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Sample records for accelerator grid aperture

  1. Development of design technique for vacuum insulation in large size multi-aperture multi-grid accelerator for nuclear fusion.

    PubMed

    Kojima, A; Hanada, M; Tobari, H; Nishikiori, R; Hiratsuka, J; Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Yoshida, M; Ichikawa, M; Watanabe, K; Yamano, Y; Grisham, L R

    2016-02-01

    Design techniques for the vacuum insulation have been developed in order to realize a reliable voltage holding capability of multi-aperture multi-grid (MAMuG) accelerators for fusion application. In this method, the nested multi-stage configuration of the MAMuG accelerator can be uniquely designed to satisfy the target voltage within given boundary conditions. The evaluation of the voltage holding capabilities of each acceleration stages was based on the previous experimental results about the area effect and the multi-aperture effect. Since the multi-grid effect was found to be the extension of the area effect by the total facing area this time, the total voltage holding capability of the multi-stage can be estimated from that per single stage by assuming the stage with the highest electric field, the total facing area, and the total apertures. By applying these consideration, the analysis on the 3-stage MAMuG accelerator for JT-60SA agreed well with the past gap-scan experiments with an accuracy of less than 10% variation, which demonstrated the high reliability to design MAMuG accelerators and also multi-stage high voltage bushings. PMID:26932032

  2. Development of design technique for vacuum insulation in large size multi-aperture multi-grid accelerator for nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Tobari, H.; Nishikiori, R.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Yoshida, M.; Ichikawa, M.; Watanabe, K.; Yamano, Y.; Grisham, L. R.

    2016-02-01

    Design techniques for the vacuum insulation have been developed in order to realize a reliable voltage holding capability of multi-aperture multi-grid (MAMuG) accelerators for fusion application. In this method, the nested multi-stage configuration of the MAMuG accelerator can be uniquely designed to satisfy the target voltage within given boundary conditions. The evaluation of the voltage holding capabilities of each acceleration stages was based on the previous experimental results about the area effect and the multi-aperture effect. Since the multi-grid effect was found to be the extension of the area effect by the total facing area this time, the total voltage holding capability of the multi-stage can be estimated from that per single stage by assuming the stage with the highest electric field, the total facing area, and the total apertures. By applying these consideration, the analysis on the 3-stage MAMuG accelerator for JT-60SA agreed well with the past gap-scan experiments with an accuracy of less than 10% variation, which demonstrated the high reliability to design MAMuG accelerators and also multi-stage high voltage bushings.

  3. Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rumpf, Arthur N.

    2010-11-23

    An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

  4. Studies of dished accelerator grids for 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Eighteen geometrically different sets of dished accelerator grids were tested on five 30-cm thrusters. The geometric variation of the grids included the grid-to-grid spacing, the screen and accelerator hole diameters and thicknesses, the screen and accelerator open area fractions, ratio of dish depth to dish diameter, compensation, and aperture shape. In general, the data taken over a range of beam currents for each grid set included the minimum total accelerating voltage required to extract a given beam current and the minimum accelerator grid voltage required to prevent electron backstreaming.

  5. Studies of dished accelerator grids for 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Geometrically different sets of dished accelerator grids were tested on five 30-cm thrusters. The geometric variation of the grids included the grid-to-grid spacing, the screen and accelerator hole diameters and thicknesses, the screen and accelerator open area fractions, ratio of dish depth to the dish diameter, compensation, and aperture shape. In general, the data taken over a range of beam currents for each grid set included the minimum total accelerating voltage required to extract a given beam current and the minimum accelerator grid voltage required to prevent electron backstreaming.

  6. Single grid accelerator for an ion thrustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margosian, P. M.; Nakanishi, S. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A single grid accelerator system for an ion thrustor is discussed. A layer of dielectric material is interposed between this metal grid and the chamber containing an ionized propellant for protecting the grid against sputtering erosion.

  7. Characteristics of a 30-cm thruster operated with small hole accelerator grid ion optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vahrenkamp, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    Small hole accelerator grid ion optical systems have been tested as a possible means of improving 30-cm ion thruster performance. The effects of small hole grids on the critical aspects of thruster operation including discharge chamber performance, doubly-charged ion concentration, effluent beam characteristics, and plasma properties have been evaluated. In general, small hole accelerator grids are beneficial in improving thruster performance while maintaining low double ion ratios. However, extremely small accelerator aperture diameters tend to degrade beam divergence characteristics. A quantitative discussion of these advantages and disadvantages of small hole accelerator grids, as well as resulting variations in thruster operation characteristics, is presented.

  8. Measurement of heat load density profile on acceleration grid in MeV-class negative ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiratsuka, Junichi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Umeda, Naotaka; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Miyamoto, Kenji; Yoshida, Masafumi; Nishikiori, Ryo; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tobari, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    To understand the physics of the negative ion extraction/acceleration, the heat load density profile on the acceleration grid has been firstly measured in the ITER prototype accelerator where the negative ions are accelerated to 1 MeV with five acceleration stages. In order to clarify the profile, the peripheries around the apertures on the acceleration grid were separated into thermally insulated 34 blocks with thermocouples. The spatial resolution is as low as 3 mm and small enough to measure the tail of the beam profile with a beam diameter of ˜16 mm. It was found that there were two peaks of heat load density around the aperture. These two peaks were also clarified to be caused by the intercepted negative ions and secondary electrons from detailed investigation by changing the beam optics and gas density profile. This is the first experimental result, which is useful to understand the trajectories of these particles.

  9. Measurement of heat load density profile on acceleration grid in MeV-class negative ion accelerator.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Junichi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Umeda, Naotaka; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Miyamoto, Kenji; Yoshida, Masafumi; Nishikiori, Ryo; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tobari, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    To understand the physics of the negative ion extraction/acceleration, the heat load density profile on the acceleration grid has been firstly measured in the ITER prototype accelerator where the negative ions are accelerated to 1 MeV with five acceleration stages. In order to clarify the profile, the peripheries around the apertures on the acceleration grid were separated into thermally insulated 34 blocks with thermocouples. The spatial resolution is as low as 3 mm and small enough to measure the tail of the beam profile with a beam diameter of ∼16 mm. It was found that there were two peaks of heat load density around the aperture. These two peaks were also clarified to be caused by the intercepted negative ions and secondary electrons from detailed investigation by changing the beam optics and gas density profile. This is the first experimental result, which is useful to understand the trajectories of these particles. PMID:26932019

  10. Performance of 30-cm ion thrusters with dished accelerator grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen sets of dished accelerator grids were treated on five different 30 cm diameter bombardment thrusters to evaluate the effects of grid geometry variations on thruster discharge chamber performance. The dished grid parameters varied were: grid-to-grid spacing, screen and accelerator grid hole diameter, screen and accelerator open area fraction, compensation for beam divergence losses, and accelerator grid thickness. The effects on discharge chamber performance of main magnetic field changes, magnetic baffle current, cathode pole piece length and cathode position were also investigated.

  11. Performance of 30-cm ion thrusters with dished accelerator grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen sets of dished accelerator grids were tested on five different 30-cm diameter bombardment thrustors to evaluate the effects of grid geometry variations on thrustor discharge chamber performance. The dished grid parameters varied were: grid-to-grid spacing, screen and accelerator grid hole-diameter, screen and accelerator open area fraction, compensation for beam divergence losses, and accelerator grid thickness. Also investigated were the effects on discharge chamber performance of main magnetic field changes, magnetic baffle current cathode pole piece length and cathode position.

  12. Three-grid accelerator system for an ion propulsion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus is presented for an ion engine comprising a three-grid accelerator system with the decelerator grid biased negative of the beam plasma. This arrangement substantially reduces the charge-exchange ion current reaching the accelerator grid at high tank pressures, which minimizes erosion of the accelerator grid due to charge exchange ion sputtering, known to be the major accelerator grid wear mechanism. An improved method for life testing ion engines is also provided using the disclosed apparatus. In addition, the invention can also be applied in materials processing.

  13. 3-D SAR image formation from sparse aperture data using 3-D target grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Rajan; Li, Junfei; Ling, Hao

    2005-05-01

    The performance of ATR systems can potentially be improved by using three-dimensional (3-D) SAR images instead of the traditional two-dimensional SAR images or one-dimensional range profiles. 3-D SAR image formation of targets from radar backscattered data collected on wide angle, sparse apertures has been identified by AFRL as fundamental to building an object detection and recognition capability. A set of data has been released as a challenge problem. This paper describes a technique based on the concept of 3-D target grids aimed at the formation of 3-D SAR images of targets from sparse aperture data. The 3-D target grids capture the 3-D spatial and angular scattering properties of the target and serve as matched filters for SAR formation. The results of 3-D SAR formation using the backhoe public release data are presented.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Ion Engine Accelerator Grid Erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.

    1995-01-01

    Structural failure of the accelerator grid in two-grid ion optics due to charge exchange ion erosion is considered one of the dominant failure modes for ion engines. A detailed examination of three accelerator grids used in long duration tests of inert gas ion thrusters was undertaken to characterize the radial mass loss distribution, the local distribution of mass loss in the erosion pattern and how it varies as the pattern evolves. The results show significant broadening of the radial profile compared to what is expected in space with significant variations from grid to grid. The local distribution of mass loss and how it varies with increasing total mass loss in the erosion pattern was also found to differ considerably among the three grids. The results indicate that the details of the erosion geometry cannot be ignored when generalizing test results or modeling grid failure to calculate useful engine service life.

  15. ION ACCELERATION SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.; Martin, J.A.

    1960-02-23

    Well focused, intense ion beams are obtained by providing a multi- apertured source grid in front of an ion source chamber and an accelerating multi- apertured grid closely spaced from and in alignment with the source grid. The longest dimensions of the elongated apertures in the grids are normal to the direction of the magnetic field used with the device. Large ion currents may be withdrawn from the source, since they do not pass through any small focal region between the grids.

  16. Impingement-Current-Erosion Characteristics of Accelerator Grids on Two-Grid Ion Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Timothy

    1996-01-01

    Accelerator grid sputter erosion resulting from charge-exchange-ion impingement is considered to be a primary cause of failure for electrostatic ion thrusters. An experimental method was developed and implemented to measure erosion characteristics of ion-thruster accel-grids for two-grid systems as a function of beam current, accel-grid potential, and facility background pressure. Intricate accelerator grid erosion patterns, that are typically produced in a short time (a few hours), are shown. Accelerator grid volumetric and depth-erosion rates are calculated from these erosion patterns and reported for each of the parameters investigated. A simple theoretical volumetric erosion model yields results that are compared to experimental findings. Results from the model and experiments agree to within 10%, thereby verifying the testing technique. In general, the local distribution of erosion is concentrated in pits between three adjacent holes and trenches that join pits. The shapes of the pits and trenches are shown to be dependent upon operating conditions. Increases in beam current and the accel-grid voltage magnitude lead to deeper pits and trenches. Competing effects cause complex changes in depth-erosion rates as background pressure is increased. Shape factors that describe pits and trenches (i.e. ratio of the average erosion width to the maximum possible width) are also affected in relatively complex ways by changes in beam current, ac tel-grid voltage magnitude, and background pressure. In all cases, however, gross volumetric erosion rates agree with theoretical predictions.

  17. Improving the Total Impulse Capability of the NSTAR Ion Thruster With Thick-Accelerator-Grid Ion Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    2001-01-01

    The results of performance tests with thick-accelerator-grid (TAG) ion optics are presented. TAG ion optics utilize a 50 percent thicker accelerator grid to double ion optics' service life. NSTAR ion optics were also tested to provide a baseline performance for comparison. Impingement-limited total voltages for the TAG ion optics were only 0 to 15 V higher than those of the NSTAR ion optics. Electron backstreaming limits for the TAG ion optics were 3 to 9 V higher than those for the NSTAR optics due to the increased accelerator grid thickness for the TAG ion optics. Screen grid ion transparencies for the TAG ion optics were only about 2 percent lower than those for the NSTAR optics, reflecting the lower physical screen grid open area fraction of the TAG ion optics. Accelerator currents for the TAG ion optics were 19 to 43 percent greater than those for the NSTAR ion optics due, in part, to a sudden increase in accelerator current during TAG ion optics' performance tests for unknown reasons and to the lower-than-nominal accelerator aperture diameters. Beam divergence half-angles that enclosed 95 percent of the total beam current and beam divergence thrust correction factors for the TAG ion optics were within 2 degrees and 1 percent, respectively, of those for the NSTAR ion optics.

  18. Physics design of a 100 keV acceleration grid system for the diagnostic neutral beam for international tokamak experimental reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. J.; De Esch, H. P. L.

    2010-01-15

    This paper describes the physics design of a 100 keV, 60 A H{sup -} accelerator for the diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) for international tokamak experimental reactor (ITER). The accelerator is a three grid system comprising of 1280 apertures, grouped in 16 groups with 80 apertures per beam group. Several computer codes have been used to optimize the design which follows the same philosophy as the ITER Design Description Document (DDD) 5.3 and the 1 MeV heating and current drive beam line [R. Hemsworth, H. Decamps, J. Graceffa, B. Schunke, M. Tanaka, M. Dremel, A. Tanga, H. P. L. De Esch, F. Geli, J. Milnes, T. Inoue, D. Marcuzzi, P. Sonato, and P. Zaccaria, Nucl. Fusion 49, 045006 (2009)]. The aperture shapes, intergrid distances, and the extractor voltage have been optimized to minimize the beamlet divergence. To suppress the acceleration of coextracted electrons, permanent magnets have been incorporated in the extraction grid, downstream of the cooling water channels. The electron power loads on the extractor and the grounded grids have been calculated assuming 1 coextracted electron per ion. The beamlet divergence is calculated to be 4 mrad. At present the design for the filter field of the RF based ion sources for ITER is not fixed, therefore a few configurations of the same have been considered. Their effect on the transmission of the electrons and beams through the accelerator has been studied. The OPERA-3D code has been used to estimate the aperture offset steering constant of the grounded grid and the extraction grid, the space charge interaction between the beamlets and the kerb design required to compensate for this interaction. All beamlets in the DNB must be focused to a single point in the duct, 20.665 m from the grounded grid, and the required geometrical aimings and aperture offsets have been calculated.

  19. Physics design of a 100 keV acceleration grid system for the diagnostic neutral beam for international tokamak experimental reactor.

    PubMed

    Singh, M J; De Esch, H P L

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the physics design of a 100 keV, 60 A H(-) accelerator for the diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) for international tokamak experimental reactor (ITER). The accelerator is a three grid system comprising of 1280 apertures, grouped in 16 groups with 80 apertures per beam group. Several computer codes have been used to optimize the design which follows the same philosophy as the ITER Design Description Document (DDD) 5.3 and the 1 MeV heating and current drive beam line [R. Hemsworth, H. Decamps, J. Graceffa, B. Schunke, M. Tanaka, M. Dremel, A. Tanga, H. P. L. De Esch, F. Geli, J. Milnes, T. Inoue, D. Marcuzzi, P. Sonato, and P. Zaccaria, Nucl. Fusion 49, 045006 (2009)]. The aperture shapes, intergrid distances, and the extractor voltage have been optimized to minimize the beamlet divergence. To suppress the acceleration of coextracted electrons, permanent magnets have been incorporated in the extraction grid, downstream of the cooling water channels. The electron power loads on the extractor and the grounded grids have been calculated assuming 1 coextracted electron per ion. The beamlet divergence is calculated to be 4 mrad. At present the design for the filter field of the RF based ion sources for ITER is not fixed, therefore a few configurations of the same have been considered. Their effect on the transmission of the electrons and beams through the accelerator has been studied. The OPERA-3D code has been used to estimate the aperture offset steering constant of the grounded grid and the extraction grid, the space charge interaction between the beamlets and the kerb design required to compensate for this interaction. All beamlets in the DNB must be focused to a single point in the duct, 20.665 m from the grounded grid, and the required geometrical aimings and aperture offsets have been calculated. PMID:20113091

  20. High performance auxiliary-propulsion ion thruster with ion-machined accelerator grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.; Banks, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    An improvement in thruster performance was achieved by reducing the diameter of the accelerator grid holes. The smaller accelerator grid holes resulted in a reduction in neutral mercury atoms escaping the discharge chamber, which in turn enhanced the discharge propellant utilization from approximately 68 percent to 92 percent. The accelerator grids were fabricated by ion machining with an 8-centimeter-diameter thruster, and the screen grid holes individually focused ion beamlets onto the blank accelerator grid. The resulting accelerator grid holes are less than 1.12 millimeters in diameter, while previously used accelerator grids had hole diameters of 1.69 millimeters. The thruster could be operated with the small-hole accelerator grid at neutralizer potential.

  1. Test-to-Failure of a Two-Grid, 30-cm-dia. Ion Accelerator System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J. R.; Polk, J. E.; Pless, L. C.

    1993-01-01

    To determine the failure mechanism and erosion characteristics of an ion accelerator system due to erosion by charge-exchange ions a test was performed in which a 30-cm-diameter, 2-grid ion accelerator system was tested to failure. The erosion charcteristics observed in this test, however, imply significantly shorter accelerator grid life times than typically stated in the literature. Finally, the test suggests that structural failure is probably not the most likely first failure mechanism for the accelerator grid.

  2. Electron Backstreaming Mitigation via a Magnetic Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John F.; Roman, Robert F.; Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Electron backstreaming due to accelerator grid hole enlargement has been identified as a failure mechanism that will limit ion thruster service lifetime. Over extended periods of time as accelerator grid apertures enlarge due to erosion, ion thrusters are required to operate at increasingly higher accelerator grid voltages in order to prevent electron backstreaming. These higher voltages give rise to higher grid erosion rates, which in turn accelerates aperture enlargement. Presented here is an approach to mitigate the backflow of electrons into the engine by using a transverse magnetic field.

  3. Sensitivity of 30-cm mercury bombardment ion thruster characteristics to accelerator grid design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1978-01-01

    The design of ion optics for bombardment thrusters strongly influences overall performance and lifetime. The operation of a 30-cm thruster with accelerator grid open area fractions ranging from 43 to 24 percent, was evaluated and compared with previously published experimental and theoretical results. Ion optics properties measured included the beam current extraction capability, the minimum accelerator grid voltage to prevent backstreaming, ion beamlet diameter as a function of radial position on the grid and accelerator grid hole diameter, and the high energy, high angle ion beam edge location. Discharge chamber properties evaluated were propellant utilization efficiency, minimum discharge power per beam amp, and minimum discharge voltage.

  4. Sensitivity of 30-cm mercury bombardment ion thruster characteristics to accelerator grid design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1978-01-01

    The design of ion optics for bombardment thrusters strongly influences overall performance and lifetime. The operation of a 30 cm thruster with accelerator grid open area fractions ranging from 43 to 24 percent, was evaluated and compared with experimental and theoretical results. Ion optics properties measured included the beam current extraction capability, the minimum accelerator grid voltage to prevent backstreaming, ion beamlet diameter as a function of radial position on the grid and accelerator grid hole diameter, and the high energy, high angle ion beam edge location. Discharge chamber properties evaluated were propellant utilization efficiency, minimum discharge power per beam amp, and minimum discharge voltage.

  5. A procedure for combining rotating-coil measurements of large-aperture accelerator magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Oliver; Fiscarelli, Lucio; Russenschuck, Stephan

    2016-05-01

    The rotating search coil is a precise and widely used tool for measuring the magnetic field harmonics of accelerator magnets. This paper deals with combining several such multipole measurements, in order to cover magnet apertures largely exceeding the diameter of the available search coil. The method relies on the scaling laws for multipole coefficients and on the method of analytic continuation along zero-homotopic paths. By acquiring several measurements of the integrated magnetic flux density at different transverse positions within the bore of the accelerator magnet, the uncertainty on the field harmonics can be reduced at the expense of tight tolerances on the positioning. These positioning tolerances can be kept under control by mounting the rotating coil and its motor-drive unit on precision alignment stages. Therefore, the proposed technique is able to yield even more precise results for the higher-order field components than a dedicated rotating search coil of larger diameter. Moreover, the versatility of the measurement bench is enhanced by avoiding the construction of rotating search coils of different measurement radii.

  6. The PyZgoubi framework and the simulation of dynamic aperture in fixed-field alternating-gradient accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tygier, S.; Appleby, R. B.; Garland, J. M.; Hock, K.; Owen, H.; Kelliher, D. J.; Sheehy, S. L.

    2015-03-01

    We present PyZgoubi, a framework that has been developed based on the tracking engine Zgoubi to model, optimise and visualise the dynamics in particle accelerators, especially fixed-field alternating-gradient (FFAG) accelerators. We show that PyZgoubi abstracts Zgoubi by wrapping it in an easy-to-use Python framework in order to allow simple construction, parameterisation, visualisation and optimisation of FFAG accelerator lattices. Its object oriented design gives it the flexibility and extensibility required for current novel FFAG design. We apply PyZgoubi to two example FFAGs; this includes determining the dynamic aperture of the PAMELA medical FFAG in the presence of magnet misalignments, and illustrating how PyZgoubi may be used to optimise FFAGs. We also discuss a robust definition of dynamic aperture in an FFAG and show its implementation in PyZgoubi.

  7. Ion extraction capabilities of two-grid accelerator systems. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rovang, D. C.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental investigation into the ion extraction capabilities of two-grid accelerator systems common to electrostatic ion thrusters is described. This work resulted in a large body of experimental data which facilitates the selection of the accelerator system geometries and operating parameters necessary to maximize the extracted ion current. Results suggest that the impingement-limited perveance is not dramatically affected by reductions in screen hole diameter to 0.5 mm. Impingement-limited performance is shown to depend most strongly on grid separation distance, accelerator hole diameter ratio, the discharge-to-total accelerating voltage ratio, and the net-to-total accelerating voltage ratio. Results obtained at small grid separation ratios suggest a new grid operating condition where high beam current per hole levels are achieved at a specified net accelerating voltage. It is shown that this operating condition is realized at an optimum ratio of net-to-total accelerating voltage ratio which is typically quite high. The apparatus developed for this study is also shown to be well suited measuring the electron backstreaming and electrical breakdown characteristics of two-grid accelerator systems.

  8. Design, fabrication, and operation of dished accelerator grids on a 30-cm ion thruster.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.; Banks, B. A.; Byers, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    Several closely-spaced dished accelerator grid systems have been fabricated and tested on a 30-cm diameter mercury bombardment thruster and they appear to be a solution to the stringent requirements imposed by the near-term, high-thrust, low specific impulse electric propulsion missions. The grids were simultaneously hydroformed and then simultaneously stress relieved. The ion extraction capability and discharge chamber performance were studied as the total accelerating voltage, the ratio of net-to-total voltage, grid spacing, and dish direction were varied.

  9. Design, fabrication, and operation of dished accelerator grids on a 30-cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.; Banks, B. A.; Byers, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    Several closely-space dished accelerator grid systems were fabricated and tested on a 30-cm diameter mercury bombardment thruster and they appear to be a solution to the stringent requirements imposed by the near-term, high-thrust, low specific impulse electric propulsion missions. The grids were simultaneously hydroformed and then simultaneously stress relieved. The ion extraction capability and discharge chamber performance were studied as the total accelerating voltage, the ratio of net-to-total voltage, grid spacing, and dish direction were varied.

  10. Energy dissipation on ion-accelerator grids during high-voltage breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.M.; Ponte, N.S.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of stored energy in the system capacitance across the accelerator grids during high voltage vacuum breakdown are examined. Measurements were made of the current flow and the energy deposition on the grids during breakdown. It is shown that only a portion (less than or equal to 40 J) of the total stored energy (congruent to 100 J) is actually dissipated on the grids. Most of the energy is released during the formation phase of the vacuum arc and is deposited primarily on the most positive grid. Certain abnormal situations led to energy depositions of about 200 J on the grid, but the ion accelerator endured them without exhibiting any deterioration in performance.

  11. Multiple-grid convergence acceleration of viscous and inviscid flow computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    A multiple-grid algorithm for use in efficiently obtaining steady solution to the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The convergence of a simple, explicit fine-grid solution procedure is accelerated on a sequence of successively coarser grids by a coarse-grid information propagation method which rapidly eliminates transients from the computational domain. This use of multiple-gridding to increase the convergence rate results in substantially reduced work requirements for the numerical solution of a wide range of flow problems. Computational results are presented for subsonic and transonic inviscid flows and for laminar and turbulent, attached and separated, subsonic viscous flows. Work reduction factors as large as eight, in comparison to the basic fine-grid algorithm, were obtained. Possibilities for further performance improvement are discussed.

  12. Sustainable Energy in Remote Indonesian Grids. Accelerating Project Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, Brian; Burman, Kari; Davidson, Carolyn; Elchinger, Michael; Hardison, R.; Karsiwulan, D.; Castermans, B.

    2015-06-30

    Sustainable Energy for Remote Indonesian Grids (SERIG) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded initiative to support Indonesia’s efforts to develop clean energy and increase access to electricity in remote locations throughout the country. With DOE support, the SERIG implementation team consists of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Winrock International’s Jakarta, Indonesia office. Through technical assistance that includes techno-economic feasibility evaluation for selected projects, government-to-government coordination, infrastructure assessment, stakeholder outreach, and policy analysis, SERIG seeks to provide opportunities for individual project development and a collective framework for national replication office.

  13. Charge-exchange erosion studies of accelerator grids in ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Xiaohang; Ruyten, Wilhelmus M.; Keefer, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    A particle simulation model is developed to study the charge-exchange grid erosion in ion thrusters for both ground-based and space-based operations. Because the neutral gas downstream from the accelerator grid is different for space and ground operation conditions, the charge-exchange erosion processes are also different. Based on an assumption of now electric potential hill downstream from the ion thruster, the calculations show that the accelerator grid erosion rate for space-based operating conditions should be significantly less than experimentally observed erosion rates from the ground-based tests conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). To resolve this erosion issue completely, we believe that it is necessary to accurately measure the entire electric potential field downstream from the thruster.

  14. Accelerator test of the coded aperture mask technique for gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, T. L.; Frye, G. M., Jr.; Owens, A.; Carter, J. N.; Ramsden, D.

    1982-01-01

    A prototype gamma-ray telescope employing the coded aperture mask technique has been constructed and its response to a point source of 20 MeV gamma-rays has been measured. The point spread function is approximately a Gaussian with a standard deviation of 12 arc minutes. This resolution is consistent with the cell size of the mask used and the spatial resolution of the detector. In the context of the present experiment, the error radius of the source position (90 percent confidence level) is 6.1 arc minutes.

  15. Studies of the chromatic properties and dynamic aperture of the BNL colliding-beam accelerator. [PATRICIA particle tracking code

    SciTech Connect

    Dell, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    The PATRICIA particle tracking program has been used to study chromatic effects in the Brookhaven CBA (Colliding Beam Accelerator). The short term behavior of particles in the CBA has been followed for particle histories of 300 turns. Contributions from magnet multipoles characteristic of superconducting magnets and closed orbit errors have been included in determining the dynamic aperture of the CBA for on and off momentum particles. The width of the third integer stopband produced by the temperature dependence of magnetization induced sextupoles in the CBA cable dipoles is evaluated for helium distribution systems having periodicity of one and six. The stopband width at a tune of 68/3 is naturally zero for the system having a periodicity of six and is approx. 10/sup -4/ for the system having a periodicity of one. Results from theory are compared with results obtained with PATRICIA; the results agree within a factor of slightly more than two.

  16. Broad beam gas ion source with hollow cathode discharge and four-grid accelerator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Deli; Pu, Shihao; Huang, Qi; Tong, Honghui; Cui, Xirong; Chu, Paul K.

    2007-04-01

    A broad beam gas ion source based on low-pressure hollow cathode glow discharge is described. An axial magnetic filed produced by AlNiCo permanent magnets enhances the glow discharge in the ion source as a result of the magnetizing electrons between the hollow cathode and rod anode. The gas plasma is produced by magnetron hollow cathode glow discharge in the hollow cathode and a collimated broad ion beam is extracted by a four-grid accelerator system. A weak magnetic field of several millitesla is enough to ignite the magnetron glow discharge at pressure lower than 0.1 Pa, thereby enabling stable and continuous high-current discharge to form the homogeneous plasma. A four-grid accelerator, which separates the extraction and acceleration of the ion beam, is used in this design to generate the high-energy ion beam from 10 keV to 60 keV at a working pressure of 10-4 Torr. Although a higher gas pressure is necessary to maintain the low-pressure glow discharge when compared to hot filament discharge, the hollow cathode ion source is operational with reactive gases such as oxygen in the high-voltage continuous mode. A laterally uniform ion beam can be achieved by using the four-grid accelerator system. The effects of the rod anode length on the characteristics of the plasma discharge as well as ion beam extraction from the ion source are discussed.

  17. Numerical study of the plasma wall-bias effect on the ion flux through acceleration grid hole

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Seung-Hoon; Chang, C. S.

    2010-07-15

    In the extraction of ion beams from a source plasma through a grid acceleration structure, one of the key improvement issues is the fluence of the ion flux. Theoretical research has usually been focused on the structure of the grid system and the distribution of the electrostatic voltages over the grid layers. In the present work, using a self-consistent computer simulation between the plasma source, sheath potential, and the grid system, the effect of the source-wall biasing on the fluence of the ion flux through a three-grid acceleration system has been examined. It is found that a strongly positive wall-biasing can significantly enhance the ion flux by improving the shape of the plasma sheath potential meniscus at the entrance to the grid hole structure.

  18. Further study of the effect of the downstream plasma condition on accelerator grid erosion in an ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Xiaohang; Ruyten, Wilhelmus M.; Keefer, Dennis

    1992-01-01

    Further numerical results are presented of earlier particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo calculations of accelerator grid erosion in an ion thruster. A comparison between numerical and experimental results suggests that the accelerator grid impingement is primarily due to ions created far downstream from the accelerator grid. In particular, for the same experimental conditions as those of Monheiser and Wilbur at Colorado State University, it is found that a downstream plasma density of 2 x 10 exp 14/cu m is required to give the same ratio of accelerator grid impingement current to beam current (5 percent). For this condition, a potential hill is found in the downstream region of 2.5 V.

  19. Extended nonlinear chirp scaling algorithm for highly squinted missile-borne synthetic aperture radar with diving acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rengli; Wang, Yanfei

    2016-04-01

    An extended nonlinear chirp scaling (NLCS) algorithm is proposed to process data of highly squinted, high-resolution, missile-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) diving with a constant acceleration. Due to the complex diving movement, the traditional signal model and focusing algorithm are no longer suited for missile-borne SAR signal processing. Therefore, an accurate range equation is presented, named as the equivalent hyperbolic range model (EHRM), which is more accurate and concise compared with the conventional fourth-order polynomial range equation. Based on the EHRM, a two-dimensional point target reference spectrum is derived, and an extended NLCS algorithm for missile-borne SAR image formation is developed. In the algorithm, a linear range walk correction is used to significantly remove the range-azimuth cross coupling, and an azimuth NLCS processing is adopted to solve the azimuth space variant focusing problem. Moreover, the operations of the proposed algorithm are carried out without any interpolation, thus having small computational loads. Finally, the simulation results and real-data processing results validate the proposed focusing algorithm.

  20. Optimization of electrostatic dual-grid beam-deflection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.; Lathem, W. C.; Power, J. L.; Banks, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were performed to minimize accelerator grid erosion of a 5-cm diameter Kaufman ion thruster due to direct beam impingement. Several different screen hole diameters, pillow-shape-square screen holes, and dished screen grids were tried. The optimization was accomplished by copper plating the accelerator grid before testing each grid configuration on a thruster for a 2-hour run. The thruster beam sputtered copper and molybdenum from the accelerator grid where the beam impinged. The observed erosion patterns and measured accelerator currents were used to determine how to modify the accelerator system. The lowest erosion was obtained for a 50-percent open area pillow-shape-square-aperture screen grid, dished 0.043 centimeter convex toward the accelerator grid, which was positioned with the center of the screen grid 0.084 centimeter from the accelerator grid. During this investigation the accelerator current was reduced from 120 to 55 microamperes and was also more uniformly distributed over the area of the accelerator grid.

  1. Ion Engine Grid Gap Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, Gerge C.; Frandina, Michael M.

    2004-01-01

    A simple technique for measuring the grid gap of an ion engine s ion optics during startup and steady-state operation was demonstrated with beam extraction. The grid gap at the center of the ion optics assembly was measured with a long distance microscope that was focused onto an alumina pin that protruded through the center accelerator grid aperture and was mechanically attached to the screen grid. This measurement technique was successfully applied to a 30 cm titanium ion optics assembly mounted onto an NSTAR engineering model ion engine. The grid gap and each grid s movement during startup from room temperature to both full and low power were measured. The grid gaps with and without beam extraction were found to be significantly different. The grid gaps at the ion optics center were both significantly smaller than the cold grid gap and different at the two power levels examined. To avoid issues associated with a small grid gap during thruster startup with titanium ion optics, a simple method was to operate the thruster initially without beam extraction to heat the ion optics. Another possible method is to apply high voltage to the grids prior to igniting the discharge because power deposition to the grids from the plasma is lower with beam extraction than without. Further testing would be required to confirm this approach.

  2. Performance limits of ion extraction systems with non-circular apertures.

    PubMed

    Shagayda, A; Madeev, S

    2016-04-01

    A three-dimensional computer simulation is used to determine the perveance limitations of ion extraction systems with non-circular apertures. The objective of the study is to analyze the possibilities to improve mechanical strength of the ion optics made of carbon-carbon composite materials. Non-circular grid apertures are better suited to the physical structure of carbon-carbon composite materials, than conventionally used circular holes in a hexagonal pattern, because they allow a fewer number of cut fibers. However, the slit-type accelerating systems, usually regarded as the main alternative to the conventional ion optics, have an intolerably narrow range of operating perveance values at which there is no direct ion impingement on the acceleration grid. This paper presents results of comparative analysis of a number of different ion optical systems with non-circular apertures and conventional ion optical systems with circular apertures. It has been revealed that a relatively wide perveance range without direct ion impingement may be obtained with apertures shaped as a square with rounded corners. Numerical simulations show that this geometry may have equivalent perveance range as the traditional geometry with circular apertures while being more mechanically robust. In addition, such important characteristics, as the effective transparency for both the ions and the neutral atoms, the height of the potential barrier reflecting the downstream plasma electrons and the angular divergence of the beamlet also can be very close to these parameters for the optics with circular apertures. PMID:27131665

  3. Performance limits of ion extraction systems with non-circular apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shagayda, A.; Madeev, S.

    2016-04-01

    A three-dimensional computer simulation is used to determine the perveance limitations of ion extraction systems with non-circular apertures. The objective of the study is to analyze the possibilities to improve mechanical strength of the ion optics made of carbon-carbon composite materials. Non-circular grid apertures are better suited to the physical structure of carbon-carbon composite materials, than conventionally used circular holes in a hexagonal pattern, because they allow a fewer number of cut fibers. However, the slit-type accelerating systems, usually regarded as the main alternative to the conventional ion optics, have an intolerably narrow range of operating perveance values at which there is no direct ion impingement on the acceleration grid. This paper presents results of comparative analysis of a number of different ion optical systems with non-circular apertures and conventional ion optical systems with circular apertures. It has been revealed that a relatively wide perveance range without direct ion impingement may be obtained with apertures shaped as a square with rounded corners. Numerical simulations show that this geometry may have equivalent perveance range as the traditional geometry with circular apertures while being more mechanically robust. In addition, such important characteristics, as the effective transparency for both the ions and the neutral atoms, the height of the potential barrier reflecting the downstream plasma electrons and the angular divergence of the beamlet also can be very close to these parameters for the optics with circular apertures.

  4. Advanced Simulation and Optimization Tools for Dynamic Aperture of Non-scaling FFAGs and Accelerators including Modern User Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, F.; Makino, Kyoko; Berz, Martin; Johnstone, C.

    2010-09-01

    With the U.S. experimental effort in HEP largely located at laboratories supporting the operations of large, highly specialized accelerators, colliding beam facilities, and detector facilities, the understanding and prediction of high energy particle accelerators becomes critical to the success, overall, of the DOE HEP program. One area in which small businesses can contribute to the ongoing success of the U.S. program in HEP is through innovations in computer techniques and sophistication in the modeling of high-energy accelerators. Accelerator modeling at these facilities is performed by experts with the product generally highly specific and representative only of in-house accelerators or special-interest accelerator problems. Development of new types of accelerators like FFAGs with their wide choices of parameter modifications, complicated fields, and the simultaneous need to efficiently handle very large emittance beams requires the availability of new simulation environments to assure predictability in operation. In this, ease of use and interfaces are critical to realizing a successful model, or optimization of a new design or working parameters of machines. In Phase I, various core modules for the design and analysis of FFAGs were developed and Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) have been investigated instead of the more general yet less easily manageable console-type output COSY provides.

  5. The Impact of Back-Sputtered Carbon on the Accelerator Grid Wear Rates of the NEXT and NSTAR Ion Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to quantify the impact of back-sputtered carbon on the downstream accelerator grid erosion rates of the NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Long Duration Test (LDT1). A similar analysis that was conducted for the NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness Program (NSTAR) Life Demonstration Test (LDT2) was used as a foundation for the analysis developed herein. A new carbon surface coverage model was developed that accounted for multiple carbon adlayers before complete surface coverage is achieved. The resulting model requires knowledge of more model inputs, so they were conservatively estimated using the results of past thin film sputtering studies and particle reflection predictions. In addition, accelerator current densities across the grid were rigorously determined using an ion optics code to determine accelerator current distributions and an algorithm to determine beam current densities along a grid using downstream measurements. The improved analysis was applied to the NSTAR test results for evaluation. The improved analysis demonstrated that the impact of back-sputtered carbon on pit and groove wear rate for the NSTAR LDT2 was negligible throughout most of eroded grid radius. The improved analysis also predicted the accelerator current density for transition from net erosion to net deposition considerably more accurately than the original analysis. The improved analysis was used to estimate the impact of back-sputtered carbon on the accelerator grid pit and groove wear rate of the NEXT Long Duration Test (LDT1). Unlike the NSTAR analysis, the NEXT analysis was more challenging because the thruster was operated for extended durations at various operating conditions and was unavailable for measurements because the test is ongoing. As a result, the NEXT LDT1 estimates presented herein are considered preliminary until the results of future post-test analyses are incorporated. The worst-case impact of carbon

  6. The Impact of Back-Sputtered Carbon on the Accelerator Grid Wear Rates of the NEXT and NSTAR Ion Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to quantify the impact of back-sputtered carbon on the downstream accelerator grid erosion rates of the NEXT (NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster) Long Duration Test (LDT1). A similar analysis that was conducted for the NSTAR (NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness Program) Life Demonstration Test (LDT2) was used as a foundation for the analysis developed herein. A new carbon surface coverage model was developed that accounted for multiple carbon adlayers before complete surface coverage is achieved. The resulting model requires knowledge of more model inputs, so they were conservatively estimated using the results of past thin film sputtering studies and particle reflection predictions. In addition, accelerator current densities across the grid were rigorously determined using an ion optics code to determine accelerator current distributions and an algorithm to determine beam current densities along a grid using downstream measurements. The improved analysis was applied to the NSTAR test results for evaluation. The improved analysis demonstrated that the impact of back-sputtered carbon on pit and groove wear rate for the NSTAR LDT2 was negligible throughout most of eroded grid radius. The improved analysis also predicted the accelerator current density for transition from net erosion to net deposition considerably more accurately than the original analysis. The improved analysis was used to estimate the impact of back-sputtered carbon on the accelerator grid pit and groove wear rate of the NEXT Long Duration Test (LDT1). Unlike the NSTAR analysis, the NEXT analysis was more challenging because the thruster was operated for extended durations at various operating conditions and was unavailable for measurements because the test is ongoing. As a result, the NEXT LDT1 estimates presented herein are considered preliminary until the results of future posttest analyses are incorporated. The worst-case impact of carbon back

  7. Coincident ion acceleration and electron extraction for space propulsion using the self-bias formed on a set of RF biased grids bounding a plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafalskyi, D.; Aanesland, A.

    2014-11-01

    We propose an alternative method to accelerate ions in classical gridded ion thrusters and ion sources such that co-extracted electrons from the source may provide beam space charge neutralization. In this way there is no need for an additional electron neutralizer. The method consists of applying RF voltage to a two-grid acceleration system via a blocking capacitor. Due to the unequal effective area of the two grids in contact with the plasma, a dc self-bias is formed, rectifying the applied RF voltage. As a result, ions are continuously accelerated within the grid system while electrons are emitted in brief instants within the RF period when the RF space charge sheath collapses. This paper presents the first experimental results and a proof-of-principle. Experiments are carried out using the Neptune thruster prototype which is a gridded Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) source operated at 4 MHz, attached to a larger beam propagation chamber. The RF power supply is used both for the ICP discharge (plasma generation) and powering the acceleration grids via a capacitor for ion acceleration and electron extraction without any dc power supplies. The ion and electron energies, particle flux and densities are measured using retarding field energy analyzers (RFEA), Langmuir probes and a large beam target. The system operates in Argon and N2. The dc self-bias is found to be generated within the gridded extraction system in all the range of operating conditions. Broad quasi-neutral ion-electron beams are measured in the downstream chamber with energies up to 400 eV. The beams from the RF acceleration method are compared with classical dc acceleration with an additional external electron neutralizer. It is found that the two acceleration techniques provide similar performance, but the ion energy distribution function from RF acceleration is broader, while the floating potential of the beam is lower than for the dc accelerated beam.

  8. Accelerated aging of 28 Gb s-1 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with multiple thick oxide apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropp, J. R.; Steinle, G.; Schäfer, G.; Shchukin, V. A.; Ledentsov, N. N.; Turkiewicz, J. P.; Zoldak, M.

    2015-04-01

    850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with multiple thick oxide apertures suitable for temperature-insensitive error free transmission at 28 Gb s-1 are subjected to accelerated aging at high current densities and chip temperatures. The devices withstand a 20% power change test at a high current density (18 kA c{{m}-2}) at an ambient temperature of 120 {}^\\circ C for 2500 h. At 90-95 {}^\\circ C at this current density no degradation was observed up to 5000 h. We performed the studies at further elevated current densities and temperatures and define the acceleration factor as AF={{({{J}stress}/{{J}use})}8}exp [(1.3 eV/{{k}B})(1/{{T}use}-1/{{T}stress})]. The extrapolated lifetime for 20% power drop is estimated as 20 thousand years at 300 K at current density of 18 kA c{{m}-2} which is sufficient for 28 Gb s-1 error-free temperature-insensitive data transmission.

  9. Ion dispersion near parallel wire grids in orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry: predicting the effect of the approach angle on resolution.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Mark; Guilhaus, Michael; Wildgoose, Jason; Hoyes, John; Bateman, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Ions experience small deflections in the vicinity of grids in accelerators and ion mirrors in time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometers. Recent experiments with an orthogonal acceleration (oa) TOF instrument have verified that the effect can significantly degrade resolution when ions approach grids at an angle deviating from 90 degrees. The phenomenon becomes significant only when ions have components of velocity at right angles to the wires of the grids. A model is presented in this study to predict this phenomenon for parallel wire grids. The fractional energy spread of ions (calculated in the static TOF-spectrometer frame of reference) scales directly with the approach angle of ions to the grid (as measured from normal approach). The energy spread also scales with the range of angles that is a consequence of the focusing effect in each gap between the wires of the grid. The equations imply that closely spaced parallel wire grids are best for deployment in oa-TOF systems where non-zero approach angles are unavoidable. Such grids are relatively impractical to manufacture and support but rectangular repeat cell grids with relatively few wires at right angles to the source axis are shown experimentally to introduce minimal energy spread. When these grids are rotated by 90 degrees, the resolution measured in a Q-TOF spectrometer is degraded in approximate agreement with the parallel wire model. A practical implication of this work is that grid transmissions in oa-TOF systems may be significantly increased without loss of resolution. Improvements of approximately 200% (V-mode) and approximately 400% (W-mode) in ion transmission were obtained in this study without compromising resolution. This was achieved with approximately 73% transmission grids and greater potential improvements in transmission are being realised since this study with approximately 89% transmission grids having similar geometry. PMID:11870899

  10. Grid Gap Measurement for an NSTAR Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Esther M.; Soulas, George C.

    2006-01-01

    The change in gap between the screen and accelerator grids of an engineering model NSTAR ion optics assembly was measured during thruster operation with beam extraction. The molybdenum ion optics assembly was mounted onto an engineering model NSTAR ion thruster. The measurement technique consisted of measuring the difference in height of an alumina pin relative to the downstream accelerator grid surface. The alumina pin was mechanically attached to the center aperture of the screen grid and protruded through the center aperture of the accelerator grid. The change in pin height was monitored using a long distance microscope coupled to a digital imaging system. Transient and steady-state hot grid gaps were measured at three power levels: 0.5, 1.5 and 2.3 kW. Also, the change in grid gap was measured during the transition between power levels, and during the startup with high voltage applied just prior to discharge ignition. Performance measurements, such as perveance, electron backstreaming limit and screen grid ion transparency, were also made to confirm that this ion optics assembly performed similarly to past testing. Results are compared to a prior test of 30 cm titanium ion optics.

  11. A flat laser array aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadakis, Stergios J.; Ricciardi, Gerald F.; Gross, Michael C.; Krill, Jerry A.

    2010-04-01

    We describe a design concept for a flat (or conformal) thin-plate laser phased-array aperture. The aperture consists of a substrate supporting a grid of single-mode optical waveguides fabricated from a linear electro-optic material. The waveguides are coupled to a single laser source or detector. An arrangement of electrodes provides for two-dimensional beam steering by controlling the phase of the light entering the grid. The electrodes can also be modulated to simultaneously provide atmospheric turbulence modulation for long-range free-space optical communication. An approach for fabrication is also outlined.

  12. Grid Erosion Modeling of the NEXT Ion Thruster Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernhoff, Jerold W.; Boyd, Iain D.; Soulas, George (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Results from several different computational studies of the NEXT ion thruster optics are presented. A study of the effect of beam voltage on accelerator grid aperture wall erosion shows a non-monotonic, complex behavior. Comparison to experimental performance data indicates improvements in simulation of the accelerator grid current, as well as very good agreement with other quantities. Also examined is the effect of ion optics choice on the thruster life, showing that TAG optics provide better margin against electron backstreaming than NSTAR optics. The model is used to predict the change in performance with increasing accelerator grid voltage, showing that although the current collected on the accel grid downstream face increases, the erosion rate decreases. A study is presented for varying doubly-ionized Xenon current fraction. The results show that performance data is not extremely sensitive to the current fraction.

  13. Convergence acceleration of implicit schemes in the presence of high aspect ratio grid cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buelow, B. E. O.; Venkateswaran, S.; Merkle, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of Navier-Stokes codes are influenced by several phenomena. For example, the robustness of the code may be compromised by the lack of grid resolution, by a need for more precise initial conditions or because all or part of the flowfield lies outside the flow regime in which the algorithm converges efficiently. A primary example of the latter effect is the presence of extended low Mach number and/or low Reynolds number regions which cause convergence deterioration of time marching algorithms. Recent research into this problem by several workers including the present authors has largely negated this difficulty through the introduction of time-derivative preconditioning. In the present paper, we employ the preconditioned algorithm to address convergence difficulties arising from sensitivity to grid stretching and high aspect ratio grid cells. Strong grid stretching is particularly characteristic of turbulent flow calculations where the grid must be refined very tightly in the dimension normal to the wall, without a similar refinement in the tangential direction. High aspect ratio grid cells also arise in problems that involve high aspect ratio domains such as combustor coolant channels. In both situations, the high aspect ratio cells can lead to extreme deterioration in convergence. It is the purpose of the present paper to address the reasons for this adverse response to grid stretching and to suggest methods for enhancing convergence under such circumstances. Numerical algorithms typically possess a maximum allowable or optimum value for the time step size, expressed in non-dimensional terms as a CFL number or vonNeumann number (VNN). In the presence of high aspect ratio cells, the smallest dimension of the grid cell controls the time step size causing it to be extremely small, which in turn results in the deterioration of convergence behavior. For explicit schemes, this time step limitation cannot be exceeded without violating stability restrictions

  14. Convergence acceleration of implicit schemes in the presence of high aspect ratio grid cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buelow, B. E. O.; Venkateswaran, S.; Merkle, C. L.

    1993-07-01

    The performance of Navier-Stokes codes are influenced by several phenomena. For example, the robustness of the code may be compromised by the lack of grid resolution, by a need for more precise initial conditions or because all or part of the flowfield lies outside the flow regime in which the algorithm converges efficiently. A primary example of the latter effect is the presence of extended low Mach number and/or low Reynolds number regions which cause convergence deterioration of time marching algorithms. Recent research into this problem by several workers including the present authors has largely negated this difficulty through the introduction of time-derivative preconditioning. In the present paper, we employ the preconditioned algorithm to address convergence difficulties arising from sensitivity to grid stretching and high aspect ratio grid cells. Strong grid stretching is particularly characteristic of turbulent flow calculations where the grid must be refined very tightly in the dimension normal to the wall, without a similar refinement in the tangential direction. High aspect ratio grid cells also arise in problems that involve high aspect ratio domains such as combustor coolant channels. In both situations, the high aspect ratio cells can lead to extreme deterioration in convergence. It is the purpose of the present paper to address the reasons for this adverse response to grid stretching and to suggest methods for enhancing convergence under such circumstances. Numerical algorithms typically possess a maximum allowable or optimum value for the time step size, expressed in non-dimensional terms as a CFL number or vonNeumann number (VNN). In the presence of high aspect ratio cells, the smallest dimension of the grid cell controls the time step size causing it to be extremely small, which in turn results in the deterioration of convergence behavior. For explicit schemes, this time step limitation cannot be exceeded without violating stability restrictions

  15. Nurbs and grid generation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.; Farin, G.; Hamann, B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides a basic overview of NURBS and their application to numerical grid generation. Curve/surface smoothing, accelerated grid generation, and the use of NURBS in a practical grid generation system are discussed.

  16. Ion beamlet steering for two-grid electrostatic thrusters. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homa, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental study of ion beamlet steering in which the direction of beamlets emitted from a two grid aperture system is controlled by relative translation of the grids, is described. The results can be used to design electrostatic accelerating devices for which the direction and focus of emerging beamlets are important. Deflection and divergence angle data are presented for two grid systems as a function of the relative lateral displacement of the holes in these grids. At large displacements, accelerator grid impingements become excessive and this determines the maximum allowable displacement and as a result the useful range of beamlet deflection. Beamlet deflection is shown to vary linearly with grid offset angle over this range. The divergence of the beamlets is found to be unaffected by deflection over the useful range of beamlet deflection. The grids of a typical dished grid ion thruster are examined to determine the effects of thermally induced grid distortion and prescribed offsets of grid hole centerlines on the characteristics of the emerging beamlets. The results are used to determine the region on the grid surface where ion beamlet deflections exceed the useful range. Over this region high accelerator grid impingement currents and rapid grid erosion are predicted.

