Science.gov

Sample records for accelerator health physics

  1. Health physics manual of good practices for accelerator facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, W.R.; Miller, A.J.; McCaslin, J.B.; Coulson, L.V.

    1988-04-01

    It is hoped that this manual will serve both as a teaching aid as well as a useful adjunct for program development. In the context of application, this manual addresses good practices that should be observed by management, staff, and designers since the achievement of a good radiation program indeed involves a combined effort. Ultimately, radiation safety and good work practices become the personal responsibility of the individual. The practices presented in this manual are not to be construed as mandatory rather they are to be used as appropriate for the specific case in the interest of radiation safety. As experience is accrued and new data obtained in the application of this document, ONS will update the guidance to assure that at any given time the guidance reflects optimum performance consistent with current technology and practice.The intent of this guide therefore is to: define common health physics problems at accelerators; recommend suitable methods of identifying, evaluating, and managing accelerator health physics problems; set out the established safety practices at DOE accelerators that have been arrived at by consensus and, where consensus has not yet been reached, give examples of safe practices; introduce the technical literature in the accelerator health physics field; and supplement the regulatory documents listed in Appendix D. Many accelerator health physics problems are no different than those at other kinds of facilities, e.g., ALARA philosophy, instrument calibration, etc. These problems are touched on very lightly or not at all. Similarly, this document does not cover other hazards such as electrical shock, toxic materials, etc. This does not in any way imply that these problems are not serious. 160 refs.

  2. VLHC accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Blaskiewicz et al.

    2001-11-01

    A six-month design study for a future high energy hadron collider was initiated by the Fermilab director in October 2000. The request was to study a staged approach where a large circumference tunnel is built that initially would house a low field ({approx}2 T) collider with center-of-mass energy greater than 30 TeV and a peak (initial) luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The tunnel was to be scoped, however, to support a future upgrade to a center-of-mass energy greater than 150 TeV with a peak luminosity of 2 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} using high field ({approx} 10 T) superconducting magnet technology. In a collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a report of the Design Study was produced by Fermilab in June 2001. 1 The Design Study focused on a Stage 1, 20 x 20 TeV collider using a 2-in-1 transmission line magnet and leads to a Stage 2, 87.5 x 87.5 TeV collider using 10 T Nb{sub 3}Sn magnet technology. The article that follows is a compilation of accelerator physics designs and computational results which contributed to the Design Study. Many of the parameters found in this report evolved during the study, and thus slight differences between this text and the Design Study report can be found. The present text, however, presents the major accelerator physics issues of the Very Large Hadron Collider as examined by the Design Study collaboration and provides a basis for discussion and further studies of VLHC accelerator parameters and design philosophies.

  3. French nuclear physics accelerator opens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2016-12-01

    A new €140m particle accelerator for nuclear physics located at the French Large Heavy Ion National Accelerator (GANIL) in Caen was inaugurated last month in a ceremony attended by French president François Hollande.

  4. SPEAR3 Accelerator Physics Update

    SciTech Connect

    Safranek, James A.; Corbett, W.Jeff; Gierman, S.; Hettel, R.O.; Huang, X.; Nosochkov, Yuri; Sebek, Jim; Terebilo, Andrei; /SLAC

    2007-11-02

    The SPEAR3 storage ring at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory has been delivering photon beams for three years. We will give an overview of recent and ongoing accelerator physics activities, including 500 mA fills, work toward top-off injection, long-term orbit stability characterization and improvement, fast orbit feedback, new chicane optics, low alpha optics & short bunches, low emittance optics, and MATLAB software. The accelerator physics group has a strong program to characterize and improve SPEAR3 performance

  5. Health physics aspects of neutron activated components in a linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuntong; Ziemer, Paul L

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the residual radioactivity in the therapy accessories of a medical x ray linear accelerator. The residual radioactivity mainly originated from nuclear activation reactions by neutrons, which are present as a contamination radiation in the x-ray beam. The radiation used in this study was the 25 MV x-ray beam produced by a CGR Saturne III linear accelerator. The five treatment aids include four wedges of various angles and one cerrobend block. The decrease in dose rates with time was followed for 60 min for each of the five treatment aids immediately after 999 monitor units of irradiation. The integral doses from the surface of each of four activated therapy accessories following three different radiation doses were measured by using thermoluminescent dosimeters (CaF2). In the TLD measurement, polyethylene filters were used to differentiate beta or beta particles from the mixed decay radiation. A high-purity germanium detection system was utilized to collect and to analyze the gamma spectra from the activated therapy accessories. The residual radioisotopes found in the 15 degree wedge and 30 degree wedge included V, Cr, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni. In the 45 degree and 60 degree wedges, the radionuclides identified were Co, Ni, Cu, and W. The principal nuclides identified in the irradiated cerrobend block were In, Sn, Cd, Pb. The corresponding nuclear reactions from which the residual radionuclides produced were confirmed by consulting the current literature.

  6. Health Physics Aspects of Neutron Activated Components in a Linear Accelerator.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuntong; Ziemer, Paul L

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the residual radioactivity in the therapy accessories of a medical x ray linear accelerator. The residual radioactivity mainly originated from nuclear activation reactions by neutrons, which are present as a contamination radiation in the x-ray beam. The radiation used in this study was the 25 MV x-ray beam produced by a CGR Saturne III linear accelerator. The five treatment aids include four wedges of various angles and one cerrobend block. The decrease in dose rates with time was followed for 60 min for each of the five treatment aids immediately after 999 monitor units of irradiation. The integral doses from the surface of each of four activated therapy accessories following three different radiation doses were measured by using thermoluminescent dosimeters (CaF2). In the TLD measurement, polyethylene filters were used to differentiate β or β particles from the mixed decay radiation. A high-purity germanium detection system was utilized to collect and to analyze the γ spectra from the activated therapy accessories. The residual radioisotopes found in the 15° wedge and 30° wedge included V, Cr, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni. In the 45° and 60° wedges, the radionuclides identified were Co, Ni, Cu, and W. The principal nuclides identified in the irradiated cerrobend block were In, Sn, Cd, Pb. The corresponding nuclear reactions from which the residual radionuclides produced were confirmed by consulting the current literature.

  7. Accelerator physics and modeling: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    1991-12-31

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Physics of high brightness beams; radio frequency beam conditioner for fast-wave free-electron generators of coherent radiation; wake-field and space-charge effects on high brightness beams. Calculations and measured results for BNL-ATF; non-linear orbit theory and accelerator design; general problems of modeling for accelerators; development and application of dispersive soft ferrite models for time-domain simulation; and bunch lengthening in the SLC damping rings.

  8. Accelerator physics and modeling: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Physics of high brightness beams; radio frequency beam conditioner for fast-wave free-electron generators of coherent radiation; wake-field and space-charge effects on high brightness beams. Calculations and measured results for BNL-ATF; non-linear orbit theory and accelerator design; general problems of modeling for accelerators; development and application of dispersive soft ferrite models for time-domain simulation; and bunch lengthening in the SLC damping rings.

  9. Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2011-10-24

    Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

  10. Accelerator science in medical physics.

    PubMed

    Peach, K; Wilson, P; Jones, B

    2011-12-01

    The use of cyclotrons and synchrotrons to accelerate charged particles in hospital settings for the purpose of cancer therapy is increasing. Consequently, there is a growing demand from medical physicists, radiographers, physicians and oncologists for articles that explain the basic physical concepts of these technologies. There are unique advantages and disadvantages to all methods of acceleration. Several promising alternative methods of accelerating particles also have to be considered since they will become increasingly available with time; however, there are still many technical problems with these that require solving. This article serves as an introduction to this complex area of physics, and will be of benefit to those engaged in cancer therapy, or who intend to acquire such technologies in the future.

  11. Accelerator science in medical physics

    PubMed Central

    Peach, K; Wilson, P; Jones, B

    2011-01-01

    The use of cyclotrons and synchrotrons to accelerate charged particles in hospital settings for the purpose of cancer therapy is increasing. Consequently, there is a growing demand from medical physicists, radiographers, physicians and oncologists for articles that explain the basic physical concepts of these technologies. There are unique advantages and disadvantages to all methods of acceleration. Several promising alternative methods of accelerating particles also have to be considered since they will become increasingly available with time; however, there are still many technical problems with these that require solving. This article serves as an introduction to this complex area of physics, and will be of benefit to those engaged in cancer therapy, or who intend to acquire such technologies in the future. PMID:22374548

  12. ACCELERATION PHYSICS CODE WEB REPOSITORY.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  13. Accelerator Physics Code Web Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, F.; Basset, R.; Bellodi, G.; Benedetto, E.; Dorda, U.; Giovannozzi, M.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pieloni, T.; Ruggiero, F.; Rumolo, G.; Schmidt, F.; Todesco, E.; Zotter, B.W.; Payet, J.; Bartolini, R.; Farvacque, L.; Sen, T.; Chin, Y.H.; Ohmi, K.; Oide, K.; Furman, M.; /LBL, Berkeley /Oak Ridge /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /SLAC /TRIUMF /Tech-X, Boulder /UC, San Diego /Darmstadt, GSI /Rutherford /Brookhaven

    2006-10-24

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  14. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal

    2011-05-01

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  15. Analytical tools in accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-09-01

    This paper is a sub-set of my lectures presented in the Accelerator Physics course (USPAS, Santa Rosa, California, January 14-25, 2008). It is based on my notes I wrote during period from 1976 to 1979 in Novosibirsk. Only few copies (in Russian) were distributed to my colleagues in Novosibirsk Institute of Nuclear Physics. The goal of these notes is a complete description starting from the arbitrary reference orbit, explicit expressions for 4-potential and accelerator Hamiltonian and finishing with parameterization with action and angle variables. To a large degree follow logic developed in Theory of Cyclic Particle Accelerators by A.A.Kolmensky and A.N.Lebedev [Kolomensky], but going beyond the book in a number of directions. One of unusual feature is these notes use of matrix function and Sylvester formula for calculating matrices of arbitrary elements. Teaching the USPAS course motivated me to translate significant part of my notes into the English. I also included some introductory materials following Classical Theory of Fields by L.D. Landau and E.M. Liftsitz [Landau]. A large number of short notes covering various techniques are placed in the Appendices.

  16. Accelerating Innovation: How Nuclear Physics Benefits Us All

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    2011-01-01

    Innovation has been accelerated by nuclear physics in the areas of improving our health; making the world safer; electricity, environment, archaeology; better computers; contributions to industry; and training the next generation of innovators.

  17. Operational health physics training

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-01

    The initial four sections treat basic information concerning atomic structure and other useful physical quantities, natural radioactivity, the properties of {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, x rays and neutrons, and the concepts and units of radiation dosimetry (including SI units). Section 5 deals with biological effects and the risks associated with radiation exposure. Background radiation and man-made sources are discussed next. The basic recommendations of the ICRP concerning dose limitations: justification, optimization (ALARA concepts and applications) and dose limits are covered in Section seven. Section eight is an expanded version of shielding, and the internal dosimetry discussion has been extensively revised to reflect the concepts contained in the MIRD methodology and ICRP 30. The remaining sections discuss the operational health physics approach to monitoring radiation. Individual sections include radiation detection principles, instrument operation and counting statistics, health physics instruments and personnel monitoring devices. The last five sections deal with the nature of, operation principles of, health physics aspects of, and monitoring approaches to air sampling, reactors, nuclear safety, gloveboxes and hot cells, accelerators and x ray sources. Decontamination, waste disposal and transportation of radionuclides are added topics. Several appendices containing constants, symbols, selected mathematical topics, and the Chart of the Nuclides, and an index have been included.

  18. Relationship of FEL physics to accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, P.L.

    1981-08-01

    The beam dynamics and operation of a free electron laser are discussed after a description of accelerator beam dynamics. Various wiggler field schemes are studied including the constant parameter wiggler, the variable parameter wiggler, and the gain-expanded wiggler. (WHK)

  19. Theoretical problems in accelerator physics. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, N.M.

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics in accelerator physics: radio frequency pulse compression and power transport; computational methods for the computer analysis of microwave components; persistent wakefields associated with waveguide damping of higher order modes; and photonic band gap cavities.

  20. Physics and Accelerator Applications of RF Superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    H. Padamsee; K. W. Shepard; Ron Sundelin

    1993-12-01

    A key component of any particle accelerator is the device that imparts energy gain to the charged particle. This is usually an electromagnetic cavity resonating at a microwave frequency, chosen between 100 and 3000 MHz. Serious attempts to utilize superconductors for accelerating cavities were initiated more than 25 years ago with the acceleration of electrons in a lead-plated resonator at Stanford University (1). The first full-scale accelerator, the Stanford SCA, was completed in 1978 at the High Energy Physics Laboratory (HEPL) (2). Over the intervening one and a half decades, superconducting cavities have become increasingly important to particle accelerators for nuclear physics and high energy physics. For continuous operation, as is required for many applications, the power dissipation in the walls of a copper structure is quite substantial, for example, 0.1 megawatts per meter of structure operating at an accelerating field of 1 million volts/meter (MV/m). since losses increase as the square of the accelerating field, copper cavities become severely uneconomical as demand for higher fields grows with the higher energies called for by experimenters to probe ever deeper into the structure of matter. Rf superconductivity has become an important technology for particle accelerators. Practical structures with attractive performance levels have been developed for a variety of applications, installed in the targeted accelerators, and operated over significant lengths of time. Substantial progress has been made in understanding field and Q limitations and in inventing cures to advance performance. The technical and economical potential of rf superconductivity makes it an important candidate for future advanced accelerators for free electron lasers, for nuclear physics, and for high energy physics, at the luminosity as well as at the energy frontiers.

  1. New accelerators in high-energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Blewett, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    First, I should like to mention a few new ideas that have appeared during the last few years in the accelerator field. A couple are of importance in the design of injectors, usually linear accelerators, for high-energy machines. Then I shall review some of the somewhat sensational accelerator projects, now in operation, under construction or just being proposed. Finally, I propose to mention a few applications of high-energy accelerators in fields other than high-energy physics. I realize that this is a digression from my title but I hope that you will find it interesting.

  2. Accelerator prospects for photon-photon physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, A.

    1992-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the accelerators in the world where two-photon physics could be carried out in the future. The list includes facilities where two-photon physics is already an integral part of the scientific program but also mentions some other machines where initiating new programs may be possible.

  3. The plasma physics of shock acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Frank C.; Ellison, Donald C.

    1991-01-01

    The history and theory of shock acceleration is reviewed, paying particular attention to theories of parallel shocks which include the backreaction of accelerated particles on the shock structure. The work that computer simulations, both plasma and Monte Carlo, are playing in revealing how thermal ions interact with shocks and how particle acceleration appears to be an inevitable and necessary part of the basic plasma physics that governs collisionless shocks is discussed. Some of the outstanding problems that still confront theorists and observers in this field are described.

  4. TOPICS IN THE PHYSICS OF PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1984-07-01

    High energy physics, perhaps more than any other branch of science, is driven by technology. It is not the development of theory, or consideration of what measurements to make, which are the driving elements in our science. Rather it is the development of new technology which is the pacing item. Thus it is the development of new techniques, new computers, and new materials which allows one to develop new detectors and new particle-handling devices. It is the latter, the accelerators, which are at the heart of the science. Without particle accelerators there would be, essentially, no high energy physics. In fact. the advances in high energy physics can be directly tied to the advances in particle accelerators. Looking terribly briefly, and restricting one's self to recent history, the Bevatron made possible the discovery of the anti-proton and many of the resonances, on the AGS was found the {mu}-neutrino, the J-particle and time reversal non-invariance, on Spear was found the {psi}-particle, and, within the last year the Z{sub 0} and W{sup {+-}} were seen on the CERN SPS p-{bar p} collider. Of course one could, and should, go on in much more detail with this survey, but I think there is no need. It is clear that as better acceleration techniques were developed more and more powerful machines were built which, as a result, allowed high energy physics to advance. What are these techniques? They are very sophisticated and ever-developing. The science is very extensive and many individuals devote their whole lives to accelerator physics. As high energy experimental physicists your professional lives will be dominated by the performance of 'the machine'; i.e. the accelerator. Primarily you will be frustrated by the fact that it doesn't perform better. Why not? In these lectures, six in all, you should receive some appreciation of accelerator physics. We cannot, nor do we attempt, to make you into accelerator physicists, but we do hope to give you some insight into the

  5. Chemical vs. Physical Acceleration of Cement Hydration

    PubMed Central

    Bentz, Dale P.; Zunino, Franco; Lootens, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Cold weather concreting often requires the use of chemical accelerators to speed up the hydration reactions of the cement, so that setting and early-age strength development will occur in a timely manner. While calcium chloride (dihydrate – CaCl2·2H2O) is the most commonly used chemical accelerator, recent research using fine limestone powders has indicated their high proficiency for physically accelerating early-age hydration and reducing setting times. This paper presents a comparative study of the efficiency of these two approaches in accelerating hydration (as assessed via isothermal calorimetry), reducing setting times (Vicat needle), and increasing early-age mortar cube strength (1 d and 7 d). Both the CaCl2 and the fine limestone powder are used to replace a portion of the finest sand in the mortar mixtures, while keeping both the water-to-cement ratio and volume fractions of water and cement constant. Studies are conducted at 73.4 °F (23°C) and 50 °F (10 °C), so that activation energies can be estimated for the hydration and setting processes. Because the mechanisms of acceleration of the CaCl2 and limestone powder are different, a hybrid mixture with 1 % CaCl2 and 20 % limestone powder (by mass of cement) is also investigated. Both technologies are found to be viable options for reducing setting times and increasing early-age strengths, and it is hoped that concrete producers and contractors will consider the addition of fine limestone powder to their toolbox of techniques for assuring performance in cold weather and other concreting conditions where acceleration may be needed. PMID:28077884

  6. Better physical activity classification using smartphone acceleration sensor.

    PubMed

    Arif, Muhammad; Bilal, Mohsin; Kattan, Ahmed; Ahamed, S Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is becoming one of the serious problems for the health of worldwide population. Social interactions on mobile phones and computers via internet through social e-networks are one of the major causes of lack of physical activities. For the health specialist, it is important to track the record of physical activities of the obese or overweight patients to supervise weight loss control. In this study, acceleration sensor present in the smartphone is used to monitor the physical activity of the user. Physical activities including Walking, Jogging, Sitting, Standing, Walking upstairs and Walking downstairs are classified. Time domain features are extracted from the acceleration data recorded by smartphone during different physical activities. Time and space complexity of the whole framework is done by optimal feature subset selection and pruning of instances. Classification results of six physical activities are reported in this paper. Using simple time domain features, 99 % classification accuracy is achieved. Furthermore, attributes subset selection is used to remove the redundant features and to minimize the time complexity of the algorithm. A subset of 30 features produced more than 98 % classification accuracy for the six physical activities.

  7. Emergency Response Health Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, RaJah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-05-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health; however, there are major differences between health physics for research or occupational safety and health physics during a large-scale radiological emergency. The deployment of a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) monitoring and assessment team to Japan in the wake of the March 2011 accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant yielded a wealth of lessons on these difference. Critical teams (CMOC (Consequence Management Outside the Continental U.S.) and CMHT (Consequence Management Home Team) ) worked together to collect, compile, review, and analyze radiological data from Japan to support the response needs of and answer questions from the Government of Japan, the U.S. military in Japan, the U.S. Embassy and U.S. citizens in Japan, and U.S. citizens in America. This paper addresses the unique challenges presented to the health physicist or analyst of radiological data in a large-scale emergency. A key lesson learned was that public perception and the availability of technology with social media requires a diligent effort to keep the public informed of the science behind the decisions in a manner that is meaningful to them.

  8. Physics of Health Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baublitz, Millard; Goldberg, Bennett

    A one-semester algebra-based physics course is being offered to Boston University students whose major fields of study are in allied health sciences: physical therapy, athletic training, and speech, language, and hearing sciences. The classroom instruction incorporates high-engagement learning techniques including worksheets, student response devices, small group discussions, and physics demonstrations instead of traditional lectures. The use of pre-session exercises and quizzes has been implemented. The course also requires weekly laboratory experiments in mechanics or electricity. We are using standard pre- and post-course concept inventories to compare this one-semester introductory physics course to ten years of pre- and post-course data collected on students in the same majors but who completed a two-semester course.

  9. Pulsed power accelerator for material physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisman, D. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Stygar, W. A.; Austin, K. N.; Waisman, E. M.; Hickman, R. J.; Davis, J.-P.; Haill, T. A.; Knudson, M. D.; Seagle, C. T.; Brown, J. L.; Goerz, D. A.; Spielman, R. B.; Goldlust, J. A.; Cravey, W. R.

    2015-09-01

    We have developed the design of Thor: a pulsed power accelerator that delivers a precisely shaped current pulse with a peak value as high as 7 MA to a strip-line load. The peak magnetic pressure achieved within a 1-cm-wide load is as high as 100 GPa. Thor is powered by as many as 288 decoupled and transit-time isolated bricks. Each brick consists of a single switch and two capacitors connected electrically in series. The bricks can be individually triggered to achieve a high degree of current pulse tailoring. Because the accelerator is impedance matched throughout, capacitor energy is delivered to the strip-line load with an efficiency as high as 50%. We used an iterative finite element method (FEM), circuit, and magnetohydrodynamic simulations to develop an optimized accelerator design. When powered by 96 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 4.1 MA to a load, and achieves peak magnetic pressures as high as 65 GPa. When powered by 288 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 6.9 MA to a load, and achieves magnetic pressures as high as 170 GPa. We have developed an algebraic calculational procedure that uses the single brick basis function to determine the brick-triggering sequence necessary to generate a highly tailored current pulse time history for shockless loading of samples. Thor will drive a wide variety of magnetically driven shockless ramp compression, shockless flyer plate, shock-ramp, equation of state, material strength, phase transition, and other advanced material physics experiments.

  10. EMERGENCY RESPONSE HEALTH PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, RaJah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-01-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health. Topics of discussion included in this manuscript are related to responding to a radiation emergency, and the necessary balance between desired high accuracy laboratory results and rapid turnaround requirements. Considerations are addressed for methodology with which to provide the most competent solutions despite challenges presented from incomplete datasets and, at times, limited methodology. An emphasis is placed on error and uncertainty of sample analysis results, how error affects products, and what is communicated in the final product.

  11. Guide to accelerator physics program SYNCH: VAX version 1987. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.; Courant, E.

    1987-01-01

    This guide is written to accommodate users of Accelerator Physics Data Base BNLDAG::DUAO:(PARSA1). It describes the contents of the on line Accelerator Physics data base DUAO:(PARSA1.SYNCH). SYNCH is a computer program used for the design and analysis of synchrotrons, storage rings and beamlines.

  12. Advanced Computing Tools and Models for Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, Robert; Ryne, Robert D.

    2008-06-11

    This paper is based on a transcript of my EPAC'08 presentation on advanced computing tools for accelerator physics. Following an introduction I present several examples, provide a history of the development of beam dynamics capabilities, and conclude with thoughts on the future of large scale computing in accelerator physics.

  13. Physical activities to enhance an understanding of acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. A.

    2006-03-01

    On the basis of their everyday experiences, students have developed an understanding of many of the concepts of mechanics by the time they take their first physics course. However, an accurate understanding of acceleration remains elusive. Many students have difficulties distinguishing between velocity and acceleration. In this report, a set of physical activities to highlight the differences between acceleration and velocity are described. These activities involve running and walking on sand (such as an outdoor volleyball court).

  14. Basic Health Physics: Problems and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    1999-01-01

    Radiation litigation, the cleanup and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, radon exposure, nuclear medicine, food irradiation, stricter regulatory climate--these are some of the reasons health physics and radiation protection professionals are increasingly called upon to upgrade their skills. Designed to prepare candidates for the American Board of Health Physics Comprehensive examination (Part I) and other certification examinations, Basic Health Physics: Problems and Solutions introduces professionals in the field to radiation protection principles and their practical application in routine and emergency situations. It features more than 650 worked examples illustrating concepts under discussion along with an in-depth coverage of sources of radiation, standards and regulations, biological effects of ionizing radiation, instrumentation, external and internal dosimetry, counting statistics, monitoring and interpretations, operational health physics, transportation and waste, nuclear emergencies, and more. Reflecting for the first time the true scope of health physics at an introductory level, Basic Health Physics: Problems and Solutions gives readers the tools to properly evaluate challenging situations in all areas of radiation protection, including the medical, university, power reactor, fuel cycle, research reactor, environmental, non-ionizing radiation, and accelerator health physics.

  15. The Influence of Accelerator Science on Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haussecker, Enzo F.; Chao, Alexander W.

    2011-06-01

    We evaluate accelerator science in the context of its contributions to the physics community. We address the problem of quantifying these contributions and present a scheme for a numerical evaluation of them. We show by using a statistical sample of important developments in modern physics that accelerator science has influenced 28% of post-1938 physicists and also 28% of post-1938 physics research. We also examine how the influence of accelerator science has evolved over time, and show that on average it has contributed to a physics Nobel Prize-winning research every 2.9 years.

  16. Fifty years of accelerator based physics at Chalk River

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, John W.

    1999-04-26

    The Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. was a major centre for Accelerator based physics for the last fifty years. As early as 1946, nuclear structure studies were started on Cockroft-Walton accelerators. A series of accelerators followed, including the world's first Tandem, and the MP Tandem, Superconducting Cyclotron (TASCC) facility that was opened in 1986. The nuclear physics program was shut down in 1996. This paper will describe some of the highlights of the accelerators and the research of the laboratory.

  17. The Future of Accelerator Physics. The Tamura Symposium Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, T.

    1996-04-01

    These proceedings represent the papers presented at the Tamura symposium on accelerator physics. The topics discussed include many novel ideas for future exploration, for example, 30TeV X 30TeV collider, Moebius accelerator, new magnets, new table{minus}top terawatt (T3) lasers, free space accelerators, advanced cooling of beams, including optical cooling,etc.. There were 30 papers presented at the symposium and 28 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  18. Summary report of working group 2: Computations for accelerator physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Benjamin M.; Benedetti, C.

    2017-03-01

    The Computations for Accelerator Physics Working Group reviewed recent progress in and surveyed the state of the art of computational modeling of advanced accelerators. This included applications to laser-plasma and structure-based accelerators as well as beam dynamics in circular colliders. Fundamental aspects of numerical modeling and direct particle interaction techniques were discussed. The Working Group also covered the implications of advanced compute architectures.

  19. Fluid Physics in a Fluctuating Acceleration Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, J. Ross; Drolet, Francois; Vinals, Jorge

    1996-01-01

    We summarize several aspects of an ongoing investigation of the effects that stochastic residual accelerations (g-jitter) onboard spacecraft can have on experiments conducted in a microgravity environment. The residual acceleration field is modeled as a narrow band noise, characterized by three independent parameters: intensity (g(exp 2)), dominant angular frequency Omega, and characteristic correlation time tau. Realistic values for these parameters are obtained from an analysis of acceleration data corresponding to the SL-J mission, as recorded by the SAMS instruments. We then use the model to address the random motion of a solid particle suspended in an incompressible fluid subjected to such random accelerations. As an extension, the effect of jitter on coarsening of a solid-liquid mixture is briefly discussed, and corrections to diffusion controlled coarsening evaluated. We conclude that jitter will not be significant in the experiment 'Coarsening of solid-liquid mixtures' to be conducted in microgravity. Finally, modifications to the location of onset of instability in systems driven by a random force are discussed by extending the standard reduction to the center manifold to the stochastic case. Results pertaining to time-modulated oscillatory convection are briefly discussed.

  20. Fluid Physics Under a Stochastic Acceleration Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinals, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    The research summarized in this report has involved a combined theoretical and computational study of fluid flow that results from the random acceleration environment present onboard space orbiters, also known as g-jitter. We have focused on a statistical description of the observed g-jitter, on the flows that such an acceleration field can induce in a number of experimental configurations of interest, and on extending previously developed methodology to boundary layer flows. Narrow band noise has been shown to describe many of the features of acceleration data collected during space missions. The scale of baroclinically induced flows when the driving acceleration is random is not given by the Rayleigh number. Spatially uniform g-jitter induces additional hydrodynamic forces among suspended particles in incompressible fluids. Stochastic modulation of the control parameter shifts the location of the onset of an oscillatory instability. Random vibration of solid boundaries leads to separation of boundary layers. Steady streaming ahead of a modulated solid-melt interface enhances solute transport, and modifies the stability boundaries of a planar front.

  1. SYMMETRY, HAMILTONIAN PROBLEMS AND WAVELETS IN ACCELERATOR PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    FEDOROVA,A.; ZEITLIN,M.; PARSA,Z.

    2000-03-31

    In this paper the authors consider applications of methods from wavelet analysis to nonlinear dynamical problems related to accelerator physics. In this approach they take into account underlying algebraical, geometrical and topological structures of corresponding problems.

  2. Dysfunctional health service conflict: causes and accelerants.

    PubMed

    Nelson, H Wayne

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the causes and accelerants of dysfunctional health service conflict and how it emerges from the health system's core hierarchical structures, specialized roles, participant psychodynamics, culture, and values. This article sets out to answer whether health care conflict is more widespread and intense than in other settings and if it is, why? To this end, health care power, gender, and educational status gaps are examined with an eye to how they undermine open communication, teamwork, and collaborative forms of conflict and spark a range of dysfunctions, including a pervasive culture of fear; the deny-and-defend lawsuit response; widespread patterns of hierarchical, generational, and lateral bullying; overly avoidant conflict styles among non-elite groups; and a range of other behaviors that lead to numerous human resource problems, including burnout, higher staff turnover, increased errors, poor employee citizenship behavior, patient dissatisfaction, increased patient complaints, and lawsuits. Bad patient outcomes include decreased compliance and increased morbidity and mortality. Health care managers must understand the root causes of these problems to treat them at the source and implement solutions that avoid negative conflict spirals that undermine organizational morale and efficiency.

  3. Family Interventions in Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    As we begin to understand the relationships between family interaction and physical health, we can develop interventions that focus on education, support, and problem solving. The author reviews existing research on family interventions in physical health and proposes guidelines for developing, implementing, and studying family interventions. PMID:21229055

  4. Physics of Laser-driven plasma-based acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Esarey, Eric; Schroeder, Carl B.

    2003-06-30

    The physics of plasma-based accelerators driven by short-pulse lasers is reviewed. This includes the laser wake-field accelerator, the plasma beat wave accelerator, the self-modulated laser wake-field accelerator, and plasma waves driven by multiple laser pulses. The properties of linear and nonlinear plasma waves are discussed, as well as electron acceleration in plasma waves. Methods for injecting and trapping plasma electrons in plasma waves are also discussed. Limits to the electron energy gain are summarized, including laser pulse direction, electron dephasing, laser pulse energy depletion, as well as beam loading limitations. The basic physics of laser pulse evolution in underdense plasmas is also reviewed. This includes the propagation, self-focusing, and guiding of laser pulses in uniform plasmas and plasmas with preformed density channels. Instabilities relevant to intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions, such as Raman, self-modulation, and hose instabilities, are discussed. Recent experimental results are summarized.

  5. Physical exercise and health.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Alberto; Masiá, M Dolores; Galve, Enrique

    2014-09-01

    Regular physical exercise is an established recommendation for preventing and treating the main modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Performing physical activity of moderate intensity for a minimum of 30 min 5 days a week or of high intensity for a minimum of 20 min 3 days a week improves functional capacity and is associated with reductions in the incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Physical exercise induces physiological cardiovascular adaptations that improve physical performance, and only in extreme cases can these adaptations lead to an increased risk of physical exercise-associated complications. The incidence of sudden death or serious complications during physical exercise is very low and is concentrated in people with heart diseases or with pathological cardiac adaptation to exercise. Most of these cases can be detected by cardiology units or well-trained professionals.

  6. Methods of geometrical integration in accelerator physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrianov, S. N.

    2016-12-01

    In the paper we consider a method of geometric integration for a long evolution of the particle beam in cyclic accelerators, based on the matrix representation of the operator of particles evolution. This method allows us to calculate the corresponding beam evolution in terms of two-dimensional matrices including for nonlinear effects. The ideology of the geometric integration introduces in appropriate computational algorithms amendments which are necessary for preserving the qualitative properties of maps presented in the form of the truncated series generated by the operator of evolution. This formalism extends both on polarized and intense beams. Examples of practical applications are described.

  7. Particle acceleration, transport and turbulence in cosmic and heliospheric physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaeus, W.

    1992-01-01

    In this progress report, the long term goals, recent scientific progress, and organizational activities are described. The scientific focus of this annual report is in three areas: first, the physics of particle acceleration and transport, including heliospheric modulation and transport, shock acceleration and galactic propagation and reacceleration of cosmic rays; second, the development of theories of the interaction of turbulence and large scale plasma and magnetic field structures, as in winds and shocks; third, the elucidation of the nature of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence processes and the role such turbulence processes might play in heliospheric, galactic, cosmic ray physics, and other space physics applications.

  8. Fluid Physics in a Fluctuating Acceleration Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drolet, Francois; Vinals, Jorge

    1999-01-01

    Our program of research aims at developing a stochastic description of the residual acceleration field onboard spacecraft (g-jitter) to describe in quantitative detail its effect on fluid motion. Our main premise is that such a statistical description is necessary in those cases in which the characteristic time scales of the process under investigation are long compared with the correlation time of g-jitter. Although a clear separation between time scales makes this approach feasible, there remain several difficulties of practical nature: (i), g-jitter time series are not statistically stationary but rather show definite dependences on factors such as active or rest crew periods; (ii), it is very difficult to extract reliably the low frequency range of the power spectrum of the acceleration field. This range controls the magnitude of diffusive processes; and (iii), models used to date are Gaussian, but there is evidence that large amplitude disturbances occur much more frequently than a Gaussian distribution would predict. The lack of stationarity does not constitute a severe limitation in practice, since the intensity of the stochastic components changes very slowly during space missions (perhaps over times of the order of hours). A separate analysis of large amplitude disturbances has not been undertaken yet, but it does not seem difficult a priori to devise models that may describe this range better than a Gaussian distribution. The effect of low frequency components, on the other hand, is more difficult to ascertain, partly due to the difficulty associated with measuring them, and partly because they may be indistinguishable from slowly changing averages. This latter effect is further complicated by the lack of statistical stationarity of the time series. Recent work has focused on the effect of stochastic modulation on the onset of oscillatory instabilities as an example of resonant interaction between the driving acceleration and normal modes of the system

  9. High Energy Density Physics and Exotic Acceleration Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, T.; Colby, E.; /SLAC

    2005-09-27

    The High Energy Density and Exotic Acceleration working group took as our goal to reach beyond the community of plasma accelerator research with its applications to high energy physics, to promote exchange with other disciplines which are challenged by related and demanding beam physics issues. The scope of the group was to cover particle acceleration and beam transport that, unlike other groups at AAC, are not mediated by plasmas or by electromagnetic structures. At this Workshop, we saw an impressive advancement from years past in the area of Vacuum Acceleration, for example with the LEAP experiment at Stanford. And we saw an influx of exciting new beam physics topics involving particle propagation inside of solid-density plasmas or at extremely high charge density, particularly in the areas of laser acceleration of ions, and extreme beams for fusion energy research, including Heavy-ion Inertial Fusion beam physics. One example of the importance and extreme nature of beam physics in HED research is the requirement in the Fast Ignitor scheme of inertial fusion to heat a compressed DT fusion pellet to keV temperatures by injection of laser-driven electron or ion beams of giga-Amp current. Even in modest experiments presently being performed on the laser-acceleration of ions from solids, mega-amp currents of MeV electrons must be transported through solid foils, requiring almost complete return current neutralization, and giving rise to a wide variety of beam-plasma instabilities. As keynote talks our group promoted Ion Acceleration (plenary talk by A. MacKinnon), which historically has grown out of inertial fusion research, and HIF Accelerator Research (invited talk by A. Friedman), which will require impressive advancements in space-charge-limited ion beam physics and in understanding the generation and transport of neutralized ion beams. A unifying aspect of High Energy Density applications was the physics of particle beams inside of solids, which is proving to

  10. An introduction to the physics of high energy accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.A.; Syphers, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This book is an outgrowth of a course given by the authors at various universities and particle accelerator schools. It starts from the basic physics principles governing particle motion inside an accelerator, and leads to a full description of the complicated phenomena and analytical tools encountered in the design and operation of a working accelerator. The book covers acceleration and longitudinal beam dynamics, transverse motion and nonlinear perturbations, intensity dependent effects, emittance preservation methods and synchrotron radiation. These subjects encompass the core concerns of a high energy synchrotron. The authors apparently do not assume the reader has much previous knowledge about accelerator physics. Hence, they take great care to introduce the physical phenomena encountered and the concepts used to describe them. The mathematical formulae and derivations are deliberately kept at a level suitable for beginners. After mastering this course, any interested reader will not find it difficult to follow subjects of more current interests. Useful homework problems are provided at the end of each chapter. Many of the problems are based on actual activities associated with the design and operation of existing accelerators.

  11. Physical Education's Role in Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallis, James F.; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes contributions physical education makes to child and adult health. Topics discussed are current levels of U.S. children's physical activity; status of elementary physical education programs; health-related physical activity interventions; public health analysis of elementary physical education; and public health role and goal for physical…

  12. Future Accelerator Challenges in Support of High-Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.; Zisman, M.S.

    2008-05-03

    Historically, progress in high-energy physics has largely been determined by development of more capable particle accelerators. This trend continues today with the imminent commissioning of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and the worldwide development effort toward the International Linear Collider. Looking ahead, there are two scientific areas ripe for further exploration--the energy frontier and the precision frontier. To explore the energy frontier, two approaches toward multi-TeV beams are being studied, an electron-positron linear collider based on a novel two-beam powering system (CLIC), and a Muon Collider. Work on the precision frontier involves accelerators with very high intensity, including a Super-BFactory and a muon-based Neutrino Factory. Without question, one of the most promising approaches is the development of muon-beam accelerators. Such machines have very high scientific potential, and would substantially advance the state-of-the-art in accelerator design. The challenges of the new generation of accelerators, and how these can be accommodated in the accelerator design, are described. To reap their scientific benefits, all of these frontier accelerators will require sophisticated instrumentation to characterize the beam and control it with unprecedented precision.

  13. Physics with post-accelerated beams at ISOLDE: nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Pietro, A.; Riisager, K.; Van Duppen, P.

    2017-04-01

    Nuclear-reaction studies have until now constituted a minor part of the physics program with post-accelerated beams at ISOLDE, mainly due to the maximum energy of REX-ISOLDE of around 3 MeV/u that limits reaction work to the mass region below A = 100. We give an overview of the current experimental status and of the physics results obtained so far. Finally, the improved conditions given by the HIE-ISOLDE upgrade are described.

  14. From Particle Physics to Astroparticle Physics: Proton Decay and the Rise of Non-accelerator Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Hinrich

    The search for proton decay was motivated by simple questions about the content of the observable universe. Why is matter so stable and why do we not see antimatter of primordial origin? The symmetry of the standard model of particle physics would have required that matter and antimatter annihilated in the early universe. In 1968, Sacharov showed that the matter-antimatter asymmetry could have formed in a state of thermal non-equilibrium of the universe, as given in big bang cosmology, together with the well-confirmed C and CP violations, and proton decay. The latter phenomenon could be only investigated in large none-accelerator experiments. The SU(5) extension of the standard model implied a proton lifetime of about 1029 years. With detectors consisting of 1 000 tons of matter and located deep under the Earth surface, such as the French-German Fréjus iron-calorimeter, in the mid 1980s one expected to detect several proton decays per year. Here, we report on the way leading from accelerator laboratories to underground physics, which paradoxically enough turned out to studying cosmic rays. There has not been any evidence for the instability of protons, and lifetime limits of more than 1034 years have been obtained. However, great progress in particle physics and in the physics of cosmic rays could be achieved with neutrinos.

  15. Light water reactor health physics.

    PubMed

    Prince, Robert J; Bradley, Scott E

    2005-06-01

    In this article an overview of the historical development of light water reactor health physics programs is presented. Operational health physics programs have developed and matured as experience in operating and maintaining light water reactors has been gained. Initial programs grew quickly in both size and complexity with the number and size of nuclear units under construction and in operation. Operational health physics programs evolved to face various challenges confronted by the nuclear industry, increasing the effectiveness of radiological safety measures. Industry improvements in radiological safety performance have resulted in significant decreases in annual collective exposures from a high value of 790 person-rem in 1980 to 117 person-rem per reactor in 2002. Though significant gains have been made, the continued viability of the nuclear power industry is confronted with an aging workforce, as well as the challenges posed by deregulation and the need to maintain operational excellence.

  16. Light water reactor health physics.

    PubMed

    Prince, Robert J; Bradley, Scott E

    2004-11-01

    In this article an overview of the historical development of light water reactor health physics programs is presented. Operational health physics programs have developed and matured as experience in operating and maintaining light water reactors has been gained. Initial programs grew quickly in both size and complexity with the number and size of nuclear units under construction and in operation. Operational health physics programs evolved to face various challenges confronted by the nuclear industry, increasing the effectiveness of radiological safety measures. Industry improvements in radiological safety performance have resulted in significant decreases in annual collective exposures from a high value of 790 person-rem in 1980 to 117 person-rem per reactor in 2002. Though significant gains have been made, the continued viability of the nuclear power industry is confronted with an aging workforce, as well as the challenges posed by deregulation and the need to maintain operational excellence.

  17. Physics With Health Science Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urone, Paul Peter

    1985-09-01

    An accessible, algebra-based text covering the introductory physics necessary for applied health and nursing. Presentation integrates health science applications throughout. Excellent illustrations support the exposition. Chapters contain over 100 worked examples, over 450 review questions, and more than 550 end-of-chapter problems graded according to difficulty. Offers discussion of the latest applications such as ionizing radiation and radiation doses, nuclear imaging techniques, CT scanners, ultrasound techniques, artificial hearts, and laser surgery.

  18. Physical activity, hydration and health.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ascensión; Manonelles, Pedro; Palacios, Nieves; Wärnberg, Julia; Casajús, José A; Pérez, Margarita; Aznar, Susana; Benito, Pedro J; Martínez-Gomez, David; Ortega, Francisco B; Ortega, Eduardo; Urrialde, Rafael

    2014-06-01

    Since the beginning of mankind, man has sought ways to promote and preserve health as well as to prevent disease. Hydration, physical activity and exercise are key factors for enhancing human health. However, either a little dose of them or an excess can be harmful for health maintenance at any age. Water is an essential nutrient for human body and a major key to survival has been to prevent dehydration. However, there is still a general controversy regarding the necessary amount to drink water or other beverages to properly get an adequate level of hydration. In addition, up to now the tools used to measure hydration are controversial. To this end, there are several important groups of variables to take into account such as water balance, hydration biomarkers and total body water. A combination of methods will be the most preferred tool to find out any risk or situation of dehydration at any age range. On the other hand, physical activity and exercise are being demonstrated to promote health, avoiding or reducing health problems, vascular and inflammatory disea ses and helping weight management. Therefore, physical activity is also being used as a pill within a therapy to promote health and reduce risk diseases, but as in the case of drugs, dose, intensity, frequency, duration and precautions have to be evaluated and taken into account in order to get the maximum effectiveness and success of a treatment. On the other hand, sedentariness is the opposite concept to physical activity that has been recently recognized as an important factor of lifestyle involved in the obesogenic environment and consequently in the risk of the non-communicable diseases. In view of the literature consulted and taking into account the expertise of the authors, in this review a Decalogue of global recommendations is included to achieve an adequate hydration and physical activity status to avoid overweight/obesity consequences.

  19. Multipactor Physics, Acceleration, and Breakdown in Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Richard P.; Gold, Steven H.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this 3-year program is to study the physics issues associated with rf acceleration in dielectric-loaded accelerating (DLA) structures, with a focus on the key issue of multipactor loading, which has been found to cause very significant rf power loss in DLA structures whenever the rf pulsewidth exceeds the multipactor risetime (~10 ns). The experiments are carried out in the X-band magnicon laboratory at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Euclid Techlabs LLC, who develop the test structures with support from the DoE SBIR program. There are two main elements in the research program: (1) high-power tests of DLA structures using the magnicon output (20 MW @11.4 GHz), and (2) tests of electron acceleration in DLA structures using relativistic electrons from a compact X-band accelerator. The work during this period has focused on a study of the use of an axial magnetic field to suppress multipactor in DLA structures, with several new high power tests carried out at NRL, and on preparation of the accelerator for the electron acceleration experiments.

  20. [Physical activity and cardiovascular health].

    PubMed

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that regular moderate physical activity, in the context of a healthy lifestyle, significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention. In addition, it is scientifically proven that exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, breast cancer and colon cancer. Despite this strong evidence, sedentary lifestyle remains a widespread habit in the western world. Even in Italy the adult population has a poor attitude to regular physical activity. It is therefore necessary, as continuously recommended by the World Health Organization, to motivate people to "move" since the transition from inactivity to regular light to moderate physical activity has a huge impact on health, resulting in significant savings of resources. We do not need to be athletes to exercise - it should be part of all our daily routines.

  1. High energy physics advisory panel`s composite subpanel for the assessment of the status of accelerator physics and technology

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    In November 1994, Dr. Martha Krebs, Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Research (OER), initiated a broad assessment of the current status and promise of the field of accelerator physics and technology with respect to five OER programs -- High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, Basic Energy Sciences, Fusion Energy, and Health and Environmental Research. Dr. Krebs asked the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) to establish a composite subpanel with representation from the five OER advisory committees and with a balance of membership drawn broadly from both the accelerator community and from those scientific disciplines associated with the OER programs. The Subpanel was also charged to provide recommendations and guidance on appropriate future research and development needs, management issues, and funding requirements. The Subpanel finds that accelerator science and technology is a vital and intellectually exciting field. It has provided essential capabilities for the DOE/OER research programs with an enormous impact on the nation`s scientific research, and it has significantly enhanced the nation`s biomedical and industrial capabilities. Further progress in this field promises to open new possibilities for the scientific goals of the OER programs and to further benefit the nation. Sustained support of forefront accelerator research and development by the DOE`s OER programs and the DOE`s predecessor agencies has been responsible for much of this impact on research. This report documents these contributions to the DOE energy research mission and to the nation.

  2. Innovative applications of genetic algorithms to problems in accelerator physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofler, Alicia; Terzić, Balša; Kramer, Matthew; Zvezdin, Anton; Morozov, Vasiliy; Roblin, Yves; Lin, Fanglei; Jarvis, Colin

    2013-01-01

    The genetic algorithm (GA) is a powerful technique that implements the principles nature uses in biological evolution to optimize a multidimensional nonlinear problem. The GA works especially well for problems with a large number of local extrema, where traditional methods (such as conjugate gradient, steepest descent, and others) fail or, at best, underperform. The field of accelerator physics, among others, abounds with problems which lend themselves to optimization via GAs. In this paper, we report on the successful application of GAs in several problems related to the existing Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility nuclear physics machine, the proposed Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jefferson Lab, and a radio frequency gun-based injector. These encouraging results are a step forward in optimizing accelerator design and provide an impetus for application of GAs to other problems in the field. To that end, we discuss the details of the GAs used, include a newly devised enhancement which leads to improved convergence to the optimum, and make recommendations for future GA developments and accelerator applications.

  3. What accelerator mass spectrometry can do for solar physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newkirk, Gordon

    1984-11-01

    We review some of the empirical aspects of the solar magnetic activity and the convective dynamo models developed to account for the magnetic cycle. Alternative hypotheses which have recently emerged are sketched. Possible applications of accelerator mass spectrometry to solar physics and the important questions that proxy data on past solar activity might answer are evaluated. The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

  4. Accelerator physics in ERL based polarized electron ion collider

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Yue

    2015-05-03

    This talk will present the current accelerator physics challenges and solutions in designing ERL-based polarized electron-hadron colliders, and illustrate them with examples from eRHIC and LHeC designs. These challenges include multi-pass ERL design, highly HOM-damped SRF linacs, cost effective FFAG arcs, suppression of kink instability due to beam-beam effect, and control of ion accumulation and fast ion instabilities.

