drop system from the standard heights and impact sites according to NOCSAE test standards. Peak g and SI were measured for each accelerometer position during impact. Main Outcome Measures: Upon impact, the peak g and SI were recorded for each accelerometer location. Results: Strong relationships were noted for HFCOG and MP measures, and significant differences were seen between HFCOG and helmet g measures and HFCOG and helmet SI measures. No statistically significant differences were noted between HFCOG and MP g and SI measures. Regression analyses showed a significant relationship between HFCOG and MP measures but not between HFCOG and helmet measures. Conclusions: Upon impact, MP acceleration (g) and SI measurements were closely related to and more accurate in measuring HFCOG g and SI than helmet measurements. The MP accelerometer is a valid method for measuring head acceleration. PMID:17597937

  16. On Solar Wind Origin and Acceleration: Measurements from ACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stakhiv, Mark; Lepri, Susan T.; Landi, Enrico; Tracy, Patrick; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2016-10-01

    The origin and acceleration of the solar wind are still debated. In this paper, we search for signatures of the source region and acceleration mechanism of the solar wind in the plasma properties measured in situ by the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft. Using the elemental abundances as a proxy for the source region and the differential velocity and ion temperature ratios as a proxy for the acceleration mechanism, we are able to identify signatures pointing toward possible source regions and acceleration mechanisms. We find that the fast solar wind in the ecliptic plane is the same as that observed from the polar regions and is consistent with wave acceleration and coronal-hole origin. We also find that the slow wind is composed of two components: one similar to the fast solar wind (with slower velocity) and the other likely originating from closed magnetic loops. Both components of the slow solar wind show signatures of wave acceleration. From these findings, we draw a scenario that envisions two types of wind, with different source regions and release mechanisms, but the same wave acceleration mechanism.

  17. Low-cost tape system measures velocity of acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartenstein, R.

    1964-01-01

    By affixing perforated magnetic recording tape to the falling end of a body, acceleration and velocity were measured. The measurement was made by allowing the tape to pass between a light source and a photoelectric sensor. Data was obtained from a readout device.

  18. Development of a Wireless Displacement Measurement System Using Acceleration Responses

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Woong; Sim, Sung-Han; Jung, Hyung-Jo; Spencer, Billie F.

    2013-01-01

    Displacement measurements are useful information for various engineering applications such as structural health monitoring (SHM), earthquake engineering and system identification. Most existing displacement measurement methods are costly, labor-intensive, and have difficulties particularly when applying to full-scale civil structures because the methods require stationary reference points. Indirect estimation methods converting acceleration to displacement can be a good alternative as acceleration transducers are generally cost-effective, easy to install, and have low noise. However, the application of acceleration-based methods to full-scale civil structures such as long span bridges is challenging due to the need to install cables to connect the sensors to a base station. This article proposes a low-cost wireless displacement measurement system using acceleration. Developed with smart sensors that are low-cost, wireless, and capable of on-board computation, the wireless displacement measurement system has significant potential to impact many applications that need displacement information at multiple locations of a structure. The system implements an FIR-filter type displacement estimation algorithm that can remove low frequency drifts typically caused by numerical integration of discrete acceleration signals. To verify the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed system, laboratory tests are carried out using a shaking table and on a three storey shear building model, experimentally confirming the effectiveness of the proposed system. PMID:23881123

  19. Absolute acceleration measurements on STS-50 from the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James R.

    1994-01-01

    Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) data on Space Transportation System (STS)-50 have been examined in detail during a 2-day time period. Absolute acceleration levels have been derived at the OARE location, the orbiter center-of-gravity, and at the STS-50 spacelab Crystal Growth Facility. During the interval, the tri-axial OARE raw telemetered acceleration measurements have been filtered using a sliding trimmed mean filter in order to remove large acceleration spikes (e.g., thrusters) and reduce the noise. Twelve OARE measured biases in each acceleration channel during the 2-day interval have been analyzed and applied to the filtered data. Similarly, the in situ measured x-axis scale factors in the sensor's most sensitive range were also analyzed and applied to the data. Due to equipment problem(s) on this flight, both y- and z-axis sensitive range scale factors were determined in a separate process using orbiter maneuvers and subsequently applied to the data. All known significant low-frequency corrections at the OARE location (i.e., both vertical and horizontal gravity-gradient, and rotational effects) were removed from the filtered data in order to produce the acceleration components at the orbiter center-of-gravity, which are the aerodynamic signals along each body axis. Results indicate that there is a force being applied to the Orbiter in addition to the aerodynamic forces. The OARE instrument and all known gravitational and electromagnetic forces have been reexamined, but none produces the observed effect. Thus, it is tentatively concluded that the orbiter is creating the environment observed. At least part of this force is thought to be due to the Flash Evaporator System.

  20. The Electrostatic Gavimeter: An Alternative Way of Measuring Gravitational Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashinski, David

    2005-03-01

    In the past, Earth’s gravitational acceleration g has been measured in many ways, including the use of a pendulum as well as other models involving the use of a mass and a spring. We have designed a new method incorporating a spring with a capacitor and a voltmeter. This capacitor model still uses a hanging mass on a spring, but alters the method of determining the change in position of the spring due to the gravitational acceleration. We relate the change in position to the potential difference across the capacitor needed to cause a discharge through parallel plates. By relating this voltage directly to the gravitaional acceleration,a new method of measuring g is obtained.

  1. Kr II laser-induced fluorescence for measuring plasma acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Hargus, W. A. Jr.

    2012-10-15

    We present the application of laser-induced fluorescence of singly ionized krypton as a diagnostic technique for quantifying the electrostatic acceleration within the discharge of a laboratory cross-field plasma accelerator also known as a Hall effect thruster, which has heritage as spacecraft propulsion. The 728.98 nm Kr II transition from the metastable 5d{sup 4}D{sub 7/2} to the 5p{sup 4}P{sub 5/2}{sup Ring-Operator} state was used for the measurement of laser-induced fluorescence within the plasma discharge. From these measurements, it is possible to measure velocity as krypton ions are accelerated from near rest to approximately 21 km/s (190 eV). Ion temperature and the ion velocity distributions may also be extracted from the fluorescence data since available hyperfine splitting data allow for the Kr II 5d{sup 4}D{sub 7/2}-5p{sup 4}P{sub 5/2}{sup Ring-Operator} transition lineshape to be modeled. From the analysis, the fluorescence lineshape appears to be a reasonable estimate for the relatively broad ion velocity distributions. However, due to an apparent overlap of the ion creation and acceleration regions within the discharge, the distributed velocity distributions increase ion temperature determination uncertainty significantly. Using the most probable ion velocity as a representative, or characteristic, measure of the ion acceleration, overall propellant energy deposition, and effective electric fields may be calculated. With this diagnostic technique, it is possible to nonintrusively characterize the ion acceleration both within the discharge and in the plume.

  2. Accelerator mass spectrometry for measurement of long-lived radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Elmore, D; Phillips, F M

    1987-05-01

    Particle accelerators, such as those built for research in nuclear physics, can also be used together with magnetic and electrostatic mass analyzers to measure rare isotopes at very low abundance ratios. All molecular ions can be eliminated when accelerated to energies of millions of electron volts. Some atomic isobars can be eliminated with the use of negative ions; others can be separated at high energies by measuring their rate of energy loss in a detector. The long-lived radioisotopes (10)Be, (14)C,(26)A1, 36Cl, and (129)1 can now be measured in small natural samples having isotopic abundances in the range 10(-12) to 10(- 5) and as few as 10(5) atoms. In the past few years, research applications of accelerator mass spectrometry have been concentrated in the earth sciences (climatology, cosmochemistry, environmental chemistry, geochronology, glaciology, hydrology, igneous petrogenesis, minerals exploration, sedimentology, and volcanology), in anthropology and archeology (radiocarbon dating), and in physics (searches for exotic particles and measurement of halflives). In addition, accelerator mass spectrometry may become an important tool for the materials and biological sciences. PMID:17740475

  3. Accelerator mass spectrometry for measurement of long-lived radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Elmore, D; Phillips, F M

    1987-05-01

    Particle accelerators, such as those built for research in nuclear physics, can also be used together with magnetic and electrostatic mass analyzers to measure rare isotopes at very low abundance ratios. All molecular ions can be eliminated when accelerated to energies of millions of electron volts. Some atomic isobars can be eliminated with the use of negative ions; others can be separated at high energies by measuring their rate of energy loss in a detector. The long-lived radioisotopes (10)Be, (14)C,(26)A1, 36Cl, and (129)1 can now be measured in small natural samples having isotopic abundances in the range 10(-12) to 10(- 5) and as few as 10(5) atoms. In the past few years, research applications of accelerator mass spectrometry have been concentrated in the earth sciences (climatology, cosmochemistry, environmental chemistry, geochronology, glaciology, hydrology, igneous petrogenesis, minerals exploration, sedimentology, and volcanology), in anthropology and archeology (radiocarbon dating), and in physics (searches for exotic particles and measurement of halflives). In addition, accelerator mass spectrometry may become an important tool for the materials and biological sciences.

  4. Preliminary OARE absolute acceleration measurements on STS-50

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James

    1993-01-01

    On-orbit Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) data on STS-50 was examined in detail during a 2-day time period. Absolute acceleration levels were derived at the OARE location, the orbiter center-of-gravity, and at the STS-50 spacelab Crystal Growth Facility. The tri-axial OARE raw acceleration measurements (i.e., telemetered data) during the interval were filtered using a sliding trimmed mean filter in order to remove large acceleration spikes (e.g., thrusters) and reduce the noise. Twelve OARE measured biases in each acceleration channel during the 2-day interval were analyzed and applied to the filtered data. Similarly, the in situ measured x-axis scale factors in the sensor's most sensitive range were also analyzed and applied to the data. Due to equipment problem(s) on this flight, both y- and z- axis sensitive range scale factors were determined in a separate process (using the OARE maneuver data) and subsequently applied to the data. All known significant low-frequency corrections at the OARE location (i.e., both vertical and horizontal gravity-gradient, and rotational effects) were removed from the filtered data in order to produce the acceleration components at the orbiter's center-of-gravity, which are the aerodynamic signals along each body axes. Results indicate that there is a force of unknown origin being applied to the Orbiter in addition to the aerodynamic forces. The OARE instrument and all known gravitational and electromagnetic forces were reexamined, but none produce the observed effect. Thus, it is tentatively concluded that the Orbiter is creating the environment observed.

  5. Measurement of acceleration: a new method of monitoring neuromuscular function.

    PubMed

    Viby-Mogensen, J; Jensen, E; Werner, M; Nielsen, H K

    1988-01-01

    A new method for monitoring neuromuscular function based on measurement of acceleration is presented. The rationale behind the method is Newton's second law, stating that the acceleration is directly proportional to the force. For measurement of acceleration, a piezo-electric ceramic wafer was used. When this piezo electrode was fixed to the thumb, an electrical signal proportional to the acceleration was produced whenever the thumb moved in response to nerve stimulation. The electrical signal was registered and analysed in a Myograph 2000 neuromuscular transmission monitor. In 35 patients anaesthetized with halothane, train-of-four ratios measured with the accelerometer (ACT-TOF) were compared with simultaneous mechanical train-of-four ratios (FDT-TOF). Control ACT-TOF ratios were significantly higher than control FDT-TOF ratios: 116 +/- 12 and 98 +/- 4 (mean +/- s.d.), respectively. In five patients not given any relaxant during the anaesthetic procedure (20-60 min), both responses were remarkably constant. In 30 patients given vecuronium, a close linear relationship was found during recovery between ACT-TOF and FDT-TOF ratios. It is concluded that the method fulfils the basic requirements for a simple and reliable clinical monitoring tool.

  6. Measurements of beat wave accelerated electrons in a toroidal plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.H. . Plasma Physics Lab.); Hwang, D.W. . Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA )

    1992-06-01

    Electrons are accelerated by large amplitude electron plasma waves driven by counter-propagating microwaves with a difference frequency approximately equal to the electron plasma frequency. Energetic electrons are observed only when the phase velocity of the wave is in the range 3v{sub e} < v{sub ph} < 7v{sub e} (v{sub ph} was varied 2v{sub e} < v{sub ph} < 10v{sub e}), where v{sub e} is the electron thermal velocity, (kT{sub e}/m{sub e}){sup {1/2}}. As the phase velocity increases, fewer electrons are accelerated to higher velocities. The measured current contained in these accelerated electrons has the power dependence predicted by theory, but the magnitude is lower than predicted.

  7. Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS)/Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakimzadeh, Roshanak

    1998-01-01

    The Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) payload flew on the Orbiter Columbia on mission STS-78 from June 20th to July 7th, 1996. The LMS payload on STS-78 was dedicated to life sciences and microgravity experiments. Two accelerometer systems managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center (LERC) flew to support these experiments, namely the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) and the Space Acceleration Measurements System (SAMS). In addition, the Microgravity Measurement Assembly (NOAA), managed by the European Space Research and Technology Center (ESA/ESTEC), and sponsored by NASA, collected acceleration data in support of the experiments on-board the LMS mission. OARE downlinked real-time quasi-steady acceleration data, which was provided to the investigators. The SAMS recorded higher frequency data on-board for post-mission analysis. The MMA downlinked real-time quasi-steady as well as higher frequency acceleration data, which was provided to the investigators. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services (PIMS) project at NASA LERC supports principal investigators of microgravity experiments as they evaluate the effects of varying acceleration levels on their experiments. A summary report was prepared by PIMS to furnish interested experiment investigators with a guide to evaluate the acceleration environment during STS-78, and as a means of identifying areas which require further study. The summary report provides an overview of the STS-78 mission, describes the accelerometer systems flown on this mission, discusses some specific analyses of the accelerometer data in relation to the various activities which occurred during the mission, and presents plots resulting from these analyses as a snapshot of the environment during the mission. Numerous activities occurred during the STS-78 mission that are of interest to the low-gravity community. Specific activities of interest during this mission were crew exercise, radiator deployment, Vernier Reaction

  8. Measuring the acceleration due to gravity using an IR transceiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbdElazem, Sohaib; Al-Basheer, Watheq

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present a new technique to study the dynamics of a free-falling object in a lab setting and to measure the acceleration due to gravity g using a simple and economic setup. The precise measurement of time taken for an object to fall freely passing an infrared (IR) transceiver is utilized to deduce the acceleration due to gravity. The reflected IR intensity from a free-falling 0.19 m rod of equally spaced white stripes of 0.01 m is detected and sent to a digital oscilloscope to observe and record the falling time period of each stripe. By fitting recorded elapsed falling times to the well-known quadratic equation of motion under constant acceleration, an accurate value of the acceleration due to gravity of g = 9.8092 ± 0.0384 m s-2 is obtained. In addition to its accuracy, the proposed technique is safer and more economic than most of the other currently used setups to determine g in undergraduate teaching labs. This study may provide undergraduate lab instructors with an efficient teaching technique for a traditional classroom experiment.

  9. SAMS Acceleration Measurement on Mir From March to September 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskowitz, Milton E.; Hrovat, Ken; Truong, Duc; Reckart, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    During NASA Increment 2 (March to September 1996), over 15 gigabytes of acceleration data were collected by the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) onboard the Russian Space Station, Mir. The data were recorded on 55 optical disks and were returned to Earth on STS-79. During this time, SAMS data were collected in the Kristall and Kvant modules, and in the Priroda module to support the following experiments: the Queen's University Experiments in Liquid Diffusion (QUELD), the Technological Evaluation of the MIM (TEM), the Forced Flow Flame Spreading Test (FFFT), and Candle Flames in Microgravity (CFM). This report points out some of the salient features of the microgravity environment to which these experiments were exposed. Also documented are mission events of interest such as the docked phase of STS-76 operations, an extravehicular activity (EVA) to install and deploy solar panels on the Kvant module, a Progress engine burn to raise Mir's altitude, and an on-orbit SAMS calibration procedure. Also included are a description of the Mir module orientations, and the panel notations within the modules. This report presents an overview of the SAMS acceleration measurements recorded by 10 Hz and 100 Hz sensor heads. Variations in the acceleration environment caused by unique activities such as crew exercise and life-support fans are presented. The analyses included herein complement those presented in previous mission summary reports published by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services (PIMS) group.

  10. Measurement of acceleration in femtosecond laser-plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Haessner, R.; Theobald, W.; Niedermeier, S.; Michelmann, K.; Feurer, T.; Schillinger, H.; Sauerbrey, R.

    1998-02-20

    Accelerations up to 4x10{sup 19} m/s{sup 2} are measured in femtosecond laser-produced plasmas at intensities of 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} using the Frequency Resolved Optical Gating (FROG) technique. A high density plasma is formed by focusing an ultrashort unchirped laser pulse on a plane carbon target and part of the reflected pulse is eventually detected by a FROG autocorrelator. Radiation pressure and thermal pressure accelerate the plasma which causes a chirp in the reflected laser pulse. The retrieved phase and amplitude information reveal that the plasma motion is dominated by the large light pressure which pushes the plasma into the target. This is supported by theoretical estimates and by the results of independently measured time integrated spectra of the reflected pulse.

  11. Measurement of the Decelerating Wake in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenfeld, I.; Decker, F. J.; Hogan, M. J.; Ischebeck, R.; Iverson, R. H.; Kirby, N.; Siemann, R. H.; Walz, D. R.; Clayton, C. E.; Huang, C.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Zhou, M.; Katsouleas, T.; Muggli, P.; Oz, E.

    2009-01-22

    Recent experiments at SLAC have shown that high gradient acceleration of electrons is achievable in meter scale plasmas. Results from these experiments show that the wakefield is sensitive to parameters in the electron beam which drives it. In the experiment the bunch lengths were varied systematically at constant charge. The effort to extract a measurement of the decelerating wake from the maximum energy loss of the electron beam is discussed.

  12. Emittance Measurements of Trapped Electrons from a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, N.; Berry, M.; Blumenfeld, I.; Decker, F.-J.; Hogan, M.J.; Ischebeck, R.; Iverson, R.; Siemann, R.; Walz, D.; Clayton, C.E.; Huang, C.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.B.; Zhou, M.; Katsouleas, T.C.; Muggli, P.; Oz, E.; /Southern California U.

    2007-06-28

    Recent electron beam driven plasma wakefield accelerator experiments carried out at SLAC showed trapping of plasma electrons. These trapped electrons appeared on an energy spectrometer with smaller transverse size than the beam driving the wake. A connection is made between transverse size and emittance; due to the spectrometer's resolution, this connection allows for placing an upper limit on the trapped electron emittance. The upper limit for the lowest normalized emittance measured in the experiment is 1 mm {center_dot} mrad.

  13. Summary of SLAC's SEY Measurement On Flat Accelerator Wall Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Le Pimpec, F.; /PSI, Villigen /SLAC

    2007-06-08

    The electron cloud effect (ECE) causes beam instabilities in accelerator structures with intense positively charged bunched beams. Reduction of the secondary electron yield (SEY) of the beam pipe inner wall is effective in controlling cloud formation. We summarize SEY results obtained from flat TiN, TiZrV and Al surfaces carried out in a laboratory environment. SEY was measured after thermal conditioning, as well as after low energy, less than 300 eV, particle exposure.

  14. Radionuclide measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry at Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jull, A. J. T.; Donahue, D. J.; Zabel, T. H.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past years, Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (TAMS) has become established as an important method for radionuclide analysis. In the Arizona system the accelerator is operated at a thermal voltage of 1.8MV for C-14 analysis, and 1.6 to 2MV for Be-10. Samples are inserted into a cesium sputter ion source in solid form. Negative ions sputtered from the target are accelerated to about 25kV, and the injection magnet selects ions of a particular mass. Ions of the 3+ charge state, having an energy of about 9MeV are selected by an electrostatic deflector, surviving ions pass through two magnets, where only ions of the desired mass-energy product are selected. The final detector is a combination ionization chamber to measure energy loss (and hence, Z), and a silicon surface-barrier detector which measures residual energy. After counting the trace iosotope for a fixed time, the injected ions are switched to the major isotope used for normalization. These ions are deflected into a Faraday cup after the first high-energy magnet. Repeated measurements of the isotope ratio of both sample and standards results in a measurement of the concentration of the radionuclide. Recent improvements in sample preparation for C-14 make preparation of high-beam current graphite targets directly from CO2 feasible. Except for some measurements of standards and backgrounds for Be-10 measurements to date have been on C-14. Although most results have been in archaeology and quaternary geology, studies have been expanded to include cosmogenic C-14 in meteorites. The data obtained so far tend to confirm the antiquity of Antarctic meteorites from the Allan Hills site. Data on three samples of Yamato meteorites gave terrestrial ages of between about 3 and 22 thousand years.

  15. Satellite Gravity Measurements Confirm Accelerated Melting of Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. L.; Wilson, C. R.; Tapley, B. D.

    2006-09-01

    Using time-variable gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, we estimate ice mass changes over Greenland during the period April 2002 to November 2005. After correcting for the effects of spatial filtering and limited resolution of GRACE data, the estimated total ice melting rate over Greenland is -239 +/- 23 cubic kilometers per year, mostly from East Greenland. This estimate agrees remarkably well with a recent assessment of -224 +/- 41 cubic kilometers per year, based on satellite radar interferometry data. GRACE estimates in southeast Greenland suggest accelerated melting since the summer of 2004, consistent with the latest remote sensing measurements.

  16. Sonic boom measurements from accelerating supersonic tracked sleds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Supersonic sled tests on the Sandia 1524-m (5000-ft) track generate sonic booms of sufficient intensity to allow some airblast measurements at distance scales not obtained from wind tunnel or flight tests. During acceleration, an emitted curved boom wave propagates to a caustic, or focus. Detailed measurements around these caustics may help to clarify the overpressure magnification which can occur from real aircraft operations. Six fixed pressure gages have been operated to document the general noise field, and a mobile array of twelve gages.

  17. SAMS Acceleration Measurements on Mir (NASA Increment 4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1998-01-01

    During NASA Increment 4 (January to May 1997), about 5 gigabytes of acceleration data were collected by the Space Acceleration Measurements System (SAMS) onboard the Russian Space Station, Mir. The data were recorded on 28 optical disks which were returned to Earth on STS-84. During this increment, SAMS data were collected in the Priroda module to support the Mir Structural Dynamics Experiment (MiSDE), the Binary Colloidal Alloy Tests (BCAT), Angular Liquid Bridge (ALB), Candle Flames in Microgravity (CFM), Diffusion Controlled Apparatus Module (DCAM), Enhanced Dynamic Load Sensors (EDLS), Forced Flow Flame Spreading Test (FFFr), Liquid Metal Diffusion (LMD), Protein Crystal Growth in Dewar (PCG/Dewar), Queen's University Experiments in Liquid Diffusion (QUELD), and Technical Evaluation of MIM (TEM). This report points out some of the salient features of the microgravity environment to which these experiments were exposed. Also documented are mission events of interest such as the docked phase of STS-84 operations, a Progress engine bum, Soyuz vehicle docking and undocking, and Progress vehicle docking. This report presents an overview of the SAMS acceleration measurements recorded by 10 Hz and 100 Hz sensor heads. The analyses included herein complement those presented in previous summary reports prepared by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services (PIMS) group.

  18. Measurements of radiation fields around high-energy proton accelerators.

    PubMed

    Agosteo, Stefano; Silari, Marco

    2005-01-01

    Monitoring of ionising radiation around high-energy particle accelerators is a difficult task due to the complexity of the radiation field, which is made up of neutrons, charged hadrons, muons, photons and electrons, with energy spectra extending over a wide energy range. The dose-equivalent outside a thick shield is mainly owing to neutrons, with some contribution from photons and, to a minor extent, the other particles. Neutron dosimetry and spectrometry are thus of primary importance to correctly evaluate the exposure of personnel. This paper reviews the relevant techniques and instrumentation employed for monitoring radiation fields around high-energy proton accelerators, with particular emphasis on the recent development to increase the response of neutron measuring devices > 20 MeV. Rem-counters, pressurised ionisation chambers, superheated emulsions, tissue-equivalent proportional counters and Bonner sphere spectrometers are discussed. PMID:16604662

  19. Three Component Velocity and Acceleration Measurement Using FLEET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Bathel, Brett F.; Calvert, Nathan; Dogariu, Arthur; Miles, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    The femtosecond laser electronic excitation and tagging (FLEET) method has been used to measure three components of velocity and acceleration for the first time. A jet of pure N2 issuing into atmospheric pressure air was probed by the FLEET system. The femtosecond laser was focused down to a point to create a small measurement volume in the flow. The long-lived lifetime of this fluorescence was used to measure the location of the tagged particles at different times. Simultaneous images of the flow were taken from two orthogonal views using a mirror assembly and a single intensified CCD camera, allowing two components of velocity to be measured in each view. These different velocity components were combined to determine three orthogonal velocity components. The differences between subsequent velocity components could be used to measure the acceleration. Velocity accuracy and precision were roughly estimated to be +/-4 m/s and +/-10 m/s respectively. These errors were small compared to the approx. 100 m/s velocity of the subsonic jet studied.

  20. Linear and angular head acceleration measurements in collegiate football.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steven; Brolinson, Gunnar; Goforth, Mike; Dietter, Dave; Duma, Stefan

    2009-06-01

    Each year, between 1.6x10(6) and 3.8x10(6) concussions are sustained by athletes playing sports, with football having the highest incidence. The high number of concussions in football provides a unique opportunity to collect biomechanical data to characterize mild traumatic brain injury. Human head acceleration data for a range of impact severities were collected by instrumenting the helmets of collegiate football players with accelerometers. The helmets of ten Virginia Tech football players were instrumented with measurement devices for every game and practice for the 2007 football season. The measurement devices recorded linear and angular accelerations about each of the three axes of the head. Data for each impact were downloaded wirelessly to a sideline data collection system shortly after each impact occurred. Data were collected for 1712 impacts, creating a large and unbiased data set. While a majority of the impacts were of relatively low severity (<30 g and <2000 rad/s2), 172 impacts were greater than 40 g and 143 impacts were greater than 3000 rad/s2. No instrumented player sustained a clinically diagnosed concussion during the 2007 season. A large and unbiased data set was compiled by instrumenting the helmets of collegiate football players. Football provides a unique opportunity to collect head acceleration data of varying severity from human volunteers. The addition of concurrent concussive data may advance the understanding of the mechanics of mild traumatic brain injury. With an increased understanding of the biomechanics of head impacts in collegiate football and human tolerance to head acceleration, better equipment can be designed to prevent head injuries.

  1. The Awful Truth About Zero-Gravity: Space Acceleration Measurement System; Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Earth's gravity holds the Shuttle in orbit, as it does satellites and the Moon. The apparent weightlessness experienced by astronauts and experiments on the Shuttle is a balancing act, the result of free-fall, or continuously falling around Earth. An easy way to visualize what is happening is with a thought experiment that Sir Isaac Newton did in 1686. Newton envisioned a mountain extending above Earth's atmosphere so that friction with the air would be eliminated. He imagined a cannon atop the mountain and aimed parallel to the ground. Firing the cannon propels the cannonball forward. At the same time, Earth's gravity pulls the cannonball down to the surface and eventual impact. Newton visualized using enough powder to just balance gravity so the cannonball would circle the Earth. Like the cannonball, objects orbiting Earth are in continuous free-fall, and it appears that gravity has been eliminated. Yet, that appearance is deceiving. Activities aboard the Shuttle generate a range of accelerations that have effects similar to those of gravity. The crew works and exercises. The main data relay antenna quivers 17 times per second to prevent 'stiction,' where parts stick then release with a jerk. Cooling pumps, air fans, and other systems add vibration. And traces of Earth's atmosphere, even 200 miles up, drag on the Shuttle. While imperceptible to us, these vibrations can have a profound impact on the commercial research and scientific experiments aboard the Shuttle. Measuring these forces is necessary so that researchers and scientists can see what may have affected their experiments when analyzing data. On STS-107 this service is provided by the Space Acceleration Measurement System for Free Flyers (SAMS-FF) and the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE). Precision data from these two instruments will help scientists analyze data from their experiments and eliminate outside influences from the phenomena they are studying during the mission.

  2. Measurement of heat load density profile on acceleration grid in MeV-class negative ion accelerator.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Junichi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Umeda, Naotaka; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Miyamoto, Kenji; Yoshida, Masafumi; Nishikiori, Ryo; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tobari, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    To understand the physics of the negative ion extraction/acceleration, the heat load density profile on the acceleration grid has been firstly measured in the ITER prototype accelerator where the negative ions are accelerated to 1 MeV with five acceleration stages. In order to clarify the profile, the peripheries around the apertures on the acceleration grid were separated into thermally insulated 34 blocks with thermocouples. The spatial resolution is as low as 3 mm and small enough to measure the tail of the beam profile with a beam diameter of ∼16 mm. It was found that there were two peaks of heat load density around the aperture. These two peaks were also clarified to be caused by the intercepted negative ions and secondary electrons from detailed investigation by changing the beam optics and gas density profile. This is the first experimental result, which is useful to understand the trajectories of these particles. PMID:26932019

  3. High spatial resolution measurements in a single stage ram accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkey, J. B.; Burnham, E. A.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    High spatial resolution experimental tube wall pressure measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena are presented in this paper. The ram accelerator is a ramjet-in-tube device which operates in a manner similar to that of a conventional ramjet. The projectile resembles the centerbody of a ramjet and travels supersonically through a tube filled with a combustible gaseous mixture, with the tube acting as the outer cowling. Pressure data are recorded as the projectile passes by sensors mounted in the tube wall at various locations along the tube. Utilization of special highly instrumented sections of tube has allowed the recording of gas dynamic phenomena with high resolution. High spatial resolution tube wall pressure data from the three regimes of propulsion studied to date (subdetonative, transdetonative, and superdetonative) in a single stage gas mixture are presented and reveal the three-dimensional character of the flow field induced by projectile fins and the canting of the fins and the canting of the projectile body relative to the tube wall. Also presented for comparison to the experimental data are calculations made with an inviscid, three-dimensional CFD code. The knowledge gained from these experiments and simulations is useful in understanding the underlying nature of ram accelerator propulsive regimes, as well as assisting in the validation of three-dimensional CFD coded which model unsteady, chemically reactive flows.

  4. TOWARD A DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF THE COSMIC ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, Jeremy

    2012-12-20

    We present precise H I 21 cm absorption line redshifts observed in multiple epochs to directly constrain the secular redshift drift z-dot or the cosmic acceleration, {Delta}v/{Delta}t{sub circle}. A comparison of literature analog spectra to contemporary digital spectra shows significant acceleration likely attributable to systematic instrumental errors. However, we obtain robust constraints using primarily Green Bank Telescope digital data. Ten objects spanning z = 0.09-0.69 observed over 13.5 years show z-dot = (-2.3 {+-} 0.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} yr{sup -1} or {Delta}v/{Delta}t{sub circle} = -5.5 {+-} 2.2 m s{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. The best constraint from a single object, 3C 286 at (z) = 0.692153275(85), is z-dot = (1.6 {+-} 4.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} yr{sup -1} or {Delta}v/{Delta}t{sub circle} = 2.8 {+-} 8.4 m s{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. These measurements are three orders of magnitude larger than the theoretically expected acceleration at z = 0.5, z-dot = 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} yr{sup -1} or {Delta}v/{Delta}t{sub circle} = 0.3 cm s{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, but they demonstrate the lack of peculiar acceleration in absorption line systems and the long-term frequency stability of modern radio telescopes. A comparison of UV metal absorption lines to the 21 cm line improves constraints on the cosmic variation of physical constants: {Delta}({alpha}{sup 2} g{sub p} {mu})/{alpha}{sup 2} g{sub p} {mu} = (- 1.2 {+-} 1.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} in the redshift range z = 0.24-2.04. The linear evolution over the last 10.4 Gyr is (- 0.2 {+-} 2.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -16} yr{sup -1}, consistent with no variation. The cosmic acceleration could be directly measured in {approx}125 years using current telescopes or in {approx}5 years using a Square Kilometer Array, but systematic effects will arise at the 1 cm s{sup -1} yr{sup -1} level.

  5. SAMS Acceleration Measurements on Mir from June to November 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; Hrovat, Ken; Moskowitz, Milton; McPherson, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) sponsors science experiments on a variety of microgravity carriers, including sounding rockets, drop towers, parabolic aircraft, and Orbiter missions. The MSAD sponsors the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) to support microgravity science experiments with acceleration measurements to characterize the microgravity environment to which the experiments were exposed. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project at the NASA Lewis Research Center supports principal investigators of microgravity experiments as they evaluate the effects of varying acceleration levels on their experiments. In 1993, a cooperative effort was started between the United States and Russia involving science utilization of the Russian Mir space station by scientists from the United States and Russia. MSAD is currently sponsoring science experiments participating in the Shuttle-Mir Science Program in cooperation with the Russians on the Mir space station. Included in the complement of MSAD experiments and equipment is a SAMS unit In a manner similar to Orbiter mission support, the SAMS unit supports science experiments from the U.S. and Russia by measuring the microgravity environment during experiment operations. The initial SAMS supported experiment was a Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) experiment from June to November 1995. SAMS data were obtained during the PCG operations on Mir in accordance with the PCG Principal Investigator's requirements. This report presents an overview of the SAMS data recorded to support this PCG experiment. The report contains plots of the SAMS 100 Hz sensor head data as an overview of the microgravity environment, including the STS-74 Shuttle-Mir docking.

  6. Acceleration of multi-dimensional propagator measurements with compressed sensing.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Jeffrey L; Cho, HyungJoon; Cho, Gyunggoo; Song, Yi-Qiao

    2011-12-01

    NMR can probe the microstructures of anisotropic materials such as liquid crystals, stretched polymers and biological tissues through measurement of the diffusion propagator, where internal structures are indicated by restricted diffusion. Multi-dimensional measurements can probe the microscopic anisotropy, but full sampling can then quickly become prohibitively time consuming. However, for incompletely sampled data, compressed sensing is an effective reconstruction technique to enable accelerated acquisition. We demonstrate that with a compressed sensing scheme, one can greatly reduce the sampling and the experimental time with minimal effect on the reconstruction of the diffusion propagator with an example of anisotropic diffusion. We compare full sampling down to 64× sub-sampling for the 2D propagator measurement and reduce the acquisition time for the 3D experiment by a factor of 32 from ∼80 days to ∼2.5 days. PMID:21924932

  7. Tracking accelerated aging of composites with ultrasonic attenuation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, D.J.; Durbin, P.F.; Thomas, G.H.; Groves, S.E.

    1996-10-01

    Composite materials are steadily replacing traditional materials in many industries. For many carbon composite materials, particularly in aerospace applications, durability is a critical design parameter which must be accurately characterized. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Boeing Commercial Airplane Group have established a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to assist in the high speed research program at Boeing. LLNL`s expertise in fiber composites, computer modeling, mechanical testing, chemical analysis and nondestructive evaluation (ND) will contribute to the study of advanced composite materials in commercial aerospace applications. Through thermo-mechanical experiments with periodic chemical analysis and nondestructive evaluation, the aging mechanisms in several continuous fiber polymer composites will be studied. Several measurement techniques are being studied for their correlation with aging. This paper describes through-transmission ultrasonic attenuation measurements of isothermally aged composite materials and their use as a tracking parameter for accelerated aging.

  8. Application of impedance measurement techniques to accelerating cavity mode characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, S. M.; Stefan, P. M.

    1993-11-01

    Impedance measurements, using a central wire to simulate the electron beam, were performed on a 52 MHz accelerating cavity at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). This cavity was recently installed in the X-ray storage ring at the NSLS as a part of an upgrade of the ring. To damp higher-order modes (HOM) in this cavity, damping antennas have been installed. We implemented the impedance measurement technique to characterize the cavity modes up to 1 GHz and confirm the effectiveness of the damping antennas. Scattering parameters were measured using a network analyzer (HP 8510B) with a personal computer as a controller. Analysis based on S and T parameters for the system was used to solve for the cavity impedance, Z( ω), as a function of the measured transmission response, S21( ω). Search techniques were used to find the shunt resistance Rsh, and Q from the calculated Z( ω) for different modes. Our results for {R}/{Q} showed good agreement with URMEL simulations. The values of Q were compared with other independent Q measurement techniques. Our analytical technique offers an alternative approach for cases where full thru-reflection-line (TRL) calibration is not feasible and a more time-effective technique for obtaining {R}/{Q}, compared with the bead-pull method.

  9. Hadron production measurements to constrain accelerator neutrino beams

    SciTech Connect

    Korzenev, Alexander

    2015-07-15

    A precise prediction of expected neutrino fluxes is required for a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment. The flux is used to measure neutrino cross sections at the near detector, while at the far detector it provides an estimate of the expected signal for the study of neutrino oscillations. In the talk several approaches to constrain the ν flux are presented. The first is the traditional one when an interaction chain for the neutrino parent hadrons is stored to be weighted later with real measurements. In this approach differential hadron cross sections are used which, in turn, are measured in ancillary hadron production experiments. The approach is certainly model dependent because it requires an extrapolation to different incident nucleon momenta assuming x{sub F} scaling as well as extrapolation between materials having different atomic numbers. In the second approach one uses a hadron production yields off a real target exploited in the neutrino beamline. Yields of neutrino parent hadrons are parametrized at the surface of the target, thus one avoids to trace the particle interaction history inside the target. As in the case of the first approach, a dedicated ancillary experiment is mandatory. Recent results from the hadron production experiments – NA61/SHINE at CERN (measurements for T2K) and MIPP at Fermilab (measurements for NuMI) – are reviewed.

  10. Technetium measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry at LLNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergquist, B. A.; Marchetti, A. A.; Martinelli, R. E.; McAninch, J. E.; Nimz, G. J.; Proctor, I. D.; Southon, J. R.; Vogel, J. S.

    2000-10-01

    Technetium-99 is a long-lived, high-abundance fission product which has been widely distributed in the environment through atmospheric testing, the nuclear fuel cycle, and nuclear medicine. It has a high potential for migration in the environment as the pertechnetate anion. At the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, methods are being developed for the detection of this radionuclide by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), including extraction from environmental samples, concentration and purification of the 99Tc, conversion to a form appropriate for AMS analysis, and quantification by AMS. Besides interference from the stable (though relatively rare) atomic isobar 99Ru, the detection of 99Tc by AMS presents some technical challenges which are not present for the other radionuclides typically measured by AMS. These challenges are related to the lack of a stable Tc isotope. Here we present the status of our 99Tc methods including discussion of interferences and sensitivity, and recent results for environmental samples and the IAEA reference material IAEA-381, Irish Sea Water. Sensitivity is presently ˜10 μBq (˜1×10 8 atoms) per sample, limited primarily by 99Ru introduced from process chemicals, and precision/reproducibility is ˜15-25%.

  11. Precision Magnet Measurements for X-Band Accelerator Quadrupole Triplets

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, R A; Anderson, S G; Armstrong, J P

    2012-05-16

    An X-band test station is being developed at LLNL to investigate accelerator optimization for future upgrades to mono-energetic gamma-ray (MEGa-Ray) technology at LLNL. Beamline magnets will include an emittance compensation solenoid, windowpane steering dipoles, and quadrupole magnets. Demanding tolerances have been placed on the alignment of these magnets, which directly affects the electron bunch beam quality. A magnet mapping system has been established at LLNL in order to ensure the delivered magnets match their field specification, and the mountings are aligned and capable of reaching the specified alignment tolerances. The magnet measurement system will be described which uses a 3-axis Lakeshore gauss probe mounted on a 3-axis translation stage. Alignment accuracy and precision will be discussed, as well as centering measurements and analysis. The dependence on data analysis over direct multi-pole measurement allows a significant improvement in useful alignment information. Detailed analysis of measurements on the beamline quadrupoles will be discussed, including multi-pole content both from alignment of the magnets, and the intrinsic level of multi-pole magnetic field.

  12. Low-level 14C measurements and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Litherland, A.E.; Beukens, R.P.; Zhao, X.-L.; Kieser, W.E.; Gove, H.E.

    2005-09-08

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and isotope enrichment were used in 1991 to estimate that the 14C content of methane in natural gas was {<=}1.6x10-18 of the total carbon. The low content of 14C in underground hydrocarbons was verified later in the remarkable results from the Borexino test scintillation counter for solar neutrino studies. Since then studies of the 14C background problem have demonstrated that much of the background originally observed in the AMS measurements can, in principle, be eliminated. However, many difficulties and other backgrounds are to be faced as the limit for AMS is pushed still further towards possibly a ratio of < 10-21. These will be discussed.

  13. High spatial resolution measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkey, J. B.; Burnham, E. A.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    High spatial resolution experimental tube wall pressure measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena are presented. The projectile resembles the centerbody of a ramjet and travels supersonically through a tube filled with a combustible gaseous mixture, with the tube acting as the outer cowling. Pressure data are recorded as the projectile passes by sensors mounted in the tube wall at various locations along the tube. Data obtained by using a special highly instrumented section of tube has allowed the recording of gas dynamic phenomena with a spatial resolution on the order of one tenth the projectile length. High spatial resolution tube wall pressure data from the three regimes of propulsion studied to date (subdetonative, transdetonative, and superdetonative) are presented and reveal the 3D character of the flowfield induced by projectile fins and the canting of the projectile body relative to the tube wall. Also presented for comparison to the experimental data are calculations made with an inviscid, 3D CFD code.

  14. 60Fe measurements with an EN tandem accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartenmann, P.; Schnabel, C.; Suter, M.; Synal, H.-A.

    1997-03-01

    The long-lived radionuclide 60Fe has been detected at the low energies of an EN tandem accelerator. At an energy of 60 MeV, the suppression of the stable isobar 60Ni is the main problem. Spraying hydrogen gas onto the ion source target and extracting the metal single hydrides the nickel contamination in the beam can be reduced more than 500 fold. In the gas ionization detector another five orders of magnitude of suppression are obtained. The resulting background {60Fe}/{Fe} ratio of about 10-11 has enabled first measurements with the standard samples used earlier at Argonne National Laboratory. The results of the two facilities are in agreement.

  15. Effects of changing from non-accelerated to accelerated MRI for follow-up in brain atrophy measurement.

    PubMed

    Leung, Kelvin K; Malone, Ian M; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Bernstein, Matt A; Thompson, Paul M; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Fox, Nick C

    2015-02-15

    Stable MR acquisition is essential for reliable measurement of brain atrophy in longitudinal studies. One attractive recent advance in MRI is to speed up acquisition using parallel imaging (e.g. reducing volumetric T1-weighted acquisition scan times from around 9 to 5 min). In some studies, a decision to change to an accelerated acquisition may have been deliberately taken, while in others repeat scans may occasionally be accidentally acquired with an accelerated acquisition. In ADNI, non-accelerated and accelerated scans were acquired in the same scanning session on each individual. We investigated the impact on brain atrophy as measured by k-means normalized boundary shift integral (KN-BSI) and deformation-based morphometry when changing from non-accelerated to accelerated MRI acquisitions over a 12-month interval using scans of 422 subjects from ADNI. KN-BSIs were calculated using both a non-accelerated baseline scan and non-accelerated 12-month scans (i.e. consistent acquisition), and a non-accelerated baseline scan and an accelerated 12-month scan (i.e. changed acquisition). Fluid-based non-rigid registration was also performed on those scans to estimate the brain atrophy rate. We found that the effect on KN-BSI and fluid-based non-rigid registration depended on the scanner manufacturer. For KN-BSI, in Philips and Siemens scanners, the change had very little impact on the measured atrophy rate (increase of 0.051% in Philips and -0.035% in Siemens from consistent acquisition to changed acquisition), whereas, in GE, the change caused a mean reduction of 0.65% in the brain atrophy rate. This is likely due to the difference in tissue contrast between gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid in the non-accelerated and accelerated scans in GE, which uses IR-FSPGR instead of MP-RAGE. For fluid-based non-rigid registration, the change caused a mean increase of 0.29% in the brain atrophy rate in the changed acquisition compared with consistent acquisition in Philips

  16. Plutonium measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    McAninch, J E; Hamilton, T F; Broan, T A; Jokela, T A; Knezovich, T J; Ognibene, T J; Proctor, I D; Roberts, M L; Southon, J R; Vogel, J S; Sideras-Haddad, E

    1999-10-26

    Mass spectrometric methods provide sensitive, routine, and cost-effective analyses of long-lived radionuclides. Here the authors report on the status of work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a capability for actinide measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to take advantage of the high potential of AMS for rejection of interferences. This work demonstrates that the LLNL AMS spectrometer is well-suited for providing high sensitivity, robust, high throughput measurements of plutonium concentrations and isotope ratios. Present backgrounds are {approximately}2 x 10{sup 7}atoms per sample for environmental samples prepared using standard alpha spectrometry protocols. Recent measurements of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Pu activities and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu isotope ratios in IAEA reference materials agree well with IAEA reference values and with alpha spectrometry and recently published ICP-MS results. Ongoing upgrades of the AMS spectrometer are expected to reduce backgrounds below 1 x 10{sup 6} atoms per sample while allowing simplifications of the sample preparation chemistry. These simplifications will lead to lower per-sample costs, higher throughput, faster turn around and, ultimately, to larger and more robust data sets.

  17. Evaluation of Columbia, USMARC-Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: II. Postweaning growth and ultrasonic measures of composition.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 3 yr, postweaning growth patterns and changes in ultrasonic measurements of fat depth and loin muscle area were assessed for 1,049 crossbred ewe and wether lambs produced by mating adult Rambouillet ewes to one of 22 Columbia, 22 USMARC-Composite (Composite), 21 Suffolk, or 17 Texel rams and ra...

  18. FemtoMolar measurements using accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Salehpour, Mehran; Forsgard, Niklas; Possnert, Göran

    2009-03-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an ultra-sensitive analytical method suitable for the detection of sub-nM concentrations of labeled biological substances such as pharmaceutical drugs in body fluids. A limiting factor in extending the concentration measurements to the sub-pM range is the natural (14)C content in living tissues. This was circumvented by separating the labeled drug from the tissue matrix, using standard high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedures. As the separated total drug amount is in the few fg range, it is not possible to use a standard AMS sample preparation method, where mg sizes are required. We have utilized a sensitive carbon carrier method where a (14)C-deficient compound is added to the HPLC fractions and the composite sample is prepared and analyzed by AMS. Using 50 microL human blood plasma aliquots, we have demonstrated concentration measurements below 20 fM, containing sub-amol amounts of the labeled drug. The method has the immediate potential of operating in the sub-fM region. PMID:19177507

  19. Development of an automatic frequency measurement system for RF linear accelerator magnetrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Sungsu; Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byeong-No; Joo, Youngwoo; Lee, Soo Min; Lee, Byung Cheol; Cha, Hyungki; Lee, Seung Hyun; Park, Hyung Dal; Song, Ki Beak

    2015-06-01

    An X-band [9300 MHz] magnetron frequency measurement system was developed for the electron linear accelerators at the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The measurement and the display of the RF frequency during the accelerator operation time is a crucial factor for continuous operation for two key reasons. Firstly, if the RF frequency of the magnetron is not known, then the amount of frequency tuning cannot be known, and the appropriate RF power cannot be supplied to the accelerating-structure. Second, values including the accelerating-structure's coolingwater temperature setting, the solenoid-magnet's cooling-water temperature setting, and the tuning of the source's (magnetron's) frequency can be undertaken because the RF frequency is used as the reference. A key component of the accelerator is the accelerating-structure. The volume of the accelerating-structure changes according to the environment's temperature; there, the resonance frequency of the accelerating-structure varies. When the resonance frequency of the accelerator is changed, the output becomes unstable, and a low beam energy is obtained. Accordingly, was developed a magnetron frequency-measuring device in order to stabilize the accelerator's operation. The results of the test demonstrate that the measurement's accurate up to 100 kHz, which enables the provision of an accurate RF power to the accelerating -structure. In this paper, we discuss the RF frequency measurement system for the magnetron to enable a more stable accelerator operation in a linac.

  20. Welfare of organic laying hens kept at different indoor stocking densities in a multi-tier aviary system. II: live weight, health measures and perching.

    PubMed

    Steenfeldt, S; Nielsen, B L

    2015-09-01

    Multi-tier aviary systems, where conveyor belts below the tiers remove the manure at regular intervals, are becoming more common in organic egg production. The area on the tiers can be included in the net area available to the hens (also referred to as usable area) when calculating maximum indoor stocking densities in organic systems within the EU. In this article, results on live weight, health measures and perching are reported for organic laying hens housed in a multi-tier system with permanent access to a veranda and kept at stocking densities (D) of 6, 9 and 12 hens/m2 available floor area, with concomitant increases in the number of hens per trough, drinker, perch and nest space. In a fourth treatment, access to the top tier was blocked reducing vertical, trough, and perch access at the lowest stocking density (D6x). In all other aspects than stocking density, the experiment followed the EU regulations on the keeping of organic laying hens. Hen live weight, mortality and foot health were not affected by the stocking densities used in the present study. Other variables (plumage condition, presence of breast redness and blisters, pecked tail feathers, and perch use) were indirectly affected by the increase in stocking density through the simultaneous reduction in access to other resources, mainly perches and troughs. The welfare of the hens was mostly affected by these associated constraints, despite all of them being within the allowed minimum requirements for organic production in the EU. Although the welfare consequences reported here were assessed to be moderate to minor, it is important to take into account concurrent constraints on access to other resources when higher stocking densities are used in organic production.

  1. Welfare of organic laying hens kept at different indoor stocking densities in a multi-tier aviary system. II: live weight, health measures and perching.

    PubMed

    Steenfeldt, S; Nielsen, B L

    2015-09-01

    Multi-tier aviary systems, where conveyor belts below the tiers remove the manure at regular intervals, are becoming more common in organic egg production. The area on the tiers can be included in the net area available to the hens (also referred to as usable area) when calculating maximum indoor stocking densities in organic systems within the EU. In this article, results on live weight, health measures and perching are reported for organic laying hens housed in a multi-tier system with permanent access to a veranda and kept at stocking densities (D) of 6, 9 and 12 hens/m2 available floor area, with concomitant increases in the number of hens per trough, drinker, perch and nest space. In a fourth treatment, access to the top tier was blocked reducing vertical, trough, and perch access at the lowest stocking density (D6x). In all other aspects than stocking density, the experiment followed the EU regulations on the keeping of organic laying hens. Hen live weight, mortality and foot health were not affected by the stocking densities used in the present study. Other variables (plumage condition, presence of breast redness and blisters, pecked tail feathers, and perch use) were indirectly affected by the increase in stocking density through the simultaneous reduction in access to other resources, mainly perches and troughs. The welfare of the hens was mostly affected by these associated constraints, despite all of them being within the allowed minimum requirements for organic production in the EU. Although the welfare consequences reported here were assessed to be moderate to minor, it is important to take into account concurrent constraints on access to other resources when higher stocking densities are used in organic production. PMID:25990629

  2. An Epigenetic Clock Measures Accelerated Aging in Treated HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Boulias, Konstantinos; Lieberman, Judy; Greer, Eric Lieberman

    2016-04-21

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Gross et al. (2016) find a CpG DNA methylation signature in blood cells of patients with chronic well-controlled HIV infection that correlates with accelerated aging. PMID:27105110

  3. Effects of acceleration on gait measures in three horse gaits.

    PubMed

    Nauwelaerts, Sandra; Zarski, Lila; Aerts, Peter; Clayton, Hilary

    2015-05-01

    Animals switch gaits according to locomotor speed. In terrestrial locomotion, gaits have been defined according to footfall patterns or differences in center of mass (COM) motion, which characterizes mechanisms that are more general and more predictive than footfall patterns. This has generated different variables designed primarily to evaluate steady-speed locomotion, which is easier to standardize in laboratory conditions. However, in the ecology of an animal, steady-state conditions are rare and the ability to accelerate, decelerate and turn is essential. Currently, there are no data available that have tested whether COM variables can be used in accelerative or decelerative conditions. This study used a data set of kinematics and kinetics of horses using three gaits (walk, trot, canter) to evaluate the effects of acceleration (both positive and negative) on commonly used gait descriptors. The goal was to identify variables that distinguish between gaits both at steady state and during acceleration/deceleration. These variables will either be unaffected by acceleration or affected by it in a predictable way. Congruity, phase shift and COM velocity angle did not distinguish between gaits when the dataset included trials in unsteady conditions. Work (positive and negative) and energy recovery distinguished between gaits and showed a clear relationship with acceleration. Hodographs are interesting graphical representations to study COM mechanics, but they are descriptive rather than quantitative. Force angle, collision angle and collision fraction showed a U-shaped relationship with acceleration and seem promising tools for future research in unsteady conditions.

  4. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurements for STS-78. Launched June 20, 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakimzadeh, Roshanak; Hrovat, Kenneth; McPherson, Kevin M.; Moskowitz, Milton E.; Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    1997-01-01

    The microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle Columbia was measured during the STS-78 mission using accelerometers from three different instruments: the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment, the Space Acceleration Measurement System and the Microgravity Measurement Assembly. The quasi-steady environment was also calculated in near real-time during the mission by the Microgravity Analysis Workstation. The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment provided investigators with real-time quasi-steady acceleration measurements. The Space Acceleration Measurement System recorded higher frequency data on-board for post-mission analysis. The Microgravity Measurement Assembly provided investigators with real-time quasi-steady and higher frequency acceleration measurements. The Microgravity Analysis Workstation provided calculation of the quasi-steady environment. This calculation was presented to the science teams in real-time during the mission. The microgravity environment related to several different Orbiter, crew and experiment operations is presented and interpreted in this report. A radiator deploy, the Flight Control System checkout, and a vernier reaction control system reboost demonstration had minimal effects on the acceleration environment, with excitation of frequencies in the 0.01 to 10 Hz range. Flash Evaporator System venting had no noticeable effect on the environment while supply and waste water dumps caused excursions of 2 x lO(exp -6) to 4 x 10(exp -6) g in the Y(sub b) and Z(sub b) directions. Crew sleep and ergometer exercise periods can be clearly seen in the acceleration data, as expected. Accelerations related to the two Life Science Laboratory Equipment Refrigerator/Freezers were apparent in the data as are accelerations caused by the Johnson Space Center Projects Centrifuge. As on previous microgravity missions, several signals are present in the acceleration data for which a source has not been identified. The causes of these accelerations

  5. Spectroscopic measurements of plasma emission light for plasma-based acceleration experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippi, F.; Anania, M. P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Ferrario, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Zigler, A.

    2016-09-01

    Advanced particle accelerators are based on the excitation of large amplitude plasma waves driven by either electron or laser beams. Future experiments scheduled at the SPARC_LAB test facility aim to demonstrate the acceleration of high brightness electron beams through the so-called resonant Plasma Wakefield Acceleration scheme in which a train of electron bunches (drivers) resonantly excites wakefields into a preformed hydrogen plasma; the last bunch (witness) injected at the proper accelerating phase gains energy from the wake. The quality of the accelerated beam depends strongly on plasma density and its distribution along the acceleration length. The measurements of plasma density of the order of 1016-1017 cm-3 can be performed with spectroscopic measurements of the plasma-emitted light. The measured density distribution for hydrogen filled capillary discharge with both Balmer alpha and Balmer beta lines and shot-to-shot variation are here reported.

  6. A Fine-Tooth Comb to Measure the Accelerating Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-09-01

    worth recalling that the kind of precision required, 1 cm/s, corresponds, on the focal plane of a typical high-resolution spectrograph, to a shift of a few tenths of a nanometre, that is, the size of some molecules," explains PhD student and team member Constanza Araujo-Hauck from ESO. The new calibration technique comes from the combination of astronomy and quantum optics, in a collaboration between researchers at ESO and the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics. It uses ultra-short pulses of laser light to create a 'frequency comb' - light at many frequencies separated by a constant interval - to create just the kind of precise 'ruler' needed to calibrate a spectrograph. After successful tests in the MPQ laboratory in 2007, the team have successfully tested a prototype device using the laser comb at the VTT (Vacuum Tower Telescope) solar telescope in Tenerife, on 8 March 2008, measuring the spectrum of the Sun in infrared light. The results are already impressive, and the technique promises to achieve the accuracy needed to study these big astronomical questions. "In our tests in Tenerife, we have already achieved beyond state-of-the-art accuracy. Now we are going to make the system more versatile, and develop it even further," says team member Tilo Steinmetz, from Menlo Systems GmbH, a spin-off company from the Max Planck Institute, which was founded to commercialise the frequency comb technique. Having tested the technique on a solar telescope, a new version of the system is now being built for the HARPS planet-finder instrument on ESO's 3.6-metre telescope at La Silla in Chile, before being considered for future generations of instruments. One of the ambitious project to be realised with the E-ELT, called CODEX, aims to measure the recently discovered acceleration of the universe directly, by following the velocities of distant galaxies and quasars over a 20-year period. This would let astronomers test Einstein's general relativity and the nature of the recently

  7. Estimation of pressure gradients in pulsatile flow from magnetic resonance acceleration measurements.

    PubMed

    Tasu, J P; Mousseaux, E; Delouche, A; Oddou, C; Jolivet, O; Bittoun, J

    2000-07-01

    A method for estimating pressure gradients from MR images is demonstrated. Making the usual assumption that the flowing medium is a Newtonian fluid, and with appropriate boundary conditions, the inertial forces (or acceleration components of the flow) are proportional to the pressure gradients. The technique shown here is based on an evaluation of the inertial forces from Fourier acceleration encoding. This method provides a direct measurement of the total acceleration defined as the sum of the velocity derivative vs. time and the convective acceleration. The technique was experimentally validated by comparing MR and manometer pressure gradient measurements obtained in a pulsatile flow phantom. The results indicate that the MR determination of pressure gradients from an acceleration measurement is feasible with a good correlation with the true measurements (r = 0.97). The feasibility of the method is demonstrated in the aorta of a normal volunteer. Magn Reson Med 44:66-72, 2000. PMID:10893523

  8. Quantum accelerometer: Distinguishing inertial Bob from his accelerated twin Rob by a local measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Dragan, Andrzej; Fuentes, Ivette; Louko, Jorma

    2011-04-15

    A single quantum system, such as the Unruh-DeWitt detector, can be used to determine absolute acceleration by local measurements on a quantum field. To show this, we consider two kinematically indistinguishable scenarios: an inertial observer, Bob, measuring the field of a uniformly accelerated cavity, and his noninertial twin, Rob, accelerating and making measurements in a stationary cavity. We find that these scenarios can be distinguished in the nonrelativistic regime only by measurements on highly excited massive fields, allowing one to detect the noninertialness of the reference frame.

  9. Simultaneous measurement of gravity acceleration and gravity gradient with an atom interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Sorrentino, F.; Lien, Y.-H.; Rosi, G.; Tino, G. M.; Bertoldi, A.; Bodart, Q.; Cacciapuoti, L.; Angelis, M. de; Prevedelli, M.

    2012-09-10

    We demonstrate a method to measure the gravitational acceleration with a dual cloud atom interferometer; the use of simultaneous atom interferometers reduces the effect of seismic noise on the gravity measurement. At the same time, the apparatus is capable of accurate measurements of the vertical gravity gradient. The ability to determine the gravity acceleration and gravity gradient simultaneously and with the same instrument opens interesting perspectives in geophysical applications.

  10. Fluence and dose measurements for an accelerator neutron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Byun, S. H.; McNeill, F. E.; Mothersill, C. E.; Seymour, C. B.; Prestwich, W. V.