  17. Long pulse H- ion beam acceleration in MeV accelerator.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, M; Mizuno, T; Umeda, N; Kashiwagi, M; Watanabe, K; Tobari, H; Kojima, A; Tanaka, Y; Dairaku, M; Hanada, M; Sakamoto, K; Inoue, T

    2010-02-01

    A multiaperture multigrid accelerator called "MeV accelerator" has been developed for neutral beam injection system of international thermonuclear experimental reactor. In the present work, long pulse H(-) ion beam acceleration was performed by the MeV accelerator equipped with new water-cooled grids. At present, the pulse length was extended to 5 s for the beams of 750 keV, 221 mA, and 10 s for the beams of 600 keV, 158 mA. Energy density, defined as products of beam energy (keV), current (mA), and pulse (s) divided by aperture area (m(2)), increased more than one order of magnitude higher compared with original MeV accelerator without water cooling in its grids. At higher energy and current, the grid was melted by beam deflection. Due to this grid melting, breakdowns occurred between the grids, and hence, the pulse length was limited. Beam deflection will be compensated by aperture displacement in next experiment. PMID:20192408

  18. Comparison of 2-D and 3-D models of grid erosion in an ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Xiaohang; Ruyten, Wilhelmus M.; Keefer, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    Numerical results of particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo calculations of accelerator grid erosion in an ion thruster are presented. Specifically, it is shown that a three-dimensional model is required to account for the experimentally observed pitting of the accelerator grid between grid apertures. Some comparisons with earlier two-dimensional, axisymmetric model are made, and it is shown that, for identical operating conditions of the thruster, the wear-through time in the three-dimensional model is about two to three times higher than that obtained previously with the two-dimensional model, namely on the order of 10,000 hours for sample calculation.

  19. Aperture Size Effect on Extracted Negative Ion Current Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Esch, H. P. L.; Svensson, L.; Riz, D.

    2009-03-01

    This paper discusses experimental results obtained at the 1 MV testbed at CEA Cadarache that appear to show a higher extracted D- current density from small apertures. Plasma grids with different shapes have been installed and tested. All grids had one single aperture. The tests were done in volume operation and in caesium operation. We tested four grids, two with O/14 mm, one with O/11 mm and one with O/8 mm apertures. No aperture size effect was observed in volume operation. In caesiated operation the extracted current density for the O/8 mm aperture appears to be significantly higher (˜50%) than for the O/14 mm aperture. Simulations with a 3D Monte Carlo Trajectory Following Code have shown an aperture size effect of about 20%. Finally, as byproducts of the experiments, data on backstreaming positive ions and the temperature of the plasma grid have been obtained.

  20. The characterization and optimization of NIO1 ion source extraction aperture using a 3D particle-in-cell code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taccogna, F.; Minelli, P.; Cavenago, M.; Veltri, P.; Ippolito, N.

    2016-02-01

    The geometry of a single aperture in the extraction grid plays a relevant role for the optimization of negative ion transport and extraction probability in a hybrid negative ion source. For this reason, a three-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision model of the extraction region around the single aperture including part of the source and part of the acceleration (up to the extraction grid (EG) middle) regions has been developed for the new aperture design prepared for negative ion optimization 1 source. Results have shown that the dimension of the flat and chamfered parts and the slope of the latter in front of the source region maximize the product of production rate and extraction probability (allowing the best EG field penetration) of surface-produced negative ions. The negative ion density in the plane yz has been reported.

  1. The characterization and optimization of NIO1 ion source extraction aperture using a 3D particle-in-cell code.

    PubMed

    Taccogna, F; Minelli, P; Cavenago, M; Veltri, P; Ippolito, N

    2016-02-01

    The geometry of a single aperture in the extraction grid plays a relevant role for the optimization of negative ion transport and extraction probability in a hybrid negative ion source. For this reason, a three-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision model of the extraction region around the single aperture including part of the source and part of the acceleration (up to the extraction grid (EG) middle) regions has been developed for the new aperture design prepared for negative ion optimization 1 source. Results have shown that the dimension of the flat and chamfered parts and the slope of the latter in front of the source region maximize the product of production rate and extraction probability (allowing the best EG field penetration) of surface-produced negative ions. The negative ion density in the plane yz has been reported. PMID:26932027

  2. George E. Pake Prize Lecture: Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics: Accelerating to Grid Parity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Lost in recent headlines about solar company failures, reduced government support and depressed stock valuations is the fact that photovoltaic (PV) systems continue to be installed at an extremely healthy rate - a ten-fold increase between 2007 and 2012, to a cumulative 100GWp of installations worldwide. The primary factor behind this remarkable growth has been cost reduction at the installed system level afforded by manufacturing and technology improvements to the crystalline silicon (c-Si) PV cell. In fact in the past 2 years, c-Si module cost learning curves have accelerated over their historical norms as a function of both volume and time, and as a result c-Si PV has reached parity with conventional forms of electricity in 20 + countries worldwide. In this presentation future c-Si technology paths will be reviewed along with market implications, leading to the projection that between 2015 and 2020, c-Si based PV electricity will be cost-effectively delivered to >95% of the world's population.

  3. Grid-based algorithm to search critical points, in the electron density, accelerated by graphics processing units.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Esparza, Raymundo; Mejía-Chica, Sol-Milena; Zapata-Escobar, Andy D; Guevara-García, Alfredo; Martínez-Melchor, Apolinar; Hernández-Pérez, Julio-M; Vargas, Rubicelia; Garza, Jorge

    2014-12-01

    Using a grid-based method to search the critical points in electron density, we show how to accelerate such a method with graphics processing units (GPUs). When the GPU implementation is contrasted with that used on central processing units (CPUs), we found a large difference between the time elapsed by both implementations: the smallest time is observed when GPUs are used. We tested two GPUs, one related with video games and other used for high-performance computing (HPC). By the side of the CPUs, two processors were tested, one used in common personal computers and other used for HPC, both of last generation. Although our parallel algorithm scales quite well on CPUs, the same implementation on GPUs runs around 10× faster than 16 CPUs, with any of the tested GPUs and CPUs. We have found what one GPU dedicated for video games can be used without any problem for our application, delivering a remarkable performance, in fact; this GPU competes against one HPC GPU, in particular when single-precision is used. PMID:25345784

  4. More IMPATIENT: A Gridding-Accelerated Toeplitz-based Strategy for Non-Cartesian High-Resolution 3D MRI on GPUs

    PubMed Central

    Gai, Jiading; Obeid, Nady; Holtrop, Joseph L.; Wu, Xiao-Long; Lam, Fan; Fu, Maojing; Haldar, Justin P.; Hwu, Wen-mei W.; Liang, Zhi-Pei; Sutton, Bradley P.

    2013-01-01

    Several recent methods have been proposed to obtain significant speed-ups in MRI image reconstruction by leveraging the computational power of GPUs. Previously, we implemented a GPU-based image reconstruction technique called the Illinois Massively Parallel Acquisition Toolkit for Image reconstruction with ENhanced Throughput in MRI (IMPATIENT MRI) for reconstructing data collected along arbitrary 3D trajectories. In this paper, we improve IMPATIENT by removing computational bottlenecks by using a gridding approach to accelerate the computation of various data structures needed by the previous routine. Further, we enhance the routine with capabilities for off-resonance correction and multi-sensor parallel imaging reconstruction. Through implementation of optimized gridding into our iterative reconstruction scheme, speed-ups of more than a factor of 200 are provided in the improved GPU implementation compared to the previous accelerated GPU code. PMID:23682203

  5. Diagnostic for dynamic aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, P.L.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Raubenheimer, T.; Rivkin, L.; Ross, M.; Ruth, R.D.; Spence, W.L.

    1985-04-01

    In large accelerators and low beta colliding beam storage rings, the strong sextupoles, which are required to correct the chromatic effects, produce strong nonlinear forces which act on particles in the beam. In addition in large hadron storage rings the superconducting magnets have significant nonlinear fields. To understand the effects of these nonlinearities on the particle motion there is currently a large theoretical effort using both analytic techniques and computer tracking. This effort is focused on the determination of the 'dynamic aperture' (the stable acceptance) of both present and future accelerators and storage rings. A great deal of progress has been made in understanding nonlinear particle motion, but very little experimental verification of the theoretical results is available. In this paper we describe 'dynamic tracking', a method being studied at the SPEAR storage ring, which can be used to obtain experimental results which are in a convenient form to be compared with the theoretical predictions.

  6. Application of a geocentrifuge and sterolithographically fabricated apertures to multiphase flow in complex fracture apertures.

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn E. McCreery; Robert D. Stedtfeld; Alan T. Stadler; Daphne L. Stoner; Paul Meakin

    2005-09-01

    A geotechnical centrifuge was used to investigate unsaturated multiphase fluid flow in synthetic fracture apertures under a variety of flow conditions. The geocentrifuge subjected the fluids to centrifugal forces allowing the Bond number to be systematically changed without adjusting the fracture aperture of the fluids. The fracture models were based on the concept that surfaces generated by the fracture of brittle geomaterials have a self-affine fractal geometry. The synthetic fracture surfaces were fabricated from a transparent epoxy photopolymer using sterolithography, and fluid flow through the transparent fracture models was monitored by an optical image acquisition system. Aperture widths were chosen to be representative of the wide range of geological fractures in the vesicular basalt that lies beneath the Idaho Nation Laboratory (INL). Transitions between different flow regimes were observed as the acceleration was changed under constant flow conditions. The experiments showed the transition between straight and meandering rivulets in smooth walled apertures (aperture width = 0.508 mm), the dependence of the rivulet width on acceleration in rough walled fracture apertures (average aperture width = 0.25 mm), unstable meandering flow in rough walled apertures at high acceleration (20g) and the narrowing of the wetted region with increasing acceleration during the penetration of water into an aperture filled with wetted particles (0.875 mm diameter glass spheres).

  7. Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, W.F.

    1983-08-31

    An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.

  8. Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1985-01-01

    An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.

  9. Simulating ion beam extraction from a single aperture triode acceleration column: A comparison of the beam transport codes IGUN and PBGUNS with test stand data

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, A.; Wills, J. S. C.; Diamond, W. T.

    2008-04-15

    Ion beam extraction from two different ion sources with single aperture triode extraction columns was simulated with the particle beam transport codes PBGUNS and IGUN. For each ion source, the simulation results are compared to experimental data generated on well-equipped test stands. Both codes reproduced the qualitative behavior of the extracted ion beams to incremental and scaled changes to the extraction electrode geometry observed on the test stands. Numerical values of optimum beam currents and beam emittance generated by the simulations also agree well with test stand data.

  10. Design of the new extraction grid for the NIO1 negative ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.; Baltador, C.

    2015-04-01

    NIO1 is a compact source of negative ions jointly developed by RFX and INFN, to study the physics of production and acceleration of H- beams. Negative ions, up to 120 mA of current, are extracted from a radiofrequency driven plasma, by means of a gridded electrode (plasma grid, PG) featuring 9 apertures arranged in a 3x3 square lattice. The same aperture pattern is replicated in the following electrodes, allowing ion acceleration up to 60 keV. All electrodes are realized in copper, by electro-deposition technique, leaving empty slots in the metal to place magnets and to flow water for the grid cooling. The first set of electrodes was completed, installed in the source and tested. At the same time, an upgrade of the extraction system was carried out, in order to optimize the beam optics and to explore alternative electrostatic configurations. In particular, the accelerator will be modified by completely replacing the EG grid, exploiting the modularity of NIO1. The new electrode will feature other slots in between apertures, to place additional magnets. This allows testing different magnetic configurations, to optimize electron filtering and residual ion deflection. The present paper describes the theoretical activities driving the design of these new extractors, carried out with most updated numerical codes, and exploiting the synergy with the refined modeling of the 40 A ITER negative ion sources, under development at Consorzio RFX. Beam simulations are performed both with tracing codes (SLACCAD and OPERA) and with particle in cell codes (ACCPIC)

  11. Theoretical approach of the photoinjector exit aperture influence on the wake field driven by an electron beam accelerated in an RF gun of free-electron laser ``ELSA''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah, Wa'el; Dolique, J.-M.

    2000-06-01

    The wake field generated in the cylindrical cavity of an RF photoinjector, by a strongly accelerated electron beam, has been analytically calculated (Salah, Dolique, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 437 (1999) 27) under the assumption that the perturbation of the field map by the exit hole is negligible as long as the ratio: exit hole radius/cavity radius is lower than approximately 1/3. Shown experimentally in the different context of a long accelerating structure formed by a sequence of bored pill-box cavity (Figuera et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 60 (1988) 2144; Kim et al., J. Appl. Phys. 68 (1990) 4942), this often-quoted result must be checked for the wake field map excited in a photo injector cavity. Further, in the latter case, the empirical rule in question can be broken more easily because, due to causality, the cavity radius to be considered is not the physical radius but that of the part of the anode wall around the exit hole reached by the beam electromagnetic influence. We present an analytical treatment of the wake field driven in a photoinjector by the accelerated electron beam which takes this hole effect into account, whatever the hole radius may be.

  12. Long pulse acceleration of MeV class high power density negative H- ion beam for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, N.; Kojima, A.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Hiratsuka, J.; Watanabe, K.; Dairaku, M.; Yamanaka, H.; Hanada, M.

    2015-04-01

    R&D of high power density negative ion beam acceleration has been carried out at MeV test facility in JAEA to realize ITER neutral beam accelerator. The main target is H- ion beam acceleration up to 1 MeV with 200 A/m2 for 60 s whose pulse length is the present facility limit. For long pulse acceleration at high power density, new extraction grid (EXG) has been developed with high cooling capability, which electron suppression magnet is placed under cooling channel similar to ITER. In addition, aperture size of electron suppression grid (ESG) is enlarged from 14 mm to 16 mm to reduce direct interception on the ESG and emission of secondary electron which leads to high heat load on the upstream acceleration grid. By enlarging ESG aperture, beam current increased 10 % at high current beam and total acceleration grid heat load reduced from 13 % to 10 % of input power at long pulse beam. In addition, heat load by back stream positive ion into the EXG is measured for the first time and is estimated as 0.3 % of beam power, while heat load by back stream ion into the source chamber is estimated as 3.5 ~ 4.0 % of beam power. Beam acceleration up to 60 s which is the facility limit, has achieved at 683 keV, 100 A/m2 of negative ion beam, whose energy density increases two orders of magnitude since 2011.

  13. Long pulse acceleration of MeV class high power density negative H{sup −} ion beam for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Umeda, N. Kojima, A.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Hiratsuka, J.; Watanabe, K.; Dairaku, M.; Yamanaka, H.; Hanada, M.

    2015-04-08

    R and D of high power density negative ion beam acceleration has been carried out at MeV test facility in JAEA to realize ITER neutral beam accelerator. The main target is H{sup −} ion beam acceleration up to 1 MeV with 200 A/m{sup 2} for 60 s whose pulse length is the present facility limit. For long pulse acceleration at high power density, new extraction grid (EXG) has been developed with high cooling capability, which electron suppression magnet is placed under cooling channel similar to ITER. In addition, aperture size of electron suppression grid (ESG) is enlarged from 14 mm to 16 mm to reduce direct interception on the ESG and emission of secondary electron which leads to high heat load on the upstream acceleration grid. By enlarging ESG aperture, beam current increased 10 % at high current beam and total acceleration grid heat load reduced from 13 % to 10 % of input power at long pulse beam. In addition, heat load by back stream positive ion into the EXG is measured for the first time and is estimated as 0.3 % of beam power, while heat load by back stream ion into the source chamber is estimated as 3.5 ~ 4.0 % of beam power. Beam acceleration up to 60 s which is the facility limit, has achieved at 683 keV, 100 A/m{sup 2} of negative ion beam, whose energy density increases two orders of magnitude since 2011.

  14. Empirical laws of particle extraction from single-grid source of bipolar ion-electron flow

    SciTech Connect

    Dudin, S. V.; Rafalskyi, D. V.

    2012-11-15

    The present research is devoted to the problem of extraction grid choice for a single-grid source of bipolar ion-electron flow. The paper contains detailed reference information on ion and electron extraction characteristics of 10 different grids with broad range of parameters: aperture width (0.09-0.6 mm), grid transparency (0.19-0.51), thickness (0.036-0.5 mm), and with different aperture geometry. The grids with square, circular, and slit apertures were made with different technologies: laser cutting, welding, weaving, and electrolytic erosion. The general regularities of the ion and electron extraction from the single-grid source are experimentally researched for the cases of dc and RF extraction grid biasing. A conclusion has been made that the maximum extracted ion current at low ion energy (0-200 eV) does not significantly vary for all the grids and does not exceed half of the primary ion current from plasma multiplied by the optical grid transparency. The low-energy limit of efficient ion extraction has been discovered which cannot be overcome by the aperture narrowing. A conclusion is made that the RF extraction mode is superior for all the researched grids since it is characterized by higher extracted ion current at any acceleration voltage for any grid with much more simple and smooth extraction curves behavior in comparison to the dc case as well as absence of arcing, jumps, and hysteresis of the measured curves at any RF voltages. The unique ability of the RF biased single-grid source of simultaneous ion/electron emission has been studied. The measured maximal attainable ion beam current compensation ratio is always sufficiently higher than 1 and typically varies in the range 2-6. The results obtained in the present paper demonstrate prospective of the single-grid source in space thruster applications and in modern technologies, particularly for ion beam processing of wide bandgap semiconductor devices such as GaN and SiC transistors due to inherent

  15. Empirical laws of particle extraction from single-grid source of bipolar ion-electron flow.

    PubMed

    Dudin, S V; Rafalskyi, D V

    2012-11-01

    The present research is devoted to the problem of extraction grid choice for a single-grid source of bipolar ion-electron flow. The paper contains detailed reference information on ion and electron extraction characteristics of 10 different grids with broad range of parameters: aperture width (0.09-0.6 mm), grid transparency (0.19-0.51), thickness (0.036-0.5 mm), and with different aperture geometry. The grids with square, circular, and slit apertures were made with different technologies: laser cutting, welding, weaving, and electrolytic erosion. The general regularities of the ion and electron extraction from the single-grid source are experimentally researched for the cases of dc and RF extraction grid biasing. A conclusion has been made that the maximum extracted ion current at low ion energy (0-200 eV) does not significantly vary for all the grids and does not exceed half of the primary ion current from plasma multiplied by the optical grid transparency. The low-energy limit of efficient ion extraction has been discovered which cannot be overcome by the aperture narrowing. A conclusion is made that the RF extraction mode is superior for all the researched grids since it is characterized by higher extracted ion current at any acceleration voltage for any grid with much more simple and smooth extraction curves behavior in comparison to the dc case as well as absence of arcing, jumps, and hysteresis of the measured curves at any RF voltages. The unique ability of the RF biased single-grid source of simultaneous ion∕electron emission has been studied. The measured maximal attainable ion beam current compensation ratio is always sufficiently higher than 1 and typically varies in the range 2-6. The results obtained in the present paper demonstrate prospective of the single-grid source in space thruster applications and in modern technologies, particularly for ion beam processing of wide bandgap semiconductor devices such as GaN and SiC transistors due to inherent

  16. Accelerating development of advanced inverters : evaluation of anti-islanding schemes with grid support functions and preliminary laboratory demonstration.

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, Jason C.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Ropp, Michael; Schutz, Dustin

    2013-11-01

    The high penetration of utility interconnected photovoltaic (PV) systems is causing heightened concern over the effect that variable renewable generation will have on the electrical power system (EPS). These concerns have initiated the need to amend the utility interconnection standard to allow advanced inverter control functionalities that provide: (1) reactive power control for voltage support, (2) real power control for frequency support and (3) better tolerance of grid disturbances. These capabilities are aimed at minimizing the negative impact distributed PV systems may have on EPS voltage and frequency. Unfortunately, these advanced control functions may interfere with island detection schemes, and further development of advanced inverter functions requires a study of the effect of advanced functions on the efficacy of antiislanding schemes employed in industry. This report summarizes the analytical, simulation and experimental work to study interactions between advanced inverter functions and anti-islanding schemes being employed in distributed PV systems.

  17. Aperture Effects and Mismatch Oscillations in an Intense Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J R; O'Shea, P G

    2008-05-12

    When an electron beam is apertured, the transmitted beam current is the product of the incident beam current density and the aperture area. Space charge forces generally cause an increase in incident beam current to result in an increase in incident beam spot size. Under certain circumstances, the spot size will increase faster than the current, resulting in a decrease in current extracted from the aperture. When using a gridded electron gun, this can give rise to negative transconductance. In this paper, we explore this effect in the case of an intense beam propagating in a uniform focusing channel. We show that proper placement of the aperture can decouple the current extracted from the aperture from fluctuations in the source current, and that apertures can serve to alter longitudinal space charge wave propagation by changing the relative contribution of velocity and current modulation present in the beam.

  18. Debuncher Momentum Aperture Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    O'Day, S.

    1991-01-01

    During the November 1990 through January 1991 {bar p} studies period, the momentum aperture of the beam in the debuncher ring was measured. The momentum aperture ({Delta}p/p) was found to be 4.7%. The momentum spread was also measured with beam bunch rotation off. A nearly constant particle population density was observed for particles with {Delta}p/p of less than 4.3%, indicating virtually unobstructed orbits in this region. The population of particles with momenta outside this aperture was found to decrease rapidly. An absolute or 'cut-off' momentum aperture of {Delta}p/p = 5.50% was measured.

  19. Variable-aperture screen

    DOEpatents

    Savage, George M.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus for separating material into first and second portions according to size including a plurality of shafts, a plurality of spaced disks radiating outwardly from each of the shafts to define apertures and linkage interconnecting the shafts for moving the shafts toward or away from one another to vary the size of the apertures while the apparatus is performing the separating function.

  20. Rotating Aperture System

    DOEpatents

    Rusnak, Brian; Hall, James M.; Shen, Stewart; Wood, Richard L.

    2005-01-18

    A rotating aperture system includes a low-pressure vacuum pumping stage with apertures for passage of a deuterium beam. A stator assembly includes holes for passage of the beam. The rotor assembly includes a shaft connected to a deuterium gas cell or a crossflow venturi that has a single aperture on each side that together align with holes every rotation. The rotating apertures are synchronized with the firing of the deuterium beam such that the beam fires through a clear aperture and passes into the Xe gas beam stop. Portions of the rotor are lapped into the stator to improve the sealing surfaces, to prevent rapid escape of the deuterium gas from the gas cell.

  1. Characterisation of a large aperture steep concave parabolic mirror using SASI based on auto-collimation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bingcai; Li, Bing; Tian, Ailing; Yang, Haoyu; Gao, Fen; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    To characterise a large aperture steep concave parabolic mirror, a new sub-aperture stitching interferometry measurement technology (SASI) based on auto-collimation is proposed. The principle of the stitching process is analysed, and the sub-aperture partitioning for a full aperture of a paraboloid is discussed. Next, the overlapped sampled points between sub-apertures are rectified through sampled points realigned in mesh grids. Finally, two experiments, the SASI based on auto-collimation and the full aperture test, were implemented for a parabolic mirror. The stitching result exhibits good agreement with the full-aperture result.

  2. Conical Rotating Aperture Geometries In Digital Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Wong, Roland

    1981-11-01

    Applications of conical rotating aperture (RA) geometries to digital radiography are described. Two kinds of conical RA imaging systems are the conical scanning beam and the conical scanning grid assemblies. These assemblies comprise coaxial conical surface(s) the axis of which is collinear with the x-ray focal spot. This geometry allows accurate alignment and continuous focusing of the slits or the grid lines. Image receptors which use solid state photodiode arrays are described for each type of conical RA system: multiple linear arrays for the conical scanning beam assembly and multiple area arrays for the conical scanning grid assembly. The digital rotating-aperture systems combine the wide dynamic range characteristics of solid state detectors with the superior scatter-rejection advantages of scanned beam approaches. The high scanning-beam velocities attainable by the use of rotating apertures should make it possible to obtain digital images for those procedures such as chest radiography which require large fields of view and short exposure times.

  3. Dynamic Aperture Measurements at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Decking, W.; Robin, D.

    1999-03-12

    A large dynamic aperture for a storage ring is of importance for long lifetimes and a high injection efficiency. Measurements of the dynamic aperture of the third generation synchrotron light source Advanced Light Source (ALS) using beam excitation with kicker magnets are presented. The experiments were done for various accelerator conditions, allowing us to investigate the influence of different working points, chromaticities, insertion devices, etc.. The results are compared both with tracking calculations and a simple model for the dynamic aperture yielding good agreements. This gives us confidence in the predictability of the nonlinear accelerator model. This is especially important for future ALS upgrades as well as new storage ring designs.

  4. Sub-Aperture Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Sub-aperture interferometers -- also called wavefront-split interferometers -- have been developed for simultaneously measuring displacements of multiple targets. The terms "sub-aperture" and "wavefront-split" signify that the original measurement light beam in an interferometer is split into multiple sub-beams derived from non-overlapping portions of the original measurement-beam aperture. Each measurement sub-beam is aimed at a retroreflector mounted on one of the targets. The splitting of the measurement beam is accomplished by use of truncated mirrors and masks, as shown in the example below

  5. Thread Group Multithreading: Accelerating the Computation of an Agent-Based Power System Modeling and Simulation Tool -- C GridLAB-D

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Shuangshuang; Chassin, David P.

    2014-01-06

    GridLAB-DTM is an open source next generation agent-based smart-grid simulator that provides unprecedented capability to model the performance of smart grid technologies. Over the past few years, GridLAB-D has been used to conduct important analyses of smart grid concepts, but it is still quite limited by its computational performance. In order to break through the performance bottleneck to meet the need for large scale power grid simulations, we develop a thread group mechanism to implement highly granular multithreaded computation in GridLAB-D. We achieve close to linear speedups on multithreading version compared against the single-thread version of the same code running on general purpose multi-core commodity for a benchmark simple house model. The performance of the multithreading code shows favorable scalability properties and resource utilization, and much shorter execution time for large-scale power grid simulations.

  6. Design of the new extraction grid for the NIO1 negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Veltri, P. Baltador, C.; Cavenago, M.

    2015-04-08

    NIO1 is a compact source of negative ions jointly developed by RFX and INFN, to study the physics of production and acceleration of H{sup −} beams. Negative ions, up to 120 mA of current, are extracted from a radiofrequency driven plasma, by means of a gridded electrode (plasma grid, PG) featuring 9 apertures arranged in a 3x3 square lattice. The same aperture pattern is replicated in the following electrodes, allowing ion acceleration up to 60 keV. All electrodes are realized in copper, by electro-deposition technique, leaving empty slots in the metal to place magnets and to flow water for the grid cooling. The first set of electrodes was completed, installed in the source and tested. At the same time, an upgrade of the extraction system was carried out, in order to optimize the beam optics and to explore alternative electrostatic configurations. In particular, the accelerator will be modified by completely replacing the EG grid, exploiting the modularity of NIO1. The new electrode will feature other slots in between apertures, to place additional magnets. This allows testing different magnetic configurations, to optimize electron filtering and residual ion deflection. The present paper describes the theoretical activities driving the design of these new extractors, carried out with most updated numerical codes, and exploiting the synergy with the refined modeling of the 40 A ITER negative ion sources, under development at Consorzio RFX. Beam simulations are performed both with tracing codes (SLACCAD and OPERA) and with particle in cell codes (ACCPIC)

  7. Variable-aperture screen

    DOEpatents

    Savage, G.M.

    1991-10-29

    Apparatus is described for separating material into first and second portions according to size including a plurality of shafts, a plurality of spaced disks radiating outwardly from each of the shafts to define apertures and linkage interconnecting the shafts for moving the shafts toward or away from one another to vary the size of the apertures while the apparatus is performing the separating function. 10 figures.

  8. Differential Synthetic Aperture Ladar

    SciTech Connect

    Stappaerts, E A; Scharlemann, E

    2005-02-07

    We report a differential synthetic aperture ladar (DSAL) concept that relaxes platform and laser requirements compared to conventional SAL. Line-of-sight translation/vibration constraints are reduced by several orders of magnitude, while laser frequency stability is typically relaxed by an order of magnitude. The technique is most advantageous for shorter laser wavelengths, ultraviolet to mid-infrared. Analytical and modeling results, including the effect of speckle and atmospheric turbulence, are presented. Synthetic aperture ladars are of growing interest, and several theoretical and experimental papers have been published on the subject. Compared to RF synthetic aperture radar (SAR), platform/ladar motion and transmitter bandwidth constraints are especially demanding at optical wavelengths. For mid-IR and shorter wavelengths, deviations from a linear trajectory along the synthetic aperture length have to be submicron, or their magnitude must be measured to that precision for compensation. The laser coherence time has to be the synthetic aperture transit time, or transmitter phase has to be recorded and a correction applied on detection.

  9. Ion beamlet vectoring by grid translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homa, J. M.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    Ion beamlet vectoring is investigated by collecting deflection and divergence angle data for two-grid systems as a function of the relative displacement of these grids. Results show that at large displacements, accelerator grid impingement becomes a limiting factor and this determines the useful range of beamlet deflection. Beamlet deflection was shown to vary linearly with grid offset angle over this range. Values of deflection-to-offset angle ratio and useful range of deflection are presented as functions of grid-hole geometries, perveance levels, and accelerating voltages. It is found that the divergence of the beamlets is unaffected by deflection over the useful range of beamlet deflection. The grids of a typical dished-grid ion thruster are examined to determine where over the grid surface the grid offsets exceed the useful range, which indicates the regions on the surface where high accelerator grid impingment is probably occurring.

  10. Confocal coded aperture imaging

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2001-01-01

    A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

  11. Ion beam accelerator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system is described that combines geometrical and electrostatic focusing to provide high ion extraction efficiency and good focusing of an accelerated ion beam. The apparatus includes a pair of curved extraction grids (16, 18) with multiple pairs of aligned holes positioned to direct a group of beamlets (20) along converging paths. The extraction grids are closely spaced and maintained at a moderate potential to efficiently extract beamlets of ions and allow them to combine into a single beam (14). An accelerator electrode device (22) downstream from the extraction grids, is at a much lower potential than the grids to accelerate the combined beam.

  12. Ion beam accelerator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system is described that combines geometrical and electrostatic focusing to provide high ion extraction efficiency and good focusing of an accelerated ion beam. The apparatus includes a pair of curved extraction grids with multiple pairs of aligned holes positioned to direct a group of beamlets along converging paths. The extraction grids are closely spaced and maintained at a moderate potential to efficiently extract beamlets of ions and allow them to combine into a single beam. An accelerator electrode device downstream from the extraction grids is at a much lower potential than the grids to accelerate the combined beam. The application of the system to ion implantation is mentioned.

  13. Apodizer aperture for lasers

    DOEpatents

    Jorna, Siebe; Siebert, Larry D.; Brueckner, Keith A.

    1976-11-09

    An aperture attenuator for use with high power lasers which includes glass windows shaped and assembled to form an annulus chamber which is filled with a dye solution. The annulus chamber is shaped such that the section in alignment with the axis of the incident beam follows a curve which is represented by the equation y = (r - r.sub.o).sup.n.

  14. Coded aperture computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kerkil; Brady, David J.

    2009-08-01

    Diverse physical measurements can be modeled by X-ray transforms. While X-ray tomography is the canonical example, reference structure tomography (RST) and coded aperture snapshot spectral imaging (CASSI) are examples of physically unrelated but mathematically equivalent sensor systems. Historically, most x-ray transform based systems sample continuous distributions and apply analytical inversion processes. On the other hand, RST and CASSI generate discrete multiplexed measurements implemented with coded apertures. This multiplexing of coded measurements allows for compression of measurements from a compressed sensing perspective. Compressed sensing (CS) is a revelation that if the object has a sparse representation in some basis, then a certain number, but typically much less than what is prescribed by Shannon's sampling rate, of random projections captures enough information for a highly accurate reconstruction of the object. This paper investigates the role of coded apertures in x-ray transform measurement systems (XTMs) in terms of data efficiency and reconstruction fidelity from a CS perspective. To conduct this, we construct a unified analysis using RST and CASSI measurement models. Also, we propose a novel compressive x-ray tomography measurement scheme which also exploits coding and multiplexing, and hence shares the analysis of the other two XTMs. Using this analysis, we perform a qualitative study on how coded apertures can be exploited to implement physical random projections by "regularizing" the measurement systems. Numerical studies and simulation results demonstrate several examples of the impact of coding.

  15. Optical sparse aperture imaging.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nicholas J; Dierking, Matthew P; Duncan, Bradley D

    2007-08-10

    The resolution of a conventional diffraction-limited imaging system is proportional to its pupil diameter. A primary goal of sparse aperture imaging is to enhance resolution while minimizing the total light collection area; the latter being desirable, in part, because of the cost of large, monolithic apertures. Performance metrics are defined and used to evaluate several sparse aperture arrays constructed from multiple, identical, circular subapertures. Subaperture piston and/or tilt effects on image quality are also considered. We selected arrays with compact nonredundant autocorrelations first described by Golay. We vary both the number of subapertures and their relative spacings to arrive at an optimized array. We report the results of an experiment in which we synthesized an image from multiple subaperture pupil fields by masking a large lens with a Golay array. For this experiment we imaged a slant edge feature of an ISO12233 resolution target in order to measure the modulation transfer function. We note the contrast reduction inherent in images formed through sparse aperture arrays and demonstrate the use of a Wiener-Helstrom filter to restore contrast in our experimental images. Finally, we describe a method to synthesize images from multiple subaperture focal plane intensity images using a phase retrieval algorithm to obtain estimates of subaperture pupil fields. Experimental results from synthesizing an image of a point object from multiple subaperture images are presented, and weaknesses of the phase retrieval method for this application are discussed. PMID:17694146

  16. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.; Joughin, I. R.; Li, F.; Madsen, S. N.; Rodriguez, E.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristics of the surface. This paper reviews the techniques of interferometry, systems and limitations, and applications in a rapidly growing area of science and engineering.

  17. Phasing rectangular apertures.

    PubMed

    Baker, K L; Homoelle, D; Utterback, E; Jones, S M

    2009-10-26

    Several techniques have been developed to phase apertures in the context of astronomical telescopes with segmented mirrors. Phasing multiple apertures, however, is important in a wide range of optical applications. The application of primary interest in this paper is the phasing of multiple short pulse laser beams for fast ignition fusion experiments. In this paper analytic expressions are derived for parameters such as the far-field distribution, a line-integrated form of the far-field distribution that could be fit to measured data, enclosed energy or energy-in-a-bucket and center-of-mass that can then be used to phase two rectangular apertures. Experimental data is taken with a MEMS device to simulate the two apertures and comparisons are made between the analytic parameters and those derived from the measurements. Two methods, fitting the measured far-field distribution to the theoretical distribution and measuring the ensquared energy in the far-field, produced overall phase variance between the 100 measurements of less than 0.005 rad(2) or an RMS displacement of less than 12 nm. PMID:19997175

  18. Temporal Aperture Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The two types of modulation techniques useful to X-ray imaging are reviewed. The use of optimum coded temporal aperature modulation is shown, in certain cases, to offer an advantage over a spatial aperture modulator. Example applications of a diffuse anisotropic X-ray background experiment and a wide field of view hard X-ray imager are discussed.

  19. Genetic apertures: an improved sparse aperture design framework.

    PubMed

    Salvaggio, Philip S; Schott, John R; McKeown, Donald M

    2016-04-20

    The majority of optical sparse aperture imaging research in the remote sensing field has been confined to a small set of aperture layouts. While these layouts possess some desirable properties for imaging, they may not be ideal for all applications. This work introduces an optimization framework for sparse aperture layouts based on genetic algorithms as well as a small set of fitness functions for incoherent sparse aperture image quality. The optimization results demonstrate the merits of existing designs and the opportunity for creating new sparse aperture layouts. PMID:27140086

  20. Aperture center energy showcase

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, J. J.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia and Forest City have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), and the partnership provides a unique opportunity to take technology research and development from demonstration to application in a sustainable community. A project under that CRADA, Aperture Center Energy Showcase, offers a means to develop exhibits and demonstrations that present feedback to community members, Sandia customers, and visitors. The technologies included in the showcase focus on renewable energy and its efficiency, and resilience. These technologies are generally scalable, and provide secure, efficient solutions to energy production, delivery, and usage. In addition to establishing an Energy Showcase, support offices and conference capabilities that facilitate research, collaboration, and demonstration were created. The Aperture Center project focuses on establishing a location that provides outreach, awareness, and demonstration of research findings, emerging technologies, and project developments to Sandia customers, visitors, and Mesa del Sol community members.

  1. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide straw man mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible and/or UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST

  2. Synthetic Aperture Radiometer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Aperture synthesis is a new technology for passive microwave remote sensing from space which has the potential to overcome the limitations set in the past by antenna size. This is an interferometric technique in which pairs of small antennas and signal processing are used to obtain the resolution of a single large antenna. The technique has been demonstrated successfully at L-band with the aircraft prototype instrument, ESTAR. Proposals have been submitted to demonstrate this technology in space (HYDROSTAR and MIRAS).

  3. Integrated electrochromic aperture diaphragm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutschmann, T.; Oesterschulze, E.

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, the triumphal march of handheld electronics with integrated cameras has opened amazing fields for small high performing optical systems. For this purpose miniaturized iris apertures are of practical importance because they are essential to control both the dynamic range of the imaging system and the depth of focus. Therefore, we invented a micro optical iris based on an electrochromic (EC) material. This material changes its absorption in response to an applied voltage. A coaxial arrangement of annular rings of the EC material is used to establish an iris aperture without need of any mechanical moving parts. The advantages of this device do not only arise from the space-saving design with a thickness of the device layer of 50μm. But it also benefits from low power consumption. In fact, its transmission state is stable in an open circuit, phrased memory effect. Only changes of the absorption require a voltage of up to 2 V. In contrast to mechanical iris apertures the absorption may be controlled on an analog scale offering the opportunity for apodization. These properties make our device the ideal candidate for battery powered and space-saving systems. We present optical measurements concerning control of the transmitted intensity and depth of focus, and studies dealing with switching times, light scattering, and stability. While the EC polymer used in this study still has limitations concerning color and contrast, the presented device features all functions of an iris aperture. In contrast to conventional devices it offers some special features. Owing to the variable chemistry of the EC material, its spectral response may be adjusted to certain applications like color filtering in different spectral regimes (UV, optical range, infrared). Furthermore, all segments may be switched individually to establish functions like spatial Fourier filtering or lateral tunable intensity filters.

  4. Aperture excited dielectric antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosswell, W. F.; Chatterjee, J. S.; Mason, V. B.; Tai, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the effect of placing dielectric objects over the aperture of waveguide antennas are presented. Experimental measurements of the radiation patterns, gain, impedance, near-field amplitude, and pattern and impedance coupling between pairs of antennas are given for various Plexiglas shapes, including the sphere and the cube, excited by rectangular, circular, and square waveguide feed apertures. The waveguide excitation of a dielectric sphere is modeled using the Huygens' source, and expressions for the resulting electric fields, directivity, and efficiency are derived. Calculations using this model show good overall agreement with experimental patterns and directivity measurements. The waveguide under an infinite dielectric slab is used as an impedance model. Calculations using this model agree qualitatively with the measured impedance data. It is concluded that dielectric loaded antennas such as the waveguide excited sphere, cube, or sphere-cylinder can produce directivities in excess of that obtained by a uniformly illuminated aperture of the same cross section, particularly for dielectric objects with dimensions of 2 wavelengths or less. It is also shown that for certain configurations coupling between two antennas of this type is less than that for the same antennas without dielectric loading.

  5. SU-C-BRB-03: Novel Technique to Implement GRID Therapy in a Commercial Treatment Planning System

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H; Mohiuddin, M; Yaldo, D; Tom, B; Worlikar, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Due to the difficulty of creating an accurate multi-aperture block in treatment planning systems (TPS), spatially fractionated radiation therapy (GRID Therapy) is limited to clinical setups using simple monitor unit calculations. In this work, we present a novel approach to accurately model a grid block in a TPS and evaluate its dosimetric accuracy. Methods: An acrylic GRID block was fashioned such that the hole size and spacing were the same dimensions of the brass GRID block (dotDecimal) at isocenter. Holes were non-divergent and drilled 1 cm deep. CT scans (RT Lightspeed, GE Healthcare) of the block were acquired using axial slices with a thickness of 0.625 mm. These were imported into Eclipse (version 11, Varian Medical Systems) and holes were auto-contoured into structures. The GRID block was created in Eclipse by forming apertures around the hole structures using a simple three step process. Treatment plans were created in a water-equivalent phantom using 6 and 10 MV beams, delivered with a linear accelerator (Clinac iX, Varian Medical Systems) and measured using a water tank, film and a diode array. Results: Comparisons of percent depth dose curves and profiles at depths of maximum dose, 5cm, and 10cm for field sizes ranging from 5 cm{sup 2} to 25 cm{sup 2} using water and film were within 3% of their respective positions in Eclipse. GRID plans utilizing various jaw sizes and MLC blocking measured with film and a diode array showed pass rates with an average of 97% using Gamma analysis at 3%/ 3 mm and no lower than 93%. Conclusion: We have developed a simple yet accurate method of incorporating a GRID block into a commercially available TPS and demonstrated that the TPS accurately reflects the dose delivered. This will allow for real-time planning using patient scans and encourage new methods for GRID therapy. Support provided by dotDecimal, Sanford, FL.

  6. Gridded electron reversal ionizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A gridded electron reversal ionizer forms a three dimensional cloud of zero or near-zero energy electrons in a cavity within a filament structure surrounding a central electrode having holes through which the sample gas, at reduced pressure, enters an elongated reversal volume. The resultant negative ion stream is applied to a mass analyzer. The reduced electron and ion space-charge limitations of this configuration enhances detection sensitivity for material to be detected by electron attachment, such as narcotic and explosive vapors. Positive ions may be generated by generating electrons having a higher energy, sufficient to ionize the target gas and pulsing the grid negative to stop the electron flow and pulsing the extraction aperture positive to draw out the positive ions.

  7. Polarization sensitive silicon photodiodes using nanostructured metallic grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaumée, M.; Dunbar, L. A.; Santschi, Ch.; Grenet, E.; Eckert, R.; Martin, O. J. F.; Stanley, R. P.

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, we present the design, fabrication, and characterization of wire grid polarizers. These polarizers show high extinction ratios and high transmission with structure dimensions that are compatible with current complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. To design these wire grids, we first analyze the transmission properties of single apertures. From the understanding of a single aperture, we apply a modal expansion method to model wire grids. The most promising grids are fabricated on both a glass substrate and CMOS photodiode. An extinction ratio higher than 200 is measured.

  8. Distribution of the background gas in the MITICA accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, E.; Dal Bello, S.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.

    2013-02-01

    MITICA is the ITER neutral beam test facility to be built in Padova for the generation of a 40A D- ion beam with a 16×5×16 array of 1280 beamlets accelerated to 1MV. The background gas pressure distribution and the particle flows inside MITICA accelerator are critical aspects for stripping losses, generation of secondary particles and beam non-uniformities. To keep the stripping losses in the extraction and acceleration stages reasonably low, the source pressure should be 0.3 Pa or less. The gas flow in MITICA accelerator is being studied using a 3D Finite Element code, named Avocado. The gas-wall interaction model is based on the cosine law, and the whole vacuum system geometry is represented by a view factor matrix based on surface discretization and gas property definitions. Pressure distribution and mutual fluxes are then solved linearly. In this paper the result of a numerical simulation is presented, showing the steady-state pressure distribution inside the accelerator when gas enters the system at room temperature. The accelerator model is limited to a horizontal slice 400 mm high (1/4 of the accelerator height). The pressure profile at solid walls and through the beamlet axis is obtained, allowing the evaluation and the discussion of the background gas distribution and nonuniformity. The particle flux at the inlet and outlet boundaries (namely the grounded grid apertures and the lateral conductances respectively) will be discussed.

  9. Differential Optical Synthetic Aperture Radar

    DOEpatents

    Stappaerts, Eddy A.

    2005-04-12

    A new differential technique for forming optical images using a synthetic aperture is introduced. This differential technique utilizes a single aperture to obtain unique (N) phases that can be processed to produce a synthetic aperture image at points along a trajectory. This is accomplished by dividing the aperture into two equal "subapertures", each having a width that is less than the actual aperture, along the direction of flight. As the platform flies along a given trajectory, a source illuminates objects and the two subapertures are configured to collect return signals. The techniques of the invention is designed to cancel common-mode errors, trajectory deviations from a straight line, and laser phase noise to provide the set of resultant (N) phases that can produce an image having a spatial resolution corresponding to a synthetic aperture.

  10. New Aperture Partitioning Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, S.; Calef, B.; Williams, S.

    Postprocessing in an optical system can be aided by adding an optical element to partition the pupil into a number of segments. When imaging through the atmosphere, the recorded data are blurred by temperature-induced variations in the index of refraction along the line of sight. Using speckle imaging techniques developed in the astronomy community, this blurring can be corrected to some degree. The effectiveness of these techniques is diminished by redundant baselines in the pupil. Partitioning the pupil reduces the degree of baseline redundancy, and therefore improves the quality of images that can be obtained from the system. It is possible to implement the described approach on an optical system with a segmented primary mirror, but not very practical. This is because most optical systems do not have segmented primary mirrors, and those that do have relatively low bandwidth positioning of segments due to their large mass and inertia. It is much more practical to position an active aperture partitioning element at an aft optics pupil of the optical system. This paper describes the design, implementation and testing of a new aperture partitioning element that is completely reflective and reconfigurable. The device uses four independent, annular segments that can be positioned with a high degree of accuracy without impacting optical wavefront of each segment. This mirror has been produced and is currently deployed and working on the 3.6 m telescope.

  11. Grid Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pointwise Inc.'s, Gridgen Software is a system for the generation of 3D (three dimensional) multiple block, structured grids. Gridgen is a visually-oriented, graphics-based interactive code used to decompose a 3D domain into blocks, distribute grid points on curves, initialize and refine grid points on surfaces and initialize volume grid points. Gridgen is available to U.S. citizens and American-owned companies by license.

  12. Compounding in synthetic aperture imaging.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jens Munk; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-09-01

    A method for obtaining compound images using synthetic aperture data is investigated using a convex array transducer. The new approach allows spatial compounding to be performed for any number of angles without reducing the frame rate or temporal resolution. This important feature is an intrinsic property of how the compound images are constructed using synthetic aperture data and an improvement compared with how spatial compounding is obtained using conventional methods. The synthetic aperture compound images are created by exploiting the linearity of delay-and-sum beamformation for data collected from multiple spherical emissions to synthesize multiple transmit and receive apertures, corresponding to imaging the tissue from multiple directions. The many images are added incoherently, to produce a single compound image. Using a 192-element, 3.5-MHz, λ-pitch transducer, it is demonstrated from tissue-phantom measurements that the speckle is reduced and the contrast resolution improved when applying synthetic aperture compound imaging. At a depth of 4 cm, the size of the synthesized apertures is optimized for lesion detection based on the speckle information density. This is a performance measure for tissue contrast resolution which quantifies the tradeoff between resolution loss and speckle reduction. The speckle information density is improved by 25% when comparing synthetic aperture compounding to a similar setup for compounding using dynamic receive focusing. The cystic resolution and clutter levels are measured using a wire phantom setup and compared with conventional application of the array, as well as to synthetic aperture imaging without compounding. If the full aperture is used for synthetic aperture compounding, the cystic resolution is improved by 41% compared with conventional imaging, and is at least as good as what can be obtained using synthetic aperture imaging without compounding. PMID:23007781

  13. MAGNETIC GRID

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1960-08-01

    An electronic grid is designed employing magnetic forces for controlling the passage of charged particles. The grid is particularly applicable to use in gas-filled tubes such as ignitrons. thyratrons, etc., since the magnetic grid action is impartial to the polarity of the charged particles and, accordingly. the sheath effects encountered with electrostatic grids are not present. The grid comprises a conductor having sections spaced apart and extending in substantially opposite directions in the same plane, the ends of the conductor being adapted for connection to a current source.

  14. Computational study of ion beam extraction phenomena through multiple apertures

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Wanpeng; Sang, Chaofeng; Tang, Tengfei; Wang, Dezhen; Li, Ming; Jin, Dazhi; Tan, Xiaohua

    2014-03-15

    The process of ion extraction through multiple apertures is investigated using a two-dimensional particle-in-cell code. We consider apertures with a fixed diameter with a hydrogen plasma background, and the trajectories of electrons, H{sup +} and H{sub 2}{sup +} ions in the self-consistently calculated electric field are traced. The focus of this work is the fundamental physics of the ion extraction, and not particular to a specific device. The computed convergence and divergence of the extracted ion beam are analyzed. We find that the extracted ion flux reaching the extraction electrode is non-uniform, and the peak flux positions change according to operational parameters, and do not necessarily match the positions of the apertures in the y-direction. The profile of the ion flux reaching the electrode is mainly affected by the bias voltage and the distance between grid wall and extraction electrode.

  15. The DESY Grid Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, A.; Gellrich, A.; Kemp, Y.; Leffhalm, K.; Ozerov, D.; Wegner, P.

    2012-12-01

    DESY is one of the world-wide leading centers for research with particle accelerators, synchrotron light and astroparticles. DESY participates in LHC as a Tier-2 center, supports on-going analyzes of HERA data, is a leading partner for ILC, and runs the National Analysis Facility (NAF) for LHC and ILC in the framework of the Helmholtz Alliance, Physics at the Terascale. For the research with synchrotron light major new facilities are operated and built (FLASH, PETRA-III, and XFEL). DESY furthermore acts as Data-Tier1 centre for the Neutrino detector IceCube. Established within the EGI-project DESY operates a grid infrastructure which supports a number of virtual Organizations (VO), incl. ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb. Furthermore, DESY hosts some of HEP and non-HEP VOs, such as the HERA experiments and ILC as well as photon science communities. The support of the new astroparticle physics VOs IceCube and CTA is currently set up. As the global structure of the grid offers huge resources which are perfect for batch-like computing, DESY has set up the National Analysis Facility (NAF) which complements the grid to allow German HEP users for efficient data analysis. The grid infrastructure and the NAF use the same physics data which is distributed via the grid. We call the conjunction of grid and NAF the DESY Grid Centre. In the contribution to CHEP2012 we will in depth discuss the conceptional and operational aspects of our multi-VO and multi-community Grid Centre and present the system setup. We will in particular focus on the interplay of Grid and NAF and present experiences of the operations.

  16. Optica aperture synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Avoort, Casper

    2006-05-01

    Optical long baseline stellar interferometry is an observational technique in astronomy that already exists for over a century, but is truly blooming during the last decades. The undoubted value of stellar interferometry as a technique to measure stellar parameters beyond the classical resolution limit is more and more spreading to the regime of synthesis imaging. With optical aperture synthesis imaging, the measurement of parameters is extended to the reconstruction of high resolution stellar images. A number of optical telescope arrays for synthesis imaging are operational on Earth, while space-based telescope arrays are being designed. For all imaging arrays, the combination of the light collected by the telescopes in the array can be performed in a number of ways. In this thesis, methods are introduced to model these methods of beam combination and compare their effectiveness in the generation of data to be used to reconstruct the image of a stellar object. One of these methods of beam combination is to be applied in a future space telescope. The European Space Agency is developing a mission that can valuably be extended with an imaging beam combiner. This mission is labeled Darwin, as its main goal is to provide information on the origin of life. The primary objective is the detection of planets around nearby stars - called exoplanets- and more precisely, Earth-like exoplanets. This detection is based on a signal, rather than an image. With an imaging mode, designed as described in this thesis, Darwin can make images of, for example, the planetary system to which the detected exoplanet belongs or, as another example, of the dust disk around a star out of which planets form. Such images will greatly contribute to the understanding of the formation of our own planetary system and of how and when life became possible on Earth. The comparison of beam combination methods for interferometric imaging occupies most of the pages of this thesis. Additional chapters will

  17. Ten Recent Enhancements To Aperture Photometry Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laher, Russ; Rebull, L. M.; Gorjian, V.