  5. Accelerator Physics Challenges for the NSLS-II Project

    SciTech Connect

    Krinsky,S.

    2009-05-04

    The NSLS-II is an ultra-bright synchrotron light source based upon a 3-GeV storage ring with a 30-cell (15 super-period) double-bend-achromat lattice with damping wigglers used to lower the emittance below 1 nm. In this paper, we discuss the accelerator physics challenges for the design including: optimization of dynamic aperture; estimation of Touschek lifetime; achievement of required orbit stability; and analysis of ring impedance and collective effects.

  6. Applications of the ARGUS code in accelerator physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petillo, J. J.; Mankofsky, A.; Krueger, W. A.; Kostas, C.; Mondelli, A. A.; Drobot, A. T.

    1993-12-01

    ARGUS is a three-dimensional, electromagnetic, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code that is being distributed to U.S. accelerator laboratories in collaboration between Science Applications International Corporation (SAICTM) and the Los Alamos Accelerator Code Group (LAACG). It uses a modular architecture that allows multiple physics modules to share common utilities for grid and structure input, memory management, disk I/O, and diagnostics. Physics modules are in place for electrostatic and electromagnetic field solutions, frequency-domain (eigenvalue) solutions, time-dependent PIC, and steady-state PIC simulations. All of the modules are implemented with a domain-decomposition architecture that allows large problems to be broken up into pieces that fit in core and that facilitates the adaptation of ARGUS for parallel processing. ARGUS operates on either Cray or workstation platforms, and a MOTIF-based user interface is available for X-windows terminals. Applications of ARGUS in accelerator physics and design are described in this paper.

  7. Standard Model of Particle Physics--a health physics perspective.

    PubMed

    Bevelacqua, J J

    2010-11-01

    The Standard Model of Particle Physics is reviewed with an emphasis on its relationship to the physics supporting the health physics profession. Concepts important to health physics are emphasized and specific applications are presented. The capability of the Standard Model to provide health physics relevant information is illustrated with application of conservation laws to neutron and muon decay and in the calculation of the neutron mean lifetime.

  8. Physics design of the HNB accelerator for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Esch, H. P. L.; Kashiwagi, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Inoue, T.; Serianni, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Chitarin, G.; Marconato, N.; Sartori, E.; Sonato, P.; Veltri, P.; Pilan, N.; Aprile, D.; Fonnesu, N.; Antoni, V.; Singh, M. J.; Hemsworth, R. S.; Cavenago, M.

    2015-09-01

    The physics design of the accelerator for the heating neutral beamline on ITER is now finished and this paper describes the considerations and choices which constitute the basis of this design. Equal acceleration gaps of 88 mm have been chosen to improve the voltage holding capability while keeping the beam divergence low. Kerbs (metallic plates around groups of apertures, attached to the downstream surface of the grids) are used to compensate for the beamlet-beamlet interaction and to point the beamlets in the right direction. A novel magnetic configuration is employed to compensate for the beamlet deflection caused by the electron suppression magnets in the extraction grid. A combination of long-range and short-range magnetic fields is used to reduce electron leakage between the grids and limit the transmitted electron power to below 800 kW.

  9. Operational Radiation Protection in High-Energy Physics Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Rokni, S.H.; Fasso, A.; Liu, J.C.; /SLAC

    2012-04-03

    An overview of operational radiation protection (RP) policies and practices at high-energy electron and proton accelerators used for physics research is presented. The different radiation fields and hazards typical of these facilities are described, as well as access control and radiation control systems. The implementation of an operational RP programme is illustrated, covering area and personnel classification and monitoring, radiation surveys, radiological environmental protection, management of induced radioactivity, radiological work planning and control, management of radioactive materials and wastes, facility dismantling and decommissioning, instrumentation and training.

  10. Physical Activities Monitoring Using Wearable Acceleration Sensors Attached to the Body.

    PubMed

    Arif, Muhammad; Kattan, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring physical activities by using wireless sensors is helpful for identifying postural orientation and movements in the real-life environment. A simple and robust method based on time domain features to identify the physical activities is proposed in this paper; it uses sensors placed on the subjects' wrist, chest and ankle. A feature set based on time domain characteristics of the acceleration signal recorded by acceleration sensors is proposed for the classification of twelve physical activities. Nine subjects performed twelve different types of physical activities, including sitting, standing, walking, running, cycling, Nordic walking, ascending stairs, descending stairs, vacuum cleaning, ironing clothes and jumping rope, and lying down (resting state). Their ages were 27.2 ± 3.3 years and their body mass index (BMI) is 25.11 ± 2.6 Kg/m2. Classification results demonstrated a high validity showing precision (a positive predictive value) and recall (sensitivity) of more than 95% for all physical activities. The overall classification accuracy for a combined feature set of three sensors is 98%. The proposed framework can be used to monitor the physical activities of a subject that can be very useful for the health professional to assess the physical activity of healthy individuals as well as patients.

  11. Physical Activities Monitoring Using Wearable Acceleration Sensors Attached to the Body

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring physical activities by using wireless sensors is helpful for identifying postural orientation and movements in the real-life environment. A simple and robust method based on time domain features to identify the physical activities is proposed in this paper; it uses sensors placed on the subjects’ wrist, chest and ankle. A feature set based on time domain characteristics of the acceleration signal recorded by acceleration sensors is proposed for the classification of twelve physical activities. Nine subjects performed twelve different types of physical activities, including sitting, standing, walking, running, cycling, Nordic walking, ascending stairs, descending stairs, vacuum cleaning, ironing clothes and jumping rope, and lying down (resting state). Their ages were 27.2 ± 3.3 years and their body mass index (BMI) is 25.11 ± 2.6 Kg/m2. Classification results demonstrated a high validity showing precision (a positive predictive value) and recall (sensitivity) of more than 95% for all physical activities. The overall classification accuracy for a combined feature set of three sensors is 98%. The proposed framework can be used to monitor the physical activities of a subject that can be very useful for the health professional to assess the physical activity of healthy individuals as well as patients. PMID:26203909

  12. Physical Activity and Health: Does Physical Education Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; McIver, Kerry L.

    2011-01-01

    Physical education has been an institution in American schools since the late 19th century, and today almost all American children are exposed to physical education classes. It has often been claimed that physical education provides important benefits to public health. The purpose of this paper is to determine if physical education increases…

  13. ASP2012: Fundamental Physics and Accelerator Sciences in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darve, Christine

    2012-02-01

    Much remains to be done to improve education and scientific research in Africa. Supported by the international scientific community, our initiative has been to contribute to fostering science in sub-Saharan Africa by establishing a biennial school on fundamental subatomic physics and its applications. The school is based on a close interplay between theoretical, experimental, and applied physics. The lectures are addressed to students or young researchers with at least a background of 4 years of university formation. The aim of the school is to develop capacity, interpret, and capitalize on the results of current and future physics experiments with particle accelerators; thereby spreading education for innovation in related applications and technologies, such as medicine and information science. Following the worldwide success of the first school edition, which gathered 65 students for 3-week in Stellenbosch (South Africa) in August 2010, the second edition will be hosted in Ghana from July 15 to August 4, 2012. The school is a non-profit organization, which provides partial or full financial support to 50 of the selected students, with priority to Sub-Saharan African students.

  14. Accelerating innovation in information and communication technology for health.

    PubMed

    Crean, Kevin W

    2010-02-01

    Around the world, inventors are creating novel information and communication technology applications and systems that can improve health for people in disparate settings. However, it is very difficult to find investment funding needed to create business models to expand and develop the prototype technologies. A comprehensive, long-term investment strategy for e-health and m-health is needed. The field of social entrepreneurship offers an integrated approach to develop needed investment models, so that innovations can reach more patients, more effectively. Specialized financing techniques and sustained support from investors can spur the expansion of mature technologies to larger markets, accelerating global health impacts.

  15. The Scanning Electron Microscope As An Accelerator For The Undergraduate Advanced Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Randolph S.; Berggren, Karl K.; Mondol, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Few universities or colleges have an accelerator for use with advanced physics laboratories, but many of these institutions have a scanning electron microscope (SEM) on site, often in the biology department. As an accelerator for the undergraduate, advanced physics laboratory, the SEM is an excellent substitute for an ion accelerator. Although there are no nuclear physics experiments that can be performed with a typical 30 kV SEM, there is an opportunity for experimental work on accelerator physics, atomic physics, electron-solid interactions, and the basics of modern e-beam lithography.

  16. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    In the first chapter, terminology, physical and radiological quantities, and units of measurement used to describe the properties of accelerator radiation fields are reviewed. The general considerations of primary radiation fields pertinent to accelerators are discussed. The primary radiation fields produced by electron beams are described qualitatively and quantitatively. In the same manner the primary radiation fields produced by proton and ion beams are described. Subsequent chapters describe: shielding of electrons and photons at accelerators; shielding of proton and ion accelerators; low energy prompt radiation phenomena; induced radioactivity at accelerators; topics in radiation protection instrumentation at accelerators; and accelerator radiation protection program elements.

  17. Physical Activity and Public Health: Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the effects of physical activity on depression and anxiety, discussing the scientific strength of studies on physical activity, depression, and anxiety against the standards of science accepted in epidemiology with a focus on the independence, consistency, dose-response gradient, and biological plausibility of the evidence. (Author/SM)

  18. Physical Activity, Public Health, and Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…

  19. Measuring Physical Neighborhood Quality Related to Health

    PubMed Central

    Rollings, Kimberly A.; Wells, Nancy M.; Evans, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work. PMID:25938692

  20. Implementation Science to Accelerate Clean Cooking for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Joshua; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Bruce, Nigel; Chambers, David; Graham, Jay; Jack, Darby; Kline, Lydia; Masera, Omar; Mehta, Sumi; Mercado, Ilse Ruiz; Neta, Gila; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Puzzolo, Elisa; Petach, Helen; Punturieri, Antonello; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Sage, Michael; Sturke, Rachel; Shankar, Anita; Sherr, Kenny; Smith, Kirk; Yadama, Gautam

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Clean cooking has emerged as a major concern for global health and development because of the enormous burden of disease caused by traditional cookstoves and fires. The World Health Organization has developed new indoor air quality guidelines that few homes will be able to achieve without replacing traditional methods with modern clean cooking technologies, including fuels and stoves. However, decades of experience with improved stove programs indicate that the challenge of modernizing cooking in impoverished communities includes a complex, multi-sectoral set of problems that require implementation research. The National Institutes of Health, in partnership with several government agencies and the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, has launched the Clean Cooking Implementation Science Network that aims to address this issue. In this article, our focus is on building a knowledge base to accelerate scale-up and sustained use of the cleanest technologies in low- and middle-income countries. Implementation science provides a variety of analytical and planning tools to enhance effectiveness of clinical and public health interventions. These tools are being integrated with a growing body of knowledge and new research projects to yield new methods, consensus tools, and an evidence base to accelerate improvements in health promised by the renewed agenda of clean cooking. PMID:28055947

  1. Accelerating learning for pro-poor health markets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the rapid evolution of health markets, learning is key to promoting the identification and uptake of health market policies and practices that better serve the needs of the poor. However there are significant challenges to learning about health markets. We discuss the different forms that learning takes, from the development of codified scientific knowledge, through to experience-based learning, all in relationship to health markets. Discussion Notable challenges to learning in health markets include the difficulty of acquiring data from private health care providers, designing evaluations that capture the complex dynamics present within health markets and developing communities of practice that encompass the diverse actors present within health markets, and building trust and mutual understanding across these groups. The paper proposes experimentation with country-specific market data platforms that can integrate relevant evidence from different data sources, and simultaneously exploring strategies to secure better information on private providers and health markets. Possible approaches to adapting evaluation designs so that they are better able to take account of different and changing contexts as well as producing real time findings are discussed. Finally capturing informal knowledge about health markets is key. Communities of practice that bridge different health market actors can help to share such experience-based knowledge and in so doing, may help to formalize it. More geographically-focused communities of practice are needed, and such communities may be supported by innovation brokers and/or be built around member-based organizations. Summary Strategic investments in and support to learning about health markets can address some of the challenges experienced to-date, and accelerate learning that supports health markets that serve the poor. PMID:24961671

  2. Genetic algorithms and their applications in accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hofler, Alicia S.

    2013-12-01

    Multi-objective optimization techniques are widely used in an extremely broad range of fields. Genetic optimization for multi-objective optimization was introduced in the accelerator community in relatively recent times and quickly spread becoming a fundamental tool in multi-dimensional optimization problems. This discussion introduces the basics of the technique and reviews applications in accelerator problems.

  3. Accelerator mass spectrometry: from nuclear physics to dating

    SciTech Connect

    Kutschera, W.

    1983-01-01

    Several applications of accelerator-based mass spectroscopy are reviewed. Among these are the search for unknown species, determination of comogenic radioisotopes in natural materials and measurements of half-lifes, especially those of significance to dating. Accelerator parameters and techniques of importance for these applications are also considered.

  4. Physics for Allied Health Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldick, Howard

    2000-04-01

    In this paper I will describe two courses that I have been teaching for the past 6 years to physical therapy and occupational therapy students Emphasis will be paced on those points that distinguish these courses from others with which I am familiar. I will discuss the syllabus: homework, exams, labs and the final grade. I will also present a topic outline of the courses showing how examples are drawn from the human body to illustrate the physics concept under discussion and to stimulate the students's interest in the material. The following basic concepts of physics will be covered (each with human body examples): vectors, components, statics, conservation of energy, efficiency, change of state, heat transfer, electric charge, electric field, voltage and capacitance.

  5. [Physical education, health and physical activities: difficult relationships].

    PubMed

    Cogérino, Geneviève

    2016-06-08

    Physical education (PE) is an appropriate subject to investigate the links between physical activity (PA) and health. The current training of PE teachers tends to emphasize the link between PA and physical fitness, to the detriment of other health components. The occupational, environmental, cultural dimensions of PA are frequently overlooked. This article lists four topics related to PA-health links, which could be more extensively included in initial PE teacher training, on the basis of abundant scientific literature: 1. the diversity of exercise motives, according to the subject’s age, gender, ability, competence, living conditions, etc.; 2. the role of body image on the desire or reluctance of teenagers to perform PA or certain physical activities; 3. the evolution of motivations towards PA throughout life; 4. the impact of the PE teachers’ masculinist conceptions, consubstantial of PE, due to its link with sport. These topics could contribute to a better analysis of what individuals seek through PA and the PA-health links they value. They could help teachers to adjust their teaching to contribute to the pupils’ health and not solely their physical fitness..

  6. TEACHING PHYSICS: Atwood's machine: experiments in an accelerating frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teck Chee, Chia; Hong, Chia Yee

    1999-03-01

    Experiments in an accelerating frame are often difficult to perform, but simple computer software allows sufficiently rapid and accurate measurements to be made on an arrangement of weights and pulleys known as Atwood's machine.

  7. Medical physics--particle accelerators--the beginning.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Jeremy C

    2014-01-01

    This chapter outlines the early development of particle accelerators with the redesign from linear accelerator to cyclotron by Ernest Lawrence with a view to reducing the size of the machines as the power increased. There are minibiographies of Ernest Lawrence and his brother John. The concept of artificial radiation is outlined and the early attempts at patient treatment are mentioned. The reasons for trying and abandoning neutron therapy are discussed, and the early use of protons is described.

  8. Health Instruction Packages: Physical Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stephen J.; Lupi, Frances A.

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are used in these two learning modules to instruct physical therapists and others involved in the care of the infirm in methods of comfortably positioning patients in beds and chairs. The first module, "Basic Positioning in Bed and Chair," describes how to position a patient in the upright sitting…

  9. Vocal Health for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Josh; McColl, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Evidence suggests that teachers are often at risk for vocal disease and are more likely to change occupations because of their voice problems compared to non-teachers. Physical educators are especially at risk for voice problems due to the intense daily demands of voice projection. Chronic abuse can cause swelling and inflammation of the…

  10. The Reunification of Health and Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Seymour

    1982-01-01

    The movement toward a separation of physical education and health education is gradually receding with the realization that a holistic education is more suitable to the physical and psychological growth of the individual personality. The reunification of the two disciplines is important for the unification of mind and body. (JN)

  11. Physical and Mental Health Among Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Naughton, Michelle J.; Weaver, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    The physical and mental health of cancer patients needs to be addressed not only during active treatment but also throughout the continuum of survivorship care. This commentary provides an overview of issues pertinent to cancer survivors, with an emphasis on mental health issues and recommendations for annual clinical screening and monitoring using recently published guidelines from the American Society of Clinical Oncology. PMID:25046097

  12. Health Care Provider Physical Activity Prescription Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josyula, Lakshmi; Lyle, Roseann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the feasibility and impact of a health care provider’s (HCP) physical activity (PA) prescription on the PA of patients on preventive care visits. Methods: Consenting adult patients completed health and PA questionnaires and were sequentially assigned to intervention groups. HCPs prescribed PA using a written prescription only…

  13. Answers to Health Questions in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert, Ed.

    Culled from the answers of physical education teachers and coaches, this booklet attempts to indicate the scope of health problems and suggests some directions which the solutions may take. It is divided into three parts. Part 1, Health and Safety in Activity Programs, answers questions on first aid, excused absences, and desirability of…

  14. The effect of retirement on physical health.

    PubMed Central

    Ekerdt, D J; Baden, L; Bossé, R; Dibbs, E

    1983-01-01

    This prospective study compared pre- to post-retirement changes in physical health among male retirees with changes among age peers who continued to work. The 229 retirees and 409 workers aged 55-73 at follow-up were all participants in the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study. Physical health at baseline and follow-up (three to four years apart) was rated on a four-point scale according to the findings of medical examinations. Although physical health declined generally over time, regression analyses showed no significant difference between eventual retirees and continuing workers on health change, after controlling for age and excluding men who retired due to illness or disability. Among retirees alone, pre- to post-retirement health change was also not significantly associated with several circumstances which purportedly make the retirement transition more stressful, such as mandatory retirement or retirement to a reduced standard of living. The results of this study of physical health, which corroborate those of other studies based on self-reported health measures and mortality data, support the conclusion that the event of retirement does not influence the risk of health deterioration. PMID:6859363

  15. Formation and Acceleration Physics on Plasma Injector 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Plasma Injector 1 (PI-1) is a two stage coaxial Marshal gun with conical accelerator electrodes, similar in shape to the MARAUDER device, with power input of the same topology as the RACE device. The goal of PI-1 research is to produce a self-confined compact toroid with high-flux (200 mWb), high-density (3x10^16 cm-3) and moderate initial temperature (100 eV) to be used as the target plasma in a MTF reactor. PI-1 is 5 meters long and 1.9 m in diameter at the expansion region where a high aspect ratio (4.4) spheromak is formed with a minimum lambda of 9 m-1. The acceleration stage is 4 m long and tapers to an outer diameter of 40 cm. The capacitor banks store 0.5 MJ for formation and 1.13 MJ for acceleration. Power is delivered via 62 independently controlled switch modules. Several geometries for formation bias field, inner electrodes and target chamber have been tested, and trends in accelerator efficiency and target lifetime have been observed. Thomson scattering and ion Doppler spectroscopy show significant heating (>100 eV) as the CT is compressed in the conical accelerator. B-dot probes show magnetic field structure consistent with Grad-Shafranov models and MHD simulations, and CT axial length depends strongly on the lambda profile.

  16. Health Physics Enrollents and Degrees Survey, 2006 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2007-03-31

    This annual survey collects 2006 data on the number of health physics degrees awarded as well as the number of students enrolled in health physics academic programs. Thirty universities offer health physics degrees; all responded to the survey.

  17. High Performance Computing Modeling Advances Accelerator Science for High-Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Amundson, James; Macridin, Alexandru; Spentzouris, Panagiotis

    2014-07-28

    The development and optimization of particle accelerators are essential for advancing our understanding of the properties of matter, energy, space, and time. Particle accelerators are complex devices whose behavior involves many physical effects on multiple scales. Therefore, advanced computational tools utilizing high-performance computing are essential for accurately modeling them. In the past decade, the US Department of Energy's SciDAC program has produced accelerator-modeling tools that have been employed to tackle some of the most difficult accelerator science problems. The authors discuss the Synergia framework and its applications to high-intensity particle accelerator physics. Synergia is an accelerator simulation package capable of handling the entire spectrum of beam dynamics simulations. Our authors present Synergia's design principles and its performance on HPC platforms.

  18. High Performance Computing Modeling Advances Accelerator Science for High-Energy Physics

    DOE PAGES

    Amundson, James; Macridin, Alexandru; Spentzouris, Panagiotis

    2014-07-28

    The development and optimization of particle accelerators are essential for advancing our understanding of the properties of matter, energy, space, and time. Particle accelerators are complex devices whose behavior involves many physical effects on multiple scales. Therefore, advanced computational tools utilizing high-performance computing are essential for accurately modeling them. In the past decade, the US Department of Energy's SciDAC program has produced accelerator-modeling tools that have been employed to tackle some of the most difficult accelerator science problems. The authors discuss the Synergia framework and its applications to high-intensity particle accelerator physics. Synergia is an accelerator simulation package capable ofmore » handling the entire spectrum of beam dynamics simulations. Our authors present Synergia's design principles and its performance on HPC platforms.« less

  19. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Capacitor Health Monitoring and Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Celaya, Jose Ramon; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses experimental setups for health monitoring and prognostics of electrolytic capacitors under nominal operation and accelerated aging conditions. Electrolytic capacitors have higher failure rates than other components in electronic systems like power drives, power converters etc. Our current work focuses on developing first-principles-based degradation models for electrolytic capacitors under varying electrical and thermal stress conditions. Prognostics and health management for electronic systems aims to predict the onset of faults, study causes for system degradation, and accurately compute remaining useful life. Accelerated life test methods are often used in prognostics research as a way to model multiple causes and assess the effects of the degradation process through time. It also allows for the identification and study of different failure mechanisms and their relationships under different operating conditions. Experiments are designed for aging of the capacitors such that the degradation pattern induced by the aging can be monitored and analyzed. Experimental setups and data collection methods are presented to demonstrate this approach.

  20. International Linear Collider Accelerator Physics R&D

    SciTech Connect

    George D. Gollin; Michael Davidsaver; Michael J. Haney; Michael Kasten; Jason Chang; Perry Chodash; Will Dluger; Alex Lang; Yehan Liu

    2008-09-03

    ILC work at Illinois has concentrated primarily on technical issues relating to the design of the accelerator. Because many of the problems to be resolved require a working knowledge of classical mechanics and electrodynamics, most of our research projects lend themselves well to the participation of undergraduate research assistants. The undergraduates in the group are scientists, not technicians, and find solutions to problems that, for example, have stumped PhD-level staff elsewhere. The ILC Reference Design Report calls for 6.7 km circumference damping rings (which prepare the beams for focusing) using “conventional” stripline kickers driven by fast HV pulsers. Our primary goal was to determine the suitability of the 16 MeV electron beam in the AØ region at Fermilab for precision kicker studies.We found that the low beam energy and lack of redundancy in the beam position monitor system complicated the analysis of our data. In spite of these issues we concluded that the precision we could obtain was adequate to measure the performance and stability of a production module of an ILC kicker, namely 0.5%. We concluded that the kicker was stable to an accuracy of ~2.0% and that we could measure this precision to an accuracy of ~0.5%. As a result, a low energy beam like that at AØ could be used as a rapid-turnaround facility for testing ILC production kicker modules. The ILC timing precision for arrival of bunches at the collision point is required to be 0.1 picosecond or better. We studied the bunch-to-bunch timing accuracy of a “phase detector” installed in AØ in order to determine its suitability as an ILC bunch timing device. A phase detector is an RF structure excited by the passage of a bunch. Its signal is fed through a 1240 MHz high-Q resonant circuit and then down-mixed with the AØ 1300 MHz accelerator RF. We used a kind of autocorrelation technique to compare the phase detector signal with a reference signal obtained from the phase detector

  1. Vascular health late after Kawasaki disease: implications for accelerated atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD), an acute vasculitis that primarily affects young children, is the most common acquired paediatric cardiovascular disease in developed countries. While sequelae of arterial inflammation in the acute phase of KD are well documented, its late effects on vascular health are increasingly unveiled. Late vascular dysfunction is characterized by structural alterations and functional impairment in term of arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction and shown to involve both coronary and systemic arteries. Further evidence suggests that continuous low grade inflammation and ongoing active remodeling of coronary arterial lesions occur late after acute illness and may play a role in structural and functional alterations of the arteries. Potential importance of genetic modulation on vascular health late after KD is implicated by associations between mannose binding lectin and inflammatory gene polymorphisms with severity of peripheral arterial stiffening and carotid intima-media thickening. The changes in cholesterol and lipoproteins levels late after KD further appear similar to those proposed to be atherogenic. While data on adverse vascular health are less controversial in patients with persistent or regressed coronary arterial aneurysms, data appear conflicting in individuals with no coronary arterial involvements or only transient coronary ectasia. Notwithstanding, concerns have been raised with regard to predisposition of KD in childhood to accelerated atherosclerosis in adulthood. Until further evidence-based data are available, however, it remains important to assess and monitor cardiovascular risk factors and to promote cardiovascular health in children with a history of KD in the long term. PMID:25550701

  2. Acceleration of neutrons in a scheme of a tautochronous mathematical pendulum (physical principles)

    SciTech Connect

    Rivlin, Lev A

    2010-12-09

    We consider the physical principles of neutron acceleration through a multiple synchronous interaction with a gradient rf magnetic field in a scheme of a tautochronous mathematical pendulum. (laser applications and other aspects of quantum electronics)

  3. Accelerating Public Health Situational Awareness through Health Information Exchanges: An Annotated Bibliography

    PubMed Central

    Revere, Debra; Stevens, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention awarded contracts to health information exchanges in Indiana, New York and Washington/Idaho to accelerate public health situational awareness. Awardees in each state have disseminated their findings and lessons at professional conferences and in peer-reviewed journals. The dissemination formats ranged from papers, oral presentations, posters, panels and demonstrations at interoperability showcases. With a focus on health information exchange and public health, topics included biosurveillance, electronic laboratory reporting, broadcast messaging, and notifiable disease surveillance. Each presentation is summarized in this bibliography, and the authors affiliated with each site are highlighted. PMID:23569582

  4. Accelerating Public Health Situational Awareness through Health Information Exchanges: An Annotated Bibliography.

    PubMed

    Revere, Debra; Stevens, Kevin C

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention awarded contracts to health information exchanges in Indiana, New York and Washington/Idaho to accelerate public health situational awareness. Awardees in each state have disseminated their findings and lessons at professional conferences and in peer-reviewed journals. The dissemination formats ranged from papers, oral presentations, posters, panels and demonstrations at interoperability showcases. With a focus on health information exchange and public health, topics included biosurveillance, electronic laboratory reporting, broadcast messaging, and notifiable disease surveillance. Each presentation is summarized in this bibliography, and the authors affiliated with each site are highlighted.

  5. Seeing the Nature of the Accelerating Physics: It's a SNAP

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, J.; Aldering, G.; Allam, S.; Althouse, W.; Amanullah, R.; Annis, J.; Astier, P.; Aumeunier, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bebek, C.; Bergstom, L.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Besuner, B.; Bigelow, B.; Blandford, R.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; /Caltech /LBL, Berkeley /Fermilab /SLAC /Stockholm U. /Paris, IN2P3 /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. /Yale U. /Pennsylvania U. /UC, Berkeley /Michigan U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Indiana U. /Caltech, JPL /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /American Astron. Society /Chicago U. /Cambridge U. /Saclay /Lyon, IPN

    2005-08-05

    For true insight into the nature of dark energy, measurements of the precision and accuracy of the Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) are required. Precursor or scaled-down experiments are unavoidably limited, even for distinguishing the cosmological constant. They can pave the way for, but should not delay, SNAP by developing calibration, refinement, and systematics control (and they will also provide important, exciting astrophysics).

  6. Physics of beam self-modulation in plasma wakefield accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Lotov, K. V.

    2015-10-15

    The self-modulation instability is a key effect that makes possible the usage of nowadays proton beams as drivers for plasma wakefield acceleration. Development of the instability in uniform plasmas and in plasmas with a small density up-step is numerically studied with the focus at nonlinear stages of beam evolution. The step parameters providing the strongest established wakefield are found, and the mechanism of stable bunch train formation is identified.

  7. Accelerator Preparations for Muon Physics Experiments at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    The use of existing Fermilab facilities to provide beams for two muon experiments - the Muon to Electron Conversion Experiment (Mu2e) and the New g-2 Experiment - is under consideration. Plans are being pursued to perform these experiments following the completion of the Tevatron Collider Run II, utilizing the beam lines and storage rings used today for antiproton accumulation without considerable reconfiguration. Operating scenarios being investigated and anticipated accelerator improvements or reconfigurations will be presented.

  8. Laser-based acceleration for nuclear physics experiments at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesileanu, O.; Asavei, Th.; Dancus, I.; Gales, S.; Negoita, F.; Turcu, I. C. E.; Ursescu, D.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2016-05-01

    As part of the Extreme Light pan-European research infrastructure, Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) in Romania will focus on topics in Nuclear Physics, fundamental Physics and applications, based on very intense photon beams. Laser-based acceleration of electrons, protons and heavy ions is a prerequisite for a multitude of laser-driven nuclear physics experiments already proposed by the international research community. A total of six outputs of the dual-amplification chain laser system, two of 100TW, two of 1PW and two of 10PW will be employed in 5 experimental areas, with the possibility to use long and short focal lengths, gas and solid targets, reaching the whole range of laser acceleration processes. We describe the main techniques and expectations regarding the acceleration of electrons, protons and heavy nuclei at ELI-NP, and some physics cases for which these techniques play an important role in the experiments.

  9. Physics at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Cardman

    2005-10-22

    The CEBAF accelerator at JLab is fulfilling its scientific mission to understand how hadrons are constructed from the quarks and gluons of QCD, to understand the QCD basis for the nucleon-nucleon force, and to explore the transition from the nucleon-meson to a QCD description. Its success is based on the firm foundation of experimental and theoretical techniques developed world-wide over the past few decades, on complementary data provided by essential lower-energy facilities, such as MAMI, and on the many insights provided by the scientists we are gathered here to honor.

  10. Definitions: Health, Fitness, and Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.; Pangrazi, Robert P.; Franks, B. Don

    2000-01-01

    This paper defines a variety of fitness components, using a simple multidimensional hierarchical model that is consistent with recent definitions in the literature. It groups the definitions into two broad categories: product and process. Products refer to states of being such as physical fitness, health, and wellness. They are commonly referred…

  11. Numeracy in Health and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Colleen; Geiger, Vince; Goos, Merrilyn; Dole, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a teacher's Maths lesson that focuses on numeracy in health and physical education learning area. In the lesson, the students were learning about Directed Numbers, something they often struggle with and a topic where the teacher finds it hard to explain using real life situations when using addition and subtraction. The…

  12. Physical activity: health outcomes and importance for public health policy.

    PubMed

    Haskell, William L; Blair, Steven N; Hill, James O

    2009-10-01

    This manuscript presents a brief summary of the substantial data supporting an inverse relationship between the amount of habitual physical activity performed and a variety of negative health outcomes throughout the lifespan. It points out that despite these data a large segment of the US population remain insufficiently active resulting in a high population attributable risk for chronic disease due to inactivity. The accumulated data support the need for more comprehensive health promoting physical activity policies and programs, especially for the economically and socially disadvantaged and medically underserved.

  13. Accelerating Innovation: How Nuclear Physics Benefits Us All

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    From fighting cancer to assuring food is safe to protecting our borders, nuclear physics impacts the lives of people around the globe every day. In learning about the nucleus of the atom and the forces that govern it, scientists develop a depth of knowledge, techniques and remarkable research tools that can be used to develop a variety of often unexpected, practical applications. These applications include devices and technologies for medical diagnostics and therapy, energy production and exploration, safety and national security, and for the analysis of materials and environmental contaminants. This brochure by the Office of Nuclear Physics of the USDOE Office of Science discusses nuclear physics and ways in which its applications fuel our economic vitality, and make the world and our lives safer and healthier.

  14. Hadron physics at the new CW electron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Burkert, V.D.

    1990-01-01

    Major trends of the physics program related to the study of hadron structure and hadron spectroscopy at the new high current, high duty cycle electron machines are discussed. It is concluded that planned experiments at these machines may have important impact on our understanding of the strong interaction by studying the internal structure and spectroscopy of the nucleon and lower mass hyperon states.

  15. Proceedings of the workshop on B physics at hadron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, P.; Mishra, C.S.

    1993-12-31

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Measurement of Angle {alpha}; Measurement of Angle {beta}; Measurement of Angle {gamma}; Other B Physics; Theory of Heavy Flavors; Charged Particle Tracking and Vertexing; e and {gamma} Detection; Muon Detection; Hadron ID; Electronics, DAQ, and Computing; and Machine Detector Interface. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion the in Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. ``Accelerators and Beams,'' multimedia computer-based training in accelerator physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silbar, R. R.; Browman, A. A.; Mead, W. C.; Williams, R. A.

    1999-06-01

    We are developing a set of computer-based tutorials on accelerators and charged-particle beams under an SBIR grant from the DOE. These self-paced, interactive tutorials, available for Macintosh and Windows platforms, use multimedia techniques to enhance the user's rate of learning and length of retention of the material. They integrate interactive "On-Screen Laboratories," hypertext, line drawings, photographs, two- and three-dimensional animations, video, and sound. They target a broad audience, from undergraduates or technicians to professionals. Presently, three modules have been published (Vectors, Forces, and Motion), a fourth (Dipole Magnets) has been submitted for review, and three more exist in prototype form (Quadrupoles, Matrix Transport, and Properties of Charged-Particle Beams). Participants in the poster session will have the opportunity to try out these modules on a laptop computer.

  17. The University of Michigan Student Health Physics Society's Radiation and Health Physics World Wide Web Site.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Jonathan G; West, W Geoffrey; Wagner, Eric; Kearfott, Kimberlee J

    2005-05-01

    The University of Michigan Student Health Physics Society's (UMSHPS) Radiation and Health Physics World Wide Web Site is an informative database of radiation and health physics related topics. With over 1,000 visitors each day, the UMSHPS web site provides professionals and the general public with a valuable resource for information and research. Users of this site can either search for information by topic or submit questions directly to the qualified members the national Health Physics Society. During the past year, progress has been made in replacing the site's older, less versatile framework with new search engines and refined submittal forms, as well as a "Frequently Asked Questions" section. Within the database, references will include brief summaries of the site's available information and target audience. Although these changes have been beneficial for the site, the UMSHPS continuously seeks professional opinions and ideas to further the services that this online resource can provide to the profession and to the general public.

  18. Report of the Subpanel on Accelerator Research and Development of the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Accelerator R and D in the US High Energy Physics (HEP) program is reviewed. As a result of this study, some shift in priority, particularly as regards long-range accelerator R and D, is suggested to best serve the future needs of the US HEP program. Some specific new directions for the US R and D effort are set forth. 18 figures, 5 tables. (RWR)

  19. [Metabolic fitness: physical activity and health].

    PubMed

    Saltin, Bengt; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2002-04-15

    Physical inactivity is strongly associated with an increased risk of premature disease and death, and the falling level of physical activity in Denmark (as in many other countries) makes physical inactivity a major life-style risk factor in many western countries today. Both aerobic fitness (maximum oxygen uptake) and metabolic capacity of the muscles are important in this matter. The present paper focuses on the role of the metabolic capacity/fitness of muscle, because this appears to be especially critical for the development of metabolic-related diseases and thus for the health of the individual. A definition of metabolic fitness is proposed as the ratio between mitochondrial capacity for substrate utilisation and maximum oxygen uptake of the muscle. Indirect means of determining this parameter are discussed. Skeletal muscle is an extraordinarily plastic tissue and metabolic capacity/fitness changes quickly when the level of physical activity is altered. High metabolic fitness includes an elevated use of fat at rest and during exercise. The capacity for glucose metabolism is also enhanced in trained muscle. Some of these adaptations to physical activity are explained. Exercise-induced activation of genes coding for proteins involved in metabolism is described as an underlying mechanism for some of these adaptations. The increased gene expression is of relatively short duration, which implies that a certain regularity of physical activity is required to maintain high metabolic fitness. Thus, metabolic fitness is directly related to how much the muscle is used, but even low levels of physical activity have a beneficial effect on metabolic fitness and the overall health of the individual.

  20. Physics design and scaling of recirculating induction accelerators: from benchtop prototypes to drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J.J.; Cable, M.D.; Callahan, D.A.

    1996-02-06

    Recirculating induction accelerators (recirculators) have been investigated as possible drivers for inertial fusion energy production because of their potential cost advantage over linear induction accelerators. Point designs were obtained and many of the critical physics and technology issues that would need to be addressed were detailed. A collaboration involving Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory researchers is now developing a small prototype recirculator in order to demonstrate an understanding of nearly all of the critical beam dynamics issues that have been raised. We review the design equations for recirculators and demonstrate how, by keeping crucial dimensionless quantities constant, a small prototype recirculator was designed which will simulate the essential beam physics of a driver. We further show how important physical quantities such as the sensitivity to errors of optical elements (in both field strength and placement), insertion/extraction, vacuum requirements, and emittance growth, scale from small-prototype to driver-size accelerator.

  1. The Undiagnosed Diseases Network: Accelerating Discovery about Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Ramoni, Rachel B; Mulvihill, John J; Adams, David R; Allard, Patrick; Ashley, Euan A; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Gahl, William A; Hamid, Rizwan; Loscalzo, Joseph; McCray, Alexa T; Shashi, Vandana; Tifft, Cynthia J; Wise, Anastasia L

    2017-02-02

    Diagnosis at the edges of our knowledge calls upon clinicians to be data driven, cross-disciplinary, and collaborative in unprecedented ways. Exact disease recognition, an element of the concept of precision in medicine, requires new infrastructure that spans geography, institutional boundaries, and the divide between clinical care and research. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Common Fund supports the Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN) as an exemplar of this model of precise diagnosis. Its goals are to forge a strategy to accelerate the diagnosis of rare or previously unrecognized diseases, to improve recommendations for clinical management, and to advance research, especially into disease mechanisms. The network will achieve these objectives by evaluating patients with undiagnosed diseases, fostering a breadth of expert collaborations, determining best practices for translating the strategy into medical centers nationwide, and sharing findings, data, specimens, and approaches with the scientific and medical communities. Building the UDN has already brought insights to human and medical geneticists. The initial focus has been on data sharing, establishing common protocols for institutional review boards and data sharing, creating protocols for referring and evaluating patients, and providing DNA sequencing, metabolomic analysis, and functional studies in model organisms. By extending this precision diagnostic model nationally, we strive to meld clinical and research objectives, improve patient outcomes, and contribute to medical science.

  2. New health physics perspectives affecting instrumentation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Vallario, E.

    1983-06-01

    Measurements obtained from health physics instrumentation are basic to the radiation control process and are used by management to assure that radiation exposures are kept within limits specified by national-international authorities. Because of this inseparable relationship, health physics instrumentation must be keyed on a continuing basis to changes in radiation exposure standards. In the last five years, there have been dramatic changes to the basic radiation protection standards. These changes should be evaluated in the context of the need for corresponding changes in instrumentation technology. At the time these assessments are made, care must be exercised to assure that radiation protection standards are not dictated by inadequate state-of-the-art technology. It is imperative that the development pathway to be followed be properly structured. This is particularly true for ''critical'' instrumentation standards i.e., those standards directly related to the determination of the radiation status of the worker, public, and their environment.

  3. HotSpot Health Physics Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Homann, S. G.

    2013-04-18

    The HotSpot Health Physics Codes were created to provide emergency response personnel and emergency planners with a fast, field-portable set of software tools for evaluating insidents involving redioactive material. The software is also used for safety-analysis of facilities handling nuclear material. HotSpot provides a fast and usually conservative means for estimation the radiation effects associated with the short-term (less than 24 hours) atmospheric release of radioactive materials.

  4. Physical Activity, Health Benefits, and Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinos, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A plethora of epidemiologic evidence from large studies supports unequivocally an inverse, independent, and graded association between volume of physical activity, health, and cardiovascular and overall mortality. This association is evident in apparently healthy individuals, patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease, regardless of body weight. Moreover, the degree of risk associated with physical inactivity is similar to, and in some cases even stronger than, the more traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The exercise-induced health benefits are in part related to favorable modulations of cardiovascular risk factors observed by increased physical activity or structured exercise programs. Although the independent contribution of the exercise components, intensity, duration, and frequency to the reduction of mortality risk is not clear, it is well accepted that an exercise volume threshold defined at caloric expenditure of approximately 1,000 Kcal per week appears to be necessary for significant reduction in mortality risk. Further reductions in risk are observed with higher volumes of energy expenditure. Physical exertion is also associated with a relatively low and transient increase in risk for cardiac events. This risk is significantly higher for older and sedentary individuals. Therefore, such individuals should consult their physician prior to engaging in exercise. “Walking is man’s best medicine”Hippocrates PMID:23198160

  5. Deep ocean mineral water accelerates recovery from physical fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Deep oceans have been suggested as a possible site where the origin of life occurred. Along with this theoretical lineage, experiments using components from deep ocean water to recreate life is underway. Here, we propose that if terrestrial organisms indeed evolved from deep oceans, supply of deep ocean mineral water (DOM) to humans, as a land creature, may replenish loss of molecular complexity associated with evolutionary sea-to-land migration. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover human study to evaluate the effect of DOM, taken from a depth of 662 meters off the coast of Hualien, Taiwan, on time of recovery from a fatiguing exercise conducted at 30°C. Results The fatiguing exercise protocol caused a protracted reduction in aerobic power (reduced VO2max) for 48 h. However, DOM supplementation resulted in complete recovery of aerobic power within 4 h (P < 0.05). Muscle power was also elevated above placebo levels within 24 h of recovery (P < 0.05). Increased circulating creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin, indicatives of exercise-induced muscle damage, were completely eliminated by DOM (P < 0.05) in parallel with attenuated oxidative damage (P < 0.05). Conclusion Our results provide compelling evidence that DOM contains soluble elements, which can increase human recovery following an exhaustive physical challenge. PMID:23402436

  6. Physics of Double Pulse Irradiation of Targets For Proton Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, S.; Mo, M.; Masud, R.; Manzoor, L.; Tiedje, H.; Tsui, Y.; Fedosejevs, R.; Link, A.; Patel, P.; McLean, H.; Hazi, A.; Chen, H.; Ceurvorst, L.; Norreys, P.

    2016-10-01

    Experiments have been carried out on double-pulse irradiation of um-scale foil targets with varying preplasma conditions. Our experiment at the Titan Laser facility utilized two 700 fs, 1054 nm pulses, separated by 1 to 5 ps with a total energy of 100 J, and with 5-20% of the total energy contained within the first pulse. The proton spectra were measured with radiochromic film stacks and magnetic spectrometers. The prepulse energy was on the order of 10 mJ, which appears to have a moderating effect on the double pulse enhancement of proton beam. We have performed LSP PIC simulations to understand the double pulse enhancement mechanism, as well as the role of preplasma in modifying the interaction. A 1D parameter study was done to isolate various aspects of the interaction, while 2D simulations provide more detailed physical insight and a better comparison with experimental data. Work by the Univ. of Alberta was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. Work by LLNL was performed under the auspices of U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  8. Physical Health: Individualized Health Incentive Program Modules for Physically Disabled Students for Grades Kindergarten Through Twelve. Teacher's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reggio, Kathryn D.; And Others

    Physical health is the focus of the third in a series of health education curriculum guides for physically handicapped students (grades K-12). An introductory section touches on physical health activities at the Human Resources School (Albertson, New York) and includes photographs of good health habits. The remainder of the document provides…

  9. Environmental health physics-50 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Dade W

    2004-10-01

    Environmental health physics is an interdisciplinary field, involving study of the release, transport, and fate of radioactive material in the environment. Further, it addresses the interaction of humans with radioactive materials within the ambient (outdoor) environment and with the environments associated with modern technology and lifestyles. It also involves both naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides with the former generally being by far the highest source of exposure. In fact, doses from naturally occurring radionuclides are increasingly being used as a benchmark for the establishment of dose rate limits for people. Because of the pioneering work of early environmental health physicists, models exist today that can be used to assess the potential impacts of new nuclear facilities prior to their operation. In fact, these people represent the branch of the health physics profession who conducted environmental monitoring programs and performed the associated research studies that led to the identification of the principal radionuclides of interest, the major pathways and mechanisms through which they expose people, and the doses that may result from radioactive materials in the natural and technologically enhanced environments. One of their most important contributions was the identification and quantification of many of the key parameters that serve as input to such models. Monitoring of nuclear weapons development facilities used during and after World War II was the initial stimulus for the establishment of environmental health physics programs. Thereafter, these programs were expanded both nationally and globally, as a result of the atmospheric weapons testing programs of nations such as France, the People's Republic of China, the former Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Additional stimuli were provided by the development of the commercial nuclear power industry. Current environmental programs, particularly within

  10. Environmental health physics: 50 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Dade W

    2005-06-01

    Environmental health physics is an interdisciplinary field, involving study of the release, transport, and fate of radioactive material in the environment. Further, it addresses the interaction of humans with radioactive materials within the ambient (outdoor) environment and with the environments associated with modern technology and lifestyles. It also involves both naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides with the former generally being by far the highest source of exposure. In fact, doses from naturally occurring radionuclides are increasingly being used as a benchmark for the establishment of dose rate limits for people. Because of the pioneering work of early environmental health physicists, models exist today that can be used to assess the potential impacts of new nuclear facilities prior to their operation. In fact, these people represent the branch of the health physics profession who conducted environmental monitoring programs and performed the associated research studies that led to the identification of the principal radionuclides of interest, the major pathways and mechanisms through which they expose people, and the doses that may result from radioactive materials in the natural and technologically enhanced environments. One of their most important contributions was the identification and quantification of many of the key parameters that serve as input to such models. Monitoring of nuclear weapons development facilities used during and after World War II was the initial stimulus for the establishment of environmental health physics programs. Thereafter, these programs were expanded both nationally and globally, as a result of the atmospheric weapons testing programs of nations such as France, the People's Republic of China, the former Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Additional stimuli were provided by the development of the commercial nuclear power industry. Current environmental programs, particularly within

  11. Physical fitness and health education program at NASA Headquarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, Cathy

    1993-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: policy procedures to enter the NASA Headquarters Physical Fitness and Health Program; eligibility; TDY eligibility; health promotions offered; and general facility management.

  12. State of particle accelerators and high energy physics (Fermilab Summer School, 1981). Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Huson, F.R.; Month, M.

    1982-01-01

    The material gathered in this volume covers the seminars given at the Summer School on High Energy Particle Accelerators, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Science Foundation, held at Fermilab in Batavia, Illinois, July 13 to 24, 1981. The school was organized as a response to a recent appeal by a subpanel of the DOE High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) for more scientists and more students to work in the field of high energy particle accelerators. The committee set a number of objectives for the school: (1) to present in a thorough and up-to-date manner the entire spectrum of knowledge relating to accelerators; (2) to disseminate that knowledge to audiences that can best make use of it; (3) to encourage, by providing text materials and training to potential instructors, the development of accelerator physics education as part of university programs in high-energy physics; and (4) to foster a more extensive dialogue between particle and accelerator physicists. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the papers included. (WHK)

  13. Integrated Health and Physical Education Program to Reduce Media Use and Increase Physical Activity in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clocksin, Brian D.; Wattson, Doris L.; Williams, Daniel P.; Randsell, Lynda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to compare an integrated health and physical education curriculum, focused on reducing media use and on increasing physical activity in middle school adolescents, to traditional and nonintegrated health and physical education curricula. Two middle schools' health and physical education classes were assigned to an…

  14. Pyroelectric Crystal Accelerator In The Department Of Physics And Nuclear Engineering At West Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillich, Don; Shannon, Mike; Kovanen, Andrew; Anderson, Tom; Bright, Kevin; Edwards, Ronald; Danon, Yaron; Moretti, Brian; Musk, Jeffrey

    2011-06-01

    The Nuclear Science and Engineering Research Center (NSERC), a Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) office located at the United States Military Academy (USMA), sponsors and manages cadet and faculty research in support of DTRA objectives. The NSERC has created an experimental pyroelectric crystal accelerator program to enhance undergraduate education at USMA in the Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering. This program provides cadets with hands-on experience in designing their own experiments using an inexpensive tabletop accelerator. This device uses pyroelectric crystals to ionize and accelerate gas ions to energies of ˜100 keV. Within the next year, cadets and faculty at USMA will use this device to create neutrons through the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion process, effectively creating a compact, portable neutron generator. The double crystal pyroelectric accelerator will also be used by students to investigate neutron, x-ray, and ion spectroscopy.