    2007-10-01

    The 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator at McMaster University accelerator laboratory is extended to a neutron irradiation facility for low-dose bystander effects research. A long counter and an Anderson-Braun type neutron monitor have been used as monitors for the determination of the total fluence. Activation foils were used to determine the thermal neutron fluence rate (around 106 neutrons s-1). Meanwhile, the interactions of neutrons with the monitors have been simulated using a Monte Carlo N Particle (MCNP) code. Bystander effects, i.e. damage occurring in cells that were not traversed by radiation but were in the same radiation environment, have been well observed following both alpha and gamma irradiation of many cell lines. Since neutron radiation involves mixed field (including gamma and neutron radiations), we need to differentiate the doses for the bystander effects from the two radiations. A tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) filled with propane based tissue equivalent gas simulating a 2 μm diameter tissue sphere has been investigated to estimate the neutron and gamma absorbed doses. A photon dose contamination of the neutron beam is less than 3%. The axial dose distribution follows the inverse square law and lateral and vertical dose distributions are relatively uniform over the irradiation area required by the biological study.

  11. Evaluation of standing vertical jump by ankles acceleration measurement.

    PubMed

    Quagliarella, Livio; Sasanelli, Nicola; Belgiovine, Giuseppe; Moretti, Lorenzo; Moretti, Biagio

    2010-05-01

    The use of accelerometers is discussed to evaluate standing vertical jump. Two accelerometers, mounted on each ankle and connected to a wearable system, were used for signal acquisition, and a piezoelectric platform was used to verify the results. Fifty-one subjects were enrolled, subdivided into a group of healthy subjects and 2 groups who had different surgery for Achilles tendon rupture. Each subject performed 5 countermovement and 5 squat jumps; 11 subjects also performed 5 countermovement jumps with voluntary leg rotations during the flight phase. A training set was used to assess signal processing, and a validation set was used to verify its accuracy. A peak detection algorithm was developed to quantify flight time from the acceleration modulus, and its results were compared with platform data. The Pearson correlation coefficient of ankle accelerations and the integral of each signal were adopted to describe, respectively, the movement coordination and the limbs rotation during the flight time. The flight times obtained from the accelerometers and force plate were highly correlated (Spearman's coefficient >0.95); they were compared, for each jump, and the maximum mean error, for subject, was 4.8%. The movement coordination was in good agreement with subjects' clinical features and with the different jump phases. The signal integral presented significant differences, among jumps, related to leg rotations (p < 0.0005). The method proposed allows the monitoring of standing vertical jump using the fight time and gives information on the legs coordination and on the motor strategies of the lower limbs. Therefore, it can be used to obtain performance reference also outside labs, both in clinical and sport settings.

  12. Method for Direct Measurement of Cosmic Acceleration by 21-cm Absorption Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hao-Ran; Zhang, Tong-Jie; Pen, Ue-Li

    2014-07-01

    So far there is only indirect evidence that the Universe is undergoing an accelerated expansion. The evidence for cosmic acceleration is based on the observation of different objects at different distances and requires invoking the Copernican cosmological principle and Einstein's equations of motion. We examine the direct observability using recession velocity drifts (Sandage-Loeb effect) of 21-cm hydrogen absorption systems in upcoming radio surveys. This measures the change in velocity of the same objects separated by a time interval and is a model-independent measure of acceleration. We forecast that for a CHIME-like survey with a decade time span, we can detect the acceleration of a ΛCDM universe with 5σ confidence. This acceleration test requires modest data analysis and storage changes from the normal processing and cannot be recovered retroactively.

  13. Longitudinal impedance measurement of an RK-TBA induction accelerating gap

    SciTech Connect

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Kim, J.-S.; Houck, T.L.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    1997-05-01

    Induction accelerating gap designs are being studied for Relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator (RK-TBA) applications. The accelerating gap has to satisfy the following major requirements: hold-off of the applied accelerating voltage pulse, low transverse impedance to limit beam breakup, low longitudinal impedance at the beam-modulation frequency to minimize power loss. Various gap geometries, materials and novel insulating techniques were explored to optimize the gap design. We report on the experimental effort to evaluate the rf properties of the accelerating gaps in a simple pillbox cavity structure. The experimental cavity setup was designed using the AMOS, MAFIA and URMEL numerical codes. Longitudinal impedance measurements above beam-tube cut-off frequency using a single-wire measuring system are presented.

  14. Optical measurements of flyer plate acceleration by emulsion explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Shiro; Shimada, Hideki; Matsui, Kikuo; Ogata, Yuji; Seto, Masahiro; Masui, Akira; Wada, Yuji; Liu, Zhi-Yue; Itoh, Shigeru

    2001-04-01

    This paper presents the study on the application of explosive welding technique to the field of the urgent repair of the gas and water pipe networks. The essential parameters related to the explosive welding are scrutinized from the point of view of the minimizing the damage to the steel pipe after welded explosively with a flyer plate. The emulsion explosive is contained in a rectangular hard-paper box whose bottom is the flyer plate with 100 mm length, 25 mm width and 1.5 mm thickness. The flyer motions of the flyer plates accelerated by emulsion explosive are observed by high-speed photography from the side and front view of the flyer plate. The damage to the pipe by the flyer plate is discussed with the results of the observation of flyer motion and explosive welding test under various experimental conditions. Moreover, one way to control the motion of the flyer plate is proposed. We put a PMMA buffer block into the explosive. The flying process of flyer plate is calculated by the finite different scheme based on the ALE method. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by the experimental and numerical studies.

  15. Vacuum measurements of the K500 cyclotron accelerator chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Mallory, M.L.; Miller, P.S.; Kuchar, J.; Hudson, E.D.

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the unique internal cryopumping system, the pressure in the K500 superconducting cyclotron was measured as a function of radius for various gas flow rates emanating from the internal PIG source. For the test, a nude ion gauge with vertical dimension less than 2.3 cm was built and mounted on the internal beam probe. The effect of magnetic field on the ion gauge reading was determined and a method of degaussing the cyclotron was devised. Data from the normal shielded ion gauge located approximately 6 m away from the median plane was correlated with the internal vacuum measurements.

  16. Measuring the angular dependence of betatron x-ray spectra in a laser-wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, F.; Pollock, B. B.; Shaw, J. L.; Marsh, K. A.; Ralph, J. E.; Chen, Y. -H.; Alessi, D.; Pak, A.; Clayton, C. E.; Glenzer, S. H.; Joshi, C.

    2014-07-22

    This paper presents a new technique to measure the angular dependence of betatron x-ray spectra in a laser-wakefield accelerator. Measurements are performed with a stacked image plates spectrometer, capable of detecting broadband x-ray radiation up to 1 MeV. It can provide measurements of the betatron x-ray spectrum at any angle of observation (within a 40 mrad cone) and of the beam profile. A detailed description of our data analysis is given, along with comparison for several shots. As a result, these measurements provide useful information on the dynamics of the electrons are they are accelerated and wiggled by the wakefield.

  17. Measurement of Gravitational Acceleration Using a Computer Microphone Port

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairurrijal; Eko Widiatmoko; Srigutomo, Wahyu; Kurniasih, Neny

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed to measure the swing period of a simple pendulum automatically. The pendulum position is converted into a signal frequency by employing a simple electronic circuit that detects the intensity of infrared light reflected by the pendulum. The signal produced by the electronic circuit is sent to the microphone port and…

  18. Acceleration Environment of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPherson, Kevin; Kelly, Eric; Keller, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the microgravity acceleration environment on the International Space Station has been accomplished by two accelerometer systems since 2001. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System records the quasi-steady microgravity environment, including the influences of aerodynamic drag, vehicle rotation, and venting effects. Measurement of the vibratory/transient regime, comprised of vehicle, crew, and equipment disturbances, has been accomplished by the Space Acceleration Measurement System-II. Until the arrival of the Columbus Orbital Facility and the Japanese Experiment Module, the location of these sensors, and therefore, the measurement of the microgravity acceleration environment, has been limited to within the United States Laboratory. Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency has developed a vibratory acceleration measurement system called the Microgravity Measurement Apparatus which will be deployed within the Japanese Experiment Module to make distributed measurements of the Japanese Experiment Module's vibratory acceleration environment. Two Space Acceleration Measurement System sensors from the United States Laboratory will be re-deployed to support vibratory acceleration data measurement within the Columbus Orbital Facility. The additional measurement opportunities resulting from the arrival of these new laboratories allows Principal Investigators with facilities located in these International Space Station research laboratories to obtain microgravity acceleration data in support of their sensitive experiments. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project, at NASA Glenn Research Center, in Cleveland, Ohio, has supported acceleration measurement systems and the microgravity scientific community through the processing, characterization, distribution, and archival of the microgravity acceleration data obtained from the International Space Station acceleration measurement systems. This paper summarizes the PIMS capabilities available

  19. 2D electron density profile measurement in tokamak by laser-accelerated ion-beam probea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. H.; Yang, X. Y.; Lin, C.; Wang, L.; Xu, M.; Wang, X. G.; Xiao, C. J.

    2014-11-01

    A new concept of Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic has been proposed, of which the key is to replace the electrostatic accelerator of traditional HIBP by a laser-driven ion accelerator. Due to the large energy spread of ions, the laser-accelerated HIBP can measure the two-dimensional (2D) electron density profile of tokamak plasma. In a preliminary simulation, a 2D density profile was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm, and with the error below 15% in the core region. Diagnostics of 2D density fluctuation is also discussed.

  20. 2D electron density profile measurement in tokamak by laser-accelerated ion-beam probe.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y H; Yang, X Y; Lin, C; Wang, L; Xu, M; Wang, X G; Xiao, C J

    2014-11-01

    A new concept of Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic has been proposed, of which the key is to replace the electrostatic accelerator of traditional HIBP by a laser-driven ion accelerator. Due to the large energy spread of ions, the laser-accelerated HIBP can measure the two-dimensional (2D) electron density profile of tokamak plasma. In a preliminary simulation, a 2D density profile was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm, and with the error below 15% in the core region. Diagnostics of 2D density fluctuation is also discussed.

  1. Optics measurement and correction during acceleration with beta-squeeze in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Marusic, A.; Minty, M.

    2015-05-03

    In the past, beam optics correction at RHIC has only taken place at injection and at final energy, with interpolation of corrections partially into the acceleration cycle. Recent measurements of the beam optics during acceleration and squeeze have evidenced significant beta-beats that, if corrected, could minimize undesirable emittance dilutions and maximize the spin polarization of polarized proton beams by avoiding the high-order multipole fields sampled by particles within the bunch. We recently demonstrated successful beam optics corrections during acceleration at RHIC. We verified conclusively the superior control of the beam realized via these corrections

  2. 2D electron density profile measurement in tokamak by laser-accelerated ion-beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y. H.; Yang, X. Y.; Lin, C. E-mail: cjxiao@pku.edu.cn; Wang, X. G.; Xiao, C. J. E-mail: cjxiao@pku.edu.cn; Wang, L.; Xu, M.

    2014-11-15

    A new concept of Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic has been proposed, of which the key is to replace the electrostatic accelerator of traditional HIBP by a laser-driven ion accelerator. Due to the large energy spread of ions, the laser-accelerated HIBP can measure the two-dimensional (2D) electron density profile of tokamak plasma. In a preliminary simulation, a 2D density profile was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm, and with the error below 15% in the core region. Diagnostics of 2D density fluctuation is also discussed.

  3. Acceleration of matrix element computations for precision measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Oleg; Gutierrez, Gaston; Wang, M. H.L.S.; Ye, Zhenyu

    2014-11-25

    The matrix element technique provides a superior statistical sensitivity for precision measurements of important parameters at hadron colliders, such as the mass of the top quark or the cross-section for the production of Higgs bosons. The main practical limitation of the technique is its high computational demand. Using the example of the top quark mass, we present two approaches to reduce the computation time of the technique by a factor of 90. First, we utilize low-discrepancy sequences for numerical Monte Carlo integration in conjunction with a dedicated estimator of numerical uncertainty, a novelty in the context of the matrix element technique. We then utilize a new approach that factorizes the overall jet energy scale from the matrix element computation, a novelty in the context of top quark mass measurements. The utilization of low-discrepancy sequences is of particular general interest, as it is universally applicable to Monte Carlo integration, and independent of the computing environment.

  4. Accelerated measurement of perikymata by an optical instrument

    PubMed Central

    Elhechmi, Imen; Braga, José; Dasgupta, Gautam; Gharbi, Tijani

    2013-01-01

    The proposed device considerably reduces the measuring time of important microscopic features of tooth crown surfaces. The instrumentation is accompanied by a computer program to analyse the results. Tooth enamel is formed by ameloblasts, which demonstrate daily secretory rhythms developing tissue-specific structures known as cross striations, and longer period markings that are referred as striae of Retzius. These striae correspond to linear structures on the enamel surface. This newly developed optical measuring instrument can automatically, precisely and accurately record the number and periodicity of perikymata on the dental crown. Furthermore it can characterize the variability in periodicity of perikymata in hominids. The depth of field can be extended as desired by taking several images with different focus positions and combining them into a single composite image that contains all regions fully focused. PMID:24156069

  5. RF measurements of a traveling-wave muffin-tin accelerating structure at 90 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P.J.; Bowden, G.B.; Copeland, M.R.; Menegat, A.; Pritzkau, D.P.; Siemann, R.H.; Henke, H.

    1997-05-01

    A measuring system at the table-top scale was developed for RF measurements of a muffin-tin accelerating structure operating at 32 times the SLAC frequency (2.856 GHz). Both perturbation and non-perturbation methods are employed to characterize the RF properties of a muffin-tin structure. Conventional bead pull measurements are extended to millimeter wavelengths. Design of the measuring system and preliminary results of RF measurements are presented.

  6. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurements for STS-73, Launched October 20, 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; DeLombard, Richard

    1996-01-01

    The microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle Columbia was measured during the STS-73 mission using accelerometers from five different instruments: the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment, the Space Acceleration Measurement System, the Three-dimensional Microgravity Accelerometer, the Microgravity Measuring Device, and Suppression of Transient Accelerations by Levitation Evaluation System. The Microgravity Analysis Workstation quasi-steady environment calculation and comparison of this calculation with Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment data was used to assess how appropriate a planned attitude was expected to be for one Crystal Growth Facility experiment sample. The microgravity environment related to several different Orbiter, crew, and experiment operations is presented and interpreted in this report. Data are examined to show the effects of vernier reaction control system jet firings for Orbiter attitude control. This is compared to examples of data when no thrusters were firing, when the primary reaction control system jets were used for attitude control, and when single vernier jets were fired for test purposes. In general, vernier jets, when used for attitude control, cause accelerations in the 3 x 10(exp -4) g to 7 x 10(exp -4) g range. Primary jets used in this manner cause accelerations in the 0.01 to 0.025 g range. Other significant disturbance sources characterized are water dump operations, with Y(sub b) axis acceleration deviations of about 1 x 10(exp -6) g; payload bay door opening motion, with Y(sub o) and Z(sub o) axis accelerations of frequency 0.4 Hz; and probable Glovebox fan operations with notable frequency components at 20, 38, 43, 48, and 53 Hz. The STS-73 microgravity environment is comparable to the environments measured on earlier microgravity science missions.

  7. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurements for STS-89: Launched January 22, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrovat, Kenneth; McPherson, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Support of microgravity research on the 89th flight of the Space Transportation System (STS-89) and a continued effort to characterize the acceleration environment of the Space Shuttle Orbiter and the Mir Space Station form the basis for this report. For the STS-89 mission, the Space Shuttle Endeavour was equipped with a Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) unit, which collected more than a week's worth of data. During docked operations with Mir, a second SAMS unit collected approximately a day's worth of data yielding the only set of acceleration measurements recorded simultaneously on the two spacecraft. Based on the data acquired by these SAMS units, this report serves to characterize a number of acceleration events and quantify their impact on the local nature of the accelerations experienced at the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment location. Crew activity was shown to nearly double the median root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration level calculated below 10 Hz, while the Enhanced Orbiter Refrigerator/Freezer operating at about 22 Hz was a strong acceleration source in the vicinity of the MGM location. The MGM science requirement that the acceleration not exceed q I mg was violated numerous times during their experiment runs; however, no correlation with sample instability has been found to this point. Synchronization between the SAMS data from Endeavour and from Mir was shown to be close much of the time, but caution with respect to exact timing should be exercised when comparing these data. When orbiting as a separate vehicle prior to docking, Endeavour had prominent structural modes above 3 Hz, while Mir exhibited a cluster of modes around 1 Hz. When mated, a transition to common modes was apparent in the two SAMS data sets. This report is not a comprehensive analysis of the acceleration data, so those interested in further details should contact the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services team at the National Aeronautics and Space

  8. Orbiter Aerodynamic Acceleration Flight Measurements in the Rarefied-Flow Transition Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Wilmoth, Richard G.; LeBeau, Gerald J.

    1996-01-01

    Acceleration data taken from the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) during reentry on STS-62 have been analyzed using calibration factors taken on orbit. This is the first Orbiter mission which collected OARE data during the Orbiter reentry phase. The data examined include the flight regime from orbital altitudes down to about 90 km which covers the free-molecule-flow regime and the upper altitude fringes of the rarefied-flow transition into the hypersonic continuum. Ancillary flight data on Orbiter position, orientation, velocity, and rotation rates have been used in models to transform the measured accelerations to the Orbiter center-of-gravity, from which aerodynamic accelerations along the Orbiter body axes have been calculated. Residual offsets introduced in the measurements by unmodeled Orbiter forces are identified and discussed. Direct comparisons are made between the OARE flight data and an independent micro-gravity accelerometer experiment, the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP), which also obtained flight data on reentry during the mission down to about 95 km. The resulting OARE aerodynamic acceleration measurements along the Orbiter's body axis, aid the normal to axial acceleration ratio in the free-molecule-flow and transition-flow regimes are presented and compared with numerical simulations from three direct simulation Monte Carlo codes.

  9. Optics measurement and correction during beam acceleration in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Marusic, A.; Minty, M.

    2014-09-09

    To minimize operational complexities, setup of collisions in high energy circular colliders typically involves acceleration with near constant β-functions followed by application of strong focusing quadrupoles at the interaction points (IPs) for the final beta-squeeze. At the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beam acceleration and optics squeeze are performed simultaneously. In the past, beam optics correction at RHIC has taken place at injection and at final energy with some interpolation of corrections into the acceleration cycle. Recent measurements of the beam optics during acceleration and squeeze have evidenced significant beta-beats which if corrected could minimize undesirable emittance dilutions and maximize the spin polarization of polarized proton beams by avoidance of higher-order multipole fields sampled by particles within the bunch. In this report the methodology now operational at RHIC for beam optics corrections during acceleration with simultaneous beta-squeeze will be presented together with measurements which conclusively demonstrate the superior beam control. As a valuable by-product, the corrections have minimized the beta-beat at the profile monitors so reducing the dominant error in and providing more precise measurements of the evolution of the beam emittances during acceleration.

  10. Acceleration of matrix element computations for precision measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Brandt, Oleg; Gutierrez, Gaston; Wang, M. H.L.S.; Ye, Zhenyu

    2014-11-25

    The matrix element technique provides a superior statistical sensitivity for precision measurements of important parameters at hadron colliders, such as the mass of the top quark or the cross-section for the production of Higgs bosons. The main practical limitation of the technique is its high computational demand. Using the example of the top quark mass, we present two approaches to reduce the computation time of the technique by a factor of 90. First, we utilize low-discrepancy sequences for numerical Monte Carlo integration in conjunction with a dedicated estimator of numerical uncertainty, a novelty in the context of the matrix elementmore » technique. We then utilize a new approach that factorizes the overall jet energy scale from the matrix element computation, a novelty in the context of top quark mass measurements. The utilization of low-discrepancy sequences is of particular general interest, as it is universally applicable to Monte Carlo integration, and independent of the computing environment.« less

  11. Wavefront-sensor-based electron density measurements for laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Plateau, Guillaume; Matlis, Nicholas; Geddes, Cameron; Gonsalves, Anthony; Shiraishi, Satomi; Lin, Chen; van Mourik, Reinier; Leemans, Wim

    2010-02-20

    Characterization of the electron density in laser produced plasmas is presented using direct wavefront analysis of a probe laser beam. The performance of a laser-driven plasma-wakefield accelerator depends on the plasma wavelength, hence on the electron density. Density measurements using a conventional folded-wave interferometer and using a commercial wavefront sensor are compared for different regimes of the laser-plasma accelerator. It is shown that direct wavefront measurements agree with interferometric measurements and, because of the robustness of the compact commercial device, have greater phase sensitivity, straightforward analysis, improving shot-to-shot plasma-density diagnostics.

  12. Cross-Section Measurements with the Radioactive Isotope Accelerator (ria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyer, M. A.; Moody, K. J.; Wild, J. F.; Patin, J. B.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Stoyer, N. J.; Harris, L. J.

    2003-10-01

    RIA will produce beams of exotic nuclei of unprecedented luminosity. Preliminary studies of the feasibility of measuring cross-sections of interest to the science based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) program will be presented, and several experimental techniques will be discussed. Cross-section modeling attempts for the A = 95 mass region will be shown. In addition, several radioactive isotopes could be collected for target production or medical isotope purposes while the main in-beam experiments are running. The inclusion of a broad range mass analyzer (BRAMA) capability at RIA will enable more effective utilization of the facility, enabling the performance of multiple experiments at the same time. This option will be briefly discussed.

  13. Cross-Section Measurements with the Radioactive Isotope Accelerator (RIA)

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, M A; Moody, K J; Wild, J F; Patin, J B; Shaughnessy, D A; Stoyer, N J; Harris, L J

    2002-11-19

    RIA will produce beams of exotic nuclei of unprecedented luminosity. Preliminary studies of the feasibility of measuring cross-sections of interest to the science based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) program will be presented, and several experimental techniques will be discussed. Cross-section modeling attempts for the A = 95 mass region will be shown. In addition, several radioactive isotopes could be collected for target production or medical isotope purposes while the main in-beam experiments are running. The inclusion of a broad range mass analyzer (BRAMA) capability at RIA will enable more effective utilization of the facility, enabling the performance of multiple experiments at the same time. This option will be briefly discussed.

  14. Fast-acting calorimeter measures heat output of plasma gun accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dethlefson, R.; Larson, A. V.; Liebing, L.

    1967-01-01

    Calorimeter measures the exhaust energy from a shot of a pulsed plasma gun accelerator. It has a fast response time and requires only one measurement to determine the total energy. It uses a long ribbon of copper foil wound around a glass frame to form a reentrant cavity.

  15. Measuring the Acceleration Due to Gravity: An Experiment Galileo Could Have Run.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Robert G.

    1984-01-01

    Today students routinely measure the acceleration due to gravity (g) with strobes and high-speed photography. However, it is possible to measure g using equipment and reasoning available to Galileo. Such an experiment (and the equipment needed) is described. (JN)

  16. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurement for STS-87, Launched November 19, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Hrovat, Kenneth; McPherson, Kevin; DeLombard, Richard; Reckart, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    Two accelerometer systems, the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment and the Space Acceleration Measurement System, were used to measure and record the microgravity environment of the Orbiter Columbia during the STS-87 mission in November-December 1997. Data from two separate Space Acceleration Measurement System units were telemetered to the ground during the mission and data plots were displayed for investigators of the Fourth United States Microgravity Payload experiments in near real-time using the World Wide Web. Plots generated using Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment data (telemetered to the ground using a tape delay) were provided to the investigators using the World Wide Web approximately twelve hours after data recording. Disturbances in the microgravity environment as recorded by these instruments are grouped by source type: Orbiter systems, on-board activities, payload operations, and unknown sources. The environment related to the Ku-band antenna dither, Orbiter structural modes, attitude deadband collapses, water dump operations, crew sleep, and crew exercise was comparable to the effects of these sources on previous Orbiter missions. Disturbances related to operations of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment and Space Acceleration Measurement Systems that were not observed on previous missions are detailed. The effects of Orbiter cabin and airlock depressurization and extravehicular activities are also reported for the first time. A set of data plots representing the entire mission is included in the CD-ROM version of this report.

  17. A wireless accelerometer node for reliable and valid measurement of lumbar accelerations during treadmill running.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Timothy R; Yaggie, James A; McGregor, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the reliability of a wireless accelerometer and its agreement with optical motion capture for the measurement of root mean square (RMS) acceleration during running. RMS acceleration provides a whole-body metric of movement mechanics and economy. Fifteen healthy college-age participants performed treadmill running for two 60-s trials at 2.22, 2.78, and 3.33 m/s and one trial of 150 s (five 30-s epochs) at 2.78 m/s. We assessed between-trial and within-trial reliability, and agreement in each axis between a trunk-mounted wireless accelerometer and a reflective marker on the accelerometer measured by optical motion capture. Intraclass correlations assessing between-trial repeatability were 0.89-0.97, depending on the axis, and intraclass correlations assessing within-trial repeatability were 0.99-1.00. Bland-Altman analyses assessing agreement indicated mean difference values between -0.03 and 0.03 g, depending on the axis. Anterio-posterior acceleration had the greatest limits of agreement (LOA) (±0.12 g) and vertical acceleration had the smallest LOA (±0.03 g). For measuring RMS acceleration of the trunk, this wireless accelerometer node provides repeatable and valid measurement compared with the standard laboratory method of optical motion capture.

  18. A wireless accelerometer node for reliable and valid measurement of lumbar accelerations during treadmill running.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Timothy R; Yaggie, James A; McGregor, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the reliability of a wireless accelerometer and its agreement with optical motion capture for the measurement of root mean square (RMS) acceleration during running. RMS acceleration provides a whole-body metric of movement mechanics and economy. Fifteen healthy college-age participants performed treadmill running for two 60-s trials at 2.22, 2.78, and 3.33 m/s and one trial of 150 s (five 30-s epochs) at 2.78 m/s. We assessed between-trial and within-trial reliability, and agreement in each axis between a trunk-mounted wireless accelerometer and a reflective marker on the accelerometer measured by optical motion capture. Intraclass correlations assessing between-trial repeatability were 0.89-0.97, depending on the axis, and intraclass correlations assessing within-trial repeatability were 0.99-1.00. Bland-Altman analyses assessing agreement indicated mean difference values between -0.03 and 0.03 g, depending on the axis. Anterio-posterior acceleration had the greatest limits of agreement (LOA) (±0.12 g) and vertical acceleration had the smallest LOA (±0.03 g). For measuring RMS acceleration of the trunk, this wireless accelerometer node provides repeatable and valid measurement compared with the standard laboratory method of optical motion capture. PMID:26836779

  19. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurement for STS-87: Launched November 19, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Hrovat, Kenneth; McPherson, Kevin; DeLombard, Richard; Reckart, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    Two accelerometer systems, the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment and the Space Acceleration Measurement System, were used to measure and record the microgravity environment of the Orbiter Columbia during the STS-87 mission in November-December 1997. Data from two separate Space Acceleration Measurement System units were telemetered to the ground during the mission and data plots were displayed for investigators of the Fourth United States Microgravity Payload experiments in near real-time using the World Wide Web. Plots generated using Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment data (telemetered to the ground using a tape delay) were provided to the investigators using the World Wide Web approximately twelve hours after data recording. Disturbances in the microgravity environment as recorded by these instruments are grouped by source type: Orbiter systems, on-board activities, payload operations, and unknown sources. The environment related to the Ku-band antenna dither, Orbiter structural modes, attitude deadband collapses, water dump operations, crew sleep, and crew exercise was comparable to the effects of these sources on previous Orbiter missions. Disturbances related to operations of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment and Space Acceleration Measurement Systems that were not observed on previous missions are detailed. The effects of Orbiter cabin and airlock depressurization and extravehicular activities are also reported for the first time. A set of data plots representing the entire mission is included in the CD-ROM version of this report.

  20. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurements for STS-65, Launched 8 July 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Delombard, Richard

    1995-01-01

    The second flight of the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) payload on board the STS-65 mission was supported by three accelerometer instruments: The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) located close to the orbiter center of mass; the Quasi-Steady Acceleration Measurement experiment, and the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), both in the Spacelab module. A fourth accelerometer, the Microgravity Measuring Device recorded data in the middeck in support of exercise isolation tests.Data collected by OARE and SAMS during IML-2 are displayed in this report. The OARE data represent the microgravity environment below 1 Hz. The SAMS data represent the environment in the 0.01 Hz to 100 Hz range. Variations in the environment caused by unique activities are presented. Specific events addressed are: crew activity, crew exercise, experiment component mixing activities, experiment centrifuge operations, refrigerator/freezer operations and circulation pump operations. The analyses included in this report complement analyses presented in other mission summary reports.

  1. Experimental measurements of rf breakdowns and deflecting gradients in mm-wave metallic accelerating structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Forno, Massimo; Dolgashev, Valery; Bowden, Gordon; Clarke, Christine; Hogan, Mark; McCormick, Doug; Novokhatski, Alexander; Spataro, Bruno; Weathersby, Stephen; Tantawi, Sami G.

    2016-05-01

    We present an experimental study of a high gradient metallic accelerating structure at sub-THz frequencies, where we investigated the physics of rf breakdowns. Wakefields in the structure were excited by an ultrarelativistic electron beam. We present the first quantitative measurements of gradients and metal vacuum rf breakdowns in sub-THz accelerating cavities. When the beam travels off axis, a deflecting field is induced in addition to the longitudinal field. We measured the deflecting forces by observing the displacement and changes in the shape of the electron bunch. This behavior can be exploited for subfemtosecond beam diagnostics.

  2. Radionuclides in man and his environment measured by accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hellborg, Ragnar; Erlandsson, Bengt; Kiisk, Madis; Persson, Per; Skog, Goeran; Stenstroem, Kristina; Mattsson, Soeren; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid; Olofsson, Mikael

    1999-06-10

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a highly sensitive analytical method for measuring very low concentrations of both radionuclides and stable nuclides. For radioanalytical purposes, the main advantages of AMS compared to conventional radiometric methods are the use of smaller samples (mg size) and shorter measuring times (less than one hour). In this report some current applications of the AMS technique at the Lund Pelletron accelerator are presented, in particular studies of {sup 14}C-labeled pharmaceuticals used in clinical nuclear medicine and biomedical research.

  3. Development of and flight results from the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, Richard; Finley, Brian D.; Baugher, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is the development of and the flight results from the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) flight units used in the Orbiter middeck, Spacelab module, and the Orbitercargo bay. The SAMS units are general purpose microgravity accelerometers designed to support a variety of science experiments with microgravity acceleration measurements. A total of six flight units have been fabricated; four for use in the Orbiter middeck and Spacelab module, and two for use in the Orbiter cargo bay. The design of the units is briefly described. The initial two flights of SAMS units on STS-40 (June 1991) and STS-43 (August 1991) resulted in 371 megabytes and 2.6 gigabytes of data respectively. Analytical techniques developed to examine this quantity of acceleration data are described and sample plots of analyzed data are illustrated. Future missions for the SAMS units are listed.

  4. Lagrangian measurements of inertial particle accelerations in grid generated wind tunnel turbulence.

    PubMed

    Ayyalasomayajula, S; Gylfason, A; Collins, L R; Bodenschatz, E; Warhaft, Z

    2006-10-01

    We describe Lagrangian measurements of water droplets in grid generated wind tunnel turbulence at a Taylor Reynolds number of R(lambda)=250 and an average Stokes number (St) of approximately 0.1. The inertial particles are tracked by a high speed camera moving along the side of the tunnel at the mean flow speed. The standardized acceleration probability density functions of the particles have spread exponential tails that are narrower than those of a fluid particles (St approximately 0) and there is a decrease in the acceleration variance with increasing Stokes number. A simple vortex model shows that the inertial particles selectively sample the fluid field and are less likely to experience regions of the fluid undergoing the largest accelerations. Recent direct numerical simulations compare favorably with these first measurements of Lagrangian statistics of inertial particles in highly turbulent flows.

  5. Measuring test mass acceleration noise in space-based gravitational wave astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congedo, Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    The basic constituent of interferometric gravitational wave detectors—the test-mass-to-test-mass interferometric link—behaves as a differential dynamometer measuring effective differential forces, comprising an integrated measure of gravity curvature, inertial effects, as well as nongravitational spurious forces. This last contribution is going to be characterized by the LISA Pathfinder mission, a technology precursor of future space-borne detectors like eLISA. Changing the perspective from displacement to acceleration can benefit the data analysis of LISA Pathfinder and future detectors. The response in differential acceleration to gravitational waves is derived for a space-based detector's interferometric link. The acceleration formalism can also be integrated into time delay interferometry by building up the unequal-arm Michelson differential acceleration combination. The differential acceleration is nominally insensitive to the system's free evolution dominating the slow displacement dynamics of low-frequency detectors. Working with acceleration also provides an effective way to subtract measured signals acting as systematics, including the actuation forces. Because of the strong similarity with the equations of motion, the optimal subtraction of systematic signals, known within some amplitude and time shift, with the focus on measuring the noise provides an effective way to solve the problem and marginalize over nuisance parameters. The F statistic, in widespread use throughout the gravitation waves community, is included in the method and suitably generalized to marginalize over linear parameters and noise at the same time. The method is applied to LPF simulator data and, thanks to its generality, can also be applied to the data reduction and analysis of future gravitational wave detectors.

  6. Measurement of acceleration while walking as an automated method for gait assessment in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Chapinal, N; de Passillé, A M; Pastell, M; Hänninen, L; Munksgaard, L; Rushen, J

    2011-06-01

    The aims were to determine whether measures of acceleration of the legs and back of dairy cows while they walk could help detect changes in gait or locomotion associated with lameness and differences in the walking surface. In 2 experiments, 12 or 24 multiparous dairy cows were fitted with five 3-dimensional accelerometers, 1 attached to each leg and 1 to the back, and acceleration data were collected while cows walked in a straight line on concrete (experiment 1) or on both concrete and rubber (experiment 2). Cows were video-recorded while walking to assess overall gait, asymmetry of the steps, and walking speed. In experiment 1, cows were selected to maximize the range of gait scores, whereas no clinically lame cows were enrolled in experiment 2. For each accelerometer location, overall acceleration was calculated as the magnitude of the 3-dimensional acceleration vector and the variance of overall acceleration, as well as the asymmetry of variance of acceleration within the front and rear pair of legs. In experiment 1, the asymmetry of variance of acceleration in the front and rear legs was positively correlated with overall gait and the visually assessed asymmetry of the steps (r ≥ 0.6). Walking speed was negatively correlated with the asymmetry of variance of the rear legs (r=-0.8) and positively correlated with the acceleration and the variance of acceleration of each leg and back (r ≥ 0.7). In experiment 2, cows had lower gait scores [2.3 vs. 2.6; standard error of the difference (SED)=0.1, measured on a 5-point scale] and lower scores for asymmetry of the steps (18.0 vs. 23.1; SED=2.2, measured on a continuous 100-unit scale) when they walked on rubber compared with concrete, and their walking speed increased (1.28 vs. 1.22 m/s; SED=0.02). The acceleration of the front (1.67 vs. 1.72 g; SED=0.02) and rear (1.62 vs. 1.67 g; SED=0.02) legs and the variance of acceleration of the rear legs (0.88 vs. 0.94 g; SED=0.03) were lower when cows walked on rubber

  7. Acceleration and Rotation in a Pendulum Ride, Measured Using an iPhone 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Rohlen, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Many modern cell phones have built-in sensors that may be used as a resource for physics education. Amusement rides offer examples of many different types of motion, where the acceleration leads to forces experienced throughout the body. A comoving 3D-accelerometer gives an electronic measurement of the varying forces acting on the rider, but a…

  8. SU-E-T-543: Measurement of Neutron Activation From Different High Energy Varian Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Thatcher, T; Madsen, S; Sudowe, R; Meigooni, A Soleimani

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Linear accelerators producing photons above 10 MeV may induce photonuclear reactions in high Z components of the accelerator. These liberated neutrons can then activate the structural components of the accelerator and other materials in the beam path through neutron capture reactions. The induced activity within the accelerator may contribute to additional dose to both patients and personnel. This project seeks to determine the total activity and activity per activated isotope following irradiation in different Varian accelerators at energies above 10 MeV. Methods: A Varian 21IX accelerator was used to irradiate a 30 cm × 30 cm × 20 cm solid water phantom with 15 MV x-rays. The phantom was placed at an SSD of 100 cm and at the center of a 20 cm × 20 cm field. Activation induced gamma spectra were acquired over a 5 minute interval after 1 and 15 minutes from completion of the irradiation. All measurements were made using a CANBERRA Falcon 5000 Portable HPGe detector. The majority of measurements were made in scattering geometry with the detector situated at 90° to the incident beam, 30 cm from the side of the phantom and approximately 10 cm from the top. A 5 minute background count was acquired and automatically subtracted from all subsequent measurements. Photon spectra were acquired for both open and MLC fields. Results: Based on spectral signatures, nuclides have been identified and their activities calculated for both open and MLC fields. Preliminary analyses suggest that activities from the activation products in the microcurie range. Conclusion: Activation isotopes have been identified and their relative activities determined. These activities are only gross estimates since efficiencies have not been determined for this source-detector geometry. Current efforts are focused on accurate determination of detector efficiencies using Monte Carlo calculations.

  9. Space acceleration measurement system description and operations on the First Spacelab Life Sciences Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, Richard; Finley, Brian D.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) project and flight units are briefly described. The SAMS operations during the STS-40 mission are summarized, and a preliminary look at some of the acceleration data from that mission are provided. The background and rationale for the SAMS project is described to better illustrate its goals. The functions and capabilities of each SAMS flight unit are first explained, then the STS-40 mission, the SAMS's function for that mission, and the preparation of the SAMS are described. Observations about the SAMS operations during the first SAMS mission are then discussed. Some sample data are presented illustrating several aspects of the mission's microgravity environment.

  10. Finite-time position and velocity estimation adapted to noisy biased acceleration measurements from periodic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Antonio; Efimov, Denis; Perruquetti, Wilfrid

    2016-09-01

    The present work focuses on the problem of velocity and position estimation. A solution is presented for a class of oscillating systems in which position, velocity and acceleration are zero mean signals. The proposed scheme considers that the dynamic model of the system is unknown. Only noisy acceleration measurements, that may be contaminated by zero mean noise and constant bias, are considered to be available. The proposal uses the periodic nature of the signals obtaining finite-time estimations while tackling integration drift accumulation.

  11. The LLNL Accelerator Mass Spectrometry System for Biochemical 14C-Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ognibene, T J; Bench, G; Brown, T A; Vogel, J S

    2002-10-31

    We report on recent improvements made to our 1 MV accelerator mass spectrometry system that is dedicated to {sup 14}C quantification of biochemical samples. Increased vacuum pumping capacity near the high voltage terminal has resulted in a 2-fold reduction of system backgrounds to 0.04 amol {sup 14}C/mg carbon. Carbon ion transmission through the accelerator has also improved a few percent. We have also developed tritium measurement capability on this spectrometer. The {sup 3}H/{sup 1}H isotopic ratio of a milligram-sized processed tap water sample has been measured at 4 {+-} 1 x 10{sup -16} (430 {+-} 110 {micro}Bq/mg H). Measurement throughput for a typical biochemical {sup 3}H sample is estimated to be {approx}10 minutes/sample.

  12. C-14 content of ten meteorites measured by tandem accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. M.; Andrews, H. R.; Ball, G. C.; Burn, N.; Imahori, Y.; Milton, J. C. D.; Fireman, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of C-14 in three North American and seven Antarctic meteorites show in most cases that this cosmogenic isotope, which is tightly bound, was separated from absorbed atmospheric radiocarbon by stepwise heating extractions. The present upper limit to age determination by the accelerator method varies from 50,000 to 70,000 years, depending on the mass and carbon content of the sample. The natural limit caused by cosmic ray production of C-14 in silicate rocks at 2000 m elevation is estimated to be 55,000 + or - 5000 years. An estimation is also made of the 'weathering ages' of the Antarctic meteorites from the specific activity of loosely bound CO2 which is thought to be absorbed from the terrestrial atmosphere. Accelerator measurements are found to agree with previous low level counting measurements, but are more sensitive and precise.

  13. 3-Component acceleration field measurement by dual-time stereoscopic particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perret, L.; Braud, P.; Fourment, C.; David, L.; Delville, J.

    2006-05-01

    In this article, a multiplane stereo-particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was implemented and validated to measure the three-component acceleration field in a plane of turbulent flows. The employed technique relies on the use of two stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) systems to measure pairs of velocity fields superimposed in space but shifted in time. The time delay between the two velocity fields enables the implementation of a finite difference scheme to compute temporal derivatives. The use of two synchronized SPIV systems allows us to overcome the limited acquisition rate of PIV systems when dealing with highly turbulent flows. Moreover, a methodology based on the analysis of the spectral error distribution is described here to determine the optimal time delay to compute time derivatives. The present dual-time SPIV arrangement and the proposed analysis method are applied to measure three-component acceleration fields in a cross section of a subsonic plane turbulent mixing layer.

  14. HUBBLE PARAMETER MEASUREMENT CONSTRAINTS ON THE COSMOLOGICAL DECELERATION-ACCELERATION TRANSITION REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Farooq, Omer; Ratra, Bharat E-mail: ratra@phys.ksu.edu

    2013-03-20

    We compile a list of 28 independent measurements of the Hubble parameter between redshifts 0.07 {<=} z {<=} 2.3 and use this to place constraints on model parameters of constant and time-evolving dark energy cosmologies. These H(z) measurements by themselves require a currently accelerating cosmological expansion at about, or better than, 3{sigma} confidence. The mean and standard deviation of the six best-fit model deceleration-acceleration transition redshifts (for the three cosmological models and two Hubble constant priors we consider) are z{sub da} = 0.74 {+-} 0.05, in good agreement with the recent Busca et al. determination of z{sub da} = 0.82 {+-} 0.08 based on 11 H(z) measurements between redshifts 0.2 {<=} z {<=} 2.3, almost entirely from baryon-acoustic-oscillation-like data.

  15. Application of real-time digitization techniques in beam measurement for accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lei; Zhan, Lin-Song; Gao, Xing-Shun; Liu, Shu-Bin; An, Qi

    2016-04-01

    Beam measurement is very important for accelerators. In this paper, modern digital beam measurement techniques based on IQ (In-phase & Quadrature-phase) analysis are discussed. Based on this method and high-speed high-resolution analog-to-digital conversion, we have completed three beam measurement electronics systems designed for the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF), and Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system (ADS). Core techniques of hardware design and real-time system calibration are discussed, and performance test results of these three instruments are also presented. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11205153, 10875119), Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KJCX2-YW-N27), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (WK2030040029),and the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP).

  16. Intrinsic beam emittance of laser-accelerated electrons measured by x-ray spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Golovin, G; Banerjee, S; Liu, C; Chen, S; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhang, P; Veale, M; Wilson, M; Seller, P; Umstadter, D

    2016-04-19

    The recent combination of ultra-intense lasers and laser-accelerated electron beams is enabling the development of a new generation of compact x-ray light sources, the coherence of which depends directly on electron beam emittance. Although the emittance of accelerated electron beams can be low, it can grow due to the effects of space charge during free-space propagation. Direct experimental measurement of this important property is complicated by micron-scale beam sizes, and the presence of intense fields at the location where space charge acts. Reported here is a novel, non-destructive, single-shot method that overcame this problem. It employed an intense laser probe pulse, and spectroscopic imaging of the inverse-Compton scattered x-rays, allowing measurement of an ultra-low value for the normalized transverse emittance, 0.15 (±0.06) π mm mrad, as well as study of its subsequent growth upon exiting the accelerator. The technique and results are critical for designing multi-stage laser-wakefield accelerators, and generating high-brightness, spatially coherent x-rays.

  17. Intrinsic beam emittance of laser-accelerated electrons measured by x-ray spectroscopic imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Golovin, G.; Banerjee, S.; Liu, C.; Chen, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhang, P.; Veale, M.; Wilson, M.; Seller, P.; et al

    2016-04-19

    Here, the recent combination of ultra-intense lasers and laser-accelerated electron beams is enabling the development of a new generation of compact x-ray light sources, the coherence of which depends directly on electron beam emittance. Although the emittance of accelerated electron beams can be low, it can grow due to the effects of space charge during free-space propagation. Direct experimental measurement of this important property is complicated by micron-scale beam sizes, and the presence of intense fields at the location where space charge acts. Reported here is a novel, non-destructive, single-shot method that overcame this problem. It employed an intense lasermore » probe pulse, and spectroscopic imaging of the inverse-Compton scattered x-rays, allowing measurement of an ultra-low value for the normalized transverse emittance, 0.15 (±0.06) π mm mrad, as well as study of its subsequent growth upon exiting the accelerator. The technique and results are critical for designing multi-stage laser-wakefield accelerators, and generating high-brightness, spatially coherent x-rays.« less

  18. Intrinsic beam emittance of laser-accelerated electrons measured by x-ray spectroscopic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Golovin, G.; Banerjee, S.; Liu, C.; Chen, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhang, P.; Veale, M.; Wilson, M.; Seller, P.; Umstadter, D.

    2016-01-01

    The recent combination of ultra-intense lasers and laser-accelerated electron beams is enabling the development of a new generation of compact x-ray light sources, the coherence of which depends directly on electron beam emittance. Although the emittance of accelerated electron beams can be low, it can grow due to the effects of space charge during free-space propagation. Direct experimental measurement of this important property is complicated by micron-scale beam sizes, and the presence of intense fields at the location where space charge acts. Reported here is a novel, non-destructive, single-shot method that overcame this problem. It employed an intense laser probe pulse, and spectroscopic imaging of the inverse-Compton scattered x-rays, allowing measurement of an ultra-low value for the normalized transverse emittance, 0.15 (±0.06) π mm mrad, as well as study of its subsequent growth upon exiting the accelerator. The technique and results are critical for designing multi-stage laser-wakefield accelerators, and generating high-brightness, spatially coherent x-rays. PMID:27090440

  19. Intrinsic beam emittance of laser-accelerated electrons measured by x-ray spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Golovin, G; Banerjee, S; Liu, C; Chen, S; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhang, P; Veale, M; Wilson, M; Seller, P; Umstadter, D

    2016-01-01

    The recent combination of ultra-intense lasers and laser-accelerated electron beams is enabling the development of a new generation of compact x-ray light sources, the coherence of which depends directly on electron beam emittance. Although the emittance of accelerated electron beams can be low, it can grow due to the effects of space charge during free-space propagation. Direct experimental measurement of this important property is complicated by micron-scale beam sizes, and the presence of intense fields at the location where space charge acts. Reported here is a novel, non-destructive, single-shot method that overcame this problem. It employed an intense laser probe pulse, and spectroscopic imaging of the inverse-Compton scattered x-rays, allowing measurement of an ultra-low value for the normalized transverse emittance, 0.15 (±0.06) π mm mrad, as well as study of its subsequent growth upon exiting the accelerator. The technique and results are critical for designing multi-stage laser-wakefield accelerators, and generating high-brightness, spatially coherent x-rays. PMID:27090440

  20. Automatic detection of lameness in gestating group-housed sows using positioning and acceleration measurements.

    PubMed

    Traulsen, I; Breitenberger, S; Auer, W; Stamer, E; Müller, K; Krieter, J

    2016-06-01

    Lameness is an important issue in group-housed sows. Automatic detection systems are a beneficial diagnostic tool to support management. The aim of the present study was to evaluate data of a positioning system including acceleration measurements to detect lameness in group-housed sows. Data were acquired at the Futterkamp research farm from May 2012 until April 2013. In the gestation unit, 212 group-housed sows were equipped with an ear sensor to sample position and acceleration per sow and second. Three activity indices were calculated per sow and day: path length walked by a sow during the day (Path), number of squares (25×25 cm) visited during the day (Square) and variance of the acceleration measurement during the day (Acc). In addition, data on lameness treatments of the sows and a weekly lameness score were used as reference systems. To determine the influence of a lameness event, all indices were analysed in a linear random regression model. Test day, parity class and day before treatment had a significant influence on all activity indices (P<0.05). In healthy sows, indices Path and Square increased with increasing parity, whereas variance slightly decreased. The indices Path and Square showed a decreasing trend in a 14-day period before a lameness treatment and to a smaller extent before a lameness score of 2 (severe lameness). For the index acceleration, there was no obvious difference between the lame and non-lame periods. In conclusion, positioning and acceleration measurements with ear sensors can be used to describe the activity pattern of sows. However, improvements in sampling rate and analysis techniques should be made for a practical application as an automatic lameness detection system.

  1. Automatic detection of lameness in gestating group-housed sows using positioning and acceleration measurements.

    PubMed

    Traulsen, I; Breitenberger, S; Auer, W; Stamer, E; Müller, K; Krieter, J

    2016-06-01

    Lameness is an important issue in group-housed sows. Automatic detection systems are a beneficial diagnostic tool to support management. The aim of the present study was to evaluate data of a positioning system including acceleration measurements to detect lameness in group-housed sows. Data were acquired at the Futterkamp research farm from May 2012 until April 2013. In the gestation unit, 212 group-housed sows were equipped with an ear sensor to sample position and acceleration per sow and second. Three activity indices were calculated per sow and day: path length walked by a sow during the day (Path), number of squares (25×25 cm) visited during the day (Square) and variance of the acceleration measurement during the day (Acc). In addition, data on lameness treatments of the sows and a weekly lameness score were used as reference systems. To determine the influence of a lameness event, all indices were analysed in a linear random regression model. Test day, parity class and day before treatment had a significant influence on all activity indices (P<0.05). In healthy sows, indices Path and Square increased with increasing parity, whereas variance slightly decreased. The indices Path and Square showed a decreasing trend in a 14-day period before a lameness treatment and to a smaller extent before a lameness score of 2 (severe lameness). For the index acceleration, there was no obvious difference between the lame and non-lame periods. In conclusion, positioning and acceleration measurements with ear sensors can be used to describe the activity pattern of sows. However, improvements in sampling rate and analysis techniques should be made for a practical application as an automatic lameness detection system. PMID:27074864

  2. Principal Investigator Microgravity Services Role in ISS Acceleration Data Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPherson, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of the microgravity acceleration environment on the International Space Station will be accomplished by two accelerometer systems. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System will record the quasi-steady microgravity environment, including the influences of aerodynamic drag, vehicle rotation, and venting effects. Measurement of the vibratory/transient regime comprised of vehicle, crew, and equipment disturbances will be accomplished by the Space Acceleration Measurement System-II. Due to the dynamic nature of the microgravity environment and its potential to influence sensitive experiments, Principal Investigators require distribution of microgravity acceleration in a timely and straightforward fashion. In addition to this timely distribution of the data, long term access to International Space Station microgravity environment acceleration data is required. The NASA Glenn Research Center's Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project will provide the means for real-time and post experiment distribution of microgravity acceleration data to microgravity science Principal Investigators. Real-time distribution of microgravity environment acceleration data will be accomplished via the World Wide Web. Data packets from the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System-II will be routed from onboard the International Space Station to the NASA Glenn Research Center's Telescience Support Center. Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' ground support equipment located at the Telescience Support Center will be capable of generating a standard suite of acceleration data displays, including various time domain and frequency domain options. These data displays will be updated in real-time and will periodically update images available via the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services web page.

  3. Measurement of Neutrons Produced by Beam-Target Interactions via a Coaxial Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauble, Scott; Poehlmann, Flavio; Rieker, Gregory; Cappelli, Mark

    2011-10-01

    This poster presents a method to measure neutron yield from a coaxial plasma accelerator. Stored electrical energies between 1 and 19 kJ are discharged within a few microseconds across the electrodes of the coaxial gun, accelerating deuterium gas samples to plasma beam energies well beyond the keV energy range. The focus of this study is to examine the interaction of the plasma beam with a deuterated target by designing and fabricating a detector to measure neutron yield. Given the strong electromagnetic pulse associated with our accelerator, indirect measurement of neutrons via threshold-dependent nuclear activation serves as both a reliable and definitive indicator of high-energy particles for our application. Upon bombardment with neutrons, discs or stacks of metal foils placed near the deuterated target undergo nuclear activation reactions, yielding gamma-emitting isotopes whose decay is measured by a scintillation detector system. By collecting gamma ray spectra over time and considering nuclear cross sections, the magnitude of the original neutron pulse is inferred.

  4. Multirate Kalman filtering for the data fusion of displacement and acceleration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Andrew; Wu, Meiliang

    2006-03-01

    Many damage detection and system identification approaches benefit from the availability of both acceleration and displacement measurements. This is particularly true in the case of suspected nonlinear behavior and permanent deformations. In civil and mechanical structural modeling accelerometers are most often used, however displacement sensors, such as non-contact optical techniques as well as GPS-based methods for civil structures are becoming more common. It is suggested, where possible, to exploit the inherent redundancy in the sensor information and combine the collocated acceleration and displacement measurements in a manner which yields highly accurate motion data. This circumvents problematic integration of accelerometer data that causes lowfrequency noise amplification, and potentially more problematic differentiation of displacement measurements which amplify high-frequency noise. Another common feature of displacement based sensing is that the high frequency resolution is limited, and often relatively low sampling rates are used. In contrast, accelerometers are often more accurate for higher frequencies and thus higher meaningful sampling rates are often available. The fusion of these two data types must therefore combine data sampled at different frequencies. A multi-rate Kalman filtering approach is proposed to solve this problem. In addition, a smoothing step is introduced to obtain improved accuracy in the displacement estimate when it is sampled at lower rates than the corresponding acceleration measurement. Through trials with simulated data the procedure's effectiveness is shown to be quite robust at a variety of noise levels and relative sample rates for this practical problem.

  5. Requirements and Development of an Acceleration Measurement System for International Space Station Microgravity Science Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    The International Space Station is being developed by NASA and international partners as a versatile user platform to allow long term on-orbit investigations of a variety of scientific and technology arenas. In particular, scientific studies are planned within a research class known as microgravity science in areas such as biotechnology, combustion, fluid physics, and materials sciences. An acceleration measurement system is in development to aid such research conducted in the on-orbit conditions of apparent weightlessness. This system provides a general purpose acceleration measurement capability in support of these payloads and investigators. Such capability allows for systematic study of scientific phenomena by obtaining information regarding the local accelerations present during experiment operations. Preparations for implementing this flight measurement system involves two distinct stages: requirements development prior to initiating the design activity, and the design activity itself. This paper defines the requirements definition approach taken, provides an overview of the results of the requirements phase, and outlines the initial design considerations being addressed for this measurement system. Some preliminary engineering approaches are also described.

  6. Discrimination of EMG and acceleration measurements between patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy persons.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, Saara M; Kankaanpaa, Markku; Tarvainen, Mika P; Meigal, Alexander; Nuutinen, Juho; Jakala, Pekka; Airaksinen, Olavi; Karjalainen, Pasi A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the potential of electromyographic (EMG) and acceleration measurements in discriminating patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) from healthy persons. Two types of muscle contractions are examined: static contractions of biceps brachii muscles and elbow extension movements. Twelve features are extracted from static and ten features from extension measurements. These features describe signal morphology and nonlinear characteristics, power spreading in EMG wavelet scalograms and spectral coherence. Principal component approach is applied separately for static and extension trial to reduce the number of features before discrimination. The discrimination between subjects is done in a two-dimensional space by applying cluster analysis to the best discriminating principal components. The discrimination power of the used method was estimated with EMG and acceleration data measured from 56 patients with PD and 59 healthy controls. In the cluster analysis, three clusters were formed: one cluster with most (85%) of the healthy persons and two clusters with 80% of patients. Patients were divided into two clusters based on their type of motor disability (problems during movement and/or static contraction). Discrimination results show that EMG and acceleration measurements are potential for discriminating patients with PD from healthy persons. Furthermore, they have potential in the objective clinical assessment of PD. PMID:21096652

  7. Falling antimatter: An experiment to measure the gravitational acceleration of the antiproton

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, P.; Camp, J.; Holzscheiter, M.H.; Graessle, S.

    1988-01-01

    According to some theories of gravity, antimatter will fall faster than matter in the earth's gravitational field. An experiment to measure the gravitational force on the antiproton is under construction. Antiprotons of a few MeV from the LEAR facility of CERN will be slowed down and caught in a large Penning electromagnetic trap. They will then be cooled and transferred to Penning cooling and launching traps. The gravitational acceleration will be measured by the time-of-flight in a drift tube shielding stray electronic fields, and will be compared with that measured for H/sup /minus// ions. Progress on a number of fronts is described. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Online beam energy measurement of Beijing electron positron collider II linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Iqbal, M; Liu, R; Chi, Y

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes online beam energy measurement of Beijing Electron Positron Collider upgraded version II linear accelerator (linac) adequately. It presents the calculation formula, gives the error analysis in detail, discusses the realization in practice, and makes some verification. The method mentioned here measures the beam energy by acquiring the horizontal beam position with three beam position monitors (BPMs), which eliminates the effect of orbit fluctuation, and is much better than the one using the single BPM. The error analysis indicates that this online measurement has further potential usage such as a part of beam energy feedback system. The reliability of this method is also discussed and demonstrated in this paper.

  9. Online beam energy measurement of Beijing electron positron collider II linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Iqbal, M.; Liu, R.; Chi, Y.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes online beam energy measurement of Beijing Electron Positron Collider upgraded version II linear accelerator (linac) adequately. It presents the calculation formula, gives the error analysis in detail, discusses the realization in practice, and makes some verification. The method mentioned here measures the beam energy by acquiring the horizontal beam position with three beam position monitors (BPMs), which eliminates the effect of orbit fluctuation, and is much better than the one using the single BPM. The error analysis indicates that this online measurement has further potential usage such as a part of beam energy feedback system. The reliability of this method is also discussed and demonstrated in this paper.

  10. Commissioning measurements for photon beam data on three TrueBeam linear accelerators, and comparison with Trilogy and Clinac 2100 linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Gloria P

    2013-01-07

    This study presents the beam data measurement results from the commissioning of three TrueBeam linear accelerators. An additional evaluation of the measured beam data within the TrueBeam linear accelerators contrasted with two other linear accelerators from the same manufacturer (i.e., Clinac and Trilogy) was performed to identify and evaluate any differences in the beam characteristics between the machines and to evaluate the possibility of beam matching for standard photon energies. We performed a comparison of commissioned photon beam data for two standard photon energies (6 MV and 15 MV) and one flattening filter-free ("FFF") photon energy (10 FFF) between three different TrueBeam linear accelerators. An analysis of the beam data was then performed to evaluate the reproducibility of the results and the possibility of "beam matching" between the TrueBeam linear accelerators. Additionally, the data from the TrueBeam linear accelerator was compared with comparable data obtained from one Clinac and one Trilogy linear accelerator models produced by the same manufacturer to evaluate the possibility of "beam matching" between the TrueBeam linear accelerators and the previous models. The energies evaluated between the linear accelerator models are the 6 MV for low energy and the 15 MV for high energy. PDD and output factor data showed less than 1% variation and profile data showed variations within 1% or 2 mm between the three TrueBeam linear accelerators. PDD and profile data between the TrueBeam, the Clinac, and Trilogy linear accelerators were almost identical (less than 1% variation). Small variations were observed in the shape of the profile for 15 MV at shallow depths (< 5 cm) probably due to the differences in the flattening filter design. A difference in the penumbra shape was observed between the TrueBeam and the other linear accelerators; the TrueBeam data resulted in a slightly greater penumbra width. The diagonal scans demonstrated significant differences

  11. Method and apparatus for measuring gravitational acceleration utilizing a high temperature superconducting bearing

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.