    2013-01-01

    Aperture Photometry Tool is free, multi-platform, easy-to-install software for astronomical research, as well as for learning, visualizing, and refining aperture-photometry analyses. This mature software has been under development for five years, and is a silent workhorse of the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program. Software version 2.1.5 is described by Laher et al., Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 124, No. 917, pp. 737-763, (July 2012). Four software upgrades have been released since the publication, which include new capabilities, increased speed, more user-friendliness, and some minor bug fixes. Visit www.aperturephotometry.org to download the latest version. The enhancements are as follows: 1) Added new Tools menu option to write selected primary-image data to a comma-separated-value file (for importing into Excel); 2) Added a new display of the color-table levels on a separate panel; 3) Added a new tool to measure the angular separation between positions on the thumbnail image, via mouse-cursor drag and release; 4) Added a new tool to overlay an aperture at user-specified coordinates (in addition to aperture overlay via mouse click); 5) Speeded up the source-list tool with optional multithreading in its automatic mode (allowed thread number is user-specifiable); 6) Added a new “Number” column to the output aperture-photometry-table file in order to track the input source order (multithreading reorders the output); 7) Upgraded the source-list tool to accept input source lists containing positions in sexagesimal equatorial coordinates (in addition to decimal degrees, or, alternatively, pixel coordinates); 8) Added a new decimal/sexagesimal converter; 9) Upgraded the source-list creation tool to compute the detection threshold using robust estimates of the local background and local data dispersion, where the user can select the grid and window sizes for these local calculations; and 10) Modified the batch mode to

  18. Material Measurements Using Groundplane Apertures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komisarek, K.; Dominek, A.; Wang, N.

    1995-01-01

    A technique for material parameter determination using an aperture in a groundplane is studied. The material parameters are found by relating the measured reflected field in the aperture to a numerical model. Two apertures are studied which can have a variety of different material configurations covering the aperture. The aperture cross-sections studied are rectangular and coaxial. The material configurations involved combinations of single layer and dual layers with or without a resistive exterior resistive sheet. The resistivity of the resistive sheet can be specified to simulate a perfect electric conductor (PEC) backing (0 Ohms/square) to a free space backing (infinity Ohms/square). Numerical parameter studies and measurements were performed to assess the feasibility of the technique.

  19. Improvement of accelerator of negative ion source on the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Osakabe, M.; Tsumori, K.; Nakano, H.; Geng, S.; Nagaoka, K.; Kaneko, O.; Takeiri, Y.

    2016-02-01

    To improve the performance of negative-ion based neutral beam injection on the Large Helical Device, the accelerator was modified on the basis of numerical investigations. A field limiting ring was installed on the upper side of a grounded grid (GG) support and a multi-slot GG was adopted instead of a multi-aperture GG. As a result, the voltage holding capability is improved and the heat load on the GG decreases by 40%. In addition, the arc efficiency is improved significantly only by replacing the GG.

  20. Improvement of accelerator of negative ion source on the Large Helical Device.

    PubMed

    Kisaki, M; Ikeda, K; Osakabe, M; Tsumori, K; Nakano, H; Geng, S; Nagaoka, K; Kaneko, O; Takeiri, Y

    2016-02-01

    To improve the performance of negative-ion based neutral beam injection on the Large Helical Device, the accelerator was modified on the basis of numerical investigations. A field limiting ring was installed on the upper side of a grounded grid (GG) support and a multi-slot GG was adopted instead of a multi-aperture GG. As a result, the voltage holding capability is improved and the heat load on the GG decreases by 40%. In addition, the arc efficiency is improved significantly only by replacing the GG. PMID:26932049

  1. The Grid

    SciTech Connect

    White, Vicky

    2003-05-21

    By now almost everyone has heard of 'The Grid', or 'Grid Computing' as it should more properly be described. There are frequent articles in both the popular and scientific press talking about 'The Grid' or about some specific Grid project. Run II Experiments, US-CMS, BTeV, the Sloane Digital Sky Survey and the Lattice QCD folks are all incorporating aspects of Grid Computing in their plans, and the Fermilab Computing Division is supporting and encouraging these efforts. Why are we doing this and what does it have to do with running a physics experiment or getting scientific results? I will explore some of these questions and try to give an overview, not so much of the technical aspects of Grid Computing, rather of what the phenomenon means for our field.

  2. Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralston, Tyler S.; Marks, Daniel L.; Scott Carney, P.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2007-02-01

    State-of-the-art methods in high-resolution three-dimensional optical microscopy require that the focus be scanned through the entire region of interest. However, an analysis of the physics of the light-sample interaction reveals that the Fourier-space coverage is independent of depth. Here we show that, by solving the inverse scattering problem for interference microscopy, computed reconstruction yields volumes with a resolution in all planes that is equivalent to the resolution achieved only at the focal plane for conventional high-resolution microscopy. In short, the entire illuminated volume has spatially invariant resolution, thus eliminating the compromise between resolution and depth of field. We describe and demonstrate a novel computational image-formation technique called interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM). ISAM has the potential to broadly impact real-time three-dimensional microscopy and analysis in the fields of cell and tumour biology, as well as in clinical diagnosis where in vivo imaging is preferable to biopsy.

  3. Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralston, Tyler S.

    State-of-the-art interferometric microscopies have problems representing objects that lie outside of the focus because the defocus and diffraction effects are not accounted for in the processing. These problems occur because of the lack of comprehensive models to include the scattering effects in the processing. In this dissertation, a new modality in three-dimensional (3D) optical microscopy, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microscopy (ISAM), is introduced to account for the scattering effects. Comprehensive models for interferometric microscopy, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) are developed, for which forward, adjoint, normal, and inverse operators are formulated. Using an accurate model for the probe beam, the resulting algorithms demonstrate accurate linear estimation of the susceptibility of an object from the interferometric data. Using the regularized least squares solution, an ISAM reconstruction of underlying object structure having spatially invariant resolution is obtained from simulated and experimental interferometric data, even in regions outside of the focal plane of the lens. Two-dimensional (2D) and 3D interferometric data is used to resolve objects outside of the confocal region with minimal loss of resolution, unlike in OCT. Therefore, high-resolution details are recovered from outside of the confocal region. Models and solutions are presented for the planar-scanned, the rotationally scanned, and the full-field illuminated geometry. The models and algorithms presented account for the effects of a finite beam width, the source spectrum, the illumination and collection fields, as well as defocus, diffraction and dispersion effects.

  4. Sparse aperture endoscope

    DOEpatents

    Fitch, Joseph P.

    1999-07-06

    An endoscope which reduces the volume needed by the imaging part thereof, maintains resolution of a wide diameter optical system, while increasing tool access, and allows stereographic or interferometric processing for depth and perspective information/visualization. Because the endoscope decreases the volume consumed by imaging optics such allows a larger fraction of the volume to be used for non-imaging tools, which allows smaller incisions in surgical and diagnostic medical applications thus produces less trauma to the patient or allows access to smaller volumes than is possible with larger instruments. The endoscope utilizes fiber optic light pipes in an outer layer for illumination, a multi-pupil imaging system in an inner annulus, and an access channel for other tools in the center. The endoscope is amenable to implementation as a flexible scope, and thus increases the utility thereof. Because the endoscope uses a multi-aperture pupil, it can also be utilized as an optical array, allowing stereographic and interferometric processing.

  5. Sparse aperture endoscope

    DOEpatents

    Fitch, J.P.

    1999-07-06

    An endoscope is disclosed which reduces the volume needed by the imaging part, maintains resolution of a wide diameter optical system, while increasing tool access, and allows stereographic or interferometric processing for depth and perspective information/visualization. Because the endoscope decreases the volume consumed by imaging optics such allows a larger fraction of the volume to be used for non-imaging tools, which allows smaller incisions in surgical and diagnostic medical applications thus produces less trauma to the patient or allows access to smaller volumes than is possible with larger instruments. The endoscope utilizes fiber optic light pipes in an outer layer for illumination, a multi-pupil imaging system in an inner annulus, and an access channel for other tools in the center. The endoscope is amenable to implementation as a flexible scope, and thus increases it's utility. Because the endoscope uses a multi-aperture pupil, it can also be utilized as an optical array, allowing stereographic and interferometric processing. 7 figs.

  6. Lucky imaging and aperture synthesis with low-redundancy apertures.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jennifer E; Rhodes, William T; Sheridan, John T

    2009-01-01

    Lucky imaging, used with some success in astronomical and even horizontal-path imaging, relies on fleeting conditions of the atmosphere that allow momentary improvements in image quality, at least in portions of an image. Aperture synthesis allows a larger aperture and, thus, a higher-resolution imaging system to be synthesized through the superposition of image spatial-frequency components gathered by cooperative combinations of smaller subapertures. A combination of lucky imaging and aperture synthesis strengthens both methods for obtaining improved images through the turbulent atmosphere. We realize the lucky imaging condition appropriate for aperture synthesis imaging for a pair of rectangular subapertures and demonstrate that this condition occurs when the signal energy associated with bandpass spatial-frequency components achieves its maximum value. PMID:19107157

  7. Fibonacci Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swinbank, Richard; Purser, James

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in a variety of non-standard computational grids for global numerical prediction. The motivation has been to reduce problems associated with the converging meridians and the polar singularities of conventional regular latitude-longitude grids. A further impetus has come from the adoption of massively parallel computers, for which it is necessary to distribute work equitably across the processors; this is more practicable for some non-standard grids. Desirable attributes of a grid for high-order spatial finite differencing are: (i) geometrical regularity; (ii) a homogeneous and approximately isotropic spatial resolution; (iii) a low proportion of the grid points where the numerical procedures require special customization (such as near coordinate singularities or grid edges). One family of grid arrangements which, to our knowledge, has never before been applied to numerical weather prediction, but which appears to offer several technical advantages, are what we shall refer to as "Fibonacci grids". They can be thought of as mathematically ideal generalizations of the patterns occurring naturally in the spiral arrangements of seeds and fruit found in sunflower heads and pineapples (to give two of the many botanical examples). These grids possess virtually uniform and highly isotropic resolution, with an equal area for each grid point. There are only two compact singular regions on a sphere that require customized numerics. We demonstrate the practicality of these grids in shallow water simulations, and discuss the prospects for efficiently using these frameworks in three-dimensional semi-implicit and semi-Lagrangian weather prediction or climate models.

  8. Bistatic synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Gillian

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) allows all-weather, day and night, surface surveillance and has the ability to detect, classify and geolocate objects at long stand-off ranges. Bistatic SAR, where the transmitter and the receiver are on separate platforms, is seen as a potential means of countering the vulnerability of conventional monostatic SAR to electronic countermeasures, particularly directional jamming, and avoiding physical attack of the imaging platform. As the receiving platform can be totally passive, it does not advertise its position by RF emissions. The transmitter is not susceptible to jamming and can, for example, operate at long stand-off ranges to reduce its vulnerability to physical attack. This thesis examines some of the complications involved in producing high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery. The effect of bistatic operation on resolution is examined from a theoretical viewpoint and analytical expressions for resolution are developed. These expressions are verified by simulation work using a simple 'point by point' processor. This work is extended to look at using modern practical processing engines for bistatic geometries. Adaptations of the polar format algorithm and range migration algorithm are considered. The principal achievement of this work is a fully airborne demonstration of bistatic SAR. The route taken in reaching this is given, along with some results. The bistatic SAR imagery is analysed and compared to the monostatic imagery collected at the same time. Demonstrating high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery using two airborne platforms represents what I believe to be a European first and is likely to be the first time that this has been achieved outside the US (the UK has very little insight into US work on this topic). Bistatic target characteristics are examined through the use of simulations. This also compares bistatic imagery with monostatic and gives further insight into the utility of bistatic SAR.

  9. Superresolution and Synthetic Aperture Radar

    SciTech Connect

    DICKEY,FRED M.; ROMERO,LOUIS; DOERRY,ARMIN W.

    2001-05-01

    Superresolution concepts offer the potential of resolution beyond the classical limit. This great promise has not generally been realized. In this study we investigate the potential application of superresolution concepts to synthetic aperture radar. The analytical basis for superresolution theory is discussed. The application of the concept to synthetic aperture radar is investigated as an operator inversion problem. Generally, the operator inversion problem is ill posed. A criterion for judging superresolution processing of an image is presented.

  10. Long-pulse beam acceleration of MeV-class H(-) ion beams for ITER NB accelerator.

    PubMed

    Umeda, N; Kashiwagi, M; Taniguchi, M; Tobari, H; Watanabe, K; Dairaku, M; Yamanaka, H; Inoue, T; Kojima, A; Hanada, M

    2014-02-01

    In order to realize neutral beam systems in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor whose target is to produce a 1 MeV, 200 A/m(2) during 3600 s D(-) ion beam, the electrostatic five-stages negative ion accelerator so-called "MeV accelerator" has been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. To extend pulse length, heat load of the acceleration grids was reduced by controlling the ion beam trajectory. Namely, the beam deflection due to the residual magnetic field of filter magnet was suppressed with the newly developed extractor with a 0.5 mm off-set aperture displacement. The new extractor improved the deflection angle from 6 mrad to 1 mrad, resulting in the reduction of direct interception of negative ions from 23% to 15% of the total acceleration power, respectively. As a result, the pulse length of 130 A/m(2), 881 keV H(-) ion beam has been successfully extended from a previous value of 0.4 s to 8.7 s. This is the first long pulse negative ion beam acceleration over 100 MW/m(2). PMID:24593581

  11. Study of beamlet deflection and its compensations in a MeV accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwagi, Mieko; Inoue, Takashi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Umeda, Naotaka; Dairaku, Masayuki; Takemoto, Jumpei; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Tsuchida, Kazuki; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Sakamoto, Keishi; Grisham, Larry R.

    2011-09-26

    In a five stage multi-aperture and multi-grid (MAMuG) accelerator in JAEA, beam acceleration tests are in progress toward 1 MeV, 200 A/m{sup 2} H{sup -} ion beams for ITER. The 1 MV voltage holding has been successfully demonstrated for 4,000 s with the accelerator of expanded gap length that lowered local electric field concentrations. This led to increase of the beam energy up to 900 keV-level. However, it was found that beamlets were deflected more in long gaps and direct interceptions of the deflected beamlet caused breakdowns. The beamlet deflection and its compensation methods were studied utilizing a three-dimensional multi beamlet analysis. The analysis showed that the 1 MeV beam can be compensated by a combination of the aperture offset of 0.8 mm applied in the electron suppression (ESG) and the metal bar called a field shaping plate with a thickness of 1 mm attached beneath the ESG. The paper reports these compensation methods and analytical predictions, with experimental results of the MAMuG accelerator in which those compensation techniques have been applied.

  12. Grid oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popovic, Zorana B.; Kim, Moonil; Rutledge, David B.

    1988-01-01

    Loading a two-dimensional grid with active devices offers a means of combining the power of solid-state oscillators in the microwave and millimeter-wave range. The grid structure allows a large number of negative resistance devices to be combined. This approach is attractive because the active devices do not require an external locking signal, and the combining is done in free space. In addition, the loaded grid is a planar structure amenable to monolithic integration. Measurements on a 25-MESFET grid at 9.7 GHz show power-combining and frequency-locking without an external locking signal, with an ERP of 37 W. Experimental far-field patterns agree with theoretical results obtained using reciprocity.

  13. Grid Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Ian

    2001-08-01

    The term "Grid Computing" refers to the use, for computational purposes, of emerging distributed Grid infrastructures: that is, network and middleware services designed to provide on-demand and high-performance access to all important computational resources within an organization or community. Grid computing promises to enable both evolutionary and revolutionary changes in the practice of computational science and engineering based on new application modalities such as high-speed distributed analysis of large datasets, collaborative engineering and visualization, desktop access to computation via "science portals," rapid parameter studies and Monte Carlo simulations that use all available resources within an organization, and online analysis of data from scientific instruments. In this article, I examine the status of Grid computing circa 2000, briefly reviewing some relevant history, outlining major current Grid research and development activities, and pointing out likely directions for future work. I also present a number of case studies, selected to illustrate the potential of Grid computing in various areas of science.

  14. On-axis parallel ion speeds near mechanical and magnetic apertures in a helicon plasma device

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Xuan; Cohen, S.A.; Scime, Earl E.; Miah, Mahmood

    2005-10-01

    Using laser-induced fluorescence, measurements of parallel ion velocities were made along the axis of a helicon-generated Ar plasma column whose radius was modified by spatially separated mechanical and magnetic apertures. Ion acceleration to supersonic speeds was observed 0.1-5 cm downstream of both aperture types, simultaneously generating two steady-state double layers (DLs) when both apertures were in place. The DL downstream of the mechanical aperture plate had a larger potential drop, {delta}{phi}{sub DL}=6-9 kT{sub e}, compared to the DL downstream of the magnetic aperture, {delta}{phi}{sub DL}{approx}3 kT{sub e}. In the presheath region upstream of the mechanical aperture, the convective ion speed increased over a collisional distance; from stagnant at 4 cm from the aperture to the 1.4 times the sound speed at the aperture. The dependence of the free- and trapped-ion-velocity-distribution functions on the magnetic-field strength and mechanical-aperture electrical bias are also presented.

  15. Metamaterial Apertures for Computational Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, John; Driscoll, Tom; Mrozack, Alex; Lipworth, Guy; Reynolds, Matthew; Brady, David; Smith, David R.

    2013-01-01

    By leveraging metamaterials and compressive imaging, a low-profile aperture capable of microwave imaging without lenses, moving parts, or phase shifters is demonstrated. This designer aperture allows image compression to be performed on the physical hardware layer rather than in the postprocessing stage, thus averting the detector, storage, and transmission costs associated with full diffraction-limited sampling of a scene. A guided-wave metamaterial aperture is used to perform compressive image reconstruction at 10 frames per second of two-dimensional (range and angle) sparse still and video scenes at K-band (18 to 26 gigahertz) frequencies, using frequency diversity to avoid mechanical scanning. Image acquisition is accomplished with a 40:1 compression ratio.

  16. Mosaic of coded aperture arrays

    DOEpatents

    Fenimore, Edward E.; Cannon, Thomas M.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention pertains to a mosaic of coded aperture arrays which is capable of imaging off-axis sources with minimum detector size. Mosaics of the basic array pattern create a circular on periodic correlation of the object on a section of the picture plane. This section consists of elements of the central basic pattern as well as elements from neighboring patterns and is a cyclic version of the basic pattern. Since all object points contribute a complete cyclic version of the basic pattern, a section of the picture, which is the size of the basic aperture pattern, contains all the information necessary to image the object with no artifacts.

  17. High resolution non-iterative aperture synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kraczek, Jeffrey R; McManamon, Paul F; Watson, Edward A

    2016-03-21

    The maximum resolution of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) imaging system is determined by the size of the synthetic aperture. The synthetic aperture is determined by a coordinate shift using the relative positions of the illuminators and receive apertures. Previous methods have shown non-iterative phasing for multiple illuminators with a single receive aperture for intra-aperture synthesis. This work shows non-iterative phasing with both multiple illuminators and multiple receive apertures for inter-aperture synthesis. Simulated results show that piston, tip, and tilt can be calculated using inter-aperture phasing after intra-aperture phasing has been performed. Use of a fourth illuminator for increased resolution is shown. The modulation transfer function (MTF) is used to quantitatively judge increased resolution. PMID:27136816

  18. Large-aperture broadband sapphire windows for common aperture, target acquisition, tracking, and surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askinazi, Joel

    1997-06-01

    State of the art optical sensing systems performing target acquisition/tracking and surveillance functions are being designed to incorporate a number of sensors into one package. These include visual and MWIR cameras, FLIRs, and laser range finders. These combined systems are being configured to view through a common aperture window. Typical window diameters are to eleven inches, but some surveillance applications have windows approaching twenty inches in diameter. These sensor windows typically operate in hostile environments including very high pressure differentials, large thermal gradients, and severe rain and sand abrasion. EMI/EMC protection and de-icing capabilities are also commonly required. For airborne applications and to minimize thermal gradients, thinner, lightweight, high strength windows are also necessary. Sapphire is an ideal window material to satisfy these requirements due to its high strength, UV-MWIR bandpass, minimal optical scatter, excellent index of refraction homogeneity and very high scratch/impact resistance. Associated optical fabrication, grid lithography and optical coating processes have been developed at Hughes Danbury for sapphire windows. This paper addresses the development of a family of large aperture, broadband sapphire windows which also provide EMI/EMC protection and de-icing capabilities. The resulting design configuration and performance characteristics are also addressed. Future technology development requirements are also discussed.

  19. A polyvalent harmonic coil testing method for small-aperture magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Arpaia, Pasquale; Golluccio, Giancarlo; Buzio, Marco; Walckiers, Louis

    2012-08-15

    A method to characterize permanent and fast-pulsed iron-dominated magnets with small apertures is presented. The harmonic coil measurement technique is enhanced specifically for small-aperture magnets by (1) in situ calibration, for facing search-coil production inaccuracy, (2) rotating the magnet around its axis, for correcting systematic effects, and (3) measuring magnetic fluxes by stationary coils at different angular positions for measuring fast pulsed magnets. This method allows a quadrupole magnet for particle accelerators to be characterized completely, by assessing multipole field components, magnetic axis position, and field direction. In this paper, initially the metrological problems arising from testing small-aperture magnets are highlighted. Then, the basic ideas of the proposed method and the architecture of the corresponding measurement system are illustrated. Finally, experimental validation results are shown for small-aperture permanent and fast-ramped quadrupole magnets for the new linear accelerator Linac4 at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research).

  20. A polyvalent harmonic coil testing method for small-aperture magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arpaia, Pasquale; Buzio, Marco; Golluccio, Giancarlo; Walckiers, Louis

    2012-08-01

    A method to characterize permanent and fast-pulsed iron-dominated magnets with small apertures is presented. The harmonic coil measurement technique is enhanced specifically for small-aperture magnets by (1) in situ calibration, for facing search-coil production inaccuracy, (2) rotating the magnet around its axis, for correcting systematic effects, and (3) measuring magnetic fluxes by stationary coils at different angular positions for measuring fast pulsed magnets. This method allows a quadrupole magnet for particle accelerators to be characterized completely, by assessing multipole field components, magnetic axis position, and field direction. In this paper, initially the metrological problems arising from testing small-aperture magnets are highlighted. Then, the basic ideas of the proposed method and the architecture of the corresponding measurement system are illustrated. Finally, experimental validation results are shown for small-aperture permanent and fast-ramped quadrupole magnets for the new linear accelerator Linac4 at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research).

  1. High energy, high current neutral beam injector operation with single stage and two-stage multi-aperture extraction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becherer, R.; Desmons, M.; Fumelli, M.; Raimbault, P.; Valckx, F. P. G.

    1982-12-01

    Neutral beam development for JET injections at FAR laboratory has led to the study of properties of a single stage (triode) and a two-stage (tetrode) multi-aperture extraction system at ion beam powers exceeding the megawatt level and up to 80 keV beam energy. The results of the experimental measurements and of a numerical study of the beam optical qualities and grid power loadings of these systems are presented. Grid power loading levels of less than 1% of the high-voltage drain power were measured in both the triode and the tetrode accelerators. This would allow long pulse operation (10 s with water-cooling) as required for JET. The beam divergence angle (α ≅ 0.7°) and the transmission characteristics were almostidentical. At the same energy, higher current densities, at optimum perveance, were obtained with the triode at a lower electric field stress on the high-voltage gap. The triode offers the additional advantage of being simpler from the mechanical and electrical points of view. Operation of the injection line with an electrostatic beam dump associated with a grounded source is also demonstrated for a 25 ion beam up to 60 keV.

  2. Dynamic aperture measurement on Aladdin

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, J.; Cho, Y.; Chou, W.; Crosbie, E.; Kramer, S.; Kustom, R.; Voss, D.; Teng, L.; Kleman, K.; Otte, R.; Trzeciak, W.; Symon, K.; Wisconsin Univ., Stoughton, WI . Synchrotron Radiation Center; Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI . Dept. of Physics)

    1989-01-01

    The sextupole-induced non-linear transverse beam dynamics in the synchrotron radiation storage ring Aladdin is studied. Specifically, the dynamic aperture is measured as function of the sextupole strength. The results agree reasonably well with computer simulations. 1 ref., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Large aperture diffractive space telescope

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, Roderick A.

    2001-01-01

    A large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary objective lens functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass "aiming" at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The objective lens includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the objective lens, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets which may be either earth bound or celestial.

  4. Future of synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barath, F. T.

    1978-01-01

    The present status of the applications of Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs) is reviewed, and the technology state-of-the art as represented by the Seasat-A and SIR-A SARs examined. The potential of SAR applications, and the near- and longer-term technology trends are assessed.

  5. SEASAT Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of radar imagery from space altitudes is discussed and the advantages of radar over passive sensor systems are outlined. Specific reference is made to the SEASAT synthetic aperture radar. Possible applications include oil spill monitoring, snow and ice reconnaissance, mineral exploration, and monitoring phenomena in the urban environment.

  6. A finite difference-time domain technique for modeling narrow apertures in conducting scatterers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demarest, Kenneth R.

    1987-01-01

    The finite difference-time domain (FDTD) technique has proven to be a valuable tool for the calculation of the transient and steady state scattering characteristics of relatively complex scatterer and source configurations. In spite of its usefulness, it exhibits serious deficiencies when used to analyze geometries that contain fine detail. An FDTD technique is described that utilizes Babinet's principle to decouple the regions on both sides of the aperture. The result is an FDTD technique that is capable of modeling apertures that are much smaller than the spatial grid used in the analysis and yet is not perturbed by numerical noise when used in the 'scattered field' mode. Numerical results are presented that show the field penetration through cavity-backed apertures that are much smaller than the spatial grid used during the solution.

  7. Dosimetric characteristics of a newly designed grid block for megavoltage photon radiation and its therapeutic advantage using a linear quadratic model.

    PubMed

    Meigooni, Ali S; Dou, Kai; Meigooni, Navid J; Gnaster, Michael; Awan, Shahid; Dini, Sharifeh; Johnson, Ellis L

    2006-09-01

    Grid radiation therapy with megavoltage x-ray beam has been proven to be an effective technique for management of large, bulky malignant tumors. The clinical advantage of GRID therapy, combined with conventional radiation therapy, has been demonstrated using a prototype GRID block [Mohiuddin, Curtis, Grizos, and Komarnicky, Cancer 66, 114-118 (1990)]. Recently, a new GRID block design with improved dosimetric properties has become commercially available from Radiation Product Design, Inc. (Albertive, MN). This GRID collimator consists of an array of focused apertures in a cerrobend block arranged in a hexagonal pattern having a circular cross-section with a diameter and center-to-center spacing of 14.3 and 21.1 mm, respectively, in the plane of isocenter. In this project, dosimetric characteristics of the newly redesigned GRID block have been investigated for a Varian 21EX linear accelerator (Varian Associates, Palo Alto, CA). These determinations were performed using radiographic films, thermoluminescent dosimeters in Solid Water phantom materials, and an ionization chamber in water. The output factor, percentage depth dose, beam profiles, and isodose distributions of the GRID radiation as a function of field size and beam energy have been measured using both 6 and 18 MV x-ray beams. In addition, the therapeutic advantage obtained from this treatment modality with the new GRID block design for a high, single fraction of dose has been calculated using the linear quadratic model with alpha/beta ratios for typical tumor and normal cells. These biological characteristics of the new GRID block design will also be presented. PMID:17022209

  8. Dosimetric characteristics of a newly designed grid block for megavoltage photon radiation and its therapeutic advantage using a linear quadratic model

    SciTech Connect

    Meigooni, Ali S.; Dou Kai; Meigooni, Navid J.; Gnaster, Michael; Awan, Shahid; Dini, Sharifeh; Johnson, Ellis L.

    2006-09-15

    Grid radiation therapy with megavoltage x-ray beam has been proven to be an effective technique for management of large, bulky malignant tumors. The clinical advantage of GRID therapy, combined with conventional radiation therapy, has been demonstrated using a prototype GRID block [Mohiuddin, Curtis, Grizos, and Komarnicky, Cancer 66, 114-118 (1990)]. Recently, a new GRID block design with improved dosimetric properties has become commercially available from Radiation Product Design, Inc. (Albertive, MN). This GRID collimator consists of an array of focused apertures in a cerrobend block arranged in a hexagonal pattern having a circular cross-section with a diameter and center-to-center spacing of 14.3 and 21.1 mm, respectively, in the plane of isocenter. In this project, dosimetric characteristics of the newly redesigned GRID block have been investigated for a Varian 21EX linear accelerator (Varian Associates, Palo Alto, CA). These determinations were performed using radiographic films, thermoluminescent dosimeters in Solid Water trade mark sign phantom materials, and an ionization chamber in water. The output factor, percentage depth dose, beam profiles, and isodose distributions of the GRID radiation as a function of field size and beam energy have been measured using both 6 and 18 MV x-ray beams. In addition, the therapeutic advantage obtained from this treatment modality with the new GRID block design for a high, single fraction of dose has been calculated using the linear quadratic model with {alpha}/{beta} ratios for typical tumor and normal cells. These biological characteristics of the new GRID block design will also be presented.

  9. Design and Simulation of a Rotating Aperture & Vacuum System for Neutron Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Fitsos, P; Hall, J; Rusnak, B; Shen, S

    2006-02-27

    The development of a high-energy (10Mev) neutron imaging system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) depends on a precision engineered rotating aperture and vacuum system for generating neutrons that are used for imaging dense objects. This subsystem is part of a larger system which includes a linear accelerator that creates a deuteron beam, a scintillator detector, imaging optics and a high resolution CCD camera. The rotating aperture vacuum system has been successfully simulated and tested. Results show the feasibility of the design and point toward ways to improve the design by minimizing the rotating aperture gap.

  10. Particle-in-Cell Modeling of Magnetized Argon Plasma Flow Through Small Mechanical Apertures

    SciTech Connect

    Adam B. Sefkow and Samuel A. Cohen

    2009-04-09

    Motivated by observations of supersonic argon-ion flow generated by linear helicon-heated plasma devices, a three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) code is used to study whether stationary electrostatic layers form near mechanical apertures intersecting the flow of magnetized plasma. By self-consistently evaluating the temporal evolution of the plasma in the vicinity of the aperture, the PIC simulations characterize the roles of the imposed aperture and applied magnetic field on ion acceleration. The PIC model includes ionization of a background neutral-argon population by thermal and superthermal electrons, the latter found upstream of the aperture. Near the aperture, a transition from a collisional to a collisionless regime occurs. Perturbations of density and potential, with mm wavelengths and consistent with ion acoustic waves, propagate axially. An ion acceleration region of length ~ 200-300 λD,e forms at the location of the aperture and is found to be an electrostatic double layer, with axially-separated regions of net positive and negative charge. Reducing the aperture diameter or increasing its length increases the double layer strength.

  11. Fresnel diffraction of aperture with rough edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yuwei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Junhong; Zhang, Meina; Teng, Shuyun

    2015-06-01

    The Fresnel diffraction of an aperture with a rough edge is studied in this paper. Circular and elliptical apertures with sinusoidal and random edges are chosen as examples to investigate the influence of the aperture edge on the diffraction. The numerical calculation results indicate intuitively the variations of the transverse and longitude diffraction intensity distributions with the edge parameters of the aperture. The data files of aperture models are obtained through the numerical calculations, and the aperture samples are obtained with the help of a liquid crystal light modulator (LCLM). Thus, the practical experiments of the diffractions of apertures with rough edges are carried out. The measured results are consistent with the calculated ones. The approximate analytic expressions of the diffraction by the modified aperture are deduced on the basis of the Fresnel diffraction theory and the statistic optics, and the reasonable explanations for the influence of edge parameters on the diffraction are given through the theoretical analysis.

  12. Ion Accelerator Merges Several Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.

    1984-01-01

    Intense ion beam formed by merging multiple ion beamlets into one concentrated beam. Beamlet holes in graphite screen and focusing grids arranged in hexagonal pattern. Merged beam passes through single hole in each of aluminum accelerator and decelerator grids. Ion extraction efficiency, beam intensity, and focusing improved.

  13. Alternative aperture stop position designs for SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Paul K.; Dinger, Ann S.

    1990-01-01

    Three designs of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) for a 100,000 high earth orbit are considered with particular attention given to the evaluation of the aperture stop position. The choice of aperture stop position will be based on stray light considerations which are being studied concurrently. It is noted that there are advantages in cost, mass, and astronomical aperture to placing the aperture stop at or near the primary mirror, if the stray light circumstances allow.

  14. A new method for calculating the mean aperture of fractures in rocks: The dual mean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, P. W. J.; Ogilvie, S. R.; Isakov, E.

    2009-04-01

    in the plane of the fracture, i.e., it has different values in different directions through the fracture. We use the dual mean in the two cartesian directions in the plane of the fracture x and y. For the x-direction this is defined as, Hdmx = ∑ j=1Nyexp, where Nx, Ny are the dimensions of the measurement grid in the xand ydirections, respectively, Aij is the value of the fracture aperture at the grid point with indexes (i,j), and Hdmx is the dual mean aperture computed with respect to x-direction (of the flow). We have tested the dual mean by finite element modelling and applied it to five rough fractures for which the physical and hydraulic aperture are known. The dual means in both directions across the fracture apertures show a much better correlation to the modelled hydraulic apertures than standard arithmetic mean apertures. We conclude that this is a pragmatic approach to calculating the mean aperture of a fracture where the surfaces touch at at least one point.

  15. VSATs - Very small aperture terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, John L.

    The present volume on very small aperture terminals (VSATs) discusses antennas, semiconductor devices, and traveling wave tubes and amplifiers for VSAT systems, VSAT low noise downconverters, and modems and codecs for VSAT systems. Attention is given to multiaccess protocols for VSAT networks, protocol software in Ku-band VSAT network systems, system design of VSAT data networks, and the policing of VSAT networks. Topics addressed include the PANDATA and PolyCom systems, APOLLO - a satellite-based information distribution system, data broadcasting within a satellite television channel, and the NEC NEXTAR VSAT system. Also discussed are small aperture military ground terminals, link budgets for VSAT systems, capabilities and experience of a VSAT service provider, and developments in VSAT regulation.

  16. Broadband synthetic aperture geoacoustic inversion.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bien Aik; Gerstoft, Peter; Yardim, Caglar; Hodgkiss, William S

    2013-07-01

    A typical geoacoustic inversion procedure involves powerful source transmissions received on a large-aperture receiver array. A more practical approach is to use a single moving source and/or receiver in a low signal to noise ratio (SNR) setting. This paper uses single-receiver, broadband, frequency coherent matched-field inversion and exploits coherently repeated transmissions to improve estimation of the geoacoustic parameters. The long observation time creates a synthetic aperture due to relative source-receiver motion. This approach is illustrated by studying the transmission of multiple linear frequency modulated (LFM) pulses which results in a multi-tonal comb spectrum that is Doppler sensitive. To correlate well with the measured field across a receiver trajectory and to incorporate transmission from a source trajectory, waveguide Doppler and normal mode theory is applied. The method is demonstrated with low SNR, 100-900 Hz LFM pulse data from the Shallow Water 2006 experiment. PMID:23862809

  17. Large aperture scanning airborne lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J.; Bindschadler, R.; Boers, R.; Bufton, J. L.; Clem, D.; Garvin, J.; Melfi, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    A large aperture scanning airborne lidar facility is being developed to provide important new capabilities for airborne lidar sensor systems. The proposed scanning mechanism allows for a large aperture telescope (25 in. diameter) in front of an elliptical flat (25 x 36 in.) turning mirror positioned at a 45 degree angle with respect to the telescope optical axis. The lidar scanning capability will provide opportunities for acquiring new data sets for atmospheric, earth resources, and oceans communities. This completed facility will also make available the opportunity to acquire simulated EOS lidar data on a near global basis. The design and construction of this unique scanning mechanism presents exciting technological challenges of maintaining the turning mirror optical flatness during scanning while exposed to extreme temperatures, ambient pressures, aircraft vibrations, etc.

  18. Aperture masking behind AO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Michael J.

    2012-07-01

    Sparse Aperture-Mask Interferometry (SAM or NRM) behind Adaptive Optics (AO) has now come of age, with more than a dozen astronomy papers published from several 5-10m class telescopes around the world. I will describe the reasons behind its success in achieving relatively high contrasts ( 1000:1 at lambda/ D) and repeatable binary astronomy at the diffraction limit, even when used behind laser-guide star adaptive optics. Placed within the context of AO calibration, the information in an image can be split into pupil-plane phase, Fourier amplitude and closure-phase. It is the closure-phase observable, or its generalisation to Kernel phase, that is immune to pupil-plane phase errors at first and second-order and has been the reason for the technique's success. I will outline the limitations of the technique and the prospects for aperture-masking and related techniques in the future.

  19. Alignment and Aperture Scan at the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Seiya, K.; Lackey, J.; Marsh, W.; Pellico, W.; Still, D.; Triplet, K.; Waller, A.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    The Fermilab Booster is currently in the process of an intensity upgrade referred to as the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP). The goal of PIP is to have the Booster provide a proton beam flux of 2 x 10{sup 17} protons/hour. This is almost double the current operation of 1.1 x 10{sup 17} protons/hour. Beam losses in the machine due to the increased flux will create larger integrated doses on aperture limiting components that will need to be mitigated. The Booster accelerates beam from 400 MeV to 8 GeV at a rep rate of 15hz and then extracts beam to the Main Injector. Several percent of the beam is lost within 3 msec after injection in the early part of acceleration. The aperture at injection energy was recently measured using corrector scans. Along with magnet survey data and aperture scan data a plan to realign the magnets in the Booster was developed and implemented in May 2012. The beam studies, analysis of the scan and alignment data, and the result of the magnet moves are presented.

  20. Multiple aperture imager component development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, David E.; Henshaw, Philip D.

    1991-03-01

    This final report presents results of an experimental and analytical effort to develop multiple aperture imagers built from unphased, direct-detection subapertures. An object was imaged using wave length shift instead of object motion to create multiple speckle pattern realizations. An analysis of subaperture geometry effects of autocorrelation estimate was performed. Experimental measurements of detector modulator transfer function were made. Finally, a new algorithm to reconstruct imagery with improved signal-to-noise ratio was developed.

  1. Investigation of ion beam space charge compensation with a 4-grid analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullmann, C.; Adonin, A.; Berezov, R.; Chauvin, N.; Delferrière, O.; Fils, J.; Hollinger, R.; Kester, O.; Senée, F.; Tuske, O.

    2016-02-01

    Experiments to investigate the space charge compensation of pulsed high-current heavy ion beams are performed at the GSI ion source text benches with a 4-grid analyzer provided by CEA/Saclay. The technical design of the 4-grid analyzer is revised to verify its functionality for measurements at pulsed high-current heavy ion beams. The experimental investigation of space charge compensation processes is needed to increase the performance and quality of current and future accelerator facilities. Measurements are performed directly downstream a triode extraction system mounted to a multi-cusp ion source at a high-current test bench as well as downstream the post-acceleration system of the high-current test injector (HOSTI) with ion energies up to 120 keV/u for helium and argon. At HOSTI, a cold or hot reflex discharge ion source is used to change the conditions for the measurements. The measurements were performed with helium, argon, and xenon and are presented. Results from measurements with single aperture extraction systems are shown.

  2. Investigation of ion beam space charge compensation with a 4-grid analyzer.

    PubMed

    Ullmann, C; Adonin, A; Berezov, R; Chauvin, N; Delferrière, O; Fils, J; Hollinger, R; Kester, O; Senée, F; Tuske, O

    2016-02-01

    Experiments to investigate the space charge compensation of pulsed high-current heavy ion beams are performed at the GSI ion source text benches with a 4-grid analyzer provided by CEA/Saclay. The technical design of the 4-grid analyzer is revised to verify its functionality for measurements at pulsed high-current heavy ion beams. The experimental investigation of space charge compensation processes is needed to increase the performance and quality of current and future accelerator facilities. Measurements are performed directly downstream a triode extraction system mounted to a multi-cusp ion source at a high-current test bench as well as downstream the post-acceleration system of the high-current test injector (HOSTI) with ion energies up to 120 keV/u for helium and argon. At HOSTI, a cold or hot reflex discharge ion source is used to change the conditions for the measurements. The measurements were performed with helium, argon, and xenon and are presented. Results from measurements with single aperture extraction systems are shown. PMID:26932110

  3. Coherent sub-aperture ultraviolet imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, R. G.; Connally, W. J.; Avicola, K.; Monjo, D.; Olson, T.

    1989-09-01

    Laboratory targets have been imaged by a multi-sub-aperture, coherent receiver technique in which a common local oscillator illuminates the sub-aperture array to preserve both phase and intensity information. The target, receiver and range dimensions were chosen such that each sub-aperture was smaller than the speckle size. Various targets were illuminated by microsecond pulses from an e-beam pumped XeF power amplifier, which was seeded by a coherent ultraviolet beam generated with a frequency doubled visible dye laser. Data is presented showing comparisons between the coherent multi-sub-aperture approach and conventional, full aperture photography of the same traget(s).

  4. Controlled-aperture wave-equation migration

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L.; Fehler, Michael C.; Sun, H.; Li, Z.

    2003-01-01

    We present a controlled-aperture wave-equation migration method that no1 only can reduce migration artiracts due to limited recording aperlurcs and determine image weights to balance the efl'ects of limited-aperture illumination, but also can improve thc migration accuracy by reducing the slowness perturbations within thc controlled migration regions. The method consists of two steps: migration aperture scan and controlled-aperture migration. Migration apertures for a sparse distribution of shots arc determined using wave-equation migration, and those for the other shots are obtained by interpolation. During the final controlled-aperture niigration step, we can select a reference slowness in c;ontrollecl regions of the slowness model to reduce slowncss perturbations, and consequently increase the accuracy of wave-equation migration inel hods that makc use of reference slownesses. In addition, the computation in the space domain during wavefield downward continuation is needed to be conducted only within the controlled apertures and therefore, the computational cost of controlled-aperture migration step (without including migration aperture scan) is less than the corresponding uncontrolled-aperture migration. Finally, we can use the efficient split-step Fourier approach for migration-aperture scan, then use other, more accurate though more expensive, wave-equation migration methods to perform thc final controlled-apertio.ee migration to produce the most accurate image.

  5. SAR image formation using phase-history data from nonuniform aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Lam; Sichina, Jeffrey

    2007-04-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery is formed using radar data collected from a moving platform (aircraft, vehicle, human, etc.). The radar transmits and receives backscatter signals in the down-range direction at a fixed pulse repetition interval (PRI) while the platform moves along the cross-range direction (called along-track) to generate a synthetic aperture. In the ideal situation, the platform moves at a constant speed and as a result, the radar will collect the phase-history data that are uniformly sampled along the aperture. However, in many situations the radar platform cannot be kept at a constant speed, e.g. a helicopter maneuvering over an imaging area for surveillance. The problem is even worse in the case of urban warfare with human-borne radar. A soldier moves at his own speed and creates erratic aperture sections with phase-history data that are either sparse or dense. The collected SAR data in such situation will result in SAR imagery with severe artifacts that might prevent us from detecting targets of interest. In this paper, we will present the SAR imagery of non-uniform aperture data formed using the backprojection image formation algorithm. Although the backprojection image former is well suited to an arbitrary radar aperture, the SAR image artifacts are obvious from the nonuniform aperture. Using the nonuniform aperture phase-history data, we interpolate the data using a uniform grid along the aperture. We will show the resulting imagery with reduced artifacts. We use both simulated data and the Army Research Lab BoomSAR data to illustrate the artifacts generated by nonuniform sampling and the improvement using this interpolation technique.

  6. Penning discharge ion source with self-cleaning aperture

    DOEpatents

    Gavin, B.F.; MacGill, R.A.; Thatcher, R.K.

    1980-11-10

    An ion source of the Penning discharge type having a self-cleaning aperture is provided by a second dynode with an exit aperture in a position opposite a first dynode, from which the ions are sputtered, two opposing cathodes, each with an anode for accelerating electrons emitted from the cathodes into a cylindrical space defined by the first and second dynode. A support gas maintained in this space is ionized by the electrons. While the cathodes are supplied with a negative pulse to emit electrons, the first dynode is supplied with a negative pulse (e.g., -300 V) to attract atoms of the ionized gas (plasma). At the same time, the second dynode may also be supplied with a small voltage that is negative with respect to the plasma (e.g., -5 V) for tuning the position of the plasma miniscus for optimum extraction geometry. When the negative pulse to the first dynode is terminated, the second dynode is driven strongly negative (e.g., -600 V) thereby allowing heavy sputtering to take place for a short period to remove virtually all of the atoms deposited on the second dynode from material sputtered off the first dynode. An extractor immediately outside the exit aperture of the second dynode is maintained at ground potential while the anode, dynode, and cathode reference voltage is driven strongly positive (about +20 kV to +30 kV) so that ions accelerated through the aperture will be at ground potential. Material from the first dynode deposited on the second dynode will be sputtered, in time, to add to the ion beam.

  7. Penning discharge ion source with self-cleaning aperture

    DOEpatents

    Gavin, Basil F.; MacGill, Robert A.; Thatcher, Raymond K.

    1982-01-01

    An ion source of the Penning discharge type having a self-cleaning aperture is provided by a second dynode (24) with an exit aperture (12) in a position opposite a first dynode 10a, from which the ions are sputtered, two opposing cathodes (14, 16), each with an anode (18, 20) for accelerating electrons emitted from the cathodes into a cylindrical space defined by the first and second dynode. A support gas maintained in this space is ionized by the electrons. While the cathodes are supplied with a negative pulse to emit electrons, the first dynode is supplied with a negative pulse (e.g., -300 V) to attract atoms of the ionized gas (plasma). At the same time, the second dynode may also be supplied with a small voltage that is negative with respect to the plasma (e.g., -5 V) for tuning the position of the plasma miniscus for optimum extraction geometry. When the negative pulse to the first dynode is terminated, the second dynode is driven strongly negative (e.g., -600 V) thereby allowing heavy sputtering to take place for a short period to remove virtually all of the atoms deposited on the second dynode from material sputtered off the first dynode. An extractor (22) immediately outside the exit aperture of the second dynode is maintained at ground potential during this entire period of sputtering while the anode, dynode and cathode reference voltage is driven strongly positive (about +20 kV to +30 kV) so that ions accelerated through the aperture will be at ground potential. In that manner, material from the first dynode deposited on the second dynode will be sputtered, in time, to add to the ion beam. Atoms sputtered from the second dynode which do not become ionized and exit through the slit will be redeposited on the first dynode, and hence recycled for further ion beam generation during subsequent operating cycles.

  8. Reconstruction of coded aperture images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielefeld, Michael J.; Yin, Lo I.

    1987-01-01

    Balanced correlation method and the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) were implemented to reconstruct a laboratory X-ray source as imaged by a Uniformly Redundant Array (URA) system. Although the MEM method has advantages over the balanced correlation method, it is computationally time consuming because of the iterative nature of its solution. Massively Parallel Processing, with its parallel array structure is ideally suited for such computations. These preliminary results indicate that it is possible to use the MEM method in future coded-aperture experiments with the help of the MPP.

  9. Aperture scanning Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Xiaoze; Chung, Jaebum; Horstmeyer, Roarke; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-01-01

    Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) is implemented through aperture scanning by an LCOS spatial light modulator at the back focal plane of the objective lens. This FPM configuration enables the capturing of the complex scattered field for a 3D sample both in the transmissive mode and the reflective mode. We further show that by combining with the compressive sensing theory, the reconstructed 2D complex scattered field can be used to recover the 3D sample scattering density. This implementation expands the scope of application for FPM and can be beneficial for areas such as tissue imaging and wafer inspection. PMID:27570705

  10. TELESCOPES: Astronomers Overcome 'Aperture Envy'.

    PubMed

    Irion, R

    2000-07-01

    Many users of small telescopes are disturbed by the trend of shutting down smaller instruments in order to help fund bigger and bolder ground-based telescopes. Small telescopes can thrive in the shadow of giant new observatories, they say--but only if they are adapted to specialized projects. Telescopes with apertures of 2 meters or less have unique abilities to monitor broad swaths of the sky and stare at the same objects night after night, sometimes for years; various teams are turning small telescopes into robots, creating networks that span the globe and devoting them to survey projects that big telescopes don't have a prayer of tackling. PMID:17832960

  11. Dual aperture multispectral Schmidt objective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, P. O. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A dual aperture, off-axis catadioptic Schmidt objective is described. It is formed by symmetrically aligning two pairs of Schmidt objectives on opposite sides of a common plane (x,z). Each objective has a spherical primary mirror with a spherical focal plane and center of curvature aligned along an optic axis laterally spaced apart from the common plane. A multiprism beamsplitter with buried dichroic layers and a convex entrance and concave exit surfaces optically concentric to the center of curvature may be positioned at the focal plane. The primary mirrors of each objective may be connected rigidly together and may have equal or unequal focal lengths.

  12. the Large Aperture GRB Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Bertou, Xavier

    2009-04-30

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique (SPT) in ground based water Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on the project progresses and the first operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 6 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst.

  13. Large-acceptance linac for accelerating l9w-energy muons

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, Sergey S; Jason, Andrew J; Miyadera, Haruo

    2010-01-01

    We propose a high-gradient linear accelerator for accelerating low-energy muons and pions in a strong solenoidal magnetic field. The acceleration starts immediately after collection of pions from a target by solenoidal magnets and brings muons to a kinetic energy of about 200 MeV over a distance of the order of 10 m. At this energy, both an ionization cooling of the muon beam and its further acceleration in a superconducting linac become feasible. The project presents unique challenges - a very large energy spread in a highly divergent beam, as well as pion and muon decays - requiring large longitudinal and transverse acceptances. One potential solution incorporates a normal-conducting linac consisting of independently fed O-mode RF cavities with wide apertures closed by thin metal windows or grids. The guiding magnetic field is provided by external superconducting solenoids. The cavity choice, overall linac design considerations, and simulation results of muon acceleration are presented. While the primary applications of such a linac are for homeland defense and industry, it can provide muon fluxes high enough to be of interest for physics experiments.

  14. Resonant Effects in Nanoscale Bowtie Apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Li; Qin, Jin; Guo, Songpo; Liu, Tao; Kinzel, Edward; Wang, Liang

    2016-06-01

    Nanoscale bowtie aperture antennas can be used to focus light well below the diffraction limit with extremely high transmission efficiencies. This paper studies the spectral dependence of the transmission through nanoscale bowtie apertures defined in a silver film. A realistic bowtie aperture is numerically modeled using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. Results show that the transmission spectrum is dominated by Fabry-Pérot (F-P) waveguide modes and plasmonic modes. The F-P resonance is sensitive to the thickness of the film and the plasmonic resonant mode is closely related to the gap distance of the bowtie aperture. Both characteristics significantly affect the transmission spectrum. To verify these numerical results, bowtie apertures are FIB milled in a silver film. Experimental transmission measurements agree with simulation data. Based on this result, nanoscale bowtie apertures can be optimized to realize deep sub-wavelength confinement with high transmission efficiency with applications to nanolithography, data storage, and bio-chemical sensing.