  15. Physical Interpretation of the Schott Energy of An Accelerating Point Charge and the Question of Whether a Uniformly Accelerating Charge Radiates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, David R.

    2010-01-01

    A core topic in graduate courses in electrodynamics is the description of radiation from an accelerated charge and the associated radiation reaction. However, contemporary papers still express a diversity of views on the question of whether or not a uniformly accelerating charge radiates suggesting that a complete "physical" understanding of the…

  16. Physics with a high-intensity proton accelerator below 30 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The types of physics that would be pursued at a high-intensity, moderate-energy proton accelerator are discussed. The discussion is drawn from the deliberations of the 30-GeV subgroup of the Fixed-Target Group at this workshop.

  17. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2004 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2005-03-01

    This annual report details the the number of health physics bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2004. It also looks at health physics degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in health physics degree programs at 28 U.S. universities in 2004.

  18. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2005 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2006-03-01

    This annual report details the number of health physics bachelor's, master's, and postdoctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2005. It also looks at health physics degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in health physics degree programs at 30 U.S. universities in 2005.

  19. The Influence of Specific Physical Health Conditions on Retirement Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Kenneth S.; Wang, Mo

    2007-01-01

    Physical health has consistently been shown to strongly influence the retirement decision-making process. Unfortunately, "physical health" is typically operationalized in global terms. As a result, we know little about the specific aspects of physical health that influence the decision to retire. Therefore, in the present study, data from three…

  20. Toward a physics design for NDCX-II, an ion accelerator for warm dense matter and HIF target physics studies

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Briggs, R.J.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Logan, B.G.; Sefkow, A.B.; Sharp, W.M.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.R.; Yu, S.S.

    2008-08-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL), a collaborationof LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL, has achieved 60-fold pulse compression of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX) at LBNL. In NDCX, a ramped voltage pulse from an induction cell imparts a velocity"tilt" to the beam; the beam's tail then catches up with its head in a plasma environment that provides neutralization. The HIFS-VNL's mission is to carry out studies of Warm Dense Matter (WDM) physics using ion beams as the energy source; an emerging thrust is basic target physics for heavy ion-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). These goals require an improved platform, labeled NDCX-II. Development of NDCX-II at modest cost was recently enabled by the availability of induction cells and associated hardware from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) facility at LLNL. Our initial physics design concept accelerates a ~;;30 nC pulse of Li+ ions to ~;;3 MeV, then compresses it to ~;;1 ns while focusing it onto a mm-scale spot. It uses the ATA cells themselves (with waveforms shaped by passive circuits) to impart the final velocity tilt; smart pulsers provide small corrections. The ATA accelerated electrons; acceleration of non-relativistic ions involves more complex beam dynamics both transversely and longitudinally. We are using analysis, an interactive one-dimensional kinetic simulation model, and multidimensional Warp-code simulations to develop the NDCX-II accelerator section. Both LSP and Warp codes are being applied to the beam dynamics in the neutralized drift and final focus regions, and the plasma injection process. The status of this effort is described.

  1. Toward a physics design for NDCX II, an ion accelerator for warm dense matter and HIF target physics studies

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Briggs, R J; Davidson, R C; Dorf, M; Grote, D P; Henestroza, E; Lee, E P; Leitner, M A; Logan, B G; Sefkow, A B; Sharp, W M; Waldron, W L; Welch, D R; Yu, S S

    2008-07-30

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL), a collaboration of LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL, has achieved 60-fold pulse compression of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX) at LBNL. In NDCX, a ramped voltage pulse from an induction cell imparts a velocity 'tilt' to the beam; the beam's tail then catches up with its head in a plasma environment that provides neutralization. The HIFS-VNL's mission is to carry out studies of warm dense matter (WDM) physics using ion beams as the energy source; an emerging thrust is basic target physics for heavy ion-driven inertial fusion energy (IFE). These goals require an improved platform, labeled NDCX-II. Development of NDCX-II at modest cost was recently enabled by the availability of induction cells and associated hardware from the decommissioned advanced test accelerator (ATA) facility at LLNL. Our initial physics design concept accelerates an {approx} 30 nC pulse of Li{sup +} ions to {approx} 3 MeV, then compresses it to {approx} 1 ns while focusing it onto a mm-scale spot. It uses the ATA cells themselves (with waveforms shaped by passive circuits) to impart the final velocity tilt; smart pulsers provide small corrections. The ATA accelerated electrons; acceleration of non-relativistic ions involves more complex beam dynamics both transversely and longitudinally. We are using an interactive one-dimensional kinetic simulation model and multidimensional Warp-code simulations to develop the NDCX-II accelerator section. Both LSP and Warp codes are being applied to the beam dynamics in the neutralized drift and final focus regions, and the plasma injection process. The status of this effort is described.

  2. Outage managment and health physics issue, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2008-05-15

    The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles include: Outage optimization initiatives, by George B. Beam, AREVA NP, Inc.; New plant based on excellent track records, by Jim Scarola, Progress Energy; Meeting customer needs and providing environmental benefits, by Peter S. Hastings, Duke Energy; Plants with 3-D design, by Jack A. Bailey, Tennessee Valley Authority; and Highest quality with exceptional planning, by Jason A. Walls, Duke Energy. Industry innovation articles include: Integrated exposure reduction plan, by Ed Wolfe, Exelon; Performance-based radiation worker training, by Joe Giuffre and Timothy Vriezerma, American Electric Power.

  3. The Health Physics Society Science Teacher Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Albert E.

    2001-03-01

    The South Texas Chapter of the Health Physics Society (STC) maintains a program of education for science teachers, grades 4-12. This program, originally funded by the U.S. Department of Energy but now supported by STC, is intended to teach fundamentals of radiation and radiation safety at a level suitable for comprehension by lay persons. Course topics include Fundamentals of Radiation, Cellular Biology and Radiation Health Effects, Exposure to Radiation in Modern Life, Radioactive Waste, and Radiation Safety. The 8-hour course is usually given on Saturdays at locations in Texas as requested by educational or other groups. Classes of up to 25 teacher-students are ideal. Lesson plans, reference materials, a video tape, software, and a radiation detector are provided to each participant. To schedule a workshop in your area, contact alevans@swbell.net or David Fogle, david.fogle@tdh.state.tx.us.

  4. Physical Restraint Initiation in Nursing Homes and Subsequent Resident Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas G.; McCaffrey, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: It is widely believed that physical restraint use causes mental and physical health decline in nursing home residents. Yet few studies exist showing an association between restraint initiation and health decline. In this research, we examined whether physical restraint initiation is associated with subsequent lower physical or mental…

  5. The Benefit Aftereffects of ACA--Accelerating Toward a New Health Economy.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Greg; Thompson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    While the Affordable Care Act (ACA) focused largely on improving access to health care coverage for the uninsured, its broader and longer-term influence may have been its impact on accelerating key trends and strategies that major employers and other stakeholders have been targeting for years. This article looks at some of these trends, where we were pre-ACA and how ACA (through benefit mandates, shared responsibility penalties, Cadillac plan tax, health information technology, accountable care organizations, etc.) has helped to accelerate and refocus efforts. In addition, the public exchange paradigm has given rise to a private exchange movement that is helping further accelerate the transformation of the New Health Economy.

  6. Accelerator physics and technology challenges of very high energy hadron colliders

    DOE PAGES

    Shiltsev, Vladimir D.

    2015-08-20

    High energy hadron colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics for more than three decades. At present, international particle physics community considers several options for a 100 TeV proton–proton collider as a possible post-LHC energy frontier facility. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but has slowed down considerably in its progress. This article briefly reviews the accelerator physics and technology challenges of the future very high energy colliders and outlines the areas of required research and development towards their technical and financial feasibility.

  7. Accelerator physics and technology challenges of very high energy hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir D.

    2015-08-01

    High energy hadron colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics for more than three decades. At present, international particle physics community considers several options for a 100 TeV proton-proton collider as a possible post-LHC energy frontier facility. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but has slowed down considerably in its progress. This paper briefly reviews the accelerator physics and technology challenges of the future very high energy colliders and outlines the areas of required research and development towards their technical and financial feasibility.

  8. Induction-accelerator heavy-ion fusion: Status and beam physics issues

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.

    1996-01-26

    Inertial confinement fusion driven by beams of heavy ions is an attractive route to controlled fusion. In the U.S., induction accelerators are being developed as {open_quotes}drivers{close_quotes} for this process. This paper is divided into two main sections. In the first section, the concept of induction-accelerator driven heavy-ion fusion is briefly reviewed, and the U.S. program of experiments and theoretical investigations is described. In the second, a {open_quotes}taxonomy{close_quotes} of space-charge-dominated beam physics issues is presented, accompanied by a brief discussion of each area.

  9. Can Low-Cost Support Programmes with Coaching Accelerate Doctoral Completion in Health Science Faculty Academics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geber, Hilary; Bentley, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Career development for full-time Health Sciences academics through to doctoral studies is a monumental task. Many academics have difficulty completing their studies in the minimum time as well as publishing after obtaining their degree. As this problem is particularly acute in the Health Sciences, the PhD Acceleration Programme in Health Sciences…

  10. Physical Activity, Health, and Well-Being: An International Scientific Consensus Conference. Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Claude; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents eight papers: "Physical Activity and Health"; "Exercise and Physical Health"; "Exercise and Physical Health: Cancer and Immune Function"; "Exercise and Psychosocial Health"; "Physical Activity, Health, and Wellbeing at Different Life Stages"; "Descriptive Epidemiology of…

  11. The value of physical examination in mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Martin, Carolyn T

    2016-03-01

    This article explores the use of a physical examination assignment in a mental health general nursing clinical placement course that addresses the poor physical health of people with mental illness and the barriers traditionally impeding health care provision for this population. A descriptive qualitative approach utilizes inductive content analysis to investigate 145 student survey responses. The assignment assists student nurses in understanding that physical and mental well-being are intrinsically linked. Students report increased comfort performing a physical examination on patients with mental illness post assignment. Students' initial bias towards this population was minimized post the clinical assignment. Poor physical health is common among people with mental health problems. Many view the provision of care as a major public health issue. Nurses are the front line caregivers of mental health service consumers and are well positioned to assess their physical needs. Their assessment may be the first step in recognizing health care issues in this population.

  12. Future accelerators (?)

    SciTech Connect

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  13. Outage management and health physics issue, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2006-05-15

    The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles/reports in this issue include: A design with experience for the U.S., by Michael J. Wallace, Constellation Generation Group; Hope to be among the first, by Randy Hutchinson, Entergy Nuclear; Plans to file COLs in 2008, by Garry Miller, Progress Energy; Evolution of ICRP's recommendations, by Lars-Erik Holm, ICRP; European network on education and training in radiological protection, by Michele Coeck, SCK-CEN, Belgium; Outage managment: an important tool for improving nuclear power plant performance, by Thomas Mazour and Jiri Mandula, IAEA, Austria; and Plant profile: Exploring new paths to excellence, by Anne Thomas, Exelon Nuclear.

  14. Developing The Physics Desing for NDCS-II, A Unique Pulse-Compressing Ion Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Cohen, R H; Grote, D P; Lund, S M; Sharp, W M; Faltens, A; Henestroza, E; Jung, J; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Leitner, M A; Logan, B G; Vay, J -; Waldron, W L; Davidson, R C; Dorf, M; Gilson, E P; Kaganovich, I

    2009-09-24

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (a collaboration of LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL) is using intense ion beams to heat thin foils to the 'warm dense matter' regime at {approx}< 1 eV, and is developing capabilities for studying target physics relevant to ion-driven inertial fusion energy. The need for rapid target heating led to the development of plasma-neutralized pulse compression, with current amplification factors exceeding 50 now routine on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX). Construction of an improved platform, NDCX-II, has begun at LBNL with planned completion in 2012. Using refurbished induction cells from the Advanced Test Accelerator at LLNL, NDCX-II will compress a {approx}500 ns pulse of Li{sup +} ions to {approx} 1 ns while accelerating it to 3-4 MeV over {approx} 15 m. Strong space charge forces are incorporated into the machine design at a fundamental level. We are using analysis, an interactive 1D PIC code (ASP) with optimizing capabilities and centroid tracking, and multi-dimensional Warpcode PIC simulations, to develop the NDCX-II accelerator. This paper describes the computational models employed, and the resulting physics design for the accelerator.

  15. DEVELOPING THE PHYSICS DESIGN FOR NDCX-II, A UNIQUE PULSE-COMPRESSING ION ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Grote, D. P.; Lund, S. M.; Sharp, W. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J-Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Leitner, M. A.; Logan, B. G.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.; Gilson, E.P.; Kaganovich, I.

    2009-07-20

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory(a collaboration of LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL) is using intense ion beams to heat thin foils to the"warm dense matter" regime at<~;; 1 eV, and is developing capabilities for studying target physics relevant to ion-driven inertial fusion energy. The need for rapid target heating led to the development of plasma-neutralized pulse compression, with current amplification factors exceeding 50 now routine on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX). Construction of an improved platform, NDCX-II, has begun at LBNL with planned completion in 2012. Using refurbished induction cells from the Advanced Test Accelerator at LLNL, NDCX-II will compress a ~;;500 ns pulse of Li+ ions to ~;;1 ns while accelerating it to 3-4 MeV over ~;;15 m. Strong space charge forces are incorporated into the machine design at a fundamental level. We are using analysis, an interactive 1D PIC code (ASP) with optimizing capabilities and centroid tracking, and multi-dimensional Warpcode PIC simulations, to develop the NDCX-II accelerator. This paper describes the computational models employed, and the resulting physics design for the accelerator.

  16. Health Physics Positions Data Base: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.; Borges, T.; Stafford, R.S.; Lu, P.Y.; Carter, D.

    1994-02-01

    The Health Physics Positions (HPPOS) Data Base of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is a collection of NRC staff positions on a wide range of topics involving radiation protection (health physics). It consists of 328 documents in the form of letters, memoranda, and excerpts from technical reports. The HPPOS Data Base was developed by the NRC Headquarters and Regional Offices to help ensure uniformity in inspections, enforcement, and licensing actions. Staff members of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have assisted the NRC staff in summarizing the documents during the preparation of this NUREG report. These summaries are also being made available as a {open_quotes}stand alone{close_quotes} software package for IBM and IBM-compatible personal computers. The software package for this report is called HPPOS Version 2.0. A variety of indexing schemes were used to increase the usefulness of the NUREG report and its associated software. The software package and the summaries in the report are written in the context of the {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} 10 CFR Part 20 ({section}{section}20.1001--20.2401). The purpose of this NUREG report is to allow interested individuals to familiarize themselves with the contents of the HPPOS Data Base and with the basis of many NRC decisions and regulations. The HPPOS summaries and original documents are intended to serve as a source of information for radiation protection programs at nuclear research and power reactors, nuclear medicine, and other industries that either process or use nuclear materials.

  17. HOTSPOT Health Physics codes for the PC

    SciTech Connect

    Homann, S.G.

    1994-03-01

    The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculation tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes are a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. HOTSPOT programs are reasonably accurate for a timely initial assessment. More importantly, HOTSPOT codes produce a consistent output for the same input assumptions and minimize the probability of errors associated with reading a graph incorrectly or scaling a universal nomogram during an emergency. The HOTSPOT codes are designed for short-term (less than 24 hours) release durations. Users requiring radiological release consequences for release scenarios over a longer time period, e.g., annual windrose data, are directed to such long-term models as CAPP88-PC (Parks, 1992). Users requiring more sophisticated modeling capabilities, e.g., complex terrain; multi-location real-time wind field data; etc., are directed to such capabilities as the Department of Energy`s ARAC computer codes (Sullivan, 1993). Four general programs -- Plume, Explosion, Fire, and Resuspension -- calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Other programs deal with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. Additional programs estimate the dose commitment from the inhalation of any one of the radionuclides listed in the database of radionuclides; calibrate a radiation survey instrument for ground-survey measurements; and screen plutonium uptake in the lung (see FIDLER Calibration and LUNG Screening sections).

  18. Health physics research reactor reference dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, C.S.; Ragan, G.E.

    1987-06-01

    Reference neutron dosimetry is developed for the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) in the new operational configuration directly above its storage pit. This operational change was physically made early in CY 1985. The new reference dosimetry considered in this document is referred to as the 1986 HPRR reference dosimetry and it replaces any and all HPRR reference documents or papers issued prior to 1986. Reference dosimetry is developed for the unshielded HPRR as well as for the reactor with each of five different shield types and configurations. The reference dosimetry is presented in terms of three different dose and six different dose equivalent reporting conventions. These reporting conventions cover most of those in current use by dosimetrists worldwide. In addition to the reference neutron dosimetry, this document contains other useful dosimetry-related data for the HPRR in its new configuration. These data include dose-distance measurements and calculations, gamma dose measurements, neutron-to-gamma ratios, ''9-to-3 inch'' ratios, threshold detector unit measurements, 56-group neutron energy spectra, sulfur fluence measurements, and details concerning HPRR shields. 26 refs., 11 figs., 31 tabs.

  19. The Afrocentric Paradigm in Health-Related Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Beverly D.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the potential role of culture in health-related physical activity participation, discussing kinesiology and reporting results from a health-related physical activity study of women, some of whom had taken a culturally designed aerobics class. Participants demonstrated the positive impact of culture on physical activity participation.…

  20. Navajo Area Health and Physical Education Curriculum Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomah, Kent; And Others

    Based on health education needs of Navajo children as established by the Navajo Area health and physical education committees, this curriculum guideline for health and physical education is delineated into three phases reflecting emphasis of instructional techniques (introductory, exploration/extended learning, widened learning) and three levels…

  1. Research on acceleration method of reactor physics based on FPGA platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.; Yu, G.; Wang, K.

    2013-07-01

    The physical designs of the new concept reactors which have complex structure, various materials and neutronic energy spectrum, have greatly improved the requirements to the calculation methods and the corresponding computing hardware. Along with the widely used parallel algorithm, heterogeneous platforms architecture has been introduced into numerical computations in reactor physics. Because of the natural parallel characteristics, the CPU-FPGA architecture is often used to accelerate numerical computation. This paper studies the application and features of this kind of heterogeneous platforms used in numerical calculation of reactor physics through practical examples. After the designed neutron diffusion module based on CPU-FPGA architecture achieves a 11.2 speed up factor, it is proved to be feasible to apply this kind of heterogeneous platform into reactor physics. (authors)

  2. Optimism and Physical Health: A Meta-analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Heather N.; Greenhouse, Joel B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Prior research links optimism to physical health, but the strength of the association has not been systematically evaluated. Purpose The purpose of this study is to conduct a meta-analytic review to determine the strength of the association between optimism and physical health. Methods The findings from 83 studies, with 108 effect sizes (ESs), were included in the analyses, using random-effects models. Results Overall, the mean ES characterizing the relationship between optimism and physical health outcomes was 0.17, p<.001. ESs were larger for studies using subjective (versus objective) measures of physical health. Subsidiary analyses were also conducted grouping studies into those that focused solely on mortality, survival, cardiovascular outcomes, physiological markers (including immune function), immune function only, cancer outcomes, outcomes related to pregnancy, physical symptoms, or pain. In each case, optimism was a significant predictor of health outcomes or markers, all p<.001. Conclusions Optimism is a significant predictor of positive physical health outcomes. PMID:19711142

  3. Mainstreaming Modeling and Simulation to Accelerate Public Health Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Martin-J.; Mabry, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic modeling and simulation are systems science tools that examine behaviors and outcomes resulting from interactions among multiple system components over time. Although there are excellent examples of their application, they have not been adopted as mainstream tools in population health planning and policymaking. Impediments to their use include the legacy and ease of use of statistical approaches that produce estimates with confidence intervals, the difficulty of multidisciplinary collaboration for modeling and simulation, systems scientists’ inability to communicate effectively the added value of the tools, and low funding for population health systems science. Proposed remedies include aggregation of diverse data sets, systems science training for public health and other health professionals, changing research incentives toward collaboration, and increased funding for population health systems science projects. PMID:24832426

  4. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 3--Recommended Amounts of Physical Activity for Optimal Health)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    By promoting physical activities and incorporating them into their community-based programs, Extension professionals are improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the third in a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: (1) biological health benefits of…

  5. Strand I, Physical Health: Health Status. Health Curriculum Materials for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Curriculum Development Center.

    This health curriculum guide, intended for use with children in grades four through six, contends that the school is in a unique position to supplement efforts by home and community in raising the levels of physical, mental, and social-emotional health for each child. The contents of the guide are presented in outline form and cover observing…

  6. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health. C.H. McCloy Research Lecture: 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.

    1993-01-01

    Examines recent evidence on the relations between physical activity, physical fitness, and health, noting the possible causal nature of the associations. The article evaluates the public health burden of sedentary lifestyles in the United States and provides suggestions for increasing participation in physical activity. (SM)

  7. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Content Knowledge of Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…

  8. Signal of Acceleration and Physical Mechanism of Water Cycle in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guo-Lin; Wu, Yong-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Global warming accelerates water cycle with features of regional difference. However, little is known about the physical mechanism behind the phenomenon. To reveal the links between water cycle and climatic environment, we analyzed the changes of water cycle elements and their relationships with climatic and environmental factors. We found that when global warming was significant during the period of 1986-2003, the precipitation in Tarim mountains as well as Xinjiang increased rapidly except for Tarim plains, which indicated that there existed a signal of acceleration for water cycle in Xinjiang. The speed of water cycle is mainly affected by altitude, latitude, longitude, slope direction, and the most fundamental element is temperature. Moreover, according to Clausius-Kela Bai Lung relation, we found that the climate change induced the increase of temperature and accelerated the local water cycle only for the wet places. Our results provide a possible physical mechanisms of water cycle and thus well link the climate change to water circulation. PMID:27907078

  9. The relationship between mental health and health-related physical fitness of university students

    PubMed Central

    Jeoung, Bog Ja; Hong, Myoung-Sun; Lee, Yang Chool

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mental health and health-related physical fitness of university students. For this study, 228 university students were participated in this experiment (male 91, female 137). We tested health-related physical fitness and mental health with questionnaire. Data were analyzed using independent t-test and liner regression. In the present results, there was significant difference according to gender in mental health and health-related physical fitness. The correlation between physical fitness and mental health was also observed. PMID:24409433

  10. Quality and Health-Optimizing Physical Education: Using Assessment at the Health and Education Nexus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Dean; Goodyear, Victoria; Baxter, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: The United Nations Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (UNESCO) recognizes quality physical education (QPE) must, along with physical, social and affective educative goals, seek to improve the health status of youth (UNESCO, 2015). Health-Optimizing Physical Education (HOPE) is a model of physical education (PE) that…

  11. Opportunities for Public Health to Increase Physical Activity Among Youths

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Joan M.; Fulton, Janet E.; Janz, Kathleen F.; Lee, Sarah M.; McKinnon, Robin A.; Pate, Russell R.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Young, Deborah Rohm; Troiano, Richard P.; Lavizzo-Mourey, Risa

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-known benefits of youths engaging in 60 or more minutes of daily physical activity, physical inactivity remains a significant public health concern. The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (PAG) provides recommendations on the amount of physical activity needed for overall health; the PAG Midcourse Report (2013) describes effective strategies to help youths meet these recommendations. Public health professionals can be dynamic change agents where youths live, learn, and play by changing environments and policies to empower youths to develop regular physical activity habits to maintain throughout life. We have summarized key findings from the PAG Midcourse Report and outlined actions that public health professionals can take to ensure that all youths regularly engage in health-enhancing physical activity. PMID:25602864

  12. Brief report: Physical health of adolescent perpetrators of sibling aggression.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen; Sharp, Erin Hiley; Rebellon, Cesar

    2015-12-01

    We describe adolescents' perpetration of sibling aggression and its link to physical health two years later. In-school surveys at Time 1 (N = 331) and Time 2 (two-years later, N = 283) were administered to adolescents (at Time 1, Mage = 15.71 years, SD = .63; 52% female) living in the United States querying about perpetration of aggression toward a sibling closest in age and perceived physical health. The majority of adolescents perpetrated aggression towards their sibling (74%). Adolescents who were part of brother-brother pairs reported the most aggression. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that perpetrating sibling aggression more often at Time 1 was predictive of lower physical health at Time 2 controlling for Time 1 physical health and demographic characteristics. Perpetration of aggression toward a sibling is common and has negative health consequences in late adolescence suggesting this issue should be targeted to improve adolescents' sibling dynamics and physical health.

  13. Prediction of reliability on thermoelectric module through accelerated life test and Physics-of-failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyoung-Seuk; Seo, Won-Seon; Choi, Duck-Kyun

    2011-09-01

    Thermoelectric cooling module (TEM) which is electric device has a mechanical stress because of temperature gradient in itself. It means that structure of TEM is vulnerable in an aspect of reliability but research on reliability of TEM was not performed a lot. Recently, the more the utilization of thermoelectric cooling devices grows, the more the needs for life prediction and improvement are increasing. In this paper, we investigated life distribution, shape parameter of the TEM through accelerated life test (ALT). And we discussed about how to enhance life of TEM through the Physics-of-failure. Experimental results of ALT showed that the thermoelectric cooling module follows the Weibull distribution, shape parameter of which is 3.6. The acceleration model is coffin Coffin-Manson and material constant is 1.8.

  14. Health-related physical fitness for children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Maltais, Désirée B.; Wiart, Lesley; Fowler, Eileen; Verschuren, Olaf; Damiano, Diane L.

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity are a global health concern for all children. Children with cerebral palsy have even lower physical activity levels than their typically developing peers. Low levels of physical activity, and thus an increased risk for related chronic diseases, are associated with deficits in health-related physical fitness. Recent research has provided therapists with the resources to effectively perform physical fitness testing and physical activity training in clinical settings with children who have cerebral palsy, although most testing and training data to date pertains to those who walk. Nevertheless, based on the present evidence, all children with cerebral palsy should engage, to the extent they are able, in aerobic, anaerobic and muscle strengthening activities. Future research is required to determine the best ways to evaluate health-related physical fitness in non-ambulatory children with cerebral palsy and foster long-term changes in physical activity behavior in all children with this condition. PMID:24820339

  15. Towards Extreme Field Physics: Relativistic Optics and Particle Acceleration in the Transparent-Overdense Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegelich, B. Manuel

    2011-10-01

    A steady increase of on-target laser intensity with also increasing pulse contrast is leading to light-matter interactions of extreme laser fields with matter in new physics regimes which in turn enable a host of applications. A first example is the realization of interactions in the transperent-overdense regime (TOR), which is reached by interacting a highly relativistic (a0 >10), ultra high contrast laser pulse [1] with a solid density target, turning it transparent to the laser by the relativistic mass increase of the electrons. Thus, the interactions becomes volumetric, increasing the energy coupling from laser to plasma, facilitating a range of effects, including relativistic optics and pulse shaping, mono-energetic electron acceleration [3], highly efficient ion acceleration in the break-out afterburner regime [4], and the generation of relativistic and forward directed surface harmonics. Experiments at the LANL 130TW Trident laser facility successfully reached the TOR, and show relativistic pulse shaping beyond the Fourier limit, the acceleration of mono-energetic ~40 MeV electron bunches from solid targets, forward directed coherent relativistic high harmonic generation >1 keV Break-Out Afterburner (BOA) ion acceleration of Carbon to >1 GeV and Protons to >100 MeV. Carbon ions were accelerated with a conversion efficiency of >10% for ions >20 MeV and monoenergetic carbon ions with an energy spread of <20%, have been accelerated at up to ~500 MeV, demonstrating 3 out of 4 for key requirements for ion fast ignition. The shown results now approach or exceed the limits set by many applications from ICF diagnostics over ion fast ignition to medical physics. Furthermore, TOR targets traverse a wide range of HEDP parameter space during the interaction ranging from WDM conditions (e.g. brown dwarfs) to energy densities of ~1011 J/cm3 at peak, then dropping back to the underdense but extremely hot parameter range of gamma-ray bursts. Whereas today this regime can

  16. The Dresden Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics - Status and first physics program

    SciTech Connect

    Ilgner, Ch.

    2015-07-01

    Favored by the low background in underground laboratories, low-background accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used for many years with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, protected from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies than those available at LUNA. Also the study of solar fusion reactions necessitates new data at higher energies. As a result, in the present NuPECC long range plan for nuclear physics in Europe, the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators is strongly recommended. An intercomparison exercise using the same High-Purity Ge detector at several sites has shown that, with a combination of 45 m rock overburden, as can be found in the Felsenkeller underground site in Dresden, and an active veto against the remaining muon flux, in a typical nuclear astrophysics setup a background level can be achieved that is similar to the deep underground scenario as in the Gran- Sasso underground laboratory, for instance. Recently, a muon background study and geodetic measurements were carried out by the REGARD group. It was estimated that the rock overburden at the place of the future ion accelerator is equivalent to 130 m of water. The maximum muon flux measured was 2.5 m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} s{sup -1}, in the direction of the tunnel entrance. Based on this finding, a used 5 MV pelletron tandem accelerator with 250 μA up-charge current and external sputter ion source has been obtained and transported to Dresden. Work on an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is in progress and far advanced. The installation of the accelerator in the Felsenkeller is expected for the near future. The status of the project and the

  17. Report of the HEPAP Subpanel on Major Detectors in Non-Accelerator Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-05-01

    The subpanel on Major Detectors in Non-Accelerator Particle Physics was formed in February 1989 as the result of a letter from Robert Hunter, Director, Office of Energy Research, to Francis Low, Chairman of HEPAP. A copy of the letter is included in the Appendix to this report. The letter referred to the previous report of HEPAP Subpanel on High Energy Gamma Ray and Neutrino Astronomy which had found that several groups of scientists were working on promising new ideas and proposals in non-accelerator high energy physics and astrophysics; this report recommended that panel be formed to evaluate large projects in these areas of science when specific proposals were received by the funding agencies. In concurring with the recommendation, the request to establish this new Subpanel included the following specific charge: Within the context of changing world wide high energy physics activities and opportunities, review as necessary and evaluate the following major research proposals which have been submitted to the Department of Energy and/or to the National Science foundation: DUMAND II, GRANDE, and the Fly's Eye Upgrade.

  18. Report of the HEPAP subpanel on major detectors in non-accelerator particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    The subpanel on Major Detectors in Non-Accelerator Particle Physics was formed in February 1989 as the result of a letter from Robert Hunter, Director, Office of Energy Research, to Francis Low, Chairman of HEPAP. A copy of the letter is included in the Appendix to this report. The letter referred to the previous report of HEPAP Subpanel on High Energy Gamma Ray and Neutrino Astronomy which had found that several groups of scientists were working on promising new ideas and proposals in non-accelerator high energy physics and astrophysics; this report recommended that panel be formed to evaluate large projects in these areas of science when specific proposals were received by the funding agencies. In concurring with the recommendation, the request to establish this new Subpanel included the following specific charge: Within the context of changing world wide high energy physics activities and opportunities, review as necessary and evaluate the following major research proposals which have been submitted to the Department of Energy and/or to the National Science foundation: DUMAND II, GRANDE, and the Fly's Eye Upgrade.

  19. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Composition of Accelerator Radiation Fields; Shielding of Electrons and Photons at Accelerators; Shielding of Hadrons at Accelerators; Low Energy Prompt Radiation Phenomena; Induced Radioactivity at Accelerators; Topics in Radiation Protection Instrumentation at Accelerators; and Accelerator Radiation Protection Program Elements.

  20. Physics and engineering design of the accelerator and electron dump for SPIDER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Marconato, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Pilan, N.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Veltri, P.; Zaccaria, P.

    2011-06-01

    The ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility (PRIMA) is planned to be built at Consorzio RFX (Padova, Italy). PRIMA includes two experimental devices: a full size ion source with low voltage extraction called SPIDER and a full size neutral beam injector at full beam power called MITICA. SPIDER is the first experimental device to be built and operated, aiming at testing the extraction of a negative ion beam (made of H- and in a later stage D- ions) from an ITER size ion source. The main requirements of this experiment are a H-/D- extracted current density larger than 355/285 A m-2, an energy of 100 keV and a pulse duration of up to 3600 s. Several analytical and numerical codes have been used for the design optimization process, some of which are commercial codes, while some others were developed ad hoc. The codes are used to simulate the electrical fields (SLACCAD, BYPO, OPERA), the magnetic fields (OPERA, ANSYS, COMSOL, PERMAG), the beam aiming (OPERA, IRES), the pressure inside the accelerator (CONDUCT, STRIP), the stripping reactions and transmitted/dumped power (EAMCC), the operating temperature, stress and deformations (ALIGN, ANSYS) and the heat loads on the electron dump (ED) (EDAC, BACKSCAT). An integrated approach, taking into consideration at the same time physics and engineering aspects, has been adopted all along the design process. Particular care has been taken in investigating the many interactions between physics and engineering aspects of the experiment. According to the 'robust design' philosophy, a comprehensive set of sensitivity analyses was performed, in order to investigate the influence of the design choices on the most relevant operating parameters. The design of the SPIDER accelerator, here described, has been developed in order to satisfy with reasonable margin all the requirements given by ITER, from the physics and engineering points of view. In particular, a new approach to the compensation of unwanted beam deflections inside the accelerator

  1. Regulating emotion to improve physical health through the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Song, Yiying; Lu, Huanhua; Hu, Siyuan; Xu, Miao; Li, Xueting; Liu, Jia

    2015-04-01

    The opinion of mind-body interaction has been increasingly acknowledged in recent years, as exemplified by accumulating evidence indicating that physical health (body) is associated with emotion and emotion regulation (mind). Yet, the neural basis linking emotion regulation with physical health remains largely uninvestigated. Here we used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of this pathway in a large population of healthy young adults. With a systematic study revealing the association of self-reported physical health and emotion traits of personality and general affective experiences, we further demonstrated that, for better physical health, individuals needed to regulate their emotion more effectively. Importantly, individuals who had larger gray matter (GM) volume in the amygdala reported not only a higher ability of emotion regulation but also better physical health. Further, GM volume in the amygdala mediated the correlation between emotion regulation ability and physical health. Our findings suggest that the amygdala plays a critical role in the neural circuit through which emotion regulation may influence physical health. Therefore, our study takes the first step toward exploring the neuroanatomical basis for body-mind interaction and may inform interventions aimed at promoting physical health by augmenting skills of emotion regulation.

  2. Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of physical activity are well documented, and the important role that schools and physical education (PE) can play in reducing sedentary behavior and contributing to population health has been identified. Although effective teaching is ultimately judged by student achievement, a major component of teacher and school…

  3. Physical Activity Protects against the Health Risks of Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Blair, Steven N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the relationships between physical fitness and body composition and their combined effect on health. After discussing the epidemiologic evidence for a protective effect of physical fitness on the health risks associated with obesity, it describes the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, an ongoing observational study that…

  4. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  5. Grief, Depressive Symptoms, and Physical Health among Recently Bereaved Spouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utz, Rebecca L.; Caserta, Michael; Lund, Dale

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Widowhood is among the most distressing of all life events, resulting in both mental and physical health declines. This paper explores the dynamic relationship between physical health and psychological well-being among recently bereaved spouses. Design and Methods: Using a sample of 328 bereaved persons who participated in the "Living…

  6. Predictors of Obesity and Physical Health Complaints Among 911 Telecommunicators

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, Michelle M.; London, Melissa J.; Mercer, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aims to: (1) examine rates of obesity and physical health complaints among 911 telecommunicators; and (2) document the role of emotion dysregulation, psychological inflexibility, duty-related distress and dissociation, and psychopathology in predicting obesity and physical health complaints in this population. Methods The sample consisted of 911 telecommunicators from across the country (N = 758). Participants completed an online survey assessing their mental and physical health functioning. Results A total of 82.5% of the sample reported a body mass index that fell within the overweight or obese category and an average of 17 physical health complaints within the past month. Peritraumatic reactions (distress and dissociation), emotion dysregulation, and psychological inflexibility had effects on physical health largely through psychopathology (alcohol abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, and depression). Conclusion Development of adapted prevention and intervention efforts with this population is needed. PMID:27014492

  7. Accelerating translation of physical activity and cancer survivorship research into practice: recommendations for a more integrated and collaborative approach.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Siobhan M; Alfano, Catherine M; Perna, Frank M; Glasgow, Russell E

    2014-05-01

    Physical activity has been deemed safe and effective in reducing many negative side effects of treatment for cancer survivors and promoting better overall health. However, most of this research has focused on highly controlled randomized trials and little of this research has been translated into care or policy for survivors. The purpose of the present article is to present a research agenda for the field to accelerate the dissemination and implementation of empirically supported physical activity interventions into care. We provide rationale for the role of basic, behavioral, clinical implementation, and population scientists in moving this science forward and call for a more coordinated effort across different phases of research. In addition, we provide key strategies and examples for ongoing and future studies using the RE-AIM (reach, efficacy/effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework and pose recommendations for collaborations between researchers and stakeholders to enhance the integration of this research into policy and practice. Overall, we recommend that physical activity and cancer survivorship research use additional study designs, include relevant stakeholders, and be more collaborative, integrated, contextual, and representative in terms of both setting and participants.

  8. Health Related Physical Fitness: Who, What, Why, and How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Claiborne, Janet M.

    In 1975, a joint committee on physical fitness, composed of the Measurement and Evaluation, Physical Fitness, and Research Councils of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) studied its Youth Fitness Test to determine the need for revision. Study results called for: (1) alteration in traditional…

  9. Physical Mechanism of the Transverse Instability in Radiation Pressure Ion Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Y.; Pai, C.-H.; Zhang, C. J.; Li, F.; Wu, Y. P.; Hua, J. F.; Lu, W.; Gu, Y. Q.; Silva, L. O.; Joshi, C.; Mori, W. B.

    2016-12-01

    The transverse stability of the target is crucial for obtaining high quality ion beams using the laser radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) mechanism. In this Letter, a theoretical model and supporting two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are presented to clarify the physical mechanism of the transverse instability observed in the RPA process. It is shown that the density ripples of the target foil are mainly induced by the coupling between the transverse oscillating electrons and the quasistatic ions, a mechanism similar to the oscillating two stream instability in the inertial confinement fusion research. The predictions of the mode structure and the growth rates from the theory agree well with the results obtained from the PIC simulations in various regimes, indicating the model contains the essence of the underlying physics of the transverse breakup of the target.

  10. Physics and engineering studies on the MITICA accelerator: comparison among possible design solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Chitarin, G.; Pilan, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.

    2011-09-26

    Consorzio RFX in Padova is currently using a comprehensive set of numerical and analytical codes, for the physics and engineering design of the SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) and MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advancement) experiments, planned to be built at Consorzio RFX. This paper presents a set of studies on different possible geometries for the MITICA accelerator, with the objective to compare different design concepts and choose the most suitable one (or ones) to be further developed and possibly adopted in the experiment. Different design solutions have been discussed and compared, taking into account their advantages and drawbacks by both the physics and engineering points of view.

  11. Physics and engineering studies on the MITICA accelerator: comparison among possible design solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Pilan, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P.

    2011-09-01

    Consorzio RFX in Padova is currently using a comprehensive set of numerical and analytical codes, for the physics and engineering design of the SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) and MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advancement) experiments, planned to be built at Consorzio RFX. This paper presents a set of studies on different possible geometries for the MITICA accelerator, with the objective to compare different design concepts and choose the most suitable one (or ones) to be further developed and possibly adopted in the experiment. Different design solutions have been discussed and compared, taking into account their advantages and drawbacks by both the physics and engineering points of view.

  12. Reflections on Physical Activity and Health: What Should We Recommend?

    PubMed

    Warburton, Darren E R; Bredin, Shannon S D

    2016-04-01

    The health benefits of regular physical activity are irrefutable; virtually everyone can benefit from being active. The evidence is overwhelming with risk reductions of at least 20%-30% for more than 25 chronic medical conditions and premature mortality. Even higher risk reductions (ie, ≥ 50%) are observed when objective measures of physical fitness are taken. International physical activity guidelines generally recommend 150 minutes per week of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity. A critical review of the literature indicates that half of this volume of physical activity might lead to marked health benefits. There is compelling evidence to support health promotion strategies that emphasize that health benefits can be accrued at a lower volume and/or intensity of physical activity. Public health policies are needed that reduce the barriers to physical activity participation such that everyone can reap the benefits of physical activity. It is also important to highlight that sedentary time (particularly sitting time) carries independent health risks. The simple message of "move more and sit less" likely is more understandable by contemporary society and is formed on the basis of a strong body of evidence. For practitioners who work directly with clients, it is recommended that an individualized prescription (dosage) that takes into consideration the unique characteristics and needs of the client is provided. Physical activity or exercise promotion should not be done in isolation; it should be part of an integrated approach to enhance healthy lifestyle behaviours.

  13. Status of MAPA (Modular Accelerator Physics Analysis) and the Tech-X Object-Oriented Accelerator Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cary, J. R.; Shasharina, S.; Bruhwiler, D. L.

    1998-04-01

    The MAPA code is a fully interactive accelerator modeling and design tool consisting of a GUI and two object-oriented C++ libraries: a general library suitable for treatment of any dynamical system, and an accelerator library including many element types plus an accelerator class. The accelerator library inherits directly from the system library, which uses hash tables to store any relevant parameters or strings. The GUI can access these hash tables in a general way, allowing the user to invoke a window displaying all relevant parameters for a particular element type or for the accelerator class, with the option to change those parameters. The system library can advance an arbitrary number of dynamical variables through an arbitrary mapping. The accelerator class inherits this capability and overloads the relevant functions to advance the phase space variables of a charged particle through a string of elements. Among other things, the GUI makes phase space plots and finds fixed points of the map. We discuss the object hierarchy of the two libraries and use of the code.

  14. Brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion

    PubMed Central

    Sebastião, Emerson; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-01-01

    Public health actions endorsed by the federal government, for instance, health promotion initiatives, usually have greater impact at population level compared to other types of initiatives. This commentary aims to instigate debate on the importance and necessity of producing federally endorsed brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion. PMID:25210830

  15. Brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Sebastião, Emerson; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-08-01

    Public health actions endorsed by the federal government, for instance, health promotion initiatives, usually have greater impact at population level compared to other types of initiatives. This commentary aims to instigate debate on the importance and necessity of producing federally endorsed brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion.

  16. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tallner, Alexander; Waschbisch, Anne; Hentschke, Christian; Pfeifer, Klaus; Mäurer, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients. PMID:26147422

  17. Physics and Novel Schemes of Laser Radiation Pressure Acceleration for Quasi-monoenergetic Proton Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chuan S.; Shao, Xi

    2016-06-14

    The main objective of our work is to provide theoretical basis and modeling support for the design and experimental setup of compact laser proton accelerator to produce high quality proton beams tunable with energy from 50 to 250 MeV using short pulse sub-petawatt laser. We performed theoretical and computational studies of energy scaling and Raleigh--Taylor instability development in laser radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) and developed novel RPA-based schemes to remedy/suppress instabilities for high-quality quasimonoenergetic proton beam generation as we proposed. During the project period, we published nine peer-reviewed journal papers and made twenty conference presentations including six invited talks on our work. The project supported one graduate student who received his PhD degree in physics in 2013 and supported two post-doctoral associates. We also mentored three high school students and one undergraduate student of physics major by inspiring their interests and having them involved in the project.

  18. Tsallis entropy and complexity theory in the understanding of physics of precursory accelerating seismicity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallianatos, Filippos; Chatzopoulos, George

    2014-05-01

    Strong observational indications support the hypothesis that many large earthquakes are preceded by accelerating seismic release rates which described by a power law time to failure relation. In the present work, a unified theoretical framework is discussed based on the ideas of non-extensive statistical physics along with fundamental principles of physics such as the energy conservation in a faulted crustal volume undergoing stress loading. We derive the time-to-failure power-law of: a) cumulative number of earthquakes, b) cumulative Benioff strain and c) cumulative energy released in a fault system that obeys a hierarchical distribution law extracted from Tsallis entropy. Considering the analytic conditions near the time of failure, we derive from first principles the time-to-failure power-law and show that a common critical exponent m(q) exists, which is a function of the non-extensive entropic parameter q. We conclude that the cumulative precursory parameters are function of the energy supplied to the system and the size of the precursory volume. In addition the q-exponential distribution which describes the fault system is a crucial factor on the appearance of power-law acceleration in the seismicity. Our results based on Tsallis entropy and the energy conservation gives a new view on the empirical laws derived by other researchers. Examples and applications of this technique to observations of accelerating seismicity will also be presented and discussed. This work was implemented through the project IMPACT-ARC in the framework of action "ARCHIMEDES III-Support of Research Teams at TEI of Crete" (MIS380353) of the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" and is co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national funds

  19. Improving physical health monitoring for patients with chronic mental health problems who receive antipsychotic medications.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Nihad; Conn, Rory; Latif Marini, Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Physical health monitoring is an integral part of caring for patients with mental health problems. It is proven that serious physical health problems are more common among patients with severe mental health illness (SMI), this monitoring can be challenging and there is a need for improvement. The project aimed at improving the physical health monitoring among patients with SMI who are receiving antipsychotic medications. The improvement process focused on ensuring there is a good communication with general practitioners (GPs) as well as patient's education and education of care home staff. GP letters requesting physical health monitoring were updated; care home staff and patients were given more information about the value of regular physical health monitoring. There was an improvement in patients' engagement with the monitoring and the monitoring done by GPs was more adherent to local and national guidelines and was communicated with the mental health service.