    2000-06-27

    Gravitational acceleration is measured in all spatial dimensions with improved sensitivity by utilizing a high temperature superconducting (HTS) gravimeter. The HTS gravimeter is comprised of a permanent magnet suspended in a spaced relationship from a high temperature superconductor, and a cantilever having a mass at its free end is connected to the permanent magnet at its fixed end. The permanent magnet and superconductor combine to form a bearing platform with extremely low frictional losses, and the rotational displacement of the mass is measured to determine gravitational acceleration. Employing a high temperature superconductor component has the significant advantage of having an operating temperature at or below 77 K, whereby cooling may be accomplished with liquid nitrogen.

  12. Method and Apparatus for measuring Gravitational Acceleration Utilizing a high Temperature Superconducting Bearing

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, John R.

    1998-11-06

    Gravitational acceleration is measured in all spatial dimensions with improved sensitivity by utilizing a high temperature superconducting (HTS) gravimeter. The HTS gravimeter is comprised of a permanent magnet suspended in a spaced relationship from a high temperature superconductor, and a cantilever having a mass at its free end is connected to the permanent magnet at its fixed end. The permanent magnet and superconductor combine to form a bearing platform with extremely low frictional losses, and the rotational displacement of the mass is measured to determine gravitational acceleration. Employing a high temperature superconductor component has the significant advantage of having an operative temperature at or below 77K, whereby cooling maybe accomplished with liquid nitrogen.

  13. Summary report of mission acceleration measurements for Spacehab-01, STS-57 launched 21 June 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Brian; Grodsinsky, Carlos; Delombard, Richard

    1994-01-01

    The maiden voyage of the commercial Spacehab laboratory module onboard the STS-57 mission was integrated with several accelerometer packages, one of which was the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS). The June 21st 1993, launch was the seventh successful mission for the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Application's (OLMSA) SAMS unit. This flight was also complemented by a second accelerometer system. The Three Dimensional Microgravity Accelerometer (3-DMA), a Code C funded acceleration measurement system, offering an on-orbit residual calibration as a reference for the unit's four triaxial accelerometers. The SAMS accelerometer unit utilized three remote triaxial sensor heads mounted on the forward Spacehab module bulkhead and on one centrally located experiment locker door. These triaxial heads had filter cut-offs set to 5, 50, and 1000 Hz. The mission also included other experiment specific accelerometer packages in various locations.

  14. Summary report of mission acceleration measurements for Spacehab-01, STS-57 launched 21 June 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, Brian; Grodsinsky, Carlos; Delombard, Richard

    1994-03-01

    The maiden voyage of the commercial Spacehab laboratory module onboard the STS-57 mission was integrated with several accelerometer packages, one of which was the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS). The June 21st 1993, launch was the seventh successful mission for the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Application's (OLMSA) SAMS unit. This flight was also complemented by a second accelerometer system. The Three Dimensional Microgravity Accelerometer (3-DMA), a Code C funded acceleration measurement system, offering an on-orbit residual calibration as a reference for the unit's four triaxial accelerometers. The SAMS accelerometer unit utilized three remote triaxial sensor heads mounted on the forward Spacehab module bulkhead and on one centrally located experiment locker door. These triaxial heads had filter cut-offs set to 5, 50, and 1000 Hz. The mission also included other experiment specific accelerometer packages in various locations.

  15. Method and apparatus for measuring gravitational acceleration utilizing a high temperature superconducting bearing

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.

    2000-01-01

    Gravitational acceleration is measured in all spatial dimensions with improved sensitivity by utilizing a high temperature superconducting (HTS) gravimeter. The HTS gravimeter is comprised of a permanent magnet suspended in a spaced relationship from a high temperature superconductor, and a cantilever having a mass at its free end is connected to the permanent magnet at its fixed end. The permanent magnet and superconductor combine to form a bearing platform with extremely low frictional losses, and the rotational displacement of the mass is measured to determine gravitational acceleration. Employing a high temperature superconductor component has the significant advantage of having an operating temperature at or below 77K, whereby cooling may be accomplished with liquid nitrogen.

  16. A fiber optic strain measurement and quench localization system for use in superconducting accelerator dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    van Oort, J.M.; Scanlan, R.M.; ten Kate, H.H.J.

    1994-10-17

    A novel fiber-optic measurement system for superconducting accelerator magnets is described. The principal component is an extrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer to determine localized strain and stress in coil windings. The system can be used either as a sensitive relative strain measurement system or as an absolute strain detector. Combined, one can monitor the mechanical behaviour of the magnet system over time during construction, long time storage and operation. The sensing mechanism is described, together with various tests in laboratory environments. The test results of a multichannel test matrix to be incorporated first in the dummy coils and then in the final version of a 13T Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator dipole magnet are presented. Finally, the possible use of this system as a quench localization system is proposed.

  17. Measurement and Characterization of the Acceleration Environment on Board the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baugher, Charles R. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This workshop provides a comprehensive overview of the work and status of each of these areas to provide a basis for establishing a systematic approach to the challenge of avoiding these difficulties during the Space Station era of materials experimentation. The discussions were arranged in the order of: the scientific understanding of the requirements for a micro-gravity environment, a history of acceleration measurements on spacecraft, the state of accelerometer technology, and the current understanding of the predicted Space Station environment.

  18. Repeatable electrical measurement instrumentation for use in the accelerated stress testing of thin film solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, C. W.; Lathrop, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to the construction, calibration, and performance of a repeatable measurement system for use in conjunction with the accelerated stress testing of a-Si:H cells. A filtered diode array is utilized to approximate the spectral response of any type of solar cell in discrete portions of the spectrum. It is noted that in order to achieve the necessary degree of overall repeatability, it is necessary to pay particular attention to methods of contacting and positioning the cells.

  19. Comparison of solar wind velocity measurements with a theoretical acceleration model

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, W.A. ); Esser, R. ); Loevhaug, U.P. ); Markkanen, J. )

    1991-08-01

    Interplanetary radio scintillation (IPS) measurements of the solar wind velocity were made using the receiving antennas of the European Incoherent Scatter Facility (EISCAT) radar system in northern Scandinavia from June through October 1990. The observations, which cover the distance range from 11 to 90 R{sub s} from Sun center, were taken with sufficient density to measure the same stream at two (or more) different distances. The deduced velocities are in the range 100 {approx lt} U {approx lt} 540 km s{sup {minus}1}. The authors selected from 192 observations, 16 examples of streams observed with good radial alignment, of which 12 were observed unchanged for several days. The measured velocities are compared with calculations based on a two-fluid solar wind model with Alfven waves. In eight cases the measurements are in good agreement with the model when a moderate amount of wave energy is added to the flow. In four cases the observed streams show low or moderate velocities below, say, 20 R{sub s} but then accelerate fast at larger distances from the Sun. This delayed acceleration is much steeper than the acceleration in the model at these distances. In the remaining four cases the streams seem to reach their final velocities much closer to the base than in other cases, and they are not observed to accelerate much between 10 and 90 R{sub s}. At these distances all related solar wind models they have seen give the same results; they all fit half the data, and none can fit the other half.

  20. Summary report of mission acceleration measurements for STS-60, SPACEHAB2, launched 11 February 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Delombard, Richard

    1994-01-01

    The STS-60 mission, which launched on 11 February 1994, carried seven accelerometer systems. This report describes the configuration of each of these systems, where they were located on the Orbiter and the name of a contact person for each system. The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) was one of the accelerometer systems on-board and this mission marked its eighth successful flight. Acceleration data are provided here for SAMS which flew under an agreement between the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications division and the NASA office of Advanced Concepts and Technology. Acceleration data for the other accelerometer systems are not presented here. SAMS was located in the commercial SPACEHAB laboratory, on its second flight. The SAMS system was configured with three triaxial sensor heads with filter cut-offs of 5, 10, and 50 Hz. The acceleration environment related to an experiment centrifuge, an experiment refrigerator freezer unit, a SAMS sensor head rotation, an Orbiter shudder, and payload deploy activities are discussed. In the Appendices, all of the data from SAMS Head B (10 Hz) are plotted to provide an overview of the environment during the majority of the STS-60 mission. An evaluation form is included at the end of the report to solicit users' comments about the usefulness of this series of reports.

  1. A six degree of freedom head acceleration measurement device for use in football.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steven; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Chu, Jeffrey J; Leonard, Daniel S; Greenwald, Richard M; Duma, Stefan M

    2011-02-01

    The high incidence rate of concussions in football provides a unique opportunity to collect biomechanical data to characterize mild traumatic brain injury. The goal of this study was to validate a six degree of freedom (6DOF) measurement device with 12 single-axis accelerometers that uses a novel algorithm to compute linear and angular head accelerations for each axis of the head. The 6DOF device can be integrated into existing football helmets and is capable of wireless data transmission. A football helmet equipped with the 6DOF device was fitted to a Hybrid III head instrumented with a 9 accelerometer array. The helmet was impacted using a pneumatic linear impactor. Hybrid III head accelerations were compared with that of the 6DOF device. For all impacts, peak Hybrid III head accelerations ranged from 24 g to 176 g and 1,506 rad/s(2) to 14,431 rad/s(2). Average errors for peak linear and angular head acceleration were 1% ± 18% and 3% ± 24%, respectively. The average RMS error of the temporal response for each impact was 12.5 g and 907 rad/s(2).

  2. Ambient dose and dose rate measurements in the vicinity of Elekta Precise accelerators for radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Zutz, H; Hupe, O

    2014-12-01

    In radiation therapy, commercially available medical linear accelerators (LINACs) are used. At high primary beam energies in the 10-MeV range, the leakage dose of the accelerator head and the backscatter from the room walls, the air and the patient become more important. Therefore, radiation protection measurements of photon dose rates in the treatment room and in the maze are performed to quantify the radiation field. Since the radiation of the LINACs is usually pulsed with short radiation pulse durations in the microsecond range, there are problems with electronic dose (rate) meters commonly used in radiation protection. In this paper measurements with ionisation chambers are presented and electronic dosemeters are used for testing at selected positions. The measured time-averaged dose rate ranges from a few microsieverts per hour in the maze to some millisieverts per hour in the vicinity of the accelerator head and up to some sieverts per hour in the blanked primary beam and several hundred sieverts per hour in the direct primary beam.

  3. Measurements of the Influence of Acceleration and Temperature of Bodies on their Weight

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, Alexander L.

    2008-01-21

    A brief review of experimental research of the influence of acceleration and temperatures of test mass upon gravitation force, executed between the 1990s and the beginning of 2000 at the St.-Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics in cooperation with D. I. Mendeleev's Institute of Metrology is provided. According to a phenomenological notion, the acceleration of a test mass caused by external action, for example electromagnetic forces, results in changes of the gravitational properties of this mass. Consequences are a dependence upon gravity on the size and sign of test mass acceleration, and also on its absolute temperature. Results of weighing a rotor of a mechanical gyroscope with a horizontal axis, an anisotropic crystal with the big difference of the speed of longitudinal acoustic waves, measurements of temperature dependence of weight of metal bars of nonmagnetic materials, and also measurement of restitution coefficients at quasi-elastic impact of a steel ball about a massive plate are given. In particular, a reduction of apparent mass of a horizontal rotor with relative size 3.10{sup -6} at a speed of rotation of 18.6 thousand rev/min was observed. A negative temperature dependence of the weight of a brass core with relative size near 5.10{sup -4} K{sup -1} at room temperature was measured; this temperature factor was found to be a maximum for light and elastic metals. All observably experimental effects, have probably a general physical reason connected with the weight change dependent upon acceleration of a body or at thermal movement of its microparticles. The reduction of mass at high temperatures is of particular interest for propulsion applications.

  4. Comparison of measured Varian Clinac 21EX and TrueBeam accelerator electron field characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Samantha A M; Zavgorodni, Sergei; Gagne, Isabelle M

    2015-07-08

    Dosimetric comparisons of radiation fields produced by Varian's newest linear accelerator, the TrueBeam, with those produced by older Varian accelerators are of interest from both practical and research standpoints. While photon fields have been compared in the literature, similar comparisons of electron fields have not yet been reported. In this work, electron fields produced by the TrueBeam are compared with those produced by Varian's Clinac 21EX accelerator. Diode measurements were taken of fields shaped with electron applicators and delivered at 100 cm SSD, as well as those shaped with photon MLCs without applicators and delivered at 70 cm SSD for field sizes ranging from 5 × 5 to 25 × 25 cm² at energies between 6 and 20 MeV. Additionally, EBT2 and EBT3 radio-chromic film measurements were taken of an MLC-shaped aperture with closed leaf pairs delivered at 70 cm SSD using 6 and 20 MeV electrons. The 6 MeV fields produced by the TrueBeam and Clinac 21EX were found to be almost indistinguishable. At higher energies, TrueBeam fields shaped by electron applicators were generally flatter and had less photon contamination compared to the Clinac 21EX. Differences in PDDs and profiles fell within 3% and 3 mm for the majority of measurements. The most notable differences for open fields occurred in the profile shoulders for the largest applicator field sizes. In these cases, the TrueBeam and Clinac 21EX data differed by as much as 8%. Our data indicate that an accurate electron beam model of the Clinac 21EX could be used as a starting point to simulate electron fields that are dosimetrically equivalent to those produced by the TrueBeam. Given that the Clinac 21EX shares head geometry with Varian's iX, Trilogy, and Novalis TX accelerators, our findings should also be applicable to these machines.

  5. Comparison of measured Varian Clinac 21EX and TrueBeam accelerator electron field characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Samantha A M; Zavgorodni, Sergei; Gagne, Isabelle M

    2015-01-01

    Dosimetric comparisons of radiation fields produced by Varian's newest linear accelerator, the TrueBeam, with those produced by older Varian accelerators are of interest from both practical and research standpoints. While photon fields have been compared in the literature, similar comparisons of electron fields have not yet been reported. In this work, electron fields produced by the TrueBeam are compared with those produced by Varian's Clinac 21EX accelerator. Diode measurements were taken of fields shaped with electron applicators and delivered at 100 cm SSD, as well as those shaped with photon MLCs without applicators and delivered at 70 cm SSD for field sizes ranging from 5 × 5 to 25 × 25 cm² at energies between 6 and 20 MeV. Additionally, EBT2 and EBT3 radio-chromic film measurements were taken of an MLC-shaped aperture with closed leaf pairs delivered at 70 cm SSD using 6 and 20 MeV electrons. The 6 MeV fields produced by the TrueBeam and Clinac 21EX were found to be almost indistinguishable. At higher energies, TrueBeam fields shaped by electron applicators were generally flatter and had less photon contamination compared to the Clinac 21EX. Differences in PDDs and profiles fell within 3% and 3 mm for the majority of measurements. The most notable differences for open fields occurred in the profile shoulders for the largest applicator field sizes. In these cases, the TrueBeam and Clinac 21EX data differed by as much as 8%. Our data indicate that an accurate electron beam model of the Clinac 21EX could be used as a starting point to simulate electron fields that are dosimetrically equivalent to those produced by the TrueBeam. Given that the Clinac 21EX shares head geometry with Varian's iX, Trilogy, and Novalis TX accelerators, our findings should also be applicable to these machines. PMID:26219015

  6. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurements for STS-79. Launched 16 Sep. 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Moskowitz, Milton E.; Hrovat, Kenneth; Reckart, Timothy A.

    1997-01-01

    The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) collected acceleration data in support of the Mechanics of Granular Materials experiment during the STS-79 Mir docking mission, September 1996. STS-79 was the first opportunity to record SAMS data on an Orbiter while it was docked to Mir. Crew exercise activities in the Atlantis middeck and the Mir base module are apparent in the data. The acceleration signals related to the Enhanced Orbiter Refrigerator Freezer had different characteristics when comparing the data recorded on Atlantis on STS-79 with the data recorded on Mir during STS-74. This is probably due, at least in part, to different transmission paths and SAMS sensor head mounting mechanisms. Data collected on Atlantis during the STS-79 docking indicate that accelerations due to vehicle and solar array structural modes from Mir transfer to Atlantis and that the structural modes of the Atlantis-Mir complex are different from those of either vehicle independently. A 0.18 Hz component of the SAMS data, present while the two vehicles were docked, was probably caused by the Mir solar arrays. Compared to Atlantis structural modes of about 3.9 and 4.9 Hz, the Atlantis-Mir complex has structural components of about 4.5 and 5.1 Hz. After docking, apparent structural modes appeared in the data at about 0.8 and 1.8 Hz. The appearance, disappearance, and change in the structural modes during the docking and undocking phases of the joint Atlantis-Mir operations indicates that the structural modes of the two spacecraft have an effect on the microgravity environment of each other. The transfer of structural and equipment related accelerations between vehicles is something that should be considered in the International Space Station era.

  7. Measurements of Neutron Induced Cross Sections at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Guber, K.H.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.; Koehler, P.E.; Leal, L.C.; Sayer, R.O.; Spencer, R.R.

    1999-09-20

    We have used the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) to measure neutron total and the fission cross sections of 233U in the energy range from 0.36 eV to ~700 keV. We report average fission and total cross sections. Also, we measured the neutron total cross sections of 27Al and Natural chlorine as well as the capture cross section of Al over an energy range from 100 eV up to about 400 keV.

  8. Acceleration and rotation in a pendulum ride, measured using an iPhone 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Rohlén, Johan

    2011-11-01

    Many modern cell phones have built-in sensors that may be used as a resource for physics education. Amusement rides offer examples of many different types of motion, where the acceleration leads to forces experienced throughout the body. A comoving 3D-accelerometer gives an electronic measurement of the varying forces acting on the rider, but a complete description of a motion also requires measurement of the rotation around the three axes, as provided, for example, by the iPhone 4. Here we present and interpret accelerometer and gyroscope data that were collected on a rotary pendulum ride.

  9. An Acceleration Measurement Capability on International Space Station Supporting Microgravity Science Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    The conditions present in low-earth-orbit have enabled various scientific investigations to be conducted. A fundamental reason that space is a useful environment for science is the presence of a decreased effect of gravity while in orbital free-fall. Science investigations are conducted to study phenomena occurring as a result of reductions in buoyancy forces and phenomena enabled as a result of the apparent lack of gravity. The science community requires knowledge of the environment in which their experiments are being conducted. A general purpose measurement system was developed in the 1980's to supply scientific investigators with data of the residual acceleration environment. The Space Acceleration Measurement System, or SAMS, has flown aboard the NASA shuttle fleet over fourteen times, successfully acquiring acceleration measurement data in support of microgravity science experiments. As NASA continues its development of the International Space Station and its associated research payloads, it once again becomes necessary to address the requirement to measure the residual acceleration in support of the planned scientific investigations. As a follow-on to the SAMS project, SAMS-2 was initiated to investigate the requirements and develop the measurement system to support the microgravity science payloads aboard the International Space Station. The characteristics of the payload complement to be supported by SAMS-2 and the different capabilities provided by the station requires a fresh look at the design implementation of a general purpose measurement system. Not only is there a requirement for measurements in support of numerous, potentially simultaneous experiments, but this support is required to be provided for at least ten years of on-orbit operation as compared to a ten to fourteen day mission on shuttle. These differences in fundamental requirements result in the design configuration of the space station-based SAMS-2 being significantly different than that

  10. Experimental study of a shock accelerated water layer with imaging and velocity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meekunnasombat, P.; Oakley, J. G.; Anderson, M. H.; Bonazza, R.

    A shock tube investigation of a shocked water layer is undertaken to study the mitigating effects that a liquid sheet may provide for the protection of cooling tubes in an inertial fusion energy reactor chamber. The shock wave blast from the fusion microexplosion will cause the protecting liquid layer to break apart and the liquid droplets will then be suspended throughout the chamber. Some reactor designs require clearing the chamber (approximately 115 m3) between reactions, and therefore, the understanding of how a shock-accelerated liquid layer breaks up could be a critical consideration in the design. A large vertical shock tube is used to conduct shock-accelerated liquid layer experiments to model this scenario. A planar shock wave contacts, and then accelerates, a water layer down the shock tube where it is imaged in the test section using shadowgraphy and laser sheet techniques. Quantitative data of the water layer velocity inside the shock tube is measured using an array of photodiodes. It is found that the measured velocity of the leading edge of the shocked water layer is nearly constant, and this velocity is slightly less than the particle velocity behind the incident shock.

  11. Development of backsheet tests and measurements to improve correlation of accelerated exposures to fielded modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felder, Thomas C.; Gambogi, William J.; Kopchick, James G.; Amspacher, Lucas; Peacock, R. Scott; Foltz, Benjamin; Stika, Katherine M.; Bradley, Alexander Z.; Hamzavy, Babak; Yu, Bao-Ling; Garreau-iles, Lucie; Fu, Oakland; Hu, Hongjie; Trout, T. John

    2015-09-01

    Matching accelerated test results to field observations is an important objective in the photovoltaic industry. We continue to develop test methods to strengthen correlations. We have previously reported good correlation of FTIR spectra between accelerated tests and field measurements. The availability of portable FTIR spectrometers has made measurement in the field convenient and reliable. Recently, nano-indentation has shown promise to correlate changes in backsheet mechanical properties. A precisely shaped stylus is pressed into a sample, load vs displacement recorded and mechanical properties of interest calculated in a nondestructive test. This test can be done on full size modules, allowing area variations in mechanical properties to be recorded. Finally, we will discuss optical profilometry. In this technique a white light interferogram of a surface is Fourier transformed to produce a three-dimensional image. Height differences from 1 nm to 5 mm can be detected over an area of a few cm. This technique can be used on minimodules, and is useful to determine crack and defect dimensions. Results will be presented correlating accelerated tests with fielded modules covering spectroscopic, mechanical, and morphological changes.

  12. SAMS Acceleration Measurements on Mir From January to May 1997 (NASA Increment 4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1998-01-01

    During NASA Increment 4 (January to May 1997), about 5 gigabytes of acceleration data were collected by the Space Acceleration Measurements System (SAMS) onboard the Russian Space Station, Mir. The data were recorded on 28 optical disks which were returned to Earth on STS-84. During this increment, SAMS data were collected in the Priroda module to support the Mir Structural Dynamics Experiment (MiSDE), the Binary Colloidal Alloy Tests (BCAT), Angular Liquid Bridge (ALB), Candle Flames in Microgravity (CFM), Diffusion Controlled Apparatus Module (DCAM), Enhanced Dynamic Load Sensors (EDLS), Forced Flow Flame Spreading Test (FFFT), Liquid Metal Diffusion (LMD), Protein Crystal Growth in Dewar (PCG/Dewar), Queen's University Experiments in Liquid Diffusion (QUELD), and Technical Evaluation of MIM (TEM). This report points out some of the salient features of the microgravity environment to which these experiments were exposed. Also documented are mission events of interest such as the docked phase of STS-84 operations, a Progress engine burn, Soyuz vehicle docking and undocking, and Progress vehicle docking. This report presents an overview of the SAMS acceleration measurements recorded by 10 Hz and 100 Hz sensor heads. The analyses included herein complement those presented in previous summary reports prepared by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services (PIMS) group.

  13. Optical measurement of velocity and drag coefficient of droplets accelerated by shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirahara, H.; Kawahashi, M.

    2005-02-01

    The drag coefficient of micron-sized droplets accelerated by a shock wave has been investigated. The motion of the droplets was studied by an optical measurement system, and an inertial relaxation in the mist flow is discussed in detail. An expansion-shock tube was employed in the present experiment, in which water droplets were produced by a homogeneous condensation when humid nitrogen gas expanded adiabatically in the test section. The local mean diameter and local number density of the droplet cloud were 1.0 μm and on the order of 1012 particles/m3, respectively, as estimated using a light scattering measurement in a preliminary experiment. The droplet cloud accelerated behind a shock wave was observed using a direct shadowgraph method with a spatial filter. Since the intensity of transmitted light through the mist flow is a function of the radius and number density of droplets, we can obtain the locally averaged number density distribution under an adequate approximation. The transmitted light intensity was related to the velocity distribution of droplets under the adequate assumption. So, the acceleration of droplets was estimated from the velocity ratio between the droplets and gas flow. Then, the drag coefficient was calculated for the particle Reynolds number. The experimental result was also compared to a numerical prediction.

  14. Fusion-neutron measurements for magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments on the Z accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, K. D.; Chandler, G. A.; Ruiz, C. L.; Cooper, G. W.; Gomez, M. R.; Slutz, S.; Sefkow, A. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Hansen, S. B.; Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Harding, E.; Jennings, C. A.; Awe, T. J.; Geissel, M.; Rovang, D. C.; Torres, J. A.; Bur, J. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Glebov, V. Yu; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Herrman, M. C.; Hess, M. H.; Johns, O.; Jones, B.; Lamppa, D. C.; Lash, J. S.; Martin, M. R.; McBride, R. D.; Peterson, K. J.; Porter, J. L.; Reneker, J.; Robertson, G. K.; Rochau, G. A.; Savage, M. E.; Smith, I. C.; Styron, J. D.; Vesey, R. A.

    2016-05-01

    Several magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) experiments have been conducted on the Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories since late 2013. Measurements of the primary DD (2.45 MeV) neutrons for these experiments suggest that the neutron production is thermonuclear. Primary DD yields up to 3e12 with ion temperatures ∼2-3 keV have been achieved. Measurements of the secondary DT (14 MeV) neutrons indicate that the fuel is significantly magnetized. Measurements of down-scattered neutrons from the beryllium liner suggest ρRliner∼1g/cm2. Neutron bang times, estimated from neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) measurements, coincide with peak x-ray production. Plans to improve and expand the Z neutron diagnostic suite include neutron burn-history diagnostics, increased sensitivity and higher precision nTOF detectors, and neutron recoil-based yield and spectral measurements.

  15. An intercomparison of neutron measurments for a 25 MV x-ray radiotherapy accelerator.

    PubMed

    Nath, R; Price, K W; Holeman, G R

    1980-01-01

    High-energy x-ray radiotherapy machines produce neutrons by photonuclear reactions which present a potential radiation hazard to the personnel and patient. A series of measurements of the neutron flux from a 25 MV x-ray linear accelerator, inside and outside the treatment room, have been performed using a multisphere spectrometer, Nemo dosimeter, and activation detectors. These results are compared with other mixed photon-neutron field measurements for the same machine performed using an argon/propane ionization chamber, silicon diode, track-etching detectors, and Monte Carlo calculations. It is found that these measurements agree with each other within a factor of two except for silicon diode measurements in the photon beam. Measured neutron spectra at various locations in the treatment room are also compared with the results of Monte Carlo transport calculations.

  16. Raman distributed temperature measurement at CERN high energy accelerator mixed field radiation test facility (CHARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toccafondo, Iacopo; Nannipieri, Tiziano; Signorini, Alessandro; Guillermain, Elisa; Kuhnhenn, Jochen; Brugger, Markus; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present a validation of distributed Raman temperature sensing (RDTS) at the CERN high energy accelerator mixed field radiation test facility (CHARM), newly developed in order to qualify electronics for the challenging radiation environment of accelerators and connected high energy physics experiments. By investigating the effect of wavelength dependent radiation induced absorption (RIA) on the Raman Stokes and anti-Stokes light components in radiation tolerant Ge-doped multi-mode (MM) graded-index optical fibers, we demonstrate that Raman DTS used in loop configuration is robust to harsh environments in which the fiber is exposed to a mixed radiation field. The temperature profiles measured on commercial Ge-doped optical fibers is fully reliable and therefore, can be used to correct the RIA temperature dependence in distributed radiation sensing systems based on P-doped optical fibers.

  17. Influence of tungsten fiber's slow drift on the measurement of G with angular acceleration method.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Wu, Wei-Huang; Xue, Chao; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Zhan, Wen-Ze; Wu, Jun-Fei; Milyukov, Vadim

    2016-08-01

    In the measurement of the gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method, the equilibrium position of torsion pendulum with tungsten fiber undergoes a linear slow drift, which results in a quadratic slow drift on the angular velocity of the torsion balance turntable under feedback control unit. The accurate amplitude determination of the useful angular acceleration signal with known frequency is biased by the linear slow drift and the coupling effect of the drifting equilibrium position and the room fixed gravitational background signal. We calculate the influences of the linear slow drift and the complex coupling effect on the value of G, respectively. The result shows that the bias of the linear slow drift on G is 7 ppm, and the influence of the coupling effect is less than 1 ppm. PMID:27587137

  18. Influence of tungsten fiber's slow drift on the measurement of G with angular acceleration method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jie; Wu, Wei-Huang; Xue, Chao; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Zhan, Wen-Ze; Wu, Jun-Fei; Milyukov, Vadim

    2016-08-01

    In the measurement of the gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method, the equilibrium position of torsion pendulum with tungsten fiber undergoes a linear slow drift, which results in a quadratic slow drift on the angular velocity of the torsion balance turntable under feedback control unit. The accurate amplitude determination of the useful angular acceleration signal with known frequency is biased by the linear slow drift and the coupling effect of the drifting equilibrium position and the room fixed gravitational background signal. We calculate the influences of the linear slow drift and the complex coupling effect on the value of G, respectively. The result shows that the bias of the linear slow drift on G is 7 ppm, and the influence of the coupling effect is less than 1 ppm.

  19. Voltage measurements at the vacuum post-hole convolute of the Z pulsed-power accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waisman, E. M.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M. E.; Wenger, D. F.; Fowler, W. E.; Johnson, W. A.; Basilio, L. I.; Coats, R. S.; Jennings, C. A.; Sinars, D. B.; Vesey, R. A.; Jones, B.; Ampleford, D. J.; Lemke, R. W.; Martin, M. R.; Schrafel, P. C.; Lewis, S. A.; Moore, J. K.; Savage, M. E.; Stygar, W. A.

    2014-12-01

    Presented are voltage measurements taken near the load region on the Z pulsed-power accelerator using an inductive voltage monitor (IVM). Specifically, the IVM was connected to, and thus monitored the voltage at, the bottom level of the accelerator's vacuum double post-hole convolute. Additional voltage and current measurements were taken at the accelerator's vacuum-insulator stack (at a radius of 1.6 m) by using standard D -dot and B -dot probes, respectively. During postprocessing, the measurements taken at the stack were translated to the location of the IVM measurements by using a lossless propagation model of the Z accelerator's magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) and a lumped inductor model of the vacuum post-hole convolute. Across a wide variety of experiments conducted on the Z accelerator, the voltage histories obtained from the IVM and the lossless propagation technique agree well in overall shape and magnitude. However, large-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations are more pronounced in the IVM records. It is unclear whether these larger oscillations represent true voltage oscillations at the convolute or if they are due to noise pickup and/or transit-time effects and other resonant modes in the IVM. Results using a transit-time-correction technique and Fourier analysis support the latter. Regardless of which interpretation is correct, both true voltage oscillations and the excitement of resonant modes could be the result of transient electrical breakdowns in the post-hole convolute, though more information is required to determine definitively if such breakdowns occurred. Despite the larger oscillations in the IVM records, the general agreement found between the lossless propagation results and the results of the IVM shows that large voltages are transmitted efficiently through the MITLs on Z . These results are complementary to previous studies [R. D. McBride et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120401 (2010)] that showed efficient

  20. A procedure for combining rotating-coil measurements of large-aperture accelerator magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Oliver; Fiscarelli, Lucio; Russenschuck, Stephan

    2016-05-01

    The rotating search coil is a precise and widely used tool for measuring the magnetic field harmonics of accelerator magnets. This paper deals with combining several such multipole measurements, in order to cover magnet apertures largely exceeding the diameter of the available search coil. The method relies on the scaling laws for multipole coefficients and on the method of analytic continuation along zero-homotopic paths. By acquiring several measurements of the integrated magnetic flux density at different transverse positions within the bore of the accelerator magnet, the uncertainty on the field harmonics can be reduced at the expense of tight tolerances on the positioning. These positioning tolerances can be kept under control by mounting the rotating coil and its motor-drive unit on precision alignment stages. Therefore, the proposed technique is able to yield even more precise results for the higher-order field components than a dedicated rotating search coil of larger diameter. Moreover, the versatility of the measurement bench is enhanced by avoiding the construction of rotating search coils of different measurement radii.

  1. Accurate Measurement of Velocity and Acceleration of Seismic Vibrations near Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Syed Javed; Imdadullah; Asghar, Mohammad Syed Jamil

    In spite of all prerequisite geological study based precautions, the sites of nuclear power plants are also susceptible to seismic vibrations and their consequent effects. The effect of the ongoing nuclear tragedy in Japan caused by an earthquake and its consequent tsunami on March 11, 2011 is currently beyond contemplations. It has led to a rethinking on nuclear power stations by various governments around the world. Therefore, the prediction of location and time of large earthquakes has regained a great importance. The earth crust is made up of several wide, thin and rigid plates like blocks which are in constant motion with respect to each other. A series of vibrations on the earth surface are produced by the generation of elastic seismic waves due to sudden rupture within the plates during the release of accumulated strain energy. The range of frequency of seismic vibrations is from 0 to 10 Hz. However, there appears a large variation in magnitude, velocity and acceleration of these vibrations. The response of existing or conventional methods of measurement of seismic vibrations is very slow, which is of the order of tens of seconds. A systematic and high resolution measurement of velocity and acceleration of these vibrations are useful to interpret the pattern of waves and their anomalies more accurately, which are useful for the prediction of an earthquake. In the proposed work, a fast rotating magnetic field (RMF) is used to measure the velocity and acceleration of seismic vibrations in the millisecond range. The broad spectrum of pulses within one second range, measured by proposed method, gives all possible values of instantaneous velocity and instantaneous acceleration of the seismic vibrations. The spectrum of pulses in millisecond range becomes available which is useful to measure the pattern of fore shocks to predict the time and location of large earthquakes more accurately. Moreover, instead of average, the peak values of these quantities are helpful

  2. Laboratory Measurements of Linear Electron Acceleration by Inertial Alfvén Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, J. W. R.

    2015-11-01

    Alfvén waves occur in conjunction with a significant fraction of auroral electron acceleration. Inertial mode Alfvén waves (vA >vte) in the auroral magnetosphere (2 - 4RE) with perpendicular scales on the order of the electron skin depth (c /ωpe) have a parallel electric field that, according to theory, is capable of nonlinearly accelerating suprathermal electrons to auroral energies. Unfortunately, due to space-time ambiguities of rocket and satellite measurements, it has not yet been possible to fully verify how Alfvén waves contribute to the production of accelerated electrons. To overcome the limitations of in situ spacecraft data, laboratory experiments have been carried out using the Large Plasma Device (LaPD), an NSF/DOE user facility at UCLA. An Electron Cyclotron Absorption (ECA) diagnostic has been developed to record the suprathermal parallel electron distribution function with 0.1% precision. The diagnostic records the electron distribution while inertial Alfvén waves simultaneously propagate through the plasma. Recent measurements have isolated oscillations of suprathermal electrons at the Alfvén wave frequency. Despite complications from boundary effects and the finite size of the experiment, a linear kinetic model has been produced that describes the experimental results. To our knowledge this is the first quantitative agreement between the measured and modeled linear response of suprathermal electrons to an inertial Alfvén wave. This verification of the linear physics is a necessary step before the nonlinear acceleration process can be isolated in future experiments. Presently, nonlinear effects cannot be detected because of limited Alfvén wave amplitudes. Ongoing work is focused on designing a higher-power antenna capable of efficiently launching larger-amplitude Alfvén waves with tunable perpendicular wavenumber and developing a theoretical understanding of the nonlinear acceleration process in LaPD plasma conditions. This material is

  3. Transverse Beam Emittance Measurements of a 16 MeV Linac at the Idaho Accelerator Center

    SciTech Connect

    S. Setiniyaz, T.A. Forest, K. Chouffani, Y. Kim, A. Freyberger

    2012-07-01

    A beam emittance measurement of the 16 MeV S-band High Repetition Rate Linac (HRRL) was performed at Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC). The HRRL linac structure was upgraded beyond the capabilities of a typical medical linac so it can achieve a repetition rate of 1 kHz. Measurements of the HRRL transverse beam emittance are underway that will be used to optimize the production of positrons using HRRL's intense electron beam on a tungsten converter. In this paper, we describe a beam imaging system using on an OTR screen and a digital CCD camera, a MATLAB tool to extract beamsize and emittance, detailed measurement procedures, and the measured transverse emittances for an arbitrary beam energy of 15 MeV.

  4. High temperature pyrolysis to extract 36Cl for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornett, R. J.; Andrews, H. R.; Chant, L.; Chaput, T.; Imahori, Y.; Jirovec, J.; Kramer, S.; Koslowsky, V. T.; Milton, G. M.; Milton, J. C. D.

    1996-10-01

    36Cl and stable Cl were extracted from solids by high temperature pyrolysis and then analyzed by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). Cl was quantitatively extracted from rock, ore, vegetation and freshwater sediments in samples weighing from 100 mg to 2 g. 36Cl:Cl activity ratios measured following Cl extraction by pyrolysis agreed with those measured following Cl extraction by acid leaching. The simple pyrolysis extraction has the additional advantages that stable Cl - can be measured on the same sample along with other anions, the 36Cl:Cl ratio can be adjusted by diluting the known Cl - concentration in the collection solution to control the activity of 36Cl in the target and the potential interference of 36S can also be assessed prior to the AMS measurements.

  5. A hybrid data acquisition system for magnetic measurements of accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Hafalia, R.; Joseph, J.; Lizarazo, J.; Martchevsky, M.; Sabbi, G. L.

    2011-06-03

    A hybrid data acquisition system was developed for magnetic measurement of superconducting accelerator magnets at LBNL. It consists of a National Instruments dynamic signal acquisition (DSA) card and two Metrolab fast digital integrator (FDI) cards. The DSA card records the induced voltage signals from the rotating probe while the FDI cards records the flux increment integrated over a certain angular step. This allows the comparison of the measurements performed with two cards. In this note, the setup and test of the system is summarized. With a probe rotating at a speed of 0.5 Hz, the multipole coefficients of two magnets were measured with the hybrid system. The coefficients from the DSA and FDI cards agree with each other, indicating that the numerical integration of the raw voltage acquired by the DSA card is comparable to the performance of the FDI card in the current measurement setup.

  6. The AEgIS experiment at CERN for the measurement of antihydrogen gravity acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scampoli, Paola; Storey, James

    2014-05-01

    The Antihydrogen Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy (AEgIS) experiment is conducted by an international collaboration based at CERN whose aim is to perform the first direct measurement of the gravitational acceleration of antihydrogen in the local field of the Earth, with Δg/g = 1% precision as a first achievement. The idea is to produce cold (100 mK) antihydrogen (\\bar H) through a pulsed charge exchange reaction by overlapping clouds of antiprotons, from the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) and positronium atoms inside a Penning trap. The antihydrogen has to be produced in an excited Rydberg state to be subsequently accelerated to form a beam. The deflection of the antihydrogen beam can then be measured by using a moiré deflectometer coupled to a position sensitive detector to register the impact point of the anti-atoms through the vertex reconstruction of their annihilation products. After being approved in late 2008, AEgIS started taking data in a commissioning phase in 2012. This paper presents an outline of the experiment with a brief overview of its physics motivation and of the state-of-the-art of the g measurement on antimatter. Particular attention is given to the current status of the emulsion-based position detector needed to measure the \\bar H sag in AEgIS.

  7. Fuel retention measurements in Alcator C-Mod using accelerator-based in situ materials surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwig, Zachary S.; Barnard, Harold S.; Sorbom, Brandon N.; Lanza, Richard C.; Lipschultz, Bruce; Stahle, Peter W.; Whyte, Dennis G.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the first in situ time- and space-resolved measurements of deuterium (D) fuel retention in plasma-facing component (PFC) surfaces using Accelerator-based In-situ Materials Surveillance (AIMS) on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. AIMS is a novel in situ materials diagnostic technique based on the spectroscopic analysis of nuclear reaction products induced in PFC surfaces using an ∼MeV beam of deuterons from a compact linear accelerator in between plasma shots. AIMS measurements of D retention on inner wall PFCs were acquired during diverted and limited plasma operations and during wall conditioning experiments. Intershot measurements demonstrate the local erosion and codeposition of boron films on PFC surfaces with a constant D / B ratio. This is consistent with previous results suggesting that D codeposition with boron is insufficient to account for the net retention observed in Alcator C-Mod. Changes in deuterium concentration during boronization, electron cyclotron and glow cleanings were also measured.

  8. Measurement and calculation of neutron leakage from a medical electron accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Uwamino, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Ohkubo, T.; Hara, A.

    1986-05-01

    The leakage neutron spectra and dose equivalent were systematically measured in the irradiation field, treatment room, maze, and outside the shielding door at the microtron medical electron accelerator facility of the National Cancer Center, Tokyo. For these measurements, we used two types of multimoderator neutron spectrometers (Bonner spheres containing indium activation detectors and /sup 3/He detector), an aluminum activation detector, and a commercially available neutron rem counter. The measured results were compared with the combined calculation of the one-dimensional ANISN and two-dimensional DOT3.5 discrete ordinates transport codes. The calculation was performed by using a measured source spectrum in the irradiation field and by computer modeling of the maze entrance. The calculation indicated good agreement in spectral shape and agreement with experiment within a factor of 2 in absolute dose-equivalent values. This transport calculation was systematically repeated for different geometrical and material parameters, and simple analytical formulas and their parameters applicable for shielding design of a medical electron accelerator facility were obtained in general form.

  9. Validity and reliability of GPS for measuring instantaneous velocity during acceleration, deceleration, and constant motion.

    PubMed

    Varley, Matthew C; Fairweather, Ian H; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the validity and reliability of 5 and 10 Hz global positioning systems (GPS) for measuring instantaneous velocity during acceleration, deceleration, and constant velocity while straight-line running. Three participants performed 80 running trials while wearing two GPS units each (5 Hz, V2.0 and 10 Hz, V4.0; MinimaxX, Catapult Innovations, Scoresby, VIC, Australia). The criterion measure used to assess GPS validity was instantaneous velocity recorded using a tripod-mounted laser. Validity was established using the standard error of the estimate (± 90% confidence limits). Reliability was determined using typical error (± 90% confidence limits, expressed as coefficient of variation) and Pearson's correlation. The 10 Hz GPS devices were two to three times more accurate than the 5 Hz devices when compared with a criterion value for instantaneous velocity during tasks completed at a range of velocities (coefficient of variation 3.1-11.3%). Similarly, the 10 Hz GPS units were up to six-fold more reliable for measuring instantaneous velocity than the 5 Hz units (coefficient of variation 1.9-6.0%). Newer GPS may provide an acceptable tool for the measurement of constant velocity, acceleration, and deceleration during straight-line running and have sufficient sensitivity for detecting changes in performance in team sport. However, researchers must account for the inherent match-to-match variation reported when using these devices.

  10. Measurement of performance using acceleration control and pulse control in simulated spacecraft docking operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brody, Adam R.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1992-01-01

    Nine commercial airline pilots served as test subjects in a study to compare acceleration control with pulse control in simulated spacecraft maneuvers. Simulated remote dockings of an orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV) to a space station were initiated from 50, 100, and 150 meters along the station's -V-bar (minus velocity vector). All unsuccessful missions were reflown. Five way mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) with one between factor, first mode, and four within factors (mode, bloch, range, and trial) were performed on the data. Recorded performance measures included mission duration and fuel consumption along each of the three coordinate axes. Mission duration was lower with pulse mode, while delta V (fuel consumption) was lower with acceleration mode. Subjects used more fuel to travel faster with pulse mode than with acceleration mode. Mission duration, delta V, X delta V, Y delta V., and Z delta V all increased with range. Subjects commanded the OMV to 'fly' at faster rates from further distances. These higher average velocities were paid for with increased fuel consumption. Asymmetrical transfer was found in that the mode transitions could not be predicted solely from the mission duration main effect. More testing is advised to understand the manual control aspects of spaceflight maneuvers better.

  11. Results of Measurements of Accelerations of Technological Devices onboard the FotonSpacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmin, I. V.; Volkov, M. V.; Egorov, A. V.; Reut, E. F.; Senchenkov, A. S.

    2001-07-01

    This paper generalizes the results of measuring the residual accelerations arising when investigations in space materials science are carried out onboard the unmanned Fotonspacecraft. The levels of vibroaccelerations are analyzed in the frequency band of 1 500 Hz for the technological devices UZ01, UZ04, and POLIZON, developed by the Federal Unitary State Enterprise “Barmin Design Bureau of General Machine Building” (V.P. Barmin KBOM). The levels of accelerations are estimated in the frequency band of 0 1 Hz in the zone of technological operations of these facilities. The basic sources of vibroaccelerations acting upon the frames of devices are determined in the capsule zone, where technological processes of producing new materials take place. In the frequency band of 1 500 Hz the vibroaccelerations are shown to be generated by the operation of Fotonspacecraft units and a drive of capsule translation during the technological process. On the capsule frame they reach the values of (1 3) × 10 3 g. The level of linear accelerations in the infralow-frequency band is determined by rotational motions of the Fotonspacecraft. It depends on the device location with respect to the spacecraft center of mass and does not exceed (1 7) × 10 6 gin the steady-state regime in the zone of technological activity.

  12. Continuous wavelet transform analysis of acceleration signals measured from a wave buoy.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Laurence Zsu-Hsin; Wu, Li-Chung; Wang, Jong-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Accelerometers, which can be installed inside a floating platform on the sea, are among the most commonly used sensors for operational ocean wave measurements. To examine the non-stationary features of ocean waves, this study was conducted to derive a wavelet spectrum of ocean waves and to synthesize sea surface elevations from vertical acceleration signals of a wave buoy through the continuous wavelet transform theory. The short-time wave features can be revealed by simultaneously examining the wavelet spectrum and the synthetic sea surface elevations. The in situ wave signals were applied to verify the practicality of the wavelet-based algorithm. We confirm that the spectral leakage and the noise at very-low-frequency bins influenced the accuracies of the estimated wavelet spectrum and the synthetic sea surface elevations. The appropriate thresholds of these two factors were explored. To study the short-time wave features from the wave records, the acceleration signals recorded from an accelerometer inside a discus wave buoy are analysed. The results from the wavelet spectrum show the evidence of short-time nonlinear wave events. Our study also reveals that more surface profiles with higher vertical asymmetry can be found from short-time nonlinear wave with stronger harmonic spectral peak. Finally, we conclude that the algorithms of continuous wavelet transform are practical for revealing the short-time wave features of the buoy acceleration signals. PMID:23966188

  13. Temporal evolution and electric potential structure of the auroral acceleration region from multispacecraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsyth, C.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Walsh, A. P.; Watt, C. E.; Garza, K.; Owen, C. J.; Constantinescu, D. O.; Dandouras, I. S.; Fornacon, K.; Lucek, E. A.; Marklund, G. T.; Sadeghi, S. S.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Masson, A.; Doss, N.

    2013-12-01

    Bright aurorae can be excited by the acceleration of electrons into the atmosphere in violation of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. Modelling studies predict that the accelerating electric potential consists of electric double layers at the boundaries of an acceleration region but observations suggest that particle acceleration occurs throughout this region. Using multispacecraft observations from Cluster, we have examined two upward current regions on 14 December 2009. Our observations show that the potential difference below C4 and C3 changed by up to 1.7 kV between their respective crossings, which were separated by 150 s. The field-aligned current density observed by C3 was also larger than that observed by C4. The potential drop above C3 and C4 was approximately the same in both crossings. Using a novel technique of quantitively comparing the electron spectra measured by Cluster 1 and 3, which were separated in altitude, we determine when these spacecraft made effectively magnetically conjugate observations, and we use these conjugate observations to determine the instantaneous distribution of the potential drop in the AAR. Our observations show that an average of 15% of the potential drop in the AAR was located between C1 at 6235 km and C3 at 4685 km altitude, with a maximum potential drop between the spacecraft of 500 V, and that the majority of the potential drop was below C3. Assuming a spatial invariance along the length of the upward current region, we discuss these observations in terms of temporal changes and the vertical structure of the electrostatic potential drop and in the context of existing models and previous single- and multispacecraft observations.

  14. Temporal evolution and electric potential structure of the auroral acceleration region from multispacecraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsyth, C.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Walsh, A. P.; Watt, C. E. J.; Garza, K. J.; Owen, C. J.; Constantinescu, D.; Dandouras, I.; FornaçOn, K.-H.; Lucek, E.; Marklund, G. T.; Sadeghi, S. S.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Masson, A.; Doss, N.

    2012-12-01

    Bright aurorae can be excited by the acceleration of electrons into the atmosphere in violation of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. Modeling studies predict that the accelerating electric potential consists of electric double layers at the boundaries of an acceleration region but observations suggest that particle acceleration occurs throughout this region. Using multispacecraft observations from Cluster, we have examined two upward current regions on 14 December 2009. Our observations show that the potential difference below C4 and C3 changed by up to 1.7 kV between their respective crossings, which were separated by 150 s. The field-aligned current density observed by C3 was also larger than that observed by C4. The potential drop above C3 and C4 was approximately the same in both crossings. Using a novel technique of quantitively comparing the electron spectra measured by Cluster 1 and 3, which were separated in altitude, we determine when these spacecraft made effectively magnetically conjugate observations, and we use these conjugate observations to determine the instantaneous distribution of the potential drop in the AAR. Our observations show that an average of 15% of the potential drop in the AAR was located between C1 at 6235 km and C3 at 4685 km altitude, with a maximum potential drop between the spacecraft of 500 V, and that the majority of the potential drop was below C3. Assuming a spatial invariance along the length of the upward current region, we discuss these observations in terms of temporal changes and the vertical structure of the electrostatic potential drop and in the context of existing models and previous single- and multispacecraft observations.

  15. Analytical Validation of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for Pharmaceutical Development: the Measurement of Carbon-14 Isotope Ratio.

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, B D; Ognibene, T; Vogel, J S

    2010-02-05

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an isotope based measurement technology that utilizes carbon-14 labeled compounds in the pharmaceutical development process to measure compounds at very low concentrations, empowers microdosing as an investigational tool, and extends the utility of {sup 14}C labeled compounds to dramatically lower levels. It is a form of isotope ratio mass spectrometry that can provide either measurements of total compound equivalents or, when coupled to separation technology such as chromatography, quantitation of specific compounds. The properties of AMS as a measurement technique are investigated here, and the parameters of method validation are shown. AMS, independent of any separation technique to which it may be coupled, is shown to be accurate, linear, precise, and robust. As the sensitivity and universality of AMS is constantly being explored and expanded, this work underpins many areas of pharmaceutical development including drug metabolism as well as absorption, distribution and excretion of pharmaceutical compounds as a fundamental step in drug development. The validation parameters for pharmaceutical analyses were examined for the accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of {sup 14}C/C ratio, independent of chemical separation procedures. The isotope ratio measurement was specific (owing to the {sup 14}C label), stable across samples storage conditions for at least one year, linear over 4 orders of magnitude with an analytical range from one tenth Modern to at least 2000 Modern (instrument specific). Further, accuracy was excellent between 1 and 3 percent while precision expressed as coefficient of variation is between 1 and 6% determined primarily by radiocarbon content and the time spent analyzing a sample. Sensitivity, expressed as LOD and LLOQ was 1 and 10 attomoles of carbon-14 (which can be expressed as compound equivalents) and for a typical small molecule labeled at 10% incorporated with {sup 14}C corresponds to 30 fg

  16. Quick look report of acceleration measurements on Mir Space Station during Mir-16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delombard, Richard; Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) sponsors the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) to support microgravity science experiments with microgravity acceleration measurements. In the past, SAMS was flown exclusively on the NASA Orbiters. MSAD is currently sponsoring science experiments participating in the Shuttle-Mir Science Program in cooperation with the Russians on the Mir space station. Included in the complement of MSAD experiments and equipment is a SAMS unit installed on the Mir space station. On 25 August 1994, the SAMS unit was launched on a Russia Progress vehicle to the Mir space station. The SAMS unit will support science experiments from the U.S. and Russia in a manner similar to the Orbiter missions by measuring the microgravity environments during the experiment operations. In October 1994, the SAMS unit recorded data on Mir for over fifty-three hours in seven different time periods to survey possible locations for future experiments. This report presents a quick look at the data and the microgravity environment during the time periods in which SAMS data were acquired. The Mir acceleration data were examined to ascertain gross attributes of the data. This report does not present an exhaustive examination of all possible activities due to the short time available to prepare this quick look report and due to the absence of complete timeline information during the SAMS recording time periods. Appendices A, B and C provide plots of the SAMS data for an overview of the microgravity environment at the times that data were recorded. Appendix D describes the procedures to access SAMS data by file transfer protocol (ftp) utilizing the internet. Appendix E contains a user comment sheet.

  17. A novel active optical approach for acceleration measurement based on a Y-shaped cavity dual-frequency laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Guangzong; Long, Xingwu; Zhang, Bin; Jin, Shilong

    2012-03-01

    A novel active optical approach for acceleration measurement based on a Y-shaped cavity dual-frequency laser is presented and demonstrated. Applied acceleration causes a change in the refractivity of sensing gas in one of the two cavities, resulting in a beat frequency variation between two orthogonal polarized lights. As a result, this approach produces a modulation of beat frequency strictly proportional to the input acceleration. Preliminary experiments with a 632.8 nm Y-shaped cavity He-Ne dual-frequency laser confirm the validity of the laser sensor. The experimental results show that the laser sensor in this approach characterizes a nearly linear response to the input acceleration, which is a projection of gravitational acceleration. The experimental values of the scale factors are mostly in good agreement with theoretical ones. By optimizing the optical and geometrical parameters of the laser sensor, an acceleration measurement resolution of 10 -5-10 -6 gravitational acceleration (within ±5 g measurement range) could be expected. Furthermore, we investigate the principle about the sign of the scale factor in detail, and propose a simple but efficient method to distinguish the direction of the acceleration acted on the laser sensor.

  18. Time-resolved energy spectrum measurement of a linear induction accelerator with the magnetic analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan; Jiang, Xiao-Guo; Yang, Guo-Jun; Chen, Si-Fu; Zhang, Zhuo; Wei, Tao; Li, Jin

    2015-01-01

    We recently set up a time-resolved optical beam diagnostic system. Using this system, we measured the high current electron beam energy in the accelerator under construction. This paper introduces the principle of the diagnostic system, describes the setup, and shows the results. A bending beam line was designed using an existing magnetic analyzer with a 300 mm-bending radius and a 60° bending angle at hard-edge approximation. Calculations show that the magnitude of the beam energy is about 18 MeV, and the energy spread is within 2%. Our results agree well with the initial estimates deduced from the diode voltage approach.

  19. Feedback control of torsion balance in measurement of gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method

    SciTech Connect

    Quan, Li-Di; Xue, Chao; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Yang, Shan-Qing; Tu, Liang-Cheng; Luo, Jun; Wang, Yong-Ji

    2014-01-15

    The performance of the feedback control system is of central importance in the measurement of the Newton's gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method. In this paper, a PID (Proportion-Integration-Differentiation) feedback loop is discussed in detail. Experimental results show that, with the feedback control activated, the twist angle of the torsion balance is limited to 7.3×10{sup −7} rad /√( Hz ) at the signal frequency of 2 mHz, which contributes a 0.4 ppm uncertainty to the G value.

  20. Lessons from two field tests on pipeline damage detection using acceleration measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozuka, Masanobu; Lee, Sungchil; Kim, Sehwan; Chou, Pai H.

    2011-04-01

    Early detection of pipeline damages has been highlighted in water supply industry. Water pressure change in pipeline due to a sudden rupture causes pipe to vibrate and the pressure change propagates through the pipeline. From the measurement of pipe vibration the rupture can be detected. In this paper, the field test results and observations are provided for implementing next generation of SCADA system for pipeline rupture detection. Two field tests were performed on real buried plastic and metal pipelines for rupture detection. The rupture was simulated by introducing sudden water pressure drop caused by water blow-off and valve control. The measured acceleration data at the pipe surfaces were analyzed in both time and frequency domain. In time domain, the sudden narrow increase of acceleration amplitude was used as an indication of rupture event. For the frequency domain analysis, correlation function and the short time Fourier Transform technique were adopted to trace the dominant frequency shift. The success of rupture detection was found to be dependent on several factors. From the frequency analysis, the dominant frequency of metal water pipe was shifted by the water pressure drop, however, it was hard to identify from the plastic pipeline. Also the influence of existing facility such as airvac on pipe vibrations was observed. Finally, several critical lessons learned in the viewpoint of field measurement are discussed in this paper.

  1. The microphysics of particle acceleration in the auroral ionosphere: Why sounding rocket measurements are essential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldy, Roger L.

    1994-01-01

    Through the combination of attitude controlled, high altitude rockets (altitudes greater than 600 km), high telemetry rates (several megabits/sec), pitch angle imaging particle sensors and interferometric wave measurements giving wavelength in addition to frequency data, the series of TOPAZ flights have uncovered a low altitude acceleration mechanism by which ionospheric ions receive their initial energy transverse to B in order to leave the ionosphere and populate the trapped radiation. The transverse acceleration of oxygen and hydrogen ionospheric ions is the result of Landau resonance of these ions with intense (up to 400 mv/m) lower hybrid waves on the resonance cone within caviton structures. Future work is directed toward trying to measure the size of the solitary wave structures. From a statistical argument, they appear to be the order of 100 m across B and much longer in dimension along B. Important questions remain: are there other low altitude heating mechanisms acting as well; is the dayside ion outflow driven differently. To answer these questions, it is intended to make sounding rocket measurements in the cusp/cleft region. The proposed Norwegian rocket launch facility at Svalbard could play a very important role by providing easy access to the cusp/cleft region.

  2. Anode power deposition in quasi-steady MPD arcs. [accelerator anode heat flux measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saber, A. J.; Jahn, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    The power deposited in the anode of a quasi-steady MPD accelerator has been measured directly by thermocouples attached to the inside surface of a shell anode which provide a local measurement of anode heat flux. The results over a range of arc currents from 5.5 to 44 kiloamperes and argon mass flows from 1 g/sec to 48 g/sec show that the fraction of the total input power deposited in the anode decreases drastically from 50% at an arc power of 200 kW to 10% at 20 MW, and that anode power is not uniformly deposited in the anode. A theoretical model of the anode heat transfer, including effects of anode work function, electron thermal energy, and anode sheath, can be brought into reasonable agreement with the measurements, provided the effective range of the conduction electrons from within the discharge plasma to the anode surface is properly acknowledged.

  3. Beam property measurement of a 300-kV ion source test stand for a 1-MV electrostatic accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Yu-Seok

    2016-09-01

    The KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) has been developing a 300-kV ion source test stand for a 1-MV electrostatic accelerator for industrial purposes. A RF ion source was operated at 200 MHz with its matching circuit. The beam profile and emittance were measured behind an accelerating column to confirm the beam property from the RF ion source. The beam profile was measured at the end of the accelerating tube and at the beam dump by using a beam profile monitor (BPM) and wire scanner. An Allison-type emittance scanner was installed behind the beam profile monitor (BPM) to measure the beam density in phase space. The measurement results for the beam profile and emittance are presented in this paper.