  15. DAVINCI a Dilute Aperture Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The motivation for DAVINCI was originally to make use of the technology developed for space interferometers like SIM to build a coronagraph from four 1.1m telescopes that was dramatically lower in cost than a 4 5m filled aperture offaxis coronagraph. Our initial studies through team X have shown this cost savings to be real. But a more careful analysis showed that DAVINCI would have an inner working angle of 35mas a factor of 2 smaller than a 2 lambda/D 4 meter coronagraph or 70m external occulter, resulting in a 10X increase in the number of potential Earth-Clone targets. DAVINCI uses a nulling interferometer as a coronagraph, a nulling interferometer is one the few coronagraph architectures that are compatible with segmented and dilute aperture telescopes. Combined with a post coronagraph wavefront sensor several ultra-demanding tolerances of conventional coronagraphs can be relaxed by factors of 100. The post coronagraph wavefront sensor is also much less affected by local and exozodi background than wavefront sensors that use the science camera as the wavefront sensor. The post coronagraph interferometer is also used on ground based extreme AO coronagraphs, GPI, and P1640.

  16. Synthetic aperture sonar image statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Shawn F.

    Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS) systems are capable of producing photograph quality seafloor imagery using a lower frequency than other systems of comparable resolution. However, as with other high-resolution sonar systems, SAS imagery is often characterized by heavy-tailed amplitude distributions which may adversely affect target detection systems. The constant cross-range resolution with respect to range that results from the synthetic aperture formation process provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of system and environment interactions, which is essential for accurate performance prediction. This research focused on the impact of multipath contamination and the impact of resolution on image statistics, accomplished through analyses of data collected during at-sea experiments, analytical modeling, and development of numerical simulations. Multipath contamination was shown to have an appreciable impact on image statistics at ranges greater than the water depth and when the levels of the contributing multipath are within 10 dB of the direct path, reducing the image amplitude distribution tails while also degrading image clarity. Image statistics were shown to depend strongly upon both system resolution and orientation to seafloor features such as sand ripples. This work contributes to improving detection systems by aiding understanding of the influences of background (i.e. non-target) image statistics.

  17. Diffraction smoothing aperture for an optical beam

    DOEpatents

    Judd, O'Dean P.; Suydam, Bergen R.

    1976-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an aperture for an optical beam having an irregular periphery or having perturbations imposed upon the periphery to decrease the diffraction effect caused by the beam passing through the aperture. Such apertures are particularly useful with high power solid state laser systems in that they minimize the problem of self-focusing which frequently destroys expensive components in such systems.

  18. GridMan: A grid manipulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, Peter R.; Wang, Zhu

    1992-01-01

    GridMan is an interactive grid manipulation system. It operates on grids to produce new grids which conform to user demands. The input grids are not constrained to come from any particular source. They may be generated by algebraic methods, elliptic methods, hyperbolic methods, parabolic methods, or some combination of methods. The methods are included in the various available structured grid generation codes. These codes perform the basic assembly function for the various elements of the initial grid. For block structured grids, the assembly can be quite complex due to a large number of clock corners, edges, and faces for which various connections and orientations must be properly identified. The grid generation codes are distinguished among themselves by their balance between interactive and automatic actions and by their modest variations in control. The basic form of GridMan provides a much more substantial level of grid control and will take its input from any of the structured grid generation codes. The communication link to the outside codes is a data file which contains the grid or section of grid.

  19. Electrostatic quadrupole DC accelerators for BNCT applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, J.W.; Anderson, O.A.; Reginato, L.L.; Vella, M.C.; Yu, S.S.

    1994-04-01

    A dc electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator is capable of producing a 2.5 MeV, 100 mA proton beam for the purpose of generating neutrons for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The ESQ accelerator is better than the conventional aperture column in high beam current application due to the presence of stronger transverse field for beam focusing and for suppressing secondary electrons. The major challenge in this type of accelerator is in developing the proper power supply system.

  20. Large Aperture Electrostatic Dust Detector

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner, R. Hensley, and A.L Roquemore

    2007-10-09

    Diagnosis and management of dust inventories generated in next-step magnetic fusion devices is necessary for their safe operation. A novel electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 30 or 50 ν has been developed for the detection of dust particles on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Impinging dust particles create a temporary short circuit and the resulting current pulse is recorded by counting electronics. Up to 90% of the particles are ejected from the grid or vaporized suggesting the device may be useful for controlling dust inventories. We report measurements of the sensitivity of a large area (5x5 cm) detector to microgram quantities of dust particles and review its applications to contemporary tokamaks and ITER.

  1. Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging on a Cuda-Enabled Mobile Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatica, M.; Philllips, E.

    2014-12-01

    This talk will present the details of a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging on the smallest CUDA-capable platform available, the Jetson TK1. The results indicate that GPU accelerated embedded platforms have considerable potential for this type of workload and in conjunction with low power consumption, light weight and standard programming tools, could open new horizons in the embedded space.

  2. Multifocal interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yang; Chng, Xiong Kai Benjamin; Adie, Steven G.; Boppart, Stephen A.; Scott Carney, P.

    2014-01-01

    There is an inherent trade-off between transverse resolution and depth of field (DOF) in optical coherence tomography (OCT) which becomes a limiting factor for certain applications. Multifocal OCT and interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) each provide a distinct solution to the trade-off through modification to the experiment or via post-processing, respectively. In this paper, we have solved the inverse problem of multifocal OCT and present a general algorithm for combining multiple ISAM datasets. Multifocal ISAM (MISAM) uses a regularized combination of the resampled datasets to bring advantages of both multifocal OCT and ISAM to achieve optimal transverse resolution, extended effective DOF and improved signal-to-noise ratio. We present theory, simulation and experimental results. PMID:24977909

  3. Multifocal interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Chng, Xiong Kai Benjamin; Adie, Steven G; Boppart, Stephen A; Carney, P Scott

    2014-06-30

    There is an inherent trade-off between transverse resolution and depth of field (DOF) in optical coherence tomography (OCT) which becomes a limiting factor for certain applications. Multifocal OCT and interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) each provide a distinct solution to the trade-off through modification to the experiment or via post-processing, respectively. In this paper, we have solved the inverse problem of multifocal OCT and present a general algorithm for combining multiple ISAM datasets. Multifocal ISAM (MISAM) uses a regularized combination of the resampled datasets to bring advantages of both multifocal OCT and ISAM to achieve optimal transverse resolution, extended effective DOF and improved signal-to-noise ratio. We present theory, simulation and experimental results. PMID:24977909

  4. Large aperture Fresnel telescopes/011

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A., LLNL

    1998-07-16

    At Livermore we`ve spent the last two years examining an alternative approach towards very large aperture (VLA) telescopes, one based upon transmissive Fresnel lenses rather than on mirrors. Fresnel lenses are attractive for VLA telescopes because they are launchable (lightweight, packagable, and deployable) and because they virtually eliminate the traditional, very tight, surface shape requirements faced by reflecting telescopes. Their (potentially severe) optical drawback, a very narrow spectral bandwidth, can be eliminated by use of a second (much smaller) chromatically-correcting Fresnel element. This enables Fresnel VLA telescopes to provide either single band ({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda} {approximately} 0.1), multiple band, or continuous spectral coverage. Building and fielding such large Fresnel lenses will present a significant challenge, but one which appears, with effort, to be solvable.

  5. Synthetic aperture interferometry: error analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Amiya; Coupland, Jeremy

    2010-07-10

    Synthetic aperture interferometry (SAI) is a novel way of testing aspherics and has a potential for in-process measurement of aspherics [Appl. Opt.42, 701 (2003)].APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.42.000701 A method to measure steep aspherics using the SAI technique has been previously reported [Appl. Opt.47, 1705 (2008)].APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.47.001705 Here we investigate the computation of surface form using the SAI technique in different configurations and discuss the computational errors. A two-pass measurement strategy is proposed to reduce the computational errors, and a detailed investigation is carried out to determine the effect of alignment errors on the measurement process.

  6. Grid-Enabled Measures

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Richard P.; Hesse, Bradford W.; Shaikh, Abdul R.; Courtney, Paul; Morgan, Glen; Augustson, Erik; Kobrin, Sarah; Levin, Kerry; Helba, Cynthia; Garner, David; Dunn, Marsha; Coa, Kisha

    2011-01-01

    Scientists are taking advantage of the Internet and collaborative web technology to accelerate discovery in a massively connected, participative environment —a phenomenon referred to by some as Science 2.0. As a new way of doing science, this phenomenon has the potential to push science forward in a more efficient manner than was previously possible. The Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database has been conceptualized as an instantiation of Science 2.0 principles by the National Cancer Institute with two overarching goals: (1) Promote the use of standardized measures, which are tied to theoretically based constructs; and (2) Facilitate the ability to share harmonized data resulting from the use of standardized measures. This is done by creating an online venue connected to the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) where a virtual community of researchers can collaborate together and come to consensus on measures by rating, commenting and viewing meta-data about the measures and associated constructs. This paper will describe the web 2.0 principles on which the GEM database is based, describe its functionality, and discuss some of the important issues involved with creating the GEM database, such as the role of mutually agreed-on ontologies (i.e., knowledge categories and the relationships among these categories— for data sharing). PMID:21521586

  7. Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  8. Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-05

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  9. A systematic review of aperture shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, A. B.; Frazier, T. V.

    The paper discusses the application of apodization to reflecting telescopes. The diffraction pattern of a telescope, which is the image of a star, can be changed considerably by using different aperture shapes in combination with appropriately shaped occulting masks on the optical axis. Aperture shapes studied were the circular, square, and hexagonal. Polaris (α-UMin) was used as the test system.

  10. ABCD matrix for apertured spherical waves.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Bernabeu, E; Alda, J

    1991-05-01

    An ABCD matrix for describing the hard aperture under a large Fresnel number is defined in this Technical Note based on Li and Wolf's formula. It is useful for analyzing focal shifts of complicated optical systems with hard apertures. PMID:20700324

  11. Data Grid Management Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.; Jagatheesan, Arun; Rajasekar, Arcot; Wan, Michael; Schroeder, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The "Grid" is an emerging infrastructure for coordinating access across autonomous organizations to distributed, heterogeneous computation and data resources. Data grids are being built around the world as the next generation data handling systems for sharing, publishing, and preserving data residing on storage systems located in multiple administrative domains. A data grid provides logical namespaces for users, digital entities and storage resources to create persistent identifiers for controlling access, enabling discovery, and managing wide area latencies. This paper introduces data grids and describes data grid use cases. The relevance of data grids to digital libraries and persistent archives is demonstrated, and research issues in data grids and grid dataflow management systems are discussed.

  12. Thermal emission by a subwavelength aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joulain, Karl; Ezzahri, Younès; Carminati, Rémi

    2016-04-01

    We calculate, by means of fluctuational electrodynamics, the thermal emission of an aperture separating from the outside, vacuum or a material at temperature T. We show that thermal emission is very different whether the aperture size is large or small compared to the thermal wavelength. Subwavelength apertures separating vacuum from the outside have their thermal emission strongly decreased compared to classical blackbodies which have an aperture much larger than the wavelength. A simple expression of their emissivity can be calculated and their total emissive power scales as T8 instead of T4 for large apertures. Thermal emission of disk of materials with a size comparable to the wavelength is also discussed. It is shown in particular that emissivity of such a disk is increased when the material can support surface waves such as phonon polaritons.

  13. Micro Ring Grating Spectrometer with Adjustable Aperture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A spectrometer includes a micro-ring grating device having coaxially-aligned ring gratings for diffracting incident light onto a target focal point, a detection device for detecting light intensity, one or more actuators, and an adjustable aperture device defining a circular aperture. The aperture circumscribes a target focal point, and directs a light to the detection device. The aperture device is selectively adjustable using the actuators to select a portion of a frequency band for transmission to the detection device. A method of detecting intensity of a selected band of incident light includes directing incident light onto coaxially-aligned ring gratings of a micro-ring grating device, and diffracting the selected band onto a target focal point using the ring gratings. The method includes using an actuator to adjust an aperture device and pass a selected portion of the frequency band to a detection device for measuring the intensity of the selected portion.

  14. Variable aperture collimator for high energy radiation

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Ronald A.

    1984-05-22

    An apparatus is disclosed providing a variable aperture energy beam collimator. A plurality of beam opaque blocks are in sliding interface edge contact to form a variable aperture. The blocks may be offset at the apex angle to provide a non-equilateral aperture. A plurality of collimator block assemblies may be employed for providing a channel defining a collimated beam. Adjacent assemblies are inverted front-to-back with respect to one another for preventing noncollimated energy from emerging from the apparatus. An adjustment mechanism comprises a cable attached to at least one block and a hand wheel mechanism for operating the cable. The blocks are supported by guide rods engaging slide brackets on the blocks. The guide rods are pivotally connected at each end to intermediate actuators supported on rotatable shafts to change the shape of the aperture. A divergent collimated beam may be obtained by adjusting the apertures of adjacent stages to be unequal.

  15. Unstructured grid methods for compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, K.; Peraire, J.; Peiro, J.

    1992-01-01

    The implementation of the finite element method on unstructured triangular grids is described and the development of centered finite element schemes for the solution of the compressible Euler equation on general triangular and tetrahedral grids is discussed. Explicit and implicit Lax-Wendroff type methods and a method based upon the use of explicit multistep timestepping are considered. In the latter case, the convergence behavior of the method is accelerated by the incorporation of a fully unstructured multigrid procedure. The advancing front method for generating unstructured grids of triangles and tetrahedra is described and the application of adaptive mesh techniques to both steady and transient flow analysis is illustrated.

  16. Aperture-based antihydrogen gravity experiment: Parallel plate geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, J. R.; Hedlof, R. M.; Ordonez, C. A.

    2013-10-15

    An analytical model and a Monte Carlo simulation are presented of an experiment that could be used to determine the direction of the acceleration of antihydrogen due to gravity. The experiment would rely on methods developed by existing antihydrogen research collaborations. The configuration consists of two circular, parallel plates that have an axis of symmetry directed away from the center of the earth. The plates are separated by a small vertical distance, and include one or more pairs of circular barriers that protrude from the upper and lower plates, thereby forming an aperture between the plates. Antihydrogen annihilations that occur just beyond each barrier, within a “shadow” region, are asymmetric on the upper plate relative to the lower plate. The probability for such annihilations is determined for a point, line and spheroidal source of antihydrogen. The production of 100,000 antiatoms is predicted to be necessary for the aperture-based experiment to indicate the direction of free fall acceleration of antimatter, provided that antihydrogen is produced within a sufficiently small antiproton plasma at a temperature of 4 K.

  17. The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

  18. NWTC Transmission and Grid Integration (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-04-01

    The rapid growth of alternative power sources, especially wind power, is creating challenges that affect the existing electric grid. To keep up with this rapid growth, researchers in the Transmission and Grid Integration Group provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance alternative energy and accelerate its integration into the nation's electrical grid. For example, we evaluate U.S. wind energy resources and collect and analyze data about the impact of wind development on the electrical grid. Researchers in the Transmission and Grid Integration Group offer assistance to utility industry partners in the following integration areas.

  19. A roadmap for caGrid, an enterprise Grid architecture for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Saltz, Joel; Hastings, Shannon; Langella, Stephen; Oster, Scott; Kurc, Tahsin; Payne, Philip; Ferreira, Renato; Plale, Beth; Goble, Carole; Ervin, David; Sharma, Ashish; Pan, Tony; Permar, Justin; Brezany, Peter; Siebenlist, Frank; Madduri, Ravi; Foster, Ian; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Mead, Charlie; Chue Hong, Neil

    2008-01-01

    caGrid is a middleware system which combines the Grid computing, the service oriented architecture, and the model driven architecture paradigms to support development of interoperable data and analytical resources and federation of such resources in a Grid environment. The functionality provided by caGrid is an essential and integral component of the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) program. This program is established by the National Cancer Institute as a nationwide effort to develop enabling informatics technologies for collaborative, multi-institutional biomedical research with the overarching goal of accelerating translational cancer research. Although the main application domain for caGrid is cancer research, the infrastructure provides a generic framework that can be employed in other biomedical research and healthcare domains. The development of caGrid is an ongoing effort, adding new functionality and improvements based on feedback and use cases from the community. This paper provides an overview of potential future architecture and tooling directions and areas of improvement for caGrid and caGrid-like systems. This summary is based on discussions at a roadmap workshop held in February with participants from biomedical research, Grid computing, and high performance computing communities. PMID:18560123

  20. A Roadmap for caGrid, an Enterprise Grid Architecture for Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Saltz, Joel; Hastings, Shannon; Langella, Stephen; Oster, Scott; Kurc, Tahsin; Payne, Philip; Ferreira, Renato; Plale, Beth; Goble, Carole; Ervin, David; Sharma, Ashish; Pan, Tony; Permar, Justin; Brezany, Peter; Siebenlist, Frank; Madduri, Ravi; Foster, Ian; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Mead, Charlie; Hong, Neil Chue

    2012-01-01

    caGrid is a middleware system which combines the Grid computing, the service oriented architecture, and the model driven architecture paradigms to support development of interoperable data and analytical resources and federation of such resources in a Grid environment. The functionality provided by caGrid is an essential and integral component of the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG™) program. This program is established by the National Cancer Institute as a nationwide effort to develop enabling informatics technologies for collaborative, multi-institutional biomedical research with the overarching goal of accelerating translational cancer research. Although the main application domain for caGrid is cancer research, the infrastructure provides a generic framework that can be employed in other biomedical research and healthcare domains. The development of caGrid is an ongoing effort, adding new functionality and improvements based on feedback and use cases from the community. This paper provides an overview of potential future architecture and tooling directions and areas of improvement for caGrid and caGrid-like systems. This summary is based on discussions at a roadmap workshop held in February with participants from biomedical research, Grid computing, and high performance computing communities. PMID:18560123

  1. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microscopy (ISAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adie, Steven G.; Shemonski, Nathan D.; Ralston, Tyler S.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    The trade-off between transverse resolution and depth-of-field, and the mitigation of optical aberrations, are long-standing problems in optical imaging. The deleterious impact of these problems on three-dimensional tomography increases with numerical aperture (NA), and so they represent a significant impediment for real-time cellular resolution tomography over the typical imaging depths achieved with OCT. With optical coherence microscopy (OCM), which utilizes higher-NA optics than OCT, the depth-of-field is severely reduced, and it has been postulated that aberrations play a major role in reducing the useful imaging depth in OCM. Even at lower transverse resolution, both these phenomena produce artifacts that degrade the imaging of fine tissue structures. Early approaches to the limited depth-of-field problem in time-domain OCT utilized dynamic focusing. In spectral-domain OCT, this focus-shifting approach to data acquisition leads to long acquisition times and large datasets. Adaptive optics (AO) has been utilized to correct optical aberrations, in particular for retinal OCT, but in addition to requiring elaborate and expensive setups, the real-time optimization requirements at the time of imaging, and the correction of spatially varying effects of aberrations throughout an imaged volume, remain as significant challenges. This chapter presents computed imaging solutions for the reconstruction of sample structure when imaging with ideal and aberrated Gaussian beams.

  2. Smov Fos/fgs Fine Alignment (small Apertures)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, Anne

    1994-01-01

    The goal is to measure the precise aperture locations and sizes. The analysis of the observations will result in database changes to the table of aperture locations. Precise aperture locations will be determined by performing a raster step and dwell sequence in the FOS apertures along the edges of the apertures. An aperture map is required at each step of the dwell sequence. This test has to be conducted for both the RED and BLUE detectors.

  3. Smov Fos/fgs Fine Alignment (small Apertures) Revitalized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, Anne

    1994-01-01

    The goal is to measure the precise aperture locations and sizes. The analysis of the observations will result in database changes to the table of aperture locations. Precise aperture locations will be determined by performing a raster step and dwell sequence in the FOS apertures along the edges of the apertures. An aperture map is required at each step of the dwell sequence. This test has to be conducted for both the RED and BLUE detectors.

  4. Ion accelerator systems for high power 30 cm thruster operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.

    1982-01-01

    Two and three-grid accelerator systems for high power ion thruster operation were investigated. Two-grid translation tests show that over compensation of the 30 cm thruster SHAG grid set spacing the 30 cm thruster radial plasma density variation and by incorporating grid compensation only sufficient to maintain grid hole axial alignment, it is shown that beam current gains as large as 50% can be realized. Three-grid translation tests performed with a simulated 30 cm thruster discharge chamber show that substantial beamlet steering can be reliably affected by decelerator grid translation only, at net-to-total voltage ratios as low as 0.05.

  5. Synthetic aperture methods for angular scatter imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, Drake A.; Ranganathan, Karthik; McAllister, Michael J.; Rigby, K. W.; Walker, William F.

    2004-04-01

    Angular scatter offers a new source of tissue contrast and an opportunity for tissue characterization in ultrasound imaging. We have previously described the application of the translating apertures algorithm (TAA) to coherently acquire angular scatter data over a range of scattering angles. While this approach works well at the focus, it suffers from poor depth of field (DOF) due to a finite aperture size. Furthermore, application of the TAA with large focused apertures entails a tradeoff between spatial resolution and scattering angle resolution. While large multielement apertures improve spatial resolution, they encompass many permutations of transmit/receive element pairs. This results in the simultaneous interrogation of multiple scattering angles, limiting angular resolution. We propose a synthetic aperture imaging scheme that achieves both high spatial resolution and high angular resolution. In backscatter acquisition mode, we transmit successively from single transducer elements, while receiving on the same element. Other scattering angles are interrogated by successively transmitting and receiving on different single elements chosen with the appropriate spatial separation between them. Thus any given image is formed using only transmit/receive element pairs at a single separation. This synthetic aperture approach minimizes averaging across scattering angles, and yields excellent angular resolution. Likewise, synthetic aperture methods allow us to build large effective apertures to maintain a high spatial resolution. Synthetic dynamic focusing and dynamic apodization are applied to further improve spatial resolution and DOF. We present simulation results and experimental results obtained using a GE Logiq 700MR system modified to obtain synthetic aperture TAA data. Images of wire targets exhibit high DOF and spatial resolution. We also present a novel approach for combining angular scatter data to effectively reduce grating lobes. With this approach we have

  6. Spatial services grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jian; Li, Qi; Cheng, Jicheng

    2005-10-01

    This paper discusses the concept, key technologies and main application of Spatial Services Grid. The technologies of Grid computing and Webservice is playing a revolutionary role in studying the spatial information services. The concept of the SSG (Spatial Services Grid) is put forward based on the SIG (Spatial Information Grid) and OGSA (open grid service architecture). Firstly, the grid computing is reviewed and the key technologies of SIG and their main applications are reviewed. Secondly, the grid computing and three kinds of SIG (in broad sense)--SDG (spatial data grid), SIG (spatial information grid) and SSG (spatial services grid) and their relationships are proposed. Thirdly, the key technologies of the SSG (spatial services grid) is put forward. Finally, three representative applications of SSG (spatial services grid) are discussed. The first application is urban location based services gird, which is a typical spatial services grid and can be constructed on OGSA (Open Grid Services Architecture) and digital city platform. The second application is region sustainable development grid which is the key to the urban development. The third application is Region disaster and emergency management services grid.

  7. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  8. PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Teng, L.C.

    1960-01-19

    ABS>A combination of two accelerators, a cyclotron and a ring-shaped accelerator which has a portion disposed tangentially to the cyclotron, is described. Means are provided to transfer particles from the cyclotron to the ring accelerator including a magnetic deflector within the cyclotron, a magnetic shield between the ring accelerator and the cyclotron, and a magnetic inflector within the ring accelerator.

  9. Longwave infrared (LWIR) coded aperture dispersive spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, C; Guenther, B D; Gehm, M E; Brady, D J; Sullivan, M E

    2007-04-30

    We describe a static aperture-coded, dispersive longwave infrared (LWIR) spectrometer that uses a microbolometer array at the detector plane. The two-dimensional aperture code is based on a row-doubled Hadamard mask with transmissive and opaque openings. The independent column code nature of the matrix makes for a mathematically well-defined pattern that spatially and spectrally maps the source information to the detector plane. Post-processing techniques on the data provide spectral estimates of the source. Comparative experimental results between a slit and coded aperture for emission spectroscopy from a CO(2) laser are demonstrated. PMID:19532832

  10. Scalar wave diffraction from a circular aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Cerjan, C.

    1995-01-25

    The scalar wave theory is used to evaluate the expected diffraction patterns from a circular aperture. The standard far-field Kirchhoff approximation is compared to the exact result expressed in terms of oblate spheroidal harmonics. Deviations from an expanding spherical wave are calculated for circular aperture radius and the incident beam wavelength using suggested values for a recently proposed point diffractin interferometer. The Kirchhoff approximation is increasingly reliable in the far-field limit as the aperture radius is increased, although significant errors in amplitude and phase persist.

  11. Three dimensional digital holographic aperture synthesis.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Stephen; Kaylor, Brant M; Barber, Zeb W; Reibel, Randy R

    2015-09-01

    Aperture synthesis techniques are applied to temporally and spatially diverse digital holograms recorded with a fast focal-plane array. Because the technique fully resolves the downrange dimension using wide-bandwidth FMCW linear-chirp waveforms, extremely high resolution three dimensional (3D) images can be obtained even at very long standoff ranges. This allows excellent 3D image formation even when targets have significant structure or discontinuities, which are typically poorly rendered with multi-baseline synthetic aperture ladar or multi-wavelength holographic aperture ladar approaches. The background for the system is described and system performance is demonstrated through both simulation and experiments. PMID:26368474

  12. Convergence acceleration of viscous flow computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple-grid convergence acceleration technique introduced for application to the solution of the Euler equations by means of Lax-Wendroff algorithms is extended to treat compressible viscous flow. Computational results are presented for the solution of the thin-layer version of the Navier-Stokes equations using the explicit MacCormack algorithm, accelerated by a convective coarse-grid scheme. Extensions and generalizations are mentioned.

  13. Very Large Aperture Diffractive Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, Roderick Allen

    1998-04-20

    A very large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass ''aiming'' at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The magnifying glass includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the magnifying glass, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets.

  14. Shock wave absorber having apertured plate

    DOEpatents

    Shin, Yong W.; Wiedermann, Arne H.; Ockert, Carl E.

    1985-01-01

    The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

  15. Shock wave absorber having apertured plate

    DOEpatents

    Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Ockert, C.E.

    1983-08-26

    The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

  16. Synthetic Aperture Radar Missions Study Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bard, S.

    2000-01-01

    This report reviews the history of the LightSAR project and summarizes actions the agency can undertake to support industry-led efforts to develop an operational synthetic aperture radar (SAR) capability in the United States.

  17. Contour-Mapping Synthetic-Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, R. M.; Caro, E. R.; Wu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Airborne two-antenna synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) interferometric system provides data processed to yield terrain elevation as well as reflectedintensity information. Relative altitudes of terrain points measured to within error of approximately 25 m.

  18. Eyeglass. 1. Very large aperture diffractive telescopes.

    PubMed

    Hyde, R A

    1999-07-01

    The Eyeglass is a very large aperture (25-100-m) space telescope consisting of two distinct spacecraft, separated in space by several kilometers. A diffractive lens provides the telescope s large aperture, and a separate, much smaller, space telescope serves as its mobile eyepiece. Use of a transmissive diffractive lens solves two basic problems associated with very large aperture space telescopes; it is inherently launchable (lightweight, packagable, and deployable) it and virtually eliminates the traditional, very tight surface shape tolerances faced by reflecting apertures. The potential drawback to use of a diffractive primary (very narrow spectral bandwidth) is eliminated by corrective optics in the telescope s eyepiece; the Eyeglass can provide diffraction-limited imaging with either single-band (Deltalambda/lambda approximately 0.1), multiband, or continuous spectral coverage. PMID:18323902

  19. Coded apertures for efficient pyroelectric motion tracking.

    PubMed

    Gopinathan, U; Brady, D; Pitsianis, N

    2003-09-01

    Coded apertures may be designed to modulate the visibility between source and measurement spaces such that the position of a source among N resolution cells may be discriminated using logarithm of N measurements. We use coded apertures as reference structures in a pyroelectric motion tracking system. This sensor system is capable of detecting source motion in one of the 15 cells uniformly distributed over a 1.6m x 1.6m domain using 4 pyroelectric detectors. PMID:19466102

  20. Large aperture ac interferometer for optical testing.

    PubMed

    Moore, D T; Murray, R; Neves, F B

    1978-12-15

    A 20-cm clear aperture modified Twyman-Green interferometer is described. The system measures phase with an AC technique called phase-lock interferometry while scanning the aperture with a dual galvanometer scanning system. Position information and phase are stored in a minicomputer with disk storage. This information is manipulated with associated software, and the wavefront deformation due to a test component is graphically displayed in perspective and contour on a CRT terminal. PMID:20208642

  1. Motion-adaptive compressive coded apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmany, Zachary T.; Oh, Albert; Marcia, Roummel; Willett, Rebecca

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes an adaptive compressive coded aperture imaging system for video based on motion-compensated video sparsity models. In particular, motion models based on optical flow and sparse deviations from optical flow (i.e. salient motion) can be used to (a) predict future video frames from previous compressive measurements, (b) perform reconstruction using efficient online convex programming techniques, and (c) adapt the coded aperture to yield higher reconstruction fidelity in the vicinity of this salient motion.

  2. Hybrid Grid Generation Using NW Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Jones-Oliveira, Janet B.; Oliveira, Joseph S.; Trease, Lynn L.; Trease, Harold E.; B.K. Soni, J. Hauser, J.F. Thompson, P.R. Eiseman

    2000-09-01

    We describe the development and use of a hybrid n-dimensional grid generation system called NWGRID. The Applied Mathematics Group at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing this tool to support the Laboratory's computational science efforts in chemistry, biology, engineering and environmental (subsurface and atmospheric) modeling. NWGRID is the grid generation system, which is designed for multi-scale, multi-material, multi-physics, time-dependent, 3-D, hybrid grids that are either statically adapted or evolved in time. NWGRID'S capabilities include static and dynamic grids, hybrid grids, managing colliding surfaces, and grid optimization[using reconnections, smoothing, and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithms]. NWGRID'S data structure can manage an arbitrary number of grid objects, each with an arbitrary number of grid attributes. NWGRID uses surface geometry to build volumes by using combinations of Boolean operators and order relations. Point distributions can be input, generated using either ray shooting techniques or defined point-by-point. Connectivity matrices are then generated automatically for all variations of hybrid grids.

  3. Resonant Effects in Nanoscale Bowtie Apertures

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li; Qin, Jin; Guo, Songpo; Liu, Tao; Kinzel, Edward; Wang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale bowtie aperture antennas can be used to focus light well below the diffraction limit with extremely high transmission efficiencies. This paper studies the spectral dependence of the transmission through nanoscale bowtie apertures defined in a silver film. A realistic bowtie aperture is numerically modeled using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. Results show that the transmission spectrum is dominated by Fabry-Pérot (F-P) waveguide modes and plasmonic modes. The F-P resonance is sensitive to the thickness of the film and the plasmonic resonant mode is closely related to the gap distance of the bowtie aperture. Both characteristics significantly affect the transmission spectrum. To verify these numerical results, bowtie apertures are FIB milled in a silver film. Experimental transmission measurements agree with simulation data. Based on this result, nanoscale bowtie apertures can be optimized to realize deep sub-wavelength confinement with high transmission efficiency with applications to nanolithography, data storage, and bio-chemical sensing. PMID:27250995

  4. Resonant Effects in Nanoscale Bowtie Apertures.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li; Qin, Jin; Guo, Songpo; Liu, Tao; Kinzel, Edward; Wang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale bowtie aperture antennas can be used to focus light well below the diffraction limit with extremely high transmission efficiencies. This paper studies the spectral dependence of the transmission through nanoscale bowtie apertures defined in a silver film. A realistic bowtie aperture is numerically modeled using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. Results show that the transmission spectrum is dominated by Fabry-Pérot (F-P) waveguide modes and plasmonic modes. The F-P resonance is sensitive to the thickness of the film and the plasmonic resonant mode is closely related to the gap distance of the bowtie aperture. Both characteristics significantly affect the transmission spectrum. To verify these numerical results, bowtie apertures are FIB milled in a silver film. Experimental transmission measurements agree with simulation data. Based on this result, nanoscale bowtie apertures can be optimized to realize deep sub-wavelength confinement with high transmission efficiency with applications to nanolithography, data storage, and bio-chemical sensing. PMID:27250995

  5. Parallel grid population

    DOEpatents

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  6. Measured Radiation and Background Levels During Transmission of Megawatt Electron Beams Through Millimeter Apertures

    SciTech Connect

    Alarcon, Ricardo; Balascuta, S.; Benson, Stephen V.; Bertozzi, William; Boyce, James R.; Cowan, Ray; Douglas, David R.; Evtushenko, Pavel; Fisher, P.; Ihloff, Ernest E.; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kelleher, Aidan Michael; Krossler, W. J.; Legg, Robert A.; Long, Elena; Milner, Richard; Neil, George R.; Ou, Longwu; Schmookler, Barack Abraham; Tennant, Christopher D.; Tschalar, C.; Williams, Gwyn P.; Zhang, Shukui

    2013-11-01

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-off, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW continuous-wave (CW) beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, multipactoring inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation when the machine is tuned for 130 MeV operation.

  7. Direct aperture optimization for IMRT using Monte Carlo generated beamlets.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Alanah M; Bush, Karl; Milette, Marie-Pierre; Popescu, I Antoniu; Otto, Karl; Duzenli, Cheryl

    2006-10-01

    This work introduces an EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo (MC) beamlet does distribution matrix into a direct aperture optimization (DAO) algorithm for IMRT inverse planning. The technique is referred to as Monte Carlo-direct aperture optimization (MC-DAO). The goal is to assess if the combination of accurate Monte Carlo tissue inhomogeneity modeling and DAO inverse planning will improve the dose accuracy and treatment efficiency for treatment planning. Several authors have shown that the presence of small fields and/or inhomogeneous materials in IMRT treatment fields can cause dose calculation errors for algorithms that are unable to accurately model electronic disequilibrium. This issue may also affect the IMRT optimization process because the dose calculation algorithm may not properly model difficult geometries such as targets close to low-density regions (lung, air etc.). A clinical linear accelerator head is simulated using BEAMnrc (NRC, Canada). A novel in-house algorithm subdivides the resulting phase space into 2.5 X 5.0 mm2 beamlets. Each beamlet is projected onto a patient-specific phantom. The beamlet dose contribution to each voxel in a structure-of-interest is calculated using DOSXYZnrc. The multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions are linked to the location of the beamlet does distributions. The MLC shapes are optimized using direct aperture optimization (DAO). A final Monte Carlo calculation with MLC modeling is used to compute the final dose distribution. Monte Carlo simulation can generate accurate beamlet dose distributions for traditionally difficult-to-calculate geometries, particularly for small fields crossing regions of tissue inhomogeneity. The introduction of DAO results in an additional improvement by increasing the treatment delivery efficiency. For the examples presented in this paper the reduction in the total number of monitor units to deliver is approximately 33% compared to fluence-based optimization methods. PMID:17089832

  8. LCLS X-ray mirror measurements using a large aperture visible light interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    McCarville, T; Soufli, R; Pivovaroff, M

    2011-03-02

    Synchrotron or FEL X-ray mirrors are required to deliver an X-ray beam from its source to an experiment location, without contributing significantly to wave front distortion. Accurate mirror figure measurements are required prior to installation to meet this intent. This paper describes how a 300 mm aperture phasing interferometer was calibrated to <1 nm absolute accuracy and used to mount and measure 450 mm long flats for the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Measuring focus mirrors with an interferometer requires additional calibration, because high fringe density introduces systematic errors from the interferometer's imaging optics. This paper describes how these errors can be measured and corrected. The calibration approaches described here apply equally well to interferometers larger than 300 mm aperture, which are becoming more common in optics laboratories. The objective of this effort was to install LCLS flats with < 10 nm of spherical curvature, and < 2 nm rms a-sphere. The objective was met by measuring the mirrors after fabrication, coating and mounting, using a 300 mm aperture phasing interferometer calibrated to an accuracy < 1 nm. The key to calibrating the interferometer accurately was to sample the error using independent geometries that are available. The results of those measurements helped identify and reduce calibration error sources. The approach used to measure flats applies equally well to focus mirrors, provided an additional calibration is performed to measure the error introduced by fringe density. This calibration has been performed on the 300 mm aperture interferometer, and the measurement correction was evaluated for a typical focus mirror. The 300 mm aperture limitation requires stitching figure measurements together for many X-ray mirrors of interest, introducing another possible error source. Stitching is eliminated by applying the calibrations described above to larger aperture instruments

  9. CWG - MUTUAL COUPLING PROGRAM FOR CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDE-FED APERTURE ARRAY (VAX VMS VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1994-01-01

    Mutual Coupling Program for Circular Waveguide-fed Aperture Array (CWG) was developed to calculate the electromagnetic interaction between elements of an antenna array of circular apertures with specified aperture field distributions. The field distributions were assumed to be a superposition of the modes which could exist in a circular waveguide. Various external media were included to provide flexibility of use, for example, the flexibility to determine the effects of dielectric covers (i.e., thermal protection system tiles) upon the impedance of aperture type antennas. The impedance and radiation characteristics of planar array antennas depend upon the mutual interaction between all the elements of the array. These interactions are influenced by several parameters (e.g., the array grid geometry, the geometry and excitation of each array element, the medium outside the array, and the internal network feeding the array.) For the class of array antenna whose radiating elements consist of small holes in a flat conducting plate, the electromagnetic problem can be divided into two parts, the internal and the external. In solving the external problem for an array of circular apertures, CWG will compute the mutual interaction between various combinations of circular modal distributions and apertures. CWG computes the mutual coupling between various modes assumed to exist in circular apertures that are located in a flat conducting plane of infinite dimensions. The apertures can radiate into free space, a homogeneous medium, a multilayered region or a reflecting surface. These apertures are assumed to be excited by one or more modes corresponding to the modal distributions in circular waveguides of the same cross sections as the apertures. The apertures may be of different sizes and also of different polarizations. However, the program assumes that each aperture field contains the same modal distributions, and calculates the complex scattering matrix between all mode and

  10. CWG - MUTUAL COUPLING PROGRAM FOR CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDE-FED APERTURE ARRAY (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1994-01-01

    Mutual Coupling Program for Circular Waveguide-fed Aperture Array (CWG) was developed to calculate the electromagnetic interaction between elements of an antenna array of circular apertures with specified aperture field distributions. The field distributions were assumed to be a superposition of the modes which could exist in a circular waveguide. Various external media were included to provide flexibility of use, for example, the flexibility to determine the effects of dielectric covers (i.e., thermal protection system tiles) upon the impedance of aperture type antennas. The impedance and radiation characteristics of planar array antennas depend upon the mutual interaction between all the elements of the array. These interactions are influenced by several parameters (e.g., the array grid geometry, the geometry and excitation of each array element, the medium outside the array, and the internal network feeding the array.) For the class of array antenna whose radiating elements consist of small holes in a flat conducting plate, the electromagnetic problem can be divided into two parts, the internal and the external. In solving the external problem for an array of circular apertures, CWG will compute the mutual interaction between various combinations of circular modal distributions and apertures. CWG computes the mutual coupling between various modes assumed to exist in circular apertures that are located in a flat conducting plane of infinite dimensions. The apertures can radiate into free space, a homogeneous medium, a multilayered region or a reflecting surface. These apertures are assumed to be excited by one or more modes corresponding to the modal distributions in circular waveguides of the same cross sections as the apertures. The apertures may be of different sizes and also of different polarizations. However, the program assumes that each aperture field contains the same modal distributions, and calculates the complex scattering matrix between all mode and

  11. Ion accelerator systems for high power 30-cm thruster operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of two- and three-grid accelerator systems for high power ion thruster operation has been performed. Two-grid translation tests show that overcompensation of the 30-cm thruster SHAG (Small Hole Accelerator Grid) leads to a premature impingement limit. By better matching the SHAG grid set spacing to the 30-cm thruster radial plasma density variation and by incorporating grid compensation only sufficient to maintain grid hole axial alignment, it is shown that beam current gains as large as 50% can be realized. Three-grid translation tests performed with a simulated 30-cm thruster discharge chamber show that substantial beamlet steering can be reliably affected by decelerator grid translation only, at net-to-total voltage ratios as low as 0.05.

  12. Thermal mechanical analyses of large diameter ion accelerator systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brophy, J.R.; Aston, G.

    1989-01-01

    Thermal mechanical analyses of large diameter ion accelerator systems are performed using commercially available finite element software executed on a desktop computer. Finite element models of a 30-cm-diameter accelerator system formulated using plate/shell elements give calculated results which agree well with similar published obtained on a mainframe computer. Analyses of a 50-cm-diameter, three-grid accelerator system using measured grid temperatures (corresponding to discharge powers of 653 and 886 watts) indicate that thermally induced grid movements need not be the performance limiting phenomena for accelerator systems of this size. 8 refs.

  13. Thermal mechanical analyses of large diameter ion accelerator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Aston, Graeme

    1989-01-01

    Thermal mechanical analyses of large diameter ion accelerator systems are performed using commercially available finite element software executed on a desktop computer. Finite element models of a 30-cm-diameter accelerator system formulated using plate/shell elements give calculated results which agree well with similar published obtained on a mainframe computer. Analyses of a 50-cm-diameter, three-grid accelerator system using measured grid temperatures (corresponding to discharge powers of 653 and 886 watts) indicate that thermally induced grid movements need not be the performance limiting phenomena for accelerator systems of this size.

  14. Method of grid generation

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Daniel W.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of grid generation that uses the geometry of the problem space and the governing relations to generate a grid. The method can generate a grid with minimized discretization errors, and with minimal user interaction. The method of the present invention comprises assigning grid cell locations so that, when the governing relations are discretized using the grid, at least some of the discretization errors are substantially zero. Conventional grid generation is driven by the problem space geometry; grid generation according to the present invention is driven by problem space geometry and by governing relations. The present invention accordingly can provide two significant benefits: more efficient and accurate modeling since discretization errors are minimized, and reduced cost grid generation since less human interaction is required.

  15. Dynamic Power Grid Simulation

    2015-09-14

    GridDyn is a part of power grid simulation toolkit. The code is designed using modern object oriented C++ methods utilizing C++11 and recent Boost libraries to ensure compatibility with multiple operating systems and environments.

  16. IPG Power Grid Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinke, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This presentation will describe what is meant by grids and then cover the current state of the IPG. This will include an overview of the middleware that is key to the operation of the grid. The presentation will then describe some of the future directions that are planned for the IPG. Finally the presentation will conclude with a brief overview of the Global Grid Forum, which is a key activity that will contribute to the successful availability of grid components.

  17. Implementation of swept synthetic aperture imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottenus, Nick; Jakovljevic, Marko; Boctor, Emad; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging of deep targets is limited by the resolution of current ultrasound systems based on the available aperture size. We propose a system to synthesize an extended effective aperture in order to improve resolution and target detectability at depth using a precisely-tracked transducer swept across the region of interest. A Field II simulation was performed to demonstrate the swept aperture approach in both the spatial and frequency domains. The adaptively beam-formed system was tested experimentally using a volumetric transducer and an ex vivo canine abdominal layer to evaluate the impact of clutter-generating tissue on the resulting point spread function. Resolution was improved by 73% using a 30.8 degree sweep despite the presence of varying aberration across the array with an amplitude on the order of 100 ns. Slight variations were observed in the magnitude and position of side lobes compared to the control case, but overall image quality was not significantly degraded as compared by a simulation based on the experimental point spread function. We conclude that the swept aperture imaging system may be a valuable tool for synthesizing large effective apertures using conventional ultrasound hardware.

  18. Aperture effects in squid jet propulsion.

    PubMed

    Staaf, Danna J; Gilly, William F; Denny, Mark W

    2014-05-01

    Squid are the largest jet propellers in nature as adults, but as paralarvae they are some of the smallest, faced with the inherent inefficiency of jet propulsion at a low Reynolds number. In this study we describe the behavior and kinematics of locomotion in 1 mm paralarvae of Dosidicus gigas, the smallest squid yet studied. They swim with hop-and-sink behavior and can engage in fast jets by reducing the size of the mantle aperture during the contraction phase of a jetting cycle. We go on to explore the general effects of a variable mantle and funnel aperture in a theoretical model of jet propulsion scaled from the smallest (1 mm mantle length) to the largest (3 m) squid. Aperture reduction during mantle contraction increases propulsive efficiency at all squid sizes, although 1 mm squid still suffer from low efficiency (20%) because of a limited speed of contraction. Efficiency increases to a peak of 40% for 1 cm squid, then slowly declines. Squid larger than 6 cm must either reduce contraction speed or increase aperture size to maintain stress within maximal muscle tolerance. Ecological pressure to maintain maximum velocity may lead them to increase aperture size, which reduces efficiency. This effect might be ameliorated by nonaxial flow during the refill phase of the cycle. Our model's predictions highlight areas for future empirical work, and emphasize the existence of complex behavioral options for maximizing efficiency at both very small and large sizes. PMID:24501132

  19. Bi-metal coated aperture SNOM probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antosiewicz, Tomasz J.; Wróbel, Piotr; Szoplik, Tomasz

    2011-05-01

    Aperture probes of scanning near-field optical microscopes (SNOM) offer resolution which is limited by a sum of the aperture diameter at the tip of a tapered waveguide probe and twice the skin depth in metal used for coating. An increase of resolution requires a decrease of the aperture diameter. However, due to low energy throughput of such probes aperture diameters usually are larger than 50 nm. A groove structure at fiber core-metal coating interface for photon-to-plasmon conversion enhances the energy throughput 5-fold for Al coated probes and 30-fold for Au coated probes due to lower losses in the metal. However, gold coated probes have lower resolution, first due to light coupling from the core to plasmons at the outside of the metal coating, and second due to the skin depth being larger than for Al. Here we report on the impact of a metal bilayer of constant thickness for coating aperture SNOM probes. The purpose of the bilayer of two metals of which the outer one is aluminum and the inner is a noble metal is to assure low losses, hence larger transmission. Using body-of-revolution finite-difference time-domain simulations we analyze properties of probes without corrugations to measure the impact of using a metal bilayer and choose an optimum bi-metal configuration. Additionally we investigate how this type of metalization works in the case of grooved probes.

  20. Testing the large aperture optical components by the sub-aperture stitching interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong; Wang, Zhao-xuan; Wang, Qing; Ji, Bo

    2008-03-01

    Nowadays many large aperture optical components are widely used in the high-tech area, how to test them become more and more important. Here describes a new method to test the large aperture optical components using the small aperture interferometer, deduce how to get the aperture number and the concrete process of the stitching parameter in a systematic way, finally get the best plan to choose the sub-aperture of the square and circular optical plane. To specify the stability of the method we operate an experiment, the result shows that the stitching accuracy can reach λ/10, it meet the need of the inertia constraint fusion etc, that is good enough to be used in the high-tech area.

  1. Chimera Grid Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, William M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Nash, Steven M.; Buning, Pieter G.; Meakin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Chimera Grid Tools (CGT) is a software package for performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis utilizing the Chimera-overset-grid method. For modeling flows with viscosity about geometrically complex bodies in relative motion, the Chimera-overset-grid method is among the most computationally cost-effective methods for obtaining accurate aerodynamic results. CGT contains a large collection of tools for generating overset grids, preparing inputs for computer programs that solve equations of flow on the grids, and post-processing of flow-solution data. The tools in CGT include grid editing tools, surface-grid-generation tools, volume-grid-generation tools, utility scripts, configuration scripts, and tools for post-processing (including generation of animated images of flows and calculating forces and moments exerted on affected bodies). One of the tools, denoted OVERGRID, is a graphical user interface (GUI) that serves to visualize the grids and flow solutions and provides central access to many other tools. The GUI facilitates the generation of grids for a new flow-field configuration. Scripts that follow the grid generation process can then be constructed to mostly automate grid generation for similar configurations. CGT is designed for use in conjunction with a computer-aided-design program that provides the geometry description of the bodies, and a flow-solver program.

  2. Modeling Neutral Densities Downstream of a Gridded Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    2010-01-01

    The details of a model for determining the neutral density downstream of a gridded ion thruster are presented. An investigation of the possible sources of neutrals emanating from and surrounding a NEXT ion thruster determined that the most significant contributors to the downstream neutral density include discharge chamber neutrals escaping through the perforated grids, neutrals escaping from the neutralizer, and vacuum facility background neutrals. For the neutral flux through the grids, near- and far-field equations are presented for rigorously determining the neutral density downstream of a cylindrical aperture. These equations are integrated into a spherically-domed convex grid geometry with a hexagonal array of apertures for determining neutral densities downstream of the ion thruster grids. The neutrals escaping from an off-center neutralizer are also modeled assuming diffuse neutral emission from the neutralizer keeper orifice. Finally, the effect of the surrounding vacuum facility neutrals is included and assumed to be constant. The model is used to predict the neutral density downstream of a NEXT ion thruster with and without neutralizer flow and a vacuum facility background pressure. The impacts of past simplifying assumptions for predicting downstream neutral densities are also examined for a NEXT ion thruster.

  3. Plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, R.D.; Chen, P.

    1986-03-01

    In this paper we discuss plasma accelerators which might provide high gradient accelerating fields suitable for TeV linear colliders. In particular we discuss two types of plasma accelerators which have been proposed, the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator and the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator. We show that the electric fields in the plasma for both schemes are very similar, and thus the dynamics of the driven beams are very similar. The differences appear in the parameters associated with the driving beams. In particular to obtain a given accelerating gradient, the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator has a higher efficiency and a lower total energy for the driving beam. Finally, we show for the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator that one can accelerate high quality low emittance beams and, in principle, obtain efficiencies and energy spreads comparable to those obtained with conventional techniques.

  4. A new pad-based neutron detector for stereo coded aperture thermal neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dioszegi, I.; Yu, B.; Smith, G.; Schaknowski, N.; Fried, J.; Vanier, P. E.; Salwen, C.; Forman, L.

    2014-09-01

    A new coded aperture thermal neutron imager system has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The cameras use a new type of position-sensitive 3He-filled ionization chamber, in which an anode plane is composed of an array of pads with independent acquisition channels. The charge is collected on each of the individual 5x5 mm2 anode pads, (48x48 in total, corresponding to 24x24 cm2 sensitive area) and read out by application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). The new design has several advantages for coded-aperture imaging applications in the field, compared to the previous generation of wire-grid based neutron detectors. Among these are its rugged design, lighter weight and use of non-flammable stopping gas. The pad-based readout occurs in parallel circuits, making it capable of high count rates, and also suitable to perform data analysis and imaging on an event-by-event basis. The spatial resolution of the detector can be better than the pixel size by using a charge sharing algorithm. In this paper we will report on the development and performance of the new pad-based neutron camera, describe a charge sharing algorithm to achieve sub-pixel spatial resolution and present the first stereoscopic coded aperture images of thermalized neutron sources using the new coded aperture thermal neutron imager system.

  5. Hydrogen ionic plasma generated using Al plasma grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oohara, W.; Anegawa, N.; Egawa, M.; Kawata, K.; Kamikawa, T.