  20. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…

  1. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 1--Biological Health Benefits)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been promoting and incorporating physical activities into their community-based programs and improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the first of a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: 1) biological health benefits of…

  2. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 2-Mental Health Benefits)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    By promoting physical activities and incorporating them into their community-based programs, Extension professionals are improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the second in a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: (1) biological health benefits of…

  3. The ADVANCE network: accelerating data value across a national community health center network

    PubMed Central

    DeVoe, Jennifer E; Gold, Rachel; Cottrell, Erika; Bauer, Vance; Brickman, Andrew; Puro, Jon; Nelson, Christine; Mayer, Kenneth H; Sears, Abigail; Burdick, Tim; Merrell, Jonathan; Matthews, Paul; Fields, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The ADVANCE (Accelerating Data Value Across a National Community Health Center Network) clinical data research network (CDRN) is led by the OCHIN Community Health Information Network in partnership with Health Choice Network and Fenway Health. The ADVANCE CDRN will ‘horizontally’ integrate outpatient electronic health record data for over one million federally qualified health center patients, and ‘vertically’ integrate hospital, health plan, and community data for these patients, often under-represented in research studies. Patient investigators, community investigators, and academic investigators with diverse expertise will work together to meet project goals related to data integration, patient engagement and recruitment, and the development of streamlined regulatory policies. By enhancing the data and research infrastructure of participating organizations, the ADVANCE CDRN will serve as a ‘community laboratory’ for including disadvantaged and vulnerable patients in patient-centered outcomes research that is aligned with the priorities of patients, clinics, and communities in our network. PMID:24821740

  4. Technical Challenges and Scientific Payoffs of Muon BeamAccelerators for Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2007-09-25

    Historically, progress in particle physics has largely beendetermined by development of more capable particle accelerators. Thistrend continues today with the recent advent of high-luminosityelectron-positron colliders at KEK and SLAC operating as "B factories,"the imminent commissioning of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and theworldwide development effort toward the International Linear Collider.Looking to the future, one of the most promising approaches is thedevelopment of muon-beam accelerators. Such machines have very highscientific potential, and would substantially advance thestate-of-the-art in accelerator design. A 20-50 GeV muon storage ringcould serve as a copious source of well-characterized electron neutrinosor antineutrinos (a Neutrino Factory), providing beams aimed at detectorslocated 3000-7500 km from the ring. Such long baseline experiments areexpected to be able to observe and characterize the phenomenon ofcharge-conjugation-parity (CP) violation in the lepton sector, and thusprovide an answer to one of the most fundamental questions in science,namely, why the matter-dominated universe in which we reside exists atall. By accelerating muons to even higher energies of several TeV, we canenvision a Muon Collider. In contrast with composite particles likeprotons, muons are point particles. This means that the full collisionenergy is available to create new particles. A Muon Collider has roughlyten times the energy reach of a proton collider at the same collisionenergy, and has a much smaller footprint. Indeed, an energy frontier MuonCollider could fit on the site of an existing laboratory, such asFermilab or BNL. The challenges of muon-beam accelerators are related tothe facts that i) muons are produced as a tertiary beam, with very large6D phase space, and ii) muons are unstable, with a lifetime at rest ofonly 2 microseconds. How these challenges are accommodated in theaccelerator design will be described. Both a Neutrino Factory and a Muon

  5. A 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator as a tool for planetary and impact physics research.

    PubMed

    Mocker, Anna; Bugiel, Sebastian; Auer, Siegfried; Baust, Günter; Colette, Andrew; Drake, Keith; Fiege, Katherina; Grün, Eberhard; Heckmann, Frieder; Helfert, Stefan; Hillier, Jonathan; Kempf, Sascha; Matt, Günter; Mellert, Tobias; Munsat, Tobin; Otto, Katharina; Postberg, Frank; Röser, Hans-Peter; Shu, Anthony; Sternovsky, Zoltán; Srama, Ralf

    2011-09-01

    Investigating the dynamical and physical properties of cosmic dust can reveal a great deal of information about both the dust and its many sources. Over recent years, several spacecraft (e.g., Cassini, Stardust, Galileo, and Ulysses) have successfully characterised interstellar, interplanetary, and circumplanetary dust using a variety of techniques, including in situ analyses and sample return. Charge, mass, and velocity measurements of the dust are performed either directly (induced charge signals) or indirectly (mass and velocity from impact ionisation signals or crater morphology) and constrain the dynamical parameters of the dust grains. Dust compositional information may be obtained via either time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the impact plasma or direct sample return. The accurate and reliable interpretation of collected spacecraft data requires a comprehensive programme of terrestrial instrument calibration. This process involves accelerating suitable solar system analogue dust particles to hypervelocity speeds in the laboratory, an activity performed at the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik in Heidelberg, Germany. Here, a 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator electrostatically accelerates charged micron and submicron-sized dust particles to speeds up to 80 km s(-1). Recent advances in dust production and processing have allowed solar system analogue dust particles (silicates and other minerals) to be coated with a thin conductive shell, enabling them to be charged and accelerated. Refinements and upgrades to the beam line instrumentation and electronics now allow for the reliable selection of particles at velocities of 1-80 km s(-1) and with diameters of between 0.05 μm and 5 μm. This ability to select particles for subsequent impact studies based on their charges, masses, or velocities is provided by a particle selection unit (PSU). The PSU contains a field programmable gate array, capable of monitoring in real time the particles' speeds and charges, and

  6. A 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator as a tool for planetary and impact physics research

    SciTech Connect

    Mocker, Anna; Bugiel, Sebastian; Srama, Ralf; Auer, Siegfried; Baust, Guenter; Matt, Guenter; Otto, Katharina; Colette, Andrew; Drake, Keith; Kempf, Sascha; Munsat, Tobin; Shu, Anthony; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Fiege, Katherina; Postberg, Frank; Gruen, Eberhard; Heckmann, Frieder; Helfert, Stefan; Hillier, Jonathan; Mellert, Tobias; and others

    2011-09-15

    Investigating the dynamical and physical properties of cosmic dust can reveal a great deal of information about both the dust and its many sources. Over recent years, several spacecraft (e.g., Cassini, Stardust, Galileo, and Ulysses) have successfully characterised interstellar, interplanetary, and circumplanetary dust using a variety of techniques, including in situ analyses and sample return. Charge, mass, and velocity measurements of the dust are performed either directly (induced charge signals) or indirectly (mass and velocity from impact ionisation signals or crater morphology) and constrain the dynamical parameters of the dust grains. Dust compositional information may be obtained via either time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the impact plasma or direct sample return. The accurate and reliable interpretation of collected spacecraft data requires a comprehensive programme of terrestrial instrument calibration. This process involves accelerating suitable solar system analogue dust particles to hypervelocity speeds in the laboratory, an activity performed at the Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg, Germany. Here, a 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator electrostatically accelerates charged micron and submicron-sized dust particles to speeds up to 80 km s{sup -1}. Recent advances in dust production and processing have allowed solar system analogue dust particles (silicates and other minerals) to be coated with a thin conductive shell, enabling them to be charged and accelerated. Refinements and upgrades to the beam line instrumentation and electronics now allow for the reliable selection of particles at velocities of 1-80 km s{sup -1} and with diameters of between 0.05 {mu}m and 5 {mu}m. This ability to select particles for subsequent impact studies based on their charges, masses, or velocities is provided by a particle selection unit (PSU). The PSU contains a field programmable gate array, capable of monitoring in real time the particles' speeds and

  7. James E. Watson, Jr.: Named to the Health Physics Society

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.; Stansbury, Paul S.

    2010-11-18

    At its 2010 Annual Meeting, the Health Physics Society named James E. Watson, Jr. to its Honor Roll of distinguished members. This citation summarizes Professor Jim Watson's life and professional career at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he led the Radiological Hygiene program in the School of Public Health for nearly 3 decades. He was President of the Health Physics Society during the 1985-1986 term. He did pioneering work in radiation dose reconstruction for epidemiology as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Health and Mortality Studies.

  8. Childhood physical abuse and midlife physical health: testing a multi-pathway life course model.

    PubMed

    Springer, Kristen W

    2009-07-01

    Although prior research has established that childhood abuse adversely affects midlife physical health, it is unclear how abuse continues to harm health decades after the abuse has ended. In this project, I assess four life course pathways (health behaviors, cognition, mental health, and social relation) that plausibly link childhood physical abuse to three midlife physical health outcomes (bronchitis diagnosis, ulcer diagnosis, and general physical health). These three outcomes are etiologically distinct, leading to unique testable hypotheses. Multivariate models controlling for childhood background and early adversity were estimated using data from over 3000 respondents in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, USA. The results indicate that midlife social relations and cognition do not function as pathways for any outcome. However, smoking is a crucial pathway connecting childhood abuse with bronchitis; mental health is important for ulcers; and BMI, smoking, and mental health are paramount for general physical health. These findings suggest that abuse survivors' coping mechanisms can lead to an array of midlife health problems. Furthermore, the results validate the use of etiologically distinct outcomes for understanding plausible causal pathways when using cross-sectional data.

  9. Long Term Physical Health Consequences of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Chandler, Raeven Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between adverse childhood family experiences and adult physical health using data from 52,250 US adults aged 18–64 from the 2009–2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We found that experiencing childhood physical, verbal, or sexual abuse, witnessing parental domestic violence, experiencing parental divorce, and living with someone who was depressed, abused drugs or alcohol, or who had been incarcerated were associated with one or more of the following health outcomes: self-rated health, functional limitations, diabetes, and heart attack. Adult socioeconomic status and poor mental health and health behaviors significantly mediated several of these associations. The results of this study highlight the importance of family-based adverse childhood experiences on adult health outcomes and suggest that adult SES and stress-related coping behaviors may be crucial links between trauma in the childhood home and adult health. PMID:26500379

  10. Physical Education and Health in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Michael C.; Fry, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    As a school subject, physical education (PE) in Singapore took on its own shape with the introduction of a conceptual games teaching approach in response to the national government's "Thinking Schools, Learning Nation" policy of the late 1990s. With the recent media attention on hosting two main international events (Asian Youth Games…

  11. Brief 73 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2013 Data

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-02-15

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2012 and August 31, 2013. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2013. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. Since 2009, data for two health physics programs located in engineering departments are also included in the nuclear engineering survey. The enrollments and degrees data includes students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major.taoi_na

  12. Brief 75 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2014 Data

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-03-05

    The 2014 survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2014. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2014. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. Since 2009, data for two health physics programs located in engineering departments are also included in the nuclear engineering survey. The enrollments and degrees data includes students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major.

  13. GPU-based acceleration of free energy calculations in solid state physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Januszewski, Michał; Ptok, Andrzej; Crivelli, Dawid; Gardas, Bartłomiej

    2015-07-01

    Obtaining a thermodynamically accurate phase diagram through numerical calculations is a computationally expensive problem that is crucially important to understanding the complex phenomena of solid state physics, such as superconductivity. In this work we show how this type of analysis can be significantly accelerated through the use of modern GPUs. We illustrate this with a concrete example of free energy calculation in multi-band iron-based superconductors, known to exhibit a superconducting state with oscillating order parameter (OP). Our approach can also be used for classical BCS-type superconductors. With a customized algorithm and compiler tuning we are able to achieve a 19×speedup compared to the CPU (119×compared to a single CPU core), reducing calculation time from minutes to mere seconds, enabling the analysis of larger systems and the elimination of finite size effects.

  14. Minority stress and physical health among sexual minority individuals.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Lehavot, Keren; Meyer, Ilan H

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the effects of minority stress on the physical health of lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs). Participants (N = 396) completed baseline and one year follow-up interviews. Exposure to stress and health outcomes were assessed with two methods: a subjective self-appraisal method and a method whereby two independent judges externally rated event narratives using standardized criteria. The odds of experiencing a physical health problem at follow-up were significantly higher among LGBs who experienced an externally rated prejudice event during the follow-up period compared to those who did not. This association persisted after adjusting for experiences of general stressful life events that were not related to prejudice. Self-appraised minority stress exposures were not associated with poorer physical health at 1-year follow-up. Prejudice-related stressful life events have a unique deleterious impact on health that persists above and beyond the effect of stressful life events unrelated to prejudice.

  15. [Health economic aspects of physical-mental comorbidity].

    PubMed

    Lehnert, T; Konnopka, A; Riedel-Heller, S; König, H-H

    2011-01-01

    Physical-mental comorbidity is often associated with worse clinical and psychosocial outcomes, reduced health-related quality of life, and increased healthcare utilization. The following article is dedicated to the health economic aspects of physical-mental comorbidity. It presents basic theoretical and methodological aspects of cost-of-illness studies and economic evaluations related to physical-mental comorbidity, which are explained and discussed for the practical example of comorbid depression in diabetes mellitus. The results show that mental comorbidity in diabetes is associated with increased healthcare costs, which can in part be attributed to an increased somatic health service use. Appropriate interventions can lower these excess costs. Economic evaluations assessing the effectiveness of interventions for depressive diabetics have shown that overall health can be improved and costs saved. However, especially in health economics, mental comorbidity in somatic diseases has not been comprehensively investigated and further research is warranted.

  16. Is physical activity in natural environments better for mental health than physical activity in other environments?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that there may be synergy between the psychological benefits of physical activity, and the restorative effects of contact with a natural environment; physical activity in a natural environment might produce greater mental health benefits than physical activity elsewhere. However, such experiments are typically short-term and, by definition, artificially control the participant types, physical activity and contact with nature. This observational study asked whether such effects can be detected in everyday settings at a population level. It used data from the Scottish Health Survey 2008, describing all environments in which respondents were physically active. Associations were sought between use of each environment, and then use of environments grouped as natural or non-natural, and the risk of poor mental health (measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)) and level of wellbeing (measured by the Warwick Edinburgh Mental health and Wellbeing Score (WEMWBS). Results showed an independent association between regular use of natural environments and a lower risk of poor mental health, but not for activity in other types of environment. For example, the odds of poor mental health (GHQ ≥ 4) among those regularly using woods or forests for physical activity were 0.557 (95% CI 0.323-0.962), compared to non-users. However, regular use of natural environments was not clearly associated with greater wellbeing, whilst regular use of non-natural environments was. The study concludes that physical activity in natural environments is associated with a reduction in the risk of poor mental health to a greater extent than physical activity in other environments, but also that activity in different types of environment may promote different kinds of positive psychological response. Access to natural environments for physical activity should be protected and promoted as a contribution to protecting and improving population mental health.

  17. Physical education teacher effectiveness in a public health context.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Thomas L; Lounsbery, Monica A F

    2013-12-01

    The health benefits of physical activity are well documented, and the important role that schools and physical education (PE) can play in reducing sedentary behavior and contributing to population health has been identified. Although effective teaching is ultimately judged by student achievement, a major component of teacher and school effectiveness studies has been student engagement. Thus, in PE, it is important to assess the teaching and learning processes related to expected outcomes, including what students and teachers do and how lessons are delivered. Within a public health context, it is then important to assess how teachers provide students with ample health-enhancing physical activity to help them become physically fit and to learn generalizable movement and behavioral skills designed to promote physical activity and fitness outside of class time. In this article, we emphasize that the future of PE in our nation's schools will depend on the ability of schools to provide programs that are perceived to be of importance to the public; moreover, we believe that the future of PE rests on the effectiveness of PE teachers to operate within a public health context. In addition, we also provide a summary of teacher effectiveness research within a public health context and offer visions for the future assessment and evaluation of PE teacher effectiveness that move beyond the PE lesson to include components of the comprehensive school physical activity model.

  18. Mental and physical health and acculturation among Hispanic Vietnam Veterans.

    PubMed

    Ortega, A N; Rosenheck, R

    2001-10-01

    This study tested the associations between acculturation and mental and physical health among Hispanic Vietnam veterans. Secondary data analyses of the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Survey, an epidemiological study of a representative sample of veterans who served during the Vietnam era (N = 1,195), were conducted. An acculturation index was constructed using standard acculturation measures (range, 0-13), and its predictive validity was tested using nine outcome measures of physical health and eight measures of mental health. Among Puerto Rican and Mexican-American veterans, the scores on the acculturation index ranged from 0 to 12. Hispanic veterans were distributed across the acculturation continuum as follows: 0 to 3 (24%), 4 to 7 (59%), 8 to 12 (17%). The acculturation scores were not associated with mental or physical health risks for Hispanic veterans. Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans did not differ in mental or physical health risk compared with non-Hispanic whites. The association between acculturation and mental and physical health among Hispanics may not be generalized to Hispanic veterans. Hispanics who have been through an intensive assimilating experience, such as being in the military, appear to have health outcomes similar to whites.

  19. Recreation and Health Agencies: Working Together to Promote Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipp, JoAnn; Dusenbury, Linda J.

    1994-01-01

    The Colorado Department of Health formed the Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Prevention Coalition to address Colorado's problem with CVD. The article describes the work of the Coalition's Physical Activity Subcommittee, the Subcommittee's Exer-Deck tool to promote increased physical activity, and the training of professionals to work collaboratively…

  20. How to Reinforce Reading through Health, Physical Education and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Div. of Instructional Services.

    Intended for use in inservice workshops for health and physical education teachers, this guide contains suggestions designed to help these teachers integrate the teaching of reading skills into their curricula. Sample activities are provided to demonstrate how the physical education teacher can use different methods and strategies to help students…

  1. [The 'physical aptitude for health consultation' in a geriatric unit].

    PubMed

    Vogel, Thomas; Lang, Pierre-Olivier; Schmitt, Elise; Kaltenbach, Georges; Bouaziz, Walid

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the 'physical aptitude for health consultation' is to offer a validated physical reconditioning programme to adults with a stabilised chronic condition. It notably enables the absence of any contraindications to be established. A first of its kind in France, the programme has been implemented at Strasbourg university hospital.

  2. Beam Polarization at the ILC: the Physics Impact and the Accelerator Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Aurand, B.; Bailey, I.; Bartels, C.; Brachmann, A.; Clarke, J.; Hartin, A.; Hauptman, J.; Helebrant, C.; Hesselbach, S.; Kafer, D.; List, J.; Lorenzon, W.; Marchesini, I.; Monig, Klaus; Moffeit, K.C.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Riemann, S.; Schalicke, A.; Schuler, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Ushakov, A.; /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Bonn U. /SLAC

    2011-11-23

    In this contribution accelerator solutions for polarized beams and their impact on physics measurements are discussed. Focus are physics requirements for precision polarimetry near the interaction point and their realization with polarized sources. Based on the ILC baseline programme as described in the Reference Design Report (RDR), recent developments are discussed and evaluated taking into account physics runs at beam energies between 100 GeV and 250 GeV, as well as calibration runs on the Z-pole and options as the 1TeV upgrade and GigaZ. The studies, talks and discussions presented at this conference demonstrated that beam polarization and its measurement are crucial for the physics success of any future linear collider. To achieve the required precision it is absolutely decisive to employ multiple devices for testing and controlling the systematic uncertainties of each polarimeter. The polarimetry methods for the ILC are complementary: with the upstream polarimeter the measurements are performed in a clean environment, they are fast and allow to monitor time-dependent variations of polarization. The polarimeter downstream the IP will measure the disrupted beam resulting in high background and much lower statistics, but it allows access to the depolarization at the IP. Cross checks between the polarimeter results give redundancy and inter-calibration which is essential for high precision measurements. Current plans and issues for polarimeters and also energy spectrometers in the Beam Delivery System of the ILC are summarized in reference [28]. The ILC baseline design allows already from the beginning the operation with polarized electrons and polarized positrons provided the spin rotation and the fast helicity reversal for positrons will be implemented. A reversal of the positron helicity significantly slower than that of electrons is not recommended to not compromise the precision and hence the success of the ILC. Recently to use calibration data at the Z

  3. On Being Critical in Health and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Katie; Russell, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper is a reflection on being a critical teacher of health and physical education. It is a conversation of sorts between the two authors: a critical educator and researcher, and a critical teacher. It is based on the shared experiences of one of the author's (Dan) high-school PE and health classes over the course of a year during…

  4. Study Guide for TCT in Health and Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullan, Marie R.

    This study guide is designed for those individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in health and physical education. The test covers nine broad subareas: (1) health, body systems, disease; (2) tennis, handball, fencing, bowling, track, and recreational games; (3) development, hygiene, safety, nutrition; (4) softball,…

  5. Ethics in Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Gerald S.

    This digest addresses the importance to professional practice of ethics and shared values, focusing on the fields of health, physical education, recreation, and dance (HPRD). Practitioners in these fields routinely deal with situations that call upon moral reasoning and the articulation of values such as instruction about personal health, sexual…

  6. Explaining Outsourcing in Health, Sport and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Benjamin J.; Macdonald, Doune

    2015-01-01

    Outsourcing is a complex, controversial and pervasive practice that is increasingly becoming a matter of concern for educational researchers. This article contributes to this literature by examining outsourcing practices related to health, sport and physical education (HSPE). Specifically, it reports data on specialist health and physical…

  7. Sexual Activity and Psychological Health As Mediators of the Relationship Between Physical Health and Marital Quality

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The pathways linking spousal health to marital quality in later life have been little examined at the population level. We develop a conceptual model that links married older adults’ physical health and that of their spouse to positive and negative dimensions of marital quality via psychological well-being of both partners and their sexual activity. Methods. We use data from 1,464 older adults in 732 marital dyads in the 2010–2011 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project. Results. We find that own fair or poor physical health is linked to lower positive and higher negative marital quality, spouse’s health to positive quality, and that own and spouse’s mental health and more frequent sex are associated with higher positive and lower negative marital quality. Further, we find that (a) sexual activity mediates the association between own and partner’s physical health and positive marital quality, (b) own mental health mediates the association between one’s own physical health and both positive and negative marital quality, and (c) partner’s mental health mediates the associations of spouse’s physical health with positive marital quality. These results are robust to alternative specifications of the model. Discussion. The results suggest ways to protect marital quality among older adults who are struggling with physical illness in themselves or their partners. PMID:24470175

  8. Aspiring to physical health: The role of aspirations for physical health in facilitating long-term tobacco abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Niemiec, Christopher P.; Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.; Williams, Geoffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess aspirations for physical health over 18 months. To examine whether maintained importance of aspirations for physical health mediated and/or moderated the effect of an intensive intervention on long-term tobacco abstinence. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention based on self-determination theory or to community care, and provided data at baseline and at 18 and 30 months post-randomization. Results Aspirations for physical health were better maintained over 18 months among participants in the intervention (mean change = .05), relative to community care (mean change = -.13), t = 2.66, p < .01. Maintained importance of aspirations for physical health partially mediated the treatment condition effects on seven-day point prevalence tobacco abstinence (z′ = 1.68, p < .01) and the longest number of days not smoking (z′ = 2.16, p < .01), and interacted with treatment condition to facilitate the longest number of days not smoking (β = .08, p < .05). Conclusion Maintained importance of aspirations for physical health facilitated tobacco abstinence. Practice implications Smokers may benefit from discussing aspirations for physical health within autonomy-supportive interventions. Patients may benefit from discussing aspirations during counseling about therapeutic lifestyle change and medication use. PMID:18838243

  9. Personality, negative social exchanges, and physical health among bereaved adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Nicole M; Henrie, James A; Patrick, Julie Hicks

    2016-01-01

    While much research has investigated the association between personality and health, little research has done so using a bereaved sample. Additionally, little research has investigated how personality influences the frequency of negative social exchanges bereaved individuals receive. This study utilized a structural equation model to investigate the associations among age, gender, personality, negative social exchanges, length of bereavement, and self-reported physical health in a sample of bereaved adults. Results indicated that personality was associated with negative social exchanges and physical health. Therefore, these variables are important and should be studied further in this context. PMID:28070398

  10. Physical processes at work in sub-30 fs, PW laser pulse-driven plasma accelerators: Towards GeV electron acceleration experiments at CILEX facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, A.; Kalmykov, S. Y.; Davoine, X.; Lifschitz, A.; Shadwick, B. A.; Malka, V.; Specka, A.

    2014-03-01

    Optimal regimes and physical processes at work are identified for the first round of laser wakefield acceleration experiments proposed at a future CILEX facility. The Apollon-10P CILEX laser, delivering fully compressed, near-PW-power pulses of sub-25 fs duration, is well suited for driving electron density wakes in the blowout regime in cm-length gas targets. Early destruction of the pulse (partly due to energy depletion) prevents electrons from reaching dephasing, limiting the energy gain to about 3 GeV. However, the optimal operating regimes, found with reduced and full three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, show high energy efficiency, with about 10% of incident pulse energy transferred to 3 GeV electron bunches with sub-5% energy spread, half-nC charge, and absolutely no low-energy background. This optimal acceleration occurs in 2 cm length plasmas of electron density below 1018 cm-3. Due to their high charge and low phase space volume, these multi-GeV bunches are tailor-made for staged acceleration planned in the framework of the CILEX project. The hallmarks of the optimal regime are electron self-injection at the early stage of laser pulse propagation, stable self-guiding of the pulse through the entire acceleration process, and no need for an external plasma channel. With the initial focal spot closely matched for the nonlinear self-guiding, the laser pulse stabilizes transversely within two Rayleigh lengths, preventing subsequent evolution of the accelerating bucket. This dynamics prevents continuous self-injection of background electrons, preserving low phase space volume of the bunch through the plasma. Near the end of propagation, an optical shock builds up in the pulse tail. This neither disrupts pulse propagation nor produces any noticeable low-energy background in the electron spectra, which is in striking contrast with most of existing GeV-scale acceleration experiments.

  11. Physics models in the MARS15 code for accelerator and space applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N. V.; Gudima, K. K.; Mashnik, S. G.; Rakhno, I. L.; Sierk, A. J.; Striganov, S.

    2004-01-01

    The MARS code system, developed over 30 years, is a set of Monte Carlo programs for detailed simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in an arbitrary geometry of accelerator, detector and spacecraft components with particle energy ranging from a fraction of an electron volt up to 100 TeV. The new MARS15 (2004) version is described with an emphasis on modeling physics processes. This includes an extended list of elementary particles and arbitrary heavy ions, their interaction cross-sections, inclusive and exclusive nuclear event generators, photo - hadron production, correlated ionization energy loss and multiple Coulomb scattering, nuclide production and residual activation, and radiation damage (DPA). In particular, the details of a new model for leading baryon production and implementation of advanced versions of the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM03), and the Los Alamos version of Quark-Gluon String Model (LAQGSM03) are given. The applications that are motivating these developments, needs for better nuclear data, and future physics improvements are described.

  12. Accelerator Technology and High Energy Physics Experiments, Photonics Applications and Web Engineering, Wilga, May 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2012-05-01

    The paper is the second part (out of five) of the research survey of WILGA Symposium work, May 2012 Edition, concerned with accelerator technology and high energy physics experiments. It presents a digest of chosen technical work results shown by young researchers from different technical universities from this country during the XXXth Jubilee SPIE-IEEE Wilga 2012, May Edition, symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering. Topical tracks of the symposium embraced, among others, nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonicselectronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET and pi-of-the sky experiments development. The symposium is an annual summary in the development of numerable Ph.D. theses carried out in this country in the area of advanced electronic and photonic systems. It is also a great occasion for SPIE, IEEE, OSA and PSP students to meet together in a large group spanning the whole country with guests from this part of Europe. A digest of Wilga references is presented [1-275].

  13. Physics-Based Fragment Acceleration Modeling for Pressurized Tank Burst Risk Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Ted A.; Lawrence, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    As part of comprehensive efforts to develop physics-based risk assessment techniques for space systems at NASA, coupled computational fluid and rigid body dynamic simulations were carried out to investigate the flow mechanisms that accelerate tank fragments in bursting pressurized vessels. Simulations of several configurations were compared to analyses based on the industry-standard Baker explosion model, and were used to formulate an improved version of the model. The standard model, which neglects an external fluid, was found to agree best with simulation results only in configurations where the internal-to-external pressure ratio is very high and fragment curvature is small. The improved model introduces terms that accommodate an external fluid and better account for variations based on circumferential fragment count. Physics-based analysis was critical in increasing the model's range of applicability. The improved tank burst model can be used to produce more accurate risk assessments of space vehicle failure modes that involve high-speed debris, such as exploding propellant tanks and bursting rocket engines.

  14. Detailed Modeling of Physical Processes in Electron Sources for Accelerator Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubenko, Oksana; Afanasev, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    At present, electron sources are essential in a wide range of applications - from common technical use to exploring the nature of matter. Depending on the application requirements, different methods and materials are used to generate electrons. State-of-the-art accelerator applications set a number of often-conflicting requirements for electron sources (e.g., quantum efficiency vs. polarization, current density vs. lifetime, etc). Development of advanced electron sources includes modeling and design of cathodes, material growth, fabrication of cathodes, and cathode testing. The detailed simulation and modeling of physical processes is required in order to shed light on the exact mechanisms of electron emission and to develop new-generation electron sources with optimized efficiency. The purpose of the present work is to study physical processes in advanced electron sources and develop scientific tools, which could be used to predict electron emission from novel nano-structured materials. In particular, the area of interest includes bulk/superlattice gallium arsenide (bulk/SL GaAs) photo-emitters and nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond ((N)UNCD) photo/field-emitters. Work supported by The George Washington University and Euclid TechLabs LLC.

  15. School health guidelines to promote healthy eating and physical activity.

    PubMed

    2011-09-16

    During the last 3 decades, the prevalence of obesity has tripled among persons aged 6--19 years. Multiple chronic disease risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and high blood glucose levels are related to obesity. Schools have a responsibility to help prevent obesity and promote physical activity and healthy eating through policies, practices, and supportive environments. This report describes school health guidelines for promoting healthy eating and physical activity, including coordination of school policies and practices; supportive environments; school nutrition services; physical education and physical activity programs; health education; health, mental health, and social services; family and community involvement; school employee wellness; and professional development for school staff members. These guidelines, developed in collaboration with specialists from universities and from national, federal, state, local, and voluntary agencies and organizations, are based on an in-depth review of research, theory, and best practices in healthy eating and physical activity promotion in school health, public health, and education. Because every guideline might not be appropriate or feasible for every school to implement, individual schools should determine which guidelines have the highest priority based on the needs of the school and available resources.

  16. Strand I: Physical Health Nutrition. Health Curriculum Materials. Grades 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 7, 8, and 9. SUBJECT MATTER: Physical health and nutrition. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into five sections: nutritional states, adequate diet, nutrition in adolescence, the achievement and maintainance of correct weight, and environmental factors which affect nutritional health. The publication…

  17. Physical Health Problems and Barriers to Optimal Health Care Among Children in Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Stephanie Anne; Fortin, Kristine

    2015-10-01

    Children and adolescents in foster care placement represent a unique population with special health care needs, often resulting from pre-placement early adversity and neglected, unaddressed health care needs. High rates of all health problems, including acute and/or chronic physical, mental, and developmental issues prevail. Disparities in health status and access to health care are observed. This article summarizes the physical health problems of children in foster care, who are predisposed to poor health outcomes when complex care needs are unaddressed. Despite recognition of the significant burden of health care need among this unique population, barriers to effective and optimal health care delivery remain. Legislative solutions to overcome obstacles to health care delivery for children in foster care are discussed.

  18. Mount Aragats as a stable electron accelerator for atmospheric high-energy physics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, Ashot; Hovsepyan, Gagik; Mnatsakanyan, Eduard

    2016-03-01

    Observation of the numerous thunderstorm ground enhancements (TGEs), i.e., enhanced fluxes of electrons, gamma rays, and neutrons detected by particle detectors located on the Earth's surface and related to the strong thunderstorms above it, helped to establish a new scientific topic—high-energy physics in the atmosphere. Relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) are believed to be a central engine initiating high-energy processes in thunderstorm atmospheres. RREAs observed on Mount Aragats in Armenia during the strongest thunderstorms and simultaneous measurements of TGE electron and gamma-ray energy spectra proved that RREAs are a robust and realistic mechanism for electron acceleration. TGE research facilitates investigations of the long-standing lightning initiation problem. For the last 5 years we were experimenting with the "beams" of "electron accelerators" operating in the thunderclouds above the Aragats research station. Thunderstorms are very frequent above Aragats, peaking in May-June, and almost all of them are accompanied with enhanced particle fluxes. The station is located on a plateau at an altitude 3200 asl near a large lake. Numerous particle detectors and field meters are located in three experimental halls as well as outdoors; the facilities are operated all year round. All relevant information is being gathered, including data on particle fluxes, fields, lightning occurrences, and meteorological conditions. By the example of the huge thunderstorm that took place at Mount Aragats on August 28, 2015, we show that simultaneous detection of all the relevant data allowed us to reveal the temporal pattern of the storm development and to investigate the atmospheric discharges and particle fluxes.

  19. Psychological Perspectives on Pathways Linking Socioeconomic Status and Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Karen A.; Gallo, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) is a reliable correlate of poor physical health. Rather than treat SES as a covariate, health psychology has increasingly focused on the psychobiological pathways that inform understanding why SES is related to physical health. This review assesses the status of research that has examined stress and its associated distress, and social and personal resources as pathways. It highlights work on biomarkers and biological pathways related to SES that can serve as intermediate outcomes in future studies. Recent emphasis on the accumulation of psychobiological risks across the life course is summarized and represents an important direction for future research. Studies that test pathways from SES to candidate psychosocial pathways to health outcomes are few in number but promising. Future research should test integrated models rather than taking piecemeal approaches to evidence. Much work remains to be done, but the questions are of great health significance. PMID:20636127

  20. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  1. Physical Education for Health and Wellbeing: A Discourse Analysis of Scottish Physical Education Curricular Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvilly, Nollaig; Verheul, Martine; Atencio, Matthew; Jess, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the discourses associated with physical education in Scotland's "Curriculum for Excellence". We implement a poststructural perspective in order to identify the discourses that underpin the physical education sections of the "Curriculum for Excellence" "health and well-being"…

  2. Dimensions of emotional intelligence related to physical and mental health and to health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G.; Martín-Díaz, María Dolores

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and health is examined. The current work investigated the dimensions of EI are sufficient to explain various components of physical and mental health, and various categories of health-related behaviors. A sample of 855 participants completed two measures of EI, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and trait emotional intelligence questionnaire, a measure of health, the Health Survey SF-36 Questionnaire (SF-36); and a measure of health-related behaviors, the health behavior checklist. The results show that the EI dimensions analyzed are better predictors of mental health than of physical health. The EI dimensions that positively explain the Mental Health Component are Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability, and negatively, Attention. Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability positively explain the Physical Health Component. EI dimensions predict a lower percentage of health-related behaviors than they do health components. Emotionality and Repair predict the Preventive Health Behavior category, and only one dimension, Self-Control, predicts the Risk Taking Behavior category. Older people carry out more preventive behaviors for health. PMID:25859229

  3. Operational Radiation Protection in High-Energy Physics Accelerators: Implementation of ALARA in Design and Operation of Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fasso, A.; Rokni, S.; /SLAC

    2011-06-30

    It used to happen often, to us accelerator radiation protection staff, to be asked by a new radiation worker: ?How much dose am I still allowed?? And we smiled looking at the shocked reaction to our answer: ?You are not allowed any dose?. Nowadays, also thanks to improved training programs, this kind of question has become less frequent, but it is still not always easy to convince workers that staying below the exposure limits is not sufficient. After all, radiation is still the only harmful agent for which this is true: for all other risks in everyday life, from road speed limits to concentration of hazardous chemicals in air and water, compliance to regulations is ensured by keeping below a certain value. It appears that a tendency is starting to develop to extend the radiation approach to other pollutants (1), but it will take some time before the new attitude makes it way into national legislations.

  4. Minority Stress and Physical Health Among Sexual Minorities.

    PubMed

    Lick, David J; Durso, Laura E; Johnson, Kerri L

    2013-09-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals suffer serious mental health disparities relative to their heterosexual peers, and researchers have linked these disparities to difficult social experiences (e.g., antigay victimization) and internalized biases (e.g., internalized homophobia) that arouse stress. A recent and growing body of evidence suggests that LGB individuals also suffer physical health disparities relative to heterosexuals, ranging from poor general health status to increased risk for cancer and heightened diagnoses of cardiovascular disease, asthma, diabetes, and other chronic conditions. Despite recent advances in this literature, the causes of LGB physical health problems remain relatively opaque. In this article, we review empirical findings related to LGB physical health disparities and argue that such disparities are related to the experience of minority stress-that is, stress caused by experiences with antigay stigma. In light of this minority stress model, we highlight gaps in the current literature and outline five research steps necessary for developing a comprehensive knowledge of the social determinants of LGB physical health.

  5. Presenteeism according to healthy behaviors, physical health, and work environment.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G; Pope, James E; Anderson, David R; Coberley, Carter R; Whitmer, R William

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the contribution that selected demographic characteristics, health behaviors, physical health outcomes, and workplace environmental factors have on presenteeism (on-the-job productivity loss attributed to poor health and other personal issues). Analyses are based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 3 geographically diverse US companies in 2010. Work-related factors had the greatest influence on presenteeism (eg, too much to do but not enough time to do it, insufficient technological support/resources). Personal problems and financial stress/concerns also contributed substantially to presenteeism. Factors with less contribution to presenteeism included physical limitations, depression or anxiety, inadequate job training, and problems with supervisors and coworkers. Presenteeism was greatest for those ages 30-49, women, separated/divorced/widowed employees, and those with a high school degree or some college. Clerical/office workers and service workers had higher presenteeism. Managers and professionals had the highest level of presenteeism related to having too much to do but too little time to do it, and transportation workers had the greatest presenteeism because of physical health limitations. Lowering presenteeism will require that employers have realistic expectations of workers, help workers prioritize, and provide sufficient technological support. Financial stress and concerns may warrant financial planning services. Health promotion interventions aimed at improving nutrition and physical and mental health also may contribute to reducing presenteeism.

  6. Adolescent Peer Victimization and Physical Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    La Greca, Annette M.; Chan, Sherilynn F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Peer victimization (PV) is a key interpersonal stressor that can be traumatizing for youth. This study evaluated the relationships between overt, relational, reputational, and cyber PV and adolescents’ somatic complaints and sleep problems. Symptoms of depression and social anxiety were examined as potential mediators. Method Adolescents (N = 1,162; M age = 15.80 years; 57% female; 80% Hispanic) were assessed at three time points, 6 weeks apart, using standardized measures of PV, depression, social anxiety, sleep problems, and somatic complaints. Structural equation modeling evaluated key study aims. Results Relational, reputational, and cyber PV, but not overt PV, were directly or indirectly associated with subsequent somatic complaints and/or sleep problems. Depression and social anxiety mediated relationships between relational PV and health outcomes, whereas reputational PV was indirectly associated with somatic complaints via depression only. Discussion The stress of PV may contribute to adolescents’ sleep problems and somatic complaints and has implications for pediatric psychologists. PMID:26050245

  7. Physical Activity as a Function of Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Đukanović, Nina; Mašić, Zoran; Kostovski, Žarko; Širić, Vesna; Blažević, Stipe

    2015-07-01

    Physical activity means any form of body movement that is associated with certain metabolic demands. At the same time, physical activity is one of the most important steps in the maintenance, protection and improvement of health. There is strong evidence to suggest that higher levels of physical activity are associated with numerous preventive effects and therapeutic effects in the treatment of many diseases. Although they account for a larger portion of the population, physical inactivity is more often registered in women, which can be attributed to a variety of reasons--ranging from anatomical and physiological to the socio-psychological. The present paper discusses some of the most important benefits associated with physical activity in women, to encourage their greater participation in various forms of physical activity.

  8. Patients utilizing a free clinic: physical and mental health, health literacy, and social support.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akiko; Christensen, Nancy; Tabler, Jennifer; Ashby, Jeanie; Olson, Lenora M

    2013-08-01

    This cross sectional study assessed the physical and mental health, health literacy and social support of the uninsured utilizing a free clinic to develop intervention programs and research projects to improve the health of free clinic patients. Free clinics are nonprofit organizations that provide underserved and uninsured individuals access to a broad array of free or low cost healthcare services. English or Spanish speaking patients (N = 187) aged 18 years or older completed a self-administered survey. Physical, mental and oral health, health literacy, and social support were measured using standardized instruments. Eighty-two participants (45 US born and 37 non-US born) chose the English version of the survey (English speakers) while 105 participants (2 US born and 103 non-US born) chose the Spanish version (Spanish speakers). Overall, both the physical and mental health functioning of the participants was lower than that of the US general population. The participants reported being moderately depressed. US-born English speakers reported the poorest physical and mental health while Spanish speakers reported the best physical health and the lowest level of depression. A higher level of health literacy was associated with better physical health functioning, whereas reporting higher social support was associated with better mental health functioning and less severe depression. Because most free clinics have limited resources, developing services and programs that fit free clinics' circumstances are needed. Our study finding indicates that health literacy education, mental health services, and social support are key services needed by free clinic patients to achieve better health.

  9. Federal spending on behavioral health accelerated during recession as individuals lost employer insurance.

    PubMed

    Levit, Katharine R; Mark, Tami L; Coffey, Rosanna M; Frankel, Sasha; Santora, Patricia; Vandivort-Warren, Rita; Malone, Kevin

    2013-05-01

    The 2007-09 recession had a dramatic effect on behavioral health spending, with the effect most prominent for private, state, and local payers. During the recession behavioral health spending increased at a 4.6 percent average annual rate, down from 6.1 percent in 2004-07. Average annual growth in private behavioral health spending during the recession slowed to 2.7 percent from 7.2 percent in 2004-07. State and local behavioral health spending showed negative average annual growth, -1.2 percent, during the recession, compared with 3.7 percent increases in 2004-07. In contrast, federal behavioral health spending growth accelerated to 11.1 percent during the recession, up from 7.2 percent in 2004-07. These behavioral health spending trends were driven largely by increased federal spending in Medicaid, declining private insurance enrollment, and severe state budget constraints. An increased federal Medicaid match reduced the state share of Medicaid spending, which prevented more drastic cuts in state-funded behavioral health programs during the recession. Federal Medicaid served as a critical safety net for people with behavioral health treatment needs during the recession.

  10. National health expenditure projections: modest annual growth until coverage expands and economic growth accelerates.

    PubMed

    Keehan, Sean P; Cuckler, Gigi A; Sisko, Andrea M; Madison, Andrew J; Smith, Sheila D; Lizonitz, Joseph M; Poisal, John A; Wolfe, Christian J

    2012-07-01

    For 2011-13, US health spending is projected to grow at 4.0 percent, on average--slightly above the historically low growth rate of 3.8 percent in 2009. Preliminary data suggest that growth in consumers' use of health services remained slow in 2011, and this pattern is expected to continue this year and next. In 2014, health spending growth is expected to accelerate to 7.4 percent as the major coverage expansions from the Affordable Care Act begin. For 2011 through 2021, national health spending is projected to grow at an average rate of 5.7 percent annually, which would be 0.9 percentage point faster than the expected annual increase in the gross domestic product during this period. By 2021, federal, state, and local government health care spending is projected to be nearly 50 percent of national health expenditures, up from 46 percent in 2011, with federal spending accounting for about two-thirds of the total government share. Rising government spending on health care is expected to be driven by faster growth in Medicare enrollment, expanded Medicaid coverage, and the introduction of premium and cost-sharing subsidies for health insurance exchange plans.

  11. Supporting public health priorities: recommendations for physical education and physical activity promotion in schools.

    PubMed

    Hills, Andrew P; Dengel, Donald R; Lubans, David R

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) provides numerous physiological and psychosocial benefits. However, lifestyle changes, including reduced PA opportunities in multiple settings, have resulted in an escalation of overweight and obesity and related health problems. Poor physical and mental health, including metabolic and cardiovascular problems is seen in progressively younger ages, and the systematic decline in school PA has contributed to this trend. Of note, the crowded school curriculum with an intense focus on academic achievement, lack of school leadership support, funding and resources, plus poor quality teaching are barriers to PA promotion in schools. The school setting and physical educators in particular, must embrace their role in public health by adopting a comprehensive school PA program. We provide an overview of key issues and challenges in the area plus best bets and recommendations for physical education and PA promotion in the school system moving forward.

  12. ANL-E Health Physics experience with D and D

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.I.; Mosho, G.D.; Munyon, W.J.; Murdoch, B.T.; Sholeen, C.M.; Shuman, J.P.

    1996-04-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory--East (ANL-E) Health Physics Section provides direct and/or oversight support to various D&D projects at ANL-E. The health physics problems encountered have been challenging, primarily because they involved the potential for high internal exposures as well as actual high external exposures. The lessons learned are applicable to other radiological facilities. A number of D&D projects being conducted concurrently at ANL-E are described. The problems encountered are then categorized, and lessons learned and recommendations are provided. The main focus will be limited to the support and technical assistance provided by personnel from the ANL Health Physics Section during the course of the work activities.

  13. Goal Adjustment Capacities, Subjective Well-Being, and Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Wrosch, Carsten; Scheier, Michael F.; Miller, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses how individuals can adjust to the experience of unattainable goals and protect their subjective well-being and physical health. We discuss theoretical aspects involved in the self-regulation of unattainable goals and point to the importance of general individual differences in goal disengagement and goal reengagement capacities. In addition, we review the extant literature, suggesting that goal disengagement capacities can reduce psychological distress and ameliorate patterns of biological dysregulation and physical health problems if individuals experience unattainable goals. Goal reengagement capacities, by contrast, are shown to be associated with positive indicators of subjective well-being (e.g., positive affect or purpose in life), but rarely predict psychological distress or physical health outcomes. We finally address several remaining issues that have become apparent in the extant literature and may deserve more attention in future research. PMID:25177358

  14. [Health promotion through physical activity: territorial models and experiences].

    PubMed

    Romano-Spica, V; Parlato, A; Palumbo, D; Lorenzo, E; Frangella, C; Montuori, E; Anastasi, D; Visciano, A; Liguori, G

    2008-01-01

    Scientific evidences support the preventive role of physical activity in relation to different multifactorial pathologies. Health's promotion through the spreading of lifestyles that encourage movement, does not represent just an action in contrast with "sedentary life" risk-factor, but also a priority for "quality" of life, with relevant economical and social benefits. WHO indicates physical activity as one of the priorities for an effective prevention. Besides, the EU supports the realization and the diffusion of some prevention-programs. Main pilot experiences developed in Italy and other countries are summarized. Attention is focused on the role of the competences and structures involved in an integrated approach based on availability of medical support, social services and local structures, considering recent developments in health prevention and promotion. In Italy and Europe, new opportunities to implement health promotion through physical activity are offered by the development of higher education in movement and sport sciences.

  15. Goal Adjustment Capacities, Subjective Well-Being, and Physical Health.

    PubMed

    Wrosch, Carsten; Scheier, Michael F; Miller, Gregory E

    2013-12-01

    This article addresses how individuals can adjust to the experience of unattainable goals and protect their subjective well-being and physical health. We discuss theoretical aspects involved in the self-regulation of unattainable goals and point to the importance of general individual differences in goal disengagement and goal reengagement capacities. In addition, we review the extant literature, suggesting that goal disengagement capacities can reduce psychological distress and ameliorate patterns of biological dysregulation and physical health problems if individuals experience unattainable goals. Goal reengagement capacities, by contrast, are shown to be associated with positive indicators of subjective well-being (e.g., positive affect or purpose in life), but rarely predict psychological distress or physical health outcomes. We finally address several remaining issues that have become apparent in the extant literature and may deserve more attention in future research.

  16. Physical and Emotional Health Problems Experienced by Youth Engaged in Physical Fighting and Weapon Carrying

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Sophie D.; Molcho, Michal; Craig, Wendy; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Huynh, Quynh; Kukaswadia, Atif; Aasvee, Katrin; Várnai, Dora; Ottova, Veronika; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Pickett, William

    2013-01-01

    Then aims of the current study were 1) to provide cross-national estimates of the prevalence of physical fighting and weapon carrying among adolescents aged 11–15 years; (2) To examine the possible effects of physical fighting and weapon carrying on the occurrence of physical (medically treated injuries) and emotional health outcomes (multiple health complaints) among adolescents within the theoretical framework of Problem Behaviour Theory. 20,125 adolescents aged 11–15 in five countries (Belgium, Israel, USA, Canada, FYR Macedonia) were surveyed via the 2006 Health Behaviour in School Aged Children survey. Prevalence was calculated for physical fighting and weapon carrying along with physical and emotional measures that potentially result from violence. Regression analyses were used to quantify associations between violence/weapon carrying and the potential health consequences within each country. Large variations in fighting and weapon carrying were observed across countries. Boys reported more frequent episodes of fighting/weapon carrying and medically attended injuries in every country, while girls reported more emotional symptoms. Although there were some notable variations in findings between different participating countries, increased weapon carrying and physical fighting were both independently and consistently associated with more frequent reports of the potential health outcomes. Adolescents engaging in fighting and weapon carrying are also at risk for physical and emotional health outcomes. Involvement in fighting and weapon carrying can be seen as part of a constellation of risk behaviours with obvious health implications. Our findings also highlight the importance of the cultural context when examining the nature of violent behaviour for adolescents. PMID:23437126

  17. Physical and emotional health problems experienced by youth engaged in physical fighting and weapon carrying.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Sophie D; Molcho, Michal; Craig, Wendy; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Huynh, Quynh; Kukaswadia, Atif; Aasvee, Katrin; Várnai, Dora; Ottova, Veronika; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Pickett, William

    2013-01-01

    Then aims of the current study were 1) to provide cross-national estimates of the prevalence of physical fighting and weapon carrying among adolescents aged 11-15 years; (2) To examine the possible effects of physical fighting and weapon carrying on the occurrence of physical (medically treated injuries) and emotional health outcomes (multiple health complaints) among adolescents within the theoretical framework of Problem Behaviour Theory. 20,125 adolescents aged 11-15 in five countries (Belgium, Israel, USA, Canada, FYR Macedonia) were surveyed via the 2006 Health Behaviour in School Aged Children survey. Prevalence was calculated for physical fighting and weapon carrying along with physical and emotional measures that potentially result from violence. Regression analyses were used to quantify associations between violence/weapon carrying and the potential health consequences within each country. Large variations in fighting and weapon carrying were observed across countries. Boys reported more frequent episodes of fighting/weapon carrying and medically attended injuries in every country, while girls reported more emotional symptoms. Although there were some notable variations in findings between different participating countries, increased weapon carrying and physical fighting were both independently and consistently associated with more frequent reports of the potential health outcomes. Adolescents engaging in fighting and weapon carrying are also at risk for physical and emotional health outcomes. Involvement in fighting and weapon carrying can be seen as part of a constellation of risk behaviours with obvious health implications. Our findings also highlight the importance of the cultural context when examining the nature of violent behaviour for adolescents.