  4. Biomedical applications of accelerator mass spectrometry-isotope measurements at the level of the atom.

    PubMed

    Barker, J; Garner, R C

    1999-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a nuclear physics technique developed about twenty years ago, that uses the high energy (several MeV) of a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator to measure very small quantities of rare and long-lived isotopes. Elements that are of interest in biomedicine and environmental sciences can be measured, often to parts per quadrillion sensitivity, i.e. zeptomole to attomole levels (10(-21)-10(-18) mole) from milligram samples. This is several orders of magnitude lower than that achievable by conventional decay counting techniques, such as liquid scintillation counting (LSC). AMS was first applied to geochemical, climatological and archaeological areas, such as for radiocarbon dating (Shroud of Turin), but more recently this technology has been used for bioanalytical applications. In this sphere, most work has been conducted using aluminium, calcium and carbon isotopes. The latter is of special interest in drug metabolism studies, where a Phase 1 adsorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) study can be conducted using only 10 nanoCurie (37 Bq or ca. 0.9 microSv) amounts or less of 14C-labelled drugs. In the UK, these amounts of radioactivity are below those necessary to request specific regulatory approval from the Department of Health's Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee (ARSAC), thus saving on valuable development time and resources. In addition, the disposal of these amounts is much less an environmental issue than that associated with microCurie quantities, which are currently used. Also, AMS should bring an opportunity to conduct "first into man" studies without the need for widespread use of animals. Centre for Biomedical Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CBAMS) Ltd. is the first fully commercial company in the world to offer analytical services using AMS. With its high throughput and relatively low costs per sample analysis, AMS should be of great benefit to the pharmaceutical and biotechnology

  5. Active control of an innovative seat suspension system with acceleration measurement based friction estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Donghong; Sun, Shuaishuai; Li, Hongyi; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, an innovative active seat suspension system for vehicles is presented. This seat suspension prototype is built with two low cost actuators each of which has one rotary motor and one gear reducer. A H∞ controller with friction compensation is designed for the seat suspension control system where the friction is estimated and compensated based on the measurement of seat acceleration. This principal aim of this research was to control the low frequency vibration transferred or amplified by the vehicle (chassis) suspension, and to maintain the passivity of the seat suspension at high frequency (isolation vibration) while taking into consideration the trade-off between the active seat suspension cost and its high frequency performance. Sinusoidal excitations of 1-4.5 Hz were applied to test the active seat suspension both when controlled and when uncontrolled and this is compared with a well-tuned passive heavy duty vehicle seat suspension. The results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm within the tested frequencies. Further tests were conducted using the excitations generated from a quarter-car model under bump and random road profiles. The bump road tests indicate the controlled active seat suspension has good transient response performance. The Power Spectral Density (PSD) method and ISO 2631-1 standards were applied to analyse the seat suspension's acceleration under random road conditions. Although some low magnitude and high frequency noise will inevitably be introduced by the active system, the weighted-frequency Root Mean Square (RMS) acceleration shows that this may not have a large effect on ride comfort. In fact, the ride comfort is improved from being an 'a little uncomfortable' to a 'not uncomfortable' level when compared with the well-tuned passive seat suspension. This low cost active seat suspension design and the proposed controller with the easily measured feedback signals are very practical for real

  6. Measurement of Actinides in Environmental Samples at Micro-Becquerel Levels by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T A; Knezovich, J P; Marchetti, A A; Hamilton, T F

    2002-09-03

    The need for ultra-sensitive actinide measurements continues to expand in the fields of environmental stewardship, nuclear isotope forensics, radiobioassay and environmental research. We have developed a heavy isotope accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS). The system was designed particularly for the measurement of actinide concentrations and isotopic ratios. A fast isotope switching capability has been incorporated in the system, allowing flexibility in isotope selection and for the quasi-continuous normalization to a reference isotope spike. Initially, our utilization of the system has concentrated on the measurement of Pu isotopes. Under current operating conditions, background levels equivalent to <10{sup 6} atoms are observed during routine {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu measurements. Measurements of samples containing 10{sup 13} {sup 238}U atoms demonstrate that the system provides a {sup 238}U rejection factor of >10{sup 7}. Recently, we have utilized the high dynamic range of the AMS system in measuring samples whose Pu contents ranged from <10{sup 6} (background) to >10{sup 11} Pu atoms. Measurements of known materials, combined with results from an externally organized intercomparison program, indicate that our {sup 239}Pu measurements are accurate and precise down to the {mu}Bq level ({approx}10{sup 6} atoms). The development of the heavy isotope system was undertaken with particular interest in the measurement of environmental samples, including soils, sediments, waters, air filters, tissue samples, and human urine. The high rejection of interferences, including molecular interferences, and low susceptibility to matrix components, provided by the AMS technique are of particular relevance for such complex samples. These two factors significantly reduce demands on sample preparation chemistry for Pu analyses, allowing relatively simple, cost-effective procedures

  7. Counting calories in cormorants: dynamic body acceleration predicts daily energy expenditure measured in pelagic cormorants.

    PubMed

    Stothart, Mason R; Elliott, Kyle H; Wood, Thomas; Hatch, Scott A; Speakman, John R

    2016-07-15

    The integral of the dynamic component of acceleration over time has been proposed as a measure of energy expenditure in wild animals. We tested that idea by attaching accelerometers to the tails of free-ranging pelagic cormorants (Phalacrocorax pelagicus) and simultaneously estimating energy expenditure using doubly labelled water. Two different formulations of dynamic body acceleration, [vectorial and overall DBA (VeDBA and ODBA)], correlated with mass-specific energy expenditure (both R(2)=0.91). VeDBA models combining and separately parameterizing flying, diving, activity on land and surface swimming were consistently considered more parsimonious than time budget models and showed less variability in model fit. Additionally, we observed evidence for the presence of hypometabolic processes (i.e. reduced heart rate and body temperature; shunting of blood away from non-essential organs) that suppressed metabolism in cormorants while diving, which was the most metabolically important activity. We concluded that a combination of VeDBA and physiological processes accurately measured energy expenditure for cormorants. PMID:27207639

  8. Motor recovery monitoring using acceleration measurements in post acute stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stroke is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality. Its recovery and treatment depends on close clinical monitoring by a clinician especially during the first few hours after the onset of stroke. Patients who do not exhibit early motor recovery post thrombolysis may benefit from more aggressive treatment. Method A novel approach for monitoring stroke during the first few hours after the onset of stroke using a wireless accelerometer based motor activity monitoring system is developed. It monitors the motor activity by measuring the acceleration of the arms in three axes. In the presented proof of concept study, the measured acceleration data is transferred wirelessly using iMote2 platform to the base station that is equipped with an online algorithm capable of calculating an index equivalent to the National Institute of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS) motor index. The system is developed by collecting data from 15 patients. Results We have successfully demonstrated an end-to-end stroke monitoring system reporting an accuracy of calculating stroke index of more than 80%, highest Cohen’s overall agreement of 0.91 (with excellent κ coefficient of 0.76). Conclusion A wireless accelerometer based ‘hot stroke’ monitoring system is developed to monitor the motor recovery in acute-stroke patients. It has been shown to monitor stroke patients continuously, which has not been possible so far with high reliability. PMID:23590690

  9. Maximal Energy of Solar Accelerators: evidence from space born and Earth's surface measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Bostanjyan, N.; Rostomyan, H.

    2013-05-01

    On January 20, 2005, 7:02-7:04 UT the Aragats Multidirectional Muon Monitor (AMMM) located at 3200 m registered enhancement of the high energy secondary muon flux (threshold ~5 GeV). The enhancement, lasting 3 min has statistical significance of ~4σ and was related to the X7.1 flare seen by the GOES, and very fast (>2500 km/s) CME seen by SOHO. Worldwide network of neutron monitors detects Ground Level Enhancements (GLE) #69 arriving very fast after flare; recovered energies of solar protons demonstrate rather hard spectra prolonged up to 10 GeV. The solar proton spectrum incident on the Earth's atmosphere was simulated and transport till AMMM detector located under 14 m of soil and concrete. The most probable minimal solar proton energy corresponding to the measured 5 GeV muon flux is within 20-25 GeV. On March 7, 2012 Large aperture telescope of Fermi gamma-ray observatory detected the ever highest energy gamma rays from the Sun with energy about 4 GeV. The minimal energy of the solar protons accelerated during the flare and producing 4 GeV gamma rays should be ~25 GeV. Thus, both measurements with secondary means and gamma rays prove the maximal energy of solar accelerators not smaller than 25 GeV.

  10. Actinide Measurements by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Cox, C C; Knezovich, J P; Hamilton, T F

    2003-09-25

    We report on the development of an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system for the measurement of actinides at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This AMS system is centered on a recently completed heavy isotope beam line that was designed particularly for high sensitivity, robust, high-throughput measurements of actinide concentrations and isotopic ratios. A fast isotope switching capability has been incorporated in the system, allowing flexibility in isotope selection and for the quasi-continuous normalization to a reference isotope spike. Initially, our utilization of the heavy isotope system has concentrated on the measurement of Pu isotopes. Under current operating conditions, background levels equivalent to {approx}1 x 10{sup 5} atoms are observed during routine {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu measurements. Measurements of samples containing {approx}10{sup 13} {sup 238}U atoms demonstrate that the system provides a {sup 238}U rejection factor during {sup 239}Pu measurements of {approx}10{sup 7}. Measurements of known materials, combined with results from an externally organized inter-comparison program, indicate that our {sup 239}Pu measurements are accurate and precise down to the {micro}Bq level ({approx}10{sup 6} atoms). Recently, we have investigated the performance of our heavy isotope AMS system in measurements of {sup 237}Np and {sup 236}U. Results of these investigations are discussed. The sensitivity shown by our Pu measurements, combined with the high throughput and interference rejection capabilities of our AMS system, demonstrate that AMS can provide a rapid and cost-effective measurement technique for actinides in a wide variety of studies.

  11. Measurements of the critical power for self-injection of electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Froula, D H; Clayton, C E; Doppner, T; Fonseca, R A; Marsh, K A; Barty, C J; Divol, L; Glenzer, S H; Joshi, C; Lu, W; Martins, S F; Michel, P; Mori, W; Palastro, J P; Pollock, B B; Pak, A; Ralph, J E; Ross, J S; Siders, C; Silva, L O; Wang, T

    2009-06-02

    A laser wakefield acceleration study has been performed in the matched, self-guided, blow-out regime where a 10 J, 60 fs laser produced 720 {+-} 50 MeV quasi-monoenergetic electrons with a divergence of {Delta}{theta} = 2.85 {+-} 0.15 mRad. While maintaining a nearly constant plasma density (3 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}), a linear electron energy gain was measured from 100 MeV to 700 MeV when the plasma length was scaled from 3 mm to 8 mm. Absolute charge measurements indicate that self-injection occurs when P/P{sub cr} > 4 and saturates around 100 pC for P/P{sub cr} > 12. The results are compared with both analytical scalings and full 3D particle-in-cell simulations.

  12. [Medical services for dementia in the Comprehensive Strategy to Accelerate Dementia Measures (New Orange Plan)].

    PubMed

    Awata, Shuichi

    2016-03-01

    The way to provide medical services for dementia was reviewed in the context of the Comprehensive Strategy to Accelerate Dementia Measures (New Orange Plan). The basic structure of service providing system consists of the primary and secondary care services. Both are expected to function in the context of the community-based integrated care system. Because of regional differences, prefectural government should take measures to make the Medical Center for Dementia function depending on local circumstances. Psychiatric services and general hospitals are expected to provide mental health services and treatment for concurrent medical conditions, respectively. Home medical care is expected to be fundamental services for persons with advanced-stage dementia. In super-aging society, the standard medical service for older persons should be adapted to older persons living with dementia.

  13. Generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses from the Stanford Superconducting Accelerator free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, B.A.; DeLong, K.W.; Trebino, R.

    1995-11-01

    The authors present results of frequency resolved optical gating (FROG) measurements on the Superconducting Accelerator (SCA) mid-IR free-electron laser (FEL) at Stanford. FROG retrieves complete amplitude and phase content of an optical pulse. First, they review the properties of FELs including the ability to tune wavelength and pulse length. In addition, the electron beam driving the FEL often affects the optical pulse shape. The SCA mid-IR FEL currently operates at wavelengths between 4 {micro}m and 10 {micro}m and its pulse length can be varied from 700 fs to 2 ps. They then describe details of the experimental layout and procedures particular to FELs and to the mid-IR. Finally, they show FROG measurements on the FEL including examples of nearly transform limited pulses, frequency chirped pulses, and pulses distorted by atmospheric water vapor absorption.

  14. Measurement of Magnetic-Field Structures in a Laser-Wakefield Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Kaluza, M. C.; Schlenvoigt, H.-P.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Dangor, A. E.; Najmudin, Z.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Krushelnick, K. M.; Schwoerer, H.; Mori, W. B.

    2010-09-10

    Experimental measurements of magnetic fields generated in the cavity of a self-injecting laser-wakefield accelerator are presented. Faraday rotation is used to determine the existence of multimegagauss fields, constrained to a transverse dimension comparable to the plasma wavelength {approx}{lambda}{sub p} and several {lambda}{sub p} longitudinally. The fields are generated rapidly and move with the driving laser. In our experiment, the appearance of the magnetic fields is correlated with the production of relativistic electrons, indicating that they are inherently tied to the growth and wave breaking of the nonlinear plasma wave. This evolution is confirmed by numerical simulations, showing that these measurements provide insight into the wakefield evolution with high spatial and temporal resolution.

  15. A fiber optics sensor for strain and stress measurements in superconducting accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Oort, J.M. van ); Kate, H.H.J. ten . Applied Superconductivity Centre)

    1994-07-01

    A novel cryogenic interferometric fiber optics sensor for the measurement of strain and stress in the coil windings of superconducting accelerator magnets is described. The sensor can operate with two different readout sources, monochromatic laser light and white light respectively. The sensor head is built up as an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer formed with two cleaved fiber surfaces, and can be mounted in several configurations. When read with laser light, the sensor is an extremely sensitive relative strain or temperature detector. When read with white light the absolute strain and pressure can be measured. Results are presented of tests in several configurations at 77 K and 4.2 K, both for the relative and absolute readout method. Finally, the possible use for quench localization using the temperature sensitivity is described.

  16. The radiation field measurement and analysis outside the shielding of A 10 MeV electron irradiation accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Jing; Li, Juexin; Xu, Bing; Li, Yuxiong

    2011-10-01

    Electron accelerators are employed widely for diverse purposes in the irradiation-processing industry, from sterilizing medical products to treating gemstones. Because accelerators offer high efficiency, high power, and require little preventative maintenance, they are becoming more and more popular than using the 60Co isotope approach. However, the electron accelerator exposes potential radiation hazards. To protect workers and the public from exposure to radiation, the radiation field around the electronic accelerator must be assessed, especially that outside the shielding. Thus, we measured the radiation dose at different positions outside the shielding of a 10-MeV electron accelerator using a new data-acquisition unit named Mini-DDL (Mini-Digital Data Logging). The measurements accurately reflect the accelerator's radiation status. In this paper, we present our findings, results and compare them with our theoretical calculations. We conclude that the measurements taken outside the irradiation hall are consistent with the findings from our calculations, except in the maze outside the door of the accelerator room. We discuss the reason for this discrepancy.

  17. Thrust Stand Measurements of the Microwave Assisted Discharge Inductive Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Emsellem, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed inductive plasma thrusters [1-3] are spacecraft propulsion devices in which electrical energy is capacitively stored and then discharged through an inductive coil. This type of pulsed thruster is electrodeless, with a time-varying current in the coil interacting with a plasma covering the face of the coil to induce a plasma current. Propellant is accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity (O(10-100 km/s)) by the Lorentz body force arising from the interaction of the magnetic field and the induced plasma current. While this class of thruster mitigates the life-limiting issues associated with electrode erosion, pulsed inductive plasma thrusters require high pulse energies to inductively ionize propellant. The Microwave Assisted Dis- charge Inductive Plasma Accelerator (MAD-IPA), shown in Fig. 1, is a pulsed inductive plasma thruster that addressees this issue by partially ionizing propellant inside a conical inductive coil before the main current pulse via an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge. The ECR plasma is produced using microwaves and a static magnetic field from a set of permanent magnets arranged to create a thin resonance region along the inner surface of the coil, restricting plasma formation, and in turn current sheet formation, to a region where the magnetic coupling between the plasma and the theta-pinch coil is high. The use of a conical theta-pinch coil also serves to provide neutral propellant containment and plasma plume focusing that is improved relative to the more common planar geometry of the Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT) [1, 2]. In this paper, we describe thrust stand measurements performed to characterize the performance (specific impulse, thrust efficiency) of the MAD-IPA thruster. Impulse data are obtained at various pulse energies, mass flow rates and inductive coil geometries. Dependencies on these experimental parameters are discussed in the context of the current sheet formation and electromagnetic plasma

  18. Output trends, characteristics, and measurements of three megavoltage radiotherapy linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Murshed

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize and understand the long-term behavior of the output from megavoltage radiotherapy linear accelerators. Output trends of nine beams from three linear accelerators over a period of more than three years are reported and analyzed. Output, taken during daily warm-up, forms the basis of this study. The output is measured using devices having ion chambers. These are not calibrated by accredited dosimetry laboratory, but are baseline-compared against monthly output which is measured using calibrated ion chambers. We consider the output from the daily check devices as it is, and sometimes normalized it by the actual output measured during the monthly calibration of the linacs. The data show noisy quasi-periodic behavior. The output variation, if normalized by monthly measured "real' output, is bounded between ± 3%. Beams of different energies from the same linac are correlated with a correlation coefficient as high as 0.97, for one particular linac, and as low as 0.44 for another. These maximum and minimum correlations drop to 0.78 and 0.25 when daily output is normalized by the monthly measurements. These results suggest that the origin of these correlations is both the linacs and the daily output check devices. Beams from different linacs, independent of their energies, have lower correlation coefficient, with a maximum of about 0.50 and a minimum of almost zero. The maximum correlation drops to almost zero if the output is normalized by the monthly measured output. Some scatter plots of pairs of beam output from the same linac show band-like structures. These structures are blurred when the output is normalized by the monthly calibrated output. Fourier decomposition of the quasi-periodic output is consistent with a 1/f power law. The output variation appears to come from a distorted normal distribution with a mean of slightly greater than unity. The quasi-periodic behavior is manifested in the seasonally averaged output

  19. Output trends, characteristics, and measurements of three megavoltage radiotherapy linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Murshed

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize and understand the long-term behavior of the output from megavoltage radiotherapy linear accelerators. Output trends of nine beams from three linear accelerators over a period of more than three years are reported and analyzed. Output, taken during daily warm-up, forms the basis of this study. The output is measured using devices having ion chambers. These are not calibrated by accredited dosimetry laboratory, but are baseline-compared against monthly output which is measured using calibrated ion chambers. We consider the output from the daily check devices as it is, and sometimes normalized it by the actual output measured during the monthly calibration of the linacs. The data show noisy quasi-periodic behavior. The output variation, if normalized by monthly measured "real' output, is bounded between ± 3%. Beams of different energies from the same linac are correlated with a correlation coefficient as high as 0.97, for one particular linac, and as low as 0.44 for another. These maximum and minimum correlations drop to 0.78 and 0.25 when daily output is normalized by the monthly measurements. These results suggest that the origin of these correlations is both the linacs and the daily output check devices. Beams from different linacs, independent of their energies, have lower correlation coefficient, with a maximum of about 0.50 and a minimum of almost zero. The maximum correlation drops to almost zero if the output is normalized by the monthly measured output. Some scatter plots of pairs of beam output from the same linac show band-like structures. These structures are blurred when the output is normalized by the monthly calibrated output. Fourier decomposition of the quasi-periodic output is consistent with a 1/f power law. The output variation appears to come from a distorted normal distribution with a mean of slightly greater than unity. The quasi-periodic behavior is manifested in the seasonally averaged output

  20. Fusion-neutron measurements for magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments on the Z accelerator

    DOE PAGES

    Hahn, K. D.; Chandler, G. A.; Ruiz, C. L.; Cooper, G. W.; Gomez, M. R.; Slutz, S.; Sefkow, A. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Hansen, S. B.; Knapp, P. F.; et al

    2016-05-01

    Several magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) experiments have been conducted on the Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories since late 2013. Measurements of the primary DD (2.45 MeV) neutrons for these experiments suggest that the neutron production is thermonuclear. Primary DD yields up to 3e12 with ion temperatures ~2-3 keV have been achieved. Measurements of the secondary DT (14 MeV) neutrons indicate that the fuel is significantly magnetized. Measurements of down-scattered neutrons from the beryllium liner suggest ρRliner ~ 1g/cm2. Neutron bang times, estimated from neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) measurements, coincide with peak x-ray production. Furthermore, plans to improve and expandmore » the Z neutron diagnostic suite include neutron burn-history diagnostics, increased sensitivity and higher precision nTOF detectors, and neutron recoil-based yield and spectral measurements.« less

  1. Measurement of changes in linear accelerator photon energy through flatness variation using an ion chamber array

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Song; Balter, Peter A.; Rose, Mark; Simon, William E.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: To compare the use of flatness versus percent depth dose (PDD) for determining changes in photon beam energy for a megavoltage linear accelerator. Methods: Energy changes were accomplished by adjusting the bending magnet current by up to {+-}15% in 5% increments away from the value used clinically. Two metrics for flatness, relative flatness in the central 80% of the field (Flat) and average maximum dose along the diagonals normalized by central axis dose (F{sub DN}), were measured using a commercially available planner ionization chamber array. PDD was measured in water at depths of 5 and 10 cm in 3 Multiplication-Sign 3 cm{sup 2} and 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2} fields using a cylindrical chamber. Results: PDD was more sensitive to changes in energy when the beam energy was increased than when it was decreased. For the 18-MV beam in particular, PDD was not sensitive to energy reductions below the nominal energy. The value of Flat was found to be more sensitive to decreases in energy than to increases, with little sensitivity to energy increases above the nominal energy for 18-MV beams. F{sub DN} was the only metric that was found to be sensitive to both increases and reductions of energy for both the 6- and 18-MV beams. Conclusions: Flatness based metrics were found to be more sensitive to energy changes than PDD, In particular, F{sub DN} was found to be the most sensitive metric to energy changes for photon beams of 6 and 18 MV. The ionization chamber array allows this metric to be conveniently measured as part of routine accelerator quality assurance.

  2. Use of simple x-ray measurement in the performance analysis of cryogenic RF accelerator cavities

    SciTech Connect

    D. Dotson; M. Drury; R. May; C. Reece

    1996-10-01

    X-ray emission by radiofrequency (RF) resonant cavities has long been known to accelerator health physicists as a potentially serious source of radiation exposure. The authors points out the danger of klystrons and microwave cavities by stating that the radiation source term is erratic and may be unpredictable depending on microscopic surface conditions which change with time. He also states the x-ray output is a rapidly increasing function of RF input power. At Jefferson Lab, the RF cavities used to accelerate the electron beam employ superconducting technology. X-rays are emitted at high cavity gradients, and measurements of cavity x-rays are valuable for health physics purposes and provide a useful diagnostic tool for assessing cavity performance. The quality factor (Q) for superconducting RF resonant cavities used at Jefferson Lab, is typically 5 x 10{sup 9} for the nominal design gradient of 5 MVm{sup {minus}1}. This large value for Q follows from the small resistive loss in superconducting technology. The operating frequency is 1,497 MHz. In the absence of beam, the input power for a cavity is typically 750 W and the corresponding dissipated power is 2.6 W. At 5 MWm{sup {minus}1}, the input power is 3 kW fully beam loaded. At higher gradients, performance degradation tends to occur due to the onset of electron field emission from defects in the cavity.

  3. Improved measurement of brain deformation during mild head acceleration using a novel tagged MRI sequence.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, Andrew K; Magrath, Elizabeth; McEntee, Julie E; Xing, Fangxu; Prince, Jerry L; Bayly, Philip V; Butman, John A; Pham, Dzung L

    2014-11-01

    In vivo measurements of human brain deformation during mild acceleration are needed to help validate computational models of traumatic brain injury and to understand the factors that govern the mechanical response of the brain. Tagged magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful, noninvasive technique to track tissue motion in vivo which has been used to quantify brain deformation in live human subjects. However, these prior studies required from 72 to 144 head rotations to generate deformation data for a single image slice, precluding its use to investigate the entire brain in a single subject. Here, a novel method is introduced that significantly reduces temporal variability in the acquisition and improves the accuracy of displacement estimates. Optimization of the acquisition parameters in a gelatin phantom and three human subjects leads to a reduction in the number of rotations from 72 to 144 to as few as 8 for a single image slice. The ability to estimate accurate, well-resolved, fields of displacement and strain in far fewer repetitions will enable comprehensive studies of acceleration-induced deformation throughout the human brain in vivo.

  4. SAMS Acceleration Measurements on Mir from May 1997 to June 1998 (NASA Increments 5, 6, and 7)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1999-01-01

    During NASA Increments 5, 6, and 7 (May 1997 to June 1998), about eight gigabytes of acceleration data were collected by the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) onboard the Russian Space Station Mir. The data were recorded on twenty-seven optical disks which were returned to Earth on Orbiter missions STS-86, STS-89, and STS-91. During these increments, SAMS data were collected in the Priroda module to support various microgravity experiments. This report points out some of the salient features of the microgravity acceleration environment to which the experiments were exposed. This report presents an overview of the SAMS acceleration measurements recorded by 10 Hz and 100 Hz sensor heads. The analyses included herein complement those presented in previous Mir increment summary reports prepared by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project.

  5. Light scattering microscopy measurements of single nuclei compared with GPU-accelerated FDTD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Julian; Rothe, Thomas; Kieß, Steffen; Simon, Sven; Kienle, Alwin

    2016-04-01

    Single cell nuclei were investigated using two-dimensional angularly and spectrally resolved scattering microscopy. We show that even for a qualitative comparison of experimental and theoretical data, the standard Mie model of a homogeneous sphere proves to be insufficient. Hence, an accelerated finite-difference time-domain method using a graphics processor unit and domain decomposition was implemented to analyze the experimental scattering patterns. The measured cell nuclei were modeled as single spheres with randomly distributed spherical inclusions of different size and refractive index representing the nucleoli and clumps of chromatin. Taking into account the nuclear heterogeneity of a large number of inclusions yields a qualitative agreement between experimental and theoretical spectra and illustrates the impact of the nuclear micro- and nanostructure on the scattering patterns.

  6. E-beam dynamics calculations and comparison with measurements of a high duty accelerator at Boeing

    SciTech Connect

    Parazzoli, C.G.; Dowell, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    The electron dynamics in the photoinjector cavities and through the beamline for a high duty factor electron accelerator are computed. The particle in a cell code ARGUS, is first used in the low energy (< 2 MeV) region of the photoinjector, then the ARGUS-generated phase space at the photoinjector exit is used as input in the standard particle pusher code PARMELA, and the electron beam properties at the end of the beamline computed. Comparisons between the calculated and measured electron bea mradial profiles and emittances are presented for different values of the electron pulse charge. A discussion of the methodology used and on the accuracy of PARMELA in the low energy region of the photoinjector is given.

  7. Light scattering microscopy measurements of single nuclei compared with GPU-accelerated FDTD simulations.

    PubMed

    Stark, Julian; Rothe, Thomas; Kieß, Steffen; Simon, Sven; Kienle, Alwin

    2016-04-01

    Single cell nuclei were investigated using two-dimensional angularly and spectrally resolved scattering microscopy. We show that even for a qualitative comparison of experimental and theoretical data, the standard Mie model of a homogeneous sphere proves to be insufficient. Hence, an accelerated finite-difference time-domain method using a graphics processor unit and domain decomposition was implemented to analyze the experimental scattering patterns. The measured cell nuclei were modeled as single spheres with randomly distributed spherical inclusions of different size and refractive index representing the nucleoli and clumps of chromatin. Taking into account the nuclear heterogeneity of a large number of inclusions yields a qualitative agreement between experimental and theoretical spectra and illustrates the impact of the nuclear micro- and nanostructure on the scattering patterns.

  8. Measurements of Cl-36 in Antarctic meteorites and Antarctic ice using a Van de Graaff accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J. R.; Finkel, R. C.; Elmore, D.; Ferraro, R. D.; Gove, H. E.; Beukens, R. P.; Chang, K. H.; Kilius, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents measurements of cosmic-ray produced (Cl-36) in Antarctic meteorites and ice using a Van de Graaff accelerator as an ultrasensitive mass spectrometer. Results from this ion counting technique are used to support a two-stage irradiation model for the Yamato-7301 and Allan Hills-76008 meteorites and to show a long terrestrial age for Allan Hills-77002. Yamato-7304 has a terrestrial age of less than 0.1 m.y., and the (Cl-36) content of the Antarctic ice sample from the Yamato mountain is consistent with levels expected in currently depositing snow implying that the age of the ice cap at this site is less than on (Cl-36) half-life.

  9. Summary Report of mission acceleration measurements for STS-66. Launched November 3, 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Delombard, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Experiments flown in the middeck of Atlantis during the STS-66 mission were supported by the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS). In particular, the three triaxial SAMS sensor heads collected data in support of protein crystal growth experiments. Data collected during STS-66 are reviewed in this report. The STS-66 SAMS data represent the microgravity environment in the 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz range. Variations in the environment related to differing levels of crew activity are discussed in the report. A comparison is made among times when the crew was quiet during a public affairs conference, working quietly, and exercising. These levels of activity are also compared to levels recorded by a SAMS unit in the Spacelab on Columbia during the STS-65 mission.

  10. Measurements of the Critical Power for Self-Injection of Electrons in a Laser Wakefield Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froula, D. H.; Clayton, C. E.; Döppner, T.; Marsh, K. A.; Barty, C. P. J.; Divol, L.; Fonseca, R. A.; Glenzer, S. H.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Martins, S. F.; Michel, P.; Mori, W. B.; Palastro, J. P.; Pollock, B. B.; Pak, A.; Ralph, J. E.; Ross, J. S.; Siders, C. W.; Silva, L. O.; Wang, T.

    2009-11-01

    A laser wakefield acceleration study has been performed in the matched, self-guided, blowout regime producing 720±50MeV quasimonoenergetic electrons with a divergence ΔθFWHM of 2.85±0.15mrad using a 10 J, 60 fs 0.8μm laser. While maintaining a nearly constant plasma density (3×1018cm-3), the energy gain increased from 75 to 720 MeV when the plasma length was increased from 3 to 8 mm. Absolute charge measurements indicate that self-injection of electrons occurs when the laser power P exceeds 3 times the critical power Pcr for relativistic self-focusing and saturates around 100 pC for P/Pcr>5. The results are compared with both analytical scalings and full 3D particle-in-cell simulations.

  11. Measurements of the critical power for self-injection of electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator.

    PubMed

    Froula, D H; Clayton, C E; Döppner, T; Marsh, K A; Barty, C P J; Divol, L; Fonseca, R A; Glenzer, S H; Joshi, C; Lu, W; Martins, S F; Michel, P; Mori, W B; Palastro, J P; Pollock, B B; Pak, A; Ralph, J E; Ross, J S; Siders, C W; Silva, L O; Wang, T

    2009-11-20

    A laser wakefield acceleration study has been performed in the matched, self-guided, blowout regime producing 720 +/- 50 MeV quasimonoenergetic electrons with a divergence Deltatheta_{FWHM} of 2.85 +/- 0.15 mrad using a 10 J, 60 fs 0.8 microm laser. While maintaining a nearly constant plasma density (3 x 10{18} cm{-3}), the energy gain increased from 75 to 720 MeV when the plasma length was increased from 3 to 8 mm. Absolute charge measurements indicate that self-injection of electrons occurs when the laser power P exceeds 3 times the critical power P{cr} for relativistic self-focusing and saturates around 100 pC for P/P{cr} > 5. The results are compared with both analytical scalings and full 3D particle-in-cell simulations.

  12. Measurements of the critical power for self-injection of electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator.

    PubMed

    Froula, D H; Clayton, C E; Döppner, T; Marsh, K A; Barty, C P J; Divol, L; Fonseca, R A; Glenzer, S H; Joshi, C; Lu, W; Martins, S F; Michel, P; Mori, W B; Palastro, J P; Pollock, B B; Pak, A; Ralph, J E; Ross, J S; Siders, C W; Silva, L O; Wang, T

    2009-11-20

    A laser wakefield acceleration study has been performed in the matched, self-guided, blowout regime producing 720 +/- 50 MeV quasimonoenergetic electrons with a divergence Deltatheta_{FWHM} of 2.85 +/- 0.15 mrad using a 10 J, 60 fs 0.8 microm laser. While maintaining a nearly constant plasma density (3 x 10{18} cm{-3}), the energy gain increased from 75 to 720 MeV when the plasma length was increased from 3 to 8 mm. Absolute charge measurements indicate that self-injection of electrons occurs when the laser power P exceeds 3 times the critical power P{cr} for relativistic self-focusing and saturates around 100 pC for P/P{cr} > 5. The results are compared with both analytical scalings and full 3D particle-in-cell simulations. PMID:20366048

  13. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Measurements of Plutonium in Sediment and Seawater from the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Leisvik, M; Hamilton, T

    2001-08-01

    During the summer 2000, I was given the opportunity to work for about three months as a technical trainee at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, or LLNL as I will refer to it hereafter. University of California runs this Department of Energy laboratory, which is located 70 km east of San Francisco, in the small city of Livermore. This master thesis in Radioecology is based on the work I did here. LLNL, as a second U.S.-facility for development of nuclear weapons, was built in Livermore in the beginning of the 1950's (Los Alamos in New Mexico was the other one). It has since then also become a 'science center' for a number of areas like magnetic and laser fusion energy, non-nuclear energy, biomedicine, and environmental science. The Laboratory's mission has changed over the years to meet new national needs. The following two statements were found on the homepage of LLNL (http://www.llnl.gov), at 2001-03-05, where also information about the laboratory and the scientific projects that takes place there, can be found. 'Our primary mission is to ensure that the nation's nuclear weapons remain safe, secure, and reliable and to prevent the spread and use of nuclear weapons worldwide'. 'Our goal is to apply the best science and technology to enhance the security and well-being of the nation and to make the world a safer place.' The Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology group at the Health and Ecological Assessments division employed me, and I also worked to some extent with the Centre for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) group. The work I did at LLNL can be divided into two parts. In the first part Plutonium (Pu) measurements in sediments from the Rongelap atoll in Marshall Islands, using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) were done. The method for measuring these kinds of samples is well understood at LLNL since soil samples have been measured with AMS for Pu in the past. Therefore it was the results that were of main interest and not the technique

  14. Acoustic measurements of bouncing balls and the determination of gravitational acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Oliver; Vogt, Patrik; Kuhn, Jochen

    2013-05-01

    Interesting experiments can be performed and fundamental physical relationships can be explored with so-called Super Balls or bouncy balls. An example is the determination of gravity g in an experiment. The basic idea behind this was described by Pape and Sprockhoff2: The initial and final heights and the complete duration of all the bounces are measured for a certain number of bounces by the ball. On the basis of this data, the acceleration of gravity can be approximately calculated if air drag on the ball is neglected. However, in practice, it becomes clear that measuring the height of the last bounce in the process is problematic. The person performing the experiment either has to make a good estimation of its height or film the bounce in front of a measuring stick. The method is based on the important assumption that each of the individual bounces of the ball loses the same percentage of mechanical energy; the coefficient of restitution k therefore remains the same.

  15. Measurements in Transitional Boundary Layers Under High Free-Stream Turbulence and Strong Acceleration Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volino, Ralph J.; Simon, Terrence W.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements from transitional, heated boundary layers along a concave-curved test wall are presented and discussed. A boundary layer subject to low free-stream turbulence intensity (FSTI), which contains stationary streamwise (Gortler) vortices, is documented. The low FSTI measurements are followed by measurements in boundary layers subject to high (initially 8%) free-stream turbulence intensity and moderate to strong streamwise acceleration. Conditions were chosen to simulate those present on the downstream half of the pressure side of a gas turbine airfoil. Mean flow characteristics as well as turbulence statistics, including the turbulent shear stress, turbulent heat flux, and turbulent Prandtl number, are documented. A technique called "octant analysis" is introduced and applied to several cases from the literature as well as to data from the present study. Spectral analysis was applied to describe the effects of turbulence scales of different sizes during transition. To the authors'knowledge, this is the first detailed documentation of boundary layer transition under such high free-stream turbulence conditions.

  16. Voltage measurements at the vacuum post-hole convolute of the Z pulsed-power accelerator

    DOE PAGES

    Waisman, E. M.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M. E.; Wenger, D. F.; Fowler, W. E.; Johnson, W. A.; Basilio, L. I.; Coats, R. S.; Jennings, C. A.; Sinars, D. B.; et al

    2014-12-08

    Presented are voltage measurements taken near the load region on the Z pulsed-power accelerator using an inductive voltage monitor (IVM). Specifically, the IVM was connected to, and thus monitored the voltage at, the bottom level of the accelerator’s vacuum double post-hole convolute. Additional voltage and current measurements were taken at the accelerator’s vacuum-insulator stack (at a radius of 1.6 m) by using standard D-dot and B-dot probes, respectively. During postprocessing, the measurements taken at the stack were translated to the location of the IVM measurements by using a lossless propagation model of the Z accelerator’s magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs)more » and a lumped inductor model of the vacuum post-hole convolute. Across a wide variety of experiments conducted on the Z accelerator, the voltage histories obtained from the IVM and the lossless propagation technique agree well in overall shape and magnitude. However, large-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations are more pronounced in the IVM records. It is unclear whether these larger oscillations represent true voltage oscillations at the convolute or if they are due to noise pickup and/or transit-time effects and other resonant modes in the IVM. Results using a transit-time-correction technique and Fourier analysis support the latter. Regardless of which interpretation is correct, both true voltage oscillations and the excitement of resonant modes could be the result of transient electrical breakdowns in the post-hole convolute, though more information is required to determine definitively if such breakdowns occurred. Despite the larger oscillations in the IVM records, the general agreement found between the lossless propagation results and the results of the IVM shows that large voltages are transmitted efficiently through the MITLs on Z. These results are complementary to previous studies [R. D. McBride et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120401 (2010)] that showed

  17. Voltage measurements at the vacuum post-hole convolute of the Z pulsed-power accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Waisman, E. M.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M. E.; Wenger, D. F.; Fowler, W. E.; Johnson, W. A.; Basilio, L. I.; Coats, R. S.; Jennings, C. A.; Sinars, D. B.; Vesey, R. A.; Jones, B.; Ampleford, D. J.; Lemke, R. W.; Martin, M. R.; Schrafel, P. C.; Lewis, S. A.; Moore, J. K.; Savage, M. E.; Stygar, W. A.

    2014-12-08

    Presented are voltage measurements taken near the load region on the Z pulsed-power accelerator using an inductive voltage monitor (IVM). Specifically, the IVM was connected to, and thus monitored the voltage at, the bottom level of the accelerator’s vacuum double post-hole convolute. Additional voltage and current measurements were taken at the accelerator’s vacuum-insulator stack (at a radius of 1.6 m) by using standard D-dot and B-dot probes, respectively. During postprocessing, the measurements taken at the stack were translated to the location of the IVM measurements by using a lossless propagation model of the Z accelerator’s magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) and a lumped inductor model of the vacuum post-hole convolute. Across a wide variety of experiments conducted on the Z accelerator, the voltage histories obtained from the IVM and the lossless propagation technique agree well in overall shape and magnitude. However, large-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations are more pronounced in the IVM records. It is unclear whether these larger oscillations represent true voltage oscillations at the convolute or if they are due to noise pickup and/or transit-time effects and other resonant modes in the IVM. Results using a transit-time-correction technique and Fourier analysis support the latter. Regardless of which interpretation is correct, both true voltage oscillations and the excitement of resonant modes could be the result of transient electrical breakdowns in the post-hole convolute, though more information is required to determine definitively if such breakdowns occurred. Despite the larger oscillations in the IVM records, the general agreement found between the lossless propagation results and the results of the IVM shows that large voltages are transmitted efficiently through the MITLs on Z. These results are complementary to previous studies [R. D. McBride et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120401 (2010)] that

  18. Thrust Stand Measurements Using Alternative Propellants in the Microwave Assisted Discharge Inductive Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2011-01-01

    -pinch coil is high. The use of a conical theta-pinch coil also serves to provide neutral propellant containment and plasma plume focusing that is improved relative to the more common planar geometry of the Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT). In this paper, we describe thrust stand measurements performed to evaluate the specific impulse and thrust efficiency of the MAD-IPA for a variety of propellants. Propellants tested include both widely-used, non-reactive noble gases like argon, and rarely-used propellants such as water, hydrazine and ammonia. Dependencies of impulse data on propellant species are discussed in the context of the current sheet formation and electromagnetic plasma acceleration processes.

  19. APT: An Autonomous Tool for Measuring Acceleration, Pressure, and Temperature with Large Dynamic Range and Bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heesemann, M.; Davis, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    We describe a new tool developed to facilitate the study of inter-related geodetic, geodynamic, seismic, and oceanographic phenomena. It incorporates a novel tri-axial accelerometer developed by Quartz Seismic Sensors, Inc, a pressure sensor developed by Paroscientific Inc., and a low-power, high-precision frequency counter and data logger built by RBR, Ltd. The sensors, counters, and loggers are housed in a 7 cm o.d., 70 cm long pressure case designed for use in up to 12 km of water. Sampling intervals are programmable from 0.1 s to 1 hr; standard memory can store up to 30 million samples; total power consumption is roughly 115 mW when operating continuously (1 s.p.s. or higher) and proportionately lower when operating intermittently (e.g., 2 mW at 1 sample per min.). Serial and USB communications protocols allow a variety of download and cable-connection options. Measurement precision of the order of 10-8 of full scale (e.g., 4000 m water depth, 1 g) allows observations of pressure and acceleration variations of 0.4 Pa and 0.1 μm s-2. Long-term variations in vertical acceleration are sensitive to displacement through the gravity gradient at a level of roughly 2 cm; long-term variations in horizontal acceleration are sensitive to tilt at a level of 0.01 μRad. With these sensitivities and the broad bandwidth (5 Hz to DC), ground motion associated with microseisms and seismic waves, tidal loading, and slow and rapid geodynamic deformation normally studied by disparate instruments can be observed with a single tool. The first c. 1-year deployment with the instrument connected to the Ocean Networks Canada NEPTUNE observatory cable is underway to study interseismic deformation of the Cascadia subduction zone. It will then be deployed at the Hikurangi subduction zone to study episodic slow slip. Deployment of the tool for the initial test was accomplished by pushing the tool vertically below the seafloor with the remotely operated vehicle Jason, with no profile

  20. Concurrent validity of accelerations measured using a tri-axial inertial measurement unit while walking on firm, compliant and uneven surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cole, Michael H; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Kavanagh, Justin K; Morrison, Steven; Hodges, Paul W; Smeathers, James E; Kerr, Graham K

    2014-01-01

    Although accelerometers are extensively used for assessing gait, limited research has evaluated the concurrent validity of these devices on less predictable walking surfaces or the comparability of different methods used for gravitational acceleration compensation. This study evaluated the concurrent validity of trunk accelerations derived from a tri-axial inertial measurement unit while walking on firm, compliant and uneven surfaces and contrasted two methods used to remove gravitational accelerations; i) subtraction of the best linear fit from the data (detrending); and ii) use of orientation information (quaternions) from the inertial measurement unit. Twelve older and twelve younger adults walked at their preferred speed along firm, compliant and uneven walkways. Accelerations were evaluated for the thoracic spine (T12) using a tri-axial inertial measurement unit and an eleven-camera Vicon system. The findings demonstrated excellent agreement between accelerations derived from the inertial measurement unit and motion analysis system, including while walking on uneven surfaces that better approximate a real-world setting (all differences <0.16 m.s(-2)). Detrending produced slightly better agreement between the inertial measurement unit and Vicon system on firm surfaces (delta range: -0.05 to 0.06 vs. 0.00 to 0.14 m.s(-2)), whereas the quaternion method performed better when walking on compliant and uneven walkways (delta range: -0.16 to -0.02 vs. -0.07 to 0.07 m.s(-2)). The technique used to compensate for gravitational accelerations requires consideration in future research, particularly when walking on compliant and uneven surfaces. These findings demonstrate trunk accelerations can be accurately measured using a wireless inertial measurement unit and are appropriate for research that evaluates healthy populations in complex environments.

  1. Concurrent Validity of Accelerations Measured Using a Tri-Axial Inertial Measurement Unit while Walking on Firm, Compliant and Uneven Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Michael H.; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Kavanagh, Justin K.; Morrison, Steven; Hodges, Paul W.; Smeathers, James E.; Kerr, Graham K.

    2014-01-01

    Although accelerometers are extensively used for assessing gait, limited research has evaluated the concurrent validity of these devices on less predictable walking surfaces or the comparability of different methods used for gravitational acceleration compensation. This study evaluated the concurrent validity of trunk accelerations derived from a tri-axial inertial measurement unit while walking on firm, compliant and uneven surfaces and contrasted two methods used to remove gravitational accelerations; i) subtraction of the best linear fit from the data (detrending); and ii) use of orientation information (quaternions) from the inertial measurement unit. Twelve older and twelve younger adults walked at their preferred speed along firm, compliant and uneven walkways. Accelerations were evaluated for the thoracic spine (T12) using a tri-axial inertial measurement unit and an eleven-camera Vicon system. The findings demonstrated excellent agreement between accelerations derived from the inertial measurement unit and motion analysis system, including while walking on uneven surfaces that better approximate a real-world setting (all differences <0.16 m.s−2). Detrending produced slightly better agreement between the inertial measurement unit and Vicon system on firm surfaces (delta range: −0.05 to 0.06 vs. 0.00 to 0.14 m.s−2), whereas the quaternion method performed better when walking on compliant and uneven walkways (delta range: −0.16 to −0.02 vs. −0.07 to 0.07 m.s−2). The technique used to compensate for gravitational accelerations requires consideration in future research, particularly when walking on compliant and uneven surfaces. These findings demonstrate trunk accelerations can be accurately measured using a wireless inertial measurement unit and are appropriate for research that evaluates healthy populations in complex environments. PMID:24866262

  2. Concurrent validity of accelerations measured using a tri-axial inertial measurement unit while walking on firm, compliant and uneven surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cole, Michael H; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Kavanagh, Justin K; Morrison, Steven; Hodges, Paul W; Smeathers, James E; Kerr, Graham K

    2014-01-01

    Although accelerometers are extensively used for assessing gait, limited research has evaluated the concurrent validity of these devices on less predictable walking surfaces or the comparability of different methods used for gravitational acceleration compensation. This study evaluated the concurrent validity of trunk accelerations derived from a tri-axial inertial measurement unit while walking on firm, compliant and uneven surfaces and contrasted two methods used to remove gravitational accelerations; i) subtraction of the best linear fit from the data (detrending); and ii) use of orientation information (quaternions) from the inertial measurement unit. Twelve older and twelve younger adults walked at their preferred speed along firm, compliant and uneven walkways. Accelerations were evaluated for the thoracic spine (T12) using a tri-axial inertial measurement unit and an eleven-camera Vicon system. The findings demonstrated excellent agreement between accelerations derived from the inertial measurement unit and motion analysis system, including while walking on uneven surfaces that better approximate a real-world setting (all differences <0.16 m.s(-2)). Detrending produced slightly better agreement between the inertial measurement unit and Vicon system on firm surfaces (delta range: -0.05 to 0.06 vs. 0.00 to 0.14 m.s(-2)), whereas the quaternion method performed better when walking on compliant and uneven walkways (delta range: -0.16 to -0.02 vs. -0.07 to 0.07 m.s(-2)). The technique used to compensate for gravitational accelerations requires consideration in future research, particularly when walking on compliant and uneven surfaces. These findings demonstrate trunk accelerations can be accurately measured using a wireless inertial measurement unit and are appropriate for research that evaluates healthy populations in complex environments. PMID:24866262

  3. Single-shot betatron source size measurement from a laser-wakefield accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, A.; Couperus, J. P.; Zarini, O.; Jochmann, A.; Irman, A.; Schramm, U.

    2016-09-01

    Betatron radiation emitted by accelerated electrons in laser-wakefield accelerators can be used as a diagnostic tool to investigate electron dynamics during the acceleration process. We analyze the spectral characteristics of the emitted Betatron pattern utilizing a 2D x-ray imaging spectroscopy technique. Together with simultaneously recorded electron spectra and x-ray images, the betatron source size, thus the electron beam radius, can be deduced at every shot.

  4. Measurements in Transitional Boundary Layers Under High Free-Stream Turbulence and Strong Acceleration Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volino, Ralph John

    1995-01-01

    Measurements from transitional, heated boundary layers along a concave-curved test wall are presented and discussed. A boundary layer subject to low free-stream turbulence intensity (FSTI), which contains stationary streamwise (Gortler) vortices, is documented. The low FSTI measurements are followed by measurements in boundary layers subject to high (initially 8%) free-stream turbulence intensity and moderate to strong (K = {nuover U_sp{infty} {2}}{dUinftyover dx} as high as 9times 10^{ -6}) acceleration. The high FSTI experiments are the main focus of the work. Conditions were chosen to simulate those present on the downstream half of the pressure side of a gas turbine airfoil. The high FSTI boundary layers undergo transition from a strongly disturbed non-turbulent state to a fully-turbulent state. Due to the stabilizing effect of strong acceleration, the transition zones are of extended length in spite of the high FSTI. Transitional values of skin friction coefficients and Stanton numbers drop below flat-plate, low FSTI, turbulent flow correlations, but remain well above laminar flow values. Mean velocity and temperature profiles exhibit clear changes in shape as the flow passes through transition. Turbulence statistics, including the turbulent shear stress, turbulent heat flux, and turbulent Prandtl number, are documented. Turbulent transport is strongly suppressed below values in unaccelerated turbulent boundary layers. A technique called "octant analysis" is introduced and applied to several cases from the literature as well as to data from the present study. Octant analysis shows a fundamental difference between transitional and fully-turbulent boundary layers. Transitional boundary layers are characterized by incomplete mixing compared to fully-turbulent boundary layers. Similar octant analysis results are observed in both low and high FSTI cases. Spectral analysis suggests that the non-turbulent zone of the high FSTI flow is dominated by large scale

  5. Measurement of activity distribution using photostimulable phosphor imaging plates in decommissioned 10 MV medical linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Yonai, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Masahiro; Sakae, Takeji; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Abe, Yoshihisa; Itami, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Photonuclear reactions generate neutrons in the head of the linear accelerator. Therefore, some parts of the linear accelerator can become activated. Such activated materials must be handled as radioactive waste. The authors attempted to investigate the distribution of induced radioactivity using photostimulable phosphor imaging plates. Autoradiographs were produced from some parts of the linear accelerator (the target, upper jaw, multileaf collimator and shielding). The levels of induced radioactivity were confirmed to be non-uniform within each part from the autoradiographs. The method was a simple and highly sensitive approach to evaluating the relative degree of activation of the linear accelerators, so that appropriate materials management procedures can be carried out.

  6. Low Frequency Vibration Characteristics of the Space Acceleration Measurement System 2 Tape Drive Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javeed, Mehzad; Russell, James W.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes results of force and moment measurements of the Space Acceleration Measurement System 2 (SAMS 2) Tape Drive Assembly (TDA) over the frequency range from 0.35 Hz to 256 Hz for steady state operations including write, read, rewind, and fast forward. Time domain force results are presented for transient TDA operations that include software eject, manual eject, and manual load. Three different mounting configurations were employed for attaching the inner box with the tape drive unit to the outer box. Two configurations employed grommet sets with spring rates of 42 and 62 pounds per inch respectively. The third configuration employed a set of metallic washers. For all four steady state operations the largest average forces were on the Y axis with the metallic washers and were less than 0.005 pounds. The largest average moments were on the X axes with the washers and were less than 0.030 pound inches. At the third octave centerband frequency of 31.5 Hz, the 42 pound per inch grommets showed the greatest forces and moments for read and write operations. At the third octave centerband frequency of 49.6 Hz, the 62 pound per inch grommets showed the greatest forces and moments for rewind operation. Transient operation forces ranged from 0.75 pounds for the software eject to greater than 1 pound for manual load and eject.

  7. RF impedance measurements on the DARHT-II accelerator intercell assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, William M.; Eylon, Shmuel; Briggs, Richard

    2003-05-05

    We report upon recent experimental measurements made of RF properties of the intercell assembly of the second axis accelerator[1] of Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at LANL. The intercells provide both pumping and diagnostic access to the main DARHT-II beamline. Their design includes a pumping plenum separated from the main beam pipe by return current rods together with RF shielding provided by a copper-coated stainless steel mesh. Measurements using the twin lead technique (see Ref. [2]) at low frequencies (f < 200 MHz) suggest a constant value for the ratio h of the radial and azimuthal magnetic field components to which the transverse impedance is linearly related. We find that these results compare favorably to predictions from a simple analytic, lumped circuit model which includes the effects of the mesh and return current rods. We also present RF loop-to-loop frequency scans above beam pipe cutoff ({approx}600 MHz) showing the existence of many RF modes with relatively high Q's.

  8. An exploration of skin acceleration level as a measure of phonatory function in singing.

    PubMed

    Lamarche, Anick; Ternström, Sten

    2008-01-01

    Two kinds of fluctuations are observed in phonetogram recordings of singing. Sound pressure level (SPL) can vary due to vibrato and also due to the effect of open and closed vowels. Since vowel variation is mostly a consequence of vocal tract modification and is not directly related to phonatory function, it could be helpful to suppress such variation when studying phonation. Skin acceleration level (SAL), measured at the jugular notch and on the sternum, might be less influenced by effects of the vocal tract. It is explored in this study as an alternative measure to SPL. Five female singers sang vowel series on selected pitches and in different tasks. Recorded data were used to investigate two null hypotheses: (1) SPL and SAL are equally influenced by vowel variation and (2) SPL and SAL are equally correlated to subglottal pressure (P(S)). Interestingly, the vowel variation effect was small in both SPL and SAL. Furthermore, in comparison to SPL, SAL correlated weakly to P(S). SAL exhibited practically no dependence on fundamental frequency, rather, its major determinant was the musical dynamic. This results in a non-sloping, square-like phonetogram contour. These outcomes show that SAL potentially can facilitate phonetographic analysis of the singing voice. PMID:17059878

  9. X-ray beam size measurements on the Advanced Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Struve, K.W.; Chambers, F.W.; Lauer, E.J.; Slaughter, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The electron beam size has been determined on the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) by intercepting the beam with a target and measuring the resulting x-ray intensity as a function of time as the target is moved through the beam. Several types of targets have been used. One is a tantalum rod which extends completely across the drift chamber. Another is a tungsten powder filled carbon crucible. Both of these probes are moved from shot to shot so that the x-ray signal intensity varies with probe position. A third is a larger tantalum disk which is inserted on beam axis to allow determining beam size on a one shot basis. The x-ray signals are detected with an MCP photomultiplier tube located at 90/sup 0/ to the beamline. It is sufficiently shielded to reject background x-rays and neutrons. The signals were digitized, recorded and later unfolded to produce plots of x-ray intensity versus probe position for several times during the pulse. The presumption that the x-ray intensity is proportional to beam current density is checked computationally. Details of the probe construction and PMT shielding, as well as sample measurements are given.

  10. Transvers Impedance Measurements of the Modified DARHT-2Accelerator Cell Design

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Dick; Waldron, Will

    2005-11-30

    The DARHT-2 accelerator cells have been redesigned to make their high voltage performance more robust. At the outset of the DARHT-2 development program about 8 years ago, an extensive campaign was mounted to minimize the transverse impedance of the original cell design. Since the initial spec on the machine was a beam current of 4 kA, the control of beam-breakup (BBU) amplification with a 2 microsecond pulse length was considered to be one the most critical issues in the design. Even after advances in detector technology allowed the beam current requirement to be lowered to 2 kA, the goal for the standard cell impedance was kept at {approx}300 ohms/meter to allow for the possibility of future beam current upgrades to 4 kA without any modifications in the cells. The results of this campaign to minimize the transverse impedance are described in detail in Reference 1. After several iterations in the design of ferrite dampers and the anode finger stock shape, the measured (peak) impedance of the original standard cell was determined to be about 280 ohms/meter. (As a reference point, the measured impedance of the DARHT-1 cell is about 880 ohms/meter). This impedance provided such a wide safety margin against BBU amplification at 2 kA that it was felt that the cell redesign could focus on voltage holding without any detailed considerations of impacts on the transverse impedance. Now that a baseline design for the DARHT-2 cell has been established and tested, however, it was felt that a measurement of its impedance would be prudent. The results of these impedance measurements are presented in this note. The objective was mainly to do a ''quick check'' to ensure that there were no surprises, and to provide an estimate of the BBU frequencies and growth rates to the experimental test program.

  11. Estimation of Attitude and External Acceleration Using Inertial Sensor Measurement During Various Dynamic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Keun; Park, Edward J.; Robinovitch, Stephen N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a Kalman filter-based attitude (i.e., roll and pitch) estimation algorithm using an inertial sensor composed of a triaxial accelerometer and a triaxial gyroscope. In particular, the proposed algorithm has been developed for accurate attitude estimation during dynamic conditions, in which external acceleration is present. Although external acceleration is the main source of the attitude estimation error and despite the need for its accurate estimation in many applications, this problem that can be critical for the attitude estimation has not been addressed explicitly in the literature. Accordingly, this paper addresses the combined estimation problem of the attitude and external acceleration. Experimental tests were conducted to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm in various dynamic condition settings and to provide further insight into the variations in the estimation accuracy. Furthermore, two different approaches for dealing with the estimation problem during dynamic conditions were compared, i.e., threshold-based switching approach versus acceleration model-based approach. Based on an external acceleration model, the proposed algorithm was capable of estimating accurate attitudes and external accelerations for short accelerated periods, showing its high effectiveness during short-term fast dynamic conditions. Contrariwise, when the testing condition involved prolonged high external accelerations, the proposed algorithm exhibited gradually increasing errors. However, as soon as the condition returned to static or quasi-static conditions, the algorithm was able to stabilize the estimation error, regaining its high estimation accuracy. PMID:22977288

  12. Planar velocity and scalar concentration measurements in shock-accelerated,unstable fluid interfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Goodenough, C.; Kumar, S.; Marr-Lyon, M.; Boyts, A.; Prestridge, K. P.; Rightley, P. M.; Tomkins, C. D.; Cannon, M. T.; Kamm, J. R.; Rider, William; Zoldi, C. A.; Orlicz, G.; Vorobieff, P. V.

    2004-01-01

    We report applications of several high-speed photographic techniques to diagnose fluid instability and the onset of turbulence in an ongoing experimental study of the evolution of shock-accelerated, heavy-gas cylinders. Results are at Reynolds numbers well above that associated with the turbulent and mixing transitions. Recent developments in diagnostics enable high-resolution, planar (2D) measurements of velocity fields (using particle image velocimetry, or PIV) and scalar concentration (using planar laser-induced fluorescence, or PLIF). The purpose of this work is to understand the basic science of complex, shock-driven flows and to provide high-quality data for code validation and development. The combination of these high-speed optical methods, PIV and PLIF, is setting a new standard in validating large codes for fluid simulations. The PIV velocity measurements provide quantitative evidence of transition to turbulence. In the PIV technique, a frame transfer camera with a 1 ms separation is used to image flows illuminated by two 10 ns laser pulses. Individual particles in a seeded flow are tracked from frame to frame to produce a velocity field. Dynamic PLIF measurements of the concentration field are high-resolution, quantitative dynamic data that reveal finely detailed structure at several instances after shock passage. These structures include those associated with the incipient secondary instability and late-time transition. Multiple instances of the flow are captured using a single frame Apogee camera and laser pulses with 140 {mu}s spacing. We describe tradeoffs of diagnostic instrumentation to provide PLIF images.