    2016-08-01

    Negative hydrogen ions are produced in the apertures of a plasma grid made of aluminum under the irradiation of positive ions, generating an ionic plasma consisting of positive and negative ions. The saturation current ratio obtained using a Langmuir probe reflects the existence ratio of electrons and is found to increase in connection with the diffusion of the ionic plasma. The local increment of the current ratio suggests the collapse of negative ions and the replacement of detached electrons.

  6. Class of near-perfect coded apertures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, T. M.; Fenimore, E. E.

    1977-01-01

    Coded aperture imaging of gamma ray sources has long promised an improvement in the sensitivity of various detector systems. The promise has remained largely unfulfilled, however, for either one of two reasons. First, the encoding/decoding method produces artifacts, which even in the absence of quantum noise, restrict the quality of the reconstructed image. This is true of most correlation-type methods. Second, if the decoding procedure is of the deconvolution variety, small terms in the transfer function of the aperture can lead to excessive noise in the reconstructed image. It is proposed to circumvent both of these problems by use of a uniformly redundant array (URA) as the coded aperture in conjunction with a special correlation decoding method.

  7. The aperture problem in contoured stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kane, David; Bex, Peter J.; Dakin, Steven C.

    2010-01-01

    A moving object elicits responses from V1 neurons tuned to a broad range of locations, directions, and spatiotemporal frequencies. Global pooling of such signals can overcome their intrinsic ambiguity in relation to the object’s direction/speed (the “aperture problem”); here we examine the role of low-spatial frequencies (SF) and second-order statistics in this process. Subjects made a 2AFC fine direction-discrimination judgement of ‘naturally’ contoured stimuli viewed rigidly translating behind a series of small circular apertures. This configuration allowed us to manipulate the scene in several ways; by randomly switching which portion of the stimulus was presented behind each aperture or by occluding certain spatial frequency bands. We report that global motion integration is (a) largely insensitive to the second-order statistics of such stimuli and (b) is rigidly broadband even in the presence of a disrupted low SF component. PMID:19810794

  8. Solar energy apparatus with apertured shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collings, Roger J. (Inventor); Bannon, David G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A protective apertured shield for use about an inlet to a solar apparatus which includesd a cavity receiver for absorbing concentrated solar energy. A rigid support truss assembly is fixed to the periphery of the inlet and projects radially inwardly therefrom to define a generally central aperture area through which solar radiation can pass into the cavity receiver. A non-structural, laminated blanket is spread over the rigid support truss in such a manner as to define an outer surface area and an inner surface area diverging radially outwardly from the central aperture area toward the periphery of the inlet. The outer surface area faces away from the inlet and the inner surface area faces toward the cavity receiver. The laminated blanket includes at least one layer of material, such as ceramic fiber fabric, having high infra-red emittance and low solar absorption properties, and another layer, such as metallic foil, of low infra-red emittance properties.

  9. The CMS integration grid testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Gregory E.

    2004-08-26

    The CMS Integration Grid Testbed (IGT) comprises USCMS Tier-1 and Tier-2 hardware at the following sites: the California Institute of Technology, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the University of California at San Diego, and the University of Florida at Gainesville. The IGT runs jobs using the Globus Toolkit with a DAGMan and Condor-G front end. The virtual organization (VO) is managed using VO management scripts from the European Data Grid (EDG). Gridwide monitoring is accomplished using local tools such as Ganglia interfaced into the Globus Metadata Directory Service (MDS) and the agent based Mona Lisa. Domain specific software is packaged and installed using the Distribution After Release (DAR) tool of CMS, while middleware under the auspices of the Virtual Data Toolkit (VDT) is distributed using Pacman. During a continuous two month span in Fall of 2002, over 1 million official CMS GEANT based Monte Carlo events were generated and returned to CERN for analysis while being demonstrated at SC2002. In this paper, we describe the process that led to one of the world's first continuously available, functioning grids.

  10. Grid Architecture 2

    SciTech Connect

    Taft, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The report describes work done on Grid Architecture under the auspices of the Department of Electricity Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability in 2015. As described in the first Grid Architecture report, the primary purpose of this work is to provide stakeholder insight about grid issues so as to enable superior decision making on their part. Doing this requires the creation of various work products, including oft-times complex diagrams, analyses, and explanations. This report provides architectural insights into several important grid topics and also describes work done to advance the science of Grid Architecture as well.

  11. FermiGrid

    SciTech Connect

    Yocum, D.R.; Berman, E.; Canal, P.; Chadwick, K.; Hesselroth, T.; Garzoglio, G.; Levshina, T.; Sergeev, V.; Sfiligoi, I.; Sharma, N.; Timm, S.; /Fermilab

    2007-05-01

    As one of the founding members of the Open Science Grid Consortium (OSG), Fermilab enables coherent access to its production resources through the Grid infrastructure system called FermiGrid. This system successfully provides for centrally managed grid services, opportunistic resource access, development of OSG Interfaces for Fermilab, and an interface to the Fermilab dCache system. FermiGrid supports virtual organizations (VOs) including high energy physics experiments (USCMS, MINOS, D0, CDF, ILC), astrophysics experiments (SDSS, Auger, DES), biology experiments (GADU, Nanohub) and educational activities.

  12. Aperture shape optimization for IMRT treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassioli, A.; Unkelbach, J.

    2013-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for aperture shape optimization (ASO) for step and shoot delivery of intensity-modulated radiotherapy. The method is an approach to direct aperture optimization (DAO) that exploits gradient information to locally optimize the positions of the leafs of a multileaf collimator. Based on the dose-influence matrix, the dose distribution is locally approximated as a linear function of the leaf positions. Since this approximation is valid only in a small interval around the current leaf positions, we use a trust-region-like method to optimize the leaf positions: in one iteration, the leaf motion is confined to the beamlets where the leaf edges are currently positioned. This yields a well-behaved optimization problem for the leaf positions and the aperture weights, which can be solved efficiently. If, in one iteration, a leaf is moved to the edge of a beamlet, the leaf motion can be confined to the neighboring beamlet in the next iteration. This allows for large leaf position changes over the course of the algorithm. In this paper, the ASO algorithm is embedded into a column-generation approach to DAO. After a new aperture is added to the treatment plan, we use the ASO algorithm to simultaneously optimize aperture weights and leaf positions for the new set of apertures. We present results for a paraspinal tumor case, a prostate case and a head and neck case. The computational results indicate that, using this approach, treatment plans close to the ideal fluence map optimization solution can be obtained.

  13. Transient simulation of ram accelerator flowfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabczuk, Randall P.; Rolader, G.; Dash, S.; Sinha, N.; York, B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an advanced computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation capability in support of the USAF Armament Directorate ram accelerator research initiative. The state-of-the-art CRAFT computer code has been specialized for high fidelity, transient ram accelerator simulations via inclusion of generalized dynamic gridding, solution adaptive grid clustering, and high pressure thermo-chemistry. Selected ram accelerator simulations are presented that serve to exhibit the CRAFT code capabilities and identify some of the principle research/design Issues.

  14. Transient simulation of ram accelerator flowfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, N.; York, B. J.; Dash, S. M.; Drabczuk, R.; Rolader, G. E.

    1992-10-01

    This paper describes the development of an advanced computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation capability in support of the U.S. Air Force Armament Directorate's ram accelerator research initiative. The state-of-the-art CRAFT computer code has been specialized for high fidelity, transient ram accelerator simulations via inclusion of generalized dynamic gridding, solution adaptive grid clustering, high pressure thermochemistry, etc. Selected ram accelerator simulations are presented which serve to exhibit the CRAFT code's capabilities and identify some of the principal research/design issues.

  15. Synthetic aperture radar capabilities in development

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.

    1994-11-15

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within the Laser Program is currently developing an X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to support the Joint US/UK Radar Ocean Imaging Program. The radar system will be mounted in the program`s Airborne Experimental Test-Bed (AETB), where the initial mission is to image ocean surfaces and better understand the physics of low grazing angle backscatter. The Synthetic Aperture Radar presentation will discuss its overall functionality and a brief discussion on the AETB`s capabilities. Vital subsystems including radar, computer, navigation, antenna stabilization, and SAR focusing algorithms will be examined in more detail.

  16. Fast decoding algorithms for coded aperture systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byard, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    Fast decoding algorithms are described for a number of established coded aperture systems. The fast decoding algorithms for all these systems offer significant reductions in the number of calculations required when reconstructing images formed by a coded aperture system and hence require less computation time to produce the images. The algorithms may therefore be of use in applications that require fast image reconstruction, such as near real-time nuclear medicine and location of hazardous radioactive spillage. Experimental tests confirm the efficacy of the fast decoding techniques.

  17. PDII- Additional discussion of the dynamic aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Norman M. Gelfand

    2002-07-23

    This note is in the nature of an addition to the dynamic aperture calculations found in the report on the Proton Driver, FERMILAB-TM-2169. A extensive discussion of the Proton Driver lattice, as well as the nomenclature used to describe it can be found in TM-2169. Basically the proposed lattice is a racetrack design with the two arcs joined by two long straight sections. The straight sections are dispersion free. Tracking studies were undertaken with the objective of computing the dynamic aperture for the lattice and some of the results have been incorporated into TM-2169. This note is a more extensive report of those calculations.

  18. Understanding The Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report provides an overview of what the Smart Grid is and what is being done to define and implement it. The electric industry is preparing to undergo a transition from a centralized, producer-controlled network to a decentralized, user-interactive one. Not only will the technology involved in the electric grid change, but the entire business model of the industry will change too. A major objective of the report is to identify the changes that the Smart Grid will bring about so that industry participants can be prepared to face them. A concise overview of the development of the Smart Grid is provided. It presents an understanding of what the Smart Grid is, what new business opportunities or risks might come about due to its introduction, and what activities are already taking place regarding defining or implementing the Smart Grid. This report will be of interest to the utility industry, energy service providers, aggregators, and regulators. It will also be of interest to home/building automation vendors, information technology vendors, academics, consultants, and analysts. The scope of the report includes an overview of the Smart Grid which identifies the main components of the Smart Grid, describes its characteristics, and describes how the Smart Grid differs from the current electric grid. The overview also identifies the key concepts involved in the transition to the Smart Grid and explains why a Smart Grid is needed by identifying the deficiencies of the current grid and the need for new investment. The report also looks at the impact of the Smart Grid, identifying other industries which have gone through a similar transition, identifying the overall benefits of the Smart Grid, and discussing the impact of the Smart Grid on industry participants. Furthermore, the report looks at current activities to implement the Smart Grid including utility projects, industry collaborations, and government initiatives. Finally, the report takes a look at key technology

  19. Grid quality improvement by a grid adaptation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. D.; Henderson, T. L.; Choo, Y. K.

    1991-01-01

    A grid adaptation technique is presented which improves grid quality. The method begins with an assessment of grid quality by defining an appropriate grid quality measure. Then, undesirable grid properties are eliminated by a grid-quality-adaptive grid generation procedure. The same concept has been used for geometry-adaptive and solution-adaptive grid generation. The difference lies in the definition of the grid control sources; here, they are extracted from the distribution of a particular grid property. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the versatility and effectiveness of the method.

  20. Navigation in Grid Space with the NAS Grid Benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Hood, Robert; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a navigational tool for computational grids. The navigational process is based on measuring the grid characteristics with the NAS Grid Benchmarks (NGB) and using the measurements to assign tasks of a grid application to the grid machines. The tool allows the user to explore the grid space and to navigate the execution at a grid application to minimize its turnaround time. We introduce the notion of gridscape as a user view of the grid and show how it can be me assured by NGB, Then we demonstrate how the gridscape can be used with two different schedulers to navigate a grid application through a rudimentary grid.

  1. Grid enabled Service Support Environment - SSE Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goor, Erwin; Paepen, Martine

    2010-05-01

    The SSEGrid project is an ESA/ESRIN project which started in 2009 and is executed by two Belgian companies, Spacebel and VITO, and one Dutch company, Dutch Space. The main project objectives are the introduction of a Grid-based processing on demand infrastructure at the Image Processing Centre for earth observation products at VITO and the inclusion of Grid processing services in the Service Support Environment (SSE) at ESRIN. The Grid-based processing on demand infrastructure is meant to support a Grid processing on demand model for Principal Investigators (PI) and allow the design and execution of multi-sensor applications with geographically spread data while minimising the transfer of huge volumes of data. In the first scenario, 'support a Grid processing on demand model for Principal Investigators', we aim to provide processing power close to the EO-data at the processing and archiving centres. We will allow a PI (non-Grid expert user) to upload his own algorithm, as a process, and his own auxiliary data from the SSE Portal and use them in an earth observation workflow on the SSEGrid Infrastructure. The PI can design and submit workflows using his own processes, processes made available by VITO/ESRIN and possibly processes from other users that are available on the Grid. These activities must be user-friendly and not requiring detailed knowledge about the underlying Grid middleware. In the second scenario we aim to design, implement and demonstrate a methodology to set up an earth observation processing facility, which uses large volumes of data from various geographically spread sensors. The aim is to provide solutions for problems that we face today, like wasting bandwidth by copying large volumes of data to one location. We will avoid this by processing the data where they are. The multi-mission Grid-based processing on demand infrastructure will allow developing and executing complex and massive multi-sensor data (re-)processing applications more

  2. Securing smart grid technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaitanya Krishna, E.; Kosaleswara Reddy, T.; Reddy, M. YogaTeja; Reddy G. M., Sreerama; Madhusudhan, E.; AlMuhteb, Sulaiman

    2013-03-01

    In the developing countries electrical energy is very important for its all-round improvement by saving thousands of dollars and investing them in other sector for development. For Growing needs of power existing hierarchical, centrally controlled grid of the 20th Century is not sufficient. To produce and utilize effective power supply for industries or people we should have Smarter Electrical grids that address the challenges of the existing power grid. The Smart grid can be considered as a modern electric power grid infrastructure for enhanced efficiency and reliability through automated control, high-power converters, modern communications infrastructure along with modern IT services, sensing and metering technologies, and modern energy management techniques based on the optimization of demand, energy and network availability and so on. The main objective of this paper is to provide a contemporary look at the current state of the art in smart grid communications as well as critical issues on smart grid technologies primarily in terms of information and communication technology (ICT) issues like security, efficiency to communications layer field. In this paper we propose new model for security in Smart Grid Technology that contains Security Module(SM) along with DEM which will enhance security in Grid. It is expected that this paper will provide a better understanding of the technologies, potential advantages and research challenges of the smart grid and provoke interest among the research community to further explore this promising research area.

  3. Processing for spaceborne synthetic aperture radar imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lybanon, M.

    1973-01-01

    The data handling and processing in using synthetic aperture radar as a satellite-borne earth resources remote sensor is considered. The discussion covers the nature of the problem, the theory, both conventional and potential advanced processing techniques, and a complete computer simulation. It is shown that digital processing is a real possibility and suggests some future directions for research.

  4. Multiple aperture seeker design for endoatmospheric intercepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Jennifer; Shui, Ven; Reeves, Barry

    1993-06-01

    An IR optical seeker concept developed by Loral Infrared and Imaging Systems to meet the endoatmospheric requirements for hit-to-kill intercepts is presented. The seeker works in conjunction with an uncooled window concept developed by Textron Defense Systems. The combination of the compact seeker design with an uncooled window aperture provides an adequate solution with minimal complexity.

  5. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microwave Radiometers : an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colliander, Andreas; McKague, Darren

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes 1) the progress of the work of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society (GRSS) Instrumentation and Future Technologies Technical Committee (IFT-TC) Microwave Radiometer Working Group and 2) an overview of the development of interferometric synthetic aperture microwave radiometers as an introduction to a dedicated session.

  6. Dynamic metamaterial aperture for microwave imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleasman, Timothy; F. Imani, Mohammadreza; Gollub, Jonah N.; Smith, David R.

    2015-11-01

    We present a dynamic metamaterial aperture for use in computational imaging schemes at microwave frequencies. The aperture consists of an array of complementary, resonant metamaterial elements patterned into the upper conductor of a microstrip line. Each metamaterial element contains two diodes connected to an external control circuit such that the resonance of the metamaterial element can be damped by application of a bias voltage. Through applying different voltages to the control circuit, select subsets of the elements can be switched on to create unique radiation patterns that illuminate the scene. Spatial information of an imaging domain can thus be encoded onto this set of radiation patterns, or measurements, which can be processed to reconstruct the targets in the scene using compressive sensing algorithms. We discuss the design and operation of a metamaterial imaging system and demonstrate reconstructed images with a 10:1 compression ratio. Dynamic metamaterial apertures can potentially be of benefit in microwave or millimeter wave systems such as those used in security screening and through-wall imaging. In addition, feature-specific or adaptive imaging can be facilitated through the use of the dynamic aperture.

  7. Multispectral Dual-Aperture Schmidt Objective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, P. O.

    1983-01-01

    Off-axis focal planes make room for beam splitters. System includes two off-axis primary spherical reflectors, each concentric with refractive corrector at aperature. Off-axis design assures large aperture required for adequate spatial resolution. Separate images have precise registration, used for multispectral resource mapping or remote sensing.

  8. Partially redundant apertures for infrared stellar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitken, G. J. M.; Corteggiani, J. P.; Gay, J.

    1981-06-01

    Spectral-bandwidth constraints to ensure controlled amounts of redundancy are established for a class of two-dimensional partially redundant arrays (PRA's). In the IR, where speckle statistics are poor, the telescope-atmosphere modulation transfer function is determined solely by the PRA geometry. Signal-to-noise-ratio estimates, an optimum aperture criterion, and a six-element PRA example are presented.

  9. Agile multiple aperture imager receiver development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, David E. B.; Dillon, Robert F.

    1990-02-01

    A variety of unconventional imaging schemes have been investigated in recent years that rely on small, unphased optical apertures (subaperture) to measure properties of an incoming optical wavefront and recover images of distant objects without using precisely figured, large aperture optical elements. Such schemes offer several attractive features. They provide the potential to create very lare effective aperture that are expandable over time and can be launched into space in small pieces. Since the subapertures are identical in construction, they may be mass producible at potentially low cost. A preliminary design for a practical low cost optical receiver is presented. The multiple aperture design has high sensitivity, wide field-of-view, and is lightweight. A combination of spectral, temporal, and spatial background suppression are used to achieve daytime operation at low signal levels. Modular packaging to make the number of receiver subapertures conveniently scalable is also presented. The design is appropriate to a ground-base proof-of-concept experiment for long range active speckle imaging.

  10. Radiation safety considerations in proton aperture disposal.

    PubMed

    Walker, Priscilla K; Edwards, Andrew C; Das, Indra J; Johnstone, Peter A S

    2014-04-01

    Beam shaping in scattered and uniform scanned proton beam therapy (PBT) is made commonly by brass apertures. Due to proton interactions, these devices become radioactive and could pose safety issues and radiation hazards. Nearly 2,000 patient-specific devices per year are used at Indiana University Cyclotron Operations (IUCO) and IU Health Proton Therapy Center (IUHPTC); these devices require proper guidelines for disposal. IUCO practice has been to store these apertures for at least 4 mo to allow for safe transfer to recycling contractors. The devices require decay in two staged secure locations, including at least 4 mo in a separate building, at which point half are ready for disposal. At 6 mo, 20-30% of apertures require further storage. This process requires significant space and manpower and should be considered in the design process for new clinical facilities. More widespread adoption of pencil beam or spot scanning nozzles may obviate this issue, as apertures then will no longer be necessary. PMID:24562073

  11. Vowel Aperture and Syllable Segmentation in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goslin, Jeremy; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.

    2008-01-01

    The theories of Pulgram (1970) suggest that if the vowel of a French syllable is open then it will induce syllable segmentation responses that result in the syllable being closed, and vice versa. After the empirical verification that our target French-speaking population was capable of distinguishing between mid-vowel aperture, we examined the…

  12. Dynamic metamaterial aperture for microwave imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Sleasman, Timothy; Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Gollub, Jonah N.; Smith, David R.

    2015-11-16

    We present a dynamic metamaterial aperture for use in computational imaging schemes at microwave frequencies. The aperture consists of an array of complementary, resonant metamaterial elements patterned into the upper conductor of a microstrip line. Each metamaterial element contains two diodes connected to an external control circuit such that the resonance of the metamaterial element can be damped by application of a bias voltage. Through applying different voltages to the control circuit, select subsets of the elements can be switched on to create unique radiation patterns that illuminate the scene. Spatial information of an imaging domain can thus be encoded onto this set of radiation patterns, or measurements, which can be processed to reconstruct the targets in the scene using compressive sensing algorithms. We discuss the design and operation of a metamaterial imaging system and demonstrate reconstructed images with a 10:1 compression ratio. Dynamic metamaterial apertures can potentially be of benefit in microwave or millimeter wave systems such as those used in security screening and through-wall imaging. In addition, feature-specific or adaptive imaging can be facilitated through the use of the dynamic aperture.

  13. Aperture synthesis imaging from the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O.

    1991-01-01

    Four candidate imaging aperture synthesis concepts are described for possible emplacement on the moon beginning in the next decade. These include an optical interferometer with 10 microarcsec resolution, a submillimeter array with 6 milliarcsec resolution, a moon-earth VLBI experiment, and a very low frequency interferometer in lunar orbit.

  14. Perceiving Affordances for Fitting through Apertures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishak, Shaziela; Adolph, Karen E.; Lin, Grace C.

    2008-01-01

    Affordances--possibilities for action--are constrained by the match between actors and their environments. For motor decisions to be adaptive, affordances must be detected accurately. Three experiments examined the correspondence between motor decisions and affordances as participants reached through apertures of varying size. A psychophysical…

  15. Clutter free synthetic aperture radar correlator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, A.

    1977-01-01

    A synthetic aperture radar correlation system including a moving diffuser located at the image plane of a radar processor is described. The output of the moving diffuser is supplied to a lens whose impulse response is at least as wide as that of the overall processing system. A significant reduction in clutter results is given.

  16. Adaptive grid embedding for the two-dimensional Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Gary P.

    1990-01-01

    A numerical algorithm is presented for solving the two-dimensional flux-split Euler equations using a multigrid method with adaptive grid embedding. The method uses an unstructured data set along with a system of pointers for communication on the irregularly shaped grid topologies. An explicit two-stage time advancement scheme is implemented. A multigrid algorithm is used to provide grid level communication and to accelerate the convergence of the solution to steady state. Results are presented for an NACA 0012 airfoil in a freestream with Mach numbers of 0.95 and 1.054. Excellent resolution of the shock structures is obtained with the adaptive grid embedding method with significantly fewer grid points than the comparable structured grid.

  17. RF Performance of Membrane Aperture Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flint, Eirc M.; Lindler, Jason E.; Thomas, David L.; Romanofsky, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent results establishing the suitability of Membrane Aperture Shell Technology (MAST) for Radio Frequency (RF) applications. These single surface shells are capable of maintaining their figure with no preload or pressurization and minimal boundary support, yet can be compactly roll stowed and passively self deploy. As such, they are a promising technology for enabling a future generation of RF apertures. In this paper, we review recent experimental and numerical results quantifying suitable RF performance. It is shown that candidate materials possess metallic coatings with sufficiently low surface roughness and that these materials can be efficiently fabricated into RF relevant doubly curved shapes. A numerical justification for using a reflectivity metric, as opposed to the more standard RF designer metric of skin depth, is presented and the resulting ability to use relatively thin coating thickness is experimentally validated with material sample tests. The validity of these independent film sample measurements are then confirmed through experimental results measuring RF performance for reasonable sized doubly curved apertures. Currently available best results are 22 dBi gain at 3 GHz (S-Band) for a 0.5m aperture tested in prime focus mode, 28dBi gain for the same antenna in the C-Band (4 to 6 GHz), and 36.8dBi for a smaller 0.25m antenna tested at 32 GHz in the Ka-Band. RF range test results for a segmented aperture (one possible scaling approach) are shown as well. Measured antenna system actual efficiencies (relative to the unachievable) ideal for these on axis tests are generally quite good, typically ranging from 50 to 90%.

  18. Solar cell grid patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasui, R. K.; Berman, P. A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A grid pattern is described for a solar cell of the type which includes a semiconductive layer doped to a first polarity and a top counter-doped layer. The grid pattern comprises a plurality of concentric conductive grids of selected geometric shapes which are centered about the center of the exposed active surface of the counter-doped layer. Connected to the grids is one or more conductors which extend to the cell's periphery. For the pattern area, the grids and conductors are arranged in the pattern to minimize the maximum distance which any injected majority carriers have to travel to reach any of the grids or conductors. The pattern has a multiaxes symmetry with respect to the cell center to minimize the maximum temperature differentials between points on the cell surface and to provide a more uniform temperature distribution across the cell face.

  19. Saturated flow in a single fracture: Evaluation of the Reynolds equation in measured aperture fields

    SciTech Connect

    NICHOLL,M.J.; RAJARAM,H.; GLASS JR.,ROBERT J.; DETWILER,R.

    2000-01-28

    Fracture transmissivity and detailed aperture fields are measured in analog fractures specially designed to evaluate the utility of the Reynolds equation. The authors employ a light transmission technique with well-defined accuracy ({approximately}1% error) to measure aperture fields at high spatial resolution ({approximately}0.015 cm). A Hele-Shaw cell is used to confirm the approach by demonstrating agreement between experimental transmissivity, simulated transmissivity on the measured aperture field, and the parallel plate law. In the two rough-walled analog fractures considered, the discrepancy between the experimental and numerical estimates of fracture transmissivity was sufficiently large ({approximately} 22--47%) to exclude numerical and experimental errors (< 2%)as a source. They conclude that the three-dimensional character of the flow field is important for fully describing fluid flow in the two rough-walled fractures considered, and that the approach of depth averaging inherent in the formulation of the Reynolds equation is inadequate. They also explore the effects of spatial resolution, aperture measurement technique, and alternative definitions for link transmissivities in the finite-difference formulation, including some that contain corrections for tortuosity perpendicular to the mean fracture plane and Stokes flow. Various formulations for link transmissivity are shown to converge at high resolution ({approximately} 1/5 the spatial correlation length) in the smoothly varying fracture. At coarser resolutions, the solution becomes increasingly sensitive to definition of link transmissivity and measurement technique. Aperture measurements that integrate over individual grid blocks were less sensitive to measurement scale and definition of link transmissivity than point sampling techniques.

  20. Modeling AXAF Obstructions with the Generalized Aperture Program.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, D.; Gaetz, T.; Jerius, D.; Stern, I.

    The generalized aperture program is designed to simulate the effects on the incident photon stream of physical obstructions, such as thermal baffles and pre- and post-collimators. It can handle a wide variety of aperture shapes, and has provisions to allow alterations of the photons by the apertures. The philosophy behind the aperture program is that a geometrically complicated aperture may be modeled by a combination of geometrically simpler apertures. This is done by incorporating a language, lua, to lay out the apertures. User provided call-back functions enable the modeling of the interactions of the incident photon with the apertures. This approach allows for maximum flexibility, since the geometry and interactions of obstructions can be specified by the user at run time.

  1. SAGA: A Simple API for Grid Applications -- High-Level ApplicationProgramming on the Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Goodale, Tom; Jha, Shantenu; Kaiser, Hartmut; Kielmann, Thilo; Kleijer, Pascal; von Laszewski, Gregor; Lee, Craig; Merzky, Andre; Rajic,Hrabri; Shalf, John

    2006-05-31

    Grid technology has matured considerably over the past fewyears. Progress in both implementation and standardization is reaching alevel of robustness that enables production quality deployments of gridservices in the academic research community with heightened interest andearly adoption in the industrial community. Despite this progress, gridapplications are far from ubiquitous, and new applications require anenormous amount of programming effort just to see first light. A keyimpediment to accelerated deployment of grid applications is the scarcityof high-level application programming abstractions that bridge the gapbetween existing grid middle-ware and application-level needs. The SimpleAPI for Grid Applications (SAGA [1]) is a GGF standardization effort thataddresses this particular gap by providing a simple, stable, and uniformprogramming interface that integrates the most common grid programmingabstractions. These most common abstractions were identified through theanalysis of several existing and emerging Grid applications. In thisarticle, we present the SAGA effort, describe its relationship to otherGrid API efforts within the GGF community, and introduce the first draftof the API using some application programming examples.

  2. Enhanced Elliptic Grid Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Upender K.

    2007-01-01

    An enhanced method of elliptic grid generation has been invented. Whereas prior methods require user input of certain grid parameters, this method provides for these parameters to be determined automatically. "Elliptic grid generation" signifies generation of generalized curvilinear coordinate grids through solution of elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). Usually, such grids are fitted to bounding bodies and used in numerical solution of other PDEs like those of fluid flow, heat flow, and electromagnetics. Such a grid is smooth and has continuous first and second derivatives (and possibly also continuous higher-order derivatives), grid lines are appropriately stretched or clustered, and grid lines are orthogonal or nearly so over most of the grid domain. The source terms in the grid-generating PDEs (hereafter called "defining" PDEs) make it possible for the grid to satisfy requirements for clustering and orthogonality properties in the vicinity of specific surfaces in three dimensions or in the vicinity of specific lines in two dimensions. The grid parameters in question are decay parameters that appear in the source terms of the inhomogeneous defining PDEs. The decay parameters are characteristic lengths in exponential- decay factors that express how the influences of the boundaries decrease with distance from the boundaries. These terms govern the rates at which distance between adjacent grid lines change with distance from nearby boundaries. Heretofore, users have arbitrarily specified decay parameters. However, the characteristic lengths are coupled with the strengths of the source terms, such that arbitrary specification could lead to conflicts among parameter values. Moreover, the manual insertion of decay parameters is cumbersome for static grids and infeasible for dynamically changing grids. In the present method, manual insertion and user specification of decay parameters are neither required nor allowed. Instead, the decay parameters are

  3. A grid amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Moonil; Weikle, Robert M., II; Hacker, Jonathan B.; Delisio, Michael P.; Rutledge, David B.; Rosenberg, James J.; Smith, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    A 50-MESFET grid amplifier is reported that has a gain of 11 dB at 3.3 GHz. The grid isolates the input from the output by using vertical polarization for the input beam and horizontal polarization for the transmitted output beam. The grid unit cell is a two-MESFET differential amplifier. A simple calibration procedure allows the gain to be calculated from a relative power measurement. This grid is a hybrid circuit, but the structure is suitable for fabrication as a monolithic wafer-scale integrated circuit, particularly at millimeter wavelengths.

  4. Challenges facing production grids

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  5. Laser driven electron acceleration in vacuum, gases and plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sprangle, P.; Esarey, E.; Krall, J.

    1996-04-19

    This paper discusses some of the important issues pertaining to laser acceleration in vacuum, neutral gases and plasmas. The limitations of laser vacuum acceleration as they relate to electron slippage, laser diffraction, material damage and electron aperture effects, are discussed. An inverse Cherenkov laser acceleration configuration is presented in which a laser beam is self guided in a partially ionized gas. Optical self guiding is the result of a balance between the nonlinear self focusing properties of neutral gases and the diffraction effects of ionization. The stability of self guided beams is analyzed and discussed. In addition, aspects of the laser wakefield accelerator are presented and laser driven accelerator experiments are briefly discussed.

  6. Method of forming aperture plate for electron microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinemann, K. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An electron microscope is described with an electron source a condenser lens having either a circular aperture for focusing a solid cone of electrons onto a specimen or an annular aperture for focusing a hollow cone of electrons onto the specimen. It also has objective lens with an annular objective aperture, for focusing electrons passing through the specimen onto an image plane. A method of making the annular objective aperture using electron imaging, electrolytic deposition and ion etching techniques is included.

  7. Fast-neutron, coded-aperture imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, Richard S.; Phlips, Bernard F.; Hutcheson, Anthony L.; Wulf, Eric A.

    2015-06-01

    This work discusses a large-scale, coded-aperture imager for fast neutrons, building off a proof-of concept instrument developed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). The Space Science Division at the NRL has a heritage of developing large-scale, mobile systems, using coded-aperture imaging, for long-range γ-ray detection and localization. The fast-neutron, coded-aperture imaging instrument, designed for a mobile unit (20 ft. ISO container), consists of a 32-element array of 15 cm×15 cm×15 cm liquid scintillation detectors (EJ-309) mounted behind a 12×12 pseudorandom coded aperture. The elements of the aperture are composed of 15 cm×15 cm×10 cm blocks of high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The arrangement of the aperture elements produces a shadow pattern on the detector array behind the mask. By measuring of the number of neutron counts per masked and unmasked detector, and with knowledge of the mask pattern, a source image can be deconvolved to obtain a 2-d location. The number of neutrons per detector was obtained by processing the fast signal from each PMT in flash digitizing electronics. Digital pulse shape discrimination (PSD) was performed to filter out the fast-neutron signal from the γ background. The prototype instrument was tested at an indoor facility at the NRL with a 1.8-μCi and 13-μCi 252Cf neutron/γ source at three standoff distances of 9, 15 and 26 m (maximum allowed in the facility) over a 15-min integration time. The imaging and detection capabilities of the instrument were tested by moving the source in half- and one-pixel increments across the image plane. We show a representative sample of the results obtained at one-pixel increments for a standoff distance of 9 m. The 1.8-μCi source was not detected at the 26-m standoff. In order to increase the sensitivity of the instrument, we reduced the fastneutron background by shielding the top, sides and back of the detector array with 10-cm-thick HDPE. This shielding configuration led

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of ion-neutral charge exchange collisions and grid erosion in an ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Xiaohang; Ruyten, Wilhelmus M.; Keefer, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    A combined particle-in-cell (PIC)/Monte Carlo simulation model has been developed in which the PIC method is used to simulate the charge exchange collisions. It is noted that a number of features were reproduced correctly by this code, but that its assumption of two-dimensional axisymmetry for a single set of grid apertures precluded the reproduction of the most characteristic feature of actual test data; namely, the concentrated grid erosion at the geometric center of the hexagonal aperture array. The first results of a three-dimensional code, which takes into account the hexagonal symmetry of the grid, are presented. It is shown that, with this code, the experimentally observed erosion patterns are reproduced correctly, demonstrating explicitly the concentration of sputtering between apertures.

  9. Vacuum aperture isolator for retroreflection from laser-irradiated target

    DOEpatents

    Benjamin, Robert F.; Mitchell, Kenneth B.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a vacuum aperture isolator for retroreflection of a laser-irradiated target. Within a vacuum chamber are disposed a beam focusing element, a disc having an aperture and a recollimating element. The edge of the focused beam impinges on the edge of the aperture to produce a plasma which refracts any retroreflected light from the laser's target.

  10. Simultaneous beam sampling and aperture shape optimization for SPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Zarepisheh, Masoud; Li, Ruijiang; Xing, Lei; Ye, Yinyu

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT) was recently proposed to fully utilize the technical capability of emerging digital linear accelerators, in which the station parameters of a delivery system, such as aperture shape and weight, couch position/angle, gantry/collimator angle, can be optimized simultaneously. SPORT promises to deliver remarkable radiation dose distributions in an efficient manner, yet there exists no optimization algorithm for its implementation. The purpose of this work is to develop an algorithm to simultaneously optimize the beam sampling and aperture shapes. Methods: The authors build a mathematical model with the fundamental station point parameters as the decision variables. To solve the resulting large-scale optimization problem, the authors devise an effective algorithm by integrating three advanced optimization techniques: column generation, subgradient method, and pattern search. Column generation adds the most beneficial stations sequentially until the plan quality improvement saturates and provides a good starting point for the subsequent optimization. It also adds the new stations during the algorithm if beneficial. For each update resulted from column generation, the subgradient method improves the selected stations locally by reshaping the apertures and updating the beam angles toward a descent subgradient direction. The algorithm continues to improve the selected stations locally and globally by a pattern search algorithm to explore the part of search space not reachable by the subgradient method. By combining these three techniques together, all plausible combinations of station parameters are searched efficiently to yield the optimal solution. Results: A SPORT optimization framework with seamlessly integration of three complementary algorithms, column generation, subgradient method, and pattern search, was established. The proposed technique was applied to two previously treated clinical cases: a head and

  11. The saga of the LEP dynamic aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdier, A.

    1999-05-01

    The large electron-positron collider LEP at CERN provides a beautiful example of our conceptual limits concerning the problem of dynamic aperture (short term stability of the transverse oscillations of particle trajectories) in circular machines. For the operation at 45 GeV (Z0 peak) the dynamic aperture did not pose any problem although its measurement gave a value much smaller than that predicted up to the end of 1993. After this date the measurements gave the same result as predicted but it was not possible to trace back the origin of the discrepancy. At high energy (the maximum operating energy foreseen is 100 GeV) the beam emittance increases with the square of the beam energy. Therefore, low emittance optics were proposed. These optics suffer from large anharmonicities because of the increased sextupole strengths. This led to an unexpected limitation of the beam lifetime.

  12. Miniature synthetic-aperture radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Wayne; Stromfors, Richard D.

    1990-11-01

    Loral Defense Systems-Arizona has developed a high-performance synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) for small aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) reconnaissance applications. This miniature radar, called Miniature Synthetic-Aperture Radar (MSAR), is packaged in a small volume and has low weight. It retains key features of large SAR systems, including high-resolution imaging and all-weather operation. The operating frequency of MSAR can optionally be selected to provide foliage penetration capability. Many imaging radar configurations can be derived using this baseline system. MSAR with a data link provides an attractive UAV sensor. MSAR with a real-time image formation processor is well suited to installations where onboard processing and immediate image analysis are required. The MSAR system provides high-resolution imaging for short-to-medium range reconnaissance applications.

  13. Polarization-sensitive interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    South, Fredrick A.; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Xu, Yang; Shemonski, Nathan D.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2015-11-01

    Three-dimensional optical microscopy suffers from the well-known compromise between transverse resolution and depth-of-field. This is true for both structural imaging methods and their functional extensions. Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) is a solution to the 3D coherent microscopy inverse problem that provides depth-independent transverse resolution. We demonstrate the extension of ISAM to polarization sensitive imaging, termed polarization-sensitive interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (PS-ISAM). This technique is the first functionalization of the ISAM method and provides improved depth-of-field for polarization-sensitive imaging. The basic assumptions of polarization-sensitive imaging are explored, and refocusing of birefringent structures is experimentally demonstrated. PS-ISAM enables high-resolution volumetric imaging of birefringent materials and tissue.

  14. A Germanium-Based, Coded Aperture Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, K P; Madden, N; Hull, E; William, C; Lavietes, T; Cork, C

    2001-10-31

    We describe a coded-aperture based, gamma-ray imager that uses a unique hybrid germanium detector system. A planar, germanium strip detector, eleven millimeters thick is followed by a coaxial detector. The 19 x 19 strip detector (2 mm pitch) is used to determine the location and energy of low energy events. The location of high energy events are determined from the location of the Compton scatter in the planar detector and the energy is determined from the sum of the coaxial and planar energies. With this geometry, we obtain useful quantum efficiency in a position-sensitive mode out to 500 keV. The detector is used with a 19 x 17 URA coded aperture to obtain spectrally resolved images in the gamma-ray band. We discuss the performance of the planar detector, the hybrid system and present images taken of laboratory sources.

  15. A large aperture electro-optic deflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, A.; Boogert, S. T.; Boorman, G. E.; Blair, G. A.

    2009-05-01

    An electro-optic laser beam deflector with a clear optical aperture of 8.6 mm has been designed, realized, and tested. The electro-optic material used to implement the device was a MgO:LiNbO3 crystal. The exceptionally large aperture makes the device suitable for applications where fast scanning of high power laser beams is needed. The measured deflection angle was 120 μrad/kV for a total length of electro-optic material of 90 mm. A mode quality analysis of the laser beam revealed that the M2 of the laser is affected by less than 4% during scan operation when maximum driving voltage is applied.

  16. Design of large aperture focal plane shutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jia-wen; Ma, Wen-li; Huang, Jin-long

    2012-09-01

    To satisfy the requirement of large telescope, a large aperture focal plane shutter with aperture size of φ200mm was researched and designed to realize, which could be started and stopped in a relative short time with precise position, and also the blades could open and close at the same time at any orientation. Timing-belts and stepper motors were adopted as the drive mechanism. Velocity and position of the stepper motors were controlled by the PWM pulse generated by DSP. Exponential curve is applied to control the velocity of the stepper motors to make the shutter start and stop in a short time. The closing/open time of shutter is 0.2s, which meets the performance requirements of large telescope properly.

  17. Performance limits for Synthetic Aperture Radar.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-02-01

    The performance of a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system depends on a variety of factors, many which are interdependent in some manner. It is often difficult to ''get your arms around'' the problem of ascertaining achievable performance limits, and yet those limits exist and are dictated by physics, no matter how bright the engineer tasked to generate a system design. This report identifies and explores those limits, and how they depend on hardware system parameters and environmental conditions. Ultimately, this leads to a characterization of parameters that offer optimum performance for the overall SAR system. For example, there are definite optimum frequency bands that depend on weather conditions and range, and minimum radar PRF for a fixed real antenna aperture dimension is independent of frequency. While the information herein is not new to the literature, its collection into a single report hopes to offer some value in reducing the ''seek time''.

  18. Geometric grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ives, David

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a highly automated hexahedral grid generator based on extensive geometrical and solid modeling operations developed in response to a vision of a designer-driven one day turnaround CFD process which implies a designer-driven one hour grid generation process.

  19. Internet 2 Access Grid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet 2 Initiative, which is based on collaboration among universities, businesses, and government, focuses on the Access Grid, a Computational Grid that includes interactive multimedia within high-speed networks to provide resources to enable remote collaboration among the research community. (Author/LRW)

  20. Security for grids

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.

    2005-08-14

    Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.

  1. Operation of a DC large aperture volume-production H sup minus source

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, J.W.; Ackerman, G.D.; Anderson, O.A.; Chan, C.F.; Cooper, W.S.; deVries, G.J.; Leung, K.N.; Lietzke, A.F.; Steele, W.F.

    1989-04-01

    In testing a multicusp volume-production H{sup {minus}} ion source (20 cm diameter, 23 cm long), we optimized the gas pressure, the plasma electrode bias potential and the magnetic filter. At the optimum pressure of 9 mT, the H{sup {minus}} beam output increased linearly with discharge power. The maximum H{sup {minus}} beam, measured with a current transformer downstream of the accelerator, was 100 mA while using a 6.67 cm{sup 2} aperture. Presently we are limited by overheating of the cathodes by the plasma ions. Under similar discharge conditions the maximum H{sup {minus}} current density was found to vary as a{sup {minus}0.7} where a is the aperture radius. Results from emittance measurements showed that the effective H{sup {minus}} ion temperature increased with a for a {gt} 0.8 cm. Thus the brightness of the beam decreased with increasing aperture radius. Operating the source with cesium would increase the H{sup {minus}} output however our accelerator must be improved to avoid breakdowns caused by the cesium contamination. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Frequency scanning from subwavelength aperture array.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Zhang, Jiawei; Wang, Hui

    2014-06-15

    Resonant transmission of microwaves is demonstrated through subwavelength holes on a semicircular radiator. Split ring resonators, offering a perfect control of the emitting apertures, are applied to determine the radiation direction and the resonant frequency. Full wave simulation shows that our design is capable of achieving wide angular scanning beams without causing any other main lobe, and the steerable beams could be easily controlled through tuning the excitation frequency. PMID:24978511

  3. Analytic inversion in synthetic aperture radar.

    PubMed Central

    Rothaus, O S

    1994-01-01

    A method of processing synthetic aperture radar signals that avoids some of the approximations currently in use that appear to be responsible for severe phase distortions is described. As a practical matter, this method requires N3 numerical operations, as opposed to the N2 ln N currently the case, but N3 is now easily managed, for N in the range of interest. PMID:11607485

  4. Real-time interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Tyler S; Marks, Daniel L; Carney, P Scott; Boppart, Stephen A

    2008-02-18

    An interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) system design with real-time 2D cross-sectional processing is described in detail. The system can acquire, process, and display the ISAM reconstructed images at frame rates of 2.25 frames per second for 512 X 1024 pixel images. This system provides quantitatively meaningful structural information from previously indistinguishable scattering intensities and provides proof of feasibility for future real-time ISAM systems. PMID:18542337

  5. Variable-Aperture Reciprocating Reed Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Yang, Hong Q. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A variable-aperture reciprocating reed valve includes a valve body defining a through hole region having a contoured-profile portion. A semi-rigid plate is affixed on one side thereof to the valve body to define a cantilever extending across the through hole region. At least one free edge of the cantilever opposes the contoured-profile portion of the through hole region in a non-contact relationship.

  6. Feasibility of Swept Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bottenus, Nick; Long, Will; Zhang, Haichong K; Jakovljevic, Marko; Bradway, David P; Boctor, Emad M; Trahey, Gregg E

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound image quality is often inherently limited by the physical dimensions of the imaging transducer. We hypothesize that, by collecting synthetic aperture data sets over a range of aperture positions while precisely tracking the position and orientation of the transducer, we can synthesize large effective apertures to produce images with improved resolution and target detectability. We analyze the two largest limiting factors for coherent signal summation: aberration and mechanical uncertainty. Using an excised canine abdominal wall as a model phase screen, we experimentally observed an effective arrival time error ranging from 18.3 ns to 58 ns (root-mean-square error) across the swept positions. Through this clutter-generating tissue, we observed a 72.9% improvement in resolution with only a 3.75 dB increase in side lobe amplitude compared to the control case. We present a simulation model to study the effect of calibration and mechanical jitter errors on the synthesized point spread function. The relative effects of these errors in each imaging dimension are explored, showing the importance of orientation relative to the point spread function. We present a prototype device for performing swept synthetic aperture imaging using a conventional 1-D array transducer and ultrasound research scanner. Point target reconstruction error for a 44.2 degree sweep shows a reconstruction precision of 82.8 μm and 17.8 μm in the lateral and axial dimensions respectively, within the acceptable performance bounds of the simulation model. Improvements in resolution, contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio are demonstrated in vivo and in a fetal phantom. PMID:26863653

  7. Addressing Three Fallacies About Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, Don; Garron, Jessica

    2013-12-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has long been recognized as a valuable tool for real-time environmental analysis and understanding of the Earth's geophysical properties. With its ability to see through clouds and to image day and night in all seasons, it can provide high-resolution data when optical sensors cannot. This capability has enabled SAR scientists to delineate flooding events, assess earthquake damage, map forest fires, rescue trapped icebreakers, and identify the extent of oil spills.

  8. Exploiting Decorrelations In Synthetic-Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebker, Howard A.; Villasenor, John D.

    1994-01-01

    Temporal decorrelation between synthetic-aperture-radar data acquired on subsequent passes along same or nearly same trajectory serves as measure of change in target scene. Based partly on mathematical models of statistics of correlations between first- and second-pass radar echoes. Also based partly on Fourier-transform relations between radar-system impulse response and decorrelation functions particularly those expressing decorrelation effects of rotation and horizontal shift of trajectories between two passes.

  9. Complementary lattice arrays for coded aperture imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jie; Noshad, Mohammad; Tarokh, Vahid

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we consider complementary lattice arrays in order to enable a broader range of designs for coded aperture imaging systems. We provide a general framework and methods that generate richer and more flexible designs than existing ones. Besides this, we review and interpret the state-of-the-art uniformly redundant arrays (URA) designs, broaden the related concepts, and further propose some new design methods.

  10. Effective wavelength scaling of rectangular aperture antennas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Yu, Li; Zhang, Jiasen; Gordon, Reuven

    2015-04-20

    We investigate the resonances of aperture antennas from the visible to the terahertz regime, with comparison to comprehensive simulations. Simple piecewise analytic behavior is found for the wavelength scaling over the entire spectrum, with a linear regime through the visible and near-IR. This theory will serve as a useful and simple design tool for applications including biosensors, nonlinear plasmonics and surface enhanced spectroscopies. PMID:25969079

  11. Aperture modulated, translating bed total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Amjad; Villarreal-Barajas, Jose Eduardo; Dunscombe, Peter; Brown, Derek W.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) techniques aim to deliver a uniform radiation dose to a patient with an irregular body contour and a heterogeneous density distribution to within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose. In the current article, the authors present a novel, aperture modulated, translating bed TBI (AMTBI) technique that produces a high degree of dose uniformity throughout the entire patient. Methods: The radiation beam is dynamically shaped in two dimensions using a multileaf collimator (MLC). The irregular surface compensation algorithm in the Eclipse treatment planning system is used for fluence optimization, which is performed based on penetration depth and internal inhomogeneities. Two optimal fluence maps (AP and PA) are generated and beam apertures are created to deliver these optimal fluences. During treatment, the patient/phantom is translated on a motorized bed close to the floor (source to bed distance: 204.5 cm) under a stationary radiation beam with 0 deg. gantry angle. The bed motion and dynamic beam apertures are synchronized. Results: The AMTBI technique produces a more homogeneous dose distribution than fixed open beam translating bed TBI. In phantom studies, the dose deviation along the midline is reduced from 10% to less than 5% of the prescribed dose in the longitudinal direction. Dose to the lung is reduced by more than 15% compared to the unshielded fixed open beam technique. At the lateral body edges, the dose received from the open beam technique was 20% higher than that prescribed at umbilicus midplane. With AMTBI the dose deviation in this same region is reduced to less than 3% of the prescribed dose. Validation of the technique was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters in a Rando phantom. Agreement between calculation and measurement was better than 3% in all cases. Conclusions: A novel, translating bed, aperture modulated TBI technique that employs dynamically shaped MLC defined beams is shown to improve dose uniformity

  12. Analysis of secondary particle behavior in multiaperture, multigrid accelerator for the ITER neutral beam injector.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, T; Taniguchi, M; Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Tobari, H; Watanabe, K; Dairaku, M; Sakamoto, K; Inoue, T

    2010-02-01

    Heat load on acceleration grids by secondary particles such as electrons, neutrals, and positive ions, is a key issue for long pulse acceleration of negative ion beams. Complicated behaviors of the secondary particles in multiaperture, multigrid (MAMuG) accelerator have been analyzed using electrostatic accelerator Monte Carlo code. The analytical result is compared to experimental one obtained in a long pulse operation of a MeV accelerator, of which second acceleration grid (A2G) was removed for simplification of structure. The analytical results show that relatively high heat load on the third acceleration grid (A3G) since stripped electrons were deposited mainly on A3G. This heat load on the A3G can be suppressed by installing the A2G. Thus, capability of MAMuG accelerator is demonstrated for suppression of heat load due to secondary particles by the intermediate grids. PMID:20192410

  13. Analysis of secondary particle behavior in multiaperture, multigrid accelerator for the ITER neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, T.; Taniguchi, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Tobari, H.; Watanabe, K.; Dairaku, M.; Sakamoto, K.; Inoue, T.

    2010-02-15

    Heat load on acceleration grids by secondary particles such as electrons, neutrals, and positive ions, is a key issue for long pulse acceleration of negative ion beams. Complicated behaviors of the secondary particles in multiaperture, multigrid (MAMuG) accelerator have been analyzed using electrostatic accelerator Monte Carlo code. The analytical result is compared to experimental one obtained in a long pulse operation of a MeV accelerator, of which second acceleration grid (A2G) was removed for simplification of structure. The analytical results show that relatively high heat load on the third acceleration grid (A3G) since stripped electrons were deposited mainly on A3G. This heat load on the A3G can be suppressed by installing the A2G. Thus, capability of MAMuG accelerator is demonstrated for suppression of heat load due to secondary particles by the intermediate grids.