  18. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents work performed on the generation and physics of acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere. The investigators have incorporated spatial and temporal turbulent energy spectra in a newly corrected version of the Lighthill-Stein theory of acoustic wave generation in order to calculate the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone. The investigators have also revised and improved the treatment of the generation of magnetic flux tube waves, which can carry energy along the tubes far away from the region of their origin, and have calculated the tube energy fluxes for the sun. They also examine the transfer of the wave energy originated in the solar convective zone to the outer atmospheric layers through computation of wave propagation and dissipation in highly nonhomogeneous solar atmosphere. These waves may efficiently heat the solar atmosphere and the heating will be especially significant in the chromospheric network. It is also shown that the role played by Alfven waves in solar wind acceleration and coronal hole heating is dominant. The second part of the project concerned investigation of wave propagation in highly inhomogeneous stellar atmospheres using an approach based on an analytic tool developed by Musielak, Fontenla, and Moore. In addition, a new technique based on Dirac equations has been developed to investigate coupling between different MHD waves propagating in stratified stellar atmospheres.

  19. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents work performed on the generation and physics of acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere. The investigators have incorporated spatial and temporal turbulent energy spectra in a newly corrected version of the Lighthill-Stein theory of acoustic wave generation in order to calculate the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone. The investigators have also revised and improved the treatment of the generation of magnetic flux tube waves, which can carry energy along the tubes far away from the region of their origin, and have calculated the tube wave energy fluxes for the sun. They also examine the transfer of the wave energy originated in the solar convective zone to the outer atmospheric layers through computation of wave propagation and dissipation in highly nonhomogeneous solar atmosphere. These waves may efficiently heat the solar atmosphere and the heating will be especially significant in the chromospheric network. It is also shown that the role played by Alfven waves in solar wind acceleration and coronal hole heating is dominant. The second part of the project concerned investigation of wave propagation in highly inhomogeneous stellar atmospheres using an approach based on an analytic tool developed by Musielak, Fontenla, and Moore. In addition, a new technique based on Dirac equations has been developed to investigate coupling between different MHD waves propagating in stratified stellar atmospheres.

  20. Comparison of dosimetric characteristics of Siemens virtual and physical wedges for ONCOR linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Attalla, Ehab M; Abo-Elenein, H S; Ammar, H; El-Desoky, Ismail

    2010-07-01

    Dosimetric properties of virtual wedge (VW) and physical wedge (PW) in 6- and 10-MV photon beams from a Siemens ONCOR linear accelerator, including wedge factors, depth doses, dose profiles, peripheral doses, are compared. While there is a great difference in absolute values of wedge factors, VW factors (VWFs) and PW factors (PWFs) have a similar trend as a function of field size. PWFs have stronger depth dependence than VWF due to beam hardening in PW fields. VW dose profiles in the wedge direction, in general, match very well with those of PW, except in the toe area of large wedge angles with large field sizes. Dose profiles in the nonwedge direction show a significant reduction in PW fields due to off-axis beam softening and oblique filtration. PW fields have significantly higher peripheral doses than open and VW fields. VW fields have similar surface doses as the open fields, while PW fields have lower surface doses. Surface doses for both VW and PW increase with field size and slightly with wedge angle. For VW fields with wedge angles 45° and less, the initial gap up to 3 cm is dosimetrically acceptable when compared to dose profiles of PW. VW fields in general use less monitor units than PW fields.

  1. Brief 77 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2015 Data

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-03-15

    The 2015 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey reports degrees granted between September 1, 2014 and August 31, 2015. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2015. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. The enrollments and degrees information comprises students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major. The report includes enrollment information on undergraduate students and graduate students and information by degree level for post-graduation plans.

  2. Seasonal variations in physical activity and implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J; Aoyagi, Yukitoshi

    2009-10-01

    This review explores the implications of seasonal changes in physical activity for fitness and human health. Photosensitivity and nutrient shortages mediate animal hibernation via the hypothalamus and changes in leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Opportunities for hunting and crop cultivation determine seasonal activity in under-developed human societies, but in developed societies temperature and rainfall are dominant influences, usually over-riding innate rhythms. Both questionnaire data and objective measurements show that many groups from children to the elderly increase their physical activity from winter to spring or summer. Measurements of maximal oxygen intake and muscle strength commonly show parallel seasonal changes. However, potential effects upon body mass and body fat may be counteracted by changes of food intake; subsistence agriculturists sometimes maintain or increase physical activity at the expense of a decrease in body mass. In developed societies, body fat commonly increases during the winter, with parallel changes in blood lipids, blood pressure and blood coagulability; moreover, these changes are not always fully reversed the following summer. Most developed societies show increased all-cause and cardiac mortalities in the winter. Health consequences of seasonal variations in physical activity including an increased vulnerability to cardiac catastrophe and a year-by-year increase in total body fat seem most likely if the average level of physical activity for the year is low. Public health recommendations should underline the importance of maintaining physical activity during adverse environmental conditions by adapting clothing, modifying behaviour and exploiting any available air-conditioned indoor facilities.

  3. Accelerating health equity: the key role of universal health coverage in the Sustainable Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Mills, Anne; Palu, Toomas

    2015-04-29

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), to be committed to by Heads of State at the upcoming 2015 United Nations General Assembly, have set much higher and more ambitious health-related goals and targets than did the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The main challenge among MDG off-track countries is the failure to provide and sustain financial access to quality services by communities, especially the poor. Universal health coverage (UHC), one of the SDG health targets indispensable to achieving an improved level and distribution of health, requires a significant increase in government investment in strengthening primary healthcare - the close-to-client service which can result in equitable access. Given the trend of increased fiscal capacity in most developing countries, aiming at long-term progress toward UHC is feasible, if there is political commitment and if focused, effective policies are in place. Trends in high income countries, including an aging population which increases demand for health workers, continue to trigger international migration of health personnel from low and middle income countries. The inspirational SDGs must be matched with redoubled government efforts to strengthen health delivery systems, produce and retain more and relevant health workers, and progressively realize UHC.

  4. Incorporating a built environment module into an accelerated second-degree community health nursing course.

    PubMed

    Hays, Judith C; Davis, Jeffrey A; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Environmental quality is a leading indicator of population health. Environmental health content has been integrated into the curriculum of an Accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing program for second-degree students through development of an environmental health nursing module for the final-semester community health nursing course. The module was developed through collaboration between two professional schools at Duke University (the School of Nursing and the Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences). It focused on the role of the built environment in community health and featured a mix of teaching strategies, including five components: (1) classroom lecture with associated readings, (2) two rounds of online small-group student discussions, (3) assessment of the built environment in local neighborhoods by student teams, (4) team presentation of the neighborhood assessments, and (5) individual student papers synthesizing the conclusions from all team presentations. The goal of the module was to provide nursing students with an organizing framework for integrating environmental health into clinical practice and an innovative tool for understanding community-level components of public health.

  5. Accelerating Chart Review Using Automated Methods on Electronic Health Record Data for Postoperative Complications

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhen; Melton, Genevieve B.; Moeller, Nathan D.; Arsoniadis, Elliot G.; Wang, Yan; Kwaan, Mary R.; Jensen, Eric H.; Simon, Gyorgy J.

    2016-01-01

    Manual Chart Review (MCR) is an important but labor-intensive task for clinical research and quality improvement. In this study, aiming to accelerate the process of extracting postoperative outcomes from medical charts, we developed an automated postoperative complications detection application by using structured electronic health record (EHR) data. We applied several machine learning methods to the detection of commonly occurring complications, including three subtypes of surgical site infection, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, sepsis, and septic shock. Particularly, we applied one single-task and five multi-task learning methods and compared their detection performance. The models demonstrated high detection performance, which ensures the feasibility of accelerating MCR. Specifically, one of the multi-task learning methods, propensity weighted observations (PWO) demonstrated the highest detection performance, with single-task learning being a close second. PMID:28269941

  6. Evaluation of ‘OpenCL for FPGA’ for Data Acquisition and Acceleration in High Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Srikanth

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the data acquisition and processing needs of High Energy Physics experiments has made it more essential to use FPGAs to meet those needs. However harnessing the capabilities of the FPGAs has been hard for anyone but expert FPGA developers. The arrival of OpenCL with the two major FPGA vendors supporting it, offers an easy software-based approach to taking advantage of FPGAs in applications such as High Energy Physics. OpenCL is a language for using heterogeneous architectures in order to accelerate applications. However, FPGAs are capable of far more than acceleration, hence it is interesting to explore if OpenCL can be used to take advantage of FPGAs for more generic applications. To answer these questions, especially in the context of High Energy Physics, two applications, a DAQ module and an acceleration workload, were tested for implementation with OpenCL on FPGAs2. The challenges on using OpenCL for a DAQ application and their solutions, together with the performance of the OpenCL based acceleration are discussed. Many of the design elements needed to realize a DAQ system in OpenCL already exists, mostly as FPGA vendor extensions, but a small number of elements were found to be missing. For acceleration of OpenCL applications, using FPGAs has become as easy as using GPUs. OpenCL has the potential for a massive gain in productivity and ease of use enabling non FPGA experts to design, debug and maintain the code. Also, FPGA power consumption is much lower than other implementations. This paper describes one of the first attempts to explore the use of OpenCL for applications outside the acceleration workloads.

  7. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10). Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2%) from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%), providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental sustainability, transport and urban

  8. Single mothers in Ontario: sociodemographic, physical and mental health characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lipman, E L; Offord, D R; Boyle, M H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the sociodemographic, physical and mental health characteristics of single mothers in Ontario. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Ontario residents aged 15 years or older who participated in the Ontario Health Supplement survey conducted between December 1990 and April 1991; of 9953 eligible participants, 1540 were mothers with at least 1 dependent child (less than 16 years of age). OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence rates of sociodemographic, physical and mental health characteristics. RESULTS: Single mothers were significantly more likely than the mothers in 2-parent families to be poor, to be 25 years of age or less, to have mental health problems (dissatisfaction with multiple aspects of life, affective disorder ever and 1 or more psychiatric disorders in the past year or ever) and to use mental health services. When compared by income level, poor single mothers had a higher prevalence of all mental health outcomes measured; the difference was significant for anxiety disorder in the past year or ever and for 1 or more psychiatric disorders in the past year or ever. In a logistic regression analysis, single-mother status was found to have the strongest independent effect on predicting mental health morbidity and utilization of mental health services; the next strongest was low income. CONCLUSIONS: Single mothers are more likely to be poor, to have an affective disorder and to use mental health services than mothers in 2-parent families. The risk of mental health problems is especially pronounced among poor single mothers. Further studies are needed to determine which aspects of single motherhood, apart from economic status, affect mental health outcomes. PMID:9068569

  9. Effect of motivational interviewing-based health coaching on employees' physical and mental health status.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, Susan; Linden, Ariel; McClay, Wende; Leo, Michael C

    2006-10-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) based health coaching is a relatively new behavioral intervention that has gained popularity in public health because of its ability to address multiple behaviors, health risks, and illness self-management. In this study, 276 employees at a medical center self-selected to participate in either a 3-month health coaching intervention or control group. The treatment group showed significant improvement in both SF-12 physical (p = .035) and mental (p = .0001) health status compared to controls. Because of concerns of selection bias, a matched case-control analysis was also performed, eliciting similar results. These findings suggest that MI-based health coaching is effective in improving both physical and mental health status in an occupational setting.

  10. Health and Physical Activity Content Knowledge of Pima Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusseau, Timothy; Kulinna, Pamela H.; Cothran, Donetta J.

    2011-01-01

    This study grounded in constructivist theory and the public health literature investigated Native American children's knowledge related to physical activity and healthy behavior concepts. Learning tends to be more meaningful and relevant when teachers take into consideration the students' knowledge and experiences. Therefore it is important to…

  11. Health and Physical Education Programs in the National Diffusion Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguro, Joseph F.

    This catalog contains descriptions of the Health and Physical Education programs in the National Diffusion Network. These programs are available to school systems or other educational institutions for implementation in their classrooms. While all of the programs have been validated as effective by the U.S. Department of Education's Program…

  12. Obesity, Health, and Physical Activity: Discourses from the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zieff, Susan G.; Veri, Maria J.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the obesity, health, and physical activity discourses of the past 35 years in the context of the United States with particular reference to five social sectors: the biomedical domain; the popular media; nonprofit foundations, centers and agencies; various national and multinational corporations; and government at all levels.…

  13. Obesity, Health and Physical Education: A Bourdieuean Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Katie

    2011-01-01

    Assumptions and interventions about the so-called "obesity epidemic" pervade health and physical education classrooms and national policy agendas in New Zealand, as they do elsewhere in the Western world. In contrast, critical scholars in these subjects advocate an active deconstruction of the tenets and presumptions underpinning public…

  14. Audit report: health physics technician subcontracts at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brendlinger, Terry L.

    1999-05-01

    To supplement its health physics staff, Brookhaven National Laboratory (Brookhaven) subcontracted with a support service business (the subcontractor) to obtain the services of health physics technicians. During the pefiormance of these subcontracts, certain issues arose concerning per diem payments to the subcontractor for local technicians. The objective of this audit was to determine whether Brookhaven fi.dly etiorced the terms and conditions of its subcontracts for health physics technicians. Brookhaven had not fully enforced the terms of its subcontracts, and as a result, Brookhaven and the Department paid about $288,000 more than necessary for health physics technicians. For example, Brookhaven reimbursed the subcontractor for per diem on days when work was not performed and when the subcontractor did not pay subsistence expenses to its technicians. Brookhaven also increased the subcontracts' fixed reimbursement rates without adequate justification and reimbursed the subcontractor for overtime even though the subcontract did not provide for an overtime reimbursement rate. We recommend that the Manager, Chicago Operations Office, recover the unreasonable costs identified in the audit and require Brookhaven to strengthen its subcontract administration practices. Management agreed in principle with the audit finding and recommendations. However, management - stated that additional time was needed to further examine the issues.

  15. Physical Health and Stress in Entering Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Loretta K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A study of the health and exercise habits of first-year dental students found that a large proportion had a healthy lifestyle and, somewhat more males than females, regular exercise. A significant negative correlation appeared between trait anxiety and physical activity level. Implications are discussed. (MSE)

  16. Sexual Victimization and Physical Health: An Examination of Explanatory Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palm, Kathleen M.; Follette, Victoria M.

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing body of research illustrating a significant relationship between a history of sexual victimization and the development of physical health problems; however, few researchers have examined variables that mediate this relationship. The present study examined two potential mediating variables: experiential avoidance and current…

  17. Using Internet Assessment Tools for Health and Physical Education Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, Roland; Hill, Kory

    2004-01-01

    The issue of obesity and overweight adolescents has saturated media reports and newspapers as of late. Schools offer a unique environment to make an impact in the area of fitness in that they can develop health-related activity and assessment programs designed to promote proper physical activity and assess the changes in children (Koplan et al.,…

  18. Pedagogies for Justice in Health and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrench, Alison; Garrett, Robyne

    2016-01-01

    In developed economies, such as Australia, schooling is heavily impacted by neo-liberal and neo-conservative agendas. Policies suggest a homogeneity in students that fails to reflect regional contexts of inequality. For the new Australian Curriculum, which includes Health and Physical Education (AC: HPE), this logic prioritises consistency in…

  19. School-Based Health Promotion Initiative Increases Children's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluss, Patricia; Lorigan, Devin; Kinsky, Suzanne; Nikolajski, Cara; McDermott, Anne; Bhat, Kiran B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity increases health risk, and modest physical activity can impact that risk. Schools have an opportunity to help children become more active. Purpose: This study implemented a program offering extra school-day activity opportunities in a rural school district where 37% of students were obese or overweight in 2005 and…

  20. [Secondary Career Education Activities: Health and Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford City Schools, VA.

    The guide is one of a series developed in a pilot project to integrate career education concepts with subject matter in secondary grades. The units are designed to reveal career orientation aspects of traditional topics within five major subject areas: English, social studies, mathematics, science, and health and physical education. The lesson…

  1. Predicting Physical Activity Promotion in Health Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Guy; Biddle, Stuart

    2001-01-01

    Tested the theory of planned behavior's (TPB) ability to predict stage of change for physical activity promotion among health professionals. Researchers measured attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, perceived behavioral control, and stage of change, then later reassessed stage of change. TPB variables of attitude, subjective norms, perceived…

  2. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  3. Health and Physical Activity Research as Represented in RQES

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2005-01-01

    In the past 75 years, articles in Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (RQES) have contributed to the understanding of the role physical activity plays in the health of individuals and populations. Articles have described laboratory and community research studies in humans and animals, presented reviews of topics and conference proceedings,…

  4. A Critical "Critical Inquiry" Proposition in Health and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Deana; O'Flynn, Gabrielle; Wright, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A critical inquiry approach is one of five key characteristics that have shaped the development of the new Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (AC: HPE). However, what this means is open to interpretation. In the various documents leading to the consultation draft AC: HPE and in this document itself, critical inquiry is used in…

  5. Physical and Mental Health of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Caçola, Priscila

    2016-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by poor motor proficiency that interferes with an individual’s activities of daily living. These problems in motor coordination are prevalent despite children’s intelligence levels. Common symptoms include marked delays in achieving motor milestones and clumsiness, typically associated with poor balance, coordination, and especially handwriting skills. Currently, DCD is said to impact about 2–7% of school-age children. More importantly, DCD is considered to be one of the major health problems among school-aged children worldwide, with unique consequences to physical and mental health. Because these children and adolescents often experience difficulties participating in typical childhood activities (e.g., riding a bike), they tend to be more sedentary, more overweight/obese, at a higher risk for coronary vascular disease, and have lower cardiorespiratory and physical fitness than their typically developing peers. From another perspective, the motor difficulties have also been linked to an increased risk for mental health issues, such as higher anxiety and depression. The understanding of the health consequences associated with DCD offers practical applications for the understanding of the mechanisms and intervention protocols that can improve the consequences of this condition. In this review, I will explore such consequences and provide evidence for the implementation of interventions that focus on improving physical and mental health in this population. PMID:27822464

  6. Humor, laughter, and physical health: methodological issues and research findings.

    PubMed

    Martin, R A

    2001-07-01

    All published research examining effects of humor and laughter on physical health is reviewed. Potential causal mechanisms and methodological issues are discussed. Laboratory experiments have shown some effects of exposure to comedy on several components of immunity, although the findings are inconsistent and most of the studies have methodological problems. There is also some evidence of analgesic effects of exposure to comedy, although similar findings are obtained with negative emotions. Few significant correlations have been found between trait measures of humor and immunity, pain tolerance, or self-reported illness symptoms. There is also little evidence of stress-moderating effects of humor on physical health variables and no evidence of increased longevity with greater humor. More rigorous and theoretically informed research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about possible health benefits of humor and laughter.

  7. Health: The No-Man's-Land Between Physics and Biology.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    Health as a positive attribute is poorly understood because understanding requires concepts from physics, of which physicians and other life scientists have a very poor grasp. This paper reviews the physics that bears on biology, in particular complex quaternions and scalar fields, relates these to the morphogenetic fields proposed by biologists, and defines health as an attribute of living action within these fields. The distinction of quality, as juxtaposed with quantity, proves essential. Its basic properties are set out, but a science and mathematics of quality are awaited. The implications of this model are discussed, particularly as proper health enhancement could set a natural limit to demand for, and therefore the cost of, medical services.

  8. Brain-Body Pathways Linking Psychological Stress and Physical Health.

    PubMed

    Gianaros, Peter J; Wager, Tor D

    2015-08-01

    Psychological stress is thought to arise from appraisal processes that ascribe threat-related meaning to experiences that tax or exceed our coping ability. Neuroimaging research indicates that these appraisal processes originate in brain systems that also control physiological stress reactions in the body. Separate lines of research in health psychology and behavioral medicine indicate that these physiological stress reactions confer risk for physical disease. Accordingly, integrative research that cuts across historically separated disciplines may help to define the brain-body pathways linking psychological stress to physical health. We describe recent studies aimed at this goal, focusing on studies of the brain bases of stressor-evoked cardiovascular system reactions and heart disease risk. We also outline an interpretive framework for these studies, as well as needs for next-generation models and metrics to better understand how the brain encodes and embodies stress in relation to health.

  9. Brain-Body Pathways Linking Psychological Stress and Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Gianaros, Peter J.; Wager, Tor D.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological stress is thought to arise from appraisal processes that ascribe threat-related meaning to experiences that tax or exceed our coping ability. Neuroimaging research indicates that these appraisal processes originate in brain systems that also control physiological stress reactions in the body. Separate lines of research in health psychology and behavioral medicine indicate that these physiological stress reactions confer risk for physical disease. Accordingly, integrative research that cuts across historically separated disciplines may help to define the brain-body pathways linking psychological stress to physical health. We describe recent studies aimed at this goal, focusing on studies of the brain bases of stressor-evoked cardiovascular system reactions and heart disease risk. We also outline an interpretive framework for these studies, as well as needs for next-generation models and metrics to better understand how the brain encodes and embodies stress in relation to health. PMID:26279608

  10. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  11. Potential Health Implications and Health Cost Reductions of Transit-Induced Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Sener, Ipek N; Lee, Richard J; Elgart, Zachary

    2016-06-01

    Transit has the potential to increase an individual's level of physical activity due to the need to walk or bike at the beginning and end of each trip. Consideration of these health benefits would allow transit proponents to better demonstrate its true costs and benefits. In light of transit's potential health-related impacts, this study contributes to the growing discussion in the emerging field of health and transportation by providing a review of the current level of understanding and evidence related to the physical activity implications of transit use and its associated health cost benefits. Findings from the review revealed that transit use is associated with increased levels of physical activity and improved health outcomes, but the magnitude of these effects is uncertain. There were few studies that estimated the health care cost savings of transit systems, and those that did tended to be imprecise and simplistic. Objective physical activity measures and frequency-based transit measures would allow for greater consistency across studies and help more directly attribute physical activity gains to transit ridership. Additionally, research in this area would benefit from disaggregate estimation techniques and more robust health datasets that can be better linked with existing transit data.

  12. Strand I: Physical Health Nutrition. Health Curriculum Materials. Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 10, 11, and 12. SUBJECT MATTER: Physical health and nutrition. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into four sections: prenatal and infant nutrition, nutrition in an ecological context, new frontiers in nutrition research, and the responsibility of nutrition. The publication format of four columns…

  13. Letters What causes an ice skater to accelerate? Note on the definitions of weight A-level physics is mathematical enough Correction to 'Confusion over the physics of circular motion'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-11-01

    What causes an ice skater to accelerate? Hugh Fricker Note on the definitions of weight Nenad Stojilovic A-level physics is mathematical enough Helen Hare Correction to 'Confusion over the physics of circular motion'

  14. Monitoring Health, Activity and Fitness in Physical Education: Its Current and Future State of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo; Chen, Ming Hung

    2014-01-01

    Various government policies, strategies and responses in England over the years have highlighted schools and physical education to be instrumental in addressing health and the focus on health has been strengthened within subsequent revisions of the National Curriculum. Whilst this might seem encouraging, concerns have been expressed that such…

  15. Why Does Disaster Recovery Work Influence Mental Health?: Pathways through Physical Health and Household Income.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Kwok, Richard K; Payne, Julianne; Engel, Lawrence S; Galea, Sandro; Sandler, Dale P

    2016-12-01

    Disaster recovery work increases risk for mental health problems, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. We explored links from recovery work to post-traumatic stress (PTS), major depression (MD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms through physical health symptoms and household income in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. As part of the NIEHS GuLF STUDY, participants (N = 10,141) reported on cleanup work activities, spill-related physical health symptoms, and household income at baseline, and mental health symptoms an average of 14.69 weeks (SD = 16.79) thereafter. Cleanup work participation was associated with higher physical health symptoms, which in turn were associated with higher PTS, MD, and GAD symptoms. Similar pattern of results were found in models including workers only and investigating the influence of longer work duration and higher work-related oil exposure on mental health symptoms. In addition, longer worker duration and higher work-related oil exposure were associated with higher household income, which in turn was associated with lower MD and GAD symptoms. These findings suggest that physical health symptoms contribute to workers' risk for mental health symptoms, while higher household income, potentially from more extensive work, might mitigate risk.

  16. Employment and Women's Health: Effects of Paid Employment on Women's Mental and Physical Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repetti, Rena L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviews longitudinal studies on effects of employment on women's mental and physical health, with special attention to variations in effects of employment depending on characteristics of women and their jobs. Concludes that employment appears to improve health of women who have positive attitudes toward employment, and social support from…

  17. Physical Health, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems of Shelter Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Shirley N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined physical health of 72 users of homeless shelters, comparing shelter users with mental illness or substance abuse problems with those without these problems. Found that alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to have low blood pressure, symptoms of liver disease, and tuberculosis treatment history. Found no health differences for…

  18. The Family Medicine Accelerated Track at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center.

    PubMed

    Jones, Betsy Goebel; Berk, Steven L

    2016-02-01

    Meeting Texas' future health care needs will be challenging, including the goal for a physician workforce more balanced toward primary care. To help expand the primary care physician workforce, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center (TTUHSC) School of Medicine developed the Family Medicine Accelerated Track (FMAT), a three-year curriculum that culminates in the MD degree and links medical students to family medicine residency programs at TTUHSC campuses in Lubbock, Amarillo, or the Permian Basin (Odessa and Midland). Twenty current family medicine residents are graduates of the FMAT program, and 30 medical students are enrolled in the program, which is charting a path for curricular innovation in medical education that will be increasingly competency-based.

  19. Accelerator System Model (ASM) user manual with physics and engineering model documentation. ASM version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    The Accelerator System Model (ASM) is a computer program developed to model proton radiofrequency accelerators and to carry out system level trade studies. The ASM FORTRAN subroutines are incorporated into an intuitive graphical user interface which provides for the {open_quotes}construction{close_quotes} of the accelerator in a window on the computer screen. The interface is based on the Shell for Particle Accelerator Related Codes (SPARC) software technology written for the Macintosh operating system in the C programming language. This User Manual describes the operation and use of the ASM application within the SPARC interface. The Appendix provides a detailed description of the physics and engineering models used in ASM. ASM Version 1.0 is joint project of G. H. Gillespie Associates, Inc. and the Accelerator Technology (AT) Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Neither the ASM Version 1.0 software nor this ASM Documentation may be reproduced without the expressed written consent of both the Los Alamos National Laboratory and G. H. Gillespie Associates, Inc.

  20. Community Health Records: Establishing a Systematic Approach to Improving Social and Physical Determinants of Health.

    PubMed

    Van Brunt, Deryk

    2017-03-01

    To systematically improve population health in the United States, community health records (CHRs) must be defined, developed, and implemented. Like electronic and personal health records, CHRs have both unique and overlapping information. CHRs contain data about communities, including the social, physical, and lifestyle determinants of health. These records will serve to complement electronic and personal health records to provide a more complete view of population health, allowing stakeholders to target community health and quality-of-life interventions in a data-driven and evidence-based manner, establishing the basis from which organizations can develop a systematic approach to improving community health. This commentary calls on the United States to conduct a set of consensus activities to define and implement CHRs.

  1. Community Health Records: Establishing a Systematic Approach to Improving Social and Physical Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    To systematically improve population health in the United States, community health records (CHRs) must be defined, developed, and implemented. Like electronic and personal health records, CHRs have both unique and overlapping information. CHRs contain data about communities, including the social, physical, and lifestyle determinants of health. These records will serve to complement electronic and personal health records to provide a more complete view of population health, allowing stakeholders to target community health and quality-of-life interventions in a data-driven and evidence-based manner, establishing the basis from which organizations can develop a systematic approach to improving community health. This commentary calls on the United States to conduct a set of consensus activities to define and implement CHRs. PMID:28103072

  2. Child physical abuse and adult mental health: a national study.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention.

  3. Marital Psychological and Physical Aggression and Children's Mental and Physical Health: Direct, Mediated, and Moderated Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Cummings, E. Mark; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Elmore-Staton, Lori; Buckhalt, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Relations between marital aggression (psychological and physical) and children's health were examined. Children's emotional insecurity was assessed as a mediator of these relations, with distinctions made between marital aggression against mothers and fathers and ethnicity (African American or European American), socioeconomic status, and child…

  4. Importance of Health-Related Fitness Knowledge to Increasing Physical Activity and Physical Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferkel, Rick C.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Stodden, David F.; Griffin, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is expanding across all ages in the United States. Research has documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) among elementary- through college-aged students. The need for a credible and reliable resource that provides research-based information regarding the importance of HRFK is significant. The purpose…

  5. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stygar, W. A.; Awe, T. J.; Bailey, J. E.; Bennett, N. L.; Breden, E. W.; Campbell, E. M.; Clark, R. E.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Ennis, J. B.; Fehl, D. L.; Genoni, T. C.; Gomez, M. R.; Greiser, G. W.; Gruner, F. R.; Herrmann, M. C.; Hutsel, B. T.; Jennings, C. A.; Jobe, D. O.; Jones, B. M.; Jones, M. C.; Jones, P. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Lash, J. S.; LeChien, K. R.; Leckbee, J. J.; Leeper, R. J.; Lewis, S. A.; Long, F. W.; Lucero, D. J.; Madrid, E. A.; Martin, M. R.; Matzen, M. K.; Mazarakis, M. G.; McBride, R. D.; McKee, G. R.; Miller, C. L.; Moore, J. K.; Mostrom, C. B.; Mulville, T. D.; Peterson, K. J.; Porter, J. L.; Reisman, D. B.; Rochau, G. A.; Rochau, G. E.; Rose, D. V.; Rovang, D. C.; Savage, M. E.; Sceiford, M. E.; Schmit, P. F.; Schneider, R. F.; Schwarz, J.; Sefkow, A. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Spielman, R. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Thoma, C.; Vesey, R. A.; Wakeland, P. E.; Welch, D. R.; Wisher, M. L.; Woodworth, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    We have developed conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators: Z 300 and Z 800. The designs are based on an accelerator architecture that is founded on two concepts: single-stage electrical-pulse compression and impedance matching [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 030401 (2007)]. The prime power source of each machine consists of 90 linear-transformer-driver (LTD) modules. Each module comprises LTD cavities connected electrically in series, each of which is powered by 5-GW LTD bricks connected electrically in parallel. (A brick comprises a single switch and two capacitors in series.) Six water-insulated radial-transmission-line impedance transformers transport the power generated by the modules to a six-level vacuum-insulator stack. The stack serves as the accelerator's water-vacuum interface. The stack is connected to six conical outer magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs), which are joined in parallel at a 10-cm radius by a triple-post-hole vacuum convolute. The convolute sums the electrical currents at the outputs of the six outer MITLs, and delivers the combined current to a single short inner MITL. The inner MITL transmits the combined current to the accelerator's physics-package load. Z 300 is 35 m in diameter and stores 48 MJ of electrical energy in its LTD capacitors. The accelerator generates 320 TW of electrical power at the output of the LTD system, and delivers 48 MA in 154 ns to a magnetized-liner inertial-fusion (MagLIF) target [Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF target is 870 TW, which is the highest power throughout the accelerator. Power amplification is accomplished by the centrally located vacuum section, which serves as an intermediate inductive-energy-storage device. The principal goal of Z 300 is to achieve thermonuclear ignition; i.e., a fusion yield that exceeds the energy transmitted by the accelerator to the liner. 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations

  6. J-PAS: The Javalambre Physics of the Accelerated Universe Astrophysical Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepa, J.; Benítez, N.; Dupke, R.; Moles, M.; Sodré, L.; Cenarro, A. J.; Marín-Franch, A.; Taylor, K.; Cristóbal, D.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Abramo, L. R.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Overzier, R.; Hernández-Monteagudo, A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Kanaan, A.; Carvano, M.; Reis, R. R. R.; J-PAS Team

    2016-10-01

    The Javalambre Physics of the Accelerated Universe Astrophysical Survey (J-PAS) is a narrow band, very wide field Cosmological Survey to be carried out from the Javalambre Observatory in Spain with a purpose-built, dedicated 2.5 m telescope and a 4.7 sq.deg. camera with 1.2 Gpix. Starting in late 2016, J-PAS will observe 8500 sq.deg. of Northern Sky and measure Δz˜0.003(1+z) photo-z for 9× 107 LRG and ELG galaxies plus several million QSOs, sampling an effective volume of ˜ 14 Gpc3 up to z=1.3 and becoming the first radial BAO experiment to reach Stage IV. J-PAS will detect 7× 105 galaxy clusters and groups, setting constraints on Dark Energy which rival those obtained from its BAO measurements. Thanks to the superb characteristics of the site (seeing ˜ 0.7 arcsec), J-PAS is expected to obtain a deep, sub-arcsec image of the Northern sky, which combined with its unique photo-z precision will produce one of the most powerful cosmological lensing surveys before the arrival of Euclid. J-PAS's unprecedented spectral time domain information will enable a self-contained SN survey that, without the need for external spectroscopic follow-up, will detect, classify and measure σz˜ 0.5 redshifts for ˜ 4000 SNeIa and ˜ 900 core-collapse SNe. The key to the J-PAS potential is its innovative approach: a contiguous system of 54 filters with 145 Å width, placed 100 Å apart over a multi-degree FoV is a powerful redshift machine, with the survey speed of a 4000 multiplexing low resolution spectrograph, but many times cheaper and much faster to build. The J-PAS camera is equivalent to a 4.7 sq.deg. IFU and it will produce a time-resolved, 3D image of the Northern Sky with a very wide range of Astrophysical applications in Galaxy Evolution, the nearby Universe and the study of resolved stellar populations.

  7. Health physics considerations in UF{sub 6} handling

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.C.

    1991-12-31

    Uranium is a radioactive substance that emits alpha particles and very small amounts of gamma radiation. Its daughter products emit beta and gamma radiation. In uranium handling operations these are the radiations one must consider. This presentation will review the characteristics of the radiations, the isotopes from which they originate, the growth and decay of the uranium daughter products, and some specific health physics practices dictated by these factors.

  8. Instrumentation research and development in DOE health physics programs

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.; Swinth, K.L.

    1987-06-01

    Planning and control of exposure to ionizing radiation require the use of accurate, reliable instrumentation to establish dose rates, indicate high exposure rate areas, and control the spread of contamination. The Radiological Controls Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) operates several programs under the technical direction of DOE's lead laboratory in health physics, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. These programs involve the evaluation and development of instruments to measure dose rates.

  9. Physical Therapy for Musculoskeletal Disorders of Workers: Role of Physical Therapists in Occupational Health.

    PubMed

    Asada, Fuminari; Takano, Kenichiro

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders in workers decrease the productivity of companies and result in socioeconomic losses. Low back pain accounted for approximately 60% of occupational diseases in the past and this is still true at present, making it a major occupational health problem in Japan. Herein, the findings about low back pain are explained as follows: the correlation between imaging examination findings and low back pain is low; psychosocial factors are involved in the onset of low back pain and how it becomes chronic; and improvement of activity is more useful than rest. Furthermore, the advantages of employing physical therapists for improving occupational health are as follows: they can 1) evaluate and intervene ergonomically; 2) provide instructions using a behavioral modification technique based on psychosocial factors; and 3) provide instructions regarding exercise programs considering obstacles to the development of a good exercise habit (painful diseases including osteoarthritis and other diseases such as hypertension and diabetes). In addition, falling, whose incidence has recently been increasing and is an important issue in occupational health, is examined from the aspect of musculoskeletal disorders. The following activities of physical therapists are introduced: the items to be checked during a tour of inspection of a workplace and detailed descriptions of work management and working environment management measures. Physical therapists are rarely involved in studies of low back pain and falling, but their knowledge and skills have been demonstrated to contribute to improving occupational health.

  10. Exercise prescription for the older population: The interactions between physical activity, sedentary time, and adequate nutrition in maintaining musculoskeletal health.

    PubMed

    Shad, Brandon J; Wallis, Gareth; van Loon, Luc J C; Thompson, Janice L

    2016-11-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) promotes musculoskeletal health in older adults. However, the majority of older individuals do not meet current PA guidelines and are also highly sedentary. Emerging evidence indicates that large amounts of sedentary time accelerate the loss of skeletal muscle mass (i.e., sarcopenia) and physical function with advancing age. However, current PA recommendations for sedentary time are non-specific (i.e., keep sedentary time to a minimum). Research indicates that physical inactivity and large amounts of sedentary time accelerate sarcopenic muscle loss by inducing skeletal muscle 'anabolic resistance'. These findings suggest a critical interaction between engaging in 'sufficient' levels of PA, minimising sedentary time, and consuming 'adequate' nutrition to promote optimal musculoskeletal health in older adults. However, current PA recommendations do not take into account the important role that nutrition plays in ensuring older adults can maximise the benefits from the PA in which they engage. The aim of this narrative review is: (1) to briefly summarise the evidence used to inform current public health recommendations for PA and sedentary time in older adults; and (2) to discuss the presence of 'anabolic resistance' in older adults, highlighting the importance of regular PA and minimising sedentary behaviour. It is imperative that the synergy between PA, minimising sedentary behaviour and adequate nutrition is integrated into future PA guidelines to promote optimal musculoskeletal health and metabolic responses in the growing ageing population.

  11. Physics issues in the design of a recirculating induction accelerator for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J.J.; Newton, M.A.; Reginato, L.L.; Sharp, W.M.; Yu, S.S.

    1991-04-15

    A substantial savings in size and cost over a linear machine may be achieved in an induction accelerator in which a heavy ion beam makes many (< {approximately} 50) passes through one or more circular induction accelerators. We examine how the requirement of high beam quality and the requirement of pulse simultaneity at the target constrain the design of such an accelerator. Some of the issues that we have considered include beam interactions with residual gas, beam-beam charge exchange, emittance growth around bends, and beam instabilities. We show some of the interplay between maximization of beam quality and recirculator efficiency, and the minimization of recirculator cost, in arriving at a recirculator design. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Green spaces and General Health: Roles of mental health status, social support, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Dadvand, Payam; Bartoll, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Martinez, David; Ambros, Albert; Cirach, Marta; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Gascon, Mireia; Borrell, Carme; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Green spaces are associated with improved health, but little is known about mechanisms underlying such association. We aimed to assess the association between greenness exposure and subjective general health (SGH) and to evaluate mental health status, social support, and physical activity as mediators of this association. This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based sample of 3461 adults residing in Barcelona, Spain (2011). We characterized outcome and mediators using the Health Survey of Barcelona. Objective and subjective residential proximity to green spaces and residential surrounding greenness were used to characterize greenness exposure. We followed Baron and Kenny's framework to establish the mediation roles and we further quantified the relative contribution of each mediator. Residential surrounding greenness and subjective residential proximity to green spaces were associated with better SGH. We found indications for mediation of these associations by mental health status, perceived social support, and to less extent, by physical activity. These mediators altogether could explain about half of the surrounding greenness association and one-third of the association for subjective proximity to green spaces. We observed indications that mental health and perceived social support might be more relevant for men and those younger than 65years. The results for objective residential proximity to green spaces were not conclusive. In conclusion, our observed association between SGH and greenness exposure was mediated, in part, by mental health status, enhanced social support, and physical activity. There might be age and sex variations in these mediation roles.

  13. Proceedings of the 1998 International Computational Accelerator Physics Conference (ICAP98)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, K.

    2002-01-01

    The CLASSIC library is a C++ class library which provides services for building portable accelerator models and algorithms for their analysis. This paper describes the motivations behind the CLASSIC library and its main features. It shows how this library can be used in a large accelerator design program like the new version 9 of MAD written in C++. The possibilities are illustrated by presenting some new developments in MAD version 9, like sophisticated matching features with simultaneous matching of two rings. The major part of the CLASSIC library is now implemented. Its source code and some preliminary documentation are available from the author.

  14. A Treasure Trove of Physics from a Common Source-Automobile Acceleration Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graney, Christopher M.

    2005-11-01

    What is better than interesting, challenging physics with good data free for the taking to which everyone can relate? That's what is available to anyone who digs into the reams of automobile performance tests that have been available in popular magazines since the 1950s. Opportunities to do and teach interesting physics abound, as evidenced by the frequent appearance of "physics of cars" articles in The Physics Teacher.1-6

  15. Accelerator mass spectrometry of Strontium-90 for homeland security, environmental monitoring, and human health

    SciTech Connect

    Tumey, S J; Brown, T A; Hamilton, T F; Hillegonds, D J

    2008-03-03

    Strontium-90 is one of the most hazardous materials managed by agencies charged with protecting the public from radiation. Traditional radiometric methods have been limited by low sample throughput and slow turnaround times. Mass spectrometry offers the advantage of shorter analysis times and the ability to measure samples immediately after processing, however conventional mass spectrometric techniques are susceptible to molecular isobaric interferences that limit their overall sensitivity. In contrast, accelerator mass spectrometry is insensitive to molecular interferences and we have therefore begun developing a method for determination of {sup 90}Sr by accelerator mass spectrometry. Despite a pervasive interference from {sup 90}Zr, our initial development has yielded an instrumental background of {approx} 10{sup 8} atoms (75 mBq) per sample. Further refinement of our system (e.g., redesign of our detector, use of alternative target materials) is expected to push the background below 10{sup 6} atoms, close to the theoretical limit for AMS. Once we have refined our system and developed suitable sample preparation protocols, we will utilize our capability in applications to homeland security, environmental monitoring, and human health.

  16. Physical Health Problems and Environmental Challenges Influence Balancing Behaviour in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Stephanie; Tobalske, Bret; Quinton, Margaret; Springthorpe, Dwight; Szkotnicki, Bill; Wuerbel, Hanno; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    With rising public concern for animal welfare, many major food chains and restaurants are changing their policies, strictly buying their eggs from non-cage producers. However, with the additional space in these cage-free systems to perform natural behaviours and movements comes the risk of injury. We evaluated the ability to maintain balance in adult laying hens with health problems (footpad dermatitis, keel damage, poor wing feather cover; n = 15) using a series of environmental challenges and compared such abilities with those of healthy birds (n = 5). Environmental challenges consisted of visual and spatial constraints, created using a head mask, perch obstacles, and static and swaying perch states. We hypothesized that perch movement, environmental challenges, and diminished physical health would negatively impact perching performance demonstrated as balance (as measured by time spent on perch and by number of falls of the perch) and would require more exaggerated correctional movements. We measured perching stability whereby each bird underwent eight 30-second trials on a static and swaying perch: with and without disrupted vision (head mask), with and without space limitations (obstacles) and combinations thereof. Video recordings (600 Hz) and a three-axis accelerometer/gyroscope (100 Hz) were used to measure the number of jumps/falls, latencies to leave the perch, as well as magnitude and direction of both linear and rotational balance-correcting movements. Laying hens with and without physical health problems, in both challenged and unchallenged environments, managed to perch and remain off the ground. We attribute this capacity to our training of the birds. Environmental challenges and physical state had an effect on the use of accelerations and rotations to stabilize themselves on a perch. Birds with physical health problems performed a higher frequency of rotational corrections to keep the body centered over the perch, whereas, for both health categories

  17. Physical Health Problems and Environmental Challenges Influence Balancing Behaviour in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Stephanie; Tobalske, Bret; Quinton, Margaret; Springthorpe, Dwight; Szkotnicki, Bill; Wuerbel, Hanno; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    With rising public concern for animal welfare, many major food chains and restaurants are changing their policies, strictly buying their eggs from non-cage producers. However, with the additional space in these cage-free systems to perform natural behaviours and movements comes the risk of injury. We evaluated the ability to maintain balance in adult laying hens with health problems (footpad dermatitis, keel damage, poor wing feather cover; n = 15) using a series of environmental challenges and compared such abilities with those of healthy birds (n = 5). Environmental challenges consisted of visual and spatial constraints, created using a head mask, perch obstacles, and static and swaying perch states. We hypothesized that perch movement, environmental challenges, and diminished physical health would negatively impact perching performance demonstrated as balance (as measured by time spent on perch and by number of falls of the perch) and would require more exaggerated correctional movements. We measured perching stability whereby each bird underwent eight 30-second trials on a static and swaying perch: with and without disrupted vision (head mask), with and without space limitations (obstacles) and combinations thereof. Video recordings (600 Hz) and a three-axis accelerometer/gyroscope (100 Hz) were used to measure the number of jumps/falls, latencies to leave the perch, as well as magnitude and direction of both linear and rotational balance-correcting movements. Laying hens with and without physical health problems, in both challenged and unchallenged environments, managed to perch and remain off the ground. We attribute this capacity to our training of the birds. Environmental challenges and physical state had an effect on the use of accelerations and rotations to stabilize themselves on a perch. Birds with physical health problems performed a higher frequency of rotational corrections to keep the body centered over the perch, whereas, for both health categories

  18. Managing the physics of the economics of integrated health care.

    PubMed

    Zismer, Daniel K; Werner, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    The physics metaphor, as applied to the economics (and financial performance) of the integrated health system, seems appropriate when considered together with the nine principles of management framework provided. The nature of the integrated design enhances leaders' management potential as they consider organizational operations and strategy in the markets ahead. One question begged by this argument for the integrated design is the durability, efficiency and ultimate long-term survivability of the more "traditional" community health care delivery models, which, by design, are fragmented, internally competitive and less capital efficient. They also cannot exploit the leverage of teams, optimal access management or the pursuit of revenues made available in many forms. For those who wish to move from the traditional to the more integrated community health system designs (especially those who have not yet started the journey), the path requires: * Sufficient balance sheet capacity to fund the integration process-especially as the model requires physician practice acquisitions and electronic health record implementations * A well-prepared board13, 14 * A functional, durable and sustainable physician services enterprise design * A redesigned organizational and governance structure * Favorable internal financial incentives alignment design * Effective accountable physician leadership * Awareness that the system is not solely a funding strategy for acquired physicians, rather a fully -.. committed clinical and business model, one in which patient-centered integrated care is the core service (and not acute care hospital-based services) A willingness to create and exploit the implied and inherent potential of an integrated design and unified brand Last, it's important to remember that an integrated health system is a tool that creates a "new potential" (a physics metaphor reference, one last time). The design doesn't operate itself. Application of the management principles

  19. Current Physical and Mental Health of Former Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; DeFreese, J.D.; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a dearth of research on the current health of former collegiate athletes. Purpose: To examine the current health and related correlates in a cohort of former collegiate athletes who played in a diverse range of men’s and women’s sports with various levels of contact. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Former collegiate athletes (N = 3657) were asked to complete an online questionnaire addressing sports history, medical history, and demographics. The questionnaire also included the Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12), which yielded 2 composite scores for physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) health. The VR-12 PCS and MCS scores were compared with published US normative data using t tests and analyses of variance. Results: Mean PCS and MCS scores of the 797 respondents with complete data (21.9% of target sample; average, 14.5 years since last played collegiate sport) were 53.0 ± 6.1 and 51.7 ± 9.4, respectively. When stratified by age and sex, PCS and MCS scores were similar to normative scores in the United States. Lower PCS scores were associated with sustaining ≥3 concussions, playing in collision sports during college, and sustaining a career-ending injury (all, P < .001). No association was found between concussion and MCS scores (P = .06). Among former collegiate athletes, prevalent medical conditions included anxiety (16.2%), hypercholesterolemia/high cholesterol (10.6%), and depression (10.4%). Additionally, 5.8% screened positive for alcohol dependence, and 5.8% screened positive for disordered eating (eg, binge eating, purging). These findings were more prevalent than those reported by the World Health Organization as representative of the US population. Conversely, there was a lower prevalence of depression, bipolar disorders, and attention deficit disorder, with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD), than in the World Health Organization US population data sample. Conclusion: Former collegiate

  20. Physically and psychologically hazardous jobs and mental health in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Strazdins, Lyndall; Lim, Lynette L-Y; Kelly, Matthew; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates associations between hazardous jobs, mental health and wellbeing among Thai adults. In 2005, 87 134 distance-learning students from Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University completed a self-administered questionnaire; at the 2009 follow-up 60 569 again participated. Job characteristics were reported in 2005, psychological distress and life satisfaction were reported in both 2005 and 2009. We derived two composite variables grading psychologically and physically hazardous jobs and reported adjusted odds ratios (AOR) from multivariate logistic regressions. Analyses focused on cohort members in paid work: the total was 62 332 at 2005 baseline and 41 671 at 2009 follow-up. Cross-sectional AORs linking psychologically hazardous jobs to psychological distress ranged from 1.52 (one hazard) to 4.48 (four hazards) for males and a corresponding 1.34-3.76 for females. Similarly AORs for physically hazardous jobs were 1.75 (one hazard) to 2.76 (four or more hazards) for males and 1.70-3.19 for females. A similar magnitude of associations was found between psychologically adverse jobs and low life satisfaction (AORs of 1.34-4.34 among males and 1.18-3.63 among females). Longitudinal analyses confirm these cross-sectional relationships. Thus, significant dose-response associations were found linking hazardous job exposures in 2005 to mental health and wellbeing in 2009. The health impacts of psychologically and physically hazardous jobs in developed, Western countries are equally evident in transitioning Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand. Regulation and monitoring of work conditions will become increasingly important to the health and wellbeing of the Thai workforce.