  13. Measurement of Beryllium in Biological Samples by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry: Applications for Studying Chronic Beryllium Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarappa-Zucca, M L; Finkel, R C; Martinelli, R E; McAninch, J E; Nelson, D O; Turtletaub, K W

    2004-04-15

    A method using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has been developed for quantifying attomoles of beryllium (Be) in biological samples. This method provides the sensitivity to trace Be in biological samples at very low doses with the purpose of identifying the molecular targets involved in chronic beryllium disease. Proof of the method was tested by administering 0.001, 0.05, 0.5 and 5.0 {micro}g {sup 9}Be and {sup 10}Be by intraperitoneal injection to male mice and removing spleen, liver, femurs, blood, lung, and kidneys after 24 h exposure. These samples were prepared for AMS analysis by tissue digestion in nitric acid, followed by further organic oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and ammonium persulfate and lastly, precipitation of Be with ammonium hydroxide, and conversion to beryllium oxide at 800 C. The {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratio of the extracted beryllium oxide was measured by AMS and Be in the original sample was calculated. Results indicate that Be levels were dose-dependent in all tissues and the highest levels were measured in the spleen and liver. The measured {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios spanned 4 orders of magnitude, from 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -14}, with a detection limit of 3.0 x 10{sup -14}, which is equivalent to 0.8 attomoles of {sup 10}Be. These results show that routine quantification of nanogram levels of Be in tissues is possible and that AMS is a sensitive method that can be used in biological studies to understand the molecular dosimetry of Be and mechanisms of toxicity.

  14. Old dogs with new tricks: Detecting accelerated long-term forgetting by extending traditional measures.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laurie A; Flanagan, Emma; Mothakunnel, Annu; Mohamed, Armin; Thayer, Zoe

    2015-04-01

    Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) is a condition in which normal memory performance is displayed after short delays, but significant memory loss is detected when memory is tested after several days or weeks. This condition has been reported in patients with epilepsy, but there are few normative scores available for its detection in clinical practice. In the present study, we assessed 60 healthy control subjects 18-60years of age on three memory measures [Rey Auditory Verbal Learning (RAVLT), Logical Memory (LM), and Aggie Figures] at delays of 30min and 7days. With these normative values, we determined cutoff scores to look for ALF and then categorized the performance of 15 patients with focal epilepsy on the same tasks. Seven of the patients showed ALF, and, in four of these, no other memory deficits (i.e., deficits at 30min on at least one task) were detected. Of the several demographic and epilepsy factors examined, only higher estimated IQ and older age predicted ALF (and only on one task: RAVLT). The findings provide a useful set of data to be applied in the clinic and some insight into the factors that influence retention within the first week. PMID:25825369

  15. Fusion-neutron-yield, activation measurements at the Z accelerator: Design, analysis, and sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, K. D. Ruiz, C. L.; Fehl, D. L.; Chandler, G. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Smelser, R. M.; Torres, J. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Nelson, A. J.; Leeper, R. J.

    2014-04-15

    We present a general methodology to determine the diagnostic sensitivity that is directly applicable to neutron-activation diagnostics fielded on a wide variety of neutron-producing experiments, which include inertial-confinement fusion (ICF), dense plasma focus, and ion beam-driven concepts. This approach includes a combination of several effects: (1) non-isotropic neutron emission; (2) the 1/r{sup 2} decrease in neutron fluence in the activation material; (3) the spatially distributed neutron scattering, attenuation, and energy losses due to the fielding environment and activation material itself; and (4) temporally varying neutron emission. As an example, we describe the copper-activation diagnostic used to measure secondary deuterium-tritium fusion-neutron yields on ICF experiments conducted on the pulsed-power Z Accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. Using this methodology along with results from absolute calibrations and Monte Carlo simulations, we find that for the diagnostic configuration on Z, the diagnostic sensitivity is 0.037% ± 17% counts/neutron per cm{sup 2} and is ∼ 40% less sensitive than it would be in an ideal geometry due to neutron attenuation, scattering, and energy-loss effects.

  16. Accelerated life test for high-power white LED based on spectroradiometric measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Haiping; Pan, Jiangen; Feng, Huajun

    2008-03-01

    We implement an accelerated life test for the high-power white LEDs based on spectroradiometric measurement. The luminous flux degradation performances are investigated at both the rated current of 350mA and a higher current of 500mA. The average lifetime of the LEDs is 7057 hours at 350mA and 3508 hours at 500mA. The variations of the color of the white LEDs are studied. The color of the low quality white LEDs changes greatly, while the high quality white LEDs keep their color stable. The degradation performances of the chip and phosphor are studied separately. The quantum efficiency of the phosphor becomes lower from 350mA to 500mA current supply. The LED chip degrades faster than the phosphor during the 500mA high current aging. The luminous flux increase and the peak wavelength shift from 350mA to 500mA current supply are found to be useful lifetime indicating parameters that correlate well to the reliability of the high-power white LEDs.

  17. Fluoride sample matrices and reaction cells — new capabilities for isotope measurements in accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieser, W. E.; Zhao, X.-L.; Eliades, J.; Litherland, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Two new techniques, which extend the range of elements that can be analyzed by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), and which increase its isobar selection capabilities, have been recently introduced. The first consists of embedding the sample material in a fluoride matrix (e.g. PbF2), which facilitates the production, in the ion source, of fluoride molecular anions that include the isotope of interest. In addition to forming anions with large electron binding energies and thereby increasing the range of analysable elements, in many cases by selection of a molecular form with a particular number of fluorine atoms, some isobar discrimination can be obtained. The second technique, for the significant reduction of atomic isobar interferences, is used following mass selection of the rare isotope. It consists of the deceleration, cooling and reaction of the rare mass beam with a gas, selected so that unwanted isobars are greatly attenuated in comparison with the isotope of interest. Proof of principle measurements for the analysis of 36C1 and 41Ca have provided encouraging results and work is proceeding on the integration of these techniques in a new AMS system planned for installation in late 2012 at the University of Ottawa.

  18. Calculating Nozzle Side Loads using Acceleration Measurements of Test-Based Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Andrew M.; Ruf, Joe

    2007-01-01

    As part of a NASA/MSFC research program to evaluate the effect of different nozzle contours on the well-known but poorly characterized "side load" phenomena, we attempt to back out the net force on a sub-scale nozzle during cold-flow testing using acceleration measurements. Because modeling the test facility dynamics is problematic, new techniques for creating a "pseudo-model" of the facility and nozzle directly from modal test results are applied. Extensive verification procedures were undertaken, resulting in a loading scale factor necessary for agreement between test and model based frequency response functions. Side loads are then obtained by applying a wide-band random load onto the system model, obtaining nozzle response PSD's, and iterating both the amplitude and frequency of the input until a good comparison of the response with the measured response PSD for a specific time point is obtained. The final calculated loading can be used to compare different nozzle profiles for assessment during rocket engine nozzle development and as a basis for accurate design of the nozzle and engine structure to withstand these loads. The techniques applied within this procedure have extensive applicability to timely and accurate characterization of all test fixtures used for modal test.A viewgraph presentation on a model-test based pseudo-model used to calculate side loads on rocket engine nozzles is included. The topics include: 1) Side Loads in Rocket Nozzles; 2) Present Side Loads Research at NASA/MSFC; 3) Structural Dynamic Model Generation; 4) Pseudo-Model Generation; 5) Implementation; 6) Calibration of Pseudo-Model Response; 7) Pseudo-Model Response Verification; 8) Inverse Force Determination; 9) Results; and 10) Recent Work.

  19. World Pendulum--A Distributed Remotely Controlled Laboratory (RCL) to Measure the Earth's Gravitational Acceleration Depending on Geographical Latitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grober, S.; Vetter, M.; Eckert, B.; Jodl, H.-J.

    2007-01-01

    We suggest that different string pendulums are positioned at different locations on Earth and measure at each place the gravitational acceleration (accuracy [delta]g is approximately equal to 0.01 m s[superscript -2]). Each pendulum can be remotely controlled via the internet by a computer located somewhere on Earth. The theoretical part describes…

  20. Latitudinal variation of speed and mass flux in the acceleration region of the solar wind inferred from spectral broadening measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Richard; Goldstein, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    Spectral broadening measurements conducted at S-band (13-cm wavelength) during solar minimum conditions in the heliocentric distance range of 3-8 R(sub O) by Mariner 4, Pioneer 10, Mariner 10, Helios 1, Helios 2, and Viking have been combined to reveal a factor of 2.6 reduction in bandwidth from equator to pole. Since spectral broadening bandwidth depends on electron density fluctuation and solar wind speed, and latitudinal variation of the former is available from coherence bandwidth measurements, the remote sensing spectral broadening measurements provide the first determination of the latitudinal variation of solar wind speed in the acceleration region. When combined with electron density measurements deduced from white-light coronagraphs, this result also leads to the first determination of the latitudinal variation of mass flux in the acceleration region. From equator to pole, solar wind speed increases by a factor of 2.2, while mass flux decreases by a factor of 2.3. These results are consistent with measurements of solar wind speed by multi-station intensity scintillation measurements, as well as measurements of mass flux inferred from Lyman alpha observations, both of which pertain to the solar wind beyond 0.5 AU. The spectral broadening observations, therefore, strengthen earlier conclusions about the latitudinal variation of solar wind speed and mass flux, and reinforce current solar coronal models and their implications for solar wind acceleration and solar wind modeling.

  1. Near-absolute Hugoniot measurements in aluminum to 500 GPa using a magnetically accelerated flyer plate technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudson, M. D.; Lemke, R. W.; Hayes, D. B.; Hall, C. A.; Deeney, C.; Asay, J. R.

    2003-10-01

    Hugoniot measurements were performed on aluminum (6061-T6) in the stress range of 100-500 GPa (1-5 Mbar) using a magnetically accelerated flyer plate technique. This method of flyer plate launch utilizes the high currents, and resulting magnetic fields produced at the Sandia Z Accelerator to accelerate macroscopic aluminum flyer plates (approximately 12×25 mm in lateral dimension and ˜300 μm in thickness) to velocities in excess of 20 km/s. This technique was used to perform plate-impact shock-wave experiments on aluminum to determine the high-stress equation of state (EOS). Using a near-symmetric impact method, Hugoniot measurements were obtained in the stress range of 100-500 GPa. The results of these experiments are in excellent agreement with previously reported Hugoniot measurements of aluminum in this stress range. The agreement at lower stress, where highly accurate gas gun data exist, establishes the magnetically accelerated flyer plate technique as a suitable method for generating EOS data. Furthermore, the present results exhibit increased accuracy over the previous techniques used to obtain data in the higher-stress range. This improved accuracy enhances our understanding of the response of aluminum to 500 GPa, and lends increased confidence to the use of aluminum as a standard material in future impedance matching experiments.

  2. Beam-based measurements of long-range transverse wakefields in the Compact Linear Collider main-linac accelerating structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Hao; Latina, Andrea; Grudiev, Alexej; De Michele, Giovanni; Solodko, Anastasiya; Wuensch, Walter; Schulte, Daniel; Adli, Erik; Lipkowitz, Nate; Yocky, Gerald S.

    2016-01-01

    The baseline design of CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) uses X-band accelerating structures for its main linacs. In order to maintain beam stability in multibunch operation, long-range transverse wakefields must be suppressed by 2 orders of magnitude between successive bunches, which are separated in time by 0.5 ns. Such strong wakefield suppression is achieved by equipping every accelerating structure cell with four damping waveguides terminated with individual rf loads. A beam-based experiment to directly measure the effectiveness of this long-range transverse wakefield and benchmark simulations was made in the FACET test facility at SLAC using a prototype CLIC accelerating structure. The experiment showed good agreement with the simulations and a strong suppression of the wakefields with an unprecedented minimum resolution of 0.1 V /(pC mm m ) .

  3. Evaluation of the electrode performance for PAFC by using acid absorption, acceleration and ac-impedance measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Song, Rak-Hyun; Choi, Byung-Woo

    1996-12-31

    In PAFC, the degradation on cathode electrode caused by carbon corrosion, platinum dissolution and growth is especially severe. An acceleration test is a good technique for evaluating the degradation of electrode performance, because it does not need long time. Coleman et al used thermal cycling and on-off cycling as an acceleration test. Song et al showed that hydrogen shortage decreased the electrode performance more rapidly than that of air shortage in gas shortage test. Honji et al reported that the rate of coarsening of Pt particle is rapid in open circuit potential and this is one of major causes on the performance degradation of electrode. The cathode performance has been studied by using acid absorption, acceleration and ac-impedance measurements as functions of the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) contents and sintering temperatures of the electrode.

  4. Assessment of two-dimensional induced accelerations from measured kinematic and kinetic data.

    PubMed

    Hof, A L; Otten, E

    2005-11-01

    A simple algorithm is presented to calculate the induced accelerations of body segments in human walking for the sagittal plane. The method essentially consists of setting up 2x4 force equations, 4 moment equations, 2x3 joint constraint equations and two constraints related to the foot-ground interaction. Data needed for the equations are, next to masses and moments of inertia, the positions of ankle, knee and hip. This set of equations is put in the form of an 18x18 matrix or 20x20 matrix, the solution of which can be found by inversion. By applying input vectors related to gravity, to centripetal accelerations or to muscle moments, the 'induced' accelerations and reaction forces related to these inputs can be found separately. The method was tested for walking in one subject. Good agreement was found with published results obtained by much more complicated three-dimensional forward dynamic models. PMID:16214657

  5. Operation and reactivity measurements of an accelerator driven subcritical TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kelly, David Sean

    Experiments were performed at the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL) in 2005 and 2006 in which a 20 MeV linear electron accelerator operating as a photoneutron source was coupled to the TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotope production, General Atomics) Mark II research reactor at the University of Texas at Austin (UT) to simulate the operation and characteristics of a full-scale accelerator driven subcritical system (ADSS). The experimental program provided a relatively low-cost substitute for the higher power and complexity of internationally proposed systems utilizing proton accelerators and spallation neutron sources for an advanced ADSS that may be used for the burning of high-level radioactive waste. Various instrumentation methods that permitted ADSS neutron flux monitoring in high gamma radiation fields were successfully explored and the data was used to evaluate the Stochastic Pulsed Feynman method for reactivity monitoring.

  6. Multi-rate Kalman filtering for the data fusion of displacement and acceleration response measurements in dynamic system monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Andrew; Wu, Meiliang

    2007-02-01

    Many damage detection and system identification approaches benefit from the availability of both acceleration and displacement measurements. This is particularly true in the case of suspected non-linear behavior and permanent deformations. In civil and mechanical structural modeling accelerometers are most often used, however displacement sensors, such as non-contact optical techniques as well as GPS-based methods for civil structures are becoming more common. It is suggested, where possible, to exploit the inherent redundancy in the sensor information and combine the collocated acceleration and displacement measurements in a manner which yields highly accurate motion data. This circumvents problematic integration of accelerometer data that causes low-frequency noise amplification, and potentially more problematic differentiation of displacement measurements which amplify high-frequency noise. Another common feature of displacement-based sensing is that the high-frequency resolution is limited, and often relatively low sampling rates are used. In contrast, accelerometers are often more accurate for higher frequencies and higher sampling rates are often available. The fusion of these two data types must, therefore, combine data sampled at different frequencies. A multi-rate Kalman filtering approach is proposed to solve this problem. In addition, a smoothing step is introduced to obtain improved accuracy in the displacement estimate when it is sampled at lower rates than the corresponding acceleration measurement. Through trials with simulated data the procedure's effectiveness is shown to be quite robust at a variety of noise levels and relative sample rates for this practical problem.

  7. Going nuts: Measuring free-fall acceleration by analyzing the sound of falling metal pieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Jochen; Vogt, Patrik; Theilmann, Florian

    2016-03-01

    Galilei presented the kinematics of a one-dimensional accelerated motion with ease and in terms of elegant geometry. Moreover, he believed, "Philosophy [i.e. physics] is written in this grand book—I mean the universe—which stands continually open to our gaze, but it cannot be understood unless one first learns to comprehend the language and interpret the characters in which it is written. It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometrical figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it." In classroom practice, however, it can be difficult to reveal this mathematical heart of nature; free fall and other accelerated motions often get obscured by friction or other sources of errors. In this paper, we introduce a method of analyzing free-fall motion indirectly by evaluating the noise of freely falling metal pieces. The method connects a deeper understanding of the mathematical structure of accelerated motion with the possibility to derive a numerical value for the free-fall acceleration g.

  8. Methodology for the calibration of and data acquisition with a six-degree-of-freedom acceleration measurement device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Harvey; Plank, Gordon; Weinstock, Herbert; Coltman, Michael

    1989-06-01

    Described here is a methodology for calibrating and gathering data with a six-degree-of-freedom acceleration measurement device that is intended to measure head acceleration of anthropomorphic dummies and human volunteers in automotive crash testing and head impact trauma studies. Error models (system equations) were developed for systems using six accelerometers in a coplanar (3-2-1) configuration, nine accelerometers in a coplanar (3-3-3) configuration and nine accelerometers in a non-coplanar (3-2-2-2) configuration and the accuracy and stability of these systems were compared. The model was verified under various input and computational conditions. Results of parametric sensitivity analyses which included parameters such as system geometry, coordinate system location, data sample rate and accelerometer cross axis sensitivities are presented. Recommendations to optimize data collection and reduction are given. Complete source listings of all of the software developed are presented.

  9. Importance of Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability on Measurements of Cosmic-Ray Acceleration Efficiency at Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoda, Jiro; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Ohira, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Ryo; Bamba, Aya; Vink, Jacco

    2016-06-01

    Using three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, we show that the effi- ciency of cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration in supernova remnants (SNRs) is over-predicted if it could be estimated based on proper motion measurements of Hα filaments in combination with shock-jump conditions. The CR acceleration efficiency at the SNR has been widely discussed, which seems to be ubiquitously so high that back reaction of CRs onto background shock structure is significant, with assuming that SNRs shock is plane parallel. The role of the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) has recently been studied using MHD simulations that have shown that the forward shock of SNRs is rippled due to the interaction with interstellar medium, which has Kolmogorov-like density power spectrum. The kinetic energy of the shock wave is transferred into that of downstream turbulence as well as thermal energy that is related to the shock velocity component normal to the shock surface. Our synthetic observation shows that the CR acceleration efficiency is overestimated by 10-40% despite of no CR acceleration. Furthermore, our simple analytical argument gives upper and lower bounds of apparent CR production efficiency, which is roughly consistent with our numerical results.

  10. The feasibility of isobaric suppression of 26Mg via post-accelerator foil stripping for the measurement of 26Al [The feasibility of isobaric suppression of 26Mg via post-accelerator foil stripping for the measurement of 26Al.

    DOE PAGES

    Tumey, Scott J.; Brown, Thomas A.; Finkel, Robert C.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2012-09-13

    Most accelerator mass spectrometry measurements of 26Al utilize the Al- ion despite lower source currents compared with AlO- since the stable isobar 26Mg does not form elemental negative ions. A gas-filled magnet allows sufficient suppression of 26Mg thus enabling the use of the more intense 26AlO- ion. However, most AMS systems do not include a gas-filled magnet. We therefore explored the feasibility of suppressing 26Mg by using a post-accelerator stripping foil. With this approach, combined with the use of alternative cathode matrices, we were able to suppress 26Mg by a factor of twenty. This suppression was insufficient to enable themore » use of 26AlO-, however further refinement of our system may permit its use in the future.« less

  11. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurements for MSL-1: STS-83, Launched April 14, 1997; STS-94, Launched July 1, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskowitz, Milton E.; Hrovat, Kenneth; Tschen, Peter; McPherson, Kevin; Nati, Maurizio; Reckart, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    The microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle Columbia was measured during the STS-83 and STS-94 flights of the Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) mission using four different accelerometer systems: the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), the Microgravity Measurement Assembly (MMA), and the Quasi-Steady Acceleration Measurement (QSAM) system. All four accelerometer systems provided investigators with acceleration measurements downlinked in near-real-time. Data from each system was recorded for post-mission analysis. The OARE measured the Shuttle's acceleration with high resolution in the quasi-steady frequency regime below about 0.1 Hz. The SAMS provided investigators with higher frequency acceleration measurements up to 25 Hz. The QSAM and MMA systems provided investigators with quasi-steady and higher frequency (up to 100 Hz) acceleration measurements, respectively. The microgravity environment related to various Orbiter maneuvers, crew activities, and experiment operations as measured by the OARE and MMA is presented and interpreted in section 8 of this report.

  12. Displacement measurements in the cryogenically cooled dipoles of the new CERN-LHC particle accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaudi, Daniele; Glisic, Branko; Scandale, Walter; Garcia Perez, Juan; Billan, Jaques; Radaelli, Stefano

    2001-08-01

    All evidence indicates that new physics, and answers to some of the most profound scientific questions of our time, lie at energies around 1 TeV. To look for this new physics, the next research instrument in Europe's particle physics armory is the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This challenging machine will use the most advanced superconducting magnet and accelerator technologies ever employed. LHC experiments are being designed to look for theoretically predicted phenomena.

  13. Vorticity, turbulence production, and turbulence induced accelerations in a rectangular jet as measured using 3-D LDA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Swan, David H.

    1990-01-01

    The flow field of a rectangular jet with a 4:1 aspect ratio (50.4 x 12.7 mm) was studied at a Reynolds number of 100,000 (Mach number 0.09) using a 3-D laser Doppler anemometer system. Measurements were performed along the major and minor axis planes and at various downstream cross-sections of the jet. The mean velocity vector and entire Reynolds stress tensor were measured and presented in a previous publication. The present work presents the vorticity vector, turbulence production, and turbulence induced acceleration vector distributions which were calculated from the previously presented data.

  14. Acceleration performance of individual European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax measured with a sprint performance chamber: comparison with high-speed cinematography and correlates with ecological performance.

    PubMed

    Vandamm, Joshua P; Marras, Stefano; Claireaux, Guy; Handelsman, Corey A; Nelson, Jay A

    2012-01-01

    Locomotor performance can influence the ecological and evolutionary success of a species. For fish, favorable outcomes of predator-prey encounters are often presumably due to robust acceleration ability. Although escape-response or "fast-start" studies utilizing high-speed cinematography are prevalent, little is known about the contribution of relative acceleration performance to ecological or evolutionary success in a species. This dearth of knowledge may be due to the time-consuming nature of analyzing film, which imposes a practical limit on sample sizes. Herein, we present a high-throughput potential alternative for measuring fish acceleration performance using a sprint performance chamber (SPC). The acceleration performance of a large number of juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from two populations was analyzed. Animals from both hatchery and natural ontogenies were assessed, and animals of known acceleration ability had their ecological performance measured in a mesocosm environment. Individuals from one population also had their acceleration performance assessed by both high-speed cinematography and an SPC. Acceleration performance measured in an SPC was lower than that measured by classical high-speed video techniques. However, short-term repeatability and interindividual variation of acceleration performance were similar between the two techniques, and the SPC recorded higher sprint swimming velocities. Wild fish were quicker to accelerate in an SPC and had significantly greater accelerations than all groups of hatchery-raised fish. Acceleration performance had no significant effect on ecological performance (as assessed through animal growth and survival in the mesocosms). However, it is worth noting that wild animals did survive predation in the mesocosm better than farmed ones. Moreover, the hatchery-originated fish that survived the mesocosm experiment, when no predators were present, displayed significantly increased acceleration

  15. Acceleration performance of individual European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax measured with a sprint performance chamber: comparison with high-speed cinematography and correlates with ecological performance.

    PubMed

    Vandamm, Joshua P; Marras, Stefano; Claireaux, Guy; Handelsman, Corey A; Nelson, Jay A

    2012-01-01

    Locomotor performance can influence the ecological and evolutionary success of a species. For fish, favorable outcomes of predator-prey encounters are often presumably due to robust acceleration ability. Although escape-response or "fast-start" studies utilizing high-speed cinematography are prevalent, little is known about the contribution of relative acceleration performance to ecological or evolutionary success in a species. This dearth of knowledge may be due to the time-consuming nature of analyzing film, which imposes a practical limit on sample sizes. Herein, we present a high-throughput potential alternative for measuring fish acceleration performance using a sprint performance chamber (SPC). The acceleration performance of a large number of juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from two populations was analyzed. Animals from both hatchery and natural ontogenies were assessed, and animals of known acceleration ability had their ecological performance measured in a mesocosm environment. Individuals from one population also had their acceleration performance assessed by both high-speed cinematography and an SPC. Acceleration performance measured in an SPC was lower than that measured by classical high-speed video techniques. However, short-term repeatability and interindividual variation of acceleration performance were similar between the two techniques, and the SPC recorded higher sprint swimming velocities. Wild fish were quicker to accelerate in an SPC and had significantly greater accelerations than all groups of hatchery-raised fish. Acceleration performance had no significant effect on ecological performance (as assessed through animal growth and survival in the mesocosms). However, it is worth noting that wild animals did survive predation in the mesocosm better than farmed ones. Moreover, the hatchery-originated fish that survived the mesocosm experiment, when no predators were present, displayed significantly increased acceleration

  16. A resonant sensor composed of quartz double ended tuning fork and silicon substrate for digital acceleration measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Cun; Zhao, Yulong Cheng, Rongjun; Yu, Zhongliang; Liu, Yan

    2014-03-15

    Presented in this paper is a micro-resonant acceleration sensor based on the frequency shift of quartz double ended tuning fork (DETF). The structure is silicon substrate having a proof mass supported by two parallel flexure hinges as doubly sustained cantilever, with a resonating DETF located between the hinges. The acceleration normal to the chip plane induces an axial stress in the DETF beam and, in turn, a proportional shift in the beam resonant frequency. Substrate is manufactured by single-crystal silicon for stable mechanical properties and batch-fabrication processes. Electrodes on the four surfaces of DETF beam excite anti-phase vibration model, to balance inner stress and torque and imply a high quality factor. The sensor is simply packaged and operates unsealed in atmosphere for measurements. The tested natural frequency is 36.9 kHz and the sensitivity is 21 Hz/g on a nominally ±100 g device, which is in good agreement with analytical calculation and finite element simulation. The output frequency drifting is less than 0.5 Hz (0.0014% of steady output) within 1 h. The nonlinearity is 0.0019%FS and hysteresis is 0.0026%FS. The testing results confirm the feasibility of combining quartz DETF and silicon substrate to achieve a micro-resonant sensor based on simple processing for digital acceleration measurements.

  17. The actual measurements at the tide gauges do not support strongly accelerating twentieth-century sea-level rise reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A.

    2016-03-01

    Contrary to what is claimed by reconstructions of the Global Mean Sea Level (GMSL) indicating accelerating sea level rates of rise over the twentieth-century, the actual measurements at the tide gauges show the sea levels have not risen nor accelerated that much. The most recent estimation by Hay et al of the twentieth-century global mean sea level (GMSL) rise is the last attempt to give exact reconstructions without having enough information of the state of the world oceans over a century where unfortunately the good measurements were not that many. The information on relative rates of rise at the tide gauges and land subsidence of global positioning system (GPS) domes suggest the relative rate of rise is about 0.25mm/year, without any detectable acceleration. [The naïve average of all the world tide gauges of sufficient quality and length of the Permanent Service to Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) data base], Both the relative rates of rise at the tide gauges and the land vertical velocity of GPS domes of the Système d'Observation du Niveau des Eaux Littorales (SONEL) data base are strongly variable in space and time to make a nonsense the GMSL estimation.

  18. Application of gamma-ray radiography and gravimetric measurements after accelerated corrosion tests of steel embedded in mortar

    SciTech Connect

    Duffó, Gustavo; Gaillard, Natalia; Mariscotti, Mario; Ruffolo, Marcelo

    2015-08-15

    The accelerated corrosion by the impressed current technique is widely used in studies of concrete durability since it has the advantage that tests can be carried out within reasonable periods of time. In the present work the relationship between the applied current density and the resulting damage on the reinforcing steel, by applying optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, gamma-ray radiography and gravimetric measurements, was studied by means of the implementation of accelerated corrosion tests on reinforced mortar. The results show that the efficiency of the applied current is between 1 and 77%, regardless of the applied current density, the water/cement ratio and the mortar cover depth of the specimens. The results show the applicability of the gamma-ray radiography technique to detect localized corrosion of steel rebars in laboratory specimens.

  19. Using MMS measurements to validate models of reconnection-driven magnetotail reconfiguration and particle acceleration during substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Daniel N.

    2016-04-01

    New data from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission confirms and greatly extends the view that substorms are a configurational instability driven by magnetic reconnection. We have studied in detail a powerful storm period in June 2015 which shows that substorm events seen sequentially by the four MMS spacecraft subsequently feed the powerful enhancement of the radiation belts observed by the Van Allen Probes mission. Several sequences of significant southward IMF along with a period of high (VSW≥500 km/s) solar wind speed occurred following a strong interplanetary shock wave impact on the magnetosphere. We see that substorms provide a "seed" population, while high-speed solar wind drives the acceleration to relativistic energies in this two-step geomagnetic activity scenario. Thus, MMS data help validate models that invoke reconnection as a fundamental driver of magnetospheric particle acceleration. The data for several separate events on 22 June 2015 show that the magnetosphere progresses through a specific, well-observed sequence of energy-loading and stress-developing states until the entire system suddenly reconfigures. Energetic electron fluxes measured by the several MMS spacecraft reveal the clear temporal occurrence characteristics and the obvious relationships to concurrently measured solar wind drivers. This shows that enhancements in substorms are a key first step in the acceleration of radiation belt electrons to high energies as observed subsequently by the Van Allen Probes instrumentation. Thus, this high-resolution observational evidence along with the accompanying modeling has demonstrated that magnetospheric substorms are an important acceleration component within the coupled near-Earth system.

  20. Direct air activation measurements at a 15-MV medical linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Saeed, M K; Poppe, B; Fischer, H W

    2015-02-01

    Direct radiometric determination of (14)N (γ, n) (13)N air activation was achieved at a 15-MV medical linear accelerator operating in a high-energy photon mode. (13)N was identified by irradiating a gas-tight Marinelli beaker filled with nitrogen gas and later observing the 10-min half-life of the 511-keV positron-electron annihilation line using high-resolution gamma spectroscopy. Quantitative evaluation of the spectral signal yielded a (13)N production rate of 836.8 ± 32 Bq Gy(-1) in air per 40 × 40 cm(2) field cross section at 100 cm source-surface distance.

  1. Design of the FEM-FIR filter for displacement reconstruction using accelerations and displacements measured at different sampling rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yun Hwa; Lee, Se Gun; Lee, Hae Sung

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a displacement reconstruction scheme using acceleration measured at a high sampling rate and displacement measured at a considerably low sampling rate. The governing equation and the boundary conditions for the reconstruction are derived using the variational statement of an inverse problem to minimize the errors between measured and reconstructed responses. The transfer function of the governing equation is identically 1 over whole frequency domain, and the proposed scheme would not result in any reconstruction error. A finite impulse response filter (FIR filter) is formulated through the finite element discretization of the governing equation. The Hermitian shape function is adopted to interpolate the displacement in a finite element. The transfer functions of the FIR filter are derived, and their characteristics are thoroughly discussed. It is recommended that the displacement sampling rate should be higher than the Nyquist rate of the target frequency, which is the lowest physically meaningful frequency in measured acceleration. In case the displacement sampling rate is lower than the recommended rate, the use of a higher target accuracy, which is the predefined accuracy at the target frequency, is required. The reconstruction of velocity with the proposed scheme is also presented. The validity of the proposed scheme is demonstrated with a numerical simulation study and a field test on a simply-supported railway bridge.

  2. Current perspectives of 14C-isotope measurement in biomedical accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lappin, Graham; Garner, R Colin

    2004-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an extremely sensitive nuclear physics technique developed in the mid-70's for radiocarbon dating of historical artefacts. The technique centres round the use of a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator to generate the potential energy to permit separation of elemental isotopes at the single atom level. AMS was first used in the early 90's for the analysis of biological samples containing enriched 14C for toxicology and cancer research. Since that time biomedical AMS has been used in the study of (1) metabolism of xenobiotics in animals and humans (2) pathways of drug metabolism (3) biomarkers (4) metabolism of endogenous molecules including vitamins (5) DNA and protein binding studies and (6) clinical diagnosis. A new drug development concept which relies on the ultrasensitivity of AMS known as human microdosing (Phase 0) is being used to obtain early human metabolism information of candidate drugs arising out of discovery. These various aspects of AMS are reviewed in this article and a perspective on future applications of AMS provided.

  3. Contact force measurement of instruments for force-feedback on a surgical robot: acceleration force cancellations based on acceleration sensor readings.

    PubMed

    Shimachi, Shigeyuki; Kameyama, Fumie; Hakozaki, Yoshihide; Fujiwara, Yasunori

    2005-01-01

    For delicate operations conducted using surgical robot systems, surgeons need to receive information regarding the contact forces on the tips of surgical instruments. For the detection of this contact force, one of the authors previously proposed a new method, called the overcoat method, in which the instrument is supported by sensors positioned on the overcoat pipe. This method requires cancellation of the acceleration forces of the instrument/holder attached to the overcoat sensor. In the present report, the authors attempt to use acceleration sensors to obtain the acceleration forces of the instrument/holder. The new cancellation method provides a force-detection accuracy of approximately 0.05-0.1 N for a dynamic response range of up to approximately 20 Hz, compared to approximately 1 Hz, which was achieved by using acceleration forces based on the theoretical robot motion.

  4. Absolute Beam Energy Measurement using Elastic ep Scattering at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deur, Alexandre

    1999-10-01

    The Jefferson Lab beam energy measurement in Hall A using the elastic ep scattering will be described. This new, non-magnetic, energy measurement method allows a ( triangle E/E=10-4 ) precision. First-order corrections are canceled by the measurements of the electron and proton scattering angles for two symmetric kinematics. The measurement principle will be presented as well as the device and measurement results. Comparison with independent magnetic energy measurements of the same accuracy will be shown. This project is the result of a collaboration between the LPC: université Blaise Pascal/in2p3), Saclay and Jefferson Lab.

  5. Accelerated Discovery of Thermoelectric Materials: Combinatorial Facility and High-Throughput Measurement of Thermoelectric Power Factor.

    PubMed

    García-Cañadas, Jorge; Adkins, Nicholas J E; McCain, Stephen; Hauptstein, Bastian; Brew, Ashley; Jarvis, David J; Min, Gao

    2016-06-13

    A series of processes have been developed to facilitate the rapid discovery of new promising thermoelectric alloys. A novel combinatorial facility where elements are wire-fed and laser-melted was designed and constructed. Different sample compositions can be achieved by feeding different element wires at specific rates. The composition of all the samples prepared was tested by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Then, their thermoelectric properties (power factor) at room temperature were screened in a specially designed new high-throughput setup. After the screening, the thermoelectric properties can be mapped with the possibility of identifying compositional trends. As a proof-of-concept, a promising thermoelectric ternary system, Al-Fe-Ti, has been identified, demonstrating the capability of this accelerated approach.

  6. Accelerated Discovery of Thermoelectric Materials: Combinatorial Facility and High-Throughput Measurement of Thermoelectric Power Factor.

    PubMed

    García-Cañadas, Jorge; Adkins, Nicholas J E; McCain, Stephen; Hauptstein, Bastian; Brew, Ashley; Jarvis, David J; Min, Gao

    2016-06-13

    A series of processes have been developed to facilitate the rapid discovery of new promising thermoelectric alloys. A novel combinatorial facility where elements are wire-fed and laser-melted was designed and constructed. Different sample compositions can be achieved by feeding different element wires at specific rates. The composition of all the samples prepared was tested by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Then, their thermoelectric properties (power factor) at room temperature were screened in a specially designed new high-throughput setup. After the screening, the thermoelectric properties can be mapped with the possibility of identifying compositional trends. As a proof-of-concept, a promising thermoelectric ternary system, Al-Fe-Ti, has been identified, demonstrating the capability of this accelerated approach. PMID:27186664

  7. Linear vs. nonlinear acceleration in plasma turbulence. I. Global versus local measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Sanjoy; Parashar, Tulasi N.

    2015-04-15

    Magnetized turbulent plasmas are generally characterized as strongly or weakly turbulent based on the average relative strengths of the linear and nonlinear terms. While this description is useful, it does not represent the full picture and can be misleading. We study the variation of linear and nonlinear accelerations in the Fourier space of a magnetohydrodynamic system with a mean magnetic field and broad selection of initial states and plasma parameters. We show that the local picture can show significant departures from what is expected from the general global picture. We find that high cross helicity systems that are traditionally believed to have relatively weaker nonlinearities, compared to low cross helicity systems, can show strong nonlinearities in parts of the Fourier space that are orthogonal to the mean magnetic field direction. In some cases, these nonlinearities can exceed in strength the level of nonlinearities recovered from low cross helicity systems.

  8. Determination of the concentration of SF 6 in an accelerator gas mixture by measuring the velocity of sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilburn, W. S.; Gould, C. R.; Haase, D. G.; Hoffenberg, R. S.; Mioduszewski, S.; Roberson, N. R.

    1995-02-01

    A simple and reliable method for determining the concentration of SF 6 in an accelerator gas mixture with N 2 and CO 2 is described. The technique makes use of the low velocity of sound in SF 6 (approximately {1}/{3} that of air). The sound velocity of the mixture is determined by measuring the spacing of acoustic resonances in a tube filled with the gas. Data from standard gas mixtures containing 0-10% SF 6 are presented, showing that the technique is accurate to approximately 0.5% absolute.

  9. Measurements of the persistent current decay and snapback effect in Nb3Sn Fermilab-built accelerator prototype magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Velev, G.V.; Chlachidze, G.; DiMarco, J.; Kashikhin, V.V.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    In recent years, Fermilab has been performing an intensive R an D program on Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnets. This program has included dipole and quadrupole magnets for different programs and projects, including LARP and VLHC. A systematic study of the persistent current decay and snapback effect in the fields of these magnets was executed at the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility. The decay and snapback were measured under a range of conditions including variations of the current ramp parameters and flattop and injection plateau durations. This study has mostly focused on the dynamic behavior of the normal sextupole and dodecapole components in dipole and quadrupole magnets respectively. The paper summarizes the recent measurements and presents a comparison with previously measured NbTi magnets.

  10. Noninteracting control of dynamically tuned dry gyro and its application to measurement of two-axis angular accelerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingu, H.; Otsuki, M.

    This paper presents a method of reducing the interaction effect between the input and output peculiar to the dynamically tuned dry gyro (TDG), and the possibility of measuring angular accelerations about two axes, through improvements of the rebalance control circuit (RCC) installed on the TDG. First, the use of the TDG as a two-axis rate sensor is shown along with direct and cross transfer functions relating two outputs and two inputs; and it is shown that the TDG makes it possible to simultaneously measure two-axis angular velocities and two-axis angular accelerations if the RCC is improved to facilitate noninteracting control. Next, the design procedure and the results of the trial manufacture on the hardware of each element of the RCC necessary to meet its capability are shown. Third, from the results of the experiments using this manufactured RCC it is clarified that the frequency characteristics of direct transfer functions which prescribe the system performance are hardly influenced by the manufacturing accuracy of the RCC, but the gain characteristics of cross transfer functions, which correspond to the degree of reduction of the interaction effect, are significantly influenced by the manufacturing accuracy.

  11. Measurement of bi-directional ion acceleration along a convergent-divergent magnetic nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunchao; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod

    2016-03-01

    Bi-directional plasma expansion resulting in the formation of ion beams travelling in opposite directions is respectively measured in the converging and diverging parts of a magnetic nozzle created using a low-pressure helicon radio-frequency plasma source. The axial profile of ion saturation current along the nozzle is closely correlated to that of the magnetic flux density, and the ion "swarm" has a zero convective velocity at the magnetic throat where plasma generation is localized, thereby balancing the bi-directional particle loss. The ion beam potentials measured on both sides of the magnetic nozzle show results consistent with the maximum plasma potential measured at the throat.

  12. Laser interferometry method for absolute measurement of the acceleration of gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, O. K.

    1971-01-01

    Gravimeter permits more accurate and precise absolute measurement of g without reference to Potsdam values as absolute standards. Device is basically Michelson laser beam interferometer in which one arm is mass fitted with corner cube reflector.

  13. Performance of a fast digital integrator in on-field magnetic measurements for particle accelerators.

    PubMed

    Arpaia, P; Bottura, L; Fiscarelli, L; Walckiers, L

    2012-02-01

    The fast digital integrator has been conceived to face most demanding magnet test requirements with a resolution of 10 ppm, a signal-to-noise ratio of 105 dB at 20 kHz, a time resolution of 50 ns, an offset of 10 ppm, and on-line processing. In this paper, the on-field achievements of the fast digital integrator are assessed by a specific measurement campaign at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). At first, the architecture and the metrological specifications of the instrument are reported. Then, the recent on-field achievements of (i) ±10 ppm of uncertainty in the measurement of the main field for superconducting magnets characterization, (ii) ±0.02 % of field uncertainty in quality assessment of small-aperture permanent magnets, and (iii) ±0.15 % of drift, in an excitation current measurement of 600 s under cryogenic conditions, are presented and discussed.

  14. Circuit and Scattering Matrix Analysis of the Wire Measurement Method of Beam Impedance in Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Roger M

    2003-05-23

    In order to measure the wakefield left behind multiple bunches of energetic electrons we have previously used the ASSET facility in the SLC [1]. However, in order to produce a more rapid and cost-effective determination of the wakefields we have designed a wire experimental method to measure the beam impedance and from the Fourier transform thereof, the wakefields. In this paper we present studies of the wire effect on the properties of X-band structures in study for the JLC/NLC (Japanese Linear Collider/Next Linear Collider) project. Simulations are made on infinite and finite periodical structures. The results are discussed.

  15. The use of aluminum nitride to improve Aluminum-26 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry measurements and production of Radioactive Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzen, Meghan S.; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo; Liu, Yuan; Mills, Gerald D.; Romero-Romero, Elisa; Stracener, Daniel W.

    2015-10-01

    We present results and discuss the use of aluminum nitride as a promising source material for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) science applications of 26Al isotopes. The measurement of 26Al in geological samples by AMS is typically conducted on Al2O3 targets. However, Al2O3 is not an ideal source material because it does not form a prolific beam of Al- required for measuring low-levels of 26Al. Multiple samples of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), aluminum nitride (AlN), mixed Al2O3-AlN as well as aluminum fluoride (AlF3) were tested and compared using the ion source test facility and the stable ion beam (SIB) injector platform at the 25-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Negative ion currents of atomic and molecular aluminum were examined for each source material. It was found that pure AlN targets produced substantially higher beam currents than the other materials and that there was some dependence on the exposure of AlN to air. The applicability of using AlN as a source material for geological samples was explored by preparing quartz samples as Al2O3 and converting them to AlN using a carbothermal reduction technique, which involved reducing the Al2O3 with graphite powder at 1600 °C within a nitrogen atmosphere. The quartz material was successfully converted to AlN. Thus far, AlN proves to be a promising source material and could lead towards increasing the sensitivity of low-level 26Al AMS measurements. The potential of using AlN as a source material for nuclear physics is also very promising by placing 26AlN directly into a source to produce more intense radioactive beams of 26Al.

  16. Methodology and measures for preventing unacceptable flow-accelerated corrosion thinning of pipelines and equipment of NPP power generating units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Lovchev, V. N.; Gutsev, D. F.

    2016-10-01

    Problems of metal flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) in the pipelines and equipment of the condensate- feeding and wet-steam paths of NPP power-generating units (PGU) are examined. Goals, objectives, and main principles of the methodology for the implementation of an integrated program of AO Concern Rosenergoatom for the prevention of unacceptable FAC thinning and for increasing operational flow-accelerated corrosion resistance of NPP EaP are worded (further the Program). A role is determined and potentialities are shown for the use of Russian software packages in the evaluation and prediction of FAC rate upon solving practical problems for the timely detection of unacceptable FAC thinning in the elements of pipelines and equipment (EaP) of the secondary circuit of NPP PGU. Information is given concerning the structure, properties, and functions of the software systems for plant personnel support in the monitoring and planning of the inservice inspection of FAC thinning elements of pipelines and equipment of the secondary circuit of NPP PGUs, which are created and implemented at some Russian NPPs equipped with VVER-1000, VVER-440, and BN-600 reactors. It is noted that one of the most important practical results of software packages for supporting NPP personnel concerning the issue of flow-accelerated corrosion consists in revealing elements under a hazard of intense local FAC thinning. Examples are given for successful practice at some Russian NPP concerning the use of software systems for supporting the personnel in early detection of secondary-circuit pipeline elements with FAC thinning close to an unacceptable level. Intermediate results of working on the Program are presented and new tasks set in 2012 as a part of the updated program are denoted. The prospects of the developed methods and tools in the scope of the Program measures at the stages of design and construction of NPP PGU are discussed. The main directions of the work on solving the problems of flow-accelerated

  17. Prediction of bodyweight and energy expenditure using point pressure and foot acceleration measurements.

    PubMed

    Sazonova, Nadezhda A; Browning, Raymond; Sazonov, Edward S

    2011-01-01

    Bodyweight (BW) is an essential outcome measure for weight management and is also a major predictor in the estimation of daily energy expenditure (EE). Many individuals, particularly those who are overweight, tend to underreport their BW, posing a challenge for monitors that track physical activity and estimate EE. The ability to automatically estimate BW can potentially increase the practicality and accuracy of these monitoring systems. This paper investigates the feasibility of automatically estimating BW and using this BW to estimate energy expenditure with a footwear-based, multisensor activity monitor. The SmartShoe device uses small pressure sensors embedded in key weight support locations of the insole and a heel-mounted 3D accelerometer. Bodyweight estimates for 9 subjects are computed from pressure sensor measurements when an automatic classification algorithm recognizes a standing posture. We compared the accuracy of EE prediction using estimated BW compared to that of using the measured BW. The results show that point pressure measurement is capable of providing rough estimates of body weight (root-mean squared error of 10.52 kg) which in turn provide a sufficient replacement of manually-entered bodyweight for the purpose of EE prediction (root-mean squared error of 0.7456 METs vs. 0.6972 METs). Advances in the pressure sensor technology should enable better accuracy of body weight estimation and further improvement in accuracy of EE prediction using automatic BW estimates.

  18. Betatron radiation based measurement of the electron-beam size in a wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Schnell, Michael; Saevert, Alexander; Reuter, Maria; and others

    2012-07-09

    We present a spatial and spectral characterization of a laser-plasma based betatron source which allows us to determine the betatron oscillation amplitude of the electrons which decreases with increasing electron energies. Due to the observed oscillation amplitude and the independently measured x-ray source size of (1.8{+-}0.3){mu}m we are able to estimate the electron bunch diameter to be (1.6{+-}0.3){mu}m.

  19. Accelerating flow propagator measurements for the investigation of reactive transport in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbourne, A. A.; Sederman, A. J.; Mantle, M. D.; Gladden, L. F.

    2016-11-01

    NMR propagator measurements are widely used for identifying the distribution of molecular displacements over a given observation time, characterising a flowing system. However, where high q-space resolution is required, the experiments are time consuming and therefore unsuited to the study of dynamic systems. Here, it is shown that with an appropriately sampled subset of the q-space points in a high-resolution flow propagator measurement, one can quickly and robustly reconstruct the fully sampled propagator through interpolation of the acquired raw data. It was found that exponentially sampling ∼4% of the original data-points allowed a reconstruction with the deviation from the fully sampled propagator below the noise level, in this case reducing the required experimental time from ∼2.8 h to <7 min. As a demonstration, this approach is applied to observe the temporal evolution of the reactive flow of acid through an Estaillades rock core plug. It is shown that 'wormhole' formation in the rock core plug provides a channel for liquid flow such that the remaining pore space is by-passed, thereby causing the flow velocity of the liquid in the remaining part of the plug to become stagnant. The propagator measurements are supported by both 1D profiles and 2D imaging data. Such insights are of importance in understanding well acidisation and CO2 sequestration processes.

  20. Measurement of Muon Antineutrino Oscillations with an Accelerator-Produced Off-Axis Beam.

    PubMed

    Abe, K; Andreopoulos, C; Antonova, M; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bartet-Friburg, P; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Berardi, V; Berkman, S; Bhadra, S; Blondel, A; Bolognesi, S; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buizza Avanzini, M; Calland, R G; Cao, S; Caravaca Rodríguez, J; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Chikuma, N; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Collazuol, G; Cremonesi, L; Dabrowska, A; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Denner, P F; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Dewhurst, D; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Dolan, S; Drapier, O; Duffy, K E; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery-Schrenk, S; Ereditato, A; Feusels, T; Finch, A J; Fiorentini, G A; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, D; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Garcia, A; Giffin, S G; Giganti, C; Gizzarelli, F; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Hadley, D R; Haegel, L; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayashino, T; Hayato, Y; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Hogan, M; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Hosomi, F; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Intonti, R A; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Iwai, E; Iwamoto, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Jiang, M; Johnson, S; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Jung, C K; Kabirnezhad, M; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Katori, T; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kim, H; Kim, J; King, S; Kisiel, J; Knight, A; Knox, A; Kobayashi, T; Koch, L; Koga, T; Konaka, A; Kondo, K; Kopylov, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koshio, Y; Kropp, W; Kudenko, Y; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Lamont, I; Larkin, E; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lindner, T; Liptak, Z J; Litchfield, R P; Li, X; Longhin, A; Lopez, J P; Ludovici, L; Lu, X; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Martins, P; Martynenko, S; Maruyama, T; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Ma, W Y; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Mefodiev, A; Mezzetto, M; Mijakowski, P; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Missert, A; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakamura, K G; Nakamura, K; Nakamura, K D; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Nantais, C; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; Nowak, J; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Ovsyannikova, T; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Palladino, V; Palomino, J L; Paolone, V; Patel, N D; Pavin, M; Payne, D; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pickard, L; Pickering, L; Pinzon Guerra, E S; Pistillo, C; Popov, B; Posiadala-Zezula, M; Poutissou, J-M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Riccio, C; Rojas, P; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Rychter, A; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schoppmann, S; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shah, R; Shaikhiev, A; Shaker, F; Shaw, D; Shiozawa, M; Shirahige, T; Short, S; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Stewart, T; Suda, Y; Suvorov, S; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thakore, T; Thompson, L F; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vallari, Z; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Wakamatsu, K; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Warzycha, W; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, M; Yanagisawa, C; Yano, T; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yoo, J; Yoshida, K; Yuan, T; Yu, M; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Żmuda, J

    2016-05-01

    T2K reports its first measurements of the parameters governing the disappearance of ν[over ¯]_{μ} in an off-axis beam due to flavor change induced by neutrino oscillations. The quasimonochromatic ν[over ¯]_{μ} beam, produced with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV at J-PARC, is observed at the far detector Super-Kamiokande, 295 km away, where the ν[over ¯]_{μ} survival probability is expected to be minimal. Using a data set corresponding to 4.01×10^{20} protons on target, 34 fully contained μ-like events were observed. The best-fit oscillation parameters are sin^{2}(θ[over ¯]_{23})=0.45 and |Δm[over ¯]_{32}^{2}|=2.51×10^{-3}  eV^{2} with 68% confidence intervals of 0.38-0.64 and 2.26-2.80×10^{-3}  eV^{2}, respectively. These results are in agreement with existing antineutrino parameter measurements and also with the ν_{μ} disappearance parameters measured by T2K. PMID:27203315

  1. Measurement of Muon Antineutrino Oscillations with an Accelerator-Produced Off-Axis Beam.

    PubMed

    Abe, K; Andreopoulos, C; Antonova, M; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bartet-Friburg, P; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Berardi, V; Berkman, S; Bhadra, S; Blondel, A; Bolognesi, S; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buizza Avanzini, M; Calland, R G; Cao, S; Caravaca Rodríguez, J; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Chikuma, N; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Collazuol, G; Cremonesi, L; Dabrowska, A; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Denner, P F; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Dewhurst, D; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Dolan, S; Drapier, O; Duffy, K E; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery-Schrenk, S; Ereditato, A; Feusels, T; Finch, A J; Fiorentini, G A; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, D; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Garcia, A; Giffin, S G; Giganti, C; Gizzarelli, F; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Hadley, D R; Haegel, L; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayashino, T; Hayato, Y; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Hogan, M; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Hosomi, F; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Intonti, R A; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Iwai, E; Iwamoto, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Jiang, M; Johnson, S; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Jung, C K; Kabirnezhad, M; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Katori, T; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kim, H; Kim, J; King, S; Kisiel, J; Knight, A; Knox, A; Kobayashi, T; Koch, L; Koga, T; Konaka, A; Kondo, K; Kopylov, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koshio, Y; Kropp, W; Kudenko, Y; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Lamont, I; Larkin, E; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lindner, T; Liptak, Z J; Litchfield, R P; Li, X; Longhin, A; Lopez, J P; Ludovici, L; Lu, X; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Martins, P; Martynenko, S; Maruyama, T; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Ma, W Y; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Mefodiev, A; Mezzetto, M; Mijakowski, P; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Missert, A; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakamura, K G; Nakamura, K; Nakamura, K D; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Nantais, C; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; Nowak, J; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Ovsyannikova, T; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Palladino, V; Palomino, J L; Paolone, V; Patel, N D; Pavin, M; Payne, D; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pickard, L; Pickering, L; Pinzon Guerra, E S; Pistillo, C; Popov, B; Posiadala-Zezula, M; Poutissou, J-M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Riccio, C; Rojas, P; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Rychter, A; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schoppmann, S; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shah, R; Shaikhiev, A; Shaker, F; Shaw, D; Shiozawa, M; Shirahige, T; Short, S; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Stewart, T; Suda, Y; Suvorov, S; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thakore, T; Thompson, L F; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vallari, Z; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Wakamatsu, K; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Warzycha, W; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, M; Yanagisawa, C; Yano, T; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yoo, J; Yoshida, K; Yuan, T; Yu, M; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Żmuda, J

    2016-05-01

    T2K reports its first measurements of the parameters governing the disappearance of ν[over ¯]_{μ} in an off-axis beam due to flavor change induced by neutrino oscillations. The quasimonochromatic ν[over ¯]_{μ} beam, produced with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV at J-PARC, is observed at the far detector Super-Kamiokande, 295 km away, where the ν[over ¯]_{μ} survival probability is expected to be minimal. Using a data set corresponding to 4.01×10^{20} protons on target, 34 fully contained μ-like events were observed. The best-fit oscillation parameters are sin^{2}(θ[over ¯]_{23})=0.45 and |Δm[over ¯]_{32}^{2}|=2.51×10^{-3}  eV^{2} with 68% confidence intervals of 0.38-0.64 and 2.26-2.80×10^{-3}  eV^{2}, respectively. These results are in agreement with existing antineutrino parameter measurements and also with the ν_{μ} disappearance parameters measured by T2K.

  2. Measurement of Muon Antineutrino Oscillations with an Accelerator-Produced Off-Axis Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Andreopoulos, C.; Antonova, M.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bartet-Friburg, P.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Berardi, V.; Berkman, S.; Bhadra, S.; Blondel, A.; Bolognesi, S.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Calland, R. G.; Cao, S.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Chikuma, N.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Collazuol, G.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Denner, P. F.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Dewhurst, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dolan, S.; Drapier, O.; Duffy, K. E.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery-Schrenk, S.; Ereditato, A.; Feusels, T.; Finch, A. J.; Fiorentini, G. A.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, D.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Garcia, A.; Giffin, S. G.; Giganti, C.; Gizzarelli, F.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Hadley, D. R.; Haegel, L.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayashino, T.; Hayato, Y.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Hogan, M.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Hosomi, F.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Intonti, R. A.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Iwai, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Jiang, M.; Johnson, S.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Katori, T.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kim, H.; Kim, J.; King, S.; Kisiel, J.; Knight, A.; Knox, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Koga, T.; Konaka, A.; Kondo, K.; Kopylov, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koshio, Y.; Kropp, W.; Kudenko, Y.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Lamont, I.; Larkin, E.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lindner, T.; Liptak, Z. J.; Litchfield, R. P.; Li, X.; Longhin, A.; Lopez, J. P.; Ludovici, L.; Lu, X.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Martins, P.; Martynenko, S.; Maruyama, T.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Ma, W. Y.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Mefodiev, A.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Mine, S.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakamura, K. G.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, K. D.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nantais, C.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Nowak, J.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Patel, N. D.; Pavin, M.; Payne, D.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pickering, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Popov, B.; Posiadala-Zezula, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Riccio, C.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Rychter, A.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shah, R.; Shaikhiev, A.; Shaker, F.; Shaw, D.; Shiozawa, M.; Shirahige, T.; Short, S.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Stewart, T.; Suda, Y.; Suvorov, S.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thakore, T.; Thompson, L. F.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vallari, Z.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Wakamatsu, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Warzycha, W.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yano, T.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoo, J.; Yoshida, K.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.; T2K Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    T2K reports its first measurements of the parameters governing the disappearance of ν¯ μ in an off-axis beam due to flavor change induced by neutrino oscillations. The quasimonochromatic ν¯μ beam, produced with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV at J-PARC, is observed at the far detector Super-Kamiokande, 295 km away, where the ν¯μ survival probability is expected to be minimal. Using a data set corresponding to 4.01 ×1020 protons on target, 34 fully contained μ -like events were observed. The best-fit oscillation parameters are sin2(θ¯ 23)=0.45 and |Δ m¯32 2|=2.51 ×10-3 eV2 with 68% confidence intervals of 0.38 - 0.64 and 2.26 - 2.80 ×10-3 eV2 , respectively. These results are in agreement with existing antineutrino parameter measurements and also with the νμ disappearance parameters measured by T2K.

  3. Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-05

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  4. Direct Measurement of the Acceleration of a Probe Beam by a Dense Plasma Focus Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellsworth, J. L.; Falabella, S.; Rusnak, B.; Schmidt, A. E. W.; Tang, V.

    2013-10-01

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinch plasmas produce multiple-MeV ions on a cm-scale length, implying electric field gradients exceeding 100 MV/m in the plasma. We report on the first experiments using a 4 MeV deuteron probe beam to directly measure the electric field gradients produced by the kJ-level DPF experiment at LLNL. This information can be used in conjunction with fully kinetic simulations of DPF plasmas to further our understanding of the mechanisms that produce these beams. An understanding of gradient formation in DPFs is necessary to optimize the gradients in these devices for compact accelerator applications. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (11-ERD-063) at LLNL.

  5. Summary of the Persistent Current Effect Measurements in Nb 3 Sn and NbTi Accelerator Magnets at Fermilab

    DOE PAGES

    Velev, G. V.; Chlachidze, G.; DiMarco, J.; Stoynev, S. E.