  14. Acceleration of ampere class H(-) ion beam by MeV accelerator.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, M; Inoue, T; Umeda, N; Kashiwagi, M; Watanabe, K; Tobari, H; Dairaku, M; Sakamoto, K

    2008-02-01

    The H(-) ion accelerator R&D to realize the international thermonuclear experimental reactor neutral beam is ongoing at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The required performance for the prototype MeV accelerator developed at JAEA is 1 MeV, 500 mA (current density of 200 A/m(2)) H(-) ion beam at the beamlet divergence angle of less than 7 mrad. Up to 2005, 836 keV, 146 A/m(2) H(-) ion beam was successfully accelerated as the highest record of the current density at MeV class energy beams. In the present work, high current negative ion beam acceleration test was performed by increasing the beam extraction apertures from 3 x 3 (9 apertures) to 3 x 5 (15 apertures). By fixing the air leak at the source chamber due to backstream ions as well as the improvement of voltage holding capability by a new fiber reinforced plastic insulator ring, the performance of the MeV accelerator was improved. So far, H(-) ion beam of 320 mA was successfully accelerated up to 796 keV with the beam divergence angle of 5.5 mrad. The accelerated drain current including the electron reaches close to the power supply limit for the MeV test facility. The heat flux by the backstream ion during the above beam acceleration was estimated to be 360 W/cm(2). The Cs leakage to the accelerator during the test campaign (Cs total input of 5.0 g) was 0.26 mg (7.0 microg/cm(2)). This is considered to be the allowable level from the viewpoint of voltage holding. PMID:18315236

  15. Data Grid Implementations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Reagan W.; Studham, Ronald S.; Rajasekar, Arcot; Watson, Chip; Stockinger, Heinz; Kunszt, Peter; Charlie Catlett and Ian Foster

    2002-02-27

    Data grids link distributed, heterogeneous storage resources into a coherent data management system. From a user perspective, the data grid provides a uniform name space across the underlying storage systems, while supporting retrieval and storage of files. In the high energy physics community, at least six data grids have been implemented for the storage and distribution of experimental data. Data grids are also being used to support projects as diverse as digital libraries (National Library of Medicine Visible Embryo project), federation of multiple astronomy sky surveys (NSF National Virtual Observatory project), and integration of distributed data sets (Long Term Ecological Reserve). Data grids also form the core interoperability mechanisms for creating persistent archives, in which data collections are migrated to new technologies over time. The ability to provide a uniform name space across multiple administration domains is becoming a critical component of national-scale, collaborative projects.

  16. The SIM astronmetric grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is fundamentally a one-dimensional instrument with a 15-degree field-of-regard. Mission objectives require a global reference grid of thousands of well-understood stars with positions known to 4 microarcseconds which will be used to establish the instrument baseline vector during scientific observations. This accuracy will be achieved by frequently observing a set of stars throughout the mission and performing a global fit of the observations to determine position, proper motion and parallax for each star. Each star will be observed approximately 200 times with about 6.5 stars per single instrument field on the sky. We describe the nature of the reference grid, the candidate objects, and the results of simulations demonstrating grid performance, including estimates of the grid robustness when including effects such as instrument drift and possible contamination of the grid star sample by undetected binaries.

  17. Synthetic aperture radar processing with tiered subapertures

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, A.W.

    1994-06-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is used to form images that are maps of radar reflectivity of some scene of interest, from range soundings taken over some spatial aperture. Additionally, the range soundings are typically synthesized from a sampled frequency aperture. Efficient processing of the collected data necessitates using efficient digital signal processing techniques such as vector multiplies and fast implementations of the Discrete Fourier Transform. Inherent in image formation algorithms that use these is a trade-off between the size of the scene that can be acceptably imaged, and the resolution with which the image can be made. These limits arise from migration errors and spatially variant phase errors, and different algorithms mitigate these to varying degrees. Two fairly successful algorithms for airborne SARs are Polar Format processing, and Overlapped Subaperture (OSA) processing. This report introduces and summarizes the analysis of generalized Tiered Subaperture (TSA) techniques that are a superset of both Polar Format processing and OSA processing. It is shown how tiers of subapertures in both azimuth and range can effectively mitigate both migration errors and spatially variant phase errors to allow virtually arbitrary scene sizes, even in a dynamic motion environment.

  18. Restoring Aperture Profile At Sample Plane

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J L; Hackel, R P; Lungershausen, A W

    2003-08-03

    Off-line conditioning of full-size optics for the National Ignition Facility required a beam delivery system to allow conditioning lasers to rapidly raster scan samples while achieving several technical goals. The main purpose of the optical system designed was to reconstruct at the sample plane the flat beam profile found at the laser aperture with significant reductions in beam wander to improve scan times. Another design goal was the ability to vary the beam size at the sample to scan at different fluences while utilizing all of the laser power and minimizing processing time. An optical solution was developed using commercial off-the-shelf lenses. The system incorporates a six meter relay telescope and two sets of focusing optics. The spacing of the focusing optics is changed to allow the fluence on the sample to vary from 2 to 14 Joules per square centimeter in discrete steps. More importantly, these optics use the special properties of image relaying to image the aperture plane onto the sample to form a pupil relay with a beam profile corresponding almost exactly to the flat profile found at the aperture. A flat beam profile speeds scanning by providing a uniform intensity across a larger area on the sample. The relayed pupil plane is more stable with regards to jitter and beam wander. Image relaying also reduces other perturbations from diffraction, scatter, and focus conditions. Image relaying, laser conditioning, and the optical system designed to accomplish the stated goals are discussed.

  19. Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

    1989-11-01

    Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

  20. The AdaptiSPECT Imaging Aperture

    PubMed Central

    Chaix, Cécile; Moore, Jared W.; Van Holen, Roel; Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the imaging aperture of an adaptive SPECT imaging system being developed at the Center for Gamma Ray Imaging (AdaptiSPECT). AdaptiSPECT is designed to automatically change its configuration in response to preliminary data, in order to improve image quality for a particular task. In a traditional pinhole SPECT imaging system, the characteristics (magnification, resolution, field of view) are set by the geometry of the system, and any modification can be accomplished only by manually changing the collimator and the distance of the detector to the center of the field of view. Optimization of the imaging system for a specific task on a specific individual is therefore difficult. In an adaptive SPECT imaging system, on the other hand, the configuration can be conveniently changed under computer control. A key component of an adaptive SPECT system is its aperture. In this paper, we present the design, specifications, and fabrication of the adaptive pinhole aperture that will be used for AdaptiSPECT, as well as the controls that enable autonomous adaptation. PMID:27019577

  1. Outdoor synthetic aperture acoustic ground target measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Steven; Ngaya, Therese-Ann; Vignola, Joe; Judge, John; Marble, Jay; Gugino, Peter; Soumekh, Mehrdad; Rosen, Erik

    2010-04-01

    A novel outdoor synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) system consists of a microphone and loudspeaker traveling along a 6.3-meter rail system. This is an extension from a prior indoor laboratory measurement system in which selected targets were insonified while suspended in air. Here, the loudspeaker and microphone are aimed perpendicular to their direction of travel along the rail. The area next to the rail is insonified and the microphone records the reflected acoustic signal, while the travel of the transceiver along the rail creates a synthetic aperture allowing imaging of the scene. Ground surfaces consisted of weathered asphalt and short grass. Several surface-laid objects were arranged on the ground for SAA imaging. These included rocks, concrete masonry blocks, grout covered foam blocks; foliage obscured objects and several spherical canonical targets such as a bowling ball, and plastic and metal spheres. The measured data are processed and ground targets are further analyzed for characteristics and features amenable for discrimination. This paper includes a description of the measurement system, target descriptions, synthetic aperture processing approach and preliminary findings with respect to ground surface and target characteristics.

  2. Large aperture adaptive optics for intense lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deneuville, François; Ropert, Laurent; Sauvageot, Paul; Theis, Sébastien

    2015-05-01

    ISP SYSTEM has developed a range of large aperture electro-mechanical deformable mirrors (DM) suitable for ultra short pulsed intense lasers. The design of the MD-AME deformable mirror is based on force application on numerous locations thanks to electromechanical actuators driven by stepper motors. DM design and assembly method have been adapted to large aperture beams and the performances were evaluated on a first application for a beam with a diameter of 250mm at 45° angle of incidence. A Strehl ratio above 0.9 was reached for this application. Simulations were correlated with measurements on optical bench and the design has been validated by calculation for very large aperture (up to Ø550mm). Optical aberrations up to Zernike order 5 can be corrected with a very low residual error as for actual MD-AME mirror. Amplitude can reach up to several hundreds of μm for low order corrections. Hysteresis is lower than 0.1% and linearity better than 99%. Contrary to piezo-electric actuators, the μ-AME actuators avoid print-through effects and they permit to keep the mirror shape stable even unpowered, providing a high resistance to electro-magnetic pulses. The MD-AME mirrors can be adapted to circular, square or elliptical beams and they are compatible with all dielectric or metallic coatings.

  3. Synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameri, Golafsoun; Baxter, John S. H.; McLeod, A. Jonathan; Jayaranthe, Uditha L.; Chen, Elvis C. S.; Peters, Terry M.

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound calibration allows for ultrasound images to be incorporated into a variety of interventional applica­ tions. Traditional Z- bar calibration procedures rely on wired phantoms with an a priori known geometry. The line fiducials produce small, localized echoes which are then segmented from an array of ultrasound images from different tracked probe positions. In conventional B-mode ultrasound, the wires at greater depths appear blurred and are difficult to segment accurately, limiting the accuracy of ultrasound calibration. This paper presents a novel ultrasound calibration procedure that takes advantage of synthetic aperture imaging to reconstruct high resolution ultrasound images at arbitrary depths. In these images, line fiducials are much more readily and accu­ rately segmented, leading to decreased calibration error. The proposed calibration technique is compared to one based on B-mode ultrasound. The fiducial localization error was improved from 0.21mm in conventional B-mode images to 0.15mm in synthetic aperture images corresponding to an improvement of 29%. This resulted in an overall reduction of calibration error from a target registration error of 2.00mm to 1.78mm, an improvement of 11%. Synthetic aperture images display greatly improved segmentation capabilities due to their improved resolution and interpretability resulting in improved calibration.

  4. Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

    1989-01-01

    Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

  5. Diffraction contrast imaging using virtual apertures.

    PubMed

    Gammer, Christoph; Burak Ozdol, V; Liebscher, Christian H; Minor, Andrew M

    2015-08-01

    Two methods on how to obtain the full diffraction information from a sample region and the associated reconstruction of images or diffraction patterns using virtual apertures are demonstrated. In a STEM-based approach, diffraction patterns are recorded for each beam position using a small probe convergence angle. Similarly, a tilt series of TEM dark-field images is acquired. The resulting datasets allow the reconstruction of either electron diffraction patterns, or bright-, dark- or annular dark-field images using virtual apertures. The experimental procedures of both methods are presented in the paper and are applied to a precipitation strengthened and creep deformed ferritic alloy with a complex microstructure. The reconstructed virtual images are compared with conventional TEM images. The major advantage is that arbitrarily shaped virtual apertures generated with image processing software can be designed without facing any physical limitations. In addition, any virtual detector that is specifically designed according to the underlying crystal structure can be created to optimize image contrast. PMID:25840371

  6. The radiation from apertures in curved surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pathak, P. H.; Kouyoumjian, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction is extended to treat the radiation from apertures or slots in convex, perfectly-conducting surfaces. It is assumed that the tangential electric field in the aperture is known so that an equivalent, infinitesimal source can be defined at each point in the aperture. Surface rays emanate from this source which is a caustic of the ray system. A launching coefficient is introduced to describe the excitation of the surface ray modes. If the field radiated from the surface is desired, the ordinary diffraction coefficients are used to determine the field of the rays shed tangentially from the surface rays. The field of the surface ray modes is not the field on the surface; hence if the mutual coupling between slots is of interest, a second coefficient related to the launching coefficient must be employed. In the region adjacent to the shadow boundary, the component of the field directly radiated from the source is presented by Fock-type functions. In the illuminated region the incident radiation from the source (this does not include the diffracted field components) is treated by geometrical optics. This extension of the geometrical theory of diffraction is applied to calculate the radiation from slots on elliptic cylinders, spheres and spheroids.

  7. Measurements and simulations of turbines on common grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, T. K.; Storli, P.-T.

    2014-03-01

    Speed droop control is of basic importance for the primary governing in the Nordic grid. The speed droop control. a mandatory and build-in regulatory loop on all larger units. is automatically changing the produced power on synchronous units as the grid frequency changes. This part of the governor allows a certain deviance from the nominal 50 Hz grid frequency. If the grid frequency is decreasing this means that the load on the grid is greater than the power delivered into the grid. and the local speed droop regulatory loop on each unit then autonomously increases the production to obtain a new balance between load and production. which will be at a lower frequency than 50 Hz. If the power delivered into the grid is greater than the load. the rotating masses will be accelerated (thus increasing the grid frequency) and the speed droop operation will act to reduce the power produced to obtain a new balance. this time at a higher frequency than 50 Hz. The frequency in the Nordic power grid has in recent years for increasing duration been outside the allowed steady state frequency band of 50 ± 0.1 Hz. In order to study the behaviour of a turbine operating on a common grid, measurements have been done at site. The measurements performed are the generator power, main servo motor position, the rotational speed of the unit and the grid frequency. The purpose of the measurements was to see if it is possible to observe the behaviour of the machine as it is linked together with all the other machines on a synchronous grid. It is interesting to observe the response to deviations in the frequency due to the speed droop operation. In order to better understand the behaviour, a simulation model of two power plants, complete with individual conduit system, turbine and generator, connected to the same grid was used.

  8. Cluster speckle structures through multiple apertures forming a closed curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosso, E.; Tebaldi, M.; Lencina, A.; Bolognini, N.

    2010-04-01

    In this work, cluster-like speckle patterns are analyzed. These patterns are generated when a diffuser illuminated by coherent light is imaged by a lens having a pupil mask with multiple apertures forming a closed curve. We show that the cluster structure results from the complex modulation produced inside each speckle which is generated by multiple interferences of light through the apertures. In particular, when the apertures are uniformly distributed along a closed curve, the resulting image speckle cluster replicates the pupil aperture distribution. Experimental results and theoretical simulations show that cluster features depend on the apertures distribution and the size of the closed curves.

  9. Jacobi-Bessel Analysis Of Antennas With Elliptical Apertures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahmat-Samii, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Coordinate transformation improves convergence pattern analysis of elliptical-aperture antennas. Modified version of Jacobi-Bessel expansion for vector diffraction analysis of reflector antennas uses coordinate transformation to improve convergence with elliptical apertures. Expansion converges rapidly for antennas with circular apertures, but less rapidly for elliptical apertures. Difference in convergence behavior between circular and elliptical Jacobi-Bessel algorithms indicated by highest values of indices m, n, and p required to achieve same accuracy in computed radiation pattern of offset paraboloidal antenna with elliptical aperture.

  10. Millimeter-wave diode-grid phase shifters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Wayne W.; Stolt, Kjell S.; Jou, Christina F.; Luhmann, Neville C., Jr.; Chen, Howard Z.

    1988-01-01

    Monolithic diode grids have been fabricated on 2-cm square gallium-arsenide wafers with 1600 Schottky-barrier varactor diodes. Shorted diodes are detected with a liquid-crystal technique, and the bad diodes are removed with an ultrasonic probe. A small-aperture reflectometer that uses wavefront division interference was developed to measure the reflection coefficient of the grids. A phase shift of 70 deg with a 7-dB loss was obtained at 93 GHz when the bias on the diode grid was changed from -3 V to 1 V. A simple transmission-line grid model, together with the measured low-frequency parameters for the diodes, was shown to predict the measured performance over the entire capacitive bias range of the diodes, as well as over the complete reactive tuning range provided by a reflector behind the grid, and over a wide range of frequencies from 33 GHz to 141 GHz. This shows that the transmission-line model and the measured low-frequency diode parameters can be used to design an electronic beam-steering array and to predict its performance. An electronic beam-steering array made of a pair of grids using state-of-the-art diodes with 5-ohm series resistances would have a loss of 1.4 dB at 90 GHz.

  11. Silicon ball grid array chip carrier

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, David W.; Gassman, Richard A.; Chu, Dahwey

    2000-01-01

    A ball-grid-array integrated circuit (IC) chip carrier formed from a silicon substrate is disclosed. The silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier is of particular use with ICs having peripheral bond pads which can be reconfigured to a ball-grid-array. The use of a semiconductor substrate such as silicon for forming the ball-grid-array chip carrier allows the chip carrier to be fabricated on an IC process line with, at least in part, standard IC processes. Additionally, the silicon chip carrier can include components such as transistors, resistors, capacitors, inductors and sensors to form a "smart" chip carrier which can provide added functionality and testability to one or more ICs mounted on the chip carrier. Types of functionality that can be provided on the "smart" chip carrier include boundary-scan cells, built-in test structures, signal conditioning circuitry, power conditioning circuitry, and a reconfiguration capability. The "smart" chip carrier can also be used to form specialized or application-specific ICs (ASICs) from conventional ICs. Types of sensors that can be included on the silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier include temperature sensors, pressure sensors, stress sensors, inertia or acceleration sensors, and/or chemical sensors. These sensors can be fabricated by IC processes and can include microelectromechanical (MEM) devices.

  12. Accelerated Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of Accelerated Reader, a system of computerized testing and record-keeping that supplements the regular classroom reading program. Accelerated Reader's primary goal is to increase literature-based reading practice. The program offers a computer-aided reading comprehension and management program intended to motivate…

  13. A synthetic aperture study of aperture size in the presence of noise and in vivo clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottenus, Nick; Byram, Brett C.; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2013-03-01

    Conventional wisdom in ultrasonic array design drives development towards larger arrays because of the inverse relationship between aperture size and resolution. We propose a method using synthetic aperture beamforming to study image quality as a function of aperture size in simulation, in a phantom and in vivo. A single data acquisition can be beamformed to produce matched images with a range of aperture sizes, even in the presence of target motion. In this framework we evaluate the reliability of typical image quality metrics - speckle signal-tonoise ratio, contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio - for use in in vivo studies. Phantom and simulation studies are in good agreement in that there exists a point of diminishing returns in image quality at larger aperture sizes. We demonstrate challenges in applying and interpreting these metrics in vivo, showing results in hypoechoic vasculature regions. We explore the use of speckle brightness to describe image quality in the presence of in vivo clutter and underlying tissue inhomogeneities.

  14. Optimization Of A Computational Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearce, Daniel G.

    1993-01-01

    In improved method of generation of computational grid, grid-generation process decoupled from definition of geometry. Not necessary to redefine boundary. Instead, continuous boundaries in physical domain specified, and then grid points in computational domain mapped onto continuous boundaries.

  15. Imaging performance of annular apertures. II - Line spread functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschunko, H. F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Line images formed by aberration-free optical systems with annular apertures are investigated in the whole range of central obstruction ratios. Annular apertures form lines images with central and side line groups. The number of lines in each line group is given by the ratio of the outer diameter of the annular aperture divided by the width of the annulus. The theoretical energy fraction of 0.889 in the central line of the image formed by an unobstructed aperture increases for centrally obstructed apertures to 0.932 for the central line group. Energy fractions for the central and side line groups are practically constant for all obstruction ratios and for each line group. The illumination of rectangular secondary apertures of various length/width ratios by apertures of various obstruction ratios is discussed.

  16. Two-Dimensional Synthetic-Aperture Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional synthetic-aperture radiometer, now undergoing development, serves as a test bed for demonstrating the potential of aperture synthesis for remote sensing of the Earth, particularly for measuring spatial distributions of soil moisture and ocean-surface salinity. The goal is to use the technology for remote sensing aboard a spacecraft in orbit, but the basic principles of design and operation are applicable to remote sensing from aboard an aircraft, and the prototype of the system under development is designed for operation aboard an aircraft. In aperture synthesis, one utilizes several small antennas in combination with a signal processing in order to obtain resolution that otherwise would require the use of an antenna with a larger aperture (and, hence, potentially more difficult to deploy in space). The principle upon which this system is based is similar to that of Earth-rotation aperture synthesis employed in radio astronomy. In this technology the coherent products (correlations) of signals from pairs of antennas are obtained at different antenna-pair spacings (baselines). The correlation for each baseline yields a sample point in a Fourier transform of the brightness-temperature map of the scene. An image of the scene itself is then reconstructed by inverting the sampled transform. The predecessor of the present two-dimensional synthetic-aperture radiometer is a one-dimensional one, named the Electrically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR). Operating in the L band, the ESTAR employs aperture synthesis in the cross-track dimension only, while using a conventional antenna for resolution in the along-track dimension. The two-dimensional instrument also operates in the L band to be precise, at a frequency of 1.413 GHz in the frequency band restricted for passive use (no transmission) only. The L band was chosen because (1) the L band represents the long-wavelength end of the remote- sensing spectrum, where the problem of achieving adequate

  17. Design and construction of a large aperture quadrupole electromagnet for ILSE

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, W.M.; Vella, M.C.; Peters, C.; Stuart, M.; Faltens, A.

    1995-08-01

    We are currently constructing a prototype quadrupole electromagnet for the proposed Induction Linac Systems Experiment (ILSE) at LBNL. ILSE will address many physics and engineering issues relevant to the design of a heavy-ion fusion driver accelerator. The pulsed electromagnet has two layers of current windings and will produce a field gradient of 28 T/m, wi a usable aperture of 6 cm. It operates at a repetition rate of 1 Hz, steady-state. In this paper, we discuss how the interaction of various concerns such as maximum dynamic aperture, short lattice period, field quality, iron yoke weight, heat transfer, and voltage standoff have led to our particular design choices. We also present 2- and 3-D numerical calculations concerning field topography and the results of transport simulations of space-charge dominated ion beams with ILSE parameters.

  18. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.

  19. An investigation of the RCS (radar cross section) computation of grid cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Sabihi, Ahmad

    2014-12-10

    In this paper, the aperture of a cavity is covered by a metallic grid net. This metallic grid is to reduce RCS deduced by impinging radar ray on the aperture. A radar ray incident on a grid net installed on a cavity may create six types of propagation. 1-Incident rays entering inside the cavity and backscattered from it.2-Incidebnt rays on the grid net and created reection rays as an array of scatterers. These rays may create a wave with phase difference of 180 degree with respect to the exiting rays from the cavity.3-Incident rays on the grid net create surface currents owing on the net and make travelling waves, which regenerate the magnetic and electric fields. These fields make again propagated waves against incident ones.4-Creeping waves.5-Diffracted rays due to leading edges of net’s elements.6-Mutual impedance among elements of the net could be effective on the resultant RCS. Therefore, the author compares the effects of three out of six properties to a cavity without grid net. This comparison shows that RCS prediction of cavity having a grid net is much more reduced than that of without one.

  20. Design and prototype tests of a large-aperture 37-53 MHz ferrite-tuned booster synchrotron cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Mark S. Champion et al.

    2001-07-12

    The Booster synchrotron at Fermilab employs eighteen 37-53 MHz ferrite-tuned double-gap coaxial radiofrequency cavities for acceleration of protons from 400 MeV to 8 GeV. The cavities have an aperture of 2.25 inches and operate at 55 kV per cavity. Future high duty factor operation of the Booster will be problematic due to unavoidable beam loss at the cavities resulting in excessive activation. The power amplifiers, high maintenance items, are mounted directly to the cavities in the tunnel. A proposed replacement for the Booster, the Proton Driver, will utilize the Booster radiofrequency cavities and requires not only a larger aperture, but also higher voltage. A research and development program is underway at Fermilab to modify the Booster cavities to provide a 5-inch aperture and a 20% voltage increase. A prototype has been constructed and high power tests have bee completed. The cavity design and test results is presented.

  1. Status of 4-cm-aperture, 17-m-long SSC dipole magnet R D program at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Devred, A.; Bush, T.; Coombes, R.; DiMarco, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Kuzminski, J.; Puglisi, M.; Radusewicz, P.; Sanger, P.; Schermer, R.; Tompkins, J.; Turner, J.; Wolf, Z.; Yu, Y.; Zheng, H. ); Ogitsu, T. National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki ); Anerella, M.; Cottin

    1991-03-01

    Over the last year, several 4-cm-aperture, 17-m-long dipole magnet prototypes were built by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under contract with the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory. These prototypes are the last phase of a half-decade-long R D program, carried out in collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of the SSC main ring magnets. They also lay the ground for the 5-cm aperture dipole magnet program to be started soon. After reviewing the design features of the BNL 4-cm-aperture, 17-m-long dipole magnets, we describe in detail the various steps of their fabrication. For each step, we discuss the parameters that need to be mastered, and we compare the values that were achieved for the five most recent prototypes. The data appear coherent and reproducible, demonstrating that the assembly process in under control. 23 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Direct Replacement of Arbitrary Grid-Overlapping by Non-Structured Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Liou, Meng-Sing

    1994-01-01

    A new approach that uses nonstructured mesh to replace the arbitrarily overlapped structured regions of embedded grids is presented. The present methodology uses the Chimera composite overlapping mesh system so that the physical domain of the flowfield is subdivided into regions which can accommodate easily-generated grid for complex configuration. In addition, a Delaunay triangulation technique generates nonstructured triangular mesh which wraps over the interconnecting region of embedded grids. It is designed that the present approach, termed DRAGON grid, has three important advantages: eliminating some difficulties of the Chimera scheme, such as the orphan points and/or bad quality of interpolation stencils; making grid communication in a fully conservative way; and implementation into three dimensions is straightforward. A computer code based on a time accurate, finite volume, high resolution scheme for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations has been further developed to include both the Chimera overset grid and the nonstructured mesh schemes. For steady state problems, the local time stepping accelerates convergence based on a Courant - Friedrichs - Leury (CFL) number near the local stability limit. Numerical tests on representative steady and unsteady supersonic inviscid flows with strong shock waves are demonstrated.

  3. Faster GPU-based convolutional gridding via thread coarsening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merry, B.

    2016-07-01

    Convolutional gridding is a processor-intensive step in interferometric imaging. While it is possible to use graphics processing units (GPUs) to accelerate this operation, existing methods use only a fraction of the available flops. We apply thread coarsening to improve the efficiency of an existing algorithm, and observe performance gains of up to 3.2 × for single-polarization gridding and 1.9 × for quad-polarization gridding on a GeForce GTX 980, and smaller but still significant gains on a Radeon R9 290X.

  4. Trends in life science grid: from computing grid to knowledge grid

    PubMed Central

    Konagaya, Akihiko

    2006-01-01

    Background Grid computing has great potential to become a standard cyberinfrastructure for life sciences which often require high-performance computing and large data handling which exceeds the computing capacity of a single institution. Results This survey reviews the latest grid technologies from the viewpoints of computing grid, data grid and knowledge grid. Computing grid technologies have been matured enough to solve high-throughput real-world life scientific problems. Data grid technologies are strong candidates for realizing "resourceome" for bioinformatics. Knowledge grids should be designed not only from sharing explicit knowledge on computers but also from community formulation for sharing tacit knowledge among a community. Conclusion Extending the concept of grid from computing grid to knowledge grid, it is possible to make use of a grid as not only sharable computing resources, but also as time and place in which people work together, create knowledge, and share knowledge and experiences in a community. PMID:17254294

  5. TFSSRA - THICK FREQUENCY SELECTIVE SURFACE WITH RECTANGULAR APERTURES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Thick Frequency Selective Surface with Rectangular Apertures (TFSSRA) was developed to calculate the scattering parameters for a thick frequency selective surface with rectangular apertures on a skew grid at oblique angle of incidence. The method of moments is used to transform the integral equation into a matrix equation suitable for evaluation on a digital computer. TFSSRA predicts the reflection and transmission characteristics of a thick frequency selective surface for both TE and TM orthogonal linearly polarized plane waves. A model of a half-space infinite array is used in the analysis. A complete set of basis functions with unknown coefficients is developed for the waveguide region (waveguide modes) and for the free space region (Floquet modes) in order to represent the electromagnetic fields. To ensure the convergence of the solutions, the number of waveguide modes is adjustable. The method of moments is used to compute the unknown mode coefficients. Then, the scattering matrix of the half-space infinite array is calculated. Next, the reference plane of the scattering matrix is moved half a plate thickness in the negative z-direction, and a frequency selective surface of finite thickness is synthesized by positioning two plates of half-thickness back-to-back. The total scattering matrix is obtained by cascading the scattering matrices of the two half-space infinite arrays. TFSSRA is written in FORTRAN 77 with single precision. It has been successfully implemented on a Sun4 series computer running SunOS, an IBM PC compatible running MS-DOS, and a CRAY series computer running UNICOS, and should run on other systems with slight modifications. Double precision is recommended for running on a PC if many modes are used or if high accuracy is required. This package requires the LINPACK math library, which is included. TFSSRA requires 1Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium for this program is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. It is also

  6. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, S.A.

    1958-05-27

    An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.

  7. Construction of a 56 mm aperture high-field twin-aperture superconducting dipole model magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlbaeck, J; Leroy, D.; Oberli, L.; Perini, D.; Salminen, J.; Savelainen, M.; Soini, J.; Spigo, G.

    1996-07-01

    A twin-aperture superconducting dipole model has been designed in collaboration with Finnish and Swedish Scientific Institutions within the framework of the LHC R and D program and has been built at CERN. Principal features of the magnet are 56 mm aperture, separate stainless steel collared coils, yoke closed after assembly at room temperature, and longitudinal prestressing of the coil ends. This paper recalls the main dipole design characteristics and presents some details of its fabrication including geometrical and mechanical measurements of the collared coil assembly.

  8. Is grid therapy useful for all tumors and every grid block design?

    PubMed

    Gholami, Somayeh; Nedaie, Hassan Ali; Longo, Francesco; Ay, Mohammad Reza; Wright, Stacey; Meigooni, Ali S

    2016-01-01

    Grid therapy is a treatment technique that has been introduced for patients with advanced bulky tumors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the radia-tion sensitivity of the tumors and the design of the grid blocks on the clinical response of grid therapy. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is used to determine the dose distribution through a grid block that was used for a Varian 2100C linear accelerator. From the simulated dose profiles, the therapeutic ratio (TR) and the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for different types of tumors with respect to their radiation sensitivities were calculated. These calculations were performed using the linear quadratic (LQ) and the Hug-Kellerer (H-K) models. The results of these calculations have been validated by comparison with the clinical responses of 232 patients from different publications, who were treated with grid therapy. These published results for different tumor types were used to examine the correlation between tumor radiosensitivity and the clinical response of grid therapy. Moreover, the influence of grid design on their clinical responses was investigated by using Monte Carlo simulations of grid blocks with different hole diameters and different center-to-center spacing. The results of the theoretical models and clinical data indicated higher clinical responses for the grid therapy on the patients with more radioresistant tumors. The differences between TR values for radioresistant cells and radiosensitive cells at 20 Gy and 10 Gy doses were up to 50% and 30%, respectively. Interestingly, the differences between the TR values with LQ model and H-K model were less than 4%. Moreover, the results from the Monte Carlo studies showed that grid blocks with a hole diameters of 1.0 cm and 1.25 cm may lead to about 19% higher TR relative to the grids with hole diameters smaller than 1.0 cm or larger than 1.25 cm (with 95% confidence interval). In sum-mary, the results of this study indicate that

  9. Cathode-less gridded ion thrusters for small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aanesland, Ane; Rafalskyi, Dmytro

    2015-09-01

    We present here a new gridded ion thruster, called Neptune, that operates with only one Radio Frequency (RF) power source for ionization, ion acceleration and beam neutralization in addition to solid iodine as propellant. Thus significant simplifications, over excising gridded thrusters, might allow downscaling to satellites as small as 6 kg. The combined acceleration and neutralization is achieved by applying an RF voltage to the grid system via a blocking capacitor. As for similar RF capacitive systems, a self-bias is formed such that ions are continuously accelerated while electrons are emitted in brief instants within the RF sheath collapse. Moreover, the RF nature of the acceleration system leads to a higher space charge limited current extracted across the grids compared to classical DC operated systems. Measurements of the ion and electron energy distribution functions in the plasma plume show that in addition to the directed beam of ions, the electrons are also anisotropic resulting in a flowing plasma, rather than a beam of positive ions. Experimental characterization of this RF accelerated plume is detailed. This work received financial state aid managed by the ANR as part of the program ``Investissements d'avenir'' under the reference ANR-11-IDEX-0003-02 (Project MINIATURE).

  10. Berkeley Proton Linear Accelerator

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Alvarez, L. W.; Bradner, H.; Franck, J.; Gordon, H.; Gow, J. D.; Marshall, L. C.; Oppenheimer, F. F.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; Richman, C.; Woodyard, J. R.

    1953-10-13

    A linear accelerator, which increases the energy of protons from a 4 Mev Van de Graaff injector, to a final energy of 31.5 Mev, has been constructed. The accelerator consists of a cavity 40 feet long and 39 inches in diameter, excited at resonance in a longitudinal electric mode with a radio-frequency power of about 2.2 x 10{sup 6} watts peak at 202.5 mc. Acceleration is made possible by the introduction of 46 axial "drift tubes" into the cavity, which is designed such that the particles traverse the distance between the centers of successive tubes in one cycle of the r.f. power. The protons are longitudinally stable as in the synchrotron, and are stabilized transversely by the action of converging fields produced by focusing grids. The electrical cavity is constructed like an inverted airplane fuselage and is supported in a vacuum tank. Power is supplied by 9 high powered oscillators fed from a pulse generator of the artificial transmission line type.

  11. Grid Computing Education Support

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Crumb

    2008-01-15

    The GGF Student Scholar program enabled GGF the opportunity to bring over sixty qualified graduate and under-graduate students with interests in grid technologies to its three annual events over the three-year program.

  12. Space Development Grid Portal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaziri, Arsi

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the development of a portal to provide secure and distributed grid computing for Payload Operations Integrated Center and Mission Control Center ground services.

  13. Fast parametric beamformer for synthetic aperture imaging.

    PubMed

    Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a real-time delay-and-sum synthetic aperture beamformer. The beamforming delays and apodization coefficients are described parametrically. The image is viewed as a set of independent lines that are defined in 3D by their origin, direction, and inter-sample distance. The delay calculation is recursive and inspired by the coordinate rotation digital computer (CORDIC) algorithm. Only 3 parameters per channel and line are needed for their generation. The calculation of apodization coefficients is based on a piece- wise linear approximation. The implementation of the beamformer is optimized with respect to the architecture of a novel synthetic aperture real-time ultrasound scanner (SARUS), in which 4 channels are processed by the same set of field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA). In synthetic transmit aperture imaging, low-resolution images are formed after every emission. Summing all low-resolution images produces a perfectly focused high-resolution image. The design of the beamformer is modular, and a single beamformation unit can produce 4600 low-resolution images per second, each consisting of 32 lines and 1024 complex samples per line. In its present incarnation, 3 such modules fit in a single device. The summation of low-resolution images is performed internally in the FPGA to reduce the required bandwidth. The delays are calculated with a precision of 1/16th of a sample, and the apodization coefficients with 7-bit precision. The accumulation of low-resolution images is performed with 24-bit precision. The level of the side- and grating lobes, introduced by the use of integer numbers in the calculations and truncation of intermediate results, is below -86 dB from the peak. PMID:18986919

  14. Optimization of synthetic aperture image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshavegh, Ramin; Jensen, Jonas; Villagomez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; Stuart, Matthias B.; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic Aperture (SA) imaging produces high-quality images and velocity estimates of both slow and fast flow at high frame rates. However, grating lobe artifacts can appear both in transmission and reception. These affect the image quality and the frame rate. Therefore optimization of parameters effecting the image quality of SA is of great importance, and this paper proposes an advanced procedure for optimizing the parameters essential for acquiring an optimal image quality, while generating high resolution SA images. Optimization of the image quality is mainly performed based on measures such as F-number, number of emissions and the aperture size. They are considered to be the most contributing acquisition factors in the quality of the high resolution images in SA. Therefore, the performance of image quality is quantified in terms of full-width at half maximum (FWHM) and the cystic resolution (CTR). The results of the study showed that SA imaging with only 32 emissions and maximum sweep angle of 22 degrees yields a very good image quality compared with using 256 emissions and the full aperture size. Therefore the number of emissions and the maximum sweep angle in the SA can be optimized to reach a reasonably good performance, and to increase the frame rate by lowering the required number of emissions. All the measurements are performed using the experimental SARUS scanner connected to a λ/2-pitch transducer. A wire phantom and a tissue mimicking phantom containing anechoic cysts are scanned using the optimized parameters for the transducer. Measurements coincide with simulations.

  15. Transmissivity Reduction Of Fracture Due To Silica Precipitation Is Faster For Variable Aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, S. N.; Chaudhuri, A.; Kelkar, S.; Rajaram, H.

    2013-12-01

    Geothermal energy have certain ecological benefits as it does not disturb the local ecosystem. It is also able to generate power with minimum operating cost. The extraction of geothermal energy has grown significantly in the past few decades. One of the major challenges for reservoir scale modeling of geothermal system is to describe the exact configuration of aperture fields. Hence the sustainability of geothermal power plant and future estimation of power production is affected during continuous evolution by geochemical and geomechanical processes. The formation of scale due to precipitation of silica in the wells and the fault creates major problem in the sustainability of the geothermal heat extraction. In this study we simulated the reduction of fracture transmissivity due to precipitation by 3-D simulation of coupled thermo-hydro-chemical (THC) processes a simple geothermal system with a horizontal fault, which connects the injection and production wells to facilitate the cold water circulation. The variability of aperture within the fracture/fault is more realistic and it is known that the reduction of effective transmissivity is accelerated by the heterogeneity of the aperture field. The objective of the study is to understand the results of aperture field heterogeneity on the power production. For comparison among different heterogeneous cases, the initial effective transmissivity has been taken same for each. Using numerical simulation of flow between the wells, the same initial effective transmissivity (i.e. same pressure drop between the wells for same mass flow rate) was attained through iteration. The values of standard deviations were taken in the range of 0 to 0.4. Temperature dependent kinetic rate laws were used for the reactive transport modeling. Here the numerical simulations were performed for injection concentration as the solubility at the temperature in the production well. This extreme case is based on the assumption that there is no

  16. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P. Jr.; Devaney, H.F.; Hake, L.W.

    1979-08-29

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  17. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Jr., Joseph P.; Devaney, Howard F.; Hake, Lewis W.

    1982-08-17

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  18. ION ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Bell, J.S.

    1959-09-15

    An arrangement for the drift tubes in a linear accelerator is described whereby each drift tube acts to shield the particles from the influence of the accelerating field and focuses the particles passing through the tube. In one embodiment the drift tube is splii longitudinally into quadrants supported along the axis of the accelerator by webs from a yoke, the quadrants. webs, and yoke being of magnetic material. A magnetic focusing action is produced by energizing a winding on each web to set up a magnetic field between adjacent quadrants. In the other embodiment the quadrants are electrically insulated from each other and have opposite polarity voltages on adjacent quadrants to provide an electric focusing fleld for the particles, with the quadrants spaced sufficienily close enough to shield the particles within the tube from the accelerating electric field.

  19. IDL Grid Web Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massimino, P.; Costa, A.

    2008-08-01

    Image Data Language is a software for data analysis, visualization and cross-platform application development. The potentiality of IDL is well-known in the academic scientific world, especially in the astronomical environment where thousands of procedures are developed by using IDL. The typical use of IDL is the interactive mode but it is also possible to run IDL programs that do not require any interaction with the user, submitting them in batch or background modality. Through the interactive mode the user immediately receives images or other data produced in the running phase of the program; in batch or background mode, the user will have to wait for the end of the program, sometime for many hours or days to obtain images or data that IDL produced as output: in fact in Grid environment it is possible to access to or retrieve data only after completion of the program. The work that we present gives flexibility to IDL procedures submitted to the Grid computer infrastructure. For this purpose we have developed an IDL Grid Web Portal to allow the user to access the Grid and to submit IDL programs granting a full job control and the access to images and data generated during the running phase, without waiting for their completion. We have used the PHP technology and we have given the same level of security that Grid normally offers to its users. In this way, when the user notices that the intermediate program results are not those expected, he can stop the job, change the parameters to better satisfy the computational algorithm and resubmit the program, without consuming the CPU time and other Grid resources. The IDL Grid Web Portal allows you to obtain IDL generated images, graphics and data tables by using a normal browser. All conversations from the user and the Grid resources occur via Web, as well as authentication phases. The IDL user has not to change the program source much because the Portal will automatically introduce the appropriate modification before

  20. Implementing Production Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William E.; Ziobarth, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have presented the essence of experience gained in building two production Grids, and provided some of the global context for this work. As the reader might imagine, there were a lot of false starts, refinements to the approaches and to the software, and several substantial integration projects (SRB and Condor integrated with Globus) to get where we are today. However, the point of this paper is to try and make it substantially easier for others to get to the point where Information Power Grids (IPG) and the DOE Science Grids are today. This is what is needed in order to move us toward the vision of a common cyber infrastructure for science. The author would also like to remind the readers that this paper primarily represents the actual experiences that resulted from specific architectural and software choices during the design and implementation of these two Grids. The choices made were dictated by the criteria laid out in section 1. There is a lot more Grid software available today that there was four years ago, and various of these packages are being integrated into IPG and the DOE Grids. However, the foundation choices of Globus, SRB, and Condor would not be significantly different today than they were four years ago. Nonetheless, if the GGF is successful in its work - and we have every reason to believe that it will be - then in a few years we will see that the 28 functions provided by these packages will be defined in terms of protocols and MIS, and there will be several robust implementations available for each of the basic components, especially the Grid Common Services. The impact of the emerging Web Grid Services work is not yet clear. It will likely have a substantial impact on building higher level services, however it is the opinion of the author that this will in no way obviate the need for the Grid Common Services. These are the foundation of Grids, and the focus of almost all of the operational and persistent infrastructure aspects of Grids.

  1. Random array grid collimator

    DOEpatents

    Fenimore, E.E.

    1980-08-22

    A hexagonally shaped quasi-random no-two-holes touching grid collimator. The quasi-random array grid collimator eliminates contamination from small angle off-axis rays by using a no-two-holes-touching pattern which simultaneously provides for a self-supporting array increasng throughput by elimination of a substrate. The presentation invention also provides maximum throughput using hexagonally shaped holes in a hexagonal lattice pattern for diffraction limited applications. Mosaicking is also disclosed for reducing fabrication effort.

  2. Imaging correlography with sparse collecting apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idell, Paul S.; Fienup, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of implementing an imaging correlography system with sparse arrays of intensity detectors. The theory underlying the image formation process for imaging correlography is reviewed, emphasizing the spatial filtering effects that sparse collecting apertures have on the reconstructed imagery. Image recovery with sparse arrays of intensity detectors through the use of computer experiments in which laser speckle measurements are digitally simulated is then demonstrated. It is shown that the quality of imagery reconstructed using this technique is visibly enhanced when appropriate filtering techniques are applied. A performance tradeoff between collecting array redundancy and the number of speckle pattern measurements is briefly discussed.

  3. Dual-sided coded-aperture imager

    DOEpatents

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter

    2009-09-22

    In a vehicle, a single detector plane simultaneously measures radiation coming through two coded-aperture masks, one on either side of the detector. To determine which side of the vehicle a source is, the two shadow masks are inverses of each other, i.e., one is a mask and the other is the anti-mask. All of the data that is collected is processed through two versions of an image reconstruction algorithm. One treats the data as if it were obtained through the mask, the other as though the data is obtained through the anti-mask.

  4. Multiple instrument distributed aperture sensor (MIDAS) testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Eric H.; de Leon, Erich; Dean, Peter; Deloumi, Jake; Duncan, Alan; Hoskins, Warren; Kendrick, Richard; Mason, James; Page, Jeff; Phenis, Adam; Pitman, Joe; Pope, Christine; Privari, Bela; Ratto, Doug; Romero, Enrique; Shu, Ker-Li; Sigler, Robert; Stubbs, David; Tapos, Francisc; Yee, Albert

    2005-08-01

    Lockheed Martin is developing an innovative and adaptable optical telescope comprised of an array of nine identical afocal sub-telescopes. Inherent in the array design is the ability to perform high-resolution broadband imaging, Fizeau Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) imaging, and single exposure multi-spectral and polarimetric imaging. Additionally, the sensor suite's modular design integrates multiple science packages for active and passive sensing from 0.4 to 14 microns. We describe the opto-mechanical design of our concept, the Multiple Instrument Distributed Aperture Sensor (MIDAS), and a selection of passive and active remote sensing missions it fulfills.

  5. Multibeam synthetic aperture radar for global oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, A.

    1979-01-01

    A single-frequency multibeam synthetic aperture radar concept for large swath imaging desired for global oceanography is evaluated. Each beam iilluminates a separate range and azimuth interval, and images for different beams may be separated on the basis of the Doppler spectrum of the beams or their spatial azimuth separation in the image plane of the radar processor. The azimuth resolution of the radar system is selected so that the Doppler spectrum of each beam does not interfere with the Doppler foldover due to the finite pulse repetition frequency of the radar system.

  6. Cancellation of singularities for synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caday, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In a basic model for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging, one wishes to recover a function or distribution f from line integrals over circles whose centers lie on a given curve γ. In this paper, we consider the problem of recovering the singularities (wavefront set) of f given its SAR data, and specifically whether it is possible to choose a singular f whose singularities are hidden from γ, meaning that its SAR data is smooth. We show that f 's singularities can be hidden to leading order if a certain discrete reflection map is the identity, and give examples where this is the case. Finally, numerical experiments illustrate the hiding of singularities.

  7. Digital exploitation of synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, H. L.; Shuchman, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A digital processing and analysis scheme for use with digitized synthetic aperture radar data was developed. Using data from a four channel system, the imagery is preprocessed using specially designed software and then analyzed using preexisting facilities originally intended for use with MSS type data. Geometric and radiometric correction may be performed if desired, as well as classification analysis, Fast Fourier transform, filtering and level slice and display functions. The system provides low cost output in real time, permitting interactive imagery analysis. System information flow diagrams as well as sample output products are shown.

  8. Estimating vegetation biomass using synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronti, Stefano; Luciani, S.; Paloscia, Simonetta; Schiavon, G.; Sigismondi, S.; Solimini, Domenico

    1994-12-01

    A significant experiment for evaluating the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in monitoring soil and vegetation parameters is being carried out on an agricultural area located in Central Italy. The site has been imaged in 1991 by NASA/JPL AIRSAR during the MAC-91 Campaign and subsequently by ESA/ERS-1 and NASDA JERS-1 in 1992. The sensitivity to vegetation biomass of backscattering coefficient measured by ERS-1 and JERS-1 radars is discussed and compared with the best results achieved using the multifrequency polarimetric AIRSAR data.

  9. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  10. Chaotic dynamics in accelerator physics. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, J.R.

    1992-11-30

    Substantial progress was in several areas of accelerator dynamics. For developing understanding of longitudinal adiabatic dynamics, and for creating efficiency enhancements of recirculating free-electron lasers, was substantially completed. A computer code for analyzing the critical KAM tori that bound the dynamic aperture in circular machines was developed. Studies of modes that arise due to the interaction of coating beams with a narrow-spectrum impedance have begun. During this research educational and research ties with the accelerator community at large have been strengthened.

  11. Stability of non-linear integrable accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Batalov, I.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    The stability of non-linear Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) model developed in [1] was tested. The area of the stable region in transverse coordinates and the maximum attainable tune spread were found as a function of non-linear lens strength. Particle loss as a function of turn number was analyzed to determine whether a dynamic aperture limitation present in the system. The system was also tested with sextupoles included in the machine for chromaticity compensation. A method of evaluation of the beam size in the linear part of the accelerator was proposed.

  12. Beyond grid security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeft, B.; Epting, U.; Koenig, T.

    2008-07-01

    While many fields relevant to Grid security are already covered by existing working groups, their remit rarely goes beyond the scope of the Grid infrastructure itself. However, security issues pertaining to the internal set-up of compute centres have at least as much impact on Grid security. Thus, this talk will present briefly the EU ISSeG project (Integrated Site Security for Grids). In contrast to groups such as OSCT (Operational Security Coordination Team) and JSPG (Joint Security Policy Group), the purpose of ISSeG is to provide a holistic approach to security for Grid computer centres, from strategic considerations to an implementation plan and its deployment. The generalised methodology of Integrated Site Security (ISS) is based on the knowledge gained during its implementation at several sites as well as through security audits, and this will be briefly discussed. Several examples of ISS implementation tasks at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe will be presented, including segregation of the network for administration and maintenance and the implementation of Application Gateways. Furthermore, the web-based ISSeG training material will be introduced. This aims to offer ISS implementation guidance to other Grid installations in order to help avoid common pitfalls.

  13. Using Grid Benchmarks for Dynamic Scheduling of Grid Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Hood, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Navigation or dynamic scheduling of applications on computational grids can be improved through the use of an application-specific characterization of grid resources. Current grid information systems provide a description of the resources, but do not contain any application-specific information. We define a GridScape as dynamic state of the grid resources. We measure the dynamic performance of these resources using the grid benchmarks. Then we use the GridScape for automatic assignment of the tasks of a grid application to grid resources. The scalability of the system is achieved by limiting the navigation overhead to a few percent of the application resource requirements. Our task submission and assignment protocol guarantees that the navigation system does not cause grid congestion. On a synthetic data mining application we demonstrate that Gridscape-based task assignment reduces the application tunaround time.

  14. Exploring Hypersonic, Unstructured-Grid Issues through Structured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazaheri, Ali R.; Kleb, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Pure-tetrahedral unstructured grids have been shown to produce asymmetric heat transfer rates for symmetric problems. Meanwhile, two-dimensional structured grids produce symmetric solutions and as documented here, introducing a spanwise degree of freedom to these structured grids also yields symmetric solutions. The effects of grid skewness and other perturbations of structured-grids are investigated to uncover possible mechanisms behind the unstructured-grid solution asymmetries. By using controlled experiments around a known, good solution, the effects of particular grid pathologies are uncovered. These structured-grid experiments reveal that similar solution degradation occurs as for unstructured grids, especially for heat transfer rates. Non-smooth grids within the boundary layer is also shown to produce large local errors in heat flux but do not affect surface pressures.

  15. Near-Body Grid Adaption for Overset Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, Pieter G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    A solution adaption capability for curvilinear near-body grids has been implemented in the OVERFLOW overset grid computational fluid dynamics code. The approach follows closely that used for the Cartesian off-body grids, but inserts refined grids in the computational space of original near-body grids. Refined curvilinear grids are generated using parametric cubic interpolation, with one-sided biasing based on curvature and stretching ratio of the original grid. Sensor functions, grid marking, and solution interpolation tasks are implemented in the same fashion as for off-body grids. A goal-oriented procedure, based on largest error first, is included for controlling growth rate and maximum size of the adapted grid system. The adaption process is almost entirely parallelized using MPI, resulting in a capability suitable for viscous, moving body simulations. Two- and three-dimensional examples are presented.

  16. Design considerations for a large aperture high field superconducting dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Harfoush, F.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Harrison, M.; Kerby, J.; Koepke, K.; Mantsch, P.; Nicol, T.; Riddiford, A.; Theilacker, J.