  1. Physics of Phase Space Matching for Staging Plasma and Traditional Accelerator Components Using Longitudinally Tailored Plasma Profiles.

    PubMed

    Xu, X L; Hua, J F; Wu, Y P; Zhang, C J; Li, F; Wan, Y; Pai, C-H; Lu, W; An, W; Yu, P; Hogan, M J; Joshi, C; Mori, W B

    2016-03-25

    Phase space matching between two plasma-based accelerator (PBA) stages and between a PBA and a traditional accelerator component is a critical issue for emittance preservation. The drastic differences of the transverse focusing strengths as the beam propagates between stages and components may lead to a catastrophic emittance growth even when there is a small energy spread. We propose using the linear focusing forces from nonlinear wakes in longitudinally tailored plasma density profiles to control phase space matching between sections with negligible emittance growth. Several profiles are considered and theoretical analysis and particle-in-cell simulations show how these structures may work in four different scenarios. Good agreement between theory and simulation is obtained, and it is found that the adiabatic approximation misses important physics even for long profiles.

  2. Final Report for "Non-Accelerator Physics – Research in High Energy Physics: Dark Energy Research on DES"

    SciTech Connect

    Ritz, Steve; Jeltema, Tesla

    2016-12-01

    One of the greatest mysteries in modern cosmology is the fact that the expansion of the universe is observed to be accelerating. This acceleration may stem from dark energy, an additional energy component of the universe, or may indicate that the theory of general relativity is incomplete on cosmological scales. The growth rate of large-scale structure in the universe and particularly the largest collapsed structures, clusters of galaxies, is highly sensitive to the underlying cosmology. Clusters will provide one of the single most precise methods of constraining dark energy with the ongoing Dark Energy Survey (DES). The accuracy of the cosmological constraints derived from DES clusters necessarily depends on having an optimized and well-calibrated algorithm for selecting clusters as well as an optical richness estimator whose mean relation and scatter compared to cluster mass are precisely known. Calibrating the galaxy cluster richness-mass relation and its scatter was the focus of the funded work. Specifically, we employ X-ray observations and optical spectroscopy with the Keck telescopes of optically-selected clusters to calibrate the relationship between optical richness (the number of galaxies in a cluster) and underlying mass. This work also probes aspects of cluster selection like the accuracy of cluster centering which are critical to weak lensing cluster studies.

  3. Assessing positive mental health in people with chronic physical health problems: correlations with socio-demographic variables and physical health status

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A holistic perspective on health implies giving careful consideration to the relationship between physical and mental health. In this regard the present study sought to determine the level of Positive Mental Health (PMH) among people with chronic physical health problems, and to examine the relationship between the observed levels of PMH and both physical health status and socio-demographic variables. Methods The study was based on the Multifactor Model of Positive Mental Health (Lluch, 1999), which comprises six factors: Personal Satisfaction (F1), Prosocial Attitude (F2), Self-control (F3), Autonomy (F4), Problem-solving and Self-actualization (F5), and Interpersonal Relationship Skills (F6). The sample comprised 259 adults with chronic physical health problems who were recruited through a primary care center in the province of Barcelona (Spain). Positive mental health was assessed by means of the Positive Mental Health Questionnaire (Lluch, 1999). Results Levels of PMH differed, either on the global scale or on specific factors, in relation to the following variables: age: global PMH scores decreased with age (r=-0.129; p=0.038); b) gender: men scored higher on F1 (t=2.203; p=0.028) and F4 (t=3.182; p=0.002), while women scored higher on F2 (t -3.086; p=0.002) and F6 (t=-2.744; p=0.007); c) number of health conditions: the fewer the number of health problems the higher the PMH score on F5 (r=-0.146; p=0.019); d) daily medication: polymedication patients had lower PMH scores, both globally and on various factors; e) use of analgesics: occasional use of painkillers was associated with higher PMH scores on F1 (t=-2.811; p=0.006). There were no significant differences in global PMH scores according to the type of chronic health condition. The only significant difference in the analysis by factors was that patients with hypertension obtained lower PMH scores on the factor Autonomy (t=2.165; p=0.032). Conclusions Most people with chronic physical health

  4. Physical Activity in People With Mental Illness in Hong Kong: Application of the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Mo P, K H; Chong, Eddie S; Mak, Winnie W; Wong, Samuel Y; Lau, Joseph T

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity is associated with various health benefits for people with mental illness (PMI). Very few studies to date have examined the factors associated with physical activity among PMI in the Chinese context. The present study examined the factors related to physical activity using the health belief model and the association between physical activity and perceived health among 443 PMI in Hong Kong using stratified sampling. Results from the structural equation modeling showed that among all the factors of the health belief model, self-efficacy was significantly related to higher levels of physical activity, and perceived barriers were significantly related to lower levels of physical activity. In addition, physical activity was significantly related to better perceived health and fewer health needs. Interventions to promote physical activity among PMI should aim to increase their self-efficacy in initiating and adhering to physical activity and to remove barriers to physical activity.

  5. Conceptual design of a 1013 -W pulsed-power accelerator for megajoule-class dynamic-material-physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stygar, W. A.; Reisman, D. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Austin, K. N.; Ao, T.; Benage, J. F.; Breden, E. W.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Davis, J.-P.; Ennis, J. B.; Gard, P. D.; Greiser, G. W.; Gruner, F. R.; Haill, T. A.; Hutsel, B. T.; Jones, P. A.; LeChien, K. R.; Leckbee, J. J.; Lewis, S. A.; Lucero, D. J.; McKee, G. R.; Moore, J. K.; Mulville, T. D.; Muron, D. J.; Root, S.; Savage, M. E.; Sceiford, M. E.; Spielman, R. B.; Waisman, E. M.; Wisher, M. L.

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a conceptual design of a next-generation pulsed-power accelerator that is optimized for megajoule-class dynamic-material-physics experiments. Sufficient electrical energy is delivered by the accelerator to a physics load to achieve—within centimeter-scale samples—material pressures as high as 1 TPa. The accelerator design is based on an architecture that is founded on three concepts: single-stage electrical-pulse compression, impedance matching, and transit-time-isolated drive circuits. The prime power source of the accelerator consists of 600 independent impedance-matched Marx generators. Each Marx comprises eight 5.8-GW bricks connected electrically in series, and generates a 100-ns 46-GW electrical-power pulse. A 450-ns-long water-insulated coaxial-transmission-line impedance transformer transports the power generated by each Marx to a system of twelve 2.5-m-radius water-insulated conical transmission lines. The conical lines are connected electrically in parallel at a 66-cm radius by a water-insulated 45-post sextuple-post-hole convolute. The convolute sums the electrical currents at the outputs of the conical lines, and delivers the combined current to a single solid-dielectric-insulated radial transmission line. The radial line in turn transmits the combined current to the load. Since much of the accelerator is water insulated, we refer to it as Neptune. Neptune is 40 m in diameter, stores 4.8 MJ of electrical energy in its Marx capacitors, and generates 28 TW of peak electrical power. Since the Marxes are transit-time isolated from each other for 900 ns, they can be triggered at different times to construct-over an interval as long as 1 μ s -the specific load-current time history required for a given experiment. Neptune delivers 1 MJ and 20 MA in a 380-ns current pulse to an 18 -m Ω load; hence Neptune is a megajoule-class 20-MA arbitrary waveform generator. Neptune will allow the international scientific community to conduct dynamic

  6. Health physics support for thermal shield repair at Connecticut Yankee

    SciTech Connect

    Nevelos, W.F.; Gates, W.J. )

    1988-10-01

    This article describes the radiation and safety controls used by Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company to support underwater repair work on the Haddam Neck Plant's core barrel thermal shield. The work was conducted by divers in the reactor cavity using remote tools and protected by a specially-constructed physical barrier that restricted their movements to a carefully defined and thoroughly surveyed area. A unique dosimetry test rig was used to determine the dose rate profiles within the work areas, and all underwater survey equipment was qualified against personnel dosimetric devices. Underwater operations were monitored and controlled by remote means (video surveillance and dosimetry telemetry), and health physics technicians were rotated through job coverage to avoid complacency and maximize training opportunities. A single, hot particle event occurred during one dive, but this was identified almost immediately and controlled to prevent excessive exposure to the diver.

  7. Evaluation of the Physical Activity and Public Health Course for Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Brown, David R.; Pearce, Emily; Camplain, Ricky; Jernigan, Jan; Epping, Jacqueline; Shepard, Dennis M.; Dorn, Joan M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: From 1996 to 2013, a 6-day Physical Activity and Public Health Course for Practitioners has been offered yearly in the United States. An evaluation was conducted to assess the impact of the course on building public health capacity for physical activity and on shaping the physical activity and public health careers of fellows since taking…

  8. Possibilities and Pitfalls of a Public Health Agenda for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Mary

    2004-01-01

    The 1996 Surgeon General?s Report (SGR), "Physical Activity and Health," was one of the more significant U.S. Federal documents to outline national priorities for health and physical activity. In this monograph Marlene Tappe and Charlene Burgeson and Stephen Cone remind us that "Physical Activity and Health" was the third in a…

  9. Promoting Physical and Mental Health among College Students: A Needs Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezyak, Jill; Clark, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an initial needs assessment of physical and mental health behavior among college students to improve understanding of physical and mental health needs among future helping professionals. Method: A sample of 24 undergraduate students was used to provide a description of mental health, physical activity, and healthy eating…

  10. Effect of physical training in cool and hot environments on +Gz acceleration tolerance in women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, P. J.; Sciaraffa, D.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Acceleration tolerance, plasma volume, and maximal oxygen uptake were measured in 15 healthy women before and after submaximal isotonic exercise training periods in cool and hot environments. The women were divided on the basis of age, maximal oxygen uptake, and +Gz tolerance into three groups: a group that exercised in heat (40.6 C), a group that exercised at a lower temperature (18.7 C), and a sedentary control group that functioned in the cool environment. There was no significant change in the +Gz tolerance in any group after training, and terminal heart rates were similar within each group. It is concluded that induction of moderate acclimation responses without increases in sweat rate or resting plasma volume has no influence on +Gz acceleration tolerance in women.

  11. Plasma physics. Stochastic electron acceleration during spontaneous turbulent reconnection in a strong shock wave.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Y; Amano, T; Kato, T N; Hoshino, M

    2015-02-27

    Explosive phenomena such as supernova remnant shocks and solar flares have demonstrated evidence for the production of relativistic particles. Interest has therefore been renewed in collisionless shock waves and magnetic reconnection as a means to achieve such energies. Although ions can be energized during such phenomena, the relativistic energy of the electrons remains a puzzle for theory. We present supercomputer simulations showing that efficient electron energization can occur during turbulent magnetic reconnection arising from a strong collisionless shock. Upstream electrons undergo first-order Fermi acceleration by colliding with reconnection jets and magnetic islands, giving rise to a nonthermal relativistic population downstream. These results shed new light on magnetic reconnection as an agent of energy dissipation and particle acceleration in strong shock waves.

  12. Can low-energy electrons affect high-energy physics accelerators?

    SciTech Connect

    Cimino, R.; Collins, I.R.; Furman, M.A.; Pivi, M.; Ruggiero, F.; Rumolo, G.; Zimmermann, F.

    2004-02-09

    Present and future accelerators performances may be limited by the electron cloud (EC) effect. The EC formation and evolution are determined by the wall-surface properties of the accelerator vacuum chamber.We present measurements of the total secondary electron yield (SEY) and the related energy distribution curves of the secondary electrons as a function of incident-electron energy. Particular attention has been paid to the emission process due to very low-energy primary electrons (<20 eV). It is shown that the SEY approaches unity and the reflected electron component is predominant in the limit of zero primary incident electron energy. Motivated by these measurements, we have used state-of-the-art EC simulation codes to predict how these results may impact the production of the electron cloud in the Large Hadron Collider, under construction at CERN, and the related surface heat load.

  13. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Stygar, W. A.; Awe, T. J.; Bennett, N L; ...

    2015-11-30

    Here, we have developed conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators: Z 300 and Z 800. The designs are based on an accelerator architecture that is founded on two concepts: single-stage electrical-pulse compression and impedance matching [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 030401 (2007)]. The prime power source of each machine consists of 90 linear-transformer-driver (LTD) modules. Each module comprises LTD cavities connected electrically in series, each of which is powered by 5-GW LTD bricks connected electrically in parallel. (A brick comprises a single switch and two capacitors in series.) Six water-insulated radial-transmission-line impedance transformers transport the power generated bymore » the modules to a six-level vacuum-insulator stack. The stack serves as the accelerator’s water-vacuum interface. The stack is connected to six conical outer magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs), which are joined in parallel at a 10-cm radius by a triple-post-hole vacuum convolute. The convolute sums the electrical currents at the outputs of the six outer MITLs, and delivers the combined current to a single short inner MITL. The inner MITL transmits the combined current to the accelerator’s physics-package load. Z 300 is 35 m in diameter and stores 48 MJ of electrical energy in its LTD capacitors. The accelerator generates 320 TW of electrical power at the output of the LTD system, and delivers 48 MA in 154 ns to a magnetized-liner inertial-fusion (MagLIF) target [Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF target is 870 TW, which is the highest power throughout the accelerator. Power amplification is accomplished by the centrally located vacuum section, which serves as an intermediate inductive-energy-storage device. The principal goal of Z 300 is to achieve thermonuclear ignition; i.e., a fusion yield that exceeds the energy transmitted by the accelerator to the liner. 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD

  14. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Stygar, W. A.; Awe, T. J.; Bennett, N L; Breden, E. W.; Campbell, E. M.; Clark, R. E.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Ennis, J. B.; Fehl, D. L.; Genoni, T. C.; Gomez, M. R.; Greiser, G. W.; Gruner, F. R.; Herrmann, M. C.; Hutsel, B. T.; Jennings, C. A.; Jobe, D. O.; Jones, B. M.; Jones, M. C.; Jones, P. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Lash, J. S.; LeChien, K. R.; Leckbee, J. J.; Leeper, R. J.; Lewis, S. A.; Long, F. W.; Lucero, D. J.; Madrid, E. A.; Martin, M. R.; Matzen, M. K.; Mazarakis, M. G.; McBride, R. D.; McKee, G. R.; Miller, C. L.; Moore, J. K.; Mostrom, C. B.; Mulville, T. D.; Peterson, K. J.; Porter, J. L.; Reisman, D. B.; Rochau, G. A.; Rochau, G. E.; Rose, D. V.; Savage, M. E.; Sceiford, M. E.; Schmit, P. F.; Schneider, R. F.; Schwarz, J.; Sefkow, A. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Spielman, R. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Thoma, C.; Vesey, R. A.; Wakeland, P. E.; Welch, D. R.; Wisher, M. L.; Woodworth, J. R.; Bailey, J. E.; Rovang, D. C.

    2015-11-30

    Here, we have developed conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators: Z 300 and Z 800. The designs are based on an accelerator architecture that is founded on two concepts: single-stage electrical-pulse compression and impedance matching [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 030401 (2007)]. The prime power source of each machine consists of 90 linear-transformer-driver (LTD) modules. Each module comprises LTD cavities connected electrically in series, each of which is powered by 5-GW LTD bricks connected electrically in parallel. (A brick comprises a single switch and two capacitors in series.) Six water-insulated radial-transmission-line impedance transformers transport the power generated by the modules to a six-level vacuum-insulator stack. The stack serves as the accelerator’s water-vacuum interface. The stack is connected to six conical outer magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs), which are joined in parallel at a 10-cm radius by a triple-post-hole vacuum convolute. The convolute sums the electrical currents at the outputs of the six outer MITLs, and delivers the combined current to a single short inner MITL. The inner MITL transmits the combined current to the accelerator’s physics-package load. Z 300 is 35 m in diameter and stores 48 MJ of electrical energy in its LTD capacitors. The accelerator generates 320 TW of electrical power at the output of the LTD system, and delivers 48 MA in 154 ns to a magnetized-liner inertial-fusion (MagLIF) target [Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF target is 870 TW, which is the highest power throughout the accelerator. Power amplification is accomplished by the centrally located vacuum section, which serves as an intermediate inductive-energy-storage device. The principal goal of Z 300 is to achieve thermonuclear ignition; i.e., a fusion yield that exceeds the energy transmitted by the accelerator to the liner. 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD

  15. Instrumentation research and development in DOE health physics programs

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.; Swinth, K.L.

    1986-10-01

    Planning and control of exposure to ionizing radiation require the use of accurate, reliable instrumentation to establish dose rates, indicate high exposure rate areas, and control the spread of contamination. The Radiological Controls Division of US Department of Energy (DOE) operates several programs under the technical direction of DOE's lead laboratory in health physics, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. These programs involve the evaluation and development of instruments to measure dose rates, internal depositions, and airborne and surface contamination. Several important developments, including the total dose meter, the laser-heated dosimeter reader, and a beta survey meter will be described. 17 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. [Effects of Tai Chi exercise on physical and mental health].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa-Ohira, Masako; Toda, Masahiro; Den, Rei; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2010-09-01

    Recently, Tai Chi, which is one of the Chinese traditional martial arts, has been receiving attention. The main feature of Tai Chi is its flowing movements including loosening up, relaxing, and practicing meditation with slow abdominal respiration. Tai Chi is widely taken as part of health-promotion activities or rehabilitation training, and significant mental and physical effects have been reported so far. In this review report, Tai Chi was confirmed to be beneficial not only as a rehabilitation training for old people or patients with various diseases but also as an exercise for healthy people. These findings suggest the potential of Tai Chi as a complementary and alternative therapy.

  17. Benevolent Images of God, Gratitude, and Physical Health Status.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal; Emmons, Robert A; Ironson, Gail

    2015-08-01

    This study has two goals. The first is to assess whether a benevolent image of God is associated with better physical health. The second goal is to examine the aspects of congregational life that is associated with a benevolent image of God. Data from a new nationwide survey (N = 1774) are used to test the following core hypotheses: (1) people who attend worship services more often and individuals who receive more spiritual support from fellow church members (i.e., informal assistance that is intended to increase the religious beliefs and behaviors of the recipient) will have more benevolent images of God, (2) individuals who believe that God is benevolent will feel more grateful to God, (3) study participants who are more grateful to God will be more hopeful about the future, and (4) greater hope will be associated with better health. The data provide support for each of these relationships.

  18. Nuclear physics information needed for accelerator driven transmutation of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lisowski, P.W.; Bowman, C.D.; Arthur, E.D.; Young, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    There is renewed interest in using accelerator driven neutron sources to address the problem of high-level long-lived nuclear waste. Several laboratories have developed systems that may have a significant impact on the future use of nuclear power, adding options for dealing with long-lived actinide wastes and fission products, and for power production. This paper describes a new Los Alamos concept using thermal neutrons and examines the nuclear data requirements. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health in Vietnamese and German older adults.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung M; Cihlar, Volker

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health of Vietnamese and German older adults in a community dwelling. The Vietnamese sample was a random sample of 96 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 to 80 years; 50 % were women. Education is 0 % less than 5 years, 23.95 % 5 to 9 years, 47.91 % 10 to 12 years, and 28.12 % more than 12 years. The German sample was a random sample of 159 community-dwelling persons aged 59 to 90 years; 79.8 % were women. Education is 1.25 % less than 5 years, 40.25 % 5 to 9 years, 38.84 % 10 to 12 years, and 21.38 % more than 12 years. Senior Fitness Test and Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures. The Vietnamese sample shows significantly higher performance levels in motor abilities, i.e., aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. The Vietnamese sample indicates a lower difference in performance levels between age groups than the German sample. No differences in subjectively rated physical health factors were found. The higher performance levels of the Vietnamese sample might reflect a more active lifestyle throughout the life span, especially in socially mediated domains like living arrangements or labor work. Lower performance levels in the studied age groups of the German sample might lead to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and proneness of falls. A more active lifestyle after retirement could contribute to a healthier, more capable, and more independent individual and collective aging. Subjectively rated health stated is a culturally mitigated domain and therefore might be independent of actual physical fitness levels.

  20. The Adaptive Basis of Psychosocial Acceleration: Comment on beyond Mental Health, Life History Strategies Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettle, Daniel; Frankenhuis, Willem E.; Rickard, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    Four of the articles published in this special section of "Developmental Psychology" build on and refine psychosocial acceleration theory. In this short commentary, we discuss some of the adaptive assumptions of psychosocial acceleration theory that have not received much attention. Psychosocial acceleration theory relies on the behavior of…

  1. Motivational Processes in Children's Physical Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: School physical education (PE) not only offers and promotes health-related physical activity (PA), but also encompasses the promotion and development of health-related well-being such as health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Furthermore, assessing PA and HRQOL have become major issues in pediatric public health and also serve as a…

  2. Associations of Health Club Membership with Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Elizabeth C.; Welk, Gregory J.; Franke, Warren D.; Lee, Duck-chul

    2017-01-01

    Introduction This study evaluates whether a health club membership is associated with meeting the US physical activity (PA) guidelines and/or favorable cardiovascular health. Methods Using cross-sectional data of health club members (n = 204) and non-members (n = 201) from April to August 2013, this is the first study to our knowledge to examine a health club membership in relation to objectively measured cardiovascular health indicators including resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiorespiratory fitness based on a non-exercise test algorithm. To determine the total PA and sedentary time, this study used a comprehensive PA questionnaire about both aerobic and resistance activities at the health club, as well as lifestyle activities in other settings, which was developed based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Results The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of meeting either the aerobic, resistance, or both aerobic and resistance PA guidelines for members compared to non-members were 16.5 (9.8–27.6), 10.1 (6.2–16.3), and 13.8 (8.5–22.4), respectively. Significant associations of health club membership with more favorable cardiovascular health outcomes and sedentary behavior were observed for resting heart rate (B: -4.8 b/min, p<0.001), cardiorespiratory fitness (B: 2.1 ml/kg/min, p<0.001), and sedentary time (B: -1.4 hours, p<0.001). Participants with a health club membership of >1 year had more favorable health outcomes, with a smaller waist circumference (men, B: -4.0 cm, p = 0.04; women, B: -3.4 cm, p = 0.06), compared to non-members. Conclusions Health club membership is associated with significantly increased aerobic and resistance physical activity levels and more favorable cardiovascular health outcomes compared to non-members. However, longitudinal, randomized controlled trials would be clearly warranted as cross-sectional data prohibits causal inferences. PMID:28107459

  3. Sense of coherence and physical health. The emotional sense of coherence (SOC-E) was found to be the best-known predictor of physical health.

    PubMed

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Ventegodt, Søren; Merrick, Joav

    2006-06-22

    In this study, we created a measure for emotionality named the emotional sense of coherence (SOC-E). We found that SOC-E was significantly associated with physical health (r = 0.266; p < 0.05), while it was not significantly associated with psychological health (r = 0.006; NS). Based on a correlation matrix, we constructed a new scale, the SOC-E II, which was even better associated with physical health (r = 0.362) and also associated with psychological health (r = 0.259; p < 0.01). Our results showed that SOC-E and SOC-E II were better predictors of physical health than the SOC scales developed by Aaron Antonovsky (1923-1994) (SOC-29 and SOC-13). We conclude that emotional coherence is important for physical health, but it is not important in the same way for psychological health. In a previous study, we found that a mental operationalization of Antonovsky's sense of coherence was highly associated with psychological health and not associated with physical health. Based on these two studies, we conclude that physical health is primarily associated with emotions, while psychological health is primarily associated with mentality.

  4. The High-Luminosity upgrade of the LHC: Physics and Technology Challenges for the Accelerator and the Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Burkhard

    2016-04-01

    In the second phase of the LHC physics program, the accelerator will provide an additional integrated luminosity of about 2500/fb over 10 years of operation to the general purpose detectors ATLAS and CMS. This will substantially enlarge the mass reach in the search for new particles and will also greatly extend the potential to study the properties of the Higgs boson discovered at the LHC in 2012. In order to meet the experimental challenges of unprecedented pp luminosity, the experiments will need to address the aging of the present detectors and to improve the ability to isolate and precisely measure the products of the most interesting collisions. The lectures gave an overview of the physics motivation and described the conceptual designs and the expected performance of the upgrades of the four major experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb, along with the plans to develop the appropriate experimental techniques and a brief overview of the accelerator upgrade. Only some key points of the upgrade program of the four major experiments are discussed in this report; more information can be found in the references given at the end.

  5. Hadron Physics at the Charm and Bottom Thresholds and Other Novel QCD Physics Topics at the NICA Accelerator Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2012-06-20

    The NICA collider project at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna will have the capability of colliding protons, polarized deuterons, and nuclei at an effective nucleon-nucleon center-of mass energy in the range {radical}s{sub NN} = 4 to 11 GeV. I briefly survey a number of novel hadron physics processes which can be investigated at the NICA collider. The topics include the formation of exotic heavy quark resonances near the charm and bottom thresholds, intrinsic strangeness, charm, and bottom phenomena, hidden-color degrees of freedom in nuclei, color transparency, single-spin asymmetries, the RHIC baryon anomaly, and non-universal antishadowing.

  6. Improving documentation of physical health investigations in an adolescent mental health inpatient unit

    PubMed Central

    Horton, David

    2015-01-01

    Physical health investigations, such as blood tests, ECGs, and appropriate radiological tests, are essential in the assessment and management of many patients in inpatient mental health settings. This project took place in a 12-bed adolescent mental health unit in Swindon, UK, where on average at least two-thirds of patients have a diagnosed eating disorder. Multidisciplinary ward rounds provide an appropriate setting for discussion and documentation of physical investigations. Over a two-week period, 22 electronic ward round entries were audited for any documentation of five common investigations - blood tests, ECG, MRI head, DEXA, and ovarian ultrasound. Blood tests were documented in 2/22 (9.1%), ECG, MRI head, DEXA, and ovarian ultrasound were documented in 0/22 (0%). Modifications were made to an electronic ward round template, to include headings for each of these investigations, with free-text boxes as well as drop-down boxes for the radiological tests. Following this, re-audit of 22 ward round entries over a two-week period showed documentation had hugely improved - blood tests were documented in 21/22 (95.5%), with ECG, MRI head, DEXA, and pelvis US all documented in 22/22 (100%). A further audit a month later showed these results were largely sustained. In conclusion, use of a simple, structured ward round template can hugely improve documentation of important physical investigations within mental health settings. PMID:26734411

  7. Extreme of Landscape in Nuclear Physics via High Power Accelerators and Innovative Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gales, S.

    2013-06-01

    The advent of high power light and heavy ion accelerators producing intense secondary radioactive ion beams (RIB) made possible the exploration of a new territory of nuclei with extreme in Mass and/or N/Z ratios. To pursue the investigation of this "terra incognita" several projects, based on second generation accelerators producing intense stables and RIB, all aiming at the increase by several orders of magnitude of the RIB intensities are now under construction and/or planned for the end of this decade in the world. RIB production at SPES@Legnaro, SPIRAL2@GANIL, ALTO@Orsay, ISAC@TRIUMPF and HIE-ISOLDE@CERN are based on the ISOL method, RIBF@RIKEN, FRIB@MSU-NSCL, FAIR@GSI with the new Super-FRS fragment - separator takes advantage of the "In Flight" technique. Projects of high intensity heavy ions, and low energy drivers (< 10 MeV/n) are also foreseen at Flerov Laboratory@DUBNA, GSI, RIKEN and GANIL. Technical performances, innovative new instrumentation and methods, and keys experiments in connection with these second generation high intensity facilities will be reviewed.

  8. Accelerated fatigue behavior and mechano-physical characterizations of in vitro physiological simulation of nitinol stents.

    PubMed

    Saidane, K; Polizu, S; Yahia, L'h

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we have provided an experimental evaluation of the fatigue behavior of the nitinol (NiTi) endovascular device (peripheral stent). The accelerated fatigue tests were performed using arterial conditions, which mimicked actual physiological conditions. Natural, rubber latex-tubing materials were used to simulate human arteries. The equipment design and the test parameters used allowed for the simulation of a compliant artery and the application of circumferential forces to the device.The stent compliance values were good indicators for tracking the time evolution of fatigue behavior. Moreover, the analyses of changes on the surface morphology and on the chemical composition were used to establish a relationship between surface characteristics and peripheral stent response during 400 million cycles, which is equivalent to 10 yrs of human life. In order to determine the influence of the accelerated fatigue, an evaluation of both mechanical and surface characteristics was carried out before and after testing using the following tests and methods, respectively: radial hoop testing (RH), scanning electron microscope analysis (SEM), auger electron spectroscopy (AES), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Under these experimental conditions, the studies have shown that after 400 million cycles, the tested stents did not demonstrate any mechanical failure. Moreover, the surface did not undergo any changes in its chemical composition. However, we did observe an increase in roughness and signs of pitting corrosion.

  9. Public health nurses' approaches to early childhood physical activity in Finland.

    PubMed

    Javanainen-Levonen, Tarja; Poskiparta, Marita; Rintala, Pauli; Satomaa, Pekka

    2009-03-01

    This study was conducted using five focus groups with 24 public health nurses from regional child health clinics in order to explore health professionals' perceptions concerning physical activity. Participants were professionally experienced (mean 13.9 years), female (mean 46.2 years) nurses with some training in health-enhancing physical activity. Frame analysis of verbatim transcripts resulted in four frames: the environmental frame, the family frame, the natural frame and the wellbeing and health frame. The importance of physical and social environment, especially the role of parents, was highlighted as determinants of physical activity. Furthermore, the natural characteristics of physical activity in early childhood and the benefits of physical activity for wellbeing and health were focused on within these frames. According to the findings, the sample of Finnish nurses approached physical activity multidimensionally. Further research is warranted to ascertain how these approaches come true in health care settings in Finland as well as elsewhere.

  10. Progress on plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.

    1986-05-01

    Several plasma accelerator concepts are reviewed, with emphasis on the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator (PBWA) and the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator (PWFA). Various accelerator physics issues regarding these schemes are discussed, and numerical examples on laboratory scale experiments are given. The efficiency of plasma accelerators is then revealed with suggestions on improvements. Sources that cause emittance growth are discussed briefly.

  11. Enculturating science: Community-centric design of behavior change interactions for accelerating health impact.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Aarti; Ghosh, Amit Kumar; Samphel, Rigzin; Yadav, Ranjanaa; Yeung, Diana; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Despite significant advancements in the scientific evidence base of interventions to improve newborn survival, we have not yet been able to "bend the curve" to markedly accelerate global rates of reduction in newborn mortality. The ever-widening gap between discovery of scientific best practices and their mass adoption by families (the evidence-practice gap) is not just a matter of improving the coverage of health worker-community interactions. The design of the interactions themselves must be guided by sound behavioral science approaches such that they lead to mass adoption and impact at a large scale. The main barrier to the application of scientific approaches to behavior change is our inability to "unbox" the "black box" of family health behaviors in community settings. The authors argue that these are not black boxes, but in fact thoughtfully designed community systems that have been designed and upheld, and have evolved over many years keeping in mind a certain worldview and a common social purpose. An empathetic understanding of these community systems allows us to deconstruct the causal pathways of existing behaviors, and re-engineer them to achieve desired outcomes. One of the key reasons for the failure of interactions to translate into behavior change is our failure to recognize that the content, context, and process of interactions need to be designed keeping in mind an organized community system with a very different worldview and beliefs. In order to improve the adoption of scientific best practices by communities, we need to adapt them to their culture by leveraging existing beliefs, practices, people, context, and skills. The authors present a systems approach for community-centric design of interactions, highlighting key principles for achieving intrinsically motivated, sustained change in social norms and family health behaviors, elucidated with progressive theories from systems thinking, management sciences, cross-cultural psychology, learning

  12. Dosimetric Characteristics of 6 MV Modified Beams by Physical Wedges of a Siemens Linear Accelerator.

    PubMed

    Zabihzadeh, Mansour; Birgani, Mohammad Javad Tahmasebi; Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi, Mojtaba; Arvandi, Sholeh; Hoseini, Seyed Mohammad; Fadaei, Mahbube

    2016-01-01

    Physical wedges still can be used as missing tissue compensators or filters to alter the shape of isodose curves in a target volume to reach an optimal radiotherapy plan without creating a hotspot. The aim of this study was to investigate the dosimetric properties of physical wedges filters such as off-axis photon fluence, photon spectrum, output factor and half value layer. The photon beam quality of a 6 MV Primus Siemens modified by 150 and 450 physical wedges was studied with BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) code. The calculated present depth dose and dose profile curves for open and wedged photon beam were in good agreement with the measurements. Increase of wedge angle increased the beam hardening and this effect was more pronounced at the heal region. Using such an accurate MC model to determine of wedge factors and implementation of it as a calculation algorithm in the future treatment planning systems is recommended.

  13. Introduction to high-energy physics and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Clearwater, S.

    1983-03-01

    The type of research done at SLAC is called High Energy Physics, or Particle Physics. This is basic research in the study of fundamental particles and their interactions. Basic research is research for the sake of learning something. Any practical application cannot be predicted, the understanding is the end in itself. Interactions are how particles behave toward one another, for example some particles attract one another while others repel and still others ignore each other. Interactions of elementary particles are studied to reveal the underlying structure of the universe.

  14. Black hole physics. Black hole lightning due to particle acceleration at subhorizon scales.

    PubMed

    Aleksić, J; Ansoldi, S; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; Barrio, J A; Becerra González, J; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biasuzzi, B; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; de Oña Wilhelmi, E; Delgado Mendez, C; Dominis Prester, D; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; Galindo, D; García López, R J; Garczarczyk, M; Garrido Terrats, D; Gaug, M; Godinović, N; González Muñoz, A; Gozzini, S R; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Persic, M; Poutanen, J; Prada Moroni, P G; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rodriguez Garcia, J; Rügamer, S; Saito, T; Saito, K; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Strzys, M; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Zanin, R; Kadler, M; Schulz, R; Ros, E; Bach, U; Krauß, F; Wilms, J

    2014-11-28

    Supermassive black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses are commonly found in the centers of galaxies. Astronomers seek to image jet formation using radio interferometry but still suffer from insufficient angular resolution. An alternative method to resolve small structures is to measure the time variability of their emission. Here we report on gamma-ray observations of the radio galaxy IC 310 obtained with the MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov) telescopes, revealing variability with doubling time scales faster than 4.8 min. Causality constrains the size of the emission region to be smaller than 20% of the gravitational radius of its central black hole. We suggest that the emission is associated with pulsar-like particle acceleration by the electric field across a magnetospheric gap at the base of the radio jet.

  15. Accelerated Integrated Science Sequence (AISS): An Introductory Biology, Chemistry, and Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis-Roberts, Kathleen L.; Edwalds-Gilbert, Gretchen; Landsberg, Adam S.; Copp, Newton; Ulsh, Lisa; Drew, David E.

    2009-01-01

    A new interdisciplinary, introductory science course was offered for the first time during the 2007-2008 school year. The purpose of the course is to introduce students to the idea of working at the intersections of biology, chemistry, and physics and to recognize interconnections between the disciplines. Interdisciplinary laboratories are a key…

  16. 2007 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU Transparency Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R

    2008-04-09

    During the 2007 calendar year, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program for external and internal radiation protection and technical expertise related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2007, there were 172 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 172 person-trips, 160 person-trips were SMVs and 12 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. There were 12 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 10 to UEIE itself. There were two monitoring visits (source changes) that were back to back with 14 monitors. LLNL's Hazard Control Division laboratories provided the dosimetry services for the HEU Transparency monitors.

  17. 2004 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU Transparency Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R

    2005-04-01

    During the 2004 calendar year, LLNL provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Implementation Program (HEU-TIP) in external and internal radiation protection and technical expertise into matters related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2004, there were 200 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 200 person-trips, 183 person-trips were SMVs and 17 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. Eight person-trips from the SMV trips were continuation trips of TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIP. The LLNL Safety Laboratories' Division provided the dosimetry services for the HEU-TIP monitors.

  18. 2005 Annual Health Physics Report for HEU Transparency Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R

    2006-04-21

    During the 2005 calendar year, LLNL provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Program (HEU-TP) in external and internal radiation protection and technical expertise into matters related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2005, there were 161 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 161 person-trips, 149 person-trips were SMVs and 12 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. Additionally, there were 11 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 3 to UEIE itself. There were two monitoring visits (source changes) that were back to back with 16 monitors. Each of these concurring visits were treated as single person-trips for dosimetry purposes. Counted individually, there were 191 individual person-visits in 2005. The LLNL Safety Laboratories Division provided the dosimetry services for the HEU-TP monitors.

  19. Health physics instruments: what are the current needs

    SciTech Connect

    Armantrout, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Health Physics instruments are used to measure the risk which may be incurred by an individual exposed to a given radiation field. The response of the instrument sensors will differ markedly from actual human risk factors for a variety of reasons, and this requires the use of instrument modifications and conversion factors. The values of these conversion factors continue to be updated and will likely change in the future. To accommodate the effects of different types of radiation and new conversion and usage factors, new instruments should be able to determine the type, energy distribution, and direction of incoming radiation and then apply the proper weighting factors to determine relative human risk. Such instrumentation will need to utilize modern sensor elements and microprocessor electronics.

  20. Young People's Perceptions of Mental and Physical Health in the Context of General Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singletary, Joanne H.; Bartle, Craig L.; Svirydzenka, Nadzeya; Suter-Giorgini, Nicola M.; Cashmore, Annette M.; Dogra, Nisha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Increased recognition of the need for health education in schools has seen advances in health literacy in recent years. Most of these have focussed on physical health, whereas education about mental health is generally lacking and focussed on tackling stigma rather than promoting good mental health. This study evaluated a pilot…

  1. Constructing Health and Physical Education Curriculum for Indigenous Girls in a Remote Australian Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatman, Susan L.; Singh, Parlo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over the last 20 years, curriculum development in Health and Physical Education (HPE) (or Physical Education, Physical Education and Health, Sport Education as it is variously called) has repeatedly attempted to address issues of equity and social inclusion. Why then does systemic educational disadvantage persist, and why do the…

  2. Physical and Mental Health of Mothers Caring for a Child with Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurvick, Crystal L.; Msall, Michael E.; Silburn, Sven; Bower, Carol; de Klerk, Nicholas; Leonard, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Our goal was to investigate the physical and mental health of mothers who care for a child with Rett syndrome. Methods: We assessed maternal physical and mental health by using the SF-12 version 1 physical component summary and mental component summary scores as the outcome measures of interest. Mothers (n = 135) of children with Rett…

  3. 2011 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU transparency Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R

    2012-04-30

    During the 2008 calendar year, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program for external and internal radiation protection. They also provided technical expertise related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2008, there were 158 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 158 person-trips, 148 person-trips were SMVs and 10 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. There were 6 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 8 to UEIE itself. There were three monitoring visits (source changes) that were back-to-back with a total of 24 monitors. LLNL's Hazard Control Department laboratories provided the dosimetry services for the HEU Transparency monitors. In 2008, the HEU Transparency activities in Russia were conducted in a radiologically safe manner for the HEU Transparency monitors in accordance with the expectations of the HEU Transparency staff, NNSA and DOE. The HEU Transparency now has thirteen years of successful experience in developing and providing health and safety support in meeting its technical objectives.

  4. 2009 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU Transparency Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R

    2010-04-14

    During the 2009 calendar year, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program for external and internal radiation protection. LLNL also provided technical expertise related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2009, there were 159 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 159 person-trips, 149 person-trips were SMVs and 10 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. There were 4 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 10 to UEIE itself. LLNL's Hazard Control Department laboratories provided the dosimetry services for the HEU Transparency monitors. In 2009, the HEU Transparency activities in Russia were conducted in a radiologically safe manner for the HEU Transparency monitors in accordance with the expectations of the HEU Transparency staff, NNSA and DOE. The HEU Transparency Program now has over fifteen years of successful experience in developing and providing health and safety support in meeting its technical objectives.

  5. [Physical activities and sport; implications for health and society].

    PubMed

    Bazex, Jacques; Pène, Pierre; Rivière, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    The practice of physical and sporting activities (PSA) throughout life is now known to increase healthy life expectancy, to delay the onset of dependency, and to be an effective complementary treatment for many disorders, particularly obesity and disability. The notion of a "sedentary death syndrome " [SeDS] has been evoked on the other side of the Atlantic. Although the beneficial effects of PSA have long been known, statistical analyses have only recently confirmed at the group level what was often disputed at the individual level. Knowledge of the impacts of PSA on cellular, tissular and metabolic functions has improved considerably. PSA is no longer seen simply as a leisure activity but is now considered necessary for a healthy body and mind. PSA also has considerable social, educational and integrative implications. Can any society ignore these evident health benefits with impunity? The aims of this article are 1) to provide a quick overview of the advantages of regular, measured and reasonable PSA, as well as the potential risks of excess; 2) to discuss the quantity of PSA providing the optimal balance between benefits and risks, and the means of achieving this balance; 3) to highlight the lack of enthusiasm for PSA among the French population, and to analyze its causes, and 4) to propose a new organization designed to help more of our fellow citizens to adopt PSA, in the interests of their health and well-being.

  6. How attempts to meet others' unrealistic expectations affect health: health-promoting behaviours as a mediator between perfectionism and physical health.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Fleur; Craddock, Alan E

    2016-01-01

    The traits of perfectionism have been associated with health and longevity. Theoretically and empirically, health behaviours are considered a primary mechanism through which such associations of personality and health occur. However, scant evidence to date indicates behaviours did not mediate between perfectionism and health as anticipated. The aim of the current research was therefore to rigorously examine whether health behaviours mediated associations of perfectionism and physical health-related quality of life (HRQL). A sample of 263 students completed questionnaires measuring subtypes of perfectionism, HRQL, self-efficacy and health-promoting behaviours. Hierarchical regression analyses investigated predictors of physical HRQL and health-promoting behaviours. Non-parametric bootstrapping techniques assessed whether health-promoting behaviours mediated significant associations between perfectionism and physical HRQL. Socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) significantly predicted poorer physical HRQL, and this association was mediated by health-promoting behaviours, a unique finding. Self-oriented perfectionism did not significantly predict physical HRQL, but was linked with more numerous health-promoting behaviours. In conclusion, results suggest that individuals higher in SPP, who are overly concerned with evaluation by others and with meeting perceived unrealistically high standards of performance, performed fewer health-promoting behaviours, and this mediated the association between SPP and poorer physical HRQL. More broadly, perfectionism predicted physical HRQL and engagement or lack thereof in health-promoting behaviours and should be considered as part of health promotion strategies.

  7. Physical activity promotion in the health care system.

    PubMed

    Vuori, Ilkka M; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity (PA) and exercise training (ET) have great potential in the prevention, management, and rehabilitation of a variety of diseases, but this potential has not been fully realized in clinical practice. The health care system (HCS) could do much more to support patients in increasing their PA and ET. However, counseling on ET is not used widely by the HCS owing partly to attitudes but mainly to practical obstacles. Extensive searches of MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and ScienceDirect for literature published between January 1, 2000, and January 31, 2013, provided data to assess the critical characteristics of ET counseling. The evidence reveals that especially brief ET counseling is an efficient, effective, and cost-effective means to increase PA and ET and to bring considerable clinical benefits to various patient groups. Furthermore, it can be practiced as part of the routine work of the HCS. However, there is a need and feasible means to increase the use and improve the quality of ET counseling. To include PA and ET promotion as important means of comprehensive health care and disease management, a fundamental change is needed. Because exercise is medicine, it should be seen and dealt with in the same ways as pharmaceuticals and other medical interventions regarding the basic and continuing education and training of health care personnel and processes to assess its needs and to prescribe and deliver it, to reimburse the services related to it, and to fund research on its efficacy, effectiveness, feasibility, and interactions and comparability with other preventive, therapeutic, and rehabilitative modalities. This change requires credible, strong, and skillful advocacy inside the medical community and the HCS.

  8. Association between Psychopathology and Physical Health Problems among Youth in Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Timothy D.; Smith, Tori R.; Duppong Hurley, Kristin; Epstein, Michael H.; Thompson, Ronald W.; Tonniges, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Youth in residential treatment settings often present with a complex combination of mental and physical health problems. Despite an emerging literature documenting significant associations between mental health and physical health, the relationship between these two areas of functioning has not been systematically examined in youth presenting to…

  9. The Pill Not Taken: Revisiting Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2014-01-01

    In "Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context," we took a broad view of physical education (PE) teacher effectiveness that included public health need and support for PE. Public health officials have been consistent and fervent in their support of PE, and for more than two decades, they have called on schools to…

  10. Relationship between Frequency and Intensity of Physical Activity and Health Behaviors of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Tony T.; Werch, Chudley E.; Wong, Alvin H.; Bian, Hui; Weiler, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background: While studies have determined the importance of physical activity in advancing health outcomes, relatively few have explored the relationship between exercise and various health behaviors of adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between frequency and intensity of physical activity and both health risk…

  11. Are We Promoting the Health of People with Physical Mobility Impairments? A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Donna Marie; Adams, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine whether the health education and health promotion literature is inclusive of people with physical mobility impairments. The English government Department of Health statistics indicate that the number of people living with physical mobility impairments is increasing and this is largely a result of chronic illness…

  12. Algorithmic Skin: Health-Tracking Technologies, Personal Analytics and the Biopedagogies of Digitized Health and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of digitized health and physical education, or "eHPE", embeds software algorithms in the organization of health and physical education pedagogies. Particularly with the emergence of wearable and mobile activity trackers, biosensors and personal analytics apps, algorithmic processes have an increasingly powerful part to play…

  13. Past, Present, and Future of eHealth and mHealth Research to Improve Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Müller, Andre M; Short, Camille E; Hingle, Melanie; Nathan, Nicole; Williams, Susan L; Lopez, Michael L; Parekh, Sanjoti; Maher, Carol A

    2016-03-01

    Because physical inactivity and unhealthy diets are highly prevalent, there is a need for cost-effective interventions that can reach large populations. Electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) solutions have shown promising outcomes and have expanded rapidly in the past decade. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the state of the evidence for the use of eHealth and mHealth in improving physical activity and nutrition behaviors in general and special populations. The role of theory in eHealth and mHealth interventions is addressed, as are methodological issues. Key recommendations for future research in the field of eHealth and mHealth are provided.

  14. Innovating in Health Care Management Education: Development of an Accelerated MBA and MPH Degree Program at Yale

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Howard P.; Pistell, Anne F.; Nembhard, Ingrid M.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, there is recognition of the need for individuals with expertise in both management and public health to help health care organizations deliver high-quality and cost-effective care. The Yale School of Public Health and Yale School of Management began offering an accelerated Master of Business Administration (MBA) and Master of Public Health (MPH) joint degree program in the summer of 2014. This new program enables students to earn MBA and MPH degrees simultaneously from 2 fully accredited schools in 22 months. Students will graduate with the knowledge and skills needed to become innovative leaders of health care organizations. We discuss the rationale for the program, the developmental process, the curriculum, benefits of the program, and potential challenges. PMID:25706023

  15. Innovating in health care management education: development of an accelerated MBA and MPH degree program at Yale.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Melinda M; Forman, Howard P; Pistell, Anne F; Nembhard, Ingrid M

    2015-03-01

    Increasingly, there is recognition of the need for individuals with expertise in both management and public health to help health care organizations deliver high-quality and cost-effective care. The Yale School of Public Health and Yale School of Management began offering an accelerated Master of Business Administration (MBA) and Master of Public Health (MPH) joint degree program in the summer of 2014. This new program enables students to earn MBA and MPH degrees simultaneously from 2 fully accredited schools in 22 months. Students will graduate with the knowledge and skills needed to become innovative leaders of health care organizations. We discuss the rationale for the program, the developmental process, the curriculum, benefits of the program, and potential challenges.