    2016-01-06

    In the past 10 years, Fermilab has been executing an intensive R&D program on accelerator magnets based on Nb3Sn superconductor technology. This R&D effort includes dipole and quadrupole models for different programs, such as LARP and 11 T dipoles for the LHC high-luminosity upgrade. Before the Nb3Sn R&D program, Fermilab was involved in the production of the low-beta quadrupole magnets for LHC based on the NbTi superconductor. Additionally, during the 2003-2005 campaign to optimize the operation of the Tevatron, a large number of Tevatron magnets were re-measured. As a result of this field analysis, a systematic study of the persistentmore » current decay and snapback effect in these magnets was performed. This paper summarizes the result of this study and presents a comparison between Nb3Sn and NbTi dipoles and quadrupoles.« less

  6. POD improvements of GALILEO satellites through the measurement of their non-gravitational accelerations by means of an onboard accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peron, Roberto; Lucchesi, David M.; Santoli, Francesco; Iafolla, Valerio; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Lefevre, Carlo; Lucente, Marco; Magnafico, Carmelo; Kalarus, Maciej; Zielinski, Janusz

    2016-04-01

    The Precise Orbit Determination (POD) of the satellites of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) represents the basic prerequisite in order to provide refined ephemerides for their orbit, aimed at providing a precise and accurate positioning on the Earth. An important factor that impacts negatively in the POD of these satellites is the limited modeling of the accelerations produced by the non-gravitational accelerations. These, indeed, are subtle and generally complex to model properly, especially in the case of a complex in shape spacecraft, with solar panels and antennae for microwave link and the mutual shadowing effects among the many surfaces involved. We have to notice that their modeling has an important impact in the determination of a number of geophysical parameters of interest, such as stations coordinates, Earth's geocenter and orientation parameters. In the case of GNSS satellites, the main NGP acceleration is the one produced by the direct solar radiation pressure, with non-negligible contributions due to Earth's albedo, thermal effects and power radiated by the antennae. The models developed so far for these perturbative effects have shown many limits, as pointed out in the literature. Currently, the models developed for the NGPs are mainly based on empirical blind models (with the goal of absorb unknowns quantities) and more recently with the use of wing-box models, that try to provide a finite-elements approach to the modeling. The European Space Agency (ESA) - in the context of the development of the GALILEO constellation, and especially in view of the next generation of GALILEO spacecraft - besides being interested in possible improvements of the NGPs models, is also envisaging the use of an onboard accelerometer to directly measure them in order to improve the POD of each spacecraft of the constellation. We have been involved in this study by means of a proposal to ESA denominated GALileo and ACcelerometry (GALAC) led by the Space

  7. Diamond detector in absorbed dose measurements in high-energy linear accelerator photon and electron beams.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Amri, Iqbal; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony

    2016-01-01

    Diamond detectors (DD) are preferred in small field dosimetry of radiation beams because of small dose profile penumbras, better spatial resolution, and tissue-equivalent properties. We investigated a commercially available 'microdiamond' detector in realizing absorbed dose from first principles. A microdiamond detector, type TM 60019 with tandem electrometer is used to measure absorbed doses in water, nylon, and PMMA phantoms. With sensitive volume 0.004 mm3, radius 1.1mm, thickness 1 x10(-3) mm, the nominal response is 1 nC/Gy. It is assumed that the diamond detector could collect total electric charge (nC) developed during irradiation at 0 V bias. We found that dose rate effect is less than 0.7% for changing dose rate by 500 MU/min. The reproducibility in obtaining readings with diamond detector is found to be ± 0.17% (1 SD) (n = 11). The measured absorbed doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photons arrived at using mass energy absorption coefficients and stop-ping power ratios compared well with Nd, water calibrated ion chamber measured absorbed doses within 3% in water, PMMA, and nylon media. The calibration factor obtained for diamond detector confirmed response variation is due to sensitivity due to difference in manufacturing process. For electron beams, we had to apply ratio of electron densities of water to carbon. Our results qualify diamond dosimeter as a transfer standard, based on long-term stability and reproducibility. Based on micro-dimensions, we recommend these detectors for pretreatment dose verifications in small field irradiations like stereotactic treatments with image guidance. PMID:27074452

  8. The measurement results of carbon ion beam structure extracted by bent crystal from U-70 accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonin, A. G.; Barnov, E. V.; Britvich, G. I.; Chesnokov, Yu A.; Chirkov, P. N.; Durum, A. A.; Kostin, M. Yu; Maisheev, V. A.; Pitalev, V. I.; Reshetnikov, S. F.; Yanovich, A. A.; Nazhmudinov, R. M.; Kubankin, A. S.; Shchagin, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    The carbon ion +6C beam with energy 25 GeV/nucleon was extracted by bent crystal from the U-70 ring. The bent angle of silicon crystal was 85 mrad. About 2×105 particles for 109 circulated ions in the ring were observed in beam line 4a after bent crystal. Geometrical parameters, time structure and ion beam structure were measured. The ability of the bent monocrystal to extract and generate ion beam with necessary parameters for regular usage in physical experiments is shown in the first time.

  9. Monte Carlo design study for in vivo bone aluminum measurement using a low energy accelerator beam.

    PubMed

    Pejović-Milić, A; Arnold, M L; McNeill, F E; Chettle, D R

    2000-01-01

    The need for aluminum monitoring exists in occupational medicine, as well as for the clinical monitoring of patients with renal dysfunction. After the development of an appropriate neutron source card, Monte Carlo simulations were made to design moderator/reflector assembly consisting of a polyethylene moderator (2 cm) and graphite reflector (30 cm), surrounded by a boronated (5%) wax (20 cm) and lead (1 cm) shield. This design should allow for the bone aluminum measurement of healthy subjects, but prior to that detailed microdosimetry is necessary to address a noticed disagreement between theoretical and experimental dose data.

  10. Indirect measurements of streamwise solid fraction variations of granular flows accelerating down a smooth rectangular chute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Li-Tsung; Kuo, Chih-Yu; Tai, Yih-Chin; Hsiau, Shu-San

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we detail a method for estimating the flux-averaged solid fraction of a steady granular flows moving down an inclined rectangular chute using velocity measurements from along the perimeter cross section, combined with knowledge of the mass flow rate through the cross section. The chute is 5 cm wide and 150 cm long with an adjustable inclination angle. Four inclination angles, from 27° to 36° at 3° intervals, are tested. This angle range overlaps the internal friction angle of the glass beads, which are 4 mm nominal in diameter. Two slender mirrors are installed at the top and the bottom of the transparent chute to reflect images of the flow down the chute of the two surfaces. This allows photographic recording of the flow with a PIV imaging system and measurement of the flow depth. The mass flow rate can be calibrated simultaneously by collecting the accumulated mass at the chute exit. A linear interpolation scheme is proposed to interpolate the volume flow rate in each section of the chute. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the relative standard deviation of this scheme is about ±6%, i.e., the resultant solid volume fraction is only moderately dependent on the interpolation scheme for the tested cases. This is further confirmed by a direct intercepting method. Compared to the sophisticated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or the radioactive positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) methods, the present method is verified as a cost-effective and nonhazardous alternative for ordinary laboratories. Two distinct groups of streamwise dependence of the solid fractions are found. They are separated by the inclination angle of the chute and agreed with the internal friction angle. In the experiments using the two smaller inclination angles, the solid fraction ratios are found to be linear functions of the streamwise distance, while for the two larger inclination angles, the ratios have a nonlinear concave shape. All decrease with growing downstream

  11. ACCELERATION INTEGRATOR

    DOEpatents

    Pope, K.E.

    1958-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved acceleration integrator and more particularly to apparatus of this nature which is gyrostabilized. The device may be used to sense the attainment by an airborne vehicle of a predetermined velocitv or distance along a given vector path. In its broad aspects, the acceleration integrator utilizes a magnetized element rotatable driven by a synchronous motor and having a cylin drical flux gap and a restrained eddy- current drag cap deposed to move into the gap. The angular velocity imparted to the rotatable cap shaft is transmitted in a positive manner to the magnetized element through a servo feedback loop. The resultant angular velocity of tae cap is proportional to the acceleration of the housing in this manner and means may be used to measure the velocity and operate switches at a pre-set magnitude. To make the above-described dcvice sensitive to acceleration in only one direction the magnetized element forms the spinning inertia element of a free gyroscope, and the outer housing functions as a gimbal of a gyroscope.

  12. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  13. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-10

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ)[1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  14. Measurement of plutonium and other actinide elements at the center for accelerator mass spectrometry: a comparative assessments of competing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T H; McAninch, J

    1999-02-01

    initiatives. One potential measurement technique for meeting these requirements is accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). AMS is a widely accepted analytical technique for measurement of isotopes such as 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl (Vogel et al., 1995) but has only recently been demonstrated for the quantitative detection of actinides (Fifield et al., 1996). The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operates the most versatile and most productive AMS instrument in the world (Roberts et al., 1996). The addition of a Heavy Ion Beamline and associated hardware for actinide detection are in an advanced stage of development. Detection limits for actinide elements are expected to be on the order of 1 ´ 10 6 atoms (~0.5 fg) or lower with an initial measurement capacity of a few hundred samples per year. The ultimate detection sensitivity is expected to be ~1 ´ 10 5 atoms. Here we provide a review of non-conventional measurement techniquesÑincluding AMSÑfor the determination of low-levels of 239 Pu and other actinide elements in environmental samples. We include a discussion of potential measurement interferences and sample preparation requirements for the different techniques, and outline our proposed AMS system design and strategic approach for the development of low-level actinide detection capability at CAMS.

  15. High-energy in-beam neutron measurements of metal-based shielding for accelerator-driven spallation neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiJulio, D. D.; Cooper-Jensen, C. P.; Björgvinsdóttir, H.; Kokai, Z.; Bentley, P. M.

    2016-05-01

    Metal-based shielding plays an important role in the attenuation of harmful and unwanted radiation at an accelerator-driven spallation neutron source. At the European Spallation Source, currently under construction in Lund, Sweden, metal-based materials are planned to be used extensively as neutron guide substrates in addition to other shielding structures around neutron guides. The usage of metal-based materials in the vicinity of neutron guides however requires careful consideration in order to minimize potential background effects in a neutron instrument at the facility. Therefore, we have carried out a combined study involving high-energy neutron measurements and Monte Carlo simulations of metal-based shielding, both to validate the simulation methodology and also to investigate the benefits and drawbacks of different metal-based solutions. The measurements were carried out at The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala, Sweden, using a 174.1 MeV neutron beam and various thicknesses of aluminum-, iron-, and copper-based shielding blocks. The results were compared to geant4 simulations and revealed excellent agreement. Our combined study highlights the particular situations where one type of metal-based solution may be preferred over another.

  16. Acceleration in Linear and Circular Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellington, S. H.; Docherty, W.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction of a simple accelerometer and explains its use in demonstrating acceleration, deceleration, constant speed, measurement of acceleration, acceleration and the inclined plane and angular and radial acceleration. (GS)

  17. Development of an accelerator based system for in vivo neutron activation analysis measurements of manganese in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Michelle Lynn

    2001-11-01

    Manganese is required by the human body, but as with many heavy elements, in large amounts it can be toxic, producing a neurological disorder similar to that of Parkinson's Disease. The primary industrial uses of the element are for the manufacturing of steel and alkali batteries. Environmental exposure may occur via drinking water or exhaust emissions from vehicles using gasoline with the manganese containing compound MMT as an antiknock agent (MMT has been approved for use in both Canada and the United States). Preclinical symptoms of toxicity have recently been detected in individuals occupationally exposed to airborne manganese at levels below the present threshold limit value set by the EPA. Evidence also suggests that early detection of manganese toxicity is crucial since once the symptoms have developed past a certain point, the syndrome will continue to progress even if manganese exposure ceases. The development of a system for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) measurement of manganese levels was investigated, with the goal being to have a means of monitoring both over exposed and manganese deficient populations. The McMaster KN-accelerator was used to provide low-energy neutrons, activation within an irradiation site occurred via the 55Mn(n,gamma) 56Mn capture reaction, and the 847 keV gamma-rays emitted when 56Mn decayed were measured using one or more Nal(TI) detectors. The present data regarding manganese metabolism and storage within the body are limited, and it is unclear what the optimal measurement site would be to provide a suitable biomarker of past exposure. Therefore the feasibility of IVNAA measurements in three sites was examined---the liver, brain and hand bones. Calibration curves were derived, minimum detectable limits determined and resulting doses calculated for each site (experimentally in the case of the liver and hand bones, and through computer simulations for the brain). Detailed analytical calculations of the 7Li(p,n) 7Be

  18. Peripheral dose measurements for 6 and 18 MV photon beams on a linear accelerator with multileaf collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Zacharopoulou, Fotini; Varveris, Haralambos; Damilakis, John

    2008-10-15

    Peripheral dose (PD) to critical structures outside treatment volume is of clinical importance. The aim of the current study was to estimate PD on a linear accelerator equipped with multileaf collimator (MLC). Dose measurements were carried out using an ionization chamber embedded in a water phantom for 6 and 18 MV photon beams. PD values were acquired for field sizes from 5x5 to 20x20 cm{sup 2} in increments of 5 cm at distances up to 24 cm from the field edge. Dose data were obtained at two collimator orientations where the measurement points are shielded by MLC and jaws. The variation of PD with the source to skin distance (SSD), depth, and lateral displacement of the measurement point was evaluated. To examine the dependence of PD upon the tissue thickness at the entrance point of the beam, scattered dose was measured using thermoluminescent dosemeters placed on three anthropomorphic phantoms simulating 5- and 10-year-old children and an average adult patient. PD from 6 MV photons varied from 0.13% to 6.75% of the central-axis maximum dose depending upon the collimator orientation, extent of irradiated area, and distance from the treatment field. The corresponding dose range from 18 MV x rays was 0.09% to 5.61%. The variation of PD with depth and with lateral displacements up to 80% of the field dimension was very small. The scattered dose from both photon beams increased with the increase of SSD or tissue thickness along beam axis. The presented dosimetric data set allows the estimation of scattered dose outside the primary beam.

  19. Effectiveness of variable-gain Kalman filter based on angle error calculated from acceleration signals in lower limb angle measurement with inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Teruyama, Yuta; Watanabe, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The wearable sensor system developed by our group, which measured lower limb angles using Kalman-filtering-based method, was suggested to be useful in evaluation of gait function for rehabilitation support. However, it was expected to reduce variations of measurement errors. In this paper, a variable-Kalman-gain method based on angle error that was calculated from acceleration signals was proposed to improve measurement accuracy. The proposed method was tested comparing to fixed-gain Kalman filter and a variable-Kalman-gain method that was based on acceleration magnitude used in previous studies. First, in angle measurement in treadmill walking, the proposed method measured lower limb angles with the highest measurement accuracy and improved significantly foot inclination angle measurement, while it improved slightly shank and thigh inclination angles. The variable-gain method based on acceleration magnitude was not effective for our Kalman filter system. Then, in angle measurement of a rigid body model, it was shown that the proposed method had measurement accuracy similar to or higher than results seen in other studies that used markers of camera-based motion measurement system fixing on a rigid plate together with a sensor or on the sensor directly. The proposed method was found to be effective in angle measurement with inertial sensors.

  20. Effectiveness of Variable-Gain Kalman Filter Based on Angle Error Calculated from Acceleration Signals in Lower Limb Angle Measurement with Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The wearable sensor system developed by our group, which measured lower limb angles using Kalman-filtering-based method, was suggested to be useful in evaluation of gait function for rehabilitation support. However, it was expected to reduce variations of measurement errors. In this paper, a variable-Kalman-gain method based on angle error that was calculated from acceleration signals was proposed to improve measurement accuracy. The proposed method was tested comparing to fixed-gain Kalman filter and a variable-Kalman-gain method that was based on acceleration magnitude used in previous studies. First, in angle measurement in treadmill walking, the proposed method measured lower limb angles with the highest measurement accuracy and improved significantly foot inclination angle measurement, while it improved slightly shank and thigh inclination angles. The variable-gain method based on acceleration magnitude was not effective for our Kalman filter system. Then, in angle measurement of a rigid body model, it was shown that the proposed method had measurement accuracy similar to or higher than results seen in other studies that used markers of camera-based motion measurement system fixing on a rigid plate together with a sensor or on the sensor directly. The proposed method was found to be effective in angle measurement with inertial sensors. PMID:24282442

  1. Solar Electric Generating System II finite element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dohner, J.L.; Anderson, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    On June 2, 1992, Landers` earthquake struck the Solar Electric Generating System II, located in Daggett, California. The 30 megawatt power station, operated by the Daggett Leasing Corporation (DLC), suffered substantial damage due to structural failures in the solar farm. These failures consisted of the separation of sliding joints supporting a distribution of parabolic glass mirrors. At separation, the mirrors fell to the ground and broke. It was the desire of the DLC and the Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and to redesign these joints so that, in the event of future quakes, costly breakage will be avoided. To accomplish this task, drawings of collector components were developed by the STDAC, from which a detailed finite element computer model of a solar collector was produced. This nonlinear dynamic model, which consisted of over 8,560 degrees of freedom, underwent model reduction to form a low order nonlinear dynamic model containing only 40 degrees of freedom. This model was then used as a design tool to estimate joint dynamics. Using this design tool, joint configurations were modified, and an acceptable joint redesign determined. The results of this analysis showed that the implementation of metal stops welded to support shafts for the purpose of preventing joint separation is a suitable joint redesign. Moreover, it was found that, for quakes of Landers` magnitude, mirror breakage due to enhanced vibration in the trough assembly is unlikely.

  2. Voltage compensation based calibration measurement of 3D-acceleration transducer in fall detection system for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li; Wang, Lu; He, Dianning; Geng, Ning; Geng, Ping; Guan, Dejun; Xu, Lisheng

    2014-01-01

    The fall detection algorithm, which can recognize the fall of human body by collecting the acceleration signals in different directions of the body, is an important part of fall detection system for the elderly. The system, however, may have errors during analyzing the acceleration signal, due to that the coordinate system of the transducer does not coincide with the one of human motion. Furthermore, voltage variation of the battery also influences the accuracy of the acceleration signal. Therefore, in this paper, a fall detection system based on the 3D-acceleration transducer MMA7260 is designed, which can calibrate the acceleration data through compensation of voltage and transformation of coordinates. Experiments illustrated that the proposed method can accurately transform the collected data from the coordinate system of the transducer to that of the human motion, and can recognize various postural changes in the course of the motion of human body.

  3. Inertial acceleration as a measure of linear vection: An alternative to magnitude estimation. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter-Smith, Theodore R.; Futamura, Robert G.; Parker, Donald E.

    1995-01-01

    The present study focused on the development of a procedure to assess perceived self-motion induced by visual surround motion - vection. Using an apparatus that permitted independent control of visual and inertial stimuli, prone observers were translated along their head x-axis (fore/aft). The observers' task was to report the direction of self-motion during passive forward and backward translations of their bodies coupled with exposure to various visual surround conditions. The proportion of 'forward' responses was used to calculate each observer's point of subjective equality (PSE) for each surround condition. The results showed that the moving visual stimulus produced a significant shift in the PSE when data from the moving surround condition were compared with the stationary surround and no-vision condition. Further, the results indicated that vection increased monotonically with surround velocities between 4 and 40/s. It was concluded that linear vection can be measured in terms of changes in the amplitude of whole-body inertial acceleration required to elicit equivalent numbers of 'forward' and 'backward' self-motion reports.

  4. Tissue equivalent proportional counter microdosimetry measurements utililzed aboard aircraft and in accelerator based space radiation shielding studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersey, Brad; Wilkins, Richard

    The space radiation environment presents a potential hazard to the humans, electronics and materials that are exposed to it. Particle accelerator facilities such as the NASA Space Ra-diation Laboratory (NSRL) and Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) provide particle radiation of specie and energy within the range of that found in the space radiation environment. Experiments performed at these facilities determine various endpoints for bio-logical, electronic and materials exposures. A critical factor in the performance of rigorous scientific studies of this type is accurate dosimetric measurements of the exposures. A Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) is a microdosimeter that may be used to measure absorbed dose, average quality factor (Q) and dose equivalent of the particle beam utilized in these experiments. In this work, results from a variety of space radiation shielding studies where a TEPC was used to perform dosimetry in the particle beam will be presented. These results compare the absorbed dose and dose equivalent measured downstream of equal density thicknesses of stan-dard and multifunctional shielding materials. The standard materials chosen for these shielding studies included High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and aluminum alloy, while the multifunc-tional materials included carbon composite infused with single walled carbon nanotubes. High energy particles including proton, silicon and iron nuclei were chosen as the incident radia-tion for these studies. Further, TEPC results from measurements taken during flights aboard ER-2 and KC-135 aircraft will also be discussed. Results from these flight studies include TEPC measurements for shielded and unshielded conditions as well as the effect of vibration and electromagnetic exposures on the TEPC operation. The data selected for presentation will highlight the utility of the TEPC in space radiation studies, and in shielding studies in particular. The lineal energy response function of the

  5. BICEP's acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Contaldi, Carlo R.

    2014-10-01

    The recent Bicep2 [1] detection of, what is claimed to be primordial B-modes, opens up the possibility of constraining not only the energy scale of inflation but also the detailed acceleration history that occurred during inflation. In turn this can be used to determine the shape of the inflaton potential V(φ) for the first time — if a single, scalar inflaton is assumed to be driving the acceleration. We carry out a Monte Carlo exploration of inflationary trajectories given the current data. Using this method we obtain a posterior distribution of possible acceleration profiles ε(N) as a function of e-fold N and derived posterior distributions of the primordial power spectrum P(k) and potential V(φ). We find that the Bicep2 result, in combination with Planck measurements of total intensity Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, induces a significant feature in the scalar primordial spectrum at scales k∼ 10{sup -3} Mpc {sup -1}. This is in agreement with a previous detection of a suppression in the scalar power [2].

  6. Short-term metal particulate exposures decrease cardiac acceleration and deceleration capacities in welders: a repeated-measures panel study

    PubMed Central

    Cavallari, Jennifer M; Fang, Shona C; Lu, Chensheng; Lin, Xihong; Mittleman, Murray A; Christiani, David C

    2016-01-01

    Objective Acceleration (AC) and deceleration (DC) capacities measure heart rate variability during speeding up and slowing down of the heart, respectively. We investigated associations between AC and DC with occupational short-term metal PM2.5 exposures. Methods A panel of 48 male welders had particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) exposure measurements over 4–6 h repeated over 5 sampling periods between January 2010 and June 2012. We simultaneously obtained continuous recordings of digital ECG using a Holter monitor. We analysed ECG data in the time domain to obtain hourly AC and DC. Linear mixed models were used to assess the associations between hourly PM2.5 exposure and each of hourly AC and DC, controlling for age, smoking status, active smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke, season/time of day when ECG reading was obtained and baseline AC or DC. We also ran lagged exposure response models for each successive hour up to 3 h after onset of exposure. Results Mean (SD) shift PM2.5 exposure during welding was 0.47 (0.43) mg/m3. Significant exposure–response associations were found for AC and DC with increased PM2.5 exposure. In our adjusted models without any lag between exposure and response, a 1 mg/m3 increase of PM2.5 was associated with a decrease of 1.46 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.92) ms in AC and a decrease of 1.00 (95% CI 0.53 to 1.46) ms in DC. The effect of PM2.5 on AC and DC was maximal immediately postexposure and lasted 1 h following exposure. Conclusions There are short-term effects of metal particulates on AC and DC. PMID:26644456

  7. Measurements of H/sup 0/ and H/sup +/ ion yields during H/sup -/ acceleration in a 50-MeV linac

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.; Madsen, J.; Shin, S.A.; Stipp, V.

    1981-01-01

    Unlike proton linacs where the only particles that can be transported are protons, an H/sup -/ linac can produce H/sup 0/ and protons by stripping off one or both electrons of H/sup -/ ions during acceleration. We have measured yields of these ions as a function of linac tank pressures.

  8. Human Vitamin B12 Absorption and Metabolism are Measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Using Specifically Labeled 14C-Cobalamin

    SciTech Connect

    Carkeet, C; Dueker, S R; Lango, J; Buchholz, B A; Miller, J W; Green, R; Hammock, B D; Roth, J R; Anderson, P J

    2006-01-26

    There is need for an improved test of human ability to assimilate dietary vitamin B{sub 12}. Assaying and understanding absorption and uptake of B{sub 12} is important because defects can lead to hematological and neurological complications. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is uniquely suited for assessing absorption and kinetics of {sup 14}C-labeled substances after oral ingestion because it is more sensitive than decay counting and can measure levels of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) in microliter volumes of biological samples, with negligible exposure of subjects to radioactivity. The test we describe employs amounts of B{sub 12} in the range of normal dietary intake. The B{sub 12} used was quantitatively labeled with {sup 14}C at one particular atom of the DMB moiety by exploiting idiosyncrasies of Salmonellametabolism. In order to grow aerobically on ethanolamine, S. entericamust be provided with either pre-formed B{sub 12} or two of its precursors: cobinamide and dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). When provided with {sup 14}C-DMB specifically labeled in the C2 position, cells produced {sup 14}C-B{sub 12} of high specific activity (2.1 GBq/mmol, 58 mCi/mmol) and no detectable dilution of label from endogenous DMB synthesis. In a human kinetic study, a physiological dose (1.5 mg, 2.2 KBq/59 nCi) of purified {sup 14}C-B{sub 12} was administered and showed plasma appearance and clearance curves consistent with the predicted behavior of the pure vitamin. This method opens new avenues for study of B{sub 12} assimilation.

  9. Scattering parameters of the 3.9Â GHz accelerating module in a free-electron laser linac: A rigorous comparison between simulations and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flisgen, Thomas; Glock, Hans-Walter; Zhang, Pei; Shinton, Ian R. R.; Baboi, Nicoleta; Jones, Roger M.; van Rienen, Ursula

    2014-02-01

    This article presents a comparison between measured and simulated scattering parameters in a wide frequency interval for the third harmonic accelerating module ACC39 in the linear accelerator FLASH, located at DESY in Hamburg/Germany. ACC39 is a cryomodule housing four superconducting 3.9 GHz accelerating cavities. Due to the special shape of the cavities (in particular its end cells and the beam pipes) in ACC39, the electromagnetic field in the module is, in many frequency ranges, coupled from one cavity to the next. Therefore, the scattering parameters are determined by the entire string and not solely by the individual cavities. This makes the determination of the scattering properties demanding. As far as the authors can determine, this paper shows for the first time a direct comparison between state-of-the-art simulations and measurements of rf properties of long, complex, and asymmetric structures over a wide frequency band. Taking into account the complexity of the system and various geometrical unknowns, the agreement between experimental measurements and simulations is remarkably good for several distinct measurements, although a variety of effects (e.g. cavity deviations from the ideal shape or interactions with not modeled parts of the structure) is not considered in the computer simulation. After a short introduction, the paper provides detailed descriptions of simulations and experimental measurements performed at the module. In this context, the estimation of the cable properties is discussed as well. As a central part of the article, the comparison between measured and simulated transmission spectra and quality factors is presented. This study represents one of the first detailed comparisons between simulations and measurements for a coupled accelerator cavity system.

  10. Similar head impact acceleration measured using instrumented ear patches in a junior rugby union team during matches in comparison with other sports.

    PubMed

    King, Doug A; Hume, Patria A; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor N

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Direct impact with the head and the inertial loading of the head have been postulated as major mechanisms of head-related injuries, such as concussion. METHODS This descriptive observational study was conducted to quantify the head impact acceleration characteristics in under-9-year-old junior rugby union players in New Zealand. The impact magnitude, frequency, and location were collected with a wireless head impact sensor that was worn by 14 junior rugby players who participated in 4 matches. RESULTS A total of 721 impacts > 10g were recorded. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) number of impacts per player was 46 (IQR 37-58), resulting in 10 (IQR 4-18) impacts to the head per player per match. The median impact magnitudes recorded were 15g (IQR 12g-21g) for linear acceleration and 2296 rad/sec(2) (IQR 1352-4152 rad/sec(2)) for rotational acceleration. CONCLUSIONS There were 121 impacts (16.8%) above the rotational injury risk limit and 1 (0.1%) impact above the linear injury risk limit. The acceleration magnitude and number of head impacts in junior rugby union players were higher than those previously reported in similar age-group sports participants. The median linear acceleration for the under-9-year-old rugby players were similar to 7- to 8-year-old American football players, but lower than 9- to 12-year-old youth American football players. The median rotational accelerations measured were higher than the median and 95th percentiles in youth, high school, and collegiate American football players.

  11. Future accelerators (?)

    SciTech Connect

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  12. Stress of Kindergarten teachers: How we tried to detect and to reduce it by using a small and wearable ECG and acceleration measuring device?

    PubMed

    Shirouzu, Shigenori; Seno, Yumeka; Tobioka, Ken; Masaki, Takeo; Yasumatsu, Kiyotaka; Mishima, Norio; Sugano, Hisanobu

    2015-01-01

    In 2014 school year, four female teachers of Nazareth Kindergarten decided to resign (DRT) due to workplace stress caused by human relationships between themselves. Our preliminary interview investigation revealed there was a stressor (STR), a certain elder female teacher and her less polite words and attitude. Using small and wearable ECG and acceleration measuring device, we measured 24 hour's autonomic nervous system's activity (ASNA) and sleep behavior of the STR and surrounding teachers, and tried to evaluate their stress objectively and to understand the reason of STR's less polite behaviors. For comparison, we also measured female Mind-Body Medicine (MBM) patients suffering adjustment disorder and clinical depression. PMID:26737766

  13. Possible incorporation of petroleum-based carbons in biochemicals produced by bioprocess--biomass carbon ratio measured by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kunioka, Masao

    2010-06-01

    The biomass carbon ratios of biochemicals related to biomass have been reviewed. Commercial products from biomass were explained. The biomass carbon ratios of biochemical compounds were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) based on the (14)C concentration of carbons in the compounds. This measuring method uses the mechanism that biomass carbons include a very low level of (14)C and petroleum carbons do not include (14)C similar to the carbon dating measuring method. It was confirmed that there were some biochemicals synthesized from petroleum-based carbons. This AMS method has a high accuracy with a small standard deviation and can be applied to plastic products.

  14. A scintillator-based online detector for the angularly resolved measurement of laser-accelerated proton spectra.

    PubMed

    Metzkes, J; Karsch, L; Kraft, S D; Pawelke, J; Richter, C; Schürer, M; Sobiella, M; Stiller, N; Zeil, K; Schramm, U

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, a new generation of high repetition rate (~10 Hz), high power (~100 TW) laser systems has stimulated intense research on laser-driven sources for fast protons. Considering experimental instrumentation, this development requires online diagnostics for protons to be added to the established offline detection tools such as solid state track detectors or radiochromic films. In this article, we present the design and characterization of a scintillator-based online detector that gives access to the angularly resolved proton distribution along one spatial dimension and resolves 10 different proton energy ranges. Conceived as an online detector for key parameters in laser-proton acceleration, such as the maximum proton energy and the angular distribution, the detector features a spatial resolution of ~1.3 mm and a spectral resolution better than 1.5 MeV for a maximum proton energy above 12 MeV in the current design. Regarding its areas of application, we consider the detector a useful complement to radiochromic films and Thomson parabola spectrometers, capable to give immediate feedback on the experimental performance. The detector was characterized at an electrostatic Van de Graaff tandetron accelerator and tested in a laser-proton acceleration experiment, proving its suitability as a diagnostic device for laser-accelerated protons.

  15. Knowledge on Accelerated Motion as Measured by Implicit and Explicit Tasks in 5 to 16 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebersbach, Mirjam; Van Dooren, Wim; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating children's and adolescents' understanding of constant and accelerated motions. The main objectives were (1) to investigate whether different task formats would affect the performance and (2) to track developmental changes in this domain. Five to 16 year olds (N = 157) predicted the distances of a moving…

  16. g--Acceleration of Gravity: Its Measurement from the Shape of Water by Using a Computerized Rotational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pintao, Carlos A. F.; de Souza Filho, Moacir P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a different experimental setup compared with the traditional ones, in order to determine the acceleration of gravity, which is carried out by using a fluid at a constant rotation. A computerized rotational system--by using a data acquisition system with specific software, a power amplifier and a rotary motion sensor--is…

  17. Particle acceleration in flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, Arnold O.; Kosugi, Takeo; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Benka, Steve G.; Chupp, Edward L.; Enome, Shinzo; Garcia, Howard; Holman, Gordon D.; Kurt, Victoria G.; Sakao, Taro

    1994-01-01

    Particle acceleration is intrinsic to the primary energy release in the impulsive phase of solar flares, and we cannot understand flares without understanding acceleration. New observations in soft and hard X-rays, gamma-rays and coherent radio emissions are presented, suggesting flare fragmentation in time and space. X-ray and radio measurements exhibit at least five different time scales in flares. In addition, some new observations of delayed acceleration signatures are also presented. The theory of acceleration by parallel electric fields is used to model the spectral shape and evolution of hard X-rays. The possibility of the appearance of double layers is further investigated.

  18. A basic study on variable-gain Kalman filter based on angle error calculated from acceleration signals for lower limb angle measurement with inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Teruyama, Yuta; Watanabe, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, development of wearable motion measurement system using inertial sensors has been focused with the aim of rehabilitation support. For measurement of lower limb joint angles with inertial sensors, Kalman-filtering-based angle measurement method was developed. However, it was required to reduce variation of measurement errors that depended on movement speeds or subjects. In this report, variable-gain Kalman filter based on the difference between the estimated angle by the Kalman filter and the angle calculated from acceleration signals was tested. From angle measurement during treadmill walking with healthy subjects, it was shown that measurement accuracy of the foot inclination angle was significantly improved with the proposed method compared to the method of fixed parameter value. PMID:24110464

  19. Measurements and effects of backstreaming ions produced at bremsstrahlung converter target in Dragon-I linear induction accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Haijun; Zhu Jun; Chen Nan; Xie Yutong; Jiang Xiaoguo; Jian Cheng

    2010-04-15

    Positive ions released from x-ray converter target impacted by electron beam of millimeter spot size can be trapped and accelerated in the incident beam's potential well. As the ions move upstream, the beam will be pinched first and then defocused at the target. Four Faraday cups are used to collect backstreaming ions produced at the bremsstrahlung converter target in Dragon-I linear induction accelerator (LIA). Experimental and theoretical results show that the backstreaming positive ions density and velocity are about 10{sup 21}/m{sup 3} and 2-3 mm/{mu}s, respectively. The theoretical and experimental results of electron beam envelope with ions and without ions are also presented. The discussions show that the backstreaming positive ions will not affect the electron beam focusing and envelope radius in Dragon-I LIA.

  20. A 6% measurement of the Hubble parameter at z~0.45: direct evidence of the epoch of cosmic re-acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moresco, Michele; Pozzetti, Lucia; Cimatti, Andrea; Jimenez, Raul; Maraston, Claudia; Verde, Licia; Thomas, Daniel; Citro, Annalisa; Tojeiro, Rita; Wilkinson, David

    2016-05-01

    Deriving the expansion history of the Universe is a major goal of modern cosmology. To date, the most accurate measurements have been obtained with Type Ia Supernovae (SNe) and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO), providing evidence for the existence of a transition epoch at which the expansion rate changes from decelerated to accelerated. However, these results have been obtained within the framework of specific cosmological models that must be implicitly or explicitly assumed in the measurement. It is therefore crucial to obtain measurements of the accelerated expansion of the Universe independently of assumptions on cosmological models. Here we exploit the unprecedented statistics provided by the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS, [1-3]) Data Release 9 to provide new constraints on the Hubble parameter H(z) using the cosmic chronometers approach. We extract a sample of more than 130000 of the most massive and passively evolving galaxies, obtaining five new cosmology-independent H(z) measurements in the redshift range 0.3 < z < 0.5, with an accuracy of ~11-16% incorporating both statistical and systematic errors. Once combined, these measurements yield a 6% accuracy constraint of H(z = 0.4293) = 91.8 ± 5.3 km/s/Mpc. The new data are crucial to provide the first cosmology-independent determination of the transition redshift at high statistical significance, measuring zt = 0.4 ± 0.1, and to significantly disfavor the null hypothesis of no transition between decelerated and accelerated expansion at 99.9% confidence level. This analysis highlights the wide potential of the cosmic chronometers approach: it permits to derive constraints on the expansion history of the Universe with results competitive with standard probes, and most importantly, being the estimates independent of the cosmological model, it can constrain cosmologies beyond—and including—the ΛCDM model.

  1. High Power Beam Test and Measurement of Emittance Evolution of a 1.6-Cell Photocathode RF Gun at Pohang Accelerator Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jang-Ho; Park, Sung-Ju; Kim, Changbum; Parc, Yong-Woon; Hong, Ju-Ho; Huang, Jung-Yun; Xiang, Dao; Wang, Xijie; Ko, In Soo

    2007-04-01

    A Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) GUN-IV type photocathode rf gun has been fabricated to use in femtosecond electron diffraction (FED), femtosecond far infrared radiation (fs-FIR) facility, and X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) facilities at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL). The gun consists of a 1.6-cell cavity with a copper cathode, a solenoid magnet, beam diagnostic components and auxiliary systems. We report here the measurement of the basic beam parameters which confirm a successful fabrication of the photocathode RF gun system. The emittance evolution is measured by an emittance meter and compared with the PARMELA simulation, which shows a good agreement.

  2. Low energy highly charged ion beam facility at Inter University Accelerator Centre: Measurement of the plasma potential and ion energy distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Sairam, T. Bhatt, Pragya; Safvan, C. P.; Kumar, Ajit; Kumar, Herendra

    2015-11-15

    A deceleration lens coupled to one of the beam lines of the electron cyclotron resonance based low energy beam facility at Inter University Accelerator Centre is reported. This system is capable of delivering low energy (2.5 eV/q–1 keV/q) highly charged ion beams. The presence of plasma potential hinders the measurements of low energies (<50 eV), therefore, plasma potential measurements have been undertaken using a retarding plate analyzer in unison with the deceleration assembly. The distributions of the ion energies have been obtained and the effect of different source parameters on these distributions is studied.

  3. Extraction of a series of novel damage sensitive features derived from the continuous wavelet transform of input and output acceleration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balafas, Konstantinos; Kiremidjian, Anne S.

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes a series of novel Damage Sensitive Features for earthquake damage estimation. The features take into account input (ground motion) and output acceleration (structure response) measurements. The Continuous Wavelet Transform is applied to both acceleration signals in order to obtain both time domain and frequency domain resolution. An algorithm that has been proposed for Maximum Entropy Deconvolution is applied to the Continuous Wavelet Transforms in order to obtain a matrix that relates the output wavelet coefficients to the input ones. The Damage Sensitive Features are then derived through statistical processing of the resulting matrix. This algorithm has been applied on data acquired from shake table tests where the structures were subjected to progressive damage. The proposed features are compared to response quantities that are indicative of damage (such as the hysteretic energy dissipated) and show high correlation with the extent of damage. The data utilized has not been pre-processed, illustrating the robustness of the algorithm against sensor noise. The proposed algorithm has several advantages: Minimal input and knowledge of the structure is required. More information on the structure's state is extracted through use of both the input and output signals than when only output signal is considered. Only two acceleration measurements are required to obtain a damage forecast utilizing primarily the strong motion recordings, resulting in easier sensor deployment. The use of strong motion recordings allows for information delivery immediately after an earthquake without additional data collection.

  4. Direct measurement of grain acceleration in the near-surface coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with Rosetta/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Jessica; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Guettler, Carsten; Hoefner, Sebastian; Sierks, Holger; Tubiana, Cecilia; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; OSIRIS-Team

    2016-10-01

    We for the first time directly measure the acceleration of individual fragments in the inner coma (<2 km) of a comet, and discover the ejection of the material that is thought to subsequently cover large parts of the northern hemisphere as airfall (Thomas et al., 2015).In early 2016, the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera on board the Rosetta spacecraft observed fountains of decimeter-sized fragments emerging from confined regions on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. We trace the motion of individual fragments through images obtained at high cadence over an interval of 2 hours, and measure their projected velocities as a function of time. The fragments are accelerated at a constant rate either away from the nucleus or towards it, and to both directions in the horizontal dimension. The magnitude of the acceleration is compatible with both gas drag and rocket force induced by the sublimation of ice contained in the material, but approximately one order of magnitude larger than the local gravity. Some of these fragments are likely to escape from the gravitational field of the nucleus and feed the comet's debris trail, while others will fall back to the surface or senter orbit. A significant fraction of the comet's northern hemisphere is thought to be covered by such airfall material (Thomas et al., 2015). This paper describes our images and trajectory analysis, discusses the implications for fragment ejection and acceleration mechanisms, and the expected fate of the fragments.References: N. Thomas et al. (2015), A&A 583, A17.

  5. Fluence Uniformity Measurements in an Electron Accelerator Used for Irradiation of Extended Area Solar Cells and Electronic Circuits for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uribe, Roberto M.; Filppi, Ed; Zhang, Shubo

    2007-01-01

    It is common to have liquid crystal displays and electronic circuit boards with area sizes of the order of 20x20 sq cm on board of satellites and space vehicles. Usually irradiating them at different fluence values assesses the radiation damage in these types of devices. As a result, there is a need for a radiation source with large spatial fluence uniformity for the study of the damage by radiation from space in those devices. Kent State University s Program on Electron Beam Technology has access to an electron accelerator used for both research and industrial applications. The electron accelerator produces electrons with energies in the interval from 1 to 5 MeV and a maximum beam power of 150 kW. At such high power levels, the electron beam is continuously scanned back and forth in one dimension in order to provide uniform irradiation and to prevent damage to the sample. This allows for the uniform irradiation of samples with an area of up to 1.32 sq m. This accelerator has been used in the past for the study of radiation damage in solar cells (1). However in order to irradiate extended area solar cells there was a need to measure the uniformity of the irradiation zone in terms of fluence. In this paper the methodology to measure the fluence uniformity on a sample handling system (linear motion system), used for the irradiation of research samples, along the irradiation zone of the above-mentioned facility is described and the results presented. We also illustrate the use of the electron accelerator for the irradiation of large area solar cells (of the order of 156 sq cm) and include in this paper the electrical characterization of these types of solar cells irradiated with 5 MeV electrons to a total fluence of 2.6 x 10(exp 15) e/sq cm.

  6. Induction linear accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birx, Daniel

    1992-03-01

    Among the family of particle accelerators, the Induction Linear Accelerator is the best suited for the acceleration of high current electron beams. Because the electromagnetic radiation used to accelerate the electron beam is not stored in the cavities but is supplied by transmission lines during the beam pulse it is possible to utilize very low Q (typically<10) structures and very large beam pipes. This combination increases the beam breakup limited maximum currents to of order kiloamperes. The micropulse lengths of these machines are measured in 10's of nanoseconds and duty factors as high as 10-4 have been achieved. Until recently the major problem with these machines has been associated with the pulse power drive. Beam currents of kiloamperes and accelerating potentials of megavolts require peak power drives of gigawatts since no energy is stored in the structure. The marriage of liner accelerator technology and nonlinear magnetic compressors has produced some unique capabilities. It now appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, peak currents in kiloamperes and gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, with power efficiencies approaching 50%. The nonlinear magnetic compression technology has replaced the spark gap drivers used on earlier accelerators with state-of-the-art all-solid-state SCR commutated compression chains. The reliability of these machines is now approaching 1010 shot MTBF. In the following paper we will briefly review the historical development of induction linear accelerators and then discuss the design considerations.

  7. Objective measurement of human tolerance to +G sub z acceleration stress. Ph.D. Thesis - Univ. of N. Indiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rositano, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    The efficacy of a new objective technique using a transcutaneous Doppler flowmeter to monitor superficial temporal artery blood flow velocity during acceleration was investigated. The results were correlated with current objective and subjective G tolerance end points. In over 1300 centrifuge runs, retrograde eye level blood flow leading to total flow cessation was consistently recorded and preceded visual field deterioration leading to blackout by 3 to 23 seconds. The new method was successfully applied as an objective indication of tolerance in a variety of test situations including evaluation of g-suits, straining maneuvers, and 13 deg, 45 deg and 65 deg set back angles.

  8. Relativistic electron acceleration by compressional-mode ULF waves: Evidence from correlated Cluster, Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft, and ground-based magnetometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Lun C.; Shao, X.; Sharma, A. S.; Fung, Shing F.

    2011-07-01

    Simultaneous observations by Cluster and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) spacecraft and Canadian Array for Real-Time Investigations of Magnetic Activity and International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effects magnetometer arrays during a sudden storm commencement on 25 September 2001 show evidence of relativistic electron acceleration by compressional-mode ULF waves. The waves are driven by the quasiperiodic solar wind dynamical pressure fluctuations that continuously buffet the magnetosphere for ˜3 h. The compressional-mode ULF waves are identified by comparing the power of magnetic field magnitude fluctuations with the total magnetic field power. The radial distribution and azimuthal propagation of both toroidal and poloidal-mode ULF waves are derived from ground-based magnetometer data. The energetic electron fluxes measured by LANL show modulation of low-energy electrons and acceleration of high-energy electrons by the compressional poloidal-mode electric field oscillations. The energy threshold of accelerated electrons at the geosynchronous orbit is ˜0.4 MeV, which is roughly consistent with drift-resonant interaction of magnetospheric electrons with compressional-mode ULF waves.

  9. Use of an intravenous microdose of 14C-labeled drug and accelerator mass spectrometry to measure absolute oral bioavailability in dogs; cross-comparison of assay methods by accelerator mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Yoshihiro; Ishizuka, Tomoko; Kawai, Kenji; Hamabe, Yoshimi; Miyaoka, Teiji; Oh-hara, Toshinari; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Kurihara, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    A technique utilizing simultaneous intravenous microdosing of (14)C-labeled drug with oral dosing of non-labeled drug for measurement of absolute bioavailability was evaluated using R-142086 in male dogs. Plasma concentrations of R-142086 were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and those of (14)C-R-142086 were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The absence of metabolites in the plasma and urine was confirmed by a single radioactive peak of the parent compound in the chromatogram after intravenous microdosing of (14)C-R-142086 (1.5 microg/kg). Although plasma concentrations of R-142086 determined by LC-MS/MS were approximately 20% higher than those of (14)C-R-142086 as determined by AMS, there was excellent correlation (r=0.994) between both concentrations after intravenous dosing of (14)C-R-142086 (0.3 mg/kg). The oral bioavailability of R-142086 at 1 mg/kg obtained by simultaneous intravenous microdosing of (14)C-R-142086 was 16.1%, this being slightly higher than the value (12.5%) obtained by separate intravenous dosing of R-142086 (0.3 mg/kg). In conclusion, on utilizing simultaneous intravenous microdosing of (14)C-labeled drug in conjunction with AMS analysis, absolute bioavailability could be approximately measured in dogs, but without total accuracy. Bioavailability in humans may possibly be approximately measured at an earlier stage and at a lower cost. PMID:19430168

  10. Analysis of sonic boom measurements near shock wave extremities for flight near Mach 1.0 and for airplane accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haglund, G. T.; Kane, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    The analysis of the 14 low-altitude transonic flights showed that the prevailing meteorological consideration of the acoustic disturbances below the cutoff altitude during threshold Mach number flight has shown that a theoretical safe altitude appears to be valid over a wide range of meteorological conditions and provides a reasonable estimate of the airplane ground speed reduction to avoid sonic boom noise during threshold Mach number flight. Recent theoretical results for the acoustic pressure waves below the threshold Mach number caustic showed excellent agreement with observations near the caustic, but the predicted overpressure levels were significantly lower than those observed far from the caustic. The analysis of caustics produced by inadvertent low-magnitude accelerations during flight at Mach numbers slightly greater than the threshold Mach number showed that folds and associated caustics were produced by slight changes in the airplane ground speed. These caustic intensities ranged from 1 to 3 time the nominal steady, level flight intensity.

  11. Accelerator mass spectrometry measurements of the 13C (n ,γ )14C and 14N(n ,p )14C cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallner, A.; Bichler, M.; Buczak, K.; Dillmann, I.; Käppeler, F.; Karakas, A.; Lederer, C.; Lugaro, M.; Mair, K.; Mengoni, A.; Schätzel, G.; Steier, P.; Trautvetter, H. P.

    2016-04-01

    The technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), offering a complementary tool for sensitive studies of key reactions in nuclear astrophysics, was applied for measurements of the 13C (n ,γ )14C and the 14N(n ,p )14C cross sections, which act as a neutron poison in s -process nucleosynthesis. Solid samples were irradiated at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology with neutrons closely resembling a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for k T =25 keV, and also at higher energies between En=123 and 182 keV. After neutron irradiation the produced amount of 14C in the samples was measured by AMS at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA) facility. For both reactions the present results provide important improvements compared to previous experimental data, which were strongly discordant in the astrophysically relevant energy range and missing for the comparably strong resonances above 100 keV. For 13C (n ,γ ) we find a four times smaller cross section around k T =25 keV than a previous measurement. For 14N(n ,p ), the present data suggest two times lower cross sections between 100 and 200 keV than had been obtained in previous experiments and data evaluations. The effect of the new stellar cross sections on the s process in low-mass asymptotic giant branch stars was studied for stellar models of 2 M⊙ initial mass, and solar and 1 /10th solar metallicity.

  12. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960`s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore`s Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail.

  13. Intraband discrete breathers in disordered nonlinear systems. II. Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopidakis, G.; Aubry, S.

    2000-05-01

    We find spatially localized, time-periodic solutions (discrete breathers or DBs) in disordered nonlinear systems with frequency inside the linear phonon spectrum under conditions that strictly prohibit their existence in their periodic counterparts. For that purpose, we develop a new in situ method for the accurate calculation of these solutions which does not make use of any continuation from an anticontinuous limit. Using this method, we demonstrate that intraband localized modes (intraband discrete breathers or IDBs) at a given site with frequencies inside the discrete linear spectrum do exist, provided these frequencies do not belong to forbidden resonance gaps. Since there is a dense set of resonant frequencies, we illustrate numerically, in agreement with a theorem by Albanese and Fröhlich, that the localized DBs exist provided that their frequencies belong to fat Cantor sets (i.e., with finite measure). Such a set contains as accumulation points the linear frequency of the normal mode at the occupied site. We check that many of these solutions are linearly stable and conjecture that their frequency belongs to another smaller fat Cantor set. Our numerical methods provide a much wider set of exact solutions which are multisite breathers and suggest conjectures extending the existing theorems. The physical implications of the existence of IDBs and possible applications for glasses and the persistent spectral hole burning are discussed.

  14. Wakefield accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The search for new methods to accelerate particle beams to high energy using high gradients has resulted in a number of candidate schemes. One of these, wakefield acceleration, has been the subject of considerable R D in recent years. This effort has resulted in successful proof of principle experiments and in increased understanding of many of the practical aspects of the technique. Some wakefield basics plus the status of existing and proposed experimental work is discussed, along with speculations on the future of wake field acceleration. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  15. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, S.A.

    1958-05-27

    An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.

  16. Analyzing Nuclear Fuel Cycles from Isotopic Ratios of Waste Products Applicable to Measurement by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Biegalski, S R; Whitney, S M; Buchholz, B

    2005-08-24

    An extensive study was conducted to determine isotopic ratios of nuclides in spent fuel that may be utilized to reveal historical characteristics of a nuclear reactor cycle. This forensic information is important to determine the origin of unknown nuclear waste. The distribution of isotopes in waste products provides information about a nuclear fuel cycle, even when the isotopes of uranium and plutonium are removed through chemical processing. Several different reactor cycles of the PWR, BWR, CANDU, and LMFBR were simulated for this work with the ORIGEN-ARP and ORIGEN 2.2 codes. The spent fuel nuclide concentrations of these reactors were analyzed to find the most informative isotopic ratios indicative of irradiation cycle length and reactor design. Special focus was given to long-lived and stable fission products that would be present many years after their creation. For such nuclides, mass spectrometry analysis methods often have better detection limits than classic gamma-ray spectroscopy. The isotopic ratios {sup 151}Sm/{sup 146}Sm, {sup 149}Sm/{sup 146}Sm, and {sup 244}Cm/{sup 246}Cm were found to be good indicators of fuel cycle length and are well suited for analysis by accelerator mass spectroscopy.

  17. ION ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Bell, J.S.

    1959-09-15

    An arrangement for the drift tubes in a linear accelerator is described whereby each drift tube acts to shield the particles from the influence of the accelerating field and focuses the particles passing through the tube. In one embodiment the drift tube is splii longitudinally into quadrants supported along the axis of the accelerator by webs from a yoke, the quadrants. webs, and yoke being of magnetic material. A magnetic focusing action is produced by energizing a winding on each web to set up a magnetic field between adjacent quadrants. In the other embodiment the quadrants are electrically insulated from each other and have opposite polarity voltages on adjacent quadrants to provide an electric focusing fleld for the particles, with the quadrants spaced sufficienily close enough to shield the particles within the tube from the accelerating electric field.

  18. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P. Jr.; Devaney, H.F.; Hake, L.W.

    1979-08-29

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  19. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Jr., Joseph P.; Devaney, Howard F.; Hake, Lewis W.

    1982-08-17

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  20. Linear Acceleration Measurement Utilizing Inter-Instrument Synchronization: A Comparison between Accelerometers and Motion-Based Tracking Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaway, Andrew J.; Cobb, Jon E.

    2012-01-01

    Where as video cameras are a reliable and established technology for the measurement of kinematic parameters, accelerometers are increasingly being employed for this type of measurement due to their ease of use, performance, and comparatively low cost. However, the majority of accelerometer-based studies involve a single channel due to the…

  1. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  2. Determination of solar flare accelerated ion angular distributions from SMM gamma ray and neutron measurements and determination of the He-3/H ratio in the solar photosphere from SMM gamma ray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, Richard E.

    1989-01-01

    Comparisons of Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) observations of gamma-ray line and neutron emission with theoretical calculation of their expected production by flare accelerated ion interactions in the solar atmosphere have led to significant advances in the understanding of solar flare particle acceleration and interaction, as well as the flare process itself. These comparisons have enabled the determination of, not only the total number and energy spectrum of accelerated ions trapped at the sun, but also the ion angular distribution as they interact in the solar atmosphere. The Monte Carlo program was modified to include in the calculations of ion trajectories the effects of both mirroring in converging magnetic fields and of pitch angle scattering. Comparing the results of these calculations with the SMM observations, not only the angular distribution of the interacting ions can be determined, but also the initial angular distribution of the ions at acceleration. The reliable determination of the solar photospheric He-3 abundance is of great importance for understanding nucleosynthesis in the early universe and its implications for cosmology, as well as for the study of the evolution of the sun. It is also essential for the determinations of the spectrum and total number of flare accelerated ions from the SMM/GRS gamma-ray line measurements. Systematic Monte Carlo calculations of the time dependence were made as a function of the He-3 abundance and other variables. A new series of calculations were compared for the time-dependent flux of 2.223 MeV neutron capture line emission and the ratio of the time-integrated flux in the 2.223 MeV line to that in the 4.1 to 6.4 MeV nuclear deexcitation band.

  3. Measurement of angularly dependent spectra of betatron gamma-rays from a laser plasma accelerator with quadrant-sectored range filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Jong Ho; Nakajima, Kazuhisa; Kim, Hyung Taek; Rhee, Yong Joo; Pathak, Vishwa Bandhu; Cho, Myung Hoon; Shin, Jung Hun; Yoo, Byung Ju; Jo, Sung Ha; Shin, Kang Woo; Hojbota, Calin; Bae, Lee Jin; Jung, Jaehyung; Cho, Min Sang; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seong Ku; Cho, Byoung Ick; Choi, Il Woo; Nam, Chang Hee

    2016-07-01

    Measurement of angularly dependent spectra of betatron gamma-rays radiated by GeV electron beams from laser wakefield accelerators (LWFAs) are presented. The angle-resolved spectrum of betatron radiation was deconvolved from the position dependent data measured for a single laser shot with a broadband gamma-ray spectrometer comprising four-quadrant sectored range filters and an unfolding algorithm, based on the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The unfolded gamma-ray spectra in the photon energy range of 0.1-10 MeV revealed an approximately isotropic angular dependence of the peak photon energy and photon energy-integrated fluence. As expected by the analysis of betatron radiation from LWFAs, the results indicate that unpolarized gamma-rays are emitted by electrons undergoing betatron motion in isotropically distributed orbit planes.

  4. Using an Atom Interferometer to Measure Changes in Tune-Out Wavelength caused by Rotation and Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trubko, Raisa; Greenberg, James; St. Germaine, Michael T.; Gregoire, Maxwell D.; Hromada, Ivan; Holmgren, William F.; Cronin, Alexander D.

    2014-05-01

    Measurements of tune-out wavelengths made with an atom interferometer are shown to change by 150 pm due to inertial displacements. Because tune-out wavelengths can be measured with picometer precision in our laboratory, we explore how to use shifts in tune-out wavelengths to measure rotation rates with respect to an inertial frame. For example, measuring the earth's rotation rate with an uncertainty of 1% appears possible with this technique. The origin of shifts in measured tune-out wavelengths (λzero , lab) as compared to tune-out wavelengths in an inertial frame (λzero) is explained by dispersive inertial phase shifts, the vector dynamic polarizability αv (ω) , and dispersion compensation. An atom beam with a velocity spread and an ensemble of atomic spin states is required. Because accurate measurements of λzero can be used for reporting ratios of dipole matrix elements, we also discuss methods for reducing systematic errors in measurements of λzero.

  5. Activation Measurements for Thermal Neutrons, U.S. Measurements of 36Cl in Mineral Samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki; and Measurement of 63 Ni in Copper Samples From Hiroshima by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tore Straume; Alfredo A. Marchetti; Stephen D. Egbert; James A. Roberts; Ping Men; Shoichiro Fujita; Kiyoshi Shizuma; Masaharu Hoshi; G. Rugel; W. Ruhm; G. Korschinek; J. E. McAninch; K. L. Carroll; T. Faestermann; K. Knie; R. E. Martinelli; A. Wallner; C. Wallner

    2005-01-14

    The present paper presents the {sup 36}Cl measurement effort in the US. A large number of {sup 36}Cl measurements have been made in both granite and concrete samples obtained from various locations and distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the number of atoms of {sup 36}Cl per atom of total Cl in the sample. Results from these measurements are presented here and discussed in the context of the DS02 dosimetry reevaluation effort for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors. The production of {sup 36}Cl by bomb neutrons in mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki was primarily via the reaction {sup 35}Cl(n,{gamma}){sup 36}Cl. This reaction has a substantial thermal neutron cross-section (43.6 b at 0.025 eV) and the product has a long half-life (301,000 y). hence, it is well suited for neutron-activation detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using AMS more than 50 years after the bombings. A less important reaction for bomb neutrons, {sup 39}K(n,{alpha}){sup 36}Cl, typically produces less than 10% of the {sup 36}Cl in mineral samples such as granite and concrete, which contain {approx} 2% potassium. In 1988, only a year after the publication of the DS86 final report (Roesch 1987), it was demonstrated experimentally that {sup 36}Cl measured using AMS should be able to detect the thermal neutron fluences at the large distances most relevant to the A-bomb survivor dosimetry. Subsequent measurements in mineral samples from both Hiroshima and Nagasaki validated the experimental findings. The potential utility of {sup 36}Cl as a thermal neutron detector in Hiroshima was first presented by Haberstock et al. who employed the Munich AMS facility to measure {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios in a gravestone from near the hypocenter. That work subsequently resulted in an expanded {sup 36}Cl effort in Germany that paralleled the US work. More recently, there have also been {sup 36}Cl measurements made by a Japanese

  6. Design layout for gas monitoring system II (GMS-2) computer system

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, V.; Philipp, B.L.; Manke, M.P.