    1989-03-01

    The final phase of the Fermilab upgrade proposal calls for a new ring of superconducting magnets to be placed in the existing Main Accelerator tunnel. The goal of this design study is to specify a high field dipole (HFD) that is capable of supporting fixed target operation (ramping, resonant extraction) at a field of 6.6T (1.5 Tev) and colliding beam physics at 8.0T (1.8 Tev). The magnetic field quality at high field is set by the large amplitude orbits associated with resonant extraction. The field quality must therefore be at least as good as the existing Tevatron magnets which fulfill these criteria. The high fields and large aperture of this magnet result in large forces on the coil and collar assemblies. Therefore, the cold mass design must be able to sustain these forces while providing sufficient cooling to the coils during 4.2 K fixed target operation, and a minimum heat load during 1.8 K collider operation. The design work is still in progress but a cosine-theta, cold-iron dipole with a 70mm inner diameter coil has been tentatively adopted. This report presents details on the conductor and cable parameters, coil cross-section, projected manufacturing tolerances, iron yoke design, and cold mass assembly. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Grid generation strategies for turbomachinery configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. D.; Henderson, T. L.

    1991-01-01

    Turbomachinery flow fields involve unique grid generation issues due to their geometrical and physical characteristics. Several strategic approaches are discussed to generate quality grids. The grid quality is further enhanced through blending and adapting. Grid blending smooths the grids locally through averaging and diffusion operators. Grid adaptation redistributes the grid points based on a grid quality assessment. These methods are demonstrated with several examples.

  18. GRIDS: Grid-Scale Rampable Intermittent Dispatchable Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: The 12 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s GRIDS Project, short for “Grid-Scale Rampable Intermittent Dispatchable Storage,” are developing storage technologies that can store renewable energy for use at any location on the grid at an investment cost less than $100 per kilowatt hour. Flexible, large-scale storage would create a stronger and more robust electric grid by enabling renewables to contribute to reliable power generation.

  19. Reference installation for the German grid initiative D-Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, W.; Dulov, O.; Garcia, A.; Jejkal, T.; Jrad, F.; Marten, H.; Mol, X.; Nilsen, D.; Schneider, O.

    2010-04-01

    The D-Grid reference installation is a test platform for the German grid initiative. The main task is to create the grid prototype for software and hardware components needed in the D-Grid community. For each grid-related task field different alternative middleware is included. With respect to changing demands from the community, new versions of the reference installation are released every six months.

  20. Arc Length Based Grid Distribution For Surface and Volume Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastin, C. Wayne

    1996-01-01

    Techniques are presented for distributing grid points on parametric surfaces and in volumes according to a specified distribution of arc length. Interpolation techniques are introduced which permit a given distribution of grid points on the edges of a three-dimensional grid block to be propagated through the surface and volume grids. Examples demonstrate how these methods can be used to improve the quality of grids generated by transfinite interpolation.

  1. Unstructured Grids on NURBS Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh-Abolhassani, Jamshid

    1993-01-01

    A simple and efficient computational method is presented for unstructured surface grid generation. This method is built upon an advancing front technique combined with grid projection. The projection technique is based on a Newton-Raphson method. This combined approach has been successfully implemented for structured and unstructured grids. In this paper, the implementation for unstructured grid is discussed.

  2. The Benefits of Grid Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2005-01-01

    In the article, the author talks about the benefits of grid networks. In speaking of grid networks the author is referring to both networks of computers and networks of humans connected together in a grid topology. Examples are provided of how grid networks are beneficial today and the ways in which they have been used.

  3. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Troxell, Wade

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3) Simulation of

  4. Imaging with Concave Large-Aperture Therapeutic Ultrasound Arrays Using Conventional Synthetic-Aperture Beamforming

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yayun; Ebbini, Emad S.

    2009-01-01

    Several dual-mode ultrasound array (DMUA) systems are being investigated for potential use in image-guided surgery. In therapeutic mode, DMUAs generate pulsed or continuous-wave (CW) high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) beams capable of generating localized therapeutic effects within the focal volume. In imaging mode, pulse-echo data can be collected from the DMUA elements to obtain B-mode images or other forms of feedback on the state of the target tissue before, during, and after the application of the therapeutic HIFU beam. Therapeutic and technological constraints give rise to special characteristics of therapeutic arrays. Specifically, DMUAs have concave apertures with low f-number values and are typically coarsely sampled using directive elements. These characteristics necessitate pre- and post-beamforming signal processing of echo data to improve the spatial and contrast resolution and maximize the image uniformity within the imaging field of view (IxFOV). We have recently developed and experimentally validated beamforming algorithms for concave large-aperture DMUAs with directive elements. Experimental validation was performed using a 1 MHz, 64-element, concave spherical aperture with 100 mm radius of curvature. The aperture was sampled in the lateral direction using elongated elements 1−λ×33.3‒ with 1.333‒−λ center-to-center spacing (λ is the wavelength). This resulted in f-number values of 0.8 and 2 in the azimuth and elevation directions, respectively. In this paper, we present a new DMUA design approach based on different sampling of the shared concave aperture to improve image quality while maintaining therapeutic performance. A pulse-wave (PW) simulation model using a modified version of the Field II program is used in this study. The model is used in generating pulse-echo data for synthetic-aperture (SA) beamforming for forming images of a variety of targets, e.g., wire arrays and speckle-generating cyst phantoms. To provide

  5. Development of large aperture composite adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmetik, Viliam; Vitovec, Bohumil; Jiran, Lukas; Nemcova, Sarka; Zicha, Josef; Inneman, Adolf; Mikulickova, Lenka; Pavlica, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Large aperture composite adaptive optics for laser applications is investigated in cooperation of Institute of Plasma Physic, Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering FME CTU and 5M Ltd. We are exploring opportunity of a large-size high-power-laser deformable-mirror production using a lightweight bimorph actuated structure with a composite core. In order to produce a sufficiently large operational free aperture we are developing new technologies for production of flexible core, bimorph actuator and deformable mirror reflector. Full simulation of a deformable-mirrors structure was prepared and validated by complex testing. A deformable mirror actuation and a response of a complicated structure are investigated for an accurate control of the adaptive optics. An original adaptive optics control system and a bimorph deformable mirror driver were developed. Tests of material samples, components and sub-assemblies were completed. A subscale 120 mm bimorph deformable mirror prototype was designed, fabricated and thoroughly tested. A large-size 300 mm composite-core bimorph deformable mirror was simulated and optimized, fabrication of a prototype is carried on. A measurement and testing facility is modified to accommodate large sizes optics.

  6. KAOS: kilo-aperture optical spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barden, Samuel C.; Dey, Arjun; Boyle, Brian; Glazebrook, Karl

    2004-09-01

    A design is described for a potential new facility capable of taking detailed spectroscopy of millions of objects in the Universe to explore the complexity of the Universe and to answer fundamental questions relating to the equation of state of dark energy and to how the Milky Way galaxy formed. The specific design described is envisioned for implementation on the Gemini 8-meter telescopes. It utilizes a 1.5° field of view and samples that field with up to ~5000 apertures. This Kilo-Aperture Optical Spectrograph (KAOS) is mounted at prime focus with a 4-element corrector, atmospheric dispersion compensator (ADC), and an Echidna-style fiber optic positioner. The ADC doubles as a wobble plate, allowing fast guiding that cancels out the wind buffeting of the telescope. The fibers, which can be reconfigured in less than 10 minutes, feed to an array of 12 spectrographs located in the pier of the telescope. The spectrographs are capable of provided spectral resolving powers of a few thousand up to about 40,000.

  7. Multiple-Aperture-Based Solar Seeing Profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Xi; Dou, Jiangpei; Chen, Rui; Zhu, Yongtian; Yang, Feng

    2015-09-01

    Characterization of day-time atmospheric turbulence profiles up to 30 km above the telescope is crucial for designs and performance estimations of future solar multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) systems. Recently, the S-DIMM+ method has been successfully used to measure the vertical profile of turbulence. However, to measure profile up to 30 km employing the S-DIMM+ method, a telescope with a diameter of at least 1.0 m is needed, which restricts the usage of S-DIMM+, since large telescopes are scarce and their time is limited. To solve this problem, we introduce the multiple-aperture seeing profiler (MASP), which consists of two portable small telescopes instead of a single large aperture. Numerical simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of MASP. We find that for one layer case, MASP can retrieve the seeing with error ~5% using 800 frames of wavefront sensor (WFS) data, which is quite similar to the results of a telescope with diameter of 1120 mm. We also simulate profiles with four turbulence layers, and find that our MASP can effectively retrieve the strengths and heights of the four turbulence layers. Since previous measurements at Big Bear Solar Observatory showed that day-time turbulence profile typically consists of four layers, the MASP we introduced is sufficient for actual seeing measurement.

  8. High frequency single mode traveling wave structure for particle acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanyan, M. I.; Danielyan, V. A.; Grigoryan, B. A.; Grigoryan, A. H.; Tsakanian, A. V.; Tsakanov, V. M.; Vardanyan, A. S.; Zakaryan, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    The development of the new high frequency slow traveling wave structures is one of the promising directions in accomplishment of charged particles high acceleration gradient. The disc and dielectric loaded structures are the most known structures with slowly propagating modes. In this paper a large aperture high frequency metallic two-layer accelerating structure is studied. The electrodynamical properties of the slowly propagating TM01 mode in a metallic tube with internally coated low conductive thin layer are examined.

  9. Effective spatially fractionated GRID radiation treatment planning for a passive grid block

    PubMed Central

    Mohiuddin, M; Devic, S; Moftah, B

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To commission a grid block for spatially fractionated grid radiation therapy (SFGRT) treatments and describe its clinical implementation and verification through the record and verify (R&V) system. Methods: SFGRT was developed as a treatment modality for bulky tumours that cannot be easily controlled with conventionally fractionated radiation. Treatment is delivered in the form of open–closed areas. Currently, SFGRT is performed by either using a commercially available grid block or a multileaf collimator (MLC) of a linear accelerator. In this work, 6-MV photon beam was used to study dosimetric characteristics of the grid block. We inserted the grid block into a commercially available treatment planning system (TPS), and the feasibility of delivering such treatment plans on a linear accelerator using a R&V system was verified. Dose measurements were performed using a miniature PinPointTM ion chamber (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) in a water phantom and radiochromic film within solid water slabs. PinPoint ion chamber was used to measure the output factors, percentage depth dose (PDD) curves and beam profiles at two depths, depth of maximum dose (zmax) and 10 cm. Film sheets were used to measure dose profiles at zmax and 10-cm depth. Results: The largest observed percentage difference between output factors for the grid block technique calculated by the TPS and measured with the PinPoint ion chamber was 3.6% for the 5 × 5-cm2 field size. Relatively significant discrepancies between measured and calculated PDD values appear only in the build-up region, which was found to amount to <4%, while a good agreement (differences <2%) at depths beyond zmax was observed. Dose verification comparisons performed between calculated and measured dose distributions were in clinically acceptable agreements. When comparing the MLC-based with the grid block technique, the advantage of treating large tumours with a single field reduces treatment time by at least 3–5

  10. GridLAB-D/SG

    2011-08-30

    GridLAB-D is a new power system simulation tool that provides valuable information to users who design and operate electric power transmission and distribution systems, and to utilities that wish to take advantage of the latest smart grid technology. This special release of GridLAB-D was developed to study the proposed Smart Grid technology that is used by Battelle Memorial Institute in the AEP gridSMART demonstration project in Northeast Columbus, Ohio.

  11. Coded aperture imaging for fluorescent x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Haboub, A.; MacDowell, A. A.; Marchesini, S.; Parkinson, D. Y.

    2014-06-15

    We employ a coded aperture pattern in front of a pixilated charge couple device detector to image fluorescent x-rays (6–25 KeV) from samples irradiated with synchrotron radiation. Coded apertures encode the angular direction of x-rays, and given a known source plane, allow for a large numerical aperture x-ray imaging system. The algorithm to develop and fabricate the free standing No-Two-Holes-Touching aperture pattern was developed. The algorithms to reconstruct the x-ray image from the recorded encoded pattern were developed by means of a ray tracing technique and confirmed by experiments on standard samples.

  12. Design of scanning spherical trireflector antennas with high aperture efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bing; Stutzman, Warren L.

    1993-01-01

    It is frequently desirable to scan the main beam of a large antenna system without moving the main aperture structure. Spherical reflectors have excellent potential in this application. However, they are not commonly used because of poor aperture efficiency and high side lobes in traditional implementations. This paper introduces a new dual-subreflector feed system design which does not require oversizing the spherical main reflector to accommodate scan and yet permits a controlled aperture illumination. The design yields high aperture efficiency, low cross-polarization, and low side lobes.

  13. Multiple aperture window and seeker concepts for endo KEW applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, V.H.; Reeves, B.L.; Thyson, N.A.; Mueffelmann, W.H.; Werner, J.S.; Jones, G. Loral Infrared and Imaging Systems, Lexington, MA U.S. Army, Strategic Defense Command, Huntsville, AL )

    1992-05-01

    Hypersonic interceptors performing endoatmospheric hit-to-kill missions require very high seeker angle measurement accuracies in very severe aero-thermal environments. Wall jet window/aperture cooling usually leads to significant aero-optic degradation in seeker and hence interceptor performance. This paper describes window/aperture concepts that have the potential of eliminating or significantly reducing the need for coolant injection, together with a multiple aperture sensor concept that can provide a high angle measurement accuracy and a large field of regard, with a small aperture size. 15 refs.

  14. Multiple aperture window and seeker concepts for endo KEW applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shui, V. H.; Reeves, B. L.; Thyson, N. A.; Mueffelmann, W. H.; Werner, J. S.; Jones, G.

    1992-05-01

    Hypersonic interceptors performing endoatmospheric hit-to-kill missions require very high seeker angle measurement accuracies in very severe aero-thermal environments. Wall jet window/aperture cooling usually leads to significant aero-optic degradation in seeker and hence interceptor performance. This paper describes window/aperture concepts that have the potential of eliminating or significantly reducing the need for coolant injection, together with a multiple aperture sensor concept that can provide a high angle measurement accuracy and a large field of regard, with a small aperture size.

  15. Functionalized apertures for the detection of chemical and biological materials

    DOEpatents

    Letant, Sonia E.; van Buuren, Anthony W.; Terminello, Louis J.; Thelen, Michael P.; Hope-Weeks, Louisa J.; Hart, Bradley R.

    2010-12-14

    Disclosed are nanometer to micron scale functionalized apertures constructed on a substrate made of glass, carbon, semiconductors or polymeric materials that allow for the real time detection of biological materials or chemical moieties. Many apertures can exist on one substrate allowing for the simultaneous detection of numerous chemical and biological molecules. One embodiment features a macrocyclic ring attached to cross-linkers, wherein the macrocyclic ring has a biological or chemical probe extending through the aperture. Another embodiment achieves functionalization by attaching chemical or biological anchors directly to the walls of the apertures via cross-linkers.

  16. Study on test metrology of large aperture optical system wavefront

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhiying; Fu, Yuegang; Gao, Tianyuan; Wang, Zhijian

    2009-05-01

    Large aperture optical system test has been a key problem for a long time. It could be solved by sub-aperture stitching method after the sub-apertures are tested. Sub-aperture stitching technology is a feasible method for testing large diameter optical system with small diameter interferometer sub-aperture stitching. Auto-collimating component will be needed with interferometer stitching method. Auto-collimating component is defined that the image could be kept stable when the optical component rotates about any axis in space. And the beam could be back along original optical path. By this means, auto collimation could be realized. The auto-collimating component is smaller than the test system. The whole wavefront of large aperture system could be tested through the method that the auto-collimating component moves along the guide rail and rotates about optical axis. A right angle roof prism is chosen as the auto-collimating component due to its character of easier manufacture. The active matrix, characteristic orientation and extreme axial is deduced with dynamic optics. The sub-aperture stitching testing process is simulated by ZEMAX in detail. The test result by stitching method is compared with that by directive test method for large aperture optical system. It is shown that the relative test error is less than 4.3λ 0/00. The sub -aperture stitching test method is verified.

  17. Jacobi-Bessel analysis of reflector antennas with elliptical apertures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    1987-01-01

    Although many reflector antennas possess circular projected apertures, there are recent satellite and ground antenna applications for which it is desirable to employ reflectors with elliptical apertures. Here a modification of the Jacobi-Bessel expansion is presented for the diffraction analysis of reflectors with elliptical apertures. A comparative study is also performed between this modified Jacobi-Bessel algorithm and the one which uses the Jacobi-Bessel expansion over a circumscribing circular region. Numerical results are presented for offset reflectors with elliptical and circular apertures and the improved convergence properties of the modified algorithm are highlighted.

  18. Regularized CT reconstruction on unstructured grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yun; Lu, Yao; Ma, Xiangyuan; Xu, Yuesheng

    2016-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an ill-posed problem. Reconstruction on unstructured grid reduces the computational cost and alleviates the ill-posedness by decreasing the dimension of the solution space. However, there was no systematic study on edge-preserving regularization methods for CT reconstruction on unstructured grid. In this work, we propose a novel regularization method for CT reconstruction on unstructured grid, such as triangular or tetrahedral meshes generated from the initial images reconstructed via analysis reconstruction method (e.g., filtered back-projection). The proposed regularization method is modeled as a three-term optimization problem, containing a weighted least square fidelity term motivated by the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART). The related cost function contains two non-differentiable terms, which bring difficulty to the development of the fast solver. A fixed-point proximity algorithm with SART is developed for solving the related optimization problem, and accelerating the convergence. Finally, we compare the regularized CT reconstruction method to SART with different regularization methods. Numerical experiments demonstrated that the proposed regularization method on unstructured grid is effective to suppress noise and preserve edge features.

  19. An Approach for Dynamic Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.; Liou, Meng-Sing; Hindman, Richard G.

    1994-01-01

    An approach is presented for the generation of two-dimensional, structured, dynamic grids. The grid motion may be due to the motion of the boundaries of the computational domain or to the adaptation of the grid to the transient, physical solution. A time-dependent grid is computed through the time integration of the grid speeds which are computed from a system of grid speed equations. The grid speed equations are derived from the time-differentiation of the grid equations so as to ensure that the dynamic grid maintains the desired qualities of the static grid. The grid equations are the Euler-Lagrange equations derived from a variational statement for the grid. The dynamic grid method is demonstrated for a model problem involving boundary motion, an inviscid flow in a converging-diverging nozzle during startup, and a viscous flow over a flat plate with an impinging shock wave. It is shown that the approach is more accurate for transient flows than an approach in which the grid speeds are computed using a finite difference with respect to time of the grid. However, the approach requires significantly more computational effort.

  20. Complex Volume Grid Generation Through the Use of Grid Reusability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a set of surface and volume grid generation techniques which reuse existing surface and volume grids. These methods use combinations of data manipulations to reduce grid generation time, improve grid characteristics, and increase the capabilities of existing domain discretization software. The manipulation techniques utilize physical and computational domains to produce basis function on which to operate and modify grid character and smooth grids using Trans-Finite Interpolation, a vector interpolation method and parametric re-mapping technique. With these new techniques, inviscid grids can be converted to viscous grids, multiple zone grid adaption can be performed to improve CFD solver efficiency, and topological changes to improve modeling of flow fields can be done simply and quickly. Examples of these capabilities are illustrated as applied to various configurations.

  1. NREL Smart Grid Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Hambrick, J.

    2012-01-01

    Although implementing Smart Grid projects at the distribution level provides many advantages and opportunities for advanced operation and control, a number of significant challenges must be overcome to maintain the high level of safety and reliability that the modern grid must provide. For example, while distributed generation (DG) promises to provide opportunities to increase reliability and efficiency and may provide grid support services such as volt/var control, the presence of DG can impact distribution operation and protection schemes. Additionally, the intermittent nature of many DG energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) can present a number of challenges to voltage regulation, etc. This presentation provides an overview a number of Smart Grid projects being performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) along with utility, industry, and academic partners. These projects include modeling and analysis of high penetration PV scenarios (with and without energy storage), development and testing of interconnection and microgrid equipment, as well as the development and implementation of advanced instrumentation and data acquisition used to analyze the impacts of intermittent renewable resources. Additionally, standards development associated with DG interconnection and analysis as well as Smart Grid interoperability will be discussed.

  2. An Adaptive Unstructured Grid Method by Grid Subdivision, Local Remeshing, and Grid Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.

    1999-01-01

    An unstructured grid adaptation technique has been developed and successfully applied to several three dimensional inviscid flow test cases. The approach is based on a combination of grid subdivision, local remeshing, and grid movement. For solution adaptive grids, the surface triangulation is locally refined by grid subdivision, and the tetrahedral grid in the field is partially remeshed at locations of dominant flow features. A grid redistribution strategy is employed for geometric adaptation of volume grids to moving or deforming surfaces. The method is automatic and fast and is designed for modular coupling with different solvers. Several steady state test cases with different inviscid flow features were tested for grid/solution adaptation. In all cases, the dominant flow features, such as shocks and vortices, were accurately and efficiently predicted with the present approach. A new and robust method of moving tetrahedral "viscous" grids is also presented and demonstrated on a three-dimensional example.

  3. Acceleration Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    1993-01-01

    Work to support the NASA MSFC Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP) was performed. Four tasks (analysis development, analysis research, analysis documentation, and acceleration analysis) were addressed by parallel projects. Work concentrated on preparation for and implementation of near real-time SAMS data analysis during the USMP-1 mission. User support documents and case specific software documentation and tutorials were developed. Information and results were presented to microgravity users. ACAP computer facilities need to be fully implemented and networked, data resources must be cataloged and accessible, future microgravity missions must be coordinated, and continued Orbiter characterization is necessary.

  4. Finite-aperture tapered unstable resonator lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, Robert George

    The development of high power, high brightness semiconductor lasers is important for applications such as efficient pumping of fiber amplifiers and free space communication. The ability to couple directly into the core of a single-mode fiber can vastly increase the absorption of pump light. Further, the high mode-selectivity provided by unstable resonators accommodates single-mode operation to many times the threshold current level. The objective of this dissertation is to investigate a more efficient semiconductor-based unstable resonator design. The tapered unstable resonator laser consists of a single-mode ridge coupled to a tapered gain region. The ridge, aided by spoiling grooves, provides essential preparation of the fundamental mode, while the taper provides significant amplification and a large output mode. It is shown a laterally finite taper-side mirror (making the laser a "finite-aperture tapered unstable resonator laser") serves to significantly improve differential quantum efficiency. This results in the possibility for higher optical powers while still maintaining single-mode operation. Additionally, the advent of a detuned second order grating allows for a low divergent, quasicircular output beam emitted from the semiconductor surface, easing packaging tolerances, and making two dimensional integrated arrays possible. In this dissertation, theory, design, fabrication, and characterization are presented. Material theory is introduced, reviewing gain, carrier, and temperature effects on field propagation. Coupled-mode and coupled wave theory is reviewed to allow simulation of the passive grating. A numerical model is used to investigate laser design and optimization, and effects of finite-apertures are explored. A microfabrication method is introduced to create the FATURL in InAlGaAs/-InGaAsP/InP material emitting at about 1410 nm. Fabrication consists of photolithography, electron-beam lithography, wet etch and dry etching processes, metal and

  5. Intense THz Pulses with large ponderomotive potential generated from large aperture photoconductive antennas.

    PubMed

    Ropagnol, X; Khorasaninejad, M; Raeiszadeh, M; Safavi-Naeini, S; Bouvier, M; Côté, C Y; Laramée, A; Reid, M; Gauthier, M A; Ozaki, T

    2016-05-30

    We report the generation of free space terahertz (THz) pulses with energy up to 8.3 ± 0.2 µJ from an encapsulated interdigitated ZnSe Large Aperture Photo-Conductive Antenna (LAPCA). An aperture of 12.2 cm2 is illuminated using a 400 nm pump laser with multi-mJ energies at 10 Hz repetition rate. The calculated THz peak electric field is 331 ± 4 kV/cm with a spectrum characterized by a median frequency of 0.28 THz. Given its relatively low frequency, this THz field will accelerate charged particles efficiently having very large ponderomotive energy of 15 ± 1 eV for electrons in vacuum. The scaling of the emission is studied with respect to the dimensions of the antenna, and it is observed that the capacitance of the LAPCA leads to a severe decrease in and distortion of the biasing voltage pulse, fundamentally limiting the maximum applied bias field and consequently the maximum energy of the radiated THz pulses. In order to demonstrate the advantages of this source in the strong field regime, an open-aperture Z-scan experiment was performed on n-doped InGaAs, which showed significant absorption bleaching. PMID:27410061

  6. Information Power Grid Posters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaziri, Arsi

    2003-01-01

    This document is a summary of the accomplishments of the Information Power Grid (IPG). Grids are an emerging technology that provide seamless and uniform access to the geographically dispersed, computational, data storage, networking, instruments, and software resources needed for solving large-scale scientific and engineering problems. The goal of the NASA IPG is to use NASA's remotely located computing and data system resources to build distributed systems that can address problems that are too large or complex for a single site. The accomplishments outlined in this poster presentation are: access to distributed data, IPG heterogeneous computing, integration of large-scale computing node into distributed environment, remote access to high data rate instruments,and exploratory grid environment.

  7. The Computing Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govoni, P.

    2009-12-01

    Since the beginning of the millennium, High Energy Physics research institutions like CERN and INFN pioneered several projects aimed at exploiting the synergy among computing power, storage and network resources, and creating an infrastructure of distributed computing on a worldwide scale. In the year 2000, after the Monarch project [ http://monarc.web.cern.ch/MONARC/], DataGrid started [ http://eu-datagrid.web.cern.ch/eu-datagrid/] aimed at providing High Energy Physics with the computing power needed for the LHC enterprise. This program evolved into the EU DataGrid project, that implemented the first actual prototype of a Grid middleware running on a testbed environment. The next step consisted in the application to the LHC experiments, with the LCG project [ http://lcg.web.cern.ch/LCG/], in turn followed by the EGEE [ http://www.eu-egee.org/] and EGEE II programs.

  8. Interactive surface grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luh, Raymond Ching-Chung; Pierce, Lawrence E.; Yip, David

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a surface grid generation tool called S3D. It is the result of integrating a robust and widely applicable interpolation technique with the latest in workstation technology. Employing the use of a highly efficient and user-friendly graphical interface, S3D permits real-time interactive analyses of surface geometry data and facilitates the construction of surface grids for a wide range of applications in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The design objectives are for S3D to be stand-alone and easy to use so that CFD analysts can take a hands-on approach toward most if not all of their surface grid generation needs. Representative examples of S3D applications are presented in describing the various elements involved in the process.

  9. Inverse synthetic aperture radar: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eerland, K. K.

    1982-06-01

    Theory and results of simulations, associated with inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging are discussed. A radar signal processing algorithm was developed which derives an ISAR image of an aircraft model. This algorithm assumes a straight unaccelerated flight path and an accurate measurement of the flight path parameters in order to perform proper imaging. However, in practice an aircraft may be maneuvering during the observation and also some flight path parameters may be measured in-accurately. In order to compensate for the two most frequent disturbing effects, the algorithm makes use of two specific correction methods. First, a measurement error in the target velocity is removed by means of an optimization procedure and, secondly, a compensation for a curved flight path is performed. Attention is also given to the influence of observation noise. The noise is assumed to be stationary, Gaussian and white (a uniform spectrum).

  10. Very high numerical aperture light transmitting device

    DOEpatents

    Allison, Stephen W.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.

    1998-01-01

    A new light-transmitting device using a SCIN glass core and a novel calcium sodium cladding has been developed. The very high index of refraction, radiation hardness, similar solubility for rare earths and similar melt and viscosity characteristics of core and cladding materials makes them attractive for several applications such as high-numerical-aperture optical fibers and specialty lenses. Optical fibers up to 60 m in length have been drawn, and several simple lenses have been designed, ground, and polished. Preliminary results on the ability to directly cast optical components of lead-indium phosphate glass are also discussed as well as the suitability of these glasses as a host medium for rare-earth ion lasers and amplifiers.

  11. Strain field of a buried oxide aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kießling, F.; Niermann, T.; Lehmann, M.; Schulze, J.-H.; Strittmatter, A.; Schliwa, A.; Pohl, U. W.

    2015-02-01

    The strain field of an AlOx current aperture, fabricated by selective oxidation of an AlAs/GaAs layer buried in a circular GaAs mesa, is studied. Components of the strain tensor for a thin cross-section lamella cut out of such a structure are evaluated from dark-field electron holography, proving the validity of simulations based on linear elasticity. Simulation of the entire structure is utilized to prepare mesa surfaces with tailored strain fields for controlling the nucleation site of InGaAs quantum dots. The experimental proof of strain simulations allows estimating the magnitude of piezoelectricity, yielding for the studied mesa structures a piezoelectric potential up to 50 mV.

  12. Automated change detection for synthetic aperture sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G-Michael, Tesfaye; Marchand, Bradley; Tucker, J. D.; Sternlicht, Daniel D.; Marston, Timothy M.; Azimi-Sadjadi, Mahmood R.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, an automated change detection technique is presented that compares new and historical seafloor images created with sidescan synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) for changes occurring over time. The method consists of a four stage process: a coarse navigational alignment; fine-scale co-registration using the scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm to match features between overlapping images; sub-pixel co-registration to improves phase coherence; and finally, change detection utilizing canonical correlation analysis (CCA). The method was tested using data collected with a high-frequency SAS in a sandy shallow-water environment. By using precise co-registration tools and change detection algorithms, it is shown that the coherent nature of the SAS data can be exploited and utilized in this environment over time scales ranging from hours through several days.

  13. Weighting in digital synthetic aperture radar processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicenzo, A.

    1979-01-01

    Weighting is employed in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing to reduce the sidelobe response at the expense of peak center response height and mainlobe resolution. The weighting effectiveness in digital processing depends not only on the choice of weighting function, but on the fineness of sampling and quantization, on the time bandwidth product, on the quadratic phase error, and on the azimuth antenna pattern. The results of simulations conducted to uncover the effect of these parameters on azimuth weighting effectiveness are presented. In particular, it is shown that multilook capabilities of future SAR systems may obviate the need for consideration of the antenna pattern, and that azimuth time-bandwidth products of over 200 are probably required before the digital results begin to approach the ideal results.

  14. High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Andrew J.; Prasciolu, Mauro; Andrejczuk, Andrzej; Krzywinski, Jacek; Meents, Alke; Pennicard, David; Graafsma, Heinz; Barty, Anton; Bean, Richard J.; Barthelmess, Miriam; Oberthuer, Dominik; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Aquila, Andrew; Chapman, Henry N.; Bajt, Saša

    2015-06-01

    The ever-increasing brightness of synchrotron radiation sources demands improved X-ray optics to utilise their capability for imaging and probing biological cells, nanodevices, and functional matter on the nanometer scale with chemical sensitivity. Here we demonstrate focusing a hard X-ray beam to an 8 nm focus using a volume zone plate (also referred to as a wedged multilayer Laue lens). This lens was constructed using a new deposition technique that enabled the independent control of the angle and thickness of diffracting layers to microradian and nanometer precision, respectively. This ensured that the Bragg condition is satisfied at each point along the lens, leading to a high numerical aperture that is limited only by its extent. We developed a phase-shifting interferometric method based on ptychography to characterise the lens focus. The precision of the fabrication and characterisation demonstrated here provides the path to efficient X-ray optics for imaging at 1 nm resolution.

  15. Aperture-synthesis interferometry at optical wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Bernard F.

    1987-01-01

    The prospects for applying aperture-synthesis interferometry to the optical domain are reviewed. The radio examples such as the VLA provide a model, since the concepts are equally valid for radio and optical wavelengths. If scientific problems at the milliarc-second resolution level (or better) are to be addressed, a space-based optical array seems to be the only practical alternative, for the same reasons that dictated array development at radio wavelengths. One concept is examined, and speculations are offered concerning the prospects for developing real systems. Phase-coherence is strongly desired for a practical array, although self-calibration and phase-closure techniques allow one to relax the restriction on absolute phase stability. The design of an array must be guided by the scientific problems to be addressed.

  16. Modern Grid Initiative Distribution Taxonomy Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Chen, Yousu; Chassin, David P.; Pratt, Robert G.; Engel, David W.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2008-11-01

    This is the final report for the development of a toxonomy of prototypical electrical distribution feeders. Two of the primary goals of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Modern Grid Initiative (MGI) are 'to accelerate the modernization of our nation's electricity grid' and to 'support demonstrations of systems of key technologies that can serve as the foundation for an integrated, modern power grid'. A key component to the realization of these goals is the effective implementation of new, as well as existing, 'smart grid technologies'. Possibly the largest barrier that has been identified in the deployment of smart grid technologies is the inability to evaluate how their deployment will affect the electricity infrastructure, both locally and on a regional scale. The inability to evaluate the impacts of these technologies is primarily due to the lack of detailed electrical distribution feeder information. While detailed distribution feeder information does reside with the various distribution utilities, there is no central repository of information that can be openly accessed. The role of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the MGI for FY08 was to collect distribution feeder models, in the SynerGEE{reg_sign} format, from electric utilities around the nation so that they could be analyzed to identify regional differences in feeder design and operation. Based on this analysis PNNL developed a taxonomy of 24 prototypical feeder models in the GridLAB-D simulations environment that contain the fundamental characteristics of non-urban core, radial distribution feeders from the various regions of the U.S. Weighting factors for these feeders are also presented so that they can be used to generate a representative sample for various regions within the United States. The final product presented in this report is a toolset that enables the evaluation of new smart grid technologies, with the ability to aggregate their effects to regional and national levels. The

  17. GridPV Toolbox

    2014-07-15

    Matlab Toolbox for simulating the impact of solar energy on the distribution grid. The majority of the functions are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving GridPV Toolbox information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in the OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feedermore » on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions.« less

  18. GridPV Toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, Robert; Quiroz, Jimmy; Grijalva, Santiago; Reno, Matthew; Coogan, Kyle

    2014-07-15

    Matlab Toolbox for simulating the impact of solar energy on the distribution grid. The majority of the functions are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving GridPV Toolbox information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in the OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions.

  19. High-Aperture-Efficiency Horn Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickens, Wesley; Hoppe, Daniel; Epp, Larry; Kahn, Abdur

    2005-01-01

    A horn antenna (see Figure 1) has been developed to satisfy requirements specific to its use as an essential component of a high-efficiency Ka-band amplifier: The combination of the horn antenna and an associated microstrip-patch antenna array is required to function as a spatial power divider that feeds 25 monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers. The foregoing requirement translates to, among other things, a further requirement that the horn produce a uniform, vertically polarized electromagnetic field in its patches identically so that the MMICs can operate at maximum efficiency. The horn is fed from a square waveguide of 5.9436-mm-square cross section via a transition piece. The horn features cosine-tapered, dielectric-filled longitudinal corrugations in its vertical walls to create a hard boundary condition: This aspect of the horn design causes the field in the horn aperture to be substantially vertically polarized and to be nearly uniform in amplitude and phase. As used here, cosine-tapered signifies that the depth of the corrugations is a cosine function of distance along the horn. Preliminary results of finite-element simulations of performance have shown that by virtue of the cosine taper the impedance response of this horn can be expected to be better than has been achieved previously in a similar horn having linearly tapered dielectric- filled longitudinal corrugations. It is possible to create a hard boundary condition by use of a single dielectric-filled corrugation in each affected wall, but better results can be obtained with more corrugations. Simulations were performed for a one- and a three-corrugation cosine-taper design. For comparison, a simulation was also performed for a linear- taper design (see Figure 2). The three-corrugation design was chosen to minimize the cost of fabrication while still affording acceptably high performance. Future designs using more corrugations per wavelength are expected to provide better

  20. Distributed-aperture infrared sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusgard, Thomas C.

    1999-07-01

    The on-going maturation of electro-optic technology in which the advent of third generation focal plane array is being combined with the capabilities of increasingly powerful signal processing algorithm now points to a new direction in design of electro-optic sensor system for both military and non-military applications. Taking advantage of those advances. Distributed Aperture IR Sensor systems (DAIRS) are currently in development within the Defense Department for installation in a variety of platforms for utilization in a wide variety of tactical scenarios. DAIRS employs multiple fixed identical sensor to obtain the functionality that was previously obtained using specialized sensors for each function. In its role in tactical scenarios. DAIRS employs multiple fixed identical sensor to obtain the functionality that was previously obtained using specialized sensor for each function. In its role in tactical aircraft, DAIRS uses an array of six strategically located sensors which provide 4(pi) steradian sensor coverage, i.e., full sphere situational awareness (SA), to the aircrew. That awareness provides: missile threat warning, IR Search and Track, battle damage assessment, targeting assistance, and pilotage. DAIRS has applicability in providing expanded SA for surface ships, armored land vehicles and unmanned air combat vehicles. A typical sensor design has less than twenty-five percent of the weight, volume, and electrical power demand of current federated airborne IR sensor system and can become operational with a significant reduction in lifetime system cost. DAIRS, when combined with autocueing, may have a significant role in technological advancement of aircraft proximity warning system for in-flight collision avoidance. DAIRS is currently founded in part by the Office of Naval Research which will result in the IR Distributed Aperture System (MIDAS), which is funded as a Navy Advanced Technology Demonstration, the DAIRS will undergo airborne testing using four

  1. EXOTIC MAGNETS FOR ACCELERATORS.

    SciTech Connect

    WANDERER, P.

    2005-09-18

    Over the last few years, several novel magnet designs have been introduced to meet the requirements of new, high performance accelerators and beam lines. For example, the FAIR project at GSI requires superconducting magnets ramped at high rates ({approx} 4 T/s) in order to achieve the design intensity. Magnets for the RIA and FAIR projects and for the next generation of LHC interaction regions will need to withstand high doses of radiation. Helical magnets are required to maintain and control the polarization of high energy protons at RHIC. In other cases, novel magnets have been designed in response to limited budgets and space. For example, it is planned to use combined function superconducting magnets for the 50 GeV proton transport line at J-PARC to satisfy both budget and performance requirements. Novel coil winding methods have been developed for short, large aperture magnets such as those used in the insertion region upgrade at BEPC. This paper will highlight the novel features of these exotic magnets.

  2. Plasma accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui; Barnes, Cris W.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.

  3. Accelerated Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the accelerated associate degree program at Ivy Tech Community College (Indiana) in which low-income students will receive an associate degree in one year. The three-year pilot program is funded by a $2.3 million grant from the Lumina Foundation for Education in Indianapolis and a $270,000 grant from the Indiana Commission…

  4. ACCELERATION INTEGRATOR

    DOEpatents

    Pope, K.E.

    1958-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved acceleration integrator and more particularly to apparatus of this nature which is gyrostabilized. The device may be used to sense the attainment by an airborne vehicle of a predetermined velocitv or distance along a given vector path. In its broad aspects, the acceleration integrator utilizes a magnetized element rotatable driven by a synchronous motor and having a cylin drical flux gap and a restrained eddy- current drag cap deposed to move into the gap. The angular velocity imparted to the rotatable cap shaft is transmitted in a positive manner to the magnetized element through a servo feedback loop. The resultant angular velocity of tae cap is proportional to the acceleration of the housing in this manner and means may be used to measure the velocity and operate switches at a pre-set magnitude. To make the above-described dcvice sensitive to acceleration in only one direction the magnetized element forms the spinning inertia element of a free gyroscope, and the outer housing functions as a gimbal of a gyroscope.

  5. Particle acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

  6. Accelerator target

    SciTech Connect

    Schlyer, D.J.; Ferrieri, R.A.; Koehler, C.

    1999-06-29

    A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression. 5 figs.

  7. Accelerator target

    DOEpatents

    Schlyer, David J.; Ferrieri, Richard A.; Koehler, Conrad

    1999-01-01

    A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression.

  8. Essential Grid Workflow Monitoring Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, Daniel K.; Jackson, Keith R.; Konerding, David E.; Lee,Jason R.; Tierney, Brian L.

    2005-07-01

    Troubleshooting Grid workflows is difficult. A typicalworkflow involves a large number of components networks, middleware,hosts, etc. that can fail. Even when monitoring data from all thesecomponents is accessible, it is hard to tell whether failures andanomalies in these components are related toa given workflow. For theGrid to be truly usable, much of this uncertainty must be elim- inated.We propose two new Grid monitoring elements, Grid workflow identifiersand consistent component lifecycle events, that will make Gridtroubleshooting easier, and thus make Grids more usable, by simplifyingthe correlation of Grid monitoring data with a particular Gridworkflow.

  9. Distributed Accounting on the Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thigpen, William; Hacker, Thomas J.; McGinnis, Laura F.; Athey, Brian D.

    2001-01-01

    By the late 1990s, the Internet was adequately equipped to move vast amounts of data between HPC (High Performance Computing) systems, and efforts were initiated to link together the national infrastructure of high performance computational and data storage resources together into a general computational utility 'grid', analogous to the national electrical power grid infrastructure. The purpose of the Computational grid is to provide dependable, consistent, pervasive, and inexpensive access to computational resources for the computing community in the form of a computing utility. This paper presents a fully distributed view of Grid usage accounting and a methodology for allocating Grid computational resources for use on a Grid computing system.

  10. Synthetic aperture design for increased SAR image rate

    DOEpatents

    Bielek, Timothy P.; Thompson, Douglas G.; Walker, Bruce C.

    2009-03-03

    High resolution SAR images of a target scene at near video rates can be produced by using overlapped, but nevertheless, full-size synthetic apertures. The SAR images, which respectively correspond to the apertures, can be analyzed in sequence to permit detection of movement in the target scene.

  11. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis associated with central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Godil, M A; Galvin-Parton, P; Monte, D; Zerah, M; Purandare, A; Lane, A H; Wilson, T A

    2000-08-01

    We describe a child who has central diabetes insipidus associated with congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis without any apparent anterior pituitary dysfunction. This association further strengthens the concept that congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis may be a microform of holoprosencephaly. PMID:10931423

  12. Fraunhofer Diffraction Patterns from Apertures Illuminated with Nonparallel Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingsporn, Paul E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses several aspects of Fraunhofer diffraction patterns from apertures illuminated by diverging light. Develops a generalization to apertures of arbitrary shape which shows that the sizes of the pattern are related by a simple scale factor. Uses the Abbe theory of image formation by diffraction to discuss the intensity of illumination of the…

  13. Phenomenology of electromagnetic coupling: Conductors penetrating an aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.B.; King, R.J.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the coupling effects of penetrating conductors through free-standing apertures. This penetrating conductor and aperture arrangement are referred to as a modified aperture. A penetrating conductor is defined here to be a thin, single wire bent twice at 90 angles. The wire was inserted through a rectangular aperture in a metal wall. Vertical segments on both sides of the wall coupled energy from one region to the other. Energy was incident upon the modified aperture from what is referred to as the exterior region. The amount of coupling was measured by a D sensor on the other (interior) side of the wall. This configuration of an aperture in a metal wall was used as opposed to an aperture in a cavity in order to simplify the interpretation of resulting data. The added complexity of multiple cavity resonances was therefore eliminated. Determining the effects of penetrating conductors on aperture coupling is one of several topics being investigated as part of on-going research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the phenomenology of electromagnetic coupling. These phenomenology studies are concerned with the vulnerability of electronic systems to high intensity electromagnetic fields. The investigation is relevant to high altitude EMP (HEMP), enhanced HEMP (EHEMP), and high power microwave (HPM) coupling.

  14. Enabling Campus Grids with Open Science Grid Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzel, Derek; Bockelman, Brian; Fraser, Dan; Pordes, Ruth; Swanson, David

    2011-12-01

    The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.

  15. Changing from computing grid to knowledge grid in life-science grid.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Veera; Konar, Amit; Datta, Ayan; Choudhury, Anamika Roy

    2009-09-01

    Grid computing has a great potential to become a standard cyber infrastructure for life sciences that often require high-performance computing and large data handling, which exceeds the computing capacity of a single institution. Grid computer applies the resources of many computers in a network to a single problem at the same time. It is useful to scientific problems that require a great number of computer processing cycles or access to a large amount of data.As biologists,we are constantly discovering millions of genes and genome features, which are assembled in a library and distributed on computers around the world.This means that new, innovative methods must be developed that exploit the re-sources available for extensive calculations - for example grid computing.This survey reviews the latest grid technologies from the viewpoints of computing grid, data grid and knowledge grid. Computing grid technologies have been matured enough to solve high-throughput real-world life scientific problems. Data grid technologies are strong candidates for realizing a "resourceome" for bioinformatics. Knowledge grids should be designed not only from sharing explicit knowledge on computers but also from community formulation for sharing tacit knowledge among a community. By extending the concept of grid from computing grid to knowledge grid, it is possible to make use of a grid as not only sharable computing resources, but also as time and place in which people work together, create knowledge, and share knowledge and experiences in a community. PMID:19579217

  16. APEC Smart Grid Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2012-03-01

    This brief paper describes the activities of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Smart Grid Initiative (ASGI) which is being led by the U.S. and developed by the APEC Energy Working Group. In the paper, I describe the origin of the initiative and briefly mention the four major elements of the initiative along with existing APEC projects which support it.

  17. Unlocking the smart grid

    SciTech Connect

    Rokach, Joshua Z.

    2010-10-15

    The country has progressed in a relatively short time from rotary dial phones to computers, cell phones, and iPads. With proper planning and orderly policy implementation, the same will happen with the Smart Grid. Here are some suggestions on how to proceed. (author)

  18. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Rabari, Anil; Fadipe, Oloruntomi

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  19. Efficient grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seki, Rycichi

    1989-01-01

    Because the governing equations in fluid dynamics contain partial differentials and are too difficult in most cases to solve analytically, these differentials are generally replaced by finite difference terms. These terms contain terms in the solution at nearby states. This procedure discretizes the field into a finite number of states. These states, when plotted, form a grid, or mesh, of points. It is at these states, or field points, that the solution is found. The optimum choice of states, the x, y, z coordinate values, minimizes error and computational time. But the process of finding these states is made more difficult by complex boundaries, and by the need to control step size differences between the states, that is, the need to control the spacing of field points. One solution technique uses a different set of state variables, which define a different coordinate system, to generate the grid more easily. A new method, developed by Dr. Joseph Steger, combines elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations into a mapping function between the physical and computational coordinate systems. This system of equations offers more control than either equation provides alone. The Steger algorithm was modified in order to allow bodies with stronger concavities to be used, offering the possibility of generating a single grid about multiple bodies. Work was also done on identifying areas where grid breakdown occurs.

  20. Coded Aperture Imaging for Fluorescent X-rays-Biomedical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Haboub, Abdel; MacDowell, Alastair; Marchesini, Stefano; Parkinson, Dilworth

    2013-06-01

    Employing a coded aperture pattern in front of a charge couple device pixilated detector (CCD) allows for imaging of fluorescent x-rays (6-25KeV) being emitted from samples irradiated with x-rays. Coded apertures encode the angular direction of x-rays and allow for a large Numerical Aperture x- ray imaging system. The algorithm to develop the self-supported coded aperture pattern of the Non Two Holes Touching (NTHT) pattern was developed. The algorithms to reconstruct the x-ray image from the encoded pattern recorded were developed by means of modeling and confirmed by experiments. Samples were irradiated by monochromatic synchrotron x-ray radiation, and fluorescent x-rays from several different test metal samples were imaged through the newly developed coded aperture imaging system. By choice of the exciting energy the different metals were speciated.

  1. Microfabricated high-bandpass foucault aperture for electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Glaeser, Robert; Cambie, Rossana; Jin, Jian

    2014-08-26

    A variant of the Foucault (knife-edge) aperture is disclosed that is designed to provide single-sideband (SSB) contrast at low spatial frequencies but retain conventional double-sideband (DSB) contrast at high spatial frequencies in transmission electron microscopy. The aperture includes a plate with an inner open area, a support extending from the plate at an edge of the open area, a half-circle feature mounted on the support and located at the center of the aperture open area. The radius of the half-circle portion of reciprocal space that is blocked by the aperture can be varied to suit the needs of electron microscopy investigation. The aperture is fabricated from conductive material which is preferably non-oxidizing, such as gold, for example.

  2. Measurements of Aperture Averaging on Bit-Error-Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Andrews, Larry C.; Phillips, Ronald L.; Nelson, Richard A.; Ferrell, Bobby A.; Borbath, Michael R.; Galus, Darren J.; Chin, Peter G.; Harris, William G.; Marin, Jose A.; Burdge, Geoffrey L.; Wayne, David; Pescatore, Robert

    2005-01-01

    We report on measurements made at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) runway at Kennedy Space Center of receiver aperture averaging effects on a propagating optical Gaussian beam wave over a propagation path of 1,000 in. A commercially available instrument with both transmit and receive apertures was used to transmit a modulated laser beam operating at 1550 nm through a transmit aperture of 2.54 cm. An identical model of the same instrument was used as a receiver with a single aperture that was varied in size up to 20 cm to measure the effect of receiver aperture averaging on Bit Error Rate. Simultaneous measurements were also made with a scintillometer instrument and local weather station instruments to characterize atmospheric conditions along the propagation path during the experiments.

  3. Grid generation research at OSU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, S.

    1992-01-01

    In the last two years, effort was concentrated on: (1) surface modeling; (2) surface grid generation; and (3) 3-D flow space grid generation. The surface modeling shares the same objectives as the surface modeling in computer aided design (CAD), so software available in CAD can in principle be used for solid modeling. Unfortunately, however, the CAD software cannot be easily used in practice for grid generation purposes, because they are not designed to provide appropriate data base for grid generation. Therefore, we started developing a generalized surface modeling software from scratch, that provides the data base for the surface grid generation. Generating surface grid is an important step in generating a 3-D space for flow space. To generate a surface grid on a given surface representation, we developed a unique algorithm that works on any non-smooth surfaces. Once the surface grid is generated, a 3-D space can be generated. For this purpose, we also developed a new algorithm, which is a hybrid of the hyperbolic and the elliptic grid generation methods. With this hybrid method, orthogonality of the grid near the solid boundary can be easily achieved without introducing empirical fudge factors. Work to develop 2-D and 3-D grids for turbomachinery blade geometries was performed, and as an extension of this research we are planning to develop an adaptive grid procedure with an interactive grid environment.