  16. Examining the Pathways between Gratitude and Self-Rated Physical Health across Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hill, Patrick L; Allemand, Mathias; Roberts, Brent W

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined whether dispositional gratitude predicts physical health among adults, and if so, whether this relationship occurs because grateful individuals lead healthier lives, either psychologically or physically. Specifically, we examined whether psychological health, healthy activities, and willingness to seek help for health concerns mediated the link between gratitude and self-reported physical health, as well as if these mediational pathways are moderated by age, in a broad sample of Swiss adults (N = 962, M(age) = 52 years, age range: 19 to 84). Dispositional gratitude correlated positively with self-reported physical health, and this link was mediated by psychological health, healthy activities, and willingness to seek help for health concerns. However, the indirect effects for psychological health and healthy activities were stronger for older than younger adults. In other words, the mechanisms explaining why gratitude predicts health appear to differ across adulthood.

  17. THE RHIC INJECTOR ACCELERATORS CONFIGURATIONS, AND PERFORMANCE FOR THE RHIC 2003 AU - D PHYSICS RUN.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, L; Benjamin, J; Blaskiewicz, M; Brennan, J M; Brown, K A; Carlson, K A; Delong, J; D'Ottavio, T; Frak, B; Gardner, C J; Glenn, J W; Harvey, M; Hayes, T; Hseuh, H- C; Ingrassia, P; Lowenstein, D; Mackay, W; Marr, G; Morris, J; Roser, T; Satogata, T; Smith, G; Smith, K S; Steski, D; Tsoupas, N; Thieberger, P; Zeno, K; Zhang, S Y

    2003-05-12

    The RHIC 2003 Physics Run [1] required collisions between gold ions and deuterons. The injector necessarily had to deliver adequate quality (transverse and longitudinal emittance) and quantity of both species. For gold this was a continuing evolution from past work [2]. For deuterons it was new territory. For the filling of the RHIC the injector not only had to deliver quality beams but also had to switch between these species quickly. This paper details the collider requirements and our success in meeting these. Some details of the configurations employed are given.

  18. National health spending in 2011: overall growth remains low, but some payers and services show signs of acceleration.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Micah; Martin, Anne B; Benson, Joseph; Catlin, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 US health care spending grew 3.9 percent to reach $2.7 trillion, marking the third consecutive year of relatively slow growth. Growth in national health spending closely tracked growth in nominal gross domestic product (GDP) in 2010 and 2011, and health spending as a share of GDP remained stable from 2009 through 2011, at 17.9 percent. Even as growth in spending at the national level has remained stable, personal health care spending growth accelerated in 2011 (from 3.7 percent to 4.1 percent), in part because of faster growth in spending for prescription drugs and physician and clinical services. There were also divergent trends in spending growth in 2011 depending on the payment source: Medicaid spending growth slowed, while growth in Medicare, private health insurance, and out-of-pocket spending accelerated. Overall, there was relatively slow growth in incomes, jobs, and GDP in 2011, which raises questions about whether US health care spending will rebound over the next few years as it typically has after past economic downturns.

  19. Accelerated resolution therapy: an innovative mental health intervention to treat post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Alan; Kip, K; Hernandez, D; McGhee, S; Rosenzweig, L; Hynes, C; Thomas, M

    2016-04-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling trauma and stress-related disorder that may occur after a person experiences a traumatic event, and evokes a combination of intrusion and avoidance symptoms, negative alterations in cognitions and mood, and alterations in arousal and reactivity. Accelerated resolution therapy (ART) is an emerging psychotherapy that provides fast and lasting resolution for mental health problems such as PTSD. ART has been shown to achieve a positive result in one to five sessions, typically over a 2-week period, and requires no homework, skills practice or repeated exposure to targeted events. Initial research, including one randomised control trial, has demonstrated that ART interventions can significantly reduce symptoms of psychological trauma in both civilians and US service members and veterans. These results suggest that ART be considered as either a primary treatment option or for refractory PTSD in those with a suboptimal response to endorsed first-line therapies. Conservative estimates indicate substantial potential cost savings in PTSD treatment. Despite the need for more definitive clinical trials, there is increasing interest in ART in the USA, including in the US Army. The growing positive empirical evidence is compelling, and there appears to be sufficient evidence to warrant UK researchers undertaking ART research. The armed forces offer the potential for comparative international trials. However, equally important are veterans, emergency services personnel and those subjected to violence. ART appears to also have application in other conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, and alcohol or drug misuse. ART can potentially help personnel traumatised by the unique challenges of war and conflict zones by providing brief psychotherapy in a readily accessible and culturally competent manner. ART facilitates the provision of interventions and resolutions in theatre, thus enhancing forces' fighting capability.

  20. Leisure-time physical activity moderates the longitudinal associations between work-family spillover and physical health

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bora; Lawson, Katie M.; Chang, Po-Ju; Neuendorf, Claudia; Dmitrieva, Natalia O.; Almeida, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented cross-sectional associations between negative and positive work-family spillover and physical health. Using an effort-recovery model, the study tested the hypothesis that engagement in greater leisure-time physical activity would facilitate recovery processes that buffer the negative health effects of increasing work-family spillover. Employed adults (N = 1,354) completed two waves of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS). Results indicated that an increase in negative work-family spillover across nine years was associated with decreased physical health and increased number of chronic conditions at Time 2. Moreover, more time spent on moderate leisure-time physical activity buffered many of the associations between increasing negative spillover and declining health. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25999602

  1. Michigan Council on Physical Fitness and Health Annual Report to the Michigan Department of Public Health, December 29, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Public Health, Lansing. Council on Physical Fitness & Health.

    The projects which the Michigan Council on Physical Fitness and Health undertook in 1978 are reported and described here. The projects and activities include: a school physical fitness program that provided assistance to public, private, and parochial schools in monitoring the physical fitness levels of all students in grades kindergarten through…

  2. The Development of Biomedical Applications of Nuclear Physics Detector Technology at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenberger, Andrew

    2003-10-01

    The Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA) operates the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) for the United States Department of Energy. As a user facility for physicists worldwide, its primary mission is to conduct basic nuclear physics research of the atom's nucleus at the quark level. Within the Jefferson Lab Physics Division is the Jefferson Lab Detector Group which was formed to support the design and construction of new detector systems during the construction phase of the major detector systems at Jefferson Lab and to act as technical consultants for the lab scientists and users. The Jefferson Lab Detector Group, headed by Dr. Stan Majewski, has technical capabilities in the development and use of radiation detection systems. These capabilities include expertise in nuclear particle detection through the use of gas detectors, scintillation and light guide techniques, standard and position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs), fast analog readout electronics and data acquisition, and on-line image formation and analysis. In addition to providing nuclear particle detector support to the lab, the group has for several years (starting in 1996) applied these technologies to the development of novel high resolution gamma-ray imaging systems for biomedical applications and x-ray imaging techniques. The Detector Group has developed detector systems for breast cancer detection, brain cancer therapy and small animal imaging to support biomedical research. An overview will be presented of how this small nuclear physics detector research group by teaming with universities, medical facilities, industry and other national laboratories applies technology originating from basic nuclear physics research to biomedical applications.

  3. Brief 71 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees, 2011 Summary (11-12

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Don Johnson

    2012-11-07

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2011. The enrollment and degree data include students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major. Twenty-four academic programs reported having health physics programs during 2011. The data for two health physics options within nuclear engineering programs are also included in the enrollments and degrees that are reported in the nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees data.

  4. [Swimming, physical activity and health: a historical perspective].

    PubMed

    Conti, A A

    2015-01-01

    Swimming, which is the coordinated and harmonic movement of the human body inside a liquid medium by means of the combined action of the superior and inferior limbs, is a physical activity which is diffused throughout the whole world and it is practiced by healthy and non-healthy subjects. Swimming is one of the physical activities with less contraindications and, with limited exceptions, can be suggested to individuals of both sexes and of every age range, including the most advanced. Swimming requires energy both for the floating process and for the anterograde progression, with a different and variable osteo-arthro-muscular involvement according to the different styles. The energetic requirement is about four times that for running, with an overall efficiency inferior to 10%; the energetic cost of swimming in the female subject is approximately two thirds of that in the male subject. The moderate aerobic training typical of swimming is useful for diabetic and hypertensive individuals, for people with painful conditions of rachis, as also for obese and orthopaedic patients. Motor activity inside the water reduces the risk of muscular-tendinous lesions and, without loading the joints in excess, requires the harmonic activation of the whole human musculature. Swimming is an activity requiring multiple abilities, ranging from a sense of equilibrium to that of rhythm, from reaction speed to velocity, from joint mobility to resistance. The structured interest for swimming in the perspective of human health from the beginning of civilization, as described in this contribution, underlines the relevance attributed to this activity in the course of human history.

  5. Health Physics Code System for Evaluating Accidents Involving Radioactive Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    Version 03 The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculational tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes provide a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. The developer's website is: http://www.llnl.gov/nhi/hotspot/. Four general programs, PLUME, EXPLOSION, FIRE, and RESUSPENSION, calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Additional programs deal specifically with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. The FIDLER program can calibrate radiation survey instruments for ground survey measurements and initial screening of personnel for possible plutonium uptake in the lung. The HOTSPOT codes are fast, portable, easy to use, and fully documented in electronic help files. HOTSPOT supports color high resolution monitors and printers for concentration plots and contours. The codes have been extensively used by the DOS community since 1985. Tables and graphical output can be directed to the computer screen, printer, or a disk file. The graphical output consists of dose and ground contamination as a function of plume centerline downwind distance, and radiation dose and ground contamination contours. Users have the option of displaying scenario text on the plots. HOTSPOT 3.0.1 fixes three significant Windows 7 issues: � Executable installed properly under "Program Files/HotSpot 3.0". Installation package now smaller: removed dependency on older Windows DLL files which previously needed to \\ � Forms now properly scale based on DPI instead of font for users who change their screen resolution to something other than 100%. This is a more common feature in Windows 7.

  6. The perception of physical therapy leaders in Saudi Arabia regarding physical therapy scope of practice in primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Al-Abbad, Hani Mohammed; Al-Haidary, Hisham Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To explore the views of the physical therapy service leaders in Saudi Arabia regarding the integration of physical therapy service in primary health care settings. [Subjects and Methods] A self-administered questionnaire consisting of both open and closed ended questions was distributed during May–July 2013 via email to physical therapy leaders representing different regions and health care providers in Saudi Arabia. [Results] Twenty-six participants answered the questionnaire. Eighty five percent of the sample had ≥ 10 years of experience with 57.6% of them holding a post-graduate degree. Participants were from different health care providers and represented different geographical regions of Saudi Arabia. Eighty one percent of the sample reported that the adoption of physical therapy services in primary health care would be advantageous, as it would offer earlier access to health care and would be more cost-effective. The respondents also stated that such a service would contribute towards the prevention of common non-communicable health diseases. [Conclusion] The results of this survey provide generally positive recommendations for the provision of physical therapy service in Saudi Arabia primary health care centers. However, challenges and barriers identified by this study require consideration during the development of the service. PMID:26957740

  7. The perception of physical therapy leaders in Saudi Arabia regarding physical therapy scope of practice in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Al-Abbad, Hani Mohammed; Al-Haidary, Hisham Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To explore the views of the physical therapy service leaders in Saudi Arabia regarding the integration of physical therapy service in primary health care settings. [Subjects and Methods] A self-administered questionnaire consisting of both open and closed ended questions was distributed during May-July 2013 via email to physical therapy leaders representing different regions and health care providers in Saudi Arabia. [Results] Twenty-six participants answered the questionnaire. Eighty five percent of the sample had ≥ 10 years of experience with 57.6% of them holding a post-graduate degree. Participants were from different health care providers and represented different geographical regions of Saudi Arabia. Eighty one percent of the sample reported that the adoption of physical therapy services in primary health care would be advantageous, as it would offer earlier access to health care and would be more cost-effective. The respondents also stated that such a service would contribute towards the prevention of common non-communicable health diseases. [Conclusion] The results of this survey provide generally positive recommendations for the provision of physical therapy service in Saudi Arabia primary health care centers. However, challenges and barriers identified by this study require consideration during the development of the service.

  8. Project: "Teach 'n' Reach" Physically Handicapped: Physical and Health Impaired, Visually Impaired. (Book 4 out of 4.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Arleen

    The final volume (the fifth in the series and the fourth curriculum guide) in Project Teach 'n' Reach, a program designed to teach nondisabled students about disabilities, focuses on physical disabilities. Information on goals, performance objectives, and activity procedures are presented for topics dealing with physical and health impairments,…

  9. Effects of lifetime stress exposure on mental and physical health in young adulthood: How stress degrades and forgiveness protects health.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Loren; Shields, Grant S; Dorn, Gabriel; Slavich, George M

    2016-06-01

    To examine risk and resilience factors that affect health, lifetime stress exposure histories, dispositional forgiveness levels, and mental and physical health were assessed in 148 young adults. Greater lifetime stress severity and lower levels of forgiveness each uniquely predicted worse mental and physical health. Analyses also revealed a graded Stress × Forgiveness interaction effect, wherein associations between stress and mental health were weaker for persons exhibiting more forgiveness. These data are the first to elucidate the interactive effects of cumulative stress severity and forgiveness on health, and suggest that developing a more forgiving coping style may help minimize stress-related disorders.

  10. Effects of lifetime stress exposure on mental and physical health in young adulthood: How stress degrades and forgiveness protects health

    PubMed Central

    Toussaint, Loren; Shields, Grant S; Dorn, Gabriel; Slavich, George M

    2015-01-01

    To examine risk and resilience factors that affect health, lifetime stress exposure histories, dispositional forgiveness levels, and mental and physical health were assessed in 148 young adults. Greater lifetime stress severity and lower levels of forgiveness each uniquely predicted worse mental and physical health. Analyses also revealed a graded Stress × Forgiveness interaction effect, wherein associations between stress and mental health were weaker for persons exhibiting more forgiveness. These data are the first to elucidate the interactive effects of cumulative stress severity and forgiveness on health, and suggest that developing a more forgiving coping style may help minimize stress-related disorders. PMID:25139892

  11. Sexual and physical health after sex reassignment surgery.

    PubMed

    De Cuypere, Griet; T'Sjoen, Guy; Beerten, Ruth; Selvaggi, Gennaro; De Sutter, Petra; Hoebeke, Piet; Monstrey, Stan; Vansteenwegen, Alfons; Rubens, Robert

    2005-12-01

    A long-term follow-up study of 55 transsexual patients (32 male-to-female and 23 female-to-male) post-sex reassignment surgery (SRS) was carried out to evaluate sexual and general health outcome. Relatively few and minor morbidities were observed in our group of patients, and they were mostly reversible with appropriate treatment. A trend toward more general health problems in male-to-females was seen, possibly explained by older age and smoking habits. Although all male-to-females, treated with estrogens continuously, had total testosterone levels within the normal female range because of estrogen effects on sex hormone binding globulin, only 32.1% reached normal free testosterone levels. After SRS, the transsexual person's expectations were met at an emotional and social level, but less so at the physical and sexual level even though a large number of transsexuals (80%) reported improvement of their sexuality. The female-to-males masturbated significantly more frequently than the male-to-females, and a trend to more sexual satisfaction, more sexual excitement, and more easily reaching orgasm was seen in the female-to-male group. The majority of participants reported a change in orgasmic feeling, toward more powerful and shorter for female-to-males and more intense, smoother, and longer in male-to-females. Over two-thirds of male-to-females reported the secretion of a vaginal fluid during sexual excitation, originating from the Cowper's glands, left in place during surgery. In female-to-males with erection prosthesis, sexual expectations were more realized (compared to those without), but pain during intercourse was more often reported.

  12. Physical Health of Young, Australian Women: A Comparison of Two National Cohorts Surveyed 17 Years Apart

    PubMed Central

    Rowlands, Ingrid J; Dobson, Annette J; Mishra, Gita D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Very little is known about the extent of physical health issues among young women in early adulthood and whether this is changing over time. Methods We used data from two national samples of young women aged 18–23 years, surveyed 17 years apart, who participated in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. We used multinomial logistic regression to compare the women’s physical health (i.e., self-rated health, common symptoms and conditions) and identify whether sociodemographic factors, health behaviours and stress explained any physical health differences between the samples. Results Women aged 18–23 years in 2013 (N = 17,069) were more likely to report poor self-rated health and physical symptoms (particularly urogenital and bowel symptoms) than women aged 18–23 years in 1996 (N = 14,247). Stress accounted for a large proportion of the physical health differences between the cohorts, particularly for allergies, headaches, self-rated health, severe tiredness, skin problems, severe period pain and hypertension. Conclusions Women’s health appears to be changing, with young women born in more recent decades reporting greater physical symptom levels. Changing socio-cultural and economic conditions may place pressure on young adults, negatively affecting their health and wellbeing. Assessing the extent to which social structures and health care policies are offering adequate support to young women may offer avenues for promoting positive health and wellbeing. PMID:26528902

  13. Accelerating the deployment of a health information technology and informatics workforce through education, training, research, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, Nancy; Bloomrosen, Meryl

    2011-01-01

    Supported by stronger and more coordinated US federal funding and policies, driven by goals to deliver care more efficiently, and motivated to provide high quality care for an aging and more diverse population, public-private-sector organisations are redoubling efforts to implement information systems. Thus, there is a critical need to increase and broaden the pool of workers who can help organizations maximise the effectiveness of their investments in technology. There are in the US various current health informatics education and training initiatives and ongoing efforts to accelerate Health IT workforce development.

  14. Physical Activity and Health. A Report of the Surgeon General.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    The informatin in this report summarizes the existing literature on the role of physical activity in preventing disease and on the status of interventions to increase physical activity, focusing on endurance-type physical activity. School-based interventions have been shown to be successful in increasing physical activity levels. With evidence…

  15. Health Literacy and the Australian Curriculum for Health and Physical Education: A Marriage of Convenience or a Process of Empowerment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfrey, Laura; Brown, Trent D.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "health literacy" is becoming increasingly prominent internationally, and it has been identified as one of the five key propositions that underpin the forthcoming Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (ACHPE). The ACHPE is one of few national curricula to explicitly refer to health literacy, identifying it…

  16. PHYSICS OF OUR DAYS Physical conditions in potential accelerators of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays: updated Hillas plot and radiation-loss constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptitsyna, Kseniya V.; Troitsky, Sergei V.

    2010-10-01

    We review basic constraints on the acceleration of ultra-high-energy (UHE) cosmic rays (CRs) in astrophysical sources, namely, the geometric (Hillas) criterion and the restrictions from radiation losses in different acceleration regimes. Using the latest available astrophysical data, we redraw the Hillas plot and find potential UHECR accelerators. For the acceleration in the central engines of active galactic nuclei, we constrain the maximal UHECR energy for a given black hole mass. Among active galaxies, only the most powerful ones, radio galaxies and blazars, are able to accelerate protons to UHE, although acceleration of heavier nuclei is possible in much more abundant lower-power Seyfert galaxies.

  17. Physical characteristics and health effects of aerosols from collapsed buildings.

    PubMed

    Gavett, Stephen H

    2006-01-01

    Airborne pollutants can rise to extreme levels when large buildings fall down. The terrorist attack on New York's World Trade Center (WTC) towers caused the release of an enormous quantity of pulverized building materials and combustion products into the local environment. Particulate matter (PM) from crushed WTC building materials is primarily non-respirable (>96% larger than 10 microm mass median aerodynamic diameter [MMAD]) and composed of fibrous and nonfibrous components such as gypsum, calcite, silica, glass fibers, cellulose, and asbestos. Respirable fine WTC PM (PM(2.5)) may include finely crushed building materials as well as combustion products such as dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Rescue workers at the WTC site had exposure-related increases in the incidences of nasal congestion, bronchial hyperreactivity to aerosolized methacholine, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and persistent cough. Toxicological studies in mice indicate that WTC PM(2.5) causes airflow obstruction above a critical dose. The review of physical characteristics and health effects of major pollutants derived from the collapse of the WTC towers has assisted in risk assessment efforts related to the collapse of large buildings.

  18. Physical Education and Physical Activity: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sarah M.; Burgeson, Charlene R.; Fulton, Janet E.; Spain, Christine G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive school-based physical activity programs consist of physical education and other physical activity opportunities including recess and other physical activity breaks, intramurals, interscholastic sports, and walk and bike to school initiatives. This article describes the characteristics of school physical education and…

  19. Evaluation of potentially modifiable physical factors as predictors of health status in knee osteoarthritis patients referred for physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Rui Soles; Pinheiro, João Páscoa; Cabri, Jan

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this cross sectional study was to estimate the contributions of potentially modifiable physical factors to variations in perceived health status in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients referred for physical therapy. Health status was measured by three questionnaires: Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS); Knee Outcome Survey - Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS); and Medical Outcomes Study - 36 item Short Form (SF-36). Physical factors were measured by a battery of tests: body mass index (BMI); visual analog scale (VAS) of pain intensity; isometric dynamometry; universal goniometry; step test (ST); timed "up and go" test (TUGT); 20-meter walk test (20MWT); and 6-minute walk test (6MWT). All tests were administered to 136 subjects with symptomatic knee OA (94 females, 42 males; age: 67.2 ± 7.1 years). Multiple stepwise regression analyses revealed that knee muscle strength, VAS of pain intensity, 6MWT, degree of knee flexion and BMI were moderate predictors of health status. In the final models, selected combinations of these potentially modifiable physical factors explained 22% to 37% of the variance in KOOS subscale scores, 40% of the variance in the KOS-ADLS scale score, and 21% to 34% of the variance in physical health SF-36 subscale scores. More research is required in order to evaluate whether therapeutic interventions targeting these potentially modifiable physical factors would improve health status in knee OA patients.

  20. Canted-Cosine-Theta Superconducting Accelerator Magnets for High Energy Physics and Ion Beam Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, Lucas Nathan

    Advances in superconducting magnet technology have historically enabled the construction of new, higher energy hadron colliders. Looking forward to the needs of a potential future collider, a significant increase in magnet field and performance is required. Such a task requires an open mind to the investigation of new design concepts for high field magnets. Part I of this thesis will present an investigation of the Canted-Cosine-Theta (CCT) design for high field Nb3Sn magnets. New analytic and finite element methods for analysis of CCT magnets will be given, along with a discussion on optimization of the design for high field. The design, fabrication, and successful test of the 2.5 T NbTi dipole CCT1 will be presented as a proof-of-principle step towards a high field Nb3Sn magnet. Finally, the design and initial steps in the fabrication of the 16 T Nb3Sn dipole CCT2 will be described. Part II of this thesis will investigate the CCT concept extended to a curved magnet for use in an ion beam therapy gantry. The introduction of superconducting technology in this field shows promise to reduce the weight and cost of gantries, as well as open the door to new beam optics solutions with high energy acceptance. An analytic approach developed for modeling curved CCT magnets will be presented, followed by a design study of a superconducting magnet for a proton therapy gantry. Finally, a new magnet concept called the "Alternating Gradient CCT" (AG-CCT) will be introduced. This concept will be shown to be a practical magnet solution for achieving the alternating quadrupole fields desired for an achromatic gantry, allowing for the consideration of treatment with minimal field changes in the superconducting magnets. The primary motivation of this thesis is to share new developments for Canted-Cosine-Theta superconducting magnets, with the hope this design will improve technology for high energy physics and ion beam cancer therapy.

  1. Effective seismic acceleration measurements for low-cost Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentaris, Fragkiskos; Makris, John P.

    2015-04-01

    There is increasing demand on cost effective Structural Health Monitoring systems for buildings as well as important and/or critical constructions. The front end for all these systems is the accelerometer. We present a comparative study of two low cost MEMS accelaration sensors against a very sensitive, high dynamic range strong motion accelerometer of force balance type but much more expensive. A real experiment was realized by deploying the three sesnors in a reinforced concrete building of the premises of TEI of Crete at Chania Crete, an earthquake prone region. The analysis of the collected accelararion data from many seismic events indicates that all sensors are able to efficiently reveal the seismic response of the construction in terms of PSD. Furthermore, it is shown that coherence diagrams between excitation and response of the building under study, depict structural characteristics but also the seismic energy distribution. This work is supported by the Archimedes III Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece, through the Operational Program "Educational and Lifelong Learning", in the framework of the project entitled "Interdisciplinary Multi-Scale Research of Earthquake Physics and Seismotectonics at the front of the Hellenic Arc (IMPACT-ARC)" and is co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national funds.

  2. Proposed Physics Experiments for Laser-Driven Electron Linear Acceleration in a Dielectric Loaded Vacuum, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Byer, Robert L.

    2016-07-08

    This final report summarizes the last three years of research on the development of advanced linear electron accelerators that utilize dielectric wave-guide vacuum channels pumped by high energy laser fields to accelerate beams of electrons.

  3. A role for mental health nursing in the physical health care of consumers with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Happell, B; Platania-Phung, C; Gray, R; Hardy, S; Lambert, T; McAllister, M; Davies, C

    2011-10-01

    There is extensive international evidence that people with severe mental illness have a lower standard of physical health than the general population. This leads to higher morbidity and mortality rates. Many of the causes for this poor physical health are modifiable. Yet the physical needs of this consumer group are neglected by healthcare systems in Australia, and elsewhere. While medical specialists are clearly integral to remedying this, nurses are well placed to play a key role in focused prevention and early intervention in the physical well-being of consumers with mental health problems. This paper outlines the specifics on how mental health nurses can be sensitized, prepared and empowered to help turn this serious health issue around. In particular, mental health nurses could be trained in and then utilize a new physical health check and response system in the UK (called the Health Improvement Profile) if adapted for use within Australia. This profile will be briefly introduced, and then its value to improving health care discussed.

  4. Biological/biomedical accelerator mass spectrometry targets. 2. Physical, morphological, and structural characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kelly, Peter B; Clifford, Andrew J

    2008-10-15

    The number of biological/biomedical applications that require AMS to achieve their goals is increasing, and so is the need for a better understanding of the physical, morphological, and structural traits of high quality of AMS targets. The metrics of quality included color, hardness/texture, and appearance (photo and SEM), along with FT-IR, Raman, and powder X-ray diffraction spectra that correlate positively with reliable and intense ion currents and accuracy, precision, and sensitivity of fraction modern ( F m). Our previous method produced AMS targets of gray-colored iron-carbon materials (ICM) 20% of the time and of graphite-coated iron (GCI) 80% of the time. The ICM was hard, its FT-IR spectra lacked the sp (2) bond, its Raman spectra had no detectable G' band at 2700 cm (-1), and it had more iron carbide (Fe 3C) crystal than nanocrystalline graphite or graphitizable carbon (g-C). ICM produced low and variable ion current whereas the opposite was true for the graphitic GCI. Our optimized method produced AMS targets of graphite-coated iron powder (GCIP) 100% of the time. The GCIP shared some of the same properties as GCI in that both were black in color, both produced robust ion current consistently, their FT-IR spectra had the sp (2) bond, their Raman spectra had matching D, G, G', D +G, and D '' bands, and their XRD spectra showed matching crystal size. GCIP was a powder that was easy to tamp into AMS target holders that also facilitated high throughput. We concluded that AMS targets of GCIP were a mix of graphitizable carbon and Fe 3C crystal, because none of their spectra, FT-IR, Raman, or XRD, matched exactly those of the graphite standard. Nevertheless, AMS targets of GCIP consistently produced the strong, reliable, and reproducible ion currents for high-throughput AMS analysis (270 targets per skilled analyst/day) along with accurate and precise F m values.

  5. When Feeling Bad Can Be Good: Mixed Emotions Benefit Physical Health Across Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hershfield, Hal E.; Scheibe, Susanne; Sims, Tamara L.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional models of emotion–health interactions have emphasized the deleterious effects of negative emotions on physical health. More recently, researchers have turned to potential benefits of positive emotions on physical health as well. Both lines of research, though, neglect the complex interplay between positive and negative emotions and how this interplay affects physical well-being. Indeed, recent theoretical work suggests that a strategy of “taking the good with the bad” may benefit health outcomes. In the present study, the authors assessed the impact of mixed emotional experiences on health outcomes in a 10-year longitudinal experience-sampling study across the adult life span. The authors found that not only were frequent experiences of mixed emotions (co-occurrences of positive and negative emotions) strongly associated with relatively good physical health, but that increases of mixed emotions over many years attenuated typical age-related health declines. PMID:24032072

  6. When Feeling Bad Can Be Good: Mixed Emotions Benefit Physical Health Across Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hershfield, Hal E; Scheibe, Susanne; Sims, Tamara L; Carstensen, Laura L

    2013-01-01

    Traditional models of emotion-health interactions have emphasized the deleterious effects of negative emotions on physical health. More recently, researchers have turned to potential benefits of positive emotions on physical health as well. Both lines of research, though, neglect the complex interplay between positive and negative emotions and how this interplay affects physical well-being. Indeed, recent theoretical work suggests that a strategy of "taking the good with the bad" may benefit health outcomes. In the present study, the authors assessed the impact of mixed emotional experiences on health outcomes in a 10-year longitudinal experience-sampling study across the adult life span. The authors found that not only were frequent experiences of mixed emotions (co-occurrences of positive and negative emotions) strongly associated with relatively good physical health, but that increases of mixed emotions over many years attenuated typical age-related health declines.

  7. The Study of Advanced Accelerator Physics Research at UCLA Using the ATF at BNL: Vacuum Acceleration by Laser of Free Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, David B.

    2016-09-07

    An experiment was designed and data were taken to demonstrate that a tightly focused laser on vacuum can accelerate an electron beam in free space. The experiment was proof-of-principle and showed a clear effect for the laser beam off and on. The size of the effect was about 20% and was consistent over 30 laser and beam shots.

  8. Physical activity and motivational predictors of changes in health behavior and health among DM2 and CAD patients.

    PubMed

    Halvari, H; Healey, J; Olafsen, A H; Byrkjeland, R; Deci, E L; Williams, G C

    2016-09-30

    This study tested a physical activity intervention and the self-determination theory (SDT) process model of health-behavior change and health among 108 adult patients with both diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients were randomly assigned to an organized physical activity intervention group (led by instructors) or a non-physical activity control group. At baseline and after 12 months, we measured the following: needs satisfaction, autonomous and controlled motivation for physical activity, perceived competence for physical activity and blood sugar testing, physical activity and blood sugar testing, body weight, glucose control (HbA1c), and self-perceptions of general health and vitality. The intervention produced, as hypothesized, significant changes in all study variables in favor of the experimental group (Cohen's d effect sizes: 0.23-0.72), except the non-significant result for controlled motivation and body weight. The data supported the SDT process model, in which the effect of the intervention significantly predicted indirect changes in behavior and health through motivation variables. Considering the moderate to large effects on increases in motivation, behavior, and health, promoting organized physical activity programs that are perceived as need-supportive may have important health implications for patients with DM2 and CAD.

  9. Accelerating reproductive and child health programme impact with community-based services: the Navrongo experiment in Ghana.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, James F.; Bawah, Ayaga A.; Binka, Fred N.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the demographic and health impact of deploying health service nurses and volunteers to village locations with a view to scaling up results. METHODS: A four-celled plausibility trial was used for testing the impact of aligning community health services with the traditional social institutions that organize village life. Data from the Navrongo Demographic Surveillance System that tracks fertility and mortality events over time were used to estimate impact on fertility and mortality. RESULTS: Assigning nurses to community locations reduced childhood mortality rates by over half in 3 years and accelerated the time taken for attainment of the child survival Millennium Development Goal (MDG) in the study areas to 8 years. Fertility was also reduced by 15%, representing a decline of one birth in the total fertility rate. Programme costs added 1.92 US Dollar per capita to the 6.80 US Dollar per capita primary health care budget. CONCLUSION: Assigning nurses to community locations where they provide basic curative and preventive care substantially reduces childhood mortality and accelerates progress towards attainment of the child survival MDG. Approaches using community volunteers, however, have no impact on mortality. The results also demonstrate that increasing access to contraceptive supplies alone fails to address the social costs of fertility regulation. Effective deployment of volunteers and community mobilization strategies offsets the social constraints on the adoption of contraception. The research in Navrongo thus demonstrates that affordable and sustainable means of combining nurse services with volunteer action can accelerate attainment of both the International Conference on Population and Development agenda and the MDGs. PMID:17242830

  10. Industrial safety and applied health physics. Annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    In connection with personnel monitoring, there were no external or internal exposures to personnel which exceeded the standards for radiation protection as defined in DOE Manual Chapter 0524. Only 55 employees received whole-body dose equivalent of one rem or greater. The highest whole-body dose equivalent to an employee was 2.8 rem. The highest internal exposure was less than one-half of a maximum permissible dose for any calendar quarter. During 1979, 57 portable health physics instruments were added to the inventory and 75 retired. The total number in service on January 1, 1979, was 977. With regards to environmental monitoring, there were no releases of gaseous waste from the Laboratory which were of a level that required an incident report to DOE. There were no releases of liquid radioactive waste from the Laboratory which were of a level that required an incident report to DOE. Soil samples were collected at all perimeter and remote monitoring stations and analyzed for eleven radionuclides including plutonium and uranium. Plutonium-239 content ranged from 0.01 to 0.06 pCi/g, and the uranium-235 content ranged from 0.01 to 0.05 pCi/g. Grass samples were collected at all perimeter and remote monitoring stations and analyzed for twelve radionuclides including plutonium and uranium. Plutonium-239 content ranged from 0.001 to 0.010 pCi/g, and uranium-235 content ranged from 0.001 to 0.010 pCi/g. Two radiation incidents involving radioactive materials were recorded during 1979. This compares with 14 incidents in 1978. (ERB)

  11. The Relationship between Physical Activity and General Health among Menopausal Women in Ahvaz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Nasibeh; Jalili, Lida; Khazaeian, Somayeh; nia, Anvar-sadat Nayebi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Most women experience significant changes in their general health status during menopause, which negatively affects their quality of life. Physical activity has also been shown to enhance quality of life. However, little is known about the effect of physical activity on women’s health during the menopausal transition. This study aimed to determine the relationship between physical activity and general health among menopausal women in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out on 600 menopausal women using cluster random sampling during 2013–2014. Data collection tools were three questionnaires; women’s demographic characteristics, the Goldenberg’s questionnaire, and International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ). Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics through SPSS version 19. The statistical tests were performed at the 95% confidence interval. Results There was a significant relationship between the total score of physical activity and physical health, social functioning, anxiety and depression (p<0.05), but no significant relationship was found between subscales related to physical activity and general health (p>0.05). Conclusion Physical activity is effective in improving general health in menopausal women. Proper training and effective interventions for regular physical activity can be important steps to promote the general health of menopausal women. PMID:28243418

  12. Allied Health Occupations II. Physical Therapy Aide Component. Student Learning Guide. Middletown Public Schools Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middletown Public Schools, CT.

    This volume outlines the requirements and content of a second-year course in allied health occupations education that is designed to provide students with a practical understanding of the work done by physical therapists and physical therapy assistants. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: the health team for…

  13. Physical and Emotional Health Care Needs of Indochinese Refugees: Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Court

    The purpose of this report is to identify the physical and emotional health needs of the Indochinese refugees; to describe the efforts being made to respond to these needs both in the United States and overseas; to discuss the complications that still exist in the physical and mental health care delivery systems for refugees; and to assess…

  14. Knowledge in Action: Fitness Lesson Segments That Teach Health-Related Fitness in Elementary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Michael G.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; van der Mars, Hans; Lee, Chong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine students' health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity levels after the implementation of a series of fitness lessons segments called Knowledge in Action (KIA). KIA aims to teach health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) during short episodes of the physical education lesson. Teacher…

  15. Physical Education Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Health-Related Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfrey, Laura; Cale, Lorraine; Webb, Louisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As a component of the physical education curriculum, Health-Related Exercise (HRE) has been subject to intensive critique in terms of its status, organisation and expression in schools. Concerns and questions have also been raised about physical education teachers' professional knowledge of health and the extent to which HRE features…

  16. Learning Standards for Health, Physical Education, and Home Economics at Three Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    These New York State performance standards focus on: (1) personal health and fitness (students will have the necessary knowledge and skills to establish and maintain physical fitness, participate in physical activity, and maintain personal health); (2) a safe and healthy environment (students will acquire the knowledge and ability necessary to…

  17. Wellness Promotion in the Schools: Enhancing Students' Mental and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David N.; Gilman, Rich; Martens, Matthew P.

    2007-01-01

    Wellness promotion addresses both the reduction of disorder and disease and the enhancement of mental and physical health. There is increasing evidence of a strong and reciprocal relationship between mental and physical health, and linking these two areas may be particularly useful for promoting positive youth development in school contexts. This…

  18. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  19. Kansas Adapted/Special Physical Education Test Manual. Health Related Fitness and Psychomotor Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert E.; Lavay, Barry

    This manual was developed to address the need for health-related physical fitness testing of children with special needs. The first section defines the components of health-related physical fitness which consist of: (1)abdominal strength and endurance measured by a sit-up test; (2) flexibility, measured by a sit and reach test; (3) upper body…

  20. Mental health nursing and physical health care: a cross-sectional study of nurses' attitudes, practice, and perceived training needs for the physical health care of people with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Robson, Debbie; Haddad, Mark; Gray, Richard; Gournay, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    Mental health nurses have a key role in improving the physical health of people with a serious mental illness, however, there have been few studies of their attitudes or the extent of their involvement in this work. The aim of this study was to examine mental health nurses' attitudes to physical health care and explore associations with their practice and training. A postal questionnaire survey including the Physical Health Attitude Scale for mental health nurses (PHASe) was used within a UK mental health trust. The 52% (n = 585) of staff who responded reported varying levels of physical health practice; this most frequently involved providing dietary and exercise advice and less frequently included advice regarding cancer screening and smoking cessation. Having received post-registration physical health-care training and working in inpatient settings was associated with greater reported involvement. More positive attitudes were also evident for nurses who had attended post-registration physical health training or had an additional adult/general nursing qualification. Overall, the attitudes of mental health nurses towards physical health care appear positive and the willingness of nurses to take on these roles needs to be recognized. However, there are areas where nurses in our sample were more ambivalent such as cancer screening and smoking cessation.

  1. Social and Physical Environmental Correlates of Adults’ Weekend Sitting Time and Moderating Effects of Retirement Status and Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Van Holle, Veerle; McNaughton, Sarah A.; Teychenne, Megan; Timperio, Anna; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Salmon, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Emerging research suggests that prolonged sedentary behaviour (SB) is detrimental to health. Changes in SB patterns are likely to occur during particular life stages, for example at retirement age (55–65-year-old). Evidence on socio-ecological SB correlates is scarce and inconsistent in this age group. Moreover, the influence of socio-ecological correlates may vary depending on health and retirement status. This study examined social and environment correlates of overall weekend day sitting among adults at or approaching retirement age, and moderating effects of perceived physical health and retirement status. Baseline data from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life study in 2839 Australian adults (55–65-year-old) were analysed. Participants self-reported proximal social factors, neighbourhood social and physical environment, physical health and retirement status. MLwiN multilevel regression analyses were conducted. In the multivariable model, only social support from friends/colleagues to discourage sitting (B = −0.891; p = 0.036) was associated with overall weekend day sitting. No moderation of retirement status, nor physical health were found in the multivariable results. Results from this study suggest the importance of social factors in relation to weekend day sitting among 55–65-year-old adults. Health promotion initiatives in this age group should pay special attention to enhancing social interaction opportunities. Moreover, findings suggest that SB-specific correlates may need to be examined in future research. PMID:25243886

  2. Social and physical environmental correlates of adults' weekend sitting time and moderating effects of retirement status and physical health.

    PubMed

    Van Holle, Veerle; McNaughton, Sarah A; Teychenne, Megan; Timperio, Anna; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Salmon, Jo

    2014-09-19

    Emerging research suggests that prolonged sedentary behaviour (SB) is detrimental to health. Changes in SB patterns are likely to occur during particular life stages, for example at retirement age (55-65-year-old). Evidence on socio-ecological SB correlates is scarce and inconsistent in this age group. Moreover, the influence of socio-ecological correlates may vary depending on health and retirement status. This study examined social and environment correlates of overall weekend day sitting among adults at or approaching retirement age, and moderating effects of perceived physical health and retirement status. Baseline data from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life study in 2839 Australian adults (55-65-year-old) were analysed. Participants self-reported proximal social factors, neighbourhood social and physical environment, physical health and retirement status. MLwiN multilevel regression analyses were conducted. In the multivariable model, only social support from friends/colleagues to discourage sitting (B = -0.891; p = 0.036) was associated with overall weekend day sitting. No moderation of retirement status, nor physical health were found in the multivariable results. Results from this study suggest the importance of social factors in relation to weekend day sitting among 55-65-year-old adults. Health promotion initiatives in this age group should pay special attention to enhancing social interaction opportunities. Moreover, findings suggest that SB-specific correlates may need to be examined in future research.

  3. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  4. Psychosocial Predictors of Women's Physical Health in Middle Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sandra P.

    Although health is a key element in one's experience of middle adulthood as a time of productivity and personal fulfillment, research on psychosocial factors predictive of mid-life health is sparse, especially for women. Psychosocial variables are not only highly salient to health, but also are potentially modifiable by women themselves. This…

  5. GPU/MIC Acceleration of the LHC High Level Trigger to Extend the Physics Reach at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Halyo, Valerie; Tully, Christopher

    2015-04-14

    The quest for rare new physics phenomena leads the PI [3] to propose evaluation of coprocessors based on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and the Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture for integration into the trigger system at LHC. This will require development of a new massively parallel implementation of the well known Combinatorial Track Finder which uses the Kalman Filter to accelerate processing of data from the silicon pixel and microstrip detectors and reconstruct the trajectory of all charged particles down to momentums of 100 MeV. It is expected to run at least one order of magnitude faster than an equivalent algorithm on a quad core CPU for extreme pileup scenarios of 100 interactions per bunch crossing. The new tracking algorithms will be developed and optimized separately on the GPU and Intel MIC and then evaluated against each other for performance and power efficiency. The results will be used to project the cost of the proposed hardware architectures for the HLT server farm, taking into account the long term projections of the main vendors in the market (AMD, Intel, and NVIDIA) over the next 10 years. Extensive experience and familiarity of the PI with the LHC tracker and trigger requirements led to the development of a complementary tracking algorithm that is described in [arxiv: 1305.4855], [arxiv: 1309.6275] and preliminary results accepted to JINST.

  6. Acceleration of peripheral nerve regeneration through asymmetrically porous nerve guide conduit applied with biological/physical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Rae; Oh, Se Heang; Kwon, Gu Birm; Namgung, Uk; Song, Kyu Sang; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Lee, Jin Ho

    2013-12-01

    Sufficient functional restoration of damaged peripheral nerves is a big clinical challenge. In this study, a nerve guide conduit (NGC) with selective permeability was prepared by rolling an asymmetrically porous polycaprolactone/Pluronic F127 membrane fabricated using a novel immersion precipitation method. Dual stimulation (nerve growth factor [NGF] as a biological stimulus and low-intensity pulse ultrasound [US] as a physical stimulus) was adapted to enhance nerve regeneration through an NGC. The animal study revealed that each stimulation (NGF or US) has a positive effect to promote the peripheral nerve regeneration through the NGC, however, the US-stimulated NGC group allowed more accelerated nerve regeneration compared with the NGF-stimulated group. The NGC group that received dual stimulation (NGF and US) showed more effective nerve regeneration behavior than the groups that received a single stimulation (NGF or US). The asymmetrically porous NGC with dual NGF and US stimulation may be a promising strategy for the clinical treatment of delayed and insufficient functional recovery of a peripheral nerve.

  7. Physical Activity and Aging: Implications for Health and Quality of Life in Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J.

    1998-01-01

    This publication summarizes what is known about the influence of regular physical activity on the health and quality of life of older individuals, addressing both the acute effects of a single bout of physical activity and the more persistent, long-term effects of sustained participation in exercise and physical activity. Section 1 discusses the…

  8. The Contributions of Physical Activity and Fitness to Optimal Health and Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohuruogu, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The paper examined the role of physical activity and fitness more especially in the area of disease prevention and control by looking at the major ways by which regular physical activity and fitness contributes to optimal health and wellness. The Surgeor General's Report (1996), stressed that physical inactivity is a national problem which…

  9. Healthy Bodies: Construction of the Body and Health in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Louisa; Quennerstedt, Mikael; Ohman, Marie

    2008-01-01

    In physical education, bodies are not only moved but made. There are perceived expectations for bodies in physical education to be "healthy bodies"--for teachers to be "appropriate" physical, fit, healthy and skillful "role models" and for students to display a slim body that is equated with fitness and health. In…

  10. Health-promoting physical activity of adults with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Stanish, Heidi I; Temple, Viviene A; Frey, Georgia C

    2006-01-01

    This literature review describes the physical activity behavior of adults with mental retardation consistent with the U.S. Surgeon General's recommendation of 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on 5 or more days per week. The proportion of participants achieving this criterion ranges from 17.5 to 33%. These data are likely to be generous estimates of activity as individuals included in physical activity studies to date have been relatively young and healthy volunteers with mild to moderate limitations. Major sources of physical activity were walking and cycling for transport, chores and work, dancing, and Special Olympics. There is a pressing need to conduct studies using appropriately powered representative samples and to validate measures that assess physical activity less directly; including methodologies in which proxy respondents are used. Accurate information about existing patterns of behavior will enhance the development of effective strategies to promote physical activity among persons with mental retardation.

  11. Baseline Physical Performance, Health, and Functioning of Participants in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kaysen, George A.; Larive, Brett; Painter, Patricia; Craig, Alexander; Lindsay, Robert M.; Rocco, Michael V.; Daugirdas, John T.; Schulman, Gerald; Chertow, Glenn M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-reported physical health and functioning and direct measures of physical performance are decreased in hemodialysis patients and are associated with mortality and hospitalization. Study Design We determined baseline cross-sectional associations of physical performance, health, and functioning with demographics, clinical characteristics, nutritional indexes, laboratory benchmarks, and measures of body composition in participants in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) trial. Setting & Participants 375 persons enrolled in the FHN with data for physical performance, health, and functioning. Predictors Explanatory variables were categorized into fixed factors of age, race, comorbid conditions (diabetes mellitus, heart failure, and peripheral arterial disease) and potentially modifiable factors of dialysis dose, phosphorus level, hemoglobin level, equilibrated normalized protein catabolic rate (enPCR), body composition, body mass index, phase angle, and ratio of intracellular water volume to body weight (calculated from bioelectrical impedance). Outcomes Scores on tests of physical performance, health, and functioning. Measurements Physical performance measured using the Short Physical Performance Battery, self-reported physical health and functioning using the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Body composition (body mass index and bioimpedance analysis) and laboratory data were obtained from affiliated dialysis providers. Results Relative to population norms, scores for all 3 physicality metrics were low. Poorer scores on all 3 metrics were associated with diabetes mellitus and peripheral arterial disease. Poorer scores on the SF-36 Physical Functioning subscale and Short Physical Performance Battery also were associated with age, lower ratio of intracellular water volume to body weight, and lower enPCR. Black race was associated with poorer scores on the Short Physical Performance Battery. Limitations This was a cross-sectional study of

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol use, and physical health concerns.