    1995-08-02

    This document provides a general overview of the computer systems software that perform the data acquisition and control for the 241-SY-101 Gas Monitoring System II (GMS-2). It outlines the system layout, and contains descriptions of components and the functions they perform. The GMS-2 system was designed and implemented by Los Alamos National Laboratory and supplied to Westinghouse Hanford Company

  7. Dynamic mechanical and molecular weight measurements on polymer bonded explosives from thermally accelerated aging tests. I. Fluoropolymer binders

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.M.; Caley, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties and molecular weight distribution of two polymer bonded explosives, LX-10-1 and PBX-9502, maintained at 23, 60, and 74/sup 0/C for 3 years were studied. LX-10-1 is 94.5% 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane explosive bonded together with 5.5% Viton A fluoropolymer. PBX-9502 is 95% triaminotrinitrobenzene explosive bonded with 5% Kel-F-800 fluoropolymer. There are two mechanical relaxations in the LX-10-1 in the military temperature range. The relaxation at -10/sup 0/C is associated with the glass transition temperature of the Viton A binder. A second weak relaxation occurs at about 30/sup 0/C in all LX-10-1 samples tested. This relaxation is probably associated with small amounts of crystallinity in the binder although this has not been demonstrated. There is a slight increase in modulus of the LX-10-1 with accelerated aging temperature. Changes in the dynamic mechanical properties of PBX-9502 are ascribed to crystallization of the chlorotrifluoroethylene component of the Kel-F-800 binder. The molecular weight of the Viton A binder decreased slight with increasing aging temperature. Using the kinetics of random scission the activation energy for polymer degradation in the presence of the explosive was 1.19 kcal/mole. The Arrhenius preexponential term and activation energy predict an expected use-life in excess of 60 years for LX-10-1. The Kel-F-800 in PBX-9502 is also extremely stable.

  8. SU-E-T-370: Measurement of Conical Cone Output Factors for the Varian Edge Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H; Kim, J; Gordon, J; Chetty, I; Wang, S; Zhong, H; Wen, N

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify the impact of detector type, SSD/depth, and intermediate reference on conical cone output factor (OF) measurements for the Varian Edge linac. Methods: OF's for 4, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, and 17.5 mm diameter cones relative to 10cmx10cm field were measured for the 6X FFF and 10X FFF energies, with jaws set to 5cmx5cm. Measurements were performed with an Edge diode (0.8mmx0.8mmx0.03mm WxLxT), stereotatic diode SFD, photon diode, CC01 and pinpoint chambers (2mm diameter for both). 95cm SSD/5cm depth were used in a water tank. For the measurement with diodes, OF's were cross-referred to CC13 ion chamber measurements with 3cmx3cm field, as recommended, to help mitigate the energy variation in diode response with field size. Results were compared to the representative data from Varian measured with Edge detector. With SFD, OF's at 98.5cm SSD/1.5cm depth and 90cm SSD/10cm depth were also measured. Results: OF's measured with the Edge detector matched within 1.3% (max diff) with the representative data from Varian. For the SFD, OF's matched within 1.3% for the 4, 5 and 17.5 mm cones and within 3.7% for the other cones. OF's with photon diode were within 1.3% except for the 4 and 5 mm cones where they were 8.1% and 3.7%, respectively. OF's for the CC01 and pinpoint chamber deviated up to 36% and 44%, respectively for the 4 mm cone. OF's after intermediate reference with 3cmx3cm field changed by 3.7% for SFD, 0.8% for photon diode, and 0.6% for Edge detector. OF's at 98.5cm SSD/1.5cm depth were 10.8% higher than that at 95cm SSD/5cm depth, and OF's at 90cm SSD/1.5cm depth were 7.5% lower. Conclusion: OF's measured with the Edge detector appear to be reliable. CC01 and pinpoint chambers do not appear suitable for measuring the small cone OF's. SSD/depth affects OF measurements significantly.

  9. Measurement of cosmogenic /sup 36/Cl/Cl in young volcanic rocks: An application of accelerator mass spectrometry in geochronology

    SciTech Connect

    Leavy, B.D.; Phillips, F.M.; Elmore, D.; Kubik, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    We have measured /sup 36/Cl/Cl ratios in a number of young volcanic rocks in order to test the feasibility of using /sup 36/Cl buildup as a geochronometer for materials less than about 700,000 years old. All of the analyzed rocks have been dated independently using K-Ar or other radiometric dating methods and have exposure histories that are known or can be reasonably assumed. Measured /sup 36/Cl/Cl ratios in these rocks are in good agreement with the calculated in-situ /sup 36/Cl buildup curve. These analyses indicate that AMS measurement of /sup 36/Cl buildup in young rocks is a potentially powerful new method for dating materials that had previously been undatable, and as such will have broad applications in volcanology, tectonics, geophysics, and Quaternary research.

  10. The precise energy spectra measurement of laser-accelerated MeV/n-class high-Z ions and protons using CR-39 detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanasaki, M.; Jinno, S.; Sakaki, H.; Kondo, K.; Oda, K.; Yamauchi, T.; Fukuda, Y.

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis method, using a combination of a permanent magnet and CR-39 track detectors, has been developed to separately measure the energy spectrum of the laser-accelerated MeV/n-class high-Z ions and that of MeV protons. The main role of magnet is separating between high-Z ions and protons, not for the usual energy spectrometer, while ion energy was precisely determined from careful analysis of the etch pit shapes and the etch pit growth behaviors in the CR-39. The method was applied to laser-driven ion acceleration experiments using CO2 clusters embedded in a background H2 gas. Ion energy spectra with uncertainty ΔE  =  0.1 MeV n-1 for protons and carbon/oxygen ions were simultaneously obtained separately. The maximum energies of carbon/oxygen ions and protons were determined as 1.1  ±  0.1 MeV and 1.6  ±  0.1 MeV n-1, respectively. The sharp decrease around 1 MeV n-1 observed in the energy spectrum of carbon/oxygen ions could be due to a trace of the ambipolar hydrodynamic expansion of CO2 clusters. Thanks to the combination of the magnet and the CR-39, the method is robust against electromagnetic pulse (EMP).

  11. Experimental Measurements of the Secondary Electron Yield in the Experimental Measurement of the Secondary Electron Yield in the PEP-II Particle Accelerator Beam Line

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M.T.F.; Collet, G.; King, F.; Kirby, R.E.; Markiewicz, T.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Seeman, J.; Le Pimpec, F.; /PSI, Villigen

    2010-08-25

    Beam instability caused by the electron cloud has been observed in positron and proton storage rings and it is expected to be a limiting factor in the performance of the positron Damping Ring (DR) of future Linear Colliders (LC) such as ILC and CLIC. To test a series of promising possible electron cloud mitigation techniques as surface coatings and grooves, in the Positron Low Energy Ring (LER) of the PEP-II accelerator, we have installed several test vacuum chambers including (i) a special chamber to monitor the variation of the secondary electron yield of technical surface materials and coatings under the effect of ion, electron and photon conditioning in situ in the beam line; (ii) chambers with grooves in a straight magnetic-free section; and (iii) coated chambers in a dedicated newly installed 4-magnet chicane to study mitigations in a magnetic field region. In this paper, we describe the ongoing R&D effort to mitigate the electron cloud effect for the LC damping ring, focusing on the first experimental area and on results of the reduction of the secondary electron yield due to in situ conditioning.

  12. The feasibility of isobaric suppression of 26Mg via post-accelerator foil stripping for the measurement of 26Al [The feasibility of isobaric suppression of 26Mg via post-accelerator foil stripping for the measurement of 26Al.

    SciTech Connect

    Tumey, Scott J.; Brown, Thomas A.; Finkel, Robert C.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2012-09-13

    Most accelerator mass spectrometry measurements of 26Al utilize the Al- ion despite lower source currents compared with AlO- since the stable isobar 26Mg does not form elemental negative ions. A gas-filled magnet allows sufficient suppression of 26Mg thus enabling the use of the more intense 26AlO- ion. However, most AMS systems do not include a gas-filled magnet. We therefore explored the feasibility of suppressing 26Mg by using a post-accelerator stripping foil. With this approach, combined with the use of alternative cathode matrices, we were able to suppress 26Mg by a factor of twenty. This suppression was insufficient to enable the use of 26AlO-, however further refinement of our system may permit its use in the future.

  13. Accelerator Measurements of Magnetically Induced Radio Emission from Particle Cascades with Applications to Cosmic-Ray Air Showers.

    PubMed

    Belov, K; Mulrey, K; Romero-Wolf, A; Wissel, S A; Zilles, A; Bechtol, K; Borch, K; Chen, P; Clem, J; Gorham, P W; Hast, C; Huege, T; Hyneman, R; Jobe, K; Kuwatani, K; Lam, J; Liu, T C; Nam, J; Naudet, C; Nichol, R J; Rauch, B F; Rotter, B; Saltzberg, D; Schoorlemmer, H; Seckel, D; Strutt, B; Vieregg, A G; Williams, C

    2016-04-01

    For 50 years, cosmic-ray air showers have been detected by their radio emission. We present the first laboratory measurements that validate electrodynamics simulations used in air shower modeling. An experiment at SLAC provides a beam test of radio-frequency (rf) radiation from charged particle cascades in the presence of a magnetic field, a model system of a cosmic-ray air shower. This experiment provides a suite of controlled laboratory measurements to compare to particle-level simulations of rf emission, which are relied upon in ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray air shower detection. We compare simulations to data for intensity, linearity with magnetic field, angular distribution, polarization, and spectral content. In particular, we confirm modern predictions that the magnetically induced emission in a dielectric forms a cone that peaks at the Cherenkov angle and show that the simulations reproduce the data within systematic uncertainties.

  14. Accelerator Measurements of Magnetically Induced Radio Emission from Particle Cascades with Applications to Cosmic-Ray Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, K.; Mulrey, K.; Romero-Wolf, A.; Wissel, S. A.; Zilles, A.; Bechtol, K.; Borch, K.; Chen, P.; Clem, J.; Gorham, P. W.; Hast, C.; Huege, T.; Hyneman, R.; Jobe, K.; Kuwatani, K.; Lam, J.; Liu, T. C.; Nam, J.; Naudet, C.; Nichol, R. J.; Rauch, B. F.; Rotter, B.; Saltzberg, D.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Seckel, D.; Strutt, B.; Vieregg, A. G.; Williams, C.; T-510 Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    For 50 years, cosmic-ray air showers have been detected by their radio emission. We present the first laboratory measurements that validate electrodynamics simulations used in air shower modeling. An experiment at SLAC provides a beam test of radio-frequency (rf) radiation from charged particle cascades in the presence of a magnetic field, a model system of a cosmic-ray air shower. This experiment provides a suite of controlled laboratory measurements to compare to particle-level simulations of rf emission, which are relied upon in ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray air shower detection. We compare simulations to data for intensity, linearity with magnetic field, angular distribution, polarization, and spectral content. In particular, we confirm modern predictions that the magnetically induced emission in a dielectric forms a cone that peaks at the Cherenkov angle and show that the simulations reproduce the data within systematic uncertainties.

  15. Accelerator Measurements of Magnetically Induced Radio Emission from Particle Cascades with Applications to Cosmic-Ray Air Showers.

    PubMed

    Belov, K; Mulrey, K; Romero-Wolf, A; Wissel, S A; Zilles, A; Bechtol, K; Borch, K; Chen, P; Clem, J; Gorham, P W; Hast, C; Huege, T; Hyneman, R; Jobe, K; Kuwatani, K; Lam, J; Liu, T C; Nam, J; Naudet, C; Nichol, R J; Rauch, B F; Rotter, B; Saltzberg, D; Schoorlemmer, H; Seckel, D; Strutt, B; Vieregg, A G; Williams, C

    2016-04-01

    For 50 years, cosmic-ray air showers have been detected by their radio emission. We present the first laboratory measurements that validate electrodynamics simulations used in air shower modeling. An experiment at SLAC provides a beam test of radio-frequency (rf) radiation from charged particle cascades in the presence of a magnetic field, a model system of a cosmic-ray air shower. This experiment provides a suite of controlled laboratory measurements to compare to particle-level simulations of rf emission, which are relied upon in ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray air shower detection. We compare simulations to data for intensity, linearity with magnetic field, angular distribution, polarization, and spectral content. In particular, we confirm modern predictions that the magnetically induced emission in a dielectric forms a cone that peaks at the Cherenkov angle and show that the simulations reproduce the data within systematic uncertainties. PMID:27104694

  16. In vacuum diamond sensor scanner for beam halo measurements in the beam line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Bogard, F.; Cornebise, P.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Fuster-Martínez, N.; Griesmayer, E.; Guler, H.; Kubytskyi, V.; Sylvia, C.; Tauchi, T.; Terunuma, N.; Bambade, P.

    2016-10-01

    The investigation of beam halo transverse distributions is important for the understanding of beam losses and the control of backgrounds in Future Linear Colliders (FLC). A novel in vacuum diamond sensor (DSv) scanner with four strips has been designed and developed for the investigation of the beam halo transverse distributions and also for the diagnostics of Compton recoil electrons after the interaction point (IP) of ATF2, a low energy (1.3 GeV) prototype of the final focus system for the ILC and CLIC linear collider projects. Using the DSv, a dynamic range of ∼106 has been successfully demonstrated and confirmed for the first time in simultaneous beam core (∼109 electrons) and beam halo (∼103 electrons) measurements at ATF2. This report presents the characterization, performance studies and tests of diamond sensors using an α source, as well as using the electron beams at PHIL, a low energy < 5 MeV photo-injector at LAL, and at ATF2. First beam halo measurement results using the DSv at ATF2 with different beam intensities and vacuum levels are also presented. Such measurements not only allow one to evaluate the different sources of beam halo generation but also to define the requirements for a suitable collimation system to be installed at ATF2, as well as to optimize its performance during future operation.

  17. Measurement of Uranium Isotopes in Particles of U3O8 by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry-Single-Stage Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (SIMS-SSAMS).

    PubMed

    Fahey, Albert J; Groopman, Evan E; Grabowski, Kenneth S; Fazel, Kamron C

    2016-07-19

    A commercial secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) was coupled to a ± 300 kV single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (SSAMS). Positive secondary ions generated with the SIMS were injected into the SSAMS for analysis. This combined instrument was used to measure the uranium isotopic ratios in particles of three certified reference materials (CRM) of uranium, CRM U030a, CRM U500, and CRM U850. The ability to inject positive ions into the SSAMS is unique for AMS systems and allows for simple analysis of nearly the entire periodic table because most elements will readily produce positive ions. Isotopic ratios were measured on samples of a few picograms to nanograms of total U. Destruction of UH(+) ions in the stripper tube of the SSAMS reduced hydride levels by a factor of ∼3 × 10(4) giving the UH(+)/U(+) ratio at the SSAMS detector of ∼1.4 × 10(-8). These hydride ion levels would allow the measurement of (239)Pu at the 10 ppb level in the presence of U and the equivalent of ∼10(-10 236)U concentration in natural uranium. SIMS-SSAMS analysis of solid nuclear materials, such as these, with signals nearly free of molecular interferences, could have a significant future impact on the way some measurements are made for nuclear nonproliferation. PMID:27321905

  18. Neutron Energy and Time-of-flight Spectra Behind the Lateral Shield of a High Energy Electron Accelerator Beam Dump,Part I: Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Roesler, Stefan

    2002-09-24

    Neutron energy and time-of-flight spectra were measured behind the lateral shield of the electron beam dump at the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The neutrons were produced by a 28.7 GeV electron beam hitting the aluminum beam dump of the FFTB which is housed inside a thick steel and concrete shield. The measurements were performed using a NE213 organic liquid scintillator behind different thicknesses of the concrete shield of 274 cm, 335 cm, and 396 cm, respectively. The neutron energy spectra between 6 and 800 MeV were obtained by unfolding the measured pulse height spectrum with the detector response function. The attenuation length of neutrons in concrete was then derived. The spectra of neutron time-of-flight between beam on dump and neutron detection by NE213 were also measured. The corresponding experimental results were simulated with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The experimental results show good agreement with the simulated results.

  19. Neutron energy and time-of-flight spectra behind the lateral shield of a high energy electron accelerator beam dump. Part I: measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nunomiya, T.; Iwase, H.; Yonai, S.; Sasaki, M.; Rokni, S. H.; Liu, J. C.; Kase, K. R.; Roesler, S.

    2003-05-01

    Neutron energy and time-of-flight spectra were measured behind the lateral shield of the electron beam dump at the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The neutrons were produced by a 28.7 GeV electron beam hitting the aluminum beam dump of the FFTB which is housed inside a thick steel and concrete shield. The measurements were performed using an NE213 organic liquid scintillator behind different thicknesses of the concrete shield of 274, 335, and 396 cm, respectively. The neutron energy spectra between 6 and 800 MeV were obtained by unfolding the measured pulse height spectrum with the detector response function. The attenuation length of neutrons in concrete was then derived. The spectra of neutron time-of-flight between beam on dump and neutron detection by NE213 were also measured. The corresponding experimental results were simulated with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The experimental results show good agreement with the simulated results.

  20. Measurement of Uranium Isotopes in Particles of U3O8 by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry-Single-Stage Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (SIMS-SSAMS).

    PubMed

    Fahey, Albert J; Groopman, Evan E; Grabowski, Kenneth S; Fazel, Kamron C

    2016-07-19

    A commercial secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) was coupled to a ± 300 kV single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (SSAMS). Positive secondary ions generated with the SIMS were injected into the SSAMS for analysis. This combined instrument was used to measure the uranium isotopic ratios in particles of three certified reference materials (CRM) of uranium, CRM U030a, CRM U500, and CRM U850. The ability to inject positive ions into the SSAMS is unique for AMS systems and allows for simple analysis of nearly the entire periodic table because most elements will readily produce positive ions. Isotopic ratios were measured on samples of a few picograms to nanograms of total U. Destruction of UH(+) ions in the stripper tube of the SSAMS reduced hydride levels by a factor of ∼3 × 10(4) giving the UH(+)/U(+) ratio at the SSAMS detector of ∼1.4 × 10(-8). These hydride ion levels would allow the measurement of (239)Pu at the 10 ppb level in the presence of U and the equivalent of ∼10(-10 236)U concentration in natural uranium. SIMS-SSAMS analysis of solid nuclear materials, such as these, with signals nearly free of molecular interferences, could have a significant future impact on the way some measurements are made for nuclear nonproliferation.

  1. Monitor backscatter factors for the Varian 21EX and TrueBeam linear accelerators: measurements and Monte Carlo modelling.

    PubMed

    Zavgorodni, Sergei; Alhakeem, Eyad; Townson, Reid

    2014-02-21

    Linac backscattered radiation (BSR) into the monitor chamber affects the chamber's signal and has to be accounted for in radiotherapy dose calculations. In Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, the BSR can be modelled explicitly and accounted for in absolute dose. However, explicit modelling of the BSR becomes impossible if treatment head geometry is not available. In this study, monitor backscatter factors (MBSFs), defined as the ratio of the charge collected in the monitor chamber for a reference field to that of a given field, have been evaluated experimentally and incorporated into MC modelling of linacs with either known or unknown treatment head geometry. A telescopic technique similar to that by Kubo (1989 Med. Phys. 16 295-98) was used. However, instead of lead slits, a 1.8 mm diameter collimator and a small (2 mm diameter) detector positioned at extended source to detector distance were used. This setup provided a field of view to the source of less than 3.1 mm and allowed for MBSF measurements of open fields from 1 × 1 to 40 × 40 cm(2). For the fields with both X and Y dimensions exceeding 15 cm, a diode detector was used. A pinpoint ionization chamber was used for smaller fields. MBSFs were also explicitly modelled in MC calculations using BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes for 6 and 18 MV beams of a Varian 21EX linac. A method for deriving the D(ch)(forward) values that are used in MC absolute dose calculations was demonstrated. These values were derived from measured MBSFs for two 21EX and four TrueBeam energies. MBSFs were measured for 6 and 18 MV beams from Varian 21EX, and for 6 MV, 10 MV-FFF, 10 MV, and 15 MV beams from Varian TrueBeam linacs. For the open field sizes modelled in this study for the 21EX, the measured MBSFs agreed with MC calculated values within combined statistical (0.4%) and experimental (0.2%) uncertainties. Variation of MBSFs across field sizes was about a factor of two smaller for the TrueBeam compared to 21EX Varian linacs. Measured

  2. Measurement of {sup 63}Ni and {sup 59}Ni by accelerator mass spectrometry using characteristic projectile x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    McAninch, J.E.; Hainsworth, L.J.; Marchetti, A.A.

    1996-05-01

    The long-lived isotopes of nickel ({sup 59}Ni, {sup 63}Ni) have current and potential use in a number of applications including cosmic radiation studies, biomedical tracing, characterization of low-level radioactive wastes, and neutron dosimetry. Methods are being developed at LLNL for the routine detection of these isotopes by AMS. One intended application is in Hiroshima dosimetry. The reaction {sup 63}Cu(n,p){sup 63}Ni has been identified as one of a small number of reactions which might be used for the direct determination of the fast neutron fluence emitted by the Hiroshima bomb. AMS measurement of {sup 63}Ni(t{sub 1/2} = 100 y) requires the chemical removal of {sup 63}Cu, which is a stable isobar of {sup 63}Ni. Following the electrochemical separation of Ni from gram-sized copper samples, the Cu concentration is further lowered to < 2 x 10{sup -8} (Cu/Ni) using the reaction of Ni with carbon monoxide to form the gas Ni(CO){sub 4}. The Ni(CO){sub 4} is thermally decomposed directly in sample holders for measurement by AMS. After analysis in the AMS spectrometer, the ions are identified using characteristic projectile x-rays, allowing further rejection of remaining {sup 63}Cu. In a demonstration experiment, {sup 63}Ni was measured in Cu wires (2-20 g) which had been exposed to neutrons from a {sup 252}Cf source. We successfully measured {sup 63}Ni at levels necessary for the measurement of Cu samples exposed near the Hiroshima hypocenter. For the demonstration samples, the Cu content was chemically reduced by a factor of 10{sup 12} with quantitative retention of {sup 63}Ni. Detection sensitivity (3{sigma}) was {approximately}20 fg {sup 63}Ni in 1 mg Ni carrier ({sup 63}Ni/Ni {approx} 2 x 10{sup -11}). Significant improvements in sensitivity are expected with planned incremental changes in the methods. Preliminary results indicate that a similar sensitivity is achievable for {sup 59}Ni (t{sub 1/2} = 10{sup 5} y).

  3. Monitor backscatter factors for the Varian 21EX and TrueBeam linear accelerators: measurements and Monte Carlo modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavgorodni, Sergei; Alhakeem, Eyad; Townson, Reid

    2014-02-01

    Linac backscattered radiation (BSR) into the monitor chamber affects the chamber's signal and has to be accounted for in radiotherapy dose calculations. In Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, the BSR can be modelled explicitly and accounted for in absolute dose. However, explicit modelling of the BSR becomes impossible if treatment head geometry is not available. In this study, monitor backscatter factors (MBSFs), defined as the ratio of the charge collected in the monitor chamber for a reference field to that of a given field, have been evaluated experimentally and incorporated into MC modelling of linacs with either known or unknown treatment head geometry. A telescopic technique similar to that by Kubo (1989 Med. Phys. 16 295-98) was used. However, instead of lead slits, a 1.8 mm diameter collimator and a small (2 mm diameter) detector positioned at extended source to detector distance were used. This setup provided a field of view to the source of less than 3.1 mm and allowed for MBSF measurements of open fields from 1 × 1 to 40 × 40 cm2. For the fields with both X and Y dimensions exceeding 15 cm, a diode detector was used. A pinpoint ionization chamber was used for smaller fields. MBSFs were also explicitly modelled in MC calculations using BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes for 6 and 18 MV beams of a Varian 21EX linac. A method for deriving the D_ch^forward values that are used in MC absolute dose calculations was demonstrated. These values were derived from measured MBSFs for two 21EX and four TrueBeam energies. MBSFs were measured for 6 and 18 MV beams from Varian 21EX, and for 6 MV, 10 MV-FFF, 10 MV, and 15 MV beams from Varian TrueBeam linacs. For the open field sizes modelled in this study for the 21EX, the measured MBSFs agreed with MC calculated values within combined statistical (0.4%) and experimental (0.2%) uncertainties. Variation of MBSFs across field sizes was about a factor of two smaller for the TrueBeam compared to 21EX Varian linacs. Measured MBSFs

  4. Validity of combining heart rate and uniaxial acceleration to measure free-living physical activity energy expenditure in young men.

    PubMed

    Villars, C; Bergouignan, A; Dugas, J; Antoun, E; Schoeller, D A; Roth, H; Maingon, A C; Lefai, E; Blanc, S; Simon, C

    2012-12-01

    Combining accelerometry (ACC) with heart rate (HR) monitoring is thought to improve activity energy expenditure (AEE) estimations compared with ACC alone to evaluate the validity of ACC and HR used alone or combined. The purpose of this study was to estimate AEE in free-living conditions compared with doubly labeled water (DLW). Ten-day free-living AEE was measured by a DLW protocol in 35 18- to 55-yr-old men (11 lean active; 12 lean sedentary; 12 overweight sedentary) wearing an Actiheart (combining ACC and HR) and a RT3 accelerometer. AEE was estimated using group or individual calibration of the HR/AEE relationship, based on an exercise-tolerance test. In a subset (n = 21), AEE changes (ΔAEE) were measured after 1 mo of detraining (active subjects) or an 8-wk training (sedentary subjects). Actiheart-combined ACC/HR estimates were more accurate than estimates from HR or ACC alone. Accuracy of the Actiheart group-calibrated ACC/HR estimates was modest [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.62], with no bias but high root mean square error (RMSE) and limits of agreement (LOA). The mean bias of the estimates was reduced by one-third, like RMSE and LOA, by individual calibration (ICC = 0.81). Contrasting with group-calibrated estimates, the Actiheart individual-calibrated ACC/HR estimates explained 40% of the variance of the DLW-ΔAEE (ICC = 0.63). This study supports a good level of agreement between the Actiheart ACC/HR estimates and DLW-measured AEE in lean and overweight men with varying fitness levels. Individual calibration of the HR/AEE relationship is necessary for AEE estimations at an individual level rather than at group scale and for ΔAEE evaluation.

  5. Molecular and physiological evidence suggests the existence of a system II-like pathway of ethylene production in non-climacteric Citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Katz, Ehud; Lagunes, Paulino Martinez; Riov, Joseph; Weiss, David; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E

    2004-06-01

    Mature citrus fruits, which are classified as non-climacteric, evolve very low amounts of ethylene during ripening but respond to exogenous ethylene by ripening-related pigment changes and accelerated respiration. In the present study we show that young citrus fruitlets attached to the tree produce high levels of ethylene, which decrease dramatically towards maturation. Upon harvest, fruitlets exhibited a climacteric-like rise in ethylene production, preceded by induction of the genes for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase 1 (CsACS1), ACC oxidase 1 (CsACO1) and the ethylene receptor CsERS1. This induction was advanced and augmented by exogenous ethylene or propylene, indicating an autocatalytic system II-like ethylene biosynthesis. In mature, detached fruit, very low rates of ethylene production were associated with constitutive expression of the ACC synthase 2 (CsACS2) and ethylene receptor CsETR1 genes (system I). CsACS1 gene expression was undetectable at this stage, even following ethylene or propylene treatment, and CsERS1 gene expression remained constant, indicating that no autocatalytic response had occurred. The transition from system II-like behavior of young fruitlets to system I behavior appears to be under developmental control. PMID:15014996

  6. Molecular and physiological evidence suggests the existence of a system II-like pathway of ethylene production in non-climacteric Citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Katz, Ehud; Lagunes, Paulino Martinez; Riov, Joseph; Weiss, David; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E

    2004-06-01

    Mature citrus fruits, which are classified as non-climacteric, evolve very low amounts of ethylene during ripening but respond to exogenous ethylene by ripening-related pigment changes and accelerated respiration. In the present study we show that young citrus fruitlets attached to the tree produce high levels of ethylene, which decrease dramatically towards maturation. Upon harvest, fruitlets exhibited a climacteric-like rise in ethylene production, preceded by induction of the genes for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase 1 (CsACS1), ACC oxidase 1 (CsACO1) and the ethylene receptor CsERS1. This induction was advanced and augmented by exogenous ethylene or propylene, indicating an autocatalytic system II-like ethylene biosynthesis. In mature, detached fruit, very low rates of ethylene production were associated with constitutive expression of the ACC synthase 2 (CsACS2) and ethylene receptor CsETR1 genes (system I). CsACS1 gene expression was undetectable at this stage, even following ethylene or propylene treatment, and CsERS1 gene expression remained constant, indicating that no autocatalytic response had occurred. The transition from system II-like behavior of young fruitlets to system I behavior appears to be under developmental control.

  7. Particle acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

  8. Accelerated Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the accelerated associate degree program at Ivy Tech Community College (Indiana) in which low-income students will receive an associate degree in one year. The three-year pilot program is funded by a $2.3 million grant from the Lumina Foundation for Education in Indianapolis and a $270,000 grant from the Indiana Commission…

  9. Plasma accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui; Barnes, Cris W.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.

  10. An accurate Rb density measurement method for a plasma wakefield accelerator experiment using a novel Rb reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öz, E.; Batsch, F.; Muggli, P.

    2016-09-01

    A method to accurately measure the density of Rb vapor is described. We plan on using this method for the Advanced Wakefield (AWAKE) (Assmann et al., 2014 [1]) project at CERN , which will be the world's first proton driven plasma wakefield experiment. The method is similar to the hook (Marlow, 1967 [2]) method and has been described in great detail in the work by Hill et al. (1986) [3]. In this method a cosine fit is applied to the interferogram to obtain a relative accuracy on the order of 1% for the vapor density-length product. A single-mode, fiber-based, Mach-Zenhder interferometer will be built and used near the ends of the 10 meter-long AWAKE plasma source to be able to make accurate relative density measurement between these two locations. This can then be used to infer the vapor density gradient along the AWAKE plasma source and also change it to the value desired for the plasma wakefield experiment. Here we describe the plan in detail and show preliminary results obtained using a prototype 8 cm long novel Rb vapor cell.

  11. Biological Effectiveness of Accelerated Particles for the Induction of Chromosome Damage Measured in Metaphase and Interphase Human Lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Kerry; Durante, Marco; Willingham, Veronica; Wu, Honglu; Yang, Tracy C.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2003-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations were investigated in human lymphocytes after in vitro exposure to 1H-, 3He-, 12C-, 40Ar-, 28Si-, 56Fe-, or 197Au-ion beams, with LET ranging from approximately 0.4-1393 keV/microm in the dose range of 0.075-3 Gy. Dose-response curves for chromosome exchanges, measured at the first mitosis postirradiation using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole-chromosome probes, were fitted with linear or linear-quadratic functions. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) was estimated from the initial slope of the dose-response curve for chromosomal damage with respect to low- or high-dose-rate gamma rays. Estimates of RBEmax values for mitotic spreads, which ranged from near 0.7 to 11.1 for total exchanges, increased with LET, reaching a maximum at about 150 keV/microm, and decreased with further increase in LET. RBEs for complex aberrations are undefined due to the lack of an initial slope for gamma rays. Additionally, the effect of mitotic delay on RBE values was investigated by measuring chromosome aberrations in interphase after chemically induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC), and values were up to threefold higher than for metaphase analysis.

  12. Measurement of long-lived radionuclides in surface soil around F1NPP accident site by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Yasuto; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Sasa, Kimikazu; Takahashi, Tsutomu

    2015-10-01

    In March 2011, vast amounts of radionuclides were released into the environment due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident. However, very little work has been done concerning accident-derived long-lived nuclides such as 129I (T1/2 = 1.57 × 107 year) and 36Cl (T1/2 = 3.01 × 105 year). 129I and 131I are both produced by 235U fission in nuclear reactors. Being isotopes of iodine, these nuclides are expected to behave similarly in the environment. This makes 129I useful for retrospective reconstruction of 131I distribution during the initial stages of the accident. On the other hand, 36Cl is generated during reactor operation via neutron capture reaction of 35Cl, an impurity in the coolant or reactor component. Resulting 36Cl/Cl ratio within the reactor is thus much higher compared to that in environment. Similar to 129I, 36Cl is expected to have leaked out during the accident and it is important to evaluate its effects. In this study, 129I concentrations were determined in several surface soil samples collected around F1NPP. Average 129I/131I ratio was estimated to be 26.1 ± 5.8 as of March 11, 2011, consistent with calculations using ORIGEN2 code and other published data. 36Cl/Cl ratios in some of the soil samples were likewise measured and ranged from 1.1 × 10-12 to 2.6 × 10-11. These are higher compared to ratios measured around F1NPP before the accident. A positive correlation between 36Cl and 129I concentration was observed.

  13. Measurements of the temporal and spatial phase variations of a 33 GHz pulsed free electron laser amplifier and application to high gradient RF acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Volfbeyn, P.; Bekefi, G.

    1995-12-31

    We report the results of temporal and spatial measurements of phase of a pulsed free electron laser amplifier (FEL) operating in combined wiggler and axial guide magnetic fields. The 33 GHz FEL is driven by a mildly relativistic electron beam (750 kV, 90-300 A, 30 ns) and generates 61 MW of radiation with a high power magnetron as the input source. The phase is measured by an interferometric technique from which frequency shifting is determined. The results are simulated with a computer code. Experimental studies on a CERN-CLIC 32.98 GHz 26-cell high gradient accelerating section (HGA) were carried out for input powers from 0.1 MW to 35 MW. The FEL served as the r.f. power source for the HGA. The maximum power in the transmitted pulse was measured to be 15 MW for an input pulse of 35 MW. The theoretically calculated shunt impedance of 116 M{Omega}/m predicts a field gradient of 65 MeV/m inside the HGA. For power levels >3MW the pulse transmitted through the HGA was observed to be shorter than the input pulse and pulse shortening became more serious with increasing power input. At the highest power levels the output pulse length (about 5 nsec) was about one quarter of the input pulse length. Various tests suggest that these undesirable effects occur in the input coupler to the HGA. Light and X-ray production inside the HGA have been observed.

  14. Priorities for Standards and Measurements to Accelerate Innovations in Nano-Electrotechnologies: Analysis of the NIST-Energetics-IEC TC 113 Survey+,*

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Herbert S.; Andres, Howard; Pellegrino, Joan; Kwok, Winnie; Fabricius, Norbert; Chapin, J. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the National Institute of Standards and Technology and Energetics Incorporated collaborated with the International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Committee 113 (IEC TC 113) on nano-electrotechnologies to survey members of the international nanotechnologies community about priorities for standards and measurements to accelerate innovations in nano-electrotechnologies. In this paper, we analyze the 459 survey responses from 45 countries as one means to begin building a consensus on a framework leading to nano-electrotechnologies standards development by standards organizations and national measurement institutes. The distributions of priority rankings from all 459 respondents are such that there are perceived distinctions with statistical confidence between the relative international priorities for the several items ranked in each of the following five Survey category types: 1) Nano-electrotechnology Properties, 2) Nano-electrotechnology Taxonomy: Products, 3) Nano-electrotechnology Taxonomy: Cross-Cutting Technologies, 4) IEC General Discipline Areas, and 5) Stages of the Linear Economic Model. The global consensus prioritizations for ranked items in the above five category types suggest that the IEC TC 113 should focus initially on standards and measurements for electronic and electrical properties of sensors and fabrication tools that support performance assessments of nano-technology enabled sub-assemblies used in energy, medical, and computer products. PMID:27504216

  15. Measurement of the leakage radiation from linear accelerators in the backward direction for 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV x-ray energies.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Adnan K; Biggs, Peter J

    2007-04-01

    The x-ray leakage from the housing of a therapy x-ray source is regulated to be <0.1% of the useful beam exposure at 1 m from the source. It is to be expected that the machine leakage in the backward direction would be less because the gantry and stand contain significant amounts of additional metal to attenuate the x rays. A reduction in head leakage in this direction will have a direct effect on the thickness of the shielding wall behind the linear accelerator. However, no reports have been published to date on measurements in this area. The x-ray leakage in the backward direction has been measured from linacs having energies of 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV using a 100 cm ionization chamber and Al2O3 dosimeters. The leakage was measured at nine different positions over the rear wall using a 3 x 3 matrix with a 1-m separation between adjacent horizontal and vertical points with either the leftmost or rightmost column aligned with the target and isocenter. In general, the leakage is less than the canonical value, but the exact value depends on energy, gantry angle, and measurement position. There is significantly greater attenuation directly behind the gantry stand for all energies. Leakage at 10 MV for some positions exceeded 0.1%. Additionally, neutron leakage measurements were made for 10, 15, and 18 MV x-ray beams using track-etch detectors. The average neutron leakage was less than 0.1% except for 18 MV, where neutron leakage was more than 0.1% of the useful beam at some positions. PMID:17351504

  16. The Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.

    1992-09-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility comprises a 50 MeV traveling wave electron linear accelerator utilizing a high gradient, photo-excited, raidofrequency electron gun as an injector and an experimental area for study of new acceleration methods or advanced radiation sources using free electron lasers. Early operation of the linear accelerator system including calculated and measured beam parameters are presented together with the experimental program for accelerator physics and free electron laser studies.

  17. The Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility comprises a 50 MeV traveling wave electron linear accelerator utilizing a high gradient, photo-excited, raidofrequency electron gun as an injector and an experimental area for study of new acceleration methods or advanced radiation sources using free electron lasers. Early operation of the linear accelerator system including calculated and measured beam parameters are presented together with the experimental program for accelerator physics and free electron laser studies.

  18. Compact accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    2007-02-06

    A compact linear accelerator having at least one strip-shaped Blumlein module which guides a propagating wavefront between first and second ends and controls the output pulse at the second end. Each Blumlein module has first, second, and third planar conductor strips, with a first dielectric strip between the first and second conductor strips, and a second dielectric strip between the second and third conductor strips. Additionally, the compact linear accelerator includes a high voltage power supply connected to charge the second conductor strip to a high potential, and a switch for switching the high potential in the second conductor strip to at least one of the first and third conductor strips so as to initiate a propagating reverse polarity wavefront(s) in the corresponding dielectric strip(s).

  19. Measurement of the B meson decaying to psi meson-S meson-neutral kaon branching fraction on BaBar at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivas, Alexander Raymond, Jr.

    The decays of B0 mesons to hadronic final states remains a rich area of physics on BaBar. Not only do the cc¯ -K final states (e.g. B0 → psi(2 S)K0) allow for the measurement of CP Violation, but the branching fractions provide a sensitive test of the theoretical methods used to account for low energy non-perturbative QCD effects. We present the measurement of the branching fraction for the decay B0 → psi(2S)K s. The data set consists of 88.8 +/- 1.0 x 10 6 BB¯ pairs collected on the e +e- → Upsilon(4 S) resonance on BaBar/PEP-II at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). This analysis features a modification of present cuts, with respect to those published so far on BaBar, on the Ks → pi +pi- and psi(2S) → J/psipi+pi- which aim at reducing the background while keeping the signal intact. Various data selection criteria are studied for the lepton modes (e+ e- and mu+mu- ) of the J/psi and psi(2S) to improve signal purity as well as study the stability of the resultant branching fractions.

  20. Measurement of the B0 ---> Psi (2S) Lambda0 Branching Fraction on BaBar at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (Abstract Only)

    SciTech Connect

    Olivas, Alexander Raymond, Jr.; /Colorado U.

    2005-11-16

    The decays of B{sup 0} mesons to hadronic final states remains a rich area of physics on BaBar. Not only do the c{bar c}-K final states (e.g. B{sup 0} {yields} {psi}(2S)K{sup 0}) allow for the measurement of CP Violation, but the branching fractions provide a sensitive test of the theoretical methods used to account for low energy non-perturbative QCD effects. They present the measurement of the branching fraction for the decay B{sup 0} {yields} {psi}(2S)K{sub s}. The data set consists of 88.8 {+-} 1.0 x 10{sup 6} B{bar b} pairs collected on the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {Upsilon}(4S) resonance on BaBar/PEP-II at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). This analysis features a modification of present cuts, with respect to those published so far on BaBar, on the K{sub S} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and {psi}(2S) {yields} J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} which aim at reducing the background while keeping the signal intact. Various data selection criteria are studied for the lepton modes (e{sup +}e{sup -} and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) of the J/{psi} and {psi}(2S) to improve signal purity as well as study the stability of the resultant branching fractions.

  1. Phase Stable Net Acceleration of Electrons From a Two-Stage Optical Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Christopher M.S.; Colby, Eric; England, R.J.; Ischebeck, Rasmus; McGuinness, Christopher; Nelson, Janice; Noble, Robert; Siemann, Robert H.; Spencer, James; Walz, Dieter; Plettner, Tomas; Byer, Robert L.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-11-11

    In this article we demonstrate the net acceleration of relativistic electrons using a direct, in-vacuum interaction with a laser. In the experiment, an electron beam from a conventional accelerator is first energy modulated at optical frequencies in an inverse-free-electron-laser and bunched in a chicane. This is followed by a second stage optical accelerator to obtain net acceleration. The optical phase between accelerator stages is monitored and controlled in order to scan the accelerating phase and observe net acceleration and deceleration. Phase jitter measurements indicate control of the phase to {approx}13{sup o} allowing for stable net acceleration of electrons with lasers.

  2. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  3. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  4. Measuring transfer of 14C-PCB from maternal diet to milk in a goat model using an accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janle, E.; Sojka, J.; Jackson, G. S.; Lachcik, P.; Einstien, J. A.; Santerre, C. R.

    2007-06-01

    Environmental pollutants pose a substantial risk to nursing infants. Many of these toxicants (i.e. PCBs, PBDEs, mercury) are passed from the maternal diet to the nursing infant in breast milk. Determining the toxicokinetics has been difficult to measure due to ethical limitations. Since extremely small amounts of 14C can be measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), a goat model was used to establish a minimum oral dose of 14C-labeled PCB (2,2‧,4,4‧,5,5‧-hexachlorobiphenyl-UL-14C) that could be given to a lactating animal and traced into the milk. An oral dose of 66 nCi/kg body weight (1.84 μg PCB/kg bw) was administered. Plasma and milk samples were collected for 2 months after dosing. The concentration of 14C label reached a peak value of 1.71 ng/ml PCB equivalents in the milk on day 2 and then declined to about 135 pg/ml PCB equivalents in the milk at 3 weeks. A second goat was administered a smaller dose (22 nCi/kg bw; 616 ng PCB/kg bw). A peak concentration of 485 pg PCB equivalents/ml milk occurred at 3 days and declined to 77.6 pg PCB equivalents/ml milk by 3 weeks. Our results indicated that an even lower dosage of labeled-PCB could be used due to the extreme sensitivity of AMS measurement. Extrapolating from current data it is estimated that the dose could be reduced by a factor of 20 (31 ng PCB/kg bw; 1.1 nCi/kg bw) and still be detectable after 2 months. Thus, the potential exists for developing protocols for studying toxicokinetics in humans using radiologically- and toxicologically-benign doses of labeled environmental toxicants.

  5. In vivo assessment of magnesium status in human body using accelerator-based neutron activation measurement of hands: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Aslam; Pejovic-Milic, A.; McNeill, F. E.; Byun, S. H.; Prestwich, W. V.; Chettle, D. R.

    2008-02-15

    Magnesium (Mg) is an element essential for many enzymatic reactions in the human body. Various human and animal studies suggest that changes in Mg status are linked to diseases such as cardiac arrhythmia, coronary heart disease, hypertension, premenstrual syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Thus, knowledge of Mg levels in the human body is needed. A direct measurement of human blood serum, which contains only 0.3% of the total body Mg, is generally used to infer information about the status of Mg in the body. However, in many clinical situations, Mg stored in large levels, for example in bones, muscles, and soft tissues, needs to be monitored either to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment or to study the progression of diseases associated with the deficiency of total body Mg. This work presents a feasibility study of a noninvasive, in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) technique using the {sup 26}Mg(n,{gamma}){sup 27}Mg reaction to measure Mg levels in human hands. The technique employs the McMaster University high beam current Tandetron accelerator hand irradiation facility and an array of eight NaI (T1) detectors arranged in a 4{pi} geometry for delayed counting of the 0.844 and 1.014 MeV gamma rays emitted when {sup 27}Mg decays in the irradiated hand. Mg determination in humans using IVNAA of hands has been demonstrated to be feasible, with effective doses as low as one-quarter of those delivered in chest x rays. The overall experimental uncertainty in the measurements is estimated to be approximately 5% (1{sigma}). The results are found to be in the range of the in vitro measurements reported for other cortical bones collected from different sites of the human skeleton, which confirms that this technique mainly provides a measure of the amount of Mg in hand bones. The average concentration of Mg determined in human hands is 10.96{+-}1.25 ({+-}1 SD) mg Mg/g Ca. The coefficient of variation (11%) observed in this study is comparable with or lower than several

  6. In vivo assessment of magnesium status in human body using accelerator-based neutron activation measurement of hands: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aslam; Pejović-Milić, A; McNeill, F E; Byun, S H; Prestwich, W V; Chettle, D R

    2008-02-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is an element essential for many enzymatic reactions in the human body. Various human and animal studies suggest that changes in Mg status are linked to diseases such as cardiac arrhythmia, coronary heart disease, hypertension, premenstrual syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Thus, knowledge of Mg levels in the human body is needed. A direct measurement of human blood serum, which contains only 0.3% of the total body Mg, is generally used to infer information about the status of Mg in the body. However, in many clinical situations, Mg stored in large levels, for example in bones, muscles, and soft tissues, needs to be monitored either to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment or to study the progression of diseases associated with the deficiency of total body Mg. This work presents a feasibility study of a noninvasive, in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) technique using the 26Mg (n, gamma) 27Mg reaction to measure Mg levels in human hands. The technique employs the McMaster University high beam current Tandetron accelerator hand irradiation facility and an array of eight NaI (T1) detectors arranged in a 4 pi geometry for delayed counting of the 0.844 and 1.014 MeV gamma rays emitted when 27Mg decays in the irradiated hand. Mg determination in humans using IVNAA of hands has been demonstrated to be feasible, with effective doses as low as one-quarter of those delivered in chest x rays. The overall experimental uncertainty in the measurements is estimated to be approximately 5% (1 sigma). The results are found to be in the range of the in vitro measurements reported for other cortical bones collected from different sites of the human skeleton, which confirms that this technique mainly provides a measure of the amount of Mg in hand bones. The average concentration of Mg determined in human hands is 10.96 +/- 1.25 (+/- 1 SD) mg Mg/g Ca. The coefficient of variation (11%) observed in this study is comparable with or lower than several studies using in

  7. In vivo assessment of magnesium status in human body using accelerator-based neutron activation measurement of hands: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aslam; Pejović-Milić, A; McNeill, F E; Byun, S H; Prestwich, W V; Chettle, D R

    2008-02-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is an element essential for many enzymatic reactions in the human body. Various human and animal studies suggest that changes in Mg status are linked to diseases such as cardiac arrhythmia, coronary heart disease, hypertension, premenstrual syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Thus, knowledge of Mg levels in the human body is needed. A direct measurement of human blood serum, which contains only 0.3% of the total body Mg, is generally used to infer information about the status of Mg in the body. However, in many clinical situations, Mg stored in large levels, for example in bones, muscles, and soft tissues, needs to be monitored either to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment or to study the progression of diseases associated with the deficiency of total body Mg. This work presents a feasibility study of a noninvasive, in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) technique using the 26Mg (n, gamma) 27Mg reaction to measure Mg levels in human hands. The technique employs the McMaster University high beam current Tandetron accelerator hand irradiation facility and an array of eight NaI (T1) detectors arranged in a 4 pi geometry for delayed counting of the 0.844 and 1.014 MeV gamma rays emitted when 27Mg decays in the irradiated hand. Mg determination in humans using IVNAA of hands has been demonstrated to be feasible, with effective doses as low as one-quarter of those delivered in chest x rays. The overall experimental uncertainty in the measurements is estimated to be approximately 5% (1 sigma). The results are found to be in the range of the in vitro measurements reported for other cortical bones collected from different sites of the human skeleton, which confirms that this technique mainly provides a measure of the amount of Mg in hand bones. The average concentration of Mg determined in human hands is 10.96 +/- 1.25 (+/- 1 SD) mg Mg/g Ca. The coefficient of variation (11%) observed in this study is comparable with or lower than several studies using in

  8. Is structured observation a valid technique to measure handwashing behavior? Use of acceleration sensors embedded in soap to assess reactivity to structured observation.

    PubMed

    Ram, Pavani K; Halder, Amal K; Granger, Stewart P; Jones, Therese; Hall, Peter; Hitchcock, David; Wright, Richard; Nygren, Benjamin; Islam, M Sirajul; Molyneaux, John W; Luby, Stephen P

    2010-11-01

    Structured observation is often used to evaluate handwashing behavior. We assessed reactivity to structured observation in rural Bangladesh by distributing soap containing acceleration sensors and performing structured observation 4 days later. Sensors recorded the number of times soap was moved. In 45 participating households, the median number of sensor soap movements during the 5-hour time block on pre-observation days was 3.7 (range 0.3-10.6). During the structured observation, the median number of sensor soap movements was 5.0 (range 0-18.0), a 35% increase, P = 0.0004. Compared with the same 5-hour time block on pre-observation days, the number of sensor soap movements increased during structured observation by ≥ 20% in 62% of households, and by ≥ 100% in 22% of households. The increase in sensor soap movements during structured observation, compared with pre-observation days, indicates substantial reactivity to the presence of the observer. These findings call into question the validity of structured observation for measurement of handwashing behavior.

  9. Book Review: Radiation protection and measurement issues related to cargo scanning with accelerator-produced high-energy X rays, NCRP Commentary No. 20

    SciTech Connect

    Robert May

    2008-11-01

    Having spent roughly the first third of his health physics career on the Norfolk, VA waterfront area, the reviewer was excited to see the NCRP Commentary 20, 'Radiation Protection and Measurements Issues Related to Cargo Scanning with Accelerator Technology'. It signals the advent of the Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography System (CAARS). The waterfront is a border that challenges physical security programs and technology. As Commentary 20 provides in the introduction, waterfront cargo terminals and land border crossings together represent over 300 ports of entry in the USA. Every year, the USA receives over 10 million cargo containers from commercial shipping and a roughly equal amount from land border crossings. While rapidly processing containerized cargo, CAARS will be able to detect small quantities of high atomic number radioactive materials and dense shielding materials used for radioactive gamma ray sources and even illicit human cargo - important concerns for homeland security. It will also be able to detect other contraband such as explosives, weapons and drugs. Section 1 of the Commentary presents an executive summary with NCRP's radiation dose management recommendations and related operational recommendations for effective implementation of CAARS technology in the current regulatory environment.

  10. Pulsed electromagnetic gas acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, R. G.; Vonjaskowsky, W. F.; Clark, K. E.

    1974-01-01

    Detailed measurements of the axial velocity profile and electromagnetic structure of a high power, quasi-steady MPD discharge are used to formulate a gasdynamic model of the acceleration process. Conceptually dividing the accelerated plasma into an inner flow and an outer flow, it is found that more than two-thirds of the total power in the plasma is deposited in the inner flow, accelerating it to an exhaust velocity of 12.5 km/sec. The outer flow, which is accelerated to a velocity of only 6.2 km/sec, appears to provide a current conduction path between the inner flow and the anode. Related cathode studies have shown that the critical current for the onset of terminal voltage fluctuations, which was recently shown to be a function of the cathode area, appears to reach an asymptote for cathodes of very large surface area. Detailed floating potential measurements show that the fluctuations are confined to the vicinity of the cathode and hence reflect a cathode emission process rather than a fundamental limit on MPD performance.

  11. Acceleration Measurements During Landings of a 1/5.5-Size Dynamic Model of the Columbia XJL-1 Amphibian in Smooth Water and in Waves: Langley Tank Model 208M, TED No. NACA 2336

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Eugene P.; Havens, Robert F.

    1947-01-01

    A 1/5.5-size powered dynamic model of the Columbia XJL-1 amphibian was landed in Langley tank no. 1 in smooth water and in oncoming waves of heights from 2.1 feet to 6.4 feet (full-size) and lengths from 50 feet to 264 feet (full-size). The motions and the vertical accelerations of the model were continuously recorded. The greatest vertical acceleration measured during the smooth-water landings was 3.1g. During landings in rough water the greatest vertical acceleration measured was 15.4g, for a landing in 6.4-foot by 165-foot waves. The impact accelerations increased with increase in wave height and, in general, decreased with increase in wave length. During the landings in waves the model bounced into the air at stalled attitudes at speeds below flying speed. The model trimmed up to the mechanical trim stop (20 deg) during landings in waves of heights greater than 2.0 feet. Solid water came over the bow and damaged the propeller during one landing in 6.4-foot waves. The vertical acceleration coefficients at first impact from the tank tests of a 1/5.5-size model were in fair agreement with data obtained at the Langley impact basin during tests of a 1/2-size model of the hull.

  12. Dosimetry measurements of x-ray and neutron radiation levels near the shuttle and end beam dump at the advanced test accelerator: Beam Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, T.A. Jr.; Struve, K.W.; Lindgren, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Electron beams as a source of directed energy are under study at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An intense 10-kA, 50-MeV, 50-ns full-width half-maximum, pulsed electron beam is generated by the prototype Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at the Laboratory's Site 300. Whenever the electron beam is stopped in materials, intense radiation is generated. Estimates based on available data in the literature show that for materials such as lead, photon radiation (x ray, gamma, bremsstrahlung) levels can be as large as 10/sup 4/ roentgens per pulse at 1 m in the zero-degree direction (i.e., the electron-beam direction). Neutrons, which are emitted isotropically, are produced at a level of 10/sup 13/ n/m/sup 2/ per pulse. Depending upon the number of pulses and the shielding geometry, the accumulated dose is potentially lethal to personnel and potentially damaging to instrumentation that may be used for diagnostics. To provide shielding for minimizing the risk of exposure to personnel and radiation damage to instrumentation, it is important to determine the x-ray and neutron radiation environment near beamline components such as the beam shuttle dump and beam stop. Photon and neutron dosimetry measurements were performed around the beam shuttle dump on January 9, 1985, and near the carbon beam stop at the end of the beamline before the entrance to the diagnostic tunnel on April 12 and December 23, 1985. These measurements together with simple rule-of-thumb estimates and Monte Carlo electron-photon shower calculations of the absorbed dose are presented in this report. 17 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Accelerated testing of space batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccallum, J.; Thomas, R. E.; Waite, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    An accelerated life test program for space batteries is presented that fully satisfies empirical, statistical, and physical criteria for validity. The program includes thermal and other nonmechanical stress analyses as well as mechanical stress, strain, and rate of strain measurements.

  14. Peripheral dose measurements with diode and thermoluminescence dosimeters for intensity modulated radiotherapy delivered with conventional and un-conventional linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Kinhikar, Rajesh; Gamre, Poonam; Tambe, Chandrashekhar; Kadam, Sudarshan; Biju, George; Suryaprakash; Magai, C S; Dhote, Dipak; Shrivastava, Shyam; Deshpande, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to measure the peripheral dose (PD) with diode and thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with linear accelerator (conventional LINAC), and tomotherapy (novel LINAC). Ten patients each were selected from Trilogy dual-energy and from Hi-Art II tomotherapy. Two diodes were kept at 20 and 25 cm from treatment field edge. TLDs (LiF:MgTi) were also kept at same distance. TLDs were also kept at 5, 10, and 15 cm from field edge. The TLDs were read with REXON reader. The readings at the respective distance were recorded for both diode and TLD. The PD was estimated by taking the ratio of measured dose at the particular distance to the prescription dose. PD was then compared with diode and TLD for LINAC and tomotherapy. Mean PD for LINAC with TLD and diode was 2.52 cGy (SD 0.69), 2.07 cGy (SD 0.88) at 20 cm, respectively, while at 25 cm, it was 1.94 cGy (SD 0.58) and 1.5 cGy (SD 0.75), respectively. Mean PD for tomotherapy with TLD and diode was 1.681 cGy SD 0.53) and 1.58 (SD 0.44) at 20 cm, respectively. The PD was 1.24 cGy (SD 0.42) and 1.088 cGy (SD 0.35) at 25 cm, respectively, for tomotherapy. Overall, PD from tomotherapy was found lower than LINAC by the factor of 1.2-1.5. PD measurement is essential to find out the potential of secondary cancer. PD for both (conventional LINAC) and novel LINACs (tomotherapy) were measured and compared with each other. The comparison of the values for PD presented in this work and those published in the literature is difficult because of the different experimental conditions. The diode and TLD readings were reproducible and both the detector readings were comparable.

  15. Accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hellborg, Ragnar; Skog, Göran

    2008-01-01

    In this overview the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its use are described. AMS is a highly sensitive method of counting atoms. It is used to detect very low concentrations of natural isotopic abundances (typically in the range between 10(-12) and 10(-16)) of both radionuclides and stable nuclides. The main advantages of AMS compared to conventional radiometric methods are the use of smaller samples (mg and even sub-mg size) and shorter measuring times (less than 1 hr). The equipment used for AMS is almost exclusively based on the electrostatic tandem accelerator, although some of the newest systems are based on a slightly different principle. Dedicated accelerators as well as older "nuclear physics machines" can be found in the 80 or so AMS laboratories in existence today. The most widely used isotope studied with AMS is 14C. Besides radiocarbon dating this isotope is used in climate studies, biomedicine applications and many other fields. More than 100,000 14C samples are measured per year. Other isotopes studied include 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 59Ni, 129I, U, and Pu. Although these measurements are important, the number of samples of these other isotopes measured each year is estimated to be less than 10% of the number of 14C samples.

  16. Accelerator system and method of accelerating particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirz, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator system and method that utilize dust as the primary mass flux for generating thrust are provided. The accelerator system can include an accelerator capable of operating in a self-neutralizing mode and having a discharge chamber and at least one ionizer capable of charging dust particles. The system can also include a dust particle feeder that is capable of introducing the dust particles into the accelerator. By applying a pulsed positive and negative charge voltage to the accelerator, the charged dust particles can be accelerated thereby generating thrust and neutralizing the accelerator system.

  17. Measurement of DNA Double-Strand Break Yield in Human Cancer Cells by High-Current, Short-Duration Bunches of Laser-Accelerated Protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogo, Akifumi; Sato, Katsutoshi; Nishikino, Masaharu; Maeda, Takuya; Sakaki, Hironao; Hori, Toshihiko; Ogura, Koichi; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Teshima, Teruki; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Kondo, Kiminori; Bolton, Paul R.; Kawanishi, Shunichi

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the radiobiological effects of high dose rates that are attributed to high current, short bunch beam generation with laser-dreven ion acceleration, we have developed an experimental setup that uses laser-accelerated protons. In-vitro human lung cancer cells: A549 pulmonary adenocarcinoma are irradiated with a laser-accelerated proton bunches with a duration of 2×10-8 s and flux of ˜1015 cm-2 s-1, amounting to single bunch absorbed dose at the 1 Gy level. The double-strand break (DSB) yield in cell DNA is analyzed for the laser-accelerated proton beam at an average LET of 41 keV/µm.

  18. Acceleration Measurements During Landing in Rough Water of a 1/7-Scale Dynamic Model of Grumman XJR2F-1 Amphibian - Langley Tank Model 212, TED No. NACA 2378

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Land, Norman S.; Zeck, Howard

    1947-01-01

    Tests of a 1/7 size model of the Grumman XJR2F-1 amphibian were made in Langley tank no.1 to examine the landing behavior in rough water and to measure the normal and angular accelerations experienced by the model during these landings. All landings were made normal to the direction of wave advance, a condition assumed to produce the greatest accelerations. Wave heights of 4.4 and 8.0 inches (2.5 and 4.7 ft, full size) were used in the tests and the wave lengths were varied between 10 and 50 feet (70 and 350 ft, full size). Maximum normal accelerations of about 6.5g were obtained in 4.4 inch waves and 8.5g were obtained in 8.0 inch waves. A maximum angular acceleration corresponding to 16 radians per second per second, full size, was obtained in the higher waves. The data indicate that the airplane will experience its greatest accelerations when landing in waves of about 20 feet (140 ft, full size) in length.