  4. Observation of acceleration and deceleration in gigaelectron-volt-per-metre gradient dielectric wakefield accelerators.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, B D; Andonian, G; Barber, S K; Fitzmorris, K L; Hakimi, S; Harrison, J; Hoang, P D; Hogan, M J; Naranjo, B; Williams, O B; Yakimenko, V; Rosenzweig, J B

    2016-01-01

    There is urgent need to develop new acceleration techniques capable of exceeding gigaelectron-volt-per-metre (GeV m(-1)) gradients in order to enable future generations of both light sources and high-energy physics experiments. To address this need, short wavelength accelerators based on wakefields, where an intense relativistic electron beam radiates the demanded fields directly into the accelerator structure or medium, are currently under intense investigation. One such wakefield based accelerator, the dielectric wakefield accelerator, uses a dielectric lined-waveguide to support a wakefield used for acceleration. Here we show gradients of 1.347±0.020 GeV m(-1) using a dielectric wakefield accelerator of 15 cm length, with sub-millimetre transverse aperture, by measuring changes of the kinetic state of relativistic electron beams. We follow this measurement by demonstrating accelerating gradients of 320±17 MeV m(-1). Both measurements improve on previous measurements by and order of magnitude and show promise for dielectric wakefield accelerators as sources of high-energy electrons. PMID:27624348

  5. Characterization of fracture aperture for groundwater flow and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, A.; Sato, H.; Tetsu, K.; Sakamoto, K.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents experiments and numerical analyses of flow and transport carried out on natural fractures and transparent replica of fractures. The purpose of this study was to improve the understanding of the role of heterogeneous aperture patterns on channelization of groundwater flow and dispersion in solute transport. The research proceeded as follows: First, a precision plane grinder was applied perpendicular to the fracture plane to characterize the aperture distribution on a natural fracture with 1 mm of increment size. Although both time and labor were intensive, this approach provided a detailed, three dimensional picture of the pattern of fracture aperture. This information was analyzed to provide quantitative measures for the fracture aperture distribution, including JRC (Joint Roughness Coefficient) and fracture contact area ratio. These parameters were used to develop numerical models with corresponding synthetic aperture patterns. The transparent fracture replica and numerical models were then used to study how transport is affected by the aperture spatial pattern. In the transparent replica, transmitted light intensity measured by a CCD camera was used to image channeling and dispersion due to the fracture aperture spatial pattern. The CCD image data was analyzed to obtain the quantitative fracture aperture and tracer concentration data according to Lambert-Beer's law. The experimental results were analyzed using the numerical models. Comparison of the numerical models to the transparent replica provided information about the nature of channeling and dispersion due to aperture spatial patterns. These results support to develop a methodology for defining representative fracture aperture of a simplified parallel fracture model for flow and transport in heterogeneous fractures for contaminant transport analysis.

  6. Clinical Evaluation of Direct Aperture Optimization When Applied to Head-And-Neck IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Stephen Williams, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Direct Machine Parameter Optimization (DMPO) is a leaf segmentation program released as an optional item of the Pinnacle planning system (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Milpitas, CA); it is based on the principles of direct aperture optimization where the size, shape, and weight of individual segments are optimized to produce an intensity modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) plan. In this study, we compare DMPO to the traditional method of IMRT planning, in which intensity maps are optimized prior to conversion into deliverable multileaf collimator (MLC) apertures, and we determine if there was any dosimetric improvement, treatment efficiency gain, or planning advantage provided by the use of DMPO. Eleven head-and-neck patients treated with IMRT had treatment plans generated using each optimization method. For each patient, the same planning parameters were used for each optimization method. All calculations were performed using Pinnacle version 7.6c software and treatments were delivered using a step-and-shoot IMRT method on a Varian 2100EX linear accelerator equipped with a 120-leaf Millennium MLC (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Each plan was assessed based on the calculation time, a conformity index, the composite objective value used in the optimization, the number of segments, monitor units (MUs), and treatment time. The results showed DMPO to be superior to the traditional optimization method in all areas. Considerable advantages were observed in the dosimetric quality of DMPO plans, which also required 32% less time to calculate, 42% fewer MUs, and 35% fewer segments than the conventional optimization method. These reductions translated directly into a 29% decrease in treatment times. While considerable gains were observed in planning and treatment efficiency, they were specific to our institution, and the impact of direct aperture optimization on plan quality and workflow will be dependent on the planning parameters, planning system, and

  7. Compact accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    2007-02-06

    A compact linear accelerator having at least one strip-shaped Blumlein module which guides a propagating wavefront between first and second ends and controls the output pulse at the second end. Each Blumlein module has first, second, and third planar conductor strips, with a first dielectric strip between the first and second conductor strips, and a second dielectric strip between the second and third conductor strips. Additionally, the compact linear accelerator includes a high voltage power supply connected to charge the second conductor strip to a high potential, and a switch for switching the high potential in the second conductor strip to at least one of the first and third conductor strips so as to initiate a propagating reverse polarity wavefront(s) in the corresponding dielectric strip(s).

  8. BICEP's acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Contaldi, Carlo R.

    2014-10-01

    The recent Bicep2 [1] detection of, what is claimed to be primordial B-modes, opens up the possibility of constraining not only the energy scale of inflation but also the detailed acceleration history that occurred during inflation. In turn this can be used to determine the shape of the inflaton potential V(φ) for the first time — if a single, scalar inflaton is assumed to be driving the acceleration. We carry out a Monte Carlo exploration of inflationary trajectories given the current data. Using this method we obtain a posterior distribution of possible acceleration profiles ε(N) as a function of e-fold N and derived posterior distributions of the primordial power spectrum P(k) and potential V(φ). We find that the Bicep2 result, in combination with Planck measurements of total intensity Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, induces a significant feature in the scalar primordial spectrum at scales k∼ 10{sup -3} Mpc {sup -1}. This is in agreement with a previous detection of a suppression in the scalar power [2].

  9. Laser driven acceleration in vacuum and gases

    SciTech Connect

    Sprangle, P.; Esarey, E.; Hafizi, B.; Hubbard, R.; Krall, J.; Ting, A.

    1997-03-01

    Several important issues pertaining to particle acceleration in vacuum and gases are discussed. The limitations of laser vacuum acceleration as they relate to electron slippage, laser diffraction, material damage, and electron aperture effects are presented. Limitations on the laser intensity and particle self-fields due to material breakdown are quantified. In addition, the reflection of the self-fields associated with the accelerated particles places a limit on the number of particles. Two configurations for the inverse Cherenkov accelerator (ICA) are considered, in which the electromagnetic driver is propagated in a waveguide that is (i) lined with a dielectric material or (ii) filled with a neutral gas. The acceleration gradient in the ICA is limited by tunneling and collisional ionization in the dielectric liner or gas. Ionization can lead to significant modification of the optical properties of the waveguide, altering the phase velocity and causing particle slippage, thus disrupting the acceleration process. Maximum accelerating gradients and pulse durations are presented for a 10 {mu}m and a 1 mm wavelength driver. We show that the use of an unguided Bessel (axicon) beam can enhance the energy gain compared to a higher order Gaussian beam. The enhancement factor is N{sup 1/2}, where N is the number of lobes in the Bessel beam. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Current Grid operation and future role of the Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, O.

    2012-12-01

    Grid-like technologies and approaches became an integral part of HEP experiments. Some other scientific communities also use similar technologies for data-intensive computations. The distinct feature of Grid computing is the ability to federate heterogeneous resources of different ownership into a seamless infrastructure, accessible via a single log-on. Like other infrastructures of similar nature, Grid functioning requires not only technologically sound basis, but also reliable operation procedures, monitoring and accounting. The two aspects, technological and operational, are closely related: weaker is the technology, more burden is on operations, and other way around. As of today, Grid technologies are still evolving: at CERN alone, every LHC experiment uses an own Grid-like system. This inevitably creates a heavy load on operations. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring and incident response are done on several levels, from local system administrators to large international organisations, involving massive human effort worldwide. The necessity to commit substantial resources is one of the obstacles faced by smaller research communities when moving computing to the Grid. Moreover, most current Grid solutions were developed under significant influence of HEP use cases, and thus need additional effort to adapt them to other applications. Reluctance of many non-HEP researchers to use Grid negatively affects the outlook for national Grid organisations, which strive to provide multi-science services. We started from the situation where Grid organisations were fused with HEP laboratories and national HEP research programmes; we hope to move towards the world where Grid will ultimately reach the status of generic public computing and storage service provider and permanent national and international Grid infrastructures will be established. How far will we be able to advance along this path, depends on us. If no standardisation and convergence efforts will take place

  11. Adaptive Full Aperture Wavefront Sensor Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, William G.

    1997-01-01

    This grant and the work described was in support of a Seven Segment Demonstrator (SSD) and review of wavefront sensing techniques proposed by the Government and Contractors for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Program. A team developed the SSD concept. For completeness, some of the information included in this report has also been included in the final report of a follow-on contract (H-27657D) entitled "Construction of Prototype Lightweight Mirrors". The original purpose of this GTRI study was to investigate how various wavefront sensing techniques might be most effectively employed with large (greater than 10 meter) aperture space based telescopes used for commercial and scientific purposes. However, due to changes in the scope of the work performed on this grant and in light of the initial studies completed for the NGST program, only a portion of this report addresses wavefront sensing techniques. The wavefront sensing techniques proposed by the Government and Contractors for the NGST were summarized in proposals and briefing materials developed by three study teams including NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, TRW, and Lockheed-Martin. In this report, GTRI reviews these approaches and makes recommendations concerning the approaches. The objectives of the SSD were to demonstrate functionality and performance of a seven segment prototype array of hexagonal mirrors and supporting electromechanical components which address design issues critical to space optics deployed in large space based telescopes for astronomy and for optics used in spaced based optical communications systems. The SSD was intended to demonstrate technologies which can support the following capabilities: Transportation in dense packaging to existing launcher payload envelopes, then deployable on orbit to form a space telescope with large aperture. Provide very large (greater than 10 meters) primary reflectors of low mass and cost. Demonstrate the capability to form a segmented primary or

  12. Stereoscopic full aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strocovsky, Sergio G.; Otero, Dino

    2011-06-01

    Images of planar scintigraphy and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) used in nuclear medicine are often low quality. They usually appear to be blurred and noisy. This problem is due to the low spatial resolution and poor sensitivity of the acquisition technique with the gamma camera (GC). Other techniques, such as coded aperture imaging (CAI) reach higher spatial resolutions than GC. However, CAI is not frequently used for imaging in nuclear medicine, due to the decoding complexity of some images and the difficulty in controlling the noise magnitude. Summing up, the images obtained through GC are low quality and it is still difficult to implement CAI technique. A novel technique, full aperture Imaging (FAI), also uses gamma ray-encoding to obtain images, but the coding system and the method of images reconstruction are simpler than those used in CAI. In addition, FAI also reaches higher spatial resolution than GC. In this work, the principles of FAI technique and the method of images reconstruction are explained in detail. The FAI technique is tested by means of Monte Carlo simulations with filiform and spherical sources. Spatial resolution tests of GC versus FAI were performed using two different source-detector distances. First, simulations were made without interposing any material between the sources and the detector. Then, other more realistic simulations were made. In these, the sources were placed in the centre of a rectangular prismatic region, filled with water. A rigorous comparison was made between GC and FAI images of the linear filiform sources, by means of two methods: mean fluence profile graphs and correlation tests. Finally, three-dimensional capacity of FAI was tested with two spherical sources. The results show that FAI technique has greater sensitivity (>100 times) and greater spatial resolution (>2.6 times) than that of GC with LEHR collimator, in both cases, with and without attenuating material and long and short

  13. Fracture-aperture alteration induced by calcite precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, T.; Detwiler, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral precipitation significantly alters the transport properties of fractured rock. Chemical solubility gradients that favor precipitation induce mineral growth, which decreases the local aperture and alters preferential flow paths. Understanding the resulting development of spatial heterogeneities is necessary to predict the evolution of transport properties in the subsurface. We present experimental results that quantify the relationship between mineral precipitation and aperture alteration in a transparent analog fracture, 7.62cm x 7.62cm, with a uniform aperture of ~200 μm. Prior to flow experiments, a pump circulated a super-saturated calcite solution over the bottom glass, coating the glass surface with calcite. This method of seeding resulted in clusters of calcite crystals with large reactive surface area and provided micro-scale variability in the aperture field. A continuous flow syringe pump injected a reactive fluid into the fracture at 0.5 ml/min. The fluid was a mixture of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, 0.02M) and calcium chloride (CaCl2 0.0004M) with a saturation index, Ω, of 8.51 with respect to calcite. A strobed LED panel backlit the fracture and a high-resolution CCD camera monitored changes in transmitted light intensity. Light transmission techniques provided a quantitative measurement of fracture aperture over the flow field. Results from these preliminary experiments showed growth near the inlet of the fracture, with decreasing precipitation rates in the flow direction. Over a period of two weeks, the fracture aperture decreased by 17% within the first 4mm of the inlet. Newly precipitated calcite bridged individual crystal clusters and smoothed the reacting surface. This observation is an interesting contradiction to the expectation of surface roughening induced by mineral growth. Additionally, the aperture decreased uniformly across the width of the fracture due to the initial aperture distribution. Future experiments of precipitation

  14. Injector Design for Advanced Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henestroza, Enrique; Faltens, A.

    1996-11-01

    Accelerator designs intended to provide acceleration at a much lower cost per Joule than the ILSE or ELISE designs are under study. For these designs, which typically have many beams, an injector of significantly lower cost is needed. A goal, which from our design appears to be achievable, is to reduce the transverse dimension to half that of the 2 MeV, 800 mA ILSE injector(E. Henestroza, ``Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion", Proc. of the 11th International Wkshp. on Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, 1993.) while generating about the same current. A single channel of a lower cost injector includes an 800 kV column, accelerating a 700 mA beam extracted from a potassium source of 4 cm radius by a 120 kV electrode. The beam passes into a superconducting 7 T solenoid of 15 cm aperture and 15 cm length. This high-field solenoid provides the focusing needed for a small beam without increasing the electric field gradient. The injector and its matching section, also designed, fit within a 12 cm radius, which is small enough to allow construction of attractive multi-beam injectors. We will present solutions for the generation and transport of 700 mA potassium beams of up to 1.6 MeV within the same transverse constraint.

  15. A grid spacing control technique for algebraic grid generation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.; Kudlinski, R. A.; Everton, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    A technique which controls the spacing of grid points in algebraically defined coordinate transformations is described. The technique is based on the generation of control functions which map a uniformly distributed computational grid onto parametric variables defining the physical grid. The control functions are smoothed cubic splines. Sets of control points are input for each coordinate directions to outline the control functions. Smoothed cubic spline functions are then generated to approximate the input data. The technique works best in an interactive graphics environment where control inputs and grid displays are nearly instantaneous. The technique is illustrated with the two-boundary grid generation algorithm.

  16. Spectral methods on arbitrary grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Gottlieb, David

    1995-01-01

    Stable and spectrally accurate numerical methods are constructed on arbitrary grids for partial differential equations. These new methods are equivalent to conventional spectral methods but do not rely on specific grid distributions. Specifically, we show how to implement Legendre Galerkin, Legendre collocation, and Laguerre Galerkin methodology on arbitrary grids.

  17. Grid Interaction Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Grid Interaction Technical Team (GITT) is to support a transition scenario to large scale grid-connected vehicle charging with transformational technology, proof of concept and information dissemination. The GITT facilitates technical coordination and collaboration between vehicle-grid connectivity and communication activities among U.S. DRIVE government and industry partners.

  18. Timing of recent accelerations of Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joughin, I.; Rignot, E.; Rosanova, C.E.; Lucchitta, B.K.; Bohlander, J.

    2003-01-01

    We have used Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and sequential Landsat imagery to identify and temporally constrain two acceleration events on Pine Island Glacier (PIG). These two events are separated by a period of at least seven years (1987 - 1994). The change in discharge between two flux gates indicates that the majority of the increase in discharge associated with the second acceleration originates well inland (>80 km) from the grounding line. An analysis indicates that changes in driving stress consistent with observed thinning rates are sufficient in magnitude to explain much of the acceleration.

  19. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  20. Spatial mode dynamics in wide-aperture quantum-dot lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Jayanta; McInerney, John G.

    2009-05-15

    We present a systematic theoretical study of spatial mode dynamics in wide-aperture semiconductor quantum-dot lasers within the Maxwell-Bloch formalism. Our opto-electro-thermal model self-consistently captures the essential dynamical coupling between field, polarization, and carrier density in both thermal and nonthermal regimes, providing detailed description of the complex spatiotemporal modal intensity structure and spectra in these novel devices and broad area edge-emitting lasers in general. Using linear stability analysis and high resolution adaptive-grid finite element numerical simulation, we show that in the nonthermal regime, the presence of inhomogeneous broadening in quantum-dot active media leads to suppressed filamentation and enhanced spatial coherence compared to conventional quantum well devices with comparable phase-amplitude coupling (alpha parameter). Increasing the degree of inhomogeneous broadening in the active medium leads to further improvement in spatial coherence. In the thermal regime, there is further suppression of filamentation in the inhomogeneously broadened quantum-dot active medium; however, the spatial coherence aided by inhomogeneous broadening is partly lost due to the effect of temperature on cavity detuning. We propose that device designs based on optimized inhomogeneous broadening of quantum-dot gain medium could ultimately lead to diffraction-limited outputs in the quasi-cw regime which are still very difficult to achieve in conventional wide-aperture designs.

  1. Study on key techniques for synthetic aperture ladar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Changqing; Zeng, Xiaodong; Feng, Zhejun; Zhang, Wenrui; Su, Lei

    2008-03-01

    The spatial resolution of a conventional imaging LADAR system is constrained by the diffraction limit of the telescope aperture. The purpose of this work is to investigate Synthetic Aperture Imaging LADAR (SAIL), which employs aperture synthesis with coherent laser radar to overcome the diffraction limit and achieve fine-resolution, long range, two-dimensional imaging with modest aperture diameters. Because of many advantages, LADAR based on synthetic aperture theory is becoming research hotspot and practicality. Synthetic Aperture LADAR (SAL) technology satisfies the critical need for reliable, long-range battlefield awareness. An image that takes radar tens of seconds to produce can be produced in a few thousands of a second at optical frequencies. While radar waves respond to macroscopic features such as corners, edges, and facets, laser waves interact with microscopic surface characteristics, which results in imagery that appears more familiar and is more easily interpreted. SAL could provide high resolution optical/infrared imaging. In the present paper we have tried to answer three questions: (1) the process of collecting the samples over the large "synthetic" aperture; (2) differences between SAR and SAL; (3) the key techniques for SAL system. The principle and progress of SAL are introduced and a typical SAL system is described. Beam stabilization, chirp laser, and heterodyne detection, which are among the most challenging aspects of SAL, are discussed in detail.

  2. New method of annular sub-apertures stitching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yun; Wang, Kai; Ruan, Ningjuan; Li, Bo

    2009-05-01

    Annular sub-apertures stitching technology is a feasible method for testing asphere without assistant equipment. The overlap area of two annular sub-apertures is needed to sample in traditional stitching way. The size of overlap area influences the accuracy and efficiency of annular sub-apertures stitching, since small area will deduce the error of calculation, otherwise, more sub-apertures will be needed. Based on the principle of annular sub-apertures interference, a model is built to calculate the parameters of sub-apertures according to equal thickness interference in this paper firstly; then two clear-cut interference areas near the center of asphere and annular sub-apertures are figured out by theory and simulation. A new method is presented to use interference area near the center of asphere as the overlap area to sample. The results of simulation in the paper reveal that this new method can reduce stitching error relatively and improve efficiency availably, solving the inconsistency of error and efficiency consequently.

  3. Eyeglass: A Very Large Aperture Diffractive Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R; Dixit, S; Weisberg, A; Rushford, M

    2002-07-29

    Eyeglass is a very large aperture (25-100 meter) space telescope consisting of two distinct spacecraft, separated in space by several kilometers. A diffractive lens provides the telescope's large aperture, and a separate, much smaller, space telescope serves as its mobile eyepiece. Use of a transmissive diffractive lens solves two basic problems associated with very large aperture space telescopes; it is inherently fieldable (lightweight and flat, hence packagable and deployable) and virtually eliminates the traditional, very tight, surface shape tolerances faced by reflecting apertures. The potential drawback to use of a diffractive primary (very narrow spectral bandwidth) is eliminated by corrective optics in the telescope's eyepiece. The Eyeglass can provide diffraction-limited imaging with either single-band, multiband, or continuous spectral coverage. Broadband diffractive telescopes have been built at LLNL and have demonstrated diffraction-limited performance over a 40% spectral bandwidth (0.48-0.72 {micro}m). As one approach to package a large aperture for launch, a foldable lens has been built and demonstrated. A 75 cm aperture diffractive lens was constructed from 6 panels of 1 m thick silica; it achieved diffraction-limited performance both before and after folding. This multiple panel, folding lens, approach is currently being scaled-up at LLNL. We are building a 5 meter aperture foldable lens, involving 72 panels of 700 {micro}m thick glass sheets, diffractively patterned to operate as coherent f/50 lens.

  4. Cloud Computing for the Grid: GridControl: A Software Platform to Support the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-08

    GENI Project: Cornell University is creating a new software platform for grid operators called GridControl that will utilize cloud computing to more efficiently control the grid. In a cloud computing system, there are minimal hardware and software demands on users. The user can tap into a network of computers that is housed elsewhere (the cloud) and the network runs computer applications for the user. The user only needs interface software to access all of the cloud’s data resources, which can be as simple as a web browser. Cloud computing can reduce costs, facilitate innovation through sharing, empower users, and improve the overall reliability of a dispersed system. Cornell’s GridControl will focus on 4 elements: delivering the state of the grid to users quickly and reliably; building networked, scalable grid-control software; tailoring services to emerging smart grid uses; and simulating smart grid behavior under various conditions.

  5. Motion Measurement for Synthetic Aperture Radar.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measures radar soundings from a set of locations typically along the flight path of a radar platform vehicle. Optimal focusing requires precise knowledge of the sounding source locations in 3 - D space with respect to the target scene. Even data driven focusing techniques (i.e. autofocus) requires some degree of initial fidelity in the measurements of the motion of the radar. These requirements may be quite stringent especially for fine resolution, long ranges, and low velocities. The principal instrument for measuring motion is typically an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), but these instruments have inherent limi ted precision and accuracy. The question is %22How good does an IMU need to be for a SAR across its performance space?%22 This report analytically relates IMU specifications to parametric requirements for SAR. - 4 - Acknowledgements Th e preparation of this report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Although this report is an independent effort, it draws heavily from limited - release documentation generated under a CRADA with General Atomics - Aeronautical System, Inc. (GA - ASI), and under the Joint DoD/DOE Munitions Program Memorandum of Understanding. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of En ergy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  6. High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Morgan, Andrew J.; Prasciolu, Mauro; Andrejczuk, Andrzej; Krzywinski, Jacek; Meents, Alke; Pennicard, David; Graafsma, Heinz; Barty, Anton; Bean, Richard J.; Barthelmess, Miriam; et al

    2015-06-01

    The ever-increasing brightness of synchrotron radiation sources demands improved X-ray optics to utilise their capability for imaging and probing biological cells, nanodevices, and functional matter on the nanometer scale with chemical sensitivity. Here we demonstrate focusing a hard X-ray beam to an 8 nm focus using a volume zone plate (also referred to as a wedged multilayer Laue lens). This lens was constructed using a new deposition technique that enabled the independent control of the angle and thickness of diffracting layers to microradian and nanometer precision, respectively. This ensured that the Bragg condition is satisfied at each point along themore » lens, leading to a high numerical aperture that is limited only by its extent. We developed a phase-shifting interferometric method based on ptychography to characterise the lens focus. The precision of the fabrication and characterisation demonstrated here provides the path to efficient X-ray optics for imaging at 1 nm resolution.« less

  7. Multiple-Aperture Based Solar Seeing Profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Gang; Ren, Deqing

    2015-08-01

    Characterization of daytime atmospheric turbulence profile up to 30 km above the telescope is crucial for designs and performance estimations of solar Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) systems. To measure seeing profiles up to 30km, we introduce the Multiple Aperture Seeing Profiler (MASP). It bases on the principle of S-DIMM+ and consists of two portable small telescopes similar to SHABAR. Thus the MASP take the advantages of both S-DIMM+ and SHABAR. It is portable and can be used without big telescope, while it has ability to measure turbulence profile up to 30km. Numerical simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of MASP. We find that for one layer case, MASP can retrieve the seeing with error ~5% using 800 frames of WFS data, which is quite similar with the results of a telescope with diameter of 1120mm. We also simulate profiles with four turbulence layers, and find that our MASP can well retrieve the strengths and heights of the four turbulence layers. Since previous measurements at BBSO showed that daytime turbulence profile typically consists of four layers, MASP we introduced is sufficient for actual seeing measurement.

  8. High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Andrew J.; Prasciolu, Mauro; Andrejczuk, Andrzej; Krzywinski, Jacek; Meents, Alke; Pennicard, David; Graafsma, Heinz; Barty, Anton; Bean, Richard J.; Barthelmess, Miriam; Oberthuer, Dominik; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Aquila, Andrew; Chapman, Henry N.; Bajt, Saša

    2015-01-01

    The ever-increasing brightness of synchrotron radiation sources demands improved X-ray optics to utilise their capability for imaging and probing biological cells, nanodevices, and functional matter on the nanometer scale with chemical sensitivity. Here we demonstrate focusing a hard X-ray beam to an 8 nm focus using a volume zone plate (also referred to as a wedged multilayer Laue lens). This lens was constructed using a new deposition technique that enabled the independent control of the angle and thickness of diffracting layers to microradian and nanometer precision, respectively. This ensured that the Bragg condition is satisfied at each point along the lens, leading to a high numerical aperture that is limited only by its extent. We developed a phase-shifting interferometric method based on ptychography to characterise the lens focus. The precision of the fabrication and characterisation demonstrated here provides the path to efficient X-ray optics for imaging at 1 nm resolution. PMID:26030003

  9. Synthetic aperture elastography: a GPU based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Prashant; Doyley, Marvin M.

    2014-03-01

    Synthetic aperture (SA) ultrasound imaging system produces highly accurate axial and lateral displacement estimates; however, low frame rates and large data volumes can hamper its clinical use. This paper describes a real-time SA imaging based ultrasound elastography system that we have recently developed to overcome this limitation. In this system, we implemented both beamforming and 2D cross-correlation echo tracking on Nvidia GTX 480 graphics processing unit (GPU). We used one thread per pixel for beamforming; whereas, one block per pixel was used for echo tracking. We compared the quality of elastograms computed with our real-time system relative to those computed using our standard single threaded elastographic imaging methodology. In all studies, we used conventional measures of image quality such as elastographic signal to noise ratio (SNRe). Specifically, SNRe of axial and lateral strain elastograms computed with real-time system were 36 dB and 23 dB, respectively, which was numerically equal to those computed with our standard approach. We achieved a frame rate of 6 frames per second using our GPU based approach for 16 transmits and kernel size of 60 × 60 pixels, which is 400 times faster than that achieved using our standard protocol.

  10. Motion compensation on synthetic aperture sonar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heremans, R.; Acheroy, M.; Dupont, Y.

    2006-09-01

    High resolution sonars are required to detect and classify mines on the sea-bed. Synthetic aperture sonar increases the sonar cross range resolution by several orders of magnitudes while maintaining or increasing the area search rate. The resolution is however strongly dependent on the precision with which the motion errors of the platform can be estimated. The term micro-navigation is used to describe this very special requirement for sub-wavelength relative positioning of the platform. Therefore algorithms were designed to estimate those motion errors and to correct for them during the (ω, k)-reconstruction phase. To validate the quality of the motion estimation algorithms a single transmitter/multiple receiver simulator was build, allowing to generate multiple point targets with or without surge and/or sway and/or yaw motion errors. The surge motion estimation is shown on real data, which were taken during a sea trial in November of 2003 with the low frequency (12 kHz) side scan sonar (LFSS) moving on a rail positioned on the sea-bed near Marciana Marina on the Elba Island, Italy.

  11. A synthetic aperture acoustic prototype system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, Robert H.; Bishop, Steven S.; Chan, Aaron M.; Gugino, Peter M.; Donzelli, Thomas P.; Soumekh, Mehrdad

    2015-05-01

    A novel quasi-monostatic system operating in a side-scan synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) imaging mode is presented. This research project's objectives are to explore the military utility of outdoor continuous sound imaging of roadside foliage and target detection. The acoustic imaging method has several military relevant advantages such as being immune to RF jamming, superior spatial resolution as compared to 0.8-2.4 GHz ground penetrating radar (GPR), capable of standoff side and forward-looking scanning, and relatively low cost, weight and size when compared to GPR technologies. The prototype system's broadband 2-17 kHz LFM chirp transceiver is mounted on a manned all-terrain vehicle. Targets are positioned within the acoustic main beam at slant ranges of two to seven meters and on surfaces such as dirt, grass, gravel and weathered asphalt and with an intervening metallic chain link fence. Acoustic image reconstructions and signature plots result in means for literal interpretation and quantifiable analyses.

  12. Optical aperture synthesis with electronically connected telescopes.

    PubMed

    Dravins, Dainis; Lagadec, Tiphaine; Nuñez, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Highest resolution imaging in astronomy is achieved by interferometry, connecting telescopes over increasingly longer distances and at successively shorter wavelengths. Here, we present the first diffraction-limited images in visual light, produced by an array of independent optical telescopes, connected electronically only, with no optical links between them. With an array of small telescopes, second-order optical coherence of the sources is measured through intensity interferometry over 180 baselines between pairs of telescopes, and two-dimensional images reconstructed. The technique aims at diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometre-long baselines to reach resolutions showing details on stellar surfaces and perhaps even the silhouettes of transiting exoplanets. Intensity interferometry circumvents problems of atmospheric turbulence that constrain ordinary interferometry. Since the electronic signal can be copied, many baselines can be built up between dispersed telescopes, and over long distances. Using arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes, this should enable the optical equivalent of interferometric arrays currently operating at radio wavelengths. PMID:25880705

  13. Optical aperture synthesis with electronically connected telescopes

    PubMed Central

    Dravins, Dainis; Lagadec, Tiphaine; Nuñez, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Highest resolution imaging in astronomy is achieved by interferometry, connecting telescopes over increasingly longer distances and at successively shorter wavelengths. Here, we present the first diffraction-limited images in visual light, produced by an array of independent optical telescopes, connected electronically only, with no optical links between them. With an array of small telescopes, second-order optical coherence of the sources is measured through intensity interferometry over 180 baselines between pairs of telescopes, and two-dimensional images reconstructed. The technique aims at diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometre-long baselines to reach resolutions showing details on stellar surfaces and perhaps even the silhouettes of transiting exoplanets. Intensity interferometry circumvents problems of atmospheric turbulence that constrain ordinary interferometry. Since the electronic signal can be copied, many baselines can be built up between dispersed telescopes, and over long distances. Using arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes, this should enable the optical equivalent of interferometric arrays currently operating at radio wavelengths. PMID:25880705

  14. Discrimination between speckle images using diffusers modulated by some deformed apertures: simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed, Abdallah Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    We investigate new numerical speckle images using diffuser provided with some classes of amplitude apertures. The 1st class is based on circular aperture modulation, the 2nd class assumes modulated elliptical apertures, while the 3rd is devoted to a cardiac, and comet deformed apertures. We have reconstructed the images of all apertures and using the concept of Fourier transform. We computed the point spread functions (PSF) for the modulated circular, elliptical, and the cardiac apertures.

  15. Effects of combined apertures on the magnitudes of electric coupling coefficients of combline resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pholele, T. M.; Chuma, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    The effects of differently positioned and combined apertures on the magnitudes of electric coupling coefficients of two identical combline resonators are analysed. Coupling coefficient, k-vertical symmetry provides greater negative coupling for apertures less than 50 % opening on the common wall. Combined apertures do not enhance electric coupling. The Γ aperture annihilates electric coupling, whereas T shaped aperture provides reduced negative coupling coefficients compared to single apertures that make up the combination.

  16. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  17. Imaging method for downward-looking sparse linear array three-dimensional synthetic aperture radar based on reweighted atomic norm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Qian; Han, Kuoye; Lin, Yun; Zhang, Bingchen; Liu, Jianguo; Hong, Wen

    2016-01-01

    We propose an imaging algorithm for downward-looking sparse linear array three-dimensional synthetic aperture radar (DLSLA 3-D SAR) in the circumstance of cross-track sparse and nonuniform array configuration. Considering the off-grid effect and the resolution improvement, the algorithm combines pseudo-polar formatting algorithm, reweighed atomic norm minimization (RANM), and a parametric relaxation-based cyclic approach (RELAX) to improve the imaging performance with a reduced number of array antennas. RANM is employed in the cross-track imaging after pseudo-polar formatting the DLSLA 3-D SAR echo signal, then the reconstructed results are refined by RELAX. By taking advantage of the reweighted scheme, RANM can improve the resolution of the atomic norm minimization, and outperforms discretized compressive sensing schemes that suffer from off-grid effect. The simulated and real data experiments of DLSLA 3-D SAR verify the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  18. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Craig; Carroll, Paul; Bell, Abigail

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  19. 76 FR 1153 - Atlantic Grid Operations A LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations B LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations C LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Atlantic Grid Operations A LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations B LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations C LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations D LLC and Atlantic Grid Operations E LLC; Notice of... (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, and Order No. 679,\\1\\ Atlantic Grid Operations...

  20. TRMM Gridded Text Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has many products that contain instantaneous or gridded rain rates often among many other parameters. However, these products because of their completeness can often seem intimidating to users just desiring surface rain rates. For example one of the gridded monthly products contains well over 200 parameters. It is clear that if only rain rates are desired, this many parameters might prove intimidating. In addition, for many good reasons these products are archived and currently distributed in HDF format. This also can be an inhibiting factor in using TRMM rain rates. To provide a simple format and isolate just the rain rates from the many other parameters, the TRMM product created a series of gridded products in ASCII text format. This paper describes the various text rain rate products produced. It provides detailed information about parameters and how they are calculated. It also gives detailed format information. These products are used in a number of applications with the TRMM processing system. The products are produced from the swath instantaneous rain rates and contain information from the three major TRMM instruments: radar, radiometer, and combined. They are simple to use, human readable, and small for downloading.

  1. Electromagnetic Formation Flight (EMFF) for Sparse Aperture Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Daniel W.; Miller, David W.; Sedwick, Raymond J.

    2004-01-01

    Traditional methods of actuating spacecraft in sparse aperture arrays use propellant as a reaction mass. For formation flying systems, propellant becomes a critical consumable which can be quickly exhausted while maintaining relative orientation. Additional problems posed by propellant include optical contamination, plume impingement, thermal emission, and vibration excitation. For these missions where control of relative degrees of freedom is important, we consider using a system of electromagnets, in concert with reaction wheels, to replace the consumables. Electromagnetic Formation Flight sparse apertures, powered by solar energy, are designed differently from traditional propulsion systems, which are based on V. This paper investigates the design of sparse apertures both inside and outside the Earth's gravity field.

  2. Wireless Communications in Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan

    Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.

  3. Grid generation for turbomachinery problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinhoff, J.; Reddy, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a computer code to generate numerical grids for complex internal flow systems such as the fluid flow inside the space shuttle main engine is outlined. The blending technique for generating a grid for stator-rotor combination at a particular radial section is examined. The computer programs which generate these grids are listed in the Appendices. These codes are capable of generating grids at different cross sections and thus providng three dimensional stator-rotor grids for the turbomachinery of the space shuttle main engine.

  4. High-contrast imaging with an arbitrary aperture: Active compensation of aperture discontinuities

    SciTech Connect

    Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin

    2013-06-01

    We present a new method to achieve high-contrast images using segmented and/or on-axis telescopes. Our approach relies on using two sequential deformable mirrors (DMs) to compensate for the large amplitude excursions in the telescope aperture due to secondary support structures and/or segment gaps. In this configuration the parameter landscape of DM surfaces that yield high-contrast point-spread functions is not linear, and nonlinear methods are needed to find the true minimum in the optimization topology. We solve the highly nonlinear Monge-Ampere equation that is the fundamental equation describing the physics of phase-induced amplitude modulation. We determine the optimum configuration for our two sequential DM system and show that high-throughput and high-contrast solutions can be achieved using realistic surface deformations that are accessible using existing technologies. We name this process Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities (ACAD). We show that for geometries similar to the James Webb Space Telescope, ACAD can attain at least 10{sup –7} in contrast and an order of magnitude higher for both the future extremely large telescopes and on-axis architectures reminiscent of the Hubble Space Telescope. We show that the converging nonlinear mappings resulting from our DM shapes actually damp near-field diffraction artifacts in the vicinity of the discontinuities. Thus, ACAD actually lowers the chromatic ringing due to diffraction by segment gaps and struts while not amplifying the diffraction at the aperture edges beyond the Fresnel regime. This outer Fresnel ringing can be mitigated by properly designing the optical system. Consequently, ACAD is a true broadband solution to the problem of high-contrast imaging with segmented and/or on-axis apertures. We finally show that once the nonlinear solution is found, fine tuning with linear methods used in wavefront control can be applied to further contrast by another order of magnitude. Generally speaking

  5. Ion accelerator system mounting design and operating characteristics for a 5 kW 30-cm xenon ion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme; Brophy, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Results from a series of experiments to determine the effect of accelerator grid mount geometry on the performance of the J-series ion optics assembly are described. Three mounting schemes, two flexible and one rigid, are compared for their relative ion extraction capability over a range of total accelerating voltages. The largest ion beam current, for the maximum total voltage investigated, is shown to occur using one of the flexible grid mounting geometries. However, at lower total voltages and reduced engine input power levels, the original rigid J-series ion optics accelerator grid mounts result in marginally better grid system performance at the same cold interelectrode gap.

  6. 3D Structured Grid Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, D. W.; Hafez, M. M.

    1996-01-01

    Grid adaptation for structured meshes is the art of using information from an existing, but poorly resolved, solution to automatically redistribute the grid points in such a way as to improve the resolution in regions of high error, and thus the quality of the solution. This involves: (1) generate a grid vis some standard algorithm, (2) calculate a solution on this grid, (3) adapt the grid to this solution, (4) recalculate the solution on this adapted grid, and (5) repeat steps 3 and 4 to satisfaction. Steps 3 and 4 can be repeated until some 'optimal' grid is converged to but typically this is not worth the effort and just two or three repeat calculations are necessary. They also may be repeated every 5-10 time steps for unsteady calculations.

  7. Progress in Grid Generation: From Chimera to DRAGON Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Kao, Kai-Hsiung

    1994-01-01

    Hybrid grids, composed of structured and unstructured grids, combines the best features of both. The chimera method is a major stepstone toward a hybrid grid from which the present approach is evolved. The chimera grid composes a set of overlapped structured grids which are independently generated and body-fitted, yielding a high quality grid readily accessible for efficient solution schemes. The chimera method has been shown to be efficient to generate a grid about complex geometries and has been demonstrated to deliver accurate aerodynamic prediction of complex flows. While its geometrical flexibility is attractive, interpolation of data in the overlapped regions - which in today's practice in 3D is done in a nonconservative fashion, is not. In the present paper we propose a hybrid grid scheme that maximizes the advantages of the chimera scheme and adapts the strengths of the unstructured grid while at the same time keeps its weaknesses minimal. Like the chimera method, we first divide up the physical domain by a set of structured body-fitted grids which are separately generated and overlaid throughout a complex configuration. To eliminate any pure data manipulation which does not necessarily follow governing equations, we use non-structured grids only to directly replace the region of the arbitrarily overlapped grids. This new adaptation to the chimera thinking is coined the DRAGON grid. The nonstructured grid region sandwiched between the structured grids is limited in size, resulting in only a small increase in memory and computational effort. The DRAGON method has three important advantages: (1) preserving strengths of the chimera grid; (2) eliminating difficulties sometimes encountered in the chimera scheme, such as the orphan points and bad quality of interpolation stencils; and (3) making grid communication in a fully conservative and consistent manner insofar as the governing equations are concerned. To demonstrate its use, the governing equations are

  8. Smart Grid Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad Lopez, Carlos Adrian

    Current electricity infrastructure is being stressed from several directions -- high demand, unreliable supply, extreme weather conditions, accidents, among others. Infrastructure planners have, traditionally, focused on only the cost of the system; today, resilience and sustainability are increasingly becoming more important. In this dissertation, we develop computational tools for efficiently managing electricity resources to help create a more reliable and sustainable electrical grid. The tools we present in this work will help electric utilities coordinate demand to allow the smooth and large scale integration of renewable sources of energy into traditional grids, as well as provide infrastructure planners and operators in developing countries a framework for making informed planning and control decisions in the presence of uncertainty. Demand-side management is considered as the most viable solution for maintaining grid stability as generation from intermittent renewable sources increases. Demand-side management, particularly demand response (DR) programs that attempt to alter the energy consumption of customers either by using price-based incentives or up-front power interruption contracts, is more cost-effective and sustainable in addressing short-term supply-demand imbalances when compared with the alternative that involves increasing fossil fuel-based fast spinning reserves. An essential step in compensating participating customers and benchmarking the effectiveness of DR programs is to be able to independently detect the load reduction from observed meter data. Electric utilities implementing automated DR programs through direct load control switches are also interested in detecting the reduction in demand to efficiently pinpoint non-functioning devices to reduce maintenance costs. We develop sparse optimization methods for detecting a small change in the demand for electricity of a customer in response to a price change or signal from the utility

  9. GridTool: A surface modeling and grid generation tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh-Abolhassani, Jamshid

    1995-01-01

    GridTool is designed around the concept that the surface grids are generated on a set of bi-linear patches. This type of grid generation is quite easy to implement, and it avoids the problems associated with complex CAD surface representations and associated surface parameterizations. However, the resulting surface grids are close to but not on the original CAD surfaces. This problem can be alleviated by projecting the resulting surface grids onto the original CAD surfaces. GridTool is designed primary for unstructured grid generation systems. Currently, GridTool supports VGRID and FELISA systems, and it can be easily extended to support other unstructured grid generation systems. The data in GridTool is stored parametrically so that once the problem is set up, one can modify the surfaces and the entire set of points, curves and patches will be updated automatically. This is very useful in a multidisciplinary design and optimization process. GridTool is written entirely in ANSI 'C', the interface is based on the FORMS library, and the graphics is based on the GL library. The code has been tested successfully on IRIS workstations running IRIX4.0 and above. The memory is allocated dynamically, therefore, memory size will depend on the complexity of geometry/grid. GridTool data structure is based on a link-list structure which allows the required memory to expand and contract dynamically according to the user's data size and action. Data structure contains several types of objects such as points, curves, patches, sources and surfaces. At any given time, there is always an active object which is drawn in magenta, or in their highlighted colors as defined by the resource file which will be discussed later.

  10. Optical Transmission Properties of Dielectric Aperture Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tao

    Optical detection devices such as optical biosensors and optical spectrometers are widely used in many applications for the functions of measurements, inspections and analysis. Due to the large dimension of prisms and gratings, the traditional optical devices normally occupy a large space with complicated components. Since cheaper and smaller optical devices are always in demand, miniaturization has been kept going for years. Thanks to recent fabrication advances, nanophotonic devices such as semiconductor laser chips have been growing in number and diversity. However, the optical biosensor chips and the optical spectrometer chips are seldom reported in the literature. For the reason of improving system integration, the study of ultra-compact, low-cost, high-performance and easy-alignment optical biosensors and optical spectrometers are imperative. This thesis is an endeavor in these two subjects and will present our research work on studying the optical transmission properties of dielectric aperture arrays and developing new optical biosensors and optical spectrometers. The first half of the thesis demonstrates that the optical phase shift associated with the surface plasmon (SP) assisted extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) in nano-hole arrays fabricated in a metal film has a strong dependence on the material refractive index value in close proximity to the holes. A novel refractive index sensor based on detecting the EOT phase shift is proposed by building a model. This device readily provides a 2-D biosensor array platform for non-labeled real-time detection of a variety of organic and biological molecules in a sensor chip format, which leads to a high packing density, minimal analyte volumes, and a large number of parallel channels while facilitating high resolution imaging and supporting a large space-bandwidth product (SBP). Simulation (FDTD Solutions, Lumerical Solutions Inc) results indicate an achievable sensitivity limit of 4.37x10-9 refractive index

  11. Triangulation using synthetic aperture radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Howington-Kraus, Annie E.

    1991-01-01

    For the extraction of topographic information about Venus from stereoradar images obtained from the Magellan Mission, a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) compilation system was developed on analytical stereoplotters. The system software was extensively tested by using stereoradar images from various spacecraft and airborne radar systems, including Seasat, SIR-B, ERIM XCL, and STAR-1. Stereomodeling from radar images was proven feasible, and development is on a correct approach. During testing, the software was enhanced and modified to obtain more flexibility and better precision. Triangulation software for establishing control points by using SAR images was also developed through a joint effort with the Defense Mapping Agency. The SAR triangulation system comprises four main programs, TRIDATA, MODDATA, TRISAR, and SHEAR. The first two programs are used to sort and update the data; the third program, the main one, performs iterative statistical adjustment; and the fourth program analyzes the results. Also, input are flight data and data from the Global Positioning System and Inertial System (navigation information). The SAR triangulation system was tested with six strips of STAR-1 radar images on a VAX-750 computer. Each strip contains images of 10 minutes flight time (equivalent to a ground distance of 73.5 km); the images cover a ground width of 22.5 km. All images were collected from the same side. With an input of 44 primary control points, 441 ground control points were produced. The adjustment process converged after eight iterations. With a 6-m/pixel resolution of the radar images, the triangulation adjustment has an average standard elevation error of 81 m. Development of Magellan radargrammetry will be continued to convert both SAR compilation and triangulation systems into digital form.

  12. Georeferencing on Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeilzade, M.; Amini, J.; Zakeri, S.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the SAR1 geometry imaging, SAR images include geometric distortions that would be erroneous image information and the images should be geometrically calibrated. As the radar systems are side looking, geometric distortion such as shadow, foreshortening and layover are occurred. To compensate these geometric distortions, information about sensor position, imaging geometry and target altitude from ellipsoid should be available. In this paper, a method for geometric calibration of SAR images is proposed. The method uses Range-Doppler equations. In this method, for the image georeferencing, the DEM2 of SRTM with 30m pixel size is used and also exact ephemeris data of the sensor is required. In the algorithm proposed in this paper, first digital elevation model transmit to range and azimuth direction. By applying this process, errors caused by topography such as foreshortening and layover are removed in the transferred DEM. Then, the position of the corners on original image is found base on the transferred DEM. Next, original image registered to transfer DEM by 8 parameters projective transformation. The output is the georeferenced image that its geometric distortions are removed. The advantage of the method described in this article is that it does not require any control point as well as the need to attitude and rotational parameters of the sensor. Since the ground range resolution of used images are about 30m, the geocoded images using the method described in this paper have an accuracy about 20m (subpixel) in planimetry and about 30m in altimetry. 1 Synthetic Aperture Radar 2 Digital Elevation Model

  13. Soviet oceanographic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) research

    SciTech Connect

    Held, D.N.; Gasparovic, R.F.; Mansfield, A.W.; Melville, W.K.; Mollo-Christensen, E.L.; Zebker, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    Radar non-acoustic anti-submarine warfare (NAASW) became the subject of considerable scientific investigation and controversy in the West subsequent to the discovery by the Seasat satellite in 1978 that manifestations of underwater topography, thought to be hidden from the radar, were visible in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the ocean. In addition, the Seasat radar produced images of ship wakes where the observed angle between the wake arms was much smaller than expected from classical Kelvin wake theory. These observations cast doubt on the radar oceanography community's ability to adequately explain these phenomena, and by extension on the ability of existing hydrodynamic and radar scattering models to accurately predict the observability of submarine-induced signatures. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW is indeed a potentially significant tool in detecting submerged operational submarines, then the Soviet capability, as evidenced throughout this report, will be somewhat daunting. It will be shown that the Soviets have extremely fine capabilities in both theoretical and experimental hydrodynamics, that Soviet researchers have been conducting at-sea radar remote sensing experiments on a scale comparable to those of the United States for several years longer than we have, and that they have both an airborne and spaceborne SAR capability. The only discipline that the Soviet Union appears to be lacking is in the area of digital radar signal processing. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW can have at most a minimal impact on the detection of submerged submarines, then the Soviet effort is of little consequence and poses not threat. 280 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Dusty-Plasma Particle Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2005-01-01

    A dusty-plasma apparatus is being investigated as means of accelerating nanometer- and micrometer-sized particles. Applications for the dusty-plasma particle accelerators fall into two classes: Simulation of a variety of rapidly moving dust particles and micrometeoroids in outer-space environments that include micrometeoroid streams, comet tails, planetary rings, and nebulae and Deposition or implantation of nanoparticles on substrates for diverse industrial purposes that could include hardening, increasing thermal insulation, altering optical properties, and/or increasing permittivities of substrate materials. Relative to prior apparatuses used for similar applications, dusty-plasma particle accelerators offer such potential advantages as smaller size, lower cost, less complexity, and increased particle flux densities. A dusty-plasma particle accelerator exploits the fact that an isolated particle immersed in plasma acquires a net electric charge that depends on the relative mobilities of electrons and ions. Typically, a particle that is immersed in a low-temperature, partially ionized gas, wherein the average kinetic energy of electrons exceeds that of ions, causes the particle to become negatively charged. The particle can then be accelerated by applying an appropriate electric field. A dusty-plasma particle accelerator (see figure) includes a plasma source such as a radio-frequency induction discharge apparatus containing (1) a shallow cup with a biasable electrode to hold the particles to be accelerated and (2) a holder for the substrate on which the particles are to impinge. Depending on the specific design, a pair of electrostatic-acceleration grids between the substrate and discharge plasma can be used to both collimate and further accelerate particles exiting the particle holder. Once exposed to the discharge plasma, the particles in the cup quickly acquire a negative charge. Application of a negative voltage pulse to the biasable electrode results in the

  15. Low-Cost Large Aperture Telescopes for Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Low-cost, 0.5-1 meter ground apertures are required for near-Earth laser communications. Low-cost ground apertures with equivalent diameters greater than 10 meters are desired for deep-space communications. This presentation focuses on identifying schemes to lower the cost of constructing networks of large apertures while continuing to meet the requirements for laser communications. The primary emphasis here is on the primary mirror. A slumped glass spherical mirror, along with passive secondary mirror corrector and active adaptive optic corrector show promise as a low-cost alternative to large diameter monolithic apertures. To verify the technical performance and cost estimate, development of a 1.5-meter telescope equipped with gimbal and dome is underway.

  16. Role of Sucrose in Emerging Mechanisms of Stomatal Aperture Regulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Outlaw, W. H.

    2000-09-15

    Focused on the second of 2 hypotheses that were proposed for testing that transpiration rate determines the extent to which suc accumulates in the GC wall providing a mechanism for regulating stomatal aperture size.

  17. Electronic aperture control devised for solid state imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, R. A.; Callahan, D. E.; Mc Cann, D. H.

    1968-01-01

    Electronic means of performing the equivalent of automatic aperture control has been devised for the new class of television cameras that incorporates a solid state imaging device in the form of phototransistor mosaic sensors.

  18. Synthetic aperture radar signal processing: Trends and technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curlander, John C.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology is presented in vugraph form. The following topics are covered: an SAR ground data system; SAR signal processing algorithms; SAR correlator architectures; and current and future trends.

  19. Magnetically tunable broadband transmission through a single small aperture

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Ke; Liu, Wenjun; Guo, Yunsheng; Dong, Guoyan; Lei, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Extraordinary transmission through a small aperture is of great interest. However, it faces a limitation that most of approaches can not realize the tunable transmission property, which is not benefit for the miniaturization of the microwave system. Here, we demonstrate a magnetically tunable broadband transmission through a small aperture. By placing two ferrite rods symmetrically on both sides of a single small aperture, the strongly localized electromagnetic fields are effectively coupled to the two ferrite rods. Both the simulated and experimental results indicate that such structure not only realizes a nearly total transmission through a small aperture, but also obtains a magnetically tunable property. This work offers new opportunities for the miniaturization of the microwave system. PMID:26198543

  20. Detection of small, slow ground targets using Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Curtis; Chapin, Elaine; Rosen, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) along-track interferometry (ATI) is a technique for sensing Earth-surface motion. The technique involves interferometrically combining data from two radar images acquired from phase centers separated along the platform flight track.