  19. An investigation of the NOCSAE linear impactor test method based on in vivo measures of head impact acceleration in American football.

    PubMed

    Gwin, Joseph T; Chu, Jeffery J; Diamond, Solomon G; Halstead, P David; Crisco, Joseph J; Greenwald, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    The performance characteristics of football helmets are currently evaluated by simulating head impacts in the laboratory using a linear drop test method. To encourage development of helmets designed to protect against concussion, the National Operating Committee for Standards in Athletic Equipment recently proposed a new headgear testing methodology with the goal of more closely simulating in vivo head impacts. This proposed test methodology involves an impactor striking a helmeted headform, which is attached to a nonrigid neck. The purpose of the present study was to compare headform accelerations recorded according to the current (n=30) and proposed (n=54) laboratory test methodologies to head accelerations recorded in the field during play. In-helmet systems of six single-axis accelerometers were worn by the Dartmouth College men's football team during the 2005 and 2006 seasons (n=20,733 impacts; 40 players). The impulse response characteristics of a subset of laboratory test impacts (n=27) were compared with the impulse response characteristics of a matched sample of in vivo head accelerations (n=24). Second- and third-order underdamped, conventional, continuous-time process models were developed for each impact. These models were used to characterize the linear head/headform accelerations for each impact based on frequency domain parameters. Headform linear accelerations generated according to the proposed test method were less similar to in vivo head accelerations than headform accelerations generated by the current linear drop test method. The nonrigid neck currently utilized was not developed to simulate sport-related direct head impacts and appears to be a source of the discrepancy between frequency characteristics of in vivo and laboratory head/headform accelerations. In vivo impacts occurred 37% more frequently on helmet regions, which are tested in the proposed standard than on helmet regions tested currently. This increase was largely due to the

  20. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Special Session: Oxygen in the Solar System, II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Special Session: Oxygen in the Solar System, II, included the following reports:Evolution of Oxygen Isotopes in the Solar Nebula; Disequilibrium Melting of Refractory Inclusions: A Mechanism for High-Temperature Oxygen; Isotope Exchange in the Solar Nebula; Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of the Al-rich Chondrules in the CR Carbonaceous Chondrites: Evidence for a Genetic Link to Ca-Al-rich Inclusions and for Oxygen Isotope Exchange During Chondrule Melting; Nebular Formation of Fayalitic Olivine: Ineffectiveness of Dust Enrichment; Water in Terrestrial Planets: Always an Oxidant?; Oxygen Barometry of Basaltic Glasses Based on Vanadium Valence Determination Using Synchrotron MicroXANES; A New Oxygen Barometer for Solar System Basaltic Glasses Based on Vanadium Valence; The Relationship Between Clinopyroxene Fe3+ Content and Oxygen Fugacity ; and Olivine-Silicate Melt Partitioning of Iridium.

  1. Pulsed electromagnetic gas acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, R. G.; Vonjaskowsky, W. F.; Clark, K. E.

    1971-01-01

    Experimental data were combined with one-dimensional conservation relations to yield information on the energy deposition ratio in a parallel-plate accelerator, where the downstream flow was confined to a constant area channel. Approximately 70% of the total input power was detected in the exhaust flow, of which only about 20% appeared as directed kinetic energy, thus implying that a downstream expansion to convert chamber enthalpy into kinetic energy must be an important aspect of conventional high power MPD arcs. Spectroscopic experiments on a quasi-steady MPD argon accelerator verified the presence of A(III) and the absence of A(I), and indicated an azimuthal structure in the jet related to the mass injection locations. Measurements of pressure in the arc chamber and impact pressure in the exhaust jet using a piezocrystal backed by a Plexiglas rod were in good agreement with the electromagnetic thrust model.

  2. Energy saver prototype accelerating resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Kerns, Q.; May, M.; Miller, H.W.; Reid, J.; Turkot, F.; Webber, R.; Wildman, D.

    1981-06-01

    A fixed frequency rf accelerating resonator has been built and tested for the Fermilab Energy Saver. The design parameters and prototype resonator test results are given. The resonator features a high permeability nickel alloy resistor which damps unwanted modes and corona rolls designed with the aid of the computer code SUPERFISH. In bench measurements, the prototype resonator has achieved peak accelerating voltages of 500 kV for a 1% duty cycle and cw operation at 360 kV. 4 refs.

  3. Accelerator physics and modeling: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Physics of high brightness beams; radio frequency beam conditioner for fast-wave free-electron generators of coherent radiation; wake-field and space-charge effects on high brightness beams. Calculations and measured results for BNL-ATF; non-linear orbit theory and accelerator design; general problems of modeling for accelerators; development and application of dispersive soft ferrite models for time-domain simulation; and bunch lengthening in the SLC damping rings.

  4. Accelerator physics and modeling: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    1991-12-31

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Physics of high brightness beams; radio frequency beam conditioner for fast-wave free-electron generators of coherent radiation; wake-field and space-charge effects on high brightness beams. Calculations and measured results for BNL-ATF; non-linear orbit theory and accelerator design; general problems of modeling for accelerators; development and application of dispersive soft ferrite models for time-domain simulation; and bunch lengthening in the SLC damping rings.

  5. Mass spectrometry with accelerators.

    PubMed

    Litherland, A E; Zhao, X-L; Kieser, W E

    2011-01-01

    As one in a series of articles on Canadian contributions to mass spectrometry, this review begins with an outline of the history of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), noting roles played by researchers at three Canadian AMS laboratories. After a description of the unique features of AMS, three examples, (14)C, (10)Be, and (129)I are given to illustrate the methods. The capabilities of mass spectrometry have been extended by the addition of atomic isobar selection, molecular isobar attenuation, further ion acceleration, followed by ion detection and ion identification at essentially zero dark current or ion flux. This has been accomplished by exploiting the techniques and accelerators of atomic and nuclear physics. In 1939, the first principles of AMS were established using a cyclotron. In 1977 the selection of isobars in the ion source was established when it was shown that the (14)N(-) ion was very unstable, or extremely difficult to create, making a tandem electrostatic accelerator highly suitable for assisting the mass spectrometric measurement of the rare long-lived radioactive isotope (14)C in the environment. This observation, together with the large attenuation of the molecular isobars (13)CH(-) and (12)CH 2(-) during tandem acceleration and the observed very low background contamination from the ion source, was found to facilitate the mass spectrometry of (14)C to at least a level of (14)C/C ~ 6 × 10(-16), the equivalent of a radiocarbon age of 60,000 years. Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, or AMS, has now made possible the accurate radiocarbon dating of milligram-sized carbon samples by ion counting as well as dating and tracing with many other long-lived radioactive isotopes such as (10)Be, (26)Al, (36)Cl, and (129)I. The difficulty of obtaining large anion currents with low electron affinities and the difficulties of isobar separation, especially for the heavier mass ions, has prompted the use of molecular anions and the search for alternative

  6. Teleportation with Multiple Accelerated Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagheer, A.; Hamdoun, H.; Metwally, N.

    2015-09-01

    As the current revolution in communication is underway, quantum teleportation can increase the level of security in quantum communication applications. In this paper, we present a quantum teleportation procedure that capable to teleport either accelerated or non-accelerated information through different quantum channels. These quantum channels are based on accelerated multi-qubit states, where each qubit of each of these channels represents a partner. Namely, these states are the W state, Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state, and the GHZ-like state. Here, we show that the fidelity of teleporting accelerated information is higher than the fidelity of teleporting non-accelerated information, both through a quantum channel that is based on accelerated state. Also, the comparison among the performance of these three channels shows that the degree of fidelity depends on type of the used channel, type of the measurement, and value of the acceleration. The result of comparison concludes that teleporting information through channel that is based on the GHZ state is more robust than teleporting information through channels that are based on the other two states. For future work, the proposed procedure can be generalized later to achieve communication through a wider quantum network.

  7. Hydrologic and geochemical controls on the transport of radionuclides in natural undisturbed arid environments as determined by accelerator mass spectrometry measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Nimz, G; Caffee, M W; McAninch, J

    2000-04-01

    This project developed techniques for measuring globally distributed radionuclides that occur today in extremely low abundances (''fallout'' from the era of atmospheric nuclear testing), and then applied these techniques to better understand the mechanisms by which radionuclides migrate. The techniques employ accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a relatively new analytical tool that permits this work to be conducted for the first time. The goal in this project was to develop AMS analytical techniques for {sup 129}I (fallout concentration: {approx} 10{sup 6} atoms/g) {sup 99}Tc ({approx} 10{sup 9} atoms/g), {sup 90}Sr ({approx}10{sup 7} atoms/gram soil), and {sup 93}Zr ({approx} 10{sup 9} atoms/g), and improved methods for {sup 36}Cl ({approx} 10{sup 9} atoms/g). As a demonstration of the analytical techniques, and as an investigation of identified problems associated with characterizing moisture and radionuclide movement in unsaturated desert soils, we developed a vadose zone research site at the Nevada Test Site. Our findings can be summarized as follows: (1) The distribution of chloride and {sup 36}Cl at the research site indicates that the widely-used ''chloride accumulation'' method for estimating moisture flux is erroneous; some mechanism for attenuation of chloride exists, violating an assumption of the accumulation method; (2) {sup 129}I is fractionated into several soil compartments that have varying migration abilities; the two most mobile can be tentatively identified as Fe/Mn oxyhydroxides and organic acids based on our sequential leaching techniques; (3) These most mobile constituents are capable of migrating at a rate greater than that of {sup 36}Cl, usually considered the most mobile solute in hydrologic systems; these constituents may be colloidal in character, of neutral surface charge, and therefore conservative in aqueous migration; (4) {sup 99}Tc is readily measurable by AMS, as we demonstrate by the first AMS {sup 99}Tc measurements of

  8. Reconstruction of the energy spectrum of electrons accelerated in the April 15, 2002 solar flare based on IRIS X-ray spectrometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motorina, G. G.; Kudryavtsev, I. V.; Lazutkov, V. P.; Savchenko, M. I.; Skorodumov, D. V.; Charikov, Yu. E.

    2016-04-01

    We reconstruct the energy distribution of electrons accelerated in the April 15, 2002 solar flare on the basis of the data from the IRIS X-ray spectrometer onboard the CORONAS-F satellite. We obtain the solution to the integral equations describing the transformation of the spectrum of X-ray photons during the recording and reconstruction of the spectrum of accelerated electrons in the bremsstrahlung source using the random search method and the Tikhonov regularization method. In this event, we detected a singularity in the electron spectrum associated with the existence of a local minimum in the energy range 40-60 keV, which cannot be detected by a direct method.

  9. Accelerator measurement of the energy spectra of neutrons emitted in the interaction of 3-GeV protons with several elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalesnik, W. J.; Devlin, T. J.; Merker, M.; Shen, B. S. P.

    1972-01-01

    The application of time of flight techniques for determining the shapes of the energy spectra of neutrons between 20 and 400 MeV is discussed. The neutrons are emitted at 20, 34, and 90 degrees in the bombardment of targets by 3 GeV protons. The targets used are carbon, aluminum, cobalt, and platinum with cylindrical cross section. Targets being bombarded are located in the internal circulating beam of a particle accelerator.

  10. Radiation from violently accelerated bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, Ulrich H.

    2001-11-01

    A determination is made of the radiation emitted by a linearly uniformly accelerated uncharged dipole transmitter. It is found that, first of all, the radiation rate is given by the familiar Larmor formula, but it is augmented by an amount which becomes dominant for sufficiently high acceleration. For an accelerated dipole oscillator, the criterion is that the center of mass motion become relativistic within one oscillation period. The augmented formula and the measurements which it summarizes presuppose an expanding inertial observation frame. A static inertial reference frame will not do. Secondly, it is found that the radiation measured in the expanding inertial frame is received with 100% fidelity. There is no blueshift or redshift due to the accelerative motion of the transmitter. Finally, it is found that a pair of coherently radiating oscillators accelerating (into opposite directions) in their respective causally disjoint Rindler-coordinatized sectors produces an interference pattern in the expanding inertial frame. Like the pattern of a Young double slit interferometer, this Rindler interferometer pattern has a fringe spacing which is inversely proportional to the proper separation and the proper frequency of the accelerated sources. The interferometer, as well as the augmented Larmor formula, provide a unifying perspective. It joins adjacent Rindler-coordinatized neighborhoods into a single spacetime arena for scattering and radiation from accelerated bodies.

  11. The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Hendrix, M. K.; Fox, J. C.; Thomas, D. J.; Nicholson, J.

    The hardware and software of NASA's proposed Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) are described. The OARE is to provide aerodynamic acceleration measurements along the Orbiter's principal axis in the free-molecular flow-flight regime at orbital attitude and in the transition regime during reentry. Models considering the effects of electromagnetic effects, solar radiation pressure, orbiter mass attraction, gravity gradient, orbital centripetal acceleration, out-of-orbital-plane effects, orbiter angular velocity, structural noise, mass expulsion signal sources, crew motion, and bias on acceleration are examined. The experiment contains an electrostatically balanced cylindrical proofmass accelerometer sensor with three orthogonal sensing axis outputs. The components and functions of the experimental calibration system and signal processor and control subsystem are analyzed. The development of the OARE software is discussed. The experimental equipment will be enclosed in a cover assembly that will be mounted in the Orbiter close to the center of gravity.

  12. Accelerator structure work for NLC

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.H.; Adolphsen, C.; Bane, K.L.F.; Deruyter, H.; Farkas, Z.D.; Hoag, H.A.; Holtkamp, N.; Lavine, T.; Loew, G.A.; Nelson, E.M.; Palmer, R.B.; Paterson, J.M.; Ruth, R.D.; Thompson, K.A.; Vlieks, A.; Wang, J.W.; Wilson, P.B.; Gluckstern, R.; Ko, K.; Kroll, N. |

    1992-07-01

    The NLC design achieves high luminosity with multiple bunches in each RF pulse. Acceleration of a train of bunches without emittance growth requires control of long range dipole wakefields. SLAC is pursuing a structure design which suppresses the effect of wakefields by varying the physical dimensions of successive cells of the disk-loaded traveling wave structure in a manner which spreads the frequencies of the higher mode while retaining the synchronism between the electrons and the accelerating mode. The wakefields of structures incorporating higher mode detuning have been measured at the Accelerator Test Facility at Argonne. Mechanical design and brazing techniques which avoid getting brazing alloy into the interior of the accelerator are being studied. A test facility for high-power testing of these structures is complete and high power testing has begun.

  13. The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Hendrix, M. K.; Fox, J. C.; Thomas, D. J.; Nicholson, J.

    1986-01-01

    The hardware and software of NASA's proposed Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) are described. The OARE is to provide aerodynamic acceleration measurements along the Orbiter's principal axis in the free-molecular flow-flight regime at orbital attitude and in the transition regime during reentry. Models considering the effects of electromagnetic effects, solar radiation pressure, orbiter mass attraction, gravity gradient, orbital centripetal acceleration, out-of-orbital-plane effects, orbiter angular velocity, structural noise, mass expulsion signal sources, crew motion, and bias on acceleration are examined. The experiment contains an electrostatically balanced cylindrical proofmass accelerometer sensor with three orthogonal sensing axis outputs. The components and functions of the experimental calibration system and signal processor and control subsystem are analyzed. The development of the OARE software is discussed. The experimental equipment will be enclosed in a cover assembly that will be mounted in the Orbiter close to the center of gravity.

  14. Laser driven ion accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2006-04-18

    A system and method of accelerating ions in an accelerator to optimize the energy produced by a light source. Several parameters may be controlled in constructing a target used in the accelerator system to adjust performance of the accelerator system. These parameters include the material, thickness, geometry and surface of the target.

  15. The spinning disc: studying radial acceleration and its damping process with smartphone acceleration sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochberg, K.; Gröber, S.; Kuhn, J.; Müller, A.

    2014-03-01

    Here, we show the possibility of analysing circular motion and acceleration using the acceleration sensors of smartphones. For instance, the known linear dependence of the radial acceleration on the distance to the centre (a constant angular frequency) can be shown using multiple smartphones attached to a revolving disc. As a second example, the decrease of the radial acceleration and the rotation frequency due to friction can be measured and fitted with a quadratic function, in accordance with theory. Finally, because the disc is not set up exactly horizontal, each smartphone measures a component of the gravitational acceleration that adds to the radial acceleration during one half of the period and subtracts from the radial acceleration during the other half. Hence, every graph shows a small modulation, which can be used to determine the rotation frequency, thus converting a ‘nuisance effect’ into a source of useful information, making additional measurements with stopwatches or the like unnecessary.

  16. Shoreline retreat and sediment release in response to accelerating sea level rise: Measuring and modelling cliffline dynamics on the Suffolk Coast, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, S. M.; Spencer, T.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary and historic data for shoreline retreat are used to evaluate and test a range of models that predict shoreline response to accelerating sea level rise. Models are tested against the known record of sea level rise acceleration over the twentieth century on the cliffline position of a series of soft rock cliffs located along the Suffolk Coast, UK. These cliffs have experienced high retreat rates throughout the twentieth century (between 2 and 4.5 m a - 1 ). The shoreline response model most suited to such an assessment is the SCAPE model, with a close fit between actual and modelled shoreline positions. Retreating shorelines also have associated changes in alongshore elevation, an aspect of shoreline retreat that has attracted little attention. Recently acquired IfSar data now permit detailed and accurate assessment of ground elevation from which the elevation of future clifflines can be derived. Combining elevation data with future shoreline retreat, also predicted using the SCAPE model, enables future sediment release from the cliffs to be evaluated. The methodology has the ability to take into account alongshore variability in retreat rates, where previously most studies focus upon a single rate for a given shoreline. This paper thereby identifies behaviour based around "switching on", "no change" and "switching off" in cliff systems. Volumes of sediment released in the twenty first century in response to accelerating sea level rise are likely to be considerable (up to 300 000 m 3 a - 1 ) for the Suffolk study area, and around an order of magnitude above the sediment release estimates for the early twentieth century under lower rates of sea level rise. The implications for shoreline protection offered from additional sediment in the nearshore zone are discussed.

  17. Pulsed electromagnetic acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, R. G.; Vonjaskowsky, W. F.; Clark, K. E.

    1973-01-01

    Direct measurements of the power deposited in the anode of a multimegawatt MPD accelerator using thermocouples attached to a thin shell anode reveal a dramatic decrease in the fractional anode power from 50% at 200 KW input power to less than 10% at 20 MW power. The corresponding local power flux peak at a value of 10,000 W/sq cm at the lip of the anode exhaust orifice, a distribution traced to a corresponding peak in the local current density at the anode. A comparison of voltage-current characteristics and spectral photographs of the MPD discharge using quartz, boron nitride and plexiglas insulators with various mass injection configurations led to the identification of different voltage modes and regions of ablation free operation. The technique of piezoelectric impact pressure measurement in the MPD exhaust flow was refined to account for the effects due to probe yaw angle.

  18. Dynamics of pyroelectric accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaderi, R.; Davani, F. Abbasi

    2015-01-26

    Pyroelectric crystals are used to produce high energy electron beams. We have derived a method to model electric potential generation on LiTaO{sub 3} crystal during heating cycle. In this method, effect of heat transfer on the potential generation is investigated by some experiments. In addition, electron emission from the crystal surface is modeled by measurements and analysis. These spectral data are used to present a dynamic equation of electric potential with respect to thickness of the crystal and variation of its temperature. The dynamic equation's results for different thicknesses are compared with measured data. As a result, to attain more energetic electrons, best thickness of the crystals could be extracted from the equation. This allows for better understanding of pyroelectric crystals and help to study about current and energy of accelerated electrons.

  19. TURBULENT SHEAR ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Yutaka

    2013-04-10

    We consider particle acceleration by large-scale incompressible turbulence with a length scale larger than the particle mean free path. We derive an ensemble-averaged transport equation of energetic charged particles from an extended transport equation that contains the shear acceleration. The ensemble-averaged transport equation describes particle acceleration by incompressible turbulence (turbulent shear acceleration). We find that for Kolmogorov turbulence, the turbulent shear acceleration becomes important on small scales. Moreover, using Monte Carlo simulations, we confirm that the ensemble-averaged transport equation describes the turbulent shear acceleration.

  20. The direction of acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Thomas; Burde, Jan-Philipp; Lück, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration is a physical quantity that is difficult to understand and hence its complexity is often erroneously simplified. Many students think of acceleration as equivalent to velocity, a ˜ v. For others, acceleration is a scalar quantity, which describes the change in speed Δ|v| or Δ|v|/Δt (as opposed to the change in velocity). The main difficulty with the concept of acceleration therefore lies in developing a correct understanding of its direction. The free iOS app AccelVisu supports students in acquiring a correct conception of acceleration by showing acceleration arrows directly at moving objects.

  1. Head acceleration is less than 10 percent of helmet acceleration in football impacts.

    PubMed

    Manoogian, Sarah; McNeely, David; Duma, Stefan; Brolinson, Gunnar; Greenwald, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Sports-related concussions constitute 20 percent of brain injuries each year in the United States. Concussion research has included a variety of instrumentation and techniques to measure head accelerations. Most recently, the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System (Simbex, Lebanon, NH), a wireless system that provides real-time data from impacts, is used to measure in-situ head accelerations in collegiate football. The purpose of this study is to compare helmet shell acceleration to head center of gravity acceleration using two measures of linear head acceleration. A study of 50 helmet to helmet impact tests using a pendulum provided a range of head accelerations from 5 g to 50 g. The primary measure of head acceleration is accelerometers mounted at the center of gravity of the Hybrid III head. A secondary measure is the in-helmet HIT System. The series of 50 pendulum impacts included three impact velocities of 2.0 m/s, 3.5 m/s and 5.0 m/s at four different impact locations. The impact locations were on the side, back, top and just above the facemask on the front. By comparing these two measured head accelerations and the helmet acceleration during a pendulum impact, it is shown that the response of the head and the helmet vary greatly and the in-helmet system matches the head and not helmet acceleration. Specifically, head acceleration is less than 10 percent of helmet acceleration in football impacts; moreover, the HIT System is able to accurately measure the head acceleration.

  2. Control of robot dynamics using acceleration control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.; Prateru, S.; Li, W.; Hinman, Elaine

    1992-01-01

    Acceleration control of robotic devices can provide improvements to many space-based operations using flexible manipulators and to ground-based operations requiring better precision and efficiency than current industrial robots can provide. This paper reports on a preliminary study of acceleration measurement on robotic motion during parabolic flights on the NASA KC-135 and a parallel study of accelerations with and without gravity arising from computer simulated motions using TREETOPS software.

  3. Amplitude-dependent orbital period in alternating gradient accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, S.; Kelliher, D. J.; Edmonds, C. S.; Kirkman, I. W.; Berg, J. S.; Jones, J. K.; Muratori, B. D.; Garland, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    Orbital period in a ring accelerator and time of flight in a linear accelerator depend on the amplitude of betatron oscillations. The variation is negligible in ordinary particle accelerators with relatively small beam emittance. In an accelerator for large emittance beams like muons and unstable nuclei, however, this effect cannot be ignored. We measured orbital period in a linear non-scaling fixed-field alternating-gradient accelerator, which is a candidate for muon acceleration, and compared it with the theoretical prediction. The good agreement between them gives important ground for the design of particle accelerators for a new generation of particle and nuclear physics experiments.

  4. Electric rail gun projectile acceleration to high velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, D. P.; Mccormick, T. J.; Barber, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    Electric rail accelerators are being investigated for application in electric propulsion systems. Several electric propulsion applications require that the rail accelerator be capable of launching projectiles at velocities above 10 km/s. An experimental program was conducted to develop rail accelerator technology for high velocity projectile launch. Several 6 mm bore, 3 m long rail accelerators were fabricated. Projectiles with a mass of 0.2 g were accelerated by plasmas, carrying currents up to 150 kA. Experimental design and results are described. Results indicate that the accelerator performed as predicted for a fraction of the total projectile acceleration. The disparity between predicted and measured results are discussed.

  5. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

    2014-11-05

    Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

  6. Accelerator Technology Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-04-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1991, the Accelerator Technology (AT) division continued fulfilling its mission to pursue accelerator science and technology and to develop new accelerator concepts for application to research, defense, energy, industry, and other areas of national interest. This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; (Phi) Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  7. Linear accelerator: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mutzberg, J.

    1972-01-01

    Design is proposed for inexpensive accelerometer which would work by applying pressure to fluid during acceleration. Pressure is used to move shuttle, and shuttle movement is sensed and calibrated to give acceleration readings.

  8. Improved plasma accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  9. MEQALAC rf accelerating structure

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, J.; Brodowski, J.

    1981-01-01

    A prototype MEQALAC capable of replacing the Cockcroft Walton pre-injector at BNL is being fabricated. Ten milliamperes of H/sup -/ beam supplied from a source sitting at a potential of -40 kilovolt is to be accelerated to 750 keV. This energy gain is provided by a 200 Megahertz accelerating system rather than the normal dc acceleration. Substantial size and cost reduction would be realized by such a system over conventional pre-accelerator systems.

  10. Acceleration gradient of a plasma wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.

    2008-02-25

    The phase velocity of the wakefield waves is identical to the electron beam velocity. A theoretical analysis indicates that the acceleration gradient of the wakefield accelerator normalized by the wave breaking amplitude is K{sub 0}({xi})/K{sub 1}({xi}), where K{sub 0}({xi}) and K{sub 1}({xi}) are the modified Bessel functions of the second kind of order zero and one, respectively and {xi} is the beam parameter representing the beam intensity. It is also shown that the beam density must be considerably higher than the diffuse plasma density for the large radial velocity of plasma electrons that are required for a high acceleration gradient.

  11. Technology of magnetically driven accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Birx, D.L.; Hawkins, S.A.; Poor, S.E.; Reginato, L.L.; Rogers, D. Jr.; Smith, M.W.

    1985-03-26

    The marriage of Induction Linac technology with Nonlinear Magnetic Modulators has produced some unique capabilities. It appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, at gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, and with power efficiencies approaching 50%. A 2 MeV, 5 kA electron accelerator has been constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to demonstrate these concepts and to provide a test facility for high brightness sources. The pulse drive for the accelerator is based on state-of-the-art magnetic pulse compressors with very high peak power capability, repetition rates exceeding a kilohertz and excellent reliability. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Technology of magnetically driven accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Brix, D.L.; Hawkins, S.A.; Poor, S.E.; Reginato, L.L.; Smith, M.W.

    1985-10-01

    The marriage of Induction Linac technology with Nonlinear Magnetic Modulators has produced some unique capabilities. It appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, at gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, and with power efficiencies approaching 50%. A 2 MeV, 5 kA electron accelerator has been constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to demonstrate these concepts and to provide a test facility for high brightness sources. The pulse drive for the accelerator is based on state-of-the-art magnetic pulse compressors with very high peak power capability, repetition rates exceeding a kilohertz and excellent reliability.

  13. Acceleration: It's Elementary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Acceleration is one tool for providing high-ability students the opportunity to learn something new every day. Some people talk about acceleration as taking a student out of step. In actuality, what one is doing is putting a student in step with the right curriculum. Whole-grade acceleration, also called grade-skipping, usually happens between…

  14. Far field acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Fernow, R.C.

    1995-07-01

    Far fields are propagating electromagnetic waves far from their source, boundary surfaces, and free charges. The general principles governing the acceleration of charged particles by far fields are reviewed. A survey of proposed field configurations is given. The two most important schemes, Inverse Cerenkov acceleration and Inverse free electron laser acceleration, are discussed in detail.

  15. Angular Acceleration without Torque?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

  16. Characterisation of electron beams from laser-driven particle accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Brunetti, E.; Manahan, G. G.; Shanks, R. P.; Islam, M. R.; Ersfeld, B.; Anania, M. P.; Cipiccia, S.; Issac, R. C.; Vieux, G.; Welsh, G. H.; Wiggins, S. M.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2012-12-21

    The development, understanding and application of laser-driven particle accelerators require accurate measurements of the beam properties, in particular emittance, energy spread and bunch length. Here we report measurements and simulations showing that laser wakefield accelerators can produce beams of quality comparable to conventional linear accelerators.

  17. [Effects of water depth on the growth of Vallisneria natans and photosynthetic system II photochemical characteristics of the leaves].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Zhang, Qi-Chao; Sun, Shu-Yun; Chen, Kai-Ning

    2014-06-01

    The effects of water depth on the growth of Vallisneria natans and photosynthetic system II photochemical characteristics of the leaves were investigated at three depths of 0.6, 1.3 and 2.0 m. The rapid fluorescence induction kinetics curves (OJIP) of the leaves were measured with Plant Efficiency Analyzer and analyzed with JIP-test. The results indicated that the light intensities at water depths of 0.6, 1.3 and 2.0 m were obviously different and the growth of V. natans was restricted under water depth of 2.0 m. Biomass, number of ramets, number of leaves, total root length, root surface area and other morphological indices decreased significantly with the increasing water depth, and the maximum leaf length, average leaf length, maximum leaf width changed insignificantly with the water depth. With the increasing water depth, absorption flux per reaction center (ABS/RC), trapped energy flux per RC (TR0/RC), electron transport flux per RC (ET0/RC), reduction of end acceptors at photosynthetic system I (PS I ) electron acceptor side per RC (RE0/ RC) decreased significantly. The dissipated energy flux per RC (DI0/RC) also decreased significantly, which led to no obvious difference in quantum yield for the reduction of end acceptors of PS I per photon absorbed (phiR0) and the efficiency for the trapped exciton to move an electron into the electron transport chain from QA- to the PS I end electron acceptors (deltaR0). Because the amount of active PS II RCs per CS increased significantly, photosynthesis per area of V. natans grown at 2.0 m was significantly greater than that of V. natans grown at 0.6 m. The performance index PIs, Ples, Plabs,.otal photochemistry efficiency of leaves of V. natans grown at 2.0 m was significantly in- creased, suggesting that light stress may promote a more efficient conversion of light energy to active chemical energy. V. natans leaves accommodate the low light intensity environment through activating inactive reaction centers but not

  18. Preliminary tests of the electrostatic plasma accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.; Acker, T.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the results of a program to verify an electrostatic plasma acceleration concept and to identify those parameters most important in optimizing an Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) thruster based upon this thrust mechanism. Preliminary performance measurements of thrust, specific impulse and efficiency were obtained using a unique plasma exhaust momentum probe. Reliable EPA thruster operation was achieved using one power supply.

  19. Inverse Cerenkov laser acceleration experiment at ATF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. J.; Pogorelsky, I.; Fernow, R.; Kusche, K. P.; Liu, Y.; Kimura, W. D.; Kim, G. H.; Romea, R. D.; Steinhauer, L. C.

    Inverse Cerenkov laser acceleration was demonstrated using an axicon optical system at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The ATF S-band linac and a high power 10.6 MICROMETERSCO2 laser were used for the experiment. Experimental arrangement and the laser and the electron beams synchronization are discussed. The electrons were accelerated more than 0.7 MeV for a 34 MW CO2 laser power. More than 3.7 MeV acceleration was measured with 0.7 GW CO2 laser power, which is more than 20 times of the previous ICA experiment. The experimental results are compared with computer program TRANSPORT simulations.

  20. Accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J.S.; Turteltaub, K.W.; Finkel, R.; Nelson, D.E.

    1995-06-01

    Accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) can be used for efficient detection of long-lived isotopes at part-per-quadrillion sensitivities with good precision. In this article we present an overview of AMS and its recent use in archaeology, geochemistry and biomolecular tracing. All AMS systems use cesium sputter ion sources to produce negative ions from a small button of a solid sample containing the element of interest, such as graphite, metal halide, or metal oxide, often mixed with a metal powder as binder and thermal conductor. Experience shows that both natural and biomedical samples are compatible in a single AMS system, but few other AMS sites make routine {sup 14}C measurements for both dating and tracing. AMS is, in one sense, just `a very sensitive decay counter`, but if AMS sensitivity is creatively coupled to analytical chemistry of certain isotopes, whole new areas of geosciences, archaeology, and life sciences can be explored. 29 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Visions for the future of particle accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    The ambitions of accelerator based science, technology and applications far exceed the present accelerator possibilities. Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. The paper presents a digest of the research results and visions for the future in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, shown during the final fourth annual meeting of the EuCARD - European Coordination of Accelerator Research and Development. The conference concerns building of the research infrastructure, including advanced photonic and electronic systems for servicing large high energy physics experiments. There are debated a few basic groups of such systems like: measurement - control networks of large geometrical extent, multichannel systems for large amounts of metrological data acquisition, precision photonic networks of reference time, frequency and phase distribution. The main subject is however the vision for the future of particle accelerators and next generation light sources.

  2. A variable acceleration calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Thomas H.

    2011-12-01

    A variable acceleration calibration system that applies loads using gravitational and centripetal acceleration serves as an alternative, efficient and cost effective method for calibrating internal wind tunnel force balances. Two proof-of-concept variable acceleration calibration systems are designed, fabricated and tested. The NASA UT-36 force balance served as the test balance for the calibration experiments. The variable acceleration calibration systems are shown to be capable of performing three component calibration experiments with an approximate applied load error on the order of 1% of the full scale calibration loads. Sources of error are indentified using experimental design methods and a propagation of uncertainty analysis. Three types of uncertainty are indentified for the systems and are attributed to prediction error, calibration error and pure error. Angular velocity uncertainty is shown to be the largest indentified source of prediction error. The calibration uncertainties using a production variable acceleration based system are shown to be potentially equivalent to current methods. The production quality system can be realized using lighter materials and a more precise instrumentation. Further research is needed to account for balance deflection, forcing effects due to vibration, and large tare loads. A gyroscope measurement technique is shown to be capable of resolving the balance deflection angle calculation. Long term research objectives include a demonstration of a six degree of freedom calibration, and a large capacity balance calibration.

  3. Compact Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2004-01-01

    A plasma accelerator has been conceived for both material-processing and spacecraft-propulsion applications. This accelerator generates and accelerates ions within a very small volume. Because of its compactness, this accelerator could be nearly ideal for primary or station-keeping propulsion for spacecraft having masses between 1 and 20 kg. Because this accelerator is designed to generate beams of ions having energies between 50 and 200 eV, it could also be used for surface modification or activation of thin films.

  4. Dynamic mechanical and molecular weight measurements on polymer bonded explosives from thermally accelerated aging tests. II. A poly(ester-urethane) binder

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.M.; Caley, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    The molecular weight distribution and dynamic mechanical properties of an experimental polymer-bonded explosive, X-0282, maintained at 23, 60, and 74/sup 0/C for 3.75 y were examined, X-0282 is 95.5% 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclo-octane explosive and 4.5% Estane 5703, a segmented poly(ester-urethane). Two mechanical relaxations at about -24 and 42/sup 0/C were found in the X-0282 aged at room temperature for 3.75 years. A third relaxation at about 85/sup 0/C was found in X-0282 aged at 60 and 74/sup 0/C. The relaxation at -24/sup 0/C is associated with the soft segment glass transition of the binder. The relaxation at 42/sup 0/C is associated with the soft segment melting and may also contain a component due to the hard segment glass transition. The relaxation at 85/sup 0/C is probably associated with improved soft segment crystallite perfection. The molecular weight of the poly(ester-urethane) binder decreased significantly with increasing accelerated aging temperature. A simple random chain scission model of the urethane degradation kinetics in the presence of explosive yields an activation energy of 11.6 kcal/mole. This model predicts a use life of about 17.5 years under the worst military operating conditions (continuous operation at 74/sup 0/C).

  5. Monte Carlo-derived TLD cross-calibration factors for treatment verification and measurement of skin dose in accelerated partial breast irradiation.

    PubMed

    Garnica-Garza, H M

    2009-03-21

    Monte Carlo simulation was employed to calculate the response of TLD-100 chips under irradiation conditions such as those found during accelerated partial breast irradiation with the MammoSite radiation therapy system. The absorbed dose versus radius in the last 0.5 cm of the treated volume was also calculated, employing a resolution of 20 microm, and a function that fits the observed data was determined. Several clinically relevant irradiation conditions were simulated for different combinations of balloon size, balloon-to-surface distance and contents of the contrast solution used to fill the balloon. The thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) cross-calibration factors were derived assuming that the calibration of the dosemeters was carried out using a Cobalt 60 beam, and in such a way that they provide a set of parameters that reproduce the function that describes the behavior of the absorbed dose versus radius curve. Such factors may also prove to be useful for those standardized laboratories that provide postal dosimetry services.

  6. High brightness electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, Richard L.; Carlsten, Bruce E.; Young, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of acclerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electons as the electrons enter the first cavity.

  7. Fiber Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, Andrew P.; /Reed Coll. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    One of the options for future particle accelerators are photonic band gap (PBG) fiber accelerators. PBG fibers are specially designed optical fibers that use lasers to excite an electric field that is used to accelerate electrons. To improve PBG accelerators, the basic parameters of the fiber were tested to maximize defect size and acceleration. Using the program CUDOS, several accelerating modes were found that maximized these parameters for several wavelengths. The design of multiple defects, similar to having closely bound fibers, was studied to find possible coupling or the change of modes. The amount of coupling was found to be dependent on distance separated. For certain distances accelerating coupled modes were found and examined. In addition, several non-periodic fiber structures were examined using CUDOS. The non-periodic fibers produced several interesting results and promised more modes given time to study them in more detail.

  8. Next linear collider test accelerator injector design and status

    SciTech Connect

    Yeremian, A.D.; Miller, R.H.; Wang, J.W.

    1994-08-01

    The Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) being built at SLAC will integrate the new technologies of X-band accelerator structures and RF systems for the Next Linear Collider, demonstrate multibunch beam-loading energy compensation and suppression of higher-order deflecting modes, measure transverse components of the accelerating field, and measure the dark current generated by RF field emission in the accelerator Injector design and simulation results for the NLCTA injector are discussed.

  9. Statistical Considerations in Designing Tests of Mine Detection Systems: II - Measures Related to the False Alarm Rate

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, K.M.

    1998-08-01

    The rate at which a mine detection system falsely identifies man-made or natural clutter objects as mines is referred to as the system's false alarm rate (FAR). Generally expressed as a rate per unit area or time, the FAR is one of the primary metrics used to gauge system performance. In this report, an overview is given of statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of data relating to FAR. Techniques are presented for determining a suitable size for the clutter collection area, for summarizing the performance of a single sensor, and for comparing different sensors. For readers requiring more thorough coverage of the topics discussed, references to the statistical literature are provided. A companion report addresses statistical issues related to the estimation of mine detection probabilities.

  10. Acceleration in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.

    1993-12-31

    The origin of cosmic rays and applicable laboratory experiments are discussed. Some of the problems of shock acceleration for the production of cosmic rays are discussed in the context of astrophysical conditions. These are: The presumed unique explanation of the power law spectrum is shown instead to be a universal property of all lossy accelerators; the extraordinary isotropy of cosmic rays and the limited diffusion distances implied by supernova induced shock acceleration requires a more frequent and space-filling source than supernovae; the near perfect adiabaticity of strong hydromagnetic turbulence necessary for reflecting the accelerated particles each doubling in energy roughly 10{sup 5} to {sup 6} scatterings with negligible energy loss seems most unlikely; the evidence for acceleration due to quasi-parallel heliosphere shocks is weak. There is small evidence for the expected strong hydromagnetic turbulence, and instead, only a small number of particles accelerate after only a few shock traversals; the acceleration of electrons in the same collisionless shock that accelerates ions is difficult to reconcile with the theoretical picture of strong hydromagnetic turbulence that reflects the ions. The hydromagnetic turbulence will appear adiabatic to the electrons at their much higher Larmor frequency and so the electrons should not be scattered incoherently as they must be for acceleration. Therefore the electrons must be accelerated by a different mechanism. This is unsatisfactory, because wherever electrons are accelerated these sites, observed in radio emission, may accelerate ions more favorably. The acceleration is coherent provided the reconnection is coherent, in which case the total flux, as for example of collimated radio sources, predicts single charge accelerated energies much greater than observed.

  11. Observation of acceleration and deceleration in gigaelectron-volt-per-metre gradient dielectric wakefield accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, B. D.; Andonian, G.; Barber, S. K.; Fitzmorris, K. L.; Hakimi, S.; Harrison, J.; Hoang, P. D.; Hogan, M. J.; Naranjo, B.; Williams, O. B.; Yakimenko, V.; Rosenzweig, J. B.

    2016-09-01

    There is urgent need to develop new acceleration techniques capable of exceeding gigaelectron-volt-per-metre (GeV m-1) gradients in order to enable future generations of both light sources and high-energy physics experiments. To address this need, short wavelength accelerators based on wakefields, where an intense relativistic electron beam radiates the demanded fields directly into the accelerator structure or medium, are currently under intense investigation. One such wakefield based accelerator, the dielectric wakefield accelerator, uses a dielectric lined-waveguide to support a wakefield used for acceleration. Here we show gradients of 1.347+/-0.020 GeV m-1 using a dielectric wakefield accelerator of 15 cm length, with sub-millimetre transverse aperture, by measuring changes of the kinetic state of relativistic electron beams. We follow this measurement by demonstrating accelerating gradients of 320+/-17 MeV m-1. Both measurements improve on previous measurements by and order of magnitude and show promise for dielectric wakefield accelerators as sources of high-energy electrons.

  12. Observation of acceleration and deceleration in gigaelectron-volt-per-metre gradient dielectric wakefield accelerators.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, B D; Andonian, G; Barber, S K; Fitzmorris, K L; Hakimi, S; Harrison, J; Hoang, P D; Hogan, M J; Naranjo, B; Williams, O B; Yakimenko, V; Rosenzweig, J B

    2016-01-01

    There is urgent need to develop new acceleration techniques capable of exceeding gigaelectron-volt-per-metre (GeV m(-1)) gradients in order to enable future generations of both light sources and high-energy physics experiments. To address this need, short wavelength accelerators based on wakefields, where an intense relativistic electron beam radiates the demanded fields directly into the accelerator structure or medium, are currently under intense investigation. One such wakefield based accelerator, the dielectric wakefield accelerator, uses a dielectric lined-waveguide to support a wakefield used for acceleration. Here we show gradients of 1.347±0.020 GeV m(-1) using a dielectric wakefield accelerator of 15 cm length, with sub-millimetre transverse aperture, by measuring changes of the kinetic state of relativistic electron beams. We follow this measurement by demonstrating accelerating gradients of 320±17 MeV m(-1). Both measurements improve on previous measurements by and order of magnitude and show promise for dielectric wakefield accelerators as sources of high-energy electrons. PMID:27624348

  13. Observation of acceleration and deceleration in gigaelectron-volt-per-metre gradient dielectric wakefield accelerators

    PubMed Central

    O'Shea, B. D.; Andonian, G.; Barber, S. K.; Fitzmorris, K. L.; Hakimi, S.; Harrison, J.; Hoang, P. D.; Hogan, M. J.; Naranjo, B.; Williams, O. B.; Yakimenko, V.; Rosenzweig, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    There is urgent need to develop new acceleration techniques capable of exceeding gigaelectron-volt-per-metre (GeV m−1) gradients in order to enable future generations of both light sources and high-energy physics experiments. To address this need, short wavelength accelerators based on wakefields, where an intense relativistic electron beam radiates the demanded fields directly into the accelerator structure or medium, are currently under intense investigation. One such wakefield based accelerator, the dielectric wakefield accelerator, uses a dielectric lined-waveguide to support a wakefield used for acceleration. Here we show gradients of 1.347±0.020 GeV m−1 using a dielectric wakefield accelerator of 15 cm length, with sub-millimetre transverse aperture, by measuring changes of the kinetic state of relativistic electron beams. We follow this measurement by demonstrating accelerating gradients of 320±17 MeV m−1. Both measurements improve on previous measurements by and order of magnitude and show promise for dielectric wakefield accelerators as sources of high-energy electrons. PMID:27624348

  14. Small fields output factors measurements and correction factors determination for several detectors for a CyberKnife{sup Registered-Sign} and linear accelerators equipped with microMLC and circular cones

    SciTech Connect

    Bassinet, C.; Huet, C.; Derreumaux, S.; Baumann, M.; Trompier, F.; Roch, P.; Clairand, I.; Brunet, G.; Gaudaire-Josset, S.; Chea, M.; Boisserie, G.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: The use of small photon fields is now an established practice in stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy. However, due to a lack of lateral electron equilibrium and high dose gradients, it is difficult to accurately measure the dosimetric quantities required for the commissioning of such systems. Moreover, there is still no metrological dosimetric reference for this kind of beam today. In this context, the first objective of this work was to determine and to compare small fields output factors (OF) measured with different types of active detectors and passive dosimeters for three types of facilities: a CyberKnife{sup Registered-Sign} system, a dedicated medical linear accelerator (Novalis) equipped with m3 microMLC and circular cones, and an adaptive medical linear accelerator (Clinac 2100) equipped with an additional m3 microMLC. The second one was to determine the k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factors introduced in a recently proposed small field dosimetry formalism for different active detectors.Methods: Small field sizes were defined either by microMLC down to 6 Multiplication-Sign 6 mm{sup 2} or by circular cones down to 4 mm in diameter. OF measurements were performed with several commercially available active detectors dedicated to measurements in small fields (high resolution diodes: IBA SFD, Sun Nuclear EDGE, PTW 60016, PTW 60017; ionizing chambers: PTW 31014 PinPoint chamber, PTW 31018 microLion liquid chamber, and PTW 60003 natural diamond). Two types of passive dosimeters were used: LiF microcubes and EBT2 radiochromic films.Results: Significant differences between the results obtained by several dosimetric systems were observed, particularly for the smallest field size for which the difference in the measured OF reaches more than 20%. For passive dosimeters, an excellent agreement was observed (better than 2%) between EBT2 and LiF microcubes

  15. The Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Sampayan, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    The Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), a class of induction accelerators, employs a novel insulating beam tube to impress a longitudinal electric field on a bunch of charged particles. The surface flashover characteristics of this tube may permit the attainment of accelerating gradients on the order of 100 MV/m for accelerating pulses on the order of a nanosecond in duration. A virtual traveling wave of excitation along the tube is produced at any desired speed by controlling the timing of pulse generating modules that supply a tangential electric field to the tube wall. Because of the ability to control the speed of this virtual wave, the accelerator is capable of handling any charge to mass ratio particle; hence it can be used for electrons, protons and any ion. The accelerator architectures, key technologies and development challenges will be described.

  16. Switched matrix accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Whittum, David H.; Tantawi, Sami G.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a new concept for a microwave circuit functioning as a charged-particle accelerator at mm wavelengths, permitting an accelerating gradient higher than conventional passive circuits can withstand consistent with cyclic fatigue. The device provides acceleration for multiple bunches in parallel channels, and permits a short exposure time for the conducting surface of the accelerating cavities. Our analysis includes scalings based on a smooth transmission line model and a complementary treatment with a coupled-cavity simulation. We also provide an electromagnetic design for the accelerating structure, arriving at rough dimensions for a seven-cell accelerator matched to standard waveguide and suitable for bench tests at low power in air at 91.392 GHz. A critical element in the concept is a fast mm-wave switch suitable for operation at high power, and we present the considerations for implementation in an H-plane tee. We discuss the use of diamond as the photoconductor switch medium.

  17. Switched Matrix Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Whittum, David H

    2000-10-04

    We describe a new concept for a microwave circuit functioning as a charged-particle accelerator at mm-wavelengths, permitting an accelerating gradient higher than conventional passive circuits can withstand consistent with cyclic fatigue. The device provides acceleration for multiple bunches in parallel channels, and permits a short exposure time for the conducting surface of the accelerating cavities. Our analysis includes scalings based on a smooth transmission line model and a complementary treatment with a coupled-cavity simulation. We provide also an electromagnetic design for the accelerating structure, arriving at rough dimensions for a seven-cell accelerator matched to standard waveguide and suitable for bench tests at low power in air at 91.392. GHz. A critical element in the concept is a fast mm-wave switch suitable for operation at high-power, and we present the considerations for implementation in an H-plane tee. We discuss the use of diamond as the photoconductor switch medium.

  18. Accelerator Test of an Imaging Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Mark J.; Adams, James H., Jr.; Binns, R. W.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Howell, L. W.; Gregory, J. C.; Hink, P. L.; Israel, M. H.; Kippen, R. M.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (ICA) utilizes a thin sampling calorimeter concept for direct measurements of high-energy cosmic rays. The ICA design uses arrays of small scintillating fibers to measure the energy and trajectory of the produced cascades. A test instrument has been developed to study the performance of this concept at accelerator energies and for comparison with simulations. Two test exposures have been completed using a CERN test beam. Some results from the accelerator tests are presented.

  19. Kinematics of transition during human accelerated sprinting

    PubMed Central

    Nagahara, Ryu; Matsubayashi, Takeo; Matsuo, Akifumi; Zushi, Koji

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigated kinematics of human accelerated sprinting through 50 m and examined whether there is transition and changes in acceleration strategies during the entire acceleration phase. Twelve male sprinters performed a 60-m sprint, during which step-to-step kinematics were captured using 60 infrared cameras. To detect the transition during the acceleration phase, the mean height of the whole-body centre of gravity (CG) during the support phase was adopted as a measure. Detection methods found two transitions during the entire acceleration phase of maximal sprinting, and the acceleration phase could thus be divided into initial, middle, and final sections. Discriminable kinematic changes were found when the sprinters crossed the detected first transition—the foot contacting the ground in front of the CG, the knee-joint starting to flex during the support phase, terminating an increase in step frequency—and second transition—the termination of changes in body postures and the start of a slight decrease in the intensity of hip-joint movements, thus validating the employed methods. In each acceleration section, different contributions of lower-extremity segments to increase in the CG forward velocity—thigh and shank for the initial section, thigh, shank, and foot for the middle section, shank and foot for the final section—were verified, establishing different acceleration strategies during the entire acceleration phase. In conclusion, there are presumably two transitions during human maximal accelerated sprinting that divide the entire acceleration phase into three sections, and different acceleration strategies represented by the contributions of the segments for running speed are employed. PMID:24996923

  20. Wake field accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.B.

    1986-02-01

    In a wake field accelerator a high current driving bunch injected into a structure or plasma produces intense induced fields, which are in turn used to accelerate a trailing charge or bunch. The basic concepts of wake field acceleration are described. Wake potentials for closed cavities and periodic structures are derived, as are wake potentials on a collinear path with a charge distribution. Cylindrically symmetric structures excited by a beam in the form of a ring are considered. (LEW)

  1. ACCELERATION RESPONSIVE SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Chabrek, A.F.; Maxwell, R.L.

    1963-07-01

    An acceleration-responsive device with dual channel capabilities whereby a first circuit is actuated upon attainment of a predetermined maximum acceleration level and when the acceleration drops to a predetermined minimum acceleriltion level another circuit is actuated is described. A fluid-damped sensing mass slidably mounted in a relatively frictionless manner on a shaft through the intermediation of a ball bushing and biased by an adjustable compression spring provides inertially operated means for actuating the circuits. (AEC)

  2. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Fraser, John S.; Sheffield, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radio frequency powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  3. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Fraser, J.S.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1985-05-20

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radiofrequency-powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  4. Influence of the ambient acceleration field upon acute acceleration tolerance in chickens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. H.; Spangler, W. L.; Rhode, E. A.; Burton, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper measured the acceleration tolerance of domestic fowl (Rhode Island Red cocks), acutely exposed to a 6 Gz field, as the time over which a normal heart rate can be maintained. This period of circulatory adjustment ends abruptly with pronounced bradycardia. For chickens which previously have been physiologically adapted to 2.5 -G field, the acute acceleration tolerance is greatly increased. The influence of the ambient acceleration field on the adjustment of the circulatory system appears to be a general phenomenon.

  5. Measurement of the half-life of /sup 60/Fe using the Argonne FN tandem-superconducting Linac system as an accelerator mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kutschera, W.; Billquist, P.J.; Frekers, D.

    1983-01-01

    An experiment to improve the accuracy in the half-life value of /sup 60/Fe by measuring both the amount of /sup 60/Fe nuclei and the decay-rate of a spallation produced sample using the relation dN/dt = -lambda N is briefly discussed. (WHK)

  6. Recent measurements of the average lifetime of hadrons containing B-quarks from PEP experiments at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center)

    SciTech Connect

    Camporesi, T.

    1987-05-01

    Recent precise results from several experiments have confirmed the early evidence that the lifetime of hadrons containing B-quarks is rather long, implying that the third generation of quarks is more decoupled from the first two than the second is from the first. The average of the measurements performed by the experiments at PEP is 1.08 +- 0.13 ps.

  7. Acceleration of polarized protons in circular accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.

    1980-09-12

    The theory of depolarization in circular accelerators is presented. The spin equation is first expressed in terms of the particle orbit and then converted to the equivalent spinor equation. The spinor equation is then solved for three different situations: (1) a beam on a flat top near a resonance, (2) uniform acceleration through an isolated resonance, and (3) a model of a fast resonance jump. Finally, the depolarization coefficient, epsilon, is calculated in terms of properties of the particle orbit and the results are applied to a calculation of depolarization in the AGS.

  8. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Robert B.

    1986-01-01

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams into the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  9. Accelerator-based BNCT.

    PubMed

    Kreiner, A J; Baldo, M; Bergueiro, J R; Cartelli, D; Castell, W; Thatar Vento, V; Gomez Asoia, J; Mercuri, D; Padulo, J; Suarez Sandin, J C; Erhardt, J; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Igarzabal, M; Minsky, D M; Herrera, M S; Capoulat, M E; Gonzalez, S J; del Grosso, M F; Gagetti, L; Suarez Anzorena, M; Gun, M; Carranza, O

    2014-06-01

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the (9)Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases.

  10. Accelerator-based BNCT.

    PubMed

    Kreiner, A J; Baldo, M; Bergueiro, J R; Cartelli, D; Castell, W; Thatar Vento, V; Gomez Asoia, J; Mercuri, D; Padulo, J; Suarez Sandin, J C; Erhardt, J; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Igarzabal, M; Minsky, D M; Herrera, M S; Capoulat, M E; Gonzalez, S J; del Grosso, M F; Gagetti, L; Suarez Anzorena, M; Gun, M; Carranza, O

    2014-06-01

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the (9)Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases. PMID:24365468

  11. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Robert B.

    1986-09-02

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams into the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  12. Actinides, accelerators and erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tims, S. G.; Fifield, L. K.

    2012-10-01

    Fallout isotopes can be used as artificial tracers of soil erosion and sediment accumulation. The most commonly used isotope to date has been 137Cs. Concentrations of 137Cs are, however, significantly lower in the Southern Hemisphere, and furthermore have now declined to 35% of original values due to radioactive decay. As a consequence the future utility of 137Cs is limited in Australia, with many erosion applications becoming untenable within the next 20 years, and there is a need to replace it with another tracer. Plutonium could fill this role, and has the advantages that there were six times as many atoms of Pu as of 137Cs in fallout, and any loss to decay has been negligible due to the long half-lives of the plutonium isotopes. Uranium-236 is another long-lived fallout isotope with significant potential for exploitation as a tracer of soil and sediment movement. Uranium is expected to be more mobile in soils than plutonium (or caesium), and hence the 236U/Pu ratio will vary with soil depth, and so could provide an independent measure of the amount of soil loss. In this paper we discuss accelerator based ultra-sensitive measurements of plutonium and 236U isotopes and their advantages over 137Cs as tracers of soil erosion and sediment movement.

  13. Calorimetric measurements of the effect of nickel and stabrite coatings and resistive cores on AC loss in accelerator cables under fixed pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Sumption, M.D.; Collings, E.W.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1997-06-01

    Calorimetric measurements of AC loss on long three- and four-layer stacks of Rutherford cable have been made with the applied field both normal to (face-on, FO, orientation) and parallel to the plane of the cable. Cables studied had bare-Cu, Ni-plated, and stabrite-coated strands; the latter were provided with metallic or insulating interlayers (cores) of, respectively, unalloyed Ti, stainless steel, and kapton ribbon. The cable packs were clamped in a fixture to a pressure of 75 MPa and heat treated for several hours at temperatures of 185 to 250{degrees}C. After cooling, the clamped cables were transferred to the calorimeter and measured without releasing the pressure. From the field-ramp-rate dependence of coupling loss the interlayer and intralayer interstrand contact resistances, R{sub {perpendicular}} and R{sub {parallel}} were deduced. The results were interpreted against a background of earlier {open_quotes}cure-release-repressurize{close_quotes} calorimetric measurements of cable loss as well as direct measurements of contact resistance. Depending on the curing temperature the bare-Cu cable exhibited the highest (T{sub cure} = 250{degrees}C) and the lowest (T{sub cure} = 185{degrees}C) FO losses. Nickel plating resulted in a cable that was much less sensitive to curing temperature. All the core-type cables (T{sub cure} = 185 and 200{degrees}C) exhibited FO loss that was mid-way between those of bare Cu (T{sub cure} = 185{degrees}C) and Ni-plated (T{sub cure} = 200{degrees}C) cables.

  14. Final Report: Measurements of Core Conditions, Implosion Symmetry, and Anomaloes Acceleration Mechanisms on Omega through Charged Particle Spectroscopy, November 1, 1997 - December 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Petrasso, R.; Li, C.K.

    1999-10-19

    This work concerns the first spectroscopic measurements of energetic charged particles on Omega. Individual line profiles include D-3He protons (14.7 MeV) and alphas (3.6 MeV), D-T alphas (3.5 MeV), D-D protons (3.0 MeV), and D-D tutons (1.0 MeV)

  15. Designing Accelerated Tests Of Electromigration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G.

    1991-01-01

    Method for design of accelerated tests of electromigration (as in microscopic conductors in integrated circuits) based partly on simplified mathematical model of electromigration and partly on error analysis. Objective to determine quickly operating life of tested components under normal operating conditions by extrapolation from lifetime measurements at operating stresses greater than normal. Involves compromise between reducing testing time by increasing stresses and reducing uncertainty in extrapolated lifetime by decreasing stresses.

  16. Angular velocities, angular accelerations, and coriolis accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.

    1975-01-01

    Weightlessness, rotating environment, and mathematical analysis of Coriolis acceleration is described for man's biological effective force environments. Effects on the vestibular system are summarized, including the end organs, functional neurology, and input-output relations. Ground-based studies in preparation for space missions are examined, including functional tests, provocative tests, adaptive capacity tests, simulation studies, and antimotion sickness.

  17. Experiment specific processing of residual acceleration data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Alexander, J. I. D.

    1992-01-01

    To date, most Spacelab residual acceleration data collection projects have resulted in data bases that are overwhelming to the investigator of low-gravity experiments. This paper introduces a simple passive accelerometer system to measure low-frequency accelerations. Model responses for experiments using actual acceleration data are produced and correlations are made between experiment response and the accelerometer time history in order to test the idea that recorded acceleration data and experimental responses can be usefully correlated. Spacelab 3 accelerometer data are used as input to a variety of experiment models, and sensitivity limits are obtained for particular experiment classes. The modeling results are being used to create experiment-specific residual acceleration data processing schemes for interested investigators.

  18. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    SciTech Connect

    Lach, Joseph; /Fermilab

    2010-07-01

    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?

  19. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    SciTech Connect

    Lach, Joseph

    2010-07-29

    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?.

  20. Accelerators (4/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.