    PubMed

    Kaysen, Debra; Pantalone, David W; Chawla, Neharika; Lindgren, Kristen P; Clum, Gretchen A; Lee, Christine; Resick, Patricia A

    2008-04-01

    PTSD is a risk factor for alcohol problems and both in turn have been independently associated with increased health problems. However, it is unclear whether alcohol use moderates the relationship between PTSD and health. Participants were battered women (N = 336) recruited from local domestic violence shelters and non-shelter victim-assistance agencies. A 2 (PTSD diagnosis) x 3 (abstainer, infrequent/light, regular/heavy drinking) ANCOVA was conducted, with injuries and length of abuse as covariates and health concerns as the dependent variable. Main effects for PTSD and alcohol use were significant but not the interaction. Women with PTSD reported the greatest number of health concerns. Women who abstained from drinking and those who drank regularly/heavily reported more health concerns than the infrequent/light drinkers. Health concerns associated with PTSD do not appear to be due to problem drinking. In addition, infrequent/light drinking, even for women with PTSD, may be associated with fewer health concerns.

  13. Impact of Physical Activity in Cardiovascular and Musculoskeletal Health: Can Motion Be Medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Gannon L.; Chughtai, Morad; Khlopas, Anton; Newman, Jared M.; Khan, Rafay; Shaffiy, Shervin; Nadhim, Ali; Bhave, Anil; Mont, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is a well-known therapeutic tool for various types of medical conditions, including vasculopathic diseases such as coronary artery disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. Additionally, increased physical activity has been proposed as a therapy to improve musculoskeletal health; however, there are conflicting reports about physical activity potentially leading to degenerative musculoskeletal disease, especially osteoarthritis (OA). Additionally, although physical activity is known to have its benefits, it is unclear as to what amount of physical activity is the most advantageous. Too much, as well as not enough exercise can have negative consequences. This could impact how physicians advise their patients about exercise intensity. Multiple studies have evaluated the effect of physical activity on various aspects of health. However, there is a paucity of systematic studies which review cardiovascular and musculoskeletal health as outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to assess how physical activity impacts these aspects of health. Specifically, we evaluated the effect of various levels of physical activity on: 1) cardiovascular and 2) musculoskeletal health. The review revealed that physical activity may decrease cardiovascular disease and improve OA symptoms, and therefore, motion can be considered a “medicine”. However, because heavy activity can potentially lead to increased OA risk, physicians should advise their patients that excessive activity can also potentially impact their health negatively, and should be done in moderation, until further study. PMID:28392856

  14. Inadequate physical activity and health care expenditures in the United States.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Susan A; Fulton, Janet E; Pratt, Michael; Yang, Zhou; Adams, E Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    This study estimates the percentage of health care expenditures in the non-institutionalized United States (U.S.) adult population associated with levels of physical activity inadequate to meet current guidelines. Leisure-time physical activity data from the National Health Interview Survey (2004-2010) were merged with health care expenditure data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2006-2011). Health care expenditures for inactive (i.e., no physical activity) and insufficiently active adults (i.e., some physical activity but not enough to meet guidelines) were compared with active adults (i.e., ≥150minutes/week moderate-intensity equivalent activity) using an econometric model. Overall, 11.1% (95% CI: 7.3, 14.9) of aggregate health care expenditures were associated with inadequate physical activity (i.e., inactive and insufficiently active levels). When adults with any reported difficulty walking due to a health problem were excluded, 8.7% (95% CI: 5.2, 12.3) of aggregate health care expenditures were associated with inadequate physical activity. Increasing adults' physical activity to meet guidelines may reduce U.S. health care expenditures.

  15. Physical Health Conditions and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Offenders with Alcohol Use Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Easton, Caroline J.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent among samples with diagnosed alcohol use disorders but few studies have evaluated the factors that account for this increased risk and none have systematically evaluated the risk posed by comorbid physical health conditions. The current study evaluated the likelihood of perpetrating IPV among alcohol diagnosed offenders with medical health problems relative to healthy counterparts. Physical health and partner violence data provided by 655 criminal offenders with alcohol use disorders diagnosed during a court-ordered substance abuse evaluation were examined. One third of participants (35.3%) endorsed a physical health condition and 46.4% reported perpetrating physical IPV. The odds of perpetrating IPV among participants with a physical health condition were 2.29 times larger than among healthy participants. Specific conditions emerged as risk factors for IPV, including brain injury, cardiac issues, chronic pain, liver issues, gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatitis, and recent injury. Findings highlight the importance of identifying and managing physical health conditions that may complicate IPV treatment efforts. Integrated behavioral and medical health treatment approaches may increase treatment compliance and reduce the risk of future partner violence among offenders with co-occurring issues, such as mental illness, addiction, and physical health conditions. PMID:26058979

  16. "Healthful P.E." Albuquerque Public Schools--Lovelace Physical Fitness Pilot Program and "Healthful P.E." Evaluation Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidenwurm, Jerry; Phillipp, Annette

    Results of two evaluations of a 3-year physical fitness pilot program, developed by the Lovelace Medical Foundation and the Albuquerque Public Schools to upgrade the health and physical fitness status of adolescent students, are presented. Adolescent risk factors addressed by the project are discussed, including smoking, substance abuse, poor…

  17. Everyday Racial Discrimination, Everyday Non-racial Discrimination, and Physical Health Among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Mouzon, Dawne M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Woodward, Amanda; Chatters, Linda M

    2017-01-01

    Past research has identified a link between discrimination and health outcomes among people of color. Perceptions of the cause of discrimination (racial vs. other) seem to be important for mental health; however, this relationship has not been fully examined for physical health. Using data from the National Survey of American Life, we find that, among African Americans, racial discrimination and overall discrimination regardless of attribution are associated with negative health outcomes while non-racial discrimination is not. The results suggest that racial discrimination has a unique adverse effect on physical health for African Americans that practitioners need to better understand.

  18. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief presents the results of the study in the area of physical activity, covering the following topics: (1) Health Education; (2) Physical…

  19. What Are the Costs of Marital Conflict and Dissolution to Children's Physical Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2004-01-01

    Do parental marital conflict and dissolution influence the risk trajectory of children's physical health risk? This paper reviews evidence addressing this question in the context of understanding how early environmental adversities may trigger a succession of risks that lead to poor health in childhood and greater risk for chronic health problems…

  20. Effects of Stress on Students' Physical and Mental Health and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankar, Nilani L.; Park, Crystal L.

    2016-01-01

    Stress affects students in multiple ways. This article provides a conceptual overview of the direct (e.g., psychoneuroimmunological, endocrine) and indirect (health behavior) pathways through which stress affects physical health, the psychological effects of stress on mental health, and the cognitive effects of stress (e.g., attention,…

  1. Health Education: Effects on Classroom Climate and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efstathiou, Nicholas T.; Risvas, Grigorios S.; Theodoraki, Eleni-Maria M.; Galanaki, Evangelia P.; Zampelas, Antonios D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between classroom psychological climate and the physical and sedentary behaviour of primary school students after the implementation of an innovative education programme regarding nutrition and physical activity. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Study…

  2. Health-Related Fitness Models in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Jennifer; Kulinna, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Physical education has been an integral part of the school curriculum for more than a century. Although the focus has changed over time, the major objective has remained relatively constant: to provide students with the knowledge, skills, abilities, behaviors, and confidence to be physically active throughout their lifetime. As more physical…

  3. Physical Fitness: The Pathway to Healthful Living. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockey, Robert V.

    This text is designed for university-level foundations of physical education courses that incorporate student participation in alternate lecture and laboratory sessions. The material is presented so that each individual might evaluate his present level of physical fitness, might carefully consider all the information available, and then make an…

  4. Physical and Mental Health and Access to Care among Nonmetropolitan Veterans Health Administration Patients Younger than 65 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Alan; Weeks, William B.

    2006-01-01

    Context: The 4.5 million military veterans treated by the Veterans Health Administration (VA) are believed to experience poorer physical and mental health than nonveterans. Furthermore, nonmetropolitan residents have less access to medical services, whether or not they are veterans in VA care. A direct comparison of metropolitan and…

  5. School Physical Education: The Effectiveness of Health-Related Interventions and Recommendations for Health-Promotion Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quitério, Ana Luísa Dias

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of physical education (PE) interventions designed to foster health features among school-aged children, and to present a qualitative perspective of the different approaches that are most effective in promoting health among youth. Design: Systematic review. Method: An extensive electronic literature search was…

  6. Assessing Health-Related Quality of Life in Northern Plains American Indians: Prominence of Physical Activity as a Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poltavski, Dmitri; Holm, Jeffrey; Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; McDonald, Leander

    2010-01-01

    Associations of behavioral health risks and healthy behaviors with self-reported health-related quality of life measures were investigated in a Northern Plains American Indian sample. Participants were surveyed in person using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. The results showed that regular physical activity was significantly…

  7. Health Sensitivity: Age Differences in the Within-Person Coupling of Individuals' Physical Health and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schöllgen, Ina; Morack, Jennifer; Infurna, Frank J.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Well-being and physical health are central indicators of quality of life in old age. Research from a between-person difference perspective finds that people in better health than their peers also report higher well-being than their peers. However, we know very little about whether changes in one domain are accompanied by changes in the other…

  8. One-stop shopping: efforts to integrate physical and behavioral health care in five California community health centers.

    PubMed

    Pourat, Nadereh; Hadler, Max W; Dixon, Brittany; Brindis, Claire

    2015-01-01

    More than 70 percent of behavioral health conditions are first diagnosed in the primary care setting. Yet physical and behavioral health care are typically provided separately, compelling many vulnerable patients to navigate the complexities of two separate systems of care. This policy brief examines five community health centers (CHCs) in California that have taken preliminary steps toward creating "one-stop shopping" for both physical and behavioral health care. The steps taken to increase integration by the CHCs include employing behavioral health providers, using a single electronic health record that includes both physical and behavioral health data, transforming the physical space, and developing mechanisms for effective transition of patients between providers. The findings emphasize the importance of changes to Medi-Cal reimbursement policies to promote same-day visits, as well as the importance of cultural changes to integrate behavioral health. They also highlight the need for comprehensive tools to assess and promote integration and to identify solutions for the most challenging activities required to achieve full integration.

  9. The effects of constraints and mastery on mental and physical health: Conceptual and methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Infurna, Frank J; Mayer, Axel

    2015-06-01

    Perceived control and health are closely interrelated in adulthood and old age. However, less is known regarding the differential implications of 2 facets of perceived control, constraints and mastery, for mental and physical health. Furthermore, a limitation of previous research testing the pathways linking perceived control to mental and physical health is that mediation was tested with cross-sectional designs and not in a longitudinal mediation design that accounts for temporal ordering and prior confounds. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; n = 7,612, M age = 68, SD = 10.66; 59% women) we examined the effect of constraints and mastery on 4-year changes in mental and physical health and whether physical activity mediated such effects in a longitudinal mediation design. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we modeled the 2-factor structure of perceived control that consisted of constraints and mastery. In our longitudinal mediation model, where we accounted for possible confounders (e.g., age, gender, education, neuroticism, conscientiousness, memory, and health conditions), constraints showed a stronger total effect on mental and physical health, than mastery, such that more constraints were associated with 4-year declines in mental and physical health. Physical activity did not mediate the effect of constraints and mastery on mental and physical health (indirect effect). To demonstrate the importance of a longitudinal mediation model that accounts for confounders, we also estimated the mediated effect using 2 models commonly used in the literature: cross-sectional mediation model and longitudinal mediation model without accounting for confounders. These mediation models indicated a spurious indirect effect that cannot be causally interpreted. Our results showcase that constraints and mastery have differential implications for mental and physical health, as well as how a longitudinal mediation design can illustrate (or not) pathways in

  10. Mental and Physical Health Needs of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients in Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Flentje, Annesa; Livingston, Nicholas A.; Roley, Jason; Sorensen, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) orientation predicts greater substance use, treatment utilization, and poorer mental and physical health, but health needs of LGB individuals in substance abuse treatment remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in mental and physical health needs of LGB individuals in substance abuse treatment. Methods Substance abuse treatment admissions data from the County of San Francisco were used in this investigation of differences in mental and physical health problems and service utilization between LGB (n=1,441) and heterosexual individuals (n=11,770). Results LGB individuals were more likely to have mental health diagnoses (adjORs ranging from 1.86–4.00) and current mental health prescription medications (adjORs from 1.79–4.99) than heterosexual counterparts. Gay and bisexual men and bisexual women but not lesbian women, were more likely to be receiving mental health treatment. Gay men and bisexual women were more likely than heterosexual counterparts to report physical health problems. Gay and bisexual men and bisexual women but not lesbian women were more likely to be receiving health care. There were no differences between LGB individuals and heterosexual counterparts in the number of emergency room visits or hospital overnight stays. Discussion This study found that LGB individuals entering substance abuse treatment have greater mental and physical health needs than heterosexual counterparts. Implications for healthcare integration, research, and practice are discussed. PMID:26314505

  11. Towards Accelerated Aging Methodologies and Health Management of Power MOSFETs (Technical Brief)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celaya, Jose R.; Patil, Nishad; Saha, Sankalita; Wysocki, Phil; Goebel, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Understanding aging mechanisms of electronic components is of extreme importance in the aerospace domain where they are part of numerous critical subsystems including avionics. In particular, power MOSFETs are of special interest as they are involved in high voltage switching circuits such as drivers for electrical motors. With increased use of electronics in aircraft control, it becomes more important to understand the degradation of these components in aircraft specific environments. In this paper, we present an accelerated aging methodology for power MOSFETs that subject the devices to indirect thermal overstress during high voltage switching. During this accelerated aging process, two major modes of failure were observed - latch-up and die attach degradation. In this paper we present the details of our aging methodology along with details of experiments and analysis of the results.

  12. Mental health and physical activity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Conte, Francesca; Banting, Lauren; Teede, Helena J; Stepto, Nigel K

    2015-04-01

    This review was designed to consider the available literature concerning mental health and physical activity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A systematic approach was taken and two electronic databases (PubMed and EBSCO Research articles published between 1970 and 2013) were searched in 2013 to inform a narrative review. Inclusion criteria encompassed requirements for the research to involve a physical activity intervention and assessment of mental health outcomes in women with PCOS. Seven articles considered mental health outcomes and physical activity interventions for women with PCOS. The results demonstrated positive outcomes following physical activity intervention for health-related quality of life, depression, and anxiety. Only one paper reported the independent effects of physical activity on mental health. All other interventions included multi-factor lifestyle interventions or did not establish a control group. Physical activity is likely to be beneficial to the mental health of women with PCOS; however, more research is required to establish the nature of the relationship between physical activity and mental health outcomes.

  13. Physical violence against health care workers: A nationwide study from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Najafi, Fereshteh; Ghazanfari, Nahid; Tamizi, Zahra; Afshani, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    Background: Workplace violence is a serious and problematic phenomenon in health care settings. Research shows that health care workers are at the highest risk of such violence. The aim of this study was to address the frequency of physical violence against Iranian health personnel, their response to such violence, as well as the contributing factors to physical violence. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011, in which 6500 out of 57,000 health personnel working in some teaching hospitals were selected using multi-stage random sampling. Data were collected using the questionnaire of “Workplace Violence in the Health Sector” developed by the International Labor Organization, the International Council of Nurses, the World Health Organization, and the Public Services International. Results: The findings revealed that 23.5% of the participants were exposed to physical violence in the 12 months prior to the study. Nurses were the main victims of physical violence (78%) and patients' families were the main perpetrators of violence (56%). The most common reaction of victims to physical violence was asking the aggressor to stop violence (45%). Lack of people's knowledge of employees' tasks was the most common contributing factor to physical violence (49.2%). Conclusions: Based on the results, legislating appropriate laws in order to prevent and control violence in the workplace is necessary. Moreover, developing educational programs to manage the incidence of physical violence should be on health centers' agenda. PMID:27186199

  14. Policy approach to nutrition and physical activity education in health care professional training1234

    PubMed Central

    Loy, Lisel; Zatz, Laura Y

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition and physical activity are key risk factors for a host of today's most prevalent and costly chronic conditions, such as obesity and diabetes; yet, health care providers are not adequately trained to educate patients on the components of a healthy lifestyle. The purpose of this article is to underscore the need for improved nutrition and physical activity training among health care professionals and to explore opportunities for how policy can help support a shift in training. We first identify key barriers to sufficient training in nutrition and physical activity. Then, we provide an overview of how recent changes in the government and institutional policy environment are supporting a shift toward prevention in our health care system and creating an even greater need for improved training of health care professionals in nutrition and physical activity. Last, we outline recommendations for additional policy changes that could drive enhanced training for health care professionals and recommend future directions in research. PMID:24646822

  15. Policy approach to nutrition and physical activity education in health care professional training.

    PubMed

    Levy, Matthew D; Loy, Lisel; Zatz, Laura Y

    2014-05-01

    Nutrition and physical activity are key risk factors for a host of today's most prevalent and costly chronic conditions, such as obesity and diabetes; yet, health care providers are not adequately trained to educate patients on the components of a healthy lifestyle. The purpose of this article is to underscore the need for improved nutrition and physical activity training among health care professionals and to explore opportunities for how policy can help support a shift in training. We first identify key barriers to sufficient training in nutrition and physical activity. Then, we provide an overview of how recent changes in the government and institutional policy environment are supporting a shift toward prevention in our health care system and creating an even greater need for improved training of health care professionals in nutrition and physical activity. Last, we outline recommendations for additional policy changes that could drive enhanced training for health care professionals and recommend future directions in research.

  16. Relationship Between Physical Activity and Health-Related Utility Among Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Manheim, Larry M.; Dunlop, Dorothy; Song, Jing; Semanik, Pamela; Lee, Jungwha; Chang, Rowland W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the relationship between physical activity and health-related utility for people with knee OA and implications for designing cost effective interventions. Methods Use GEE regression analysis to estimate partial association of accelerometer-measured physical activity levels with health-related utility after controlling for demographics, health status, knee OA severity level, pain and functioning. Results Moving from lowest to middle tertile of physical activity levels is associated with .071 (p<.01) increase in health-related utility after controlling for demographics and .036 (p<.05) increase in utility after controlling for demographics, health status, knee OA severity level, weight, pain, and functional impairments. Conclusion Intervention programs that move individuals out of the lowest tertile of physical activity have the potential to be cost effective. PMID:22328141

  17. Heart Health: A Resource for Senior High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Heart Health is grounded in the skill of learning to listen to the language of the heart. It connects students to their heart-rate data, and offers insights into what these numbers mean using the framework of Heart Zones Training. There are eight learning opportunities that originate from the following questions: How does heart health information…

  18. Nutritional Counseling: A Humanistic Approach to Psychological and Physical Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of a holistic health program. Notes common problems aided by a holistic health approach. Considers the use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol and their relationship to mental and emotional distress. Provides nutritional information and recommendations for counselors. (RC)

  19. A systematic review of nurse physical healthcare for consumers utilizing mental health services.

    PubMed

    Happell, B; Platania-Phung, C; Scott, D

    2014-02-01

    People with serious mental illness have higher rates of physical illness and are more likely to experience premature death than the general population. Nurse-led strategies to improve physical healthcare in mental healthcare services could potentially reduce these inequalities. However the extent of nurse involvement in physical healthcare (such as physical risk screening, health education and care co-ordination) in mental health settings is not known. A systematic review was conducted on nurse-led physical healthcare reported for consumers with serious mental illness (SMI) in mental health services, and their benefits. Electronic literature bases (CINAHL, Proquest, PsychINFO and Web of Science) were systematically searched, in conjunction with a manual search of literature reviews on physical healthcare in mental health services. Articles were included if they: (a) were published in the last 10 years; (b) were English language; (c) involved physical healthcare of adult consumers receiving mental healthcare services; and (d) reported nurse involvement in physical healthcare. Forty articles were included in the review. The distribution of types of care were: health education (47%), screening and/or monitoring (33.3%), care co-ordination and management (33.3%), lifestyle programme delivery (30.5%), follow-up actions to screening results (25%) and registers and data administration (5.5%). Overall, the evaluation of nurse-based physical healthcare is in early stages. Thus far, they appear to have positive implications for consumers with SMI.

  20. Gardening Activities and Physical Health Among Older Adults: A Review of the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Nicklett, Emily J; Anderson, Lynda A; Yen, Irene H

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined the health-related consequences of gardening among older adults. This scoping review summarizes and characterizes current research that examines the relationship between physical health and participation in planned gardening activities, including establishing, maintaining, or caring for plants. Six databases were searched. Eligible studies were published between 2000 and 2013, were published in English, and assessed different aspects of physical health (e.g., functional ability, energy expenditure, injury) for older adults who had participated in a planned gardening activity. Of the eight eligible studies identified with these criteria, four assessed energy expenditures and four assessed physical functioning. Studies assessing energy expenditures documented that the majority of gardening tasks were classified into low-to-moderate intensity physical activity. The current literature does not provide sufficient evidence of the physical functioning consequences of gardening. Future studies should consider how specific gardening interventions help older adults meet physical activity guidelines.

  1. Can exergames impart health messages? Game play, framing, and drivers of physical activity among children.

    PubMed

    Lwin, May O; Malik, Shelly

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of incorporating exergaming into physical education lessons as a platform for imparting health education messages and influencing children's beliefs about and attitudes toward physical activity. The authors launched a 6-week intervention program using Nintendo Wii games coupled with protection motivation theory-based health messaging among 5th-grade school children in Singapore. Results indicated that when children who were exposed to threat-framed messages played Wii exergames during physical education lessons, they reported more positive physical activity attitude, self-efficacy, and perceived behavioral control than did those who underwent regular physical education lessons and were exposed to the same message. In addition, among children playing Wii, the threat and coping frames had similar effects on the degree of message influence on physical activity attitudes and beliefs. The implications for schools, parents, and health policy are discussed.

  2. Subjective relative deprivation is associated with poorer physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sandeep; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    Substantial epidemiological evidence has shown that income inequality and objective measures of relative deprivation are associated with poorer health outcomes. However, surprisingly little research has examined whether subjective feelings of relative deprivation are similarly linked with poorer health outcomes. The relative deprivation hypothesis suggests that inequality affects health at the individual level through negative consequences of social comparison. We directly examined the relationship between subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation and self-reported physical and mental health in a diverse community sample (n = 328). Results demonstrated that subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation are associated with significantly poorer physical and mental health. These relationships held even when accounting for covariates that have been previously associated with both relative deprivation and health. These results further support the link between relative deprivation and health outcomes and suggest that addressing root causes of relative deprivation may lead to greater individual health.

  3. Health Perceptions, Self and Body Image, Physical Activity and Nutrition among Undergraduate Students in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Liat; Gonen, Ester; Shaked, Yael; Golan, Moria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examines health perceptions, self and body image, physical exercise and nutrition among undergraduate students. Methods A structured, self-reported questionnaire was administered to more than 1500 students at a large academic institute in Israel. The study population was heterogenic in both gender and fields of academic study. Results High correlations between health perceptions, appropriate nutrition, and positive self and body image were found. The relationships between these variables differed between the subpopulation in the sample and the different genders. Engagement in physical exercise contributed to positive body image and positive health perceptions more than engagement in healthy nutrition. Nutrition students reported higher frequencies of positive health perceptions, positive self and body image and higher engagement in physical exercise in comparison to all other students in the sample. Conclusions This study suggests, as have many before, that successful health promotion policy should reflect a collectivist rather than an individualist ethos by providing health prerequisites through a public policy of health-promotion, where the academic settings support a healthy lifestyle policy, by increasing availability of a healthy, nutritious and varied menu in the cafeterias, and offering students various activities that enhance healthy eating and exercise. Implications and contribution This study examined health perceptions, self-image, physical exercise and nutrition among undergraduate students and found high correlations between these topics. Nutrition students reported higher frequencies of positive health perceptions, and positive self and body image and engaged more in physical exercise when compared with all other students in the sample. PMID:23516503

  4. Effects of social networks on physical health among people with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungkyu; Wong, Yin-Ling Irene; Rothbard, Aileen

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the effects of social network characteristics on physical health among people with serious mental illness using social transactions that are reciprocal, and the combination of objective and subjective health measures. The sample consisted of a probability sample of 231 adults with serious mental illness who resided in permanent supportive housing in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Path analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between social network characteristics and two aspects of medical comorbidity, objective health and subjective health. Bivariate statistics showed that individuals with medical comorbidity were more likely to have contact with their network members and had a higher level of reciprocal positive tangible support when compared to those who did not have medical comorbidity. The results of the path analyses revealed that none of the social network characteristics were associated with better physical health. The lack of a significant relationship between social networks and better physical health is contrary to prior research findings. However, this is the first study to include both types of social transactions simultaneously as predictors of better physical health for individuals with serious mental illness. A longitudinal study would provide more insight into the temporal relationship of social networks and physical health conditions of people with serious mental illness. Furthermore, the transactional nature of social relationships, particularly for those with mental health issues, requires greater exploration.

  5. The relation between tilt table and acceleration-tolerance and their dependence on stature and physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, K. E.; Backhausen, F.; Bruner, H.; Eichhorn, J.; Jovy, D.; Schotte, J.; Vogt, L.; Wegman, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    A group of 12 highly trained athletes and a group of 12untrained students were subjected to passive changes of position on a tilt table and positive accelerations in a centrifuge. During a 20 min tilt, including two additional respiratory maneuvers, the number of faints and average cardiovascular responses did not differ significantly between the groups. During linear increase of acceleration, the average blackout level was almost identical in both groups. Statistically significant coefficients of product-moment correlation for various relations were obtained. The coefficient of multiple determination computed for the dependence of acceleration tolerance on heart-eye distance and systolic blood pressure at rest allows the explanation of almost 50% of the variation of acceleration tolerance. The maximum oxygen uptake showed the expected significant correlation to the heart rate at rest, but not the acceleration tolerance, or to the cardiovascular responses to tilting.

  6. Cardiac acceleration at the onset of exercise: a potential parameter for monitoring progress during physical training in sports and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Hettinga, Florentina J; Monden, Paul G; van Meeteren, Nico L U; Daanen, Hein A M

    2014-05-01

    There is a need for easy-to-use methods to assess training progress in sports and rehabilitation research. The present review investigated whether cardiac acceleration at the onset of physical exercise (HRonset) can be used as a monitoring variable. The digital databases of Scopus and PubMed were searched to retrieve studies investigating HRonset. In total 652 studies were retrieved. These articles were then classified as having emphasis on HRonset in a sports or rehabilitation setting, which resulted in 8 of 112 studies with a sports application and 6 of 68 studies with a rehabilitation application that met inclusion criteria. Two co-existing mechanisms underlie HRonset: feedforward (central command) and feedback (mechanoreflex, metaboreflex, baroreflex) control. A number of studies investigated HRonset during the first few seconds of exercise (HRonsetshort), in which central command and the mechanoreflex determine vagal withdrawal, the major mechanism by which heart rate (HR) increases. In subsequent sports and rehabilitation studies, interest focused on HRonset during dynamic exercise over a longer period of time (HRonsetlong). Central command, mechanoreflexes, baroreflexes, and possibly metaboreflexes contribute to HRonset during the first seconds and minutes of exercise, which in turn leads to further vagal withdrawal and an increase in sympathetic activity. HRonset has been described as the increase in HR compared with resting state (delta HR) or by exponential modeling, with measurement intervals ranging from 0-4 s up to 2 min. Delta HR was used to evaluate HRonsetshort over the first 4 s of exercise, as well as for analyzing HRonsetlong. In exponential modeling, the HR response to dynamic exercise is biphasic, consisting of fast (parasympathetic, 0-10 s) and slow (sympathetic, 1-4 min) components. Although available studies differed largely in measurement protocols, cross-sectional and longitudinal training studies showed that studies analyzing HRonset

  7. Examining the cost effectiveness of interventions to promote the physical health of people with mental health problems: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently attention has begun to focus not only on assessing the effectiveness of interventions to tackle mental health problems, but also on measures to prevent physical co-morbidity. Individuals with mental health problems are at significantly increased risk of chronic physical health problems, such as cardiovascular disease or diabetes, as well as reduced life expectancy. The excess costs of co-morbid physical and mental health problems are substantial. Potentially, measures to reduce the risk of co-morbid physical health problems may represent excellent value for money. Methods To conduct a systematic review to determine what is known about economic evaluations of actions to promote better physical health in individuals identified as having a clinically diagnosed mental disorder, but no physical co-morbidity. Systematic searches of databases were supplemented by hand searches of relevant journals and websites. Results Of 1970 studies originally assessed, 11 met our inclusion criteria. In addition, five protocols for other studies were also identified. Studies looked at exercise programmes, nutritional advice, smoking, alcohol and drug cessation, and reducing the risk of blood borne infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and hepatitis. All of the lifestyle and smoking cessation studies focused on people with depression and anxiety disorders. Substance abuse and infectious disease prevention studies focused on people with psychoses and bipolar disorder. Conclusions There is a very small, albeit growing, literature on the cost effectiveness of interventions to promote the physical health of people with mental health problems. Most studies suggest that value for money actions in specific contexts and settings are available. Given that the success or failure of health promoting interventions can be very context specific, more studies are needed in more settings, focused on different population groups with different mental health problems and reporting

  8. Modeling physical health and functional health status: the role of combat exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, and personal resource attributes.

    PubMed

    Taft, C T; Stern, A S; King, L A; King, D W

    1999-01-01

    This study examined associations of combat exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with physical health conditions and also incorporated hardiness and social support as mediators and functional health status as an outcome. Data were derived from 1,632 male and female Vietnam veterans who participated in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. Path analysis revealed that hardiness and social support operated primarily as intermediary variables between combat exposure and PTSD, and PTSD emerged as the pivotal variable explaining physical health conditions and functional health status. Gender-based differences in means and patterns of associations among variables were found. The results stress the importance of assessing trauma in clinical settings as a meaningful determinant of health outcomes.

  9. Physical Violence and Some Reproductive Health Variables among Currently Married Egyptian Women.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between women exposure to marital physical violence and some reproductive health variables including the number of ANC visits during the last pregnancy, intended pregnancy, reporting of STDs symptoms and visiting governmental health facility in the past 6 months prior to the survey. The study was conducted on the EDHS, 2005 data. A sub-sample of 5249 currently- married women were investigated for both ever and the 12 months prior to survey exposure to physical violence by their current husbands, and its association with the aforementioned variables adjusting for the effect of respondents' age, education, work, residence, wealth index, number of children ever borne, and empowerment in household decisions. Around 29.4% of the studied women have been ever exposed to physical violence by their current husbands; of them 60% have been subjected to it in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression models showed that exposure to physical violence predicted lower number of ANC visits, unintended pregnancy, reporting of STDs symptoms, and utilization of governmental health facility in the past 6 months prior to the survey. The relationship between exposure to physical violence and poor reproductive health outcomes was strong to hold, adjusting for other covariates. The increased likelihood of visiting governmental health facilities by physically abused wives supports the recommendation to use public health services as entry point for management of violence against women (VAW), and to develop a comprehensive health sector response to various impacts of VAW.

  10. The Use of Health Related Physical Fitness Tests to Achieve Sex Fair Ability Grouping of Students in Junior and Senior High School Physical Education Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Sharon Ann

    The use of health-related physical fitness tests for sex-fair ability grouping in physical education classes requires the verification of two assumptions: (1) that there exists a direct positive relationship between health-related physical fitness and development and/or improvement of various sport skills; and (2) that there is a physiological…

  11. Religion, Spirituality, and Physical Health in Cancer Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jim, Heather S.L.; Pustejovsky, James; Park, Crystal L.; Danhauer, Suzanne C.; Sherman, Allen C.; Fitchett, George; Merluzzi, Thomas V.; Munoz, Alexis R.; George, Login; Snyder, Mallory A.; Salsman, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Whereas religion/spirituality (R/S) is important in its own right for many cancer patients, a large body of research has examined whether R/S is also associated with better physical health outcomes. This literature has been characterized by heterogeneity in sample composition, measures of R/S, and measures of physical health. In an effort to synthesize previous findings, we conducted a meta-analysis of the relationship between R/S and patient-reported physical health in cancer patients. Methods A search of PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library yielded 2,073 abstracts, which were independently evaluated by pairs of raters. Meta-analysis was conducted on 497 effect sizes from 101 unique samples encompassing over 32,000 adult cancer patients. R/S measures were categorized into affective, behavioral, cognitive, and ‘other’ dimensions. Physical health measures were categorized into physical well-being, functional well-being, and physical symptoms. Average estimated correlations (Fisher's z) were calculated using generalized estimating equations with robust variance estimation. Results Overall R/S was associated with overall physical health (z=.153, p<.001); this relationship was not moderated by sociodemographic or clinical variables. Affective R/S was associated with physical well-being (z=.167, p<.001), functional well-being (z=.343, p<.001), and physical symptoms (z=.282, p<.001). Cognitive R/S was associated with physical well-being (z=.079, p<.05) and functional well-being (z=.090, p<.01). ‘Other’ R/S was associated with functional well-being (z=.100, p<.05). Conclusions Results of the current meta-analysis suggest that greater R/S is associated with better patient-reported physical health. These results underscore the importance of attending to patients’ religious and spiritual needs as part of comprehensive cancer care. PMID:26258868

  12. Mental Health and Family Life Education. Individualized Health Incentive Program Modules for Physically Disabled Students for Grades Kindergarten Through Twelve. Teacher's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reggio, Kathryn D.

    Presented is a module in mental health and family life education adapted from the New York State Health Education curriculum to meet the needs of physically disabled students in grades K-12. It is explained that physically disabled students need to understand regular health habits in addition to special health concerns relating to their…

  13. An Examination of the Relationship between Enjoyment, Physical Education, Physical Activity and Health in Irish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Catherine B.; Tannehill, Deborah; Walsh, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Enjoyment of physical activity (EPA) is positively correlated with activity, yet little is known of its relationship with enjoyment of physical education (EPE). This study's purpose was to explore EPE and its relationship to EPA. Cross-sectional data (N = 4122, average age 14.5 plus or minus 1.7 years, 48% male) were collected as part of the CSPPA…

  14. [Correlations of anthropometric and psychodynamic indexes of accelerant boys and girls (georgians) and their comparing with the data of women and men of normal physical development].

    PubMed

    Nadashvili, L A

    2005-12-01

    Our goal was to determine relations of anthropometric and psychodynamic indexes of accelerant women and men (Georgian) and compare them with the data of women and men of normal physical development. For this reason we have investigated 100 accelerants -- 45 girls and 55 boys. On the basis of our study we have shown that correlations between subspecies of temperament and anthropometrical signs in accelerant women and men are equal or lower among men. From the point of view of character form -- these data in women are comparatively high, and correlation of intellect and types of mood and anthropometric signs are equal. In comparison with the men of normal development, in accelerant men are noticed law interconnection between anthropometrical and psychodynamic data except subspecies of intellect, which is equal in every case. Connection between the types of mood and anthropometric data are moderate (in the limits 0.3-0.4). Men accelerants (Georgians) are brachymorphic somatotypes; they are distinguished by phlegmatic temperament, introversion, middle logic intellect, conflict -- statistic mood; according to the mood they are harmonic-dynamic constitutional types.

  15. [Improve cardiovascular health by physical activity: take the good measure].

    PubMed

    Houle, Julie; Trudeau, François

    2012-01-01

    Adherence to physical activity is low among persons with cardiac disease. To influence this behaviour positively, it is suggested clinicians adapt the recommendations to each patient. Besides estimating needs and the values and the preferences of the person, professionals need to measure the physical activity. This measure also allows clinicians to follow the evolution of the behaviour further to the interventions. Subjective methods (questionnaire, logbook) and objective methods (pedometer, accelerometer, and heart rate monitor) can be used. There are advantages and inconveniences to each of these methods. This clinical column provides a review of these various methods to choose the one that is the most suited to the clinical context.

  16. The impact of regional and neighbourhood deprivation on physical health in Germany: a multilevel study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that individual health is at least partly determined by neighbourhood and regional factors. Mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood, and evidence from Germany is scant. This study explores whether regional as well as neighbourhood deprivation are associated with physical health and to what extent this association can be explained by specific neighbourhood exposures. Methods Using 2004 data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) merged with regional and neighbourhood characteristics, we fitted multilevel linear regression models with subjective physical health, as measured by the SF-12, as the dependent variable. The models include regional and neighbourhood proxies of deprivation (i.e. regional unemployment quota, average purchasing power of the street section) as well as specific neighbourhood exposures (i.e. perceived air pollution). Individual characteristics including socioeconomic status and health behaviour have been controlled for. Results This study finds a significant association between area deprivation and physical health which is independent of compositional factors and consistent across different spatial scales. Furthermore the association between neighbourhood deprivation and physical health can be partly explained by specific features of the neighbourhood environment. Among these perceived air pollution shows the strongest association with physical health (-2.4 points for very strong and -1.5 points for strong disturbance by air pollution, standard error (SE) = 0.8 and 0.4, respectively). Beta coefficients for perceived air pollution, perceived noise and the perceived distance to recreational resources do not diminish when including individual health behaviour in the models. Conclusions This study highlights the difference regional and in particular neighbourhood deprivation make to the physical health of individuals in Germany. The results support the argument that specific neighbourhood

  17. Elder Mistreatment Predicts Later Physical and Psychological Health: Results from a National Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jaclyn S.; Waite, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    Stress process theory predicts that elder mistreatment leads to declines in health, and that social support buffers its ill effects. We test this theory using nationally representative, longitudinal data from 2,261 older adults in the National Social Life Health and Aging Project. We regress psychological and physical health in 2010/2011 on verbal and financial mistreatment experience in 2005/2006 and find that the mistreated have more anxiety symptoms, greater feelings of loneliness, and worse physical and functional health five years later, than those who did not report mistreatment. In particular, we show a novel association between financial mistreatment and functional health. Contrary to the stress buffering hypothesis, we find little evidence that social support moderates the relationship between mistreatment and health. Our findings point to the lasting impact of mistreatment on health, but show little evidence of a buffering role of social support in this process. PMID:27636657

  18. Dog ownership and dog walking to promote physical activity and health in patients.

    PubMed

    Epping, Jacqueline N

    2011-07-01

    Lack of physical activity is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases and conditions and is associated with significant medical costs. Approximately half of adults and more than a third of adolescents and youth in the United States do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Effective population-level strategies are needed to promote activities that are practical, accessible, and sustainable and that can reach a large proportion of the population. Dog walking may be such a strategy. Walking is popular, easy, and sustainable and has a low risk of injury. Owning dogs confers many health benefits, and dog walking, in particular, can help promote physical activity and improve health. Physicians and other health care providers can play a unique and integral role in promoting physical activity among patients by recommending dog walking both to dog owners and to non-dog owners as a purposeful, enjoyable, and sustainable form of regular physical activity.

  19. Physical and Mental Health Disparities for Young Women with Arrest Histories.

    PubMed

    Fedock, Gina; Sarantakos, Sophia

    2017-03-28

    Young women ages 18 to 25 make up approximately 30 percent of women arrested in the United States. Although health disparities have been found for incarcerated adults, health concerns for this subpopulation of women have not been as closely examined. Aiming to fill this gap in the literature, this study examined national data for young women ages 18 to 25 who participated in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health. Physical and mental health concerns were compared for young women with and without arrest histories. Young women with arrest histories had significantly higher odds ratios of multiple physical health concerns and all forms of mental health concerns, including recent suicide attempts. This study indicates that history of arrest is significantly associated with health disparities for young women and thus expands and builds gender-specific knowledge for the field of criminal justice epidemiology. Given the intersecting needs of physical health, mental health, and criminal justice involvement, the fields of public health and social work may contribute to gender-responsive interventions that incorporate health promotion specifically for this population of women.

  20. The Impact of Violence and Abuse on Women's Physical Health: Can Trauma-Informed Treatment Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbecker, Inka; Clark, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    A history of traumatic experiences has been associated with poor physical health. This study examined associations between trauma and physical health, as well as changes in physical health over time, in women with co-occurring disorders and histories of violence who received either integrated trauma-informed services or usual care. Results…

  1. Physical Education's Role in Public Health: Steps Forward and Backward over 20 Years and HOPE for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallis, James F.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Beets, Michael W.; Beighle, Aaron; Erwin, Heather; Lee, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The 1991 paper, "Physical Education's Role in Public Health" described the importance of physical education in addressing public health problems. On its 20th anniversary, this article reviews accomplishments in improving the health impact of physical education and identifies areas lacking progress. Major accomplishments include development of…

  2. Relationships between sleep, physical activity and human health

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Greg; Davenne, Damien

    2009-01-01

    Although sleep and exercise may seem to be mediated by completely different physiological mechanisms, there is growing evidence for clinically important relationships between these two behaviors. It is known that passive body heating facilitates the nocturnal sleep of healthy elderly people with insomnia. This finding supports the hypothesis that changes in body temperature trigger somnogenic brain areas to initiate sleep. Nevertheless, little is known about how the core and distal thermoregulatory responses to exercise fit into this hypothesis. Such knowledge could also help in reducing sleep problems associated with nocturnal shiftwork. It is difficult to incorporate physical activity into a shiftworker's lifestyle, since it is already disrupted in terms of family commitments and eating habits. A multi-research strategy is needed to identify what the optimal amounts and timing of physical activity are for reducing shiftwork-related sleep problems. The relationships between sleep, exercise and diet are also important, given the recently reported associations between short sleep length and obesity. The cardiovascular safety of exercise timing should also be considered, since recent data suggest that the reactivity of blood pressure to a change in general physical activity is highest during the morning. This time is associated with an increased risk in general of a sudden cardiac event, but more research work is needed to separate the influences of light, posture and exercise per se on the haemodynamic responses to sleep and physical activity following sleep taken at night and during the day as a nap. PMID:17067643

  3. Physical Activity and Fitness for Health and Longevity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paffenbarger, Ralph S., Jr.; Lee, I-Min

    1996-01-01

    Presents data from recent studies on exercise and fitness as they influence the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results show that individuals who have or adopt higher physical activity and fitness levels lower the risk of CVD, live longer, and improve their quality of life. (SM)

  4. Relationship between diet/physical activity and health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity and four of the leading causes of death - heart disease, cancer, stroke, and type 2 diabetes mellitus - are related to lifestyle. The combination of a healthy weight, prudent diet, and daily physical activity clearly plays a role in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of these and o...

  5. Sense of coherence and physical health. A "Copenhagen interpretation" of Antonovsky's SOC concept.

    PubMed

    Endler, P Christian; Haug, Thomas M; Spranger, Heinz

    2008-04-20

    According to Antonovsky's (Aaron Antonovsky, 1923-1994) sense of coherence (SOC) model, persons with a high SOC have the ability to benefit from their general defense mechanisms in order to overcome stressful situations. In a health-disease continuum, this leads to the development towards health. However, Antonovsky's global hypothesis that the strength of the SOC may influence the physical health status of a person could not be proven. Flensborg-Madsen et al. from Copenhagen were able to provide a new access regarding SOC and health. They investigated the mixture of emotional aspects and mental constructions as a possible cause for fairly low correlation between SOC and physical health. Thus, in an empirical way, they described "emotional coherence" in relation to physical health, while "mental coherence" was linked to psychological health. These authors introduced the idea of applying a shortened version of the original 29-item SOC questionnaire, but have not yet developed or tested the shortened questionnaire. Backed by their important findings, it appears to be promising to consider the use of the SOC questionnaire as standardized by Antonovsky, but cleared of the items regarding "predictability", i.e., Flensborg-Madsen et al. suggested that the items on "predictability" be excluded from the SOC scale when a correlation to physical health is to be investigated. Further investigations in this area of research will be of high impact, not only for health sciences, but also for medical practice.

  6. Reconsidering the role of social disadvantage in physical and mental health: stressful life events, health behaviors, race, and depression.

    PubMed

    Mezuk, Briana; Rafferty, Jane A; Kershaw, Kiarri N; Hudson, Darrell; Abdou, Cleopatra M; Lee, Hedwig; Eaton, William W; Jackson, James S

    2010-12-01

    Prevalence of depression is associated inversely with some indicators of socioeconomic position, and the stress of social disadvantage is hypothesized to mediate this relation. Relative to whites, blacks have a higher burden of most physical health conditions but, unexpectedly, a lower burden of depression. This study evaluated an etiologic model that integrates mental and physical health to account for this counterintuitive patterning. The Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (Maryland, 1993-2004) was used to evaluate the interaction between stress and poor health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, poor diet, and obesity) and risk of depression 12 years later for 341 blacks and 601 whites. At baseline, blacks engaged in more poor health behaviors and had a lower prevalence of depression compared with whites (5.9% vs. 9.2%). The interaction between health behaviors and stress was nonsignificant for whites (odds ratio (OR = 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 0.98, 1.11); for blacks, the interaction term was significant and negative (β: -0.18, P < 0.014). For blacks, the association between median stress and depression was stronger for those who engaged in zero (OR = 1.34) relative to 1 (OR = 1.12) and ≥2 (OR = 0.94) poor health behaviors. Findings are consistent with the proposed model of mental and physical health disparities.

  7. Refocusing on physical health: Community psychiatric nurses' perceptions of using enhanced health checks for people with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Bressington, Daniel; Mui, Jolene; Wells, Harvey; Chien, Wai Tong; Lam, Claire; White, Jacquie; Gray, Richard

    2016-06-01

    In the present qualitative, descriptive study, we explored Hong Kong community psychiatric nurses' (CPN) perceptions of using comprehensive physical health checks for service users diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI). Research interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 11 CPN in order to explore their perceptions about the use of the Health Improvement Profile (HIP) over a 1-year period. Interview data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The analysis revealed that the majority of CPN appreciated the comprehensive focus on the physical health of their clients and reported positive changes in their clinical practice. Many of them observed an increase in the motivation of their clients to improve their physical health, and also noted observable benefits in service users' well-being. The use of the HIP also helped the CPN identify implementation barriers, and highlighted areas of the tool that required modifications to suit the local cultural and clinical context. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted in an Asian mental health service that explores nurses' views about using comprehensive health checks for people with SMI. The findings suggest that such approaches are viewed as being acceptable, feasible, and potentially beneficial in the community mental health setting.

  8. Relationship between job dissatisfaction and physical and psychological health among Filipino immigrants.

    PubMed

    de Castro, A B; Gee, Gilbert C; Takeuchi, David

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between job dissatisfaction and psychological and physical health among Filipino immigrants in the United States. Cross-sectional data from the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Study were analyzed for 1,381 Filipino immigrants. The primary independent variable of interest was job dissatisfaction. Linear and negative binomial regression analyses were conducted to determine separate associations between job dissatisfaction and the outcomes of psychological distress and physical health conditions, respectively. Job dissatisfaction was positively associated with both psychological distress (beta = 0.32, p < .001) and physical health conditions (beta = 0.42, p < .001), controlling for sociodemographic variables such as age, gender, education, income, and job category. This community-based study demonstrated that job dissatisfaction has implications for health and well-being among an understudied, immigrant group of workers. Findings also suggest that job-related experiences should be considered when examining disparate health for immigrant, minority populations.

  9. Factors Contributing to Mental and Physical Health Care in a Disaster-Prone Environment.

    PubMed

    Osofsky, Howard J; Hansel, Tonya Cross; Osofsky, Joy D; Speier, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Environment as a contextual factor plays an important role in southeastern Louisiana, as this area represents a major economic hub for the United States port, petroleum, and fishing industries. The location also exposes the population to both natural and technological disasters, including Hurricane Katrina and the Gulf oil spill. This study explored associations among hurricane loss, oil spill disruption, and environmental quality of life on mental and physical health on over 1,000 residents (N = 1,225) using structural equation modeling techniques. Results showed that oil spill distress was associated with increased symptoms of mental and physical health; Hurricane Katrina loss; and decreased environmental quality of life. Findings also indicate that mental health symptoms explain the association among oil spill distress and physical health symptoms-specifically, those that overlap with somatic complaints. These findings provide important support of the need for mental health assessment and service availability for disaster recovery.

  10. [A PARADIGM SHIFT IN THE PERCEPTION OF HEALTH MAINTENANCE FROM INCREASING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY TO DECREASING PHYSICAL INACTIVITY].

    PubMed

    Rotman, Dani; Constantini, Naama

    2016-06-01

    Modern man spends most of his waking hours (50-70%) in one form or another of sedentary behavior, defined as activity conducted in a sitting or reclining position involving low energy expenditure. The remaining waking hours are spent performing low intensity physical activity (25-45%) and medium-high intensity physical activity (less than 5%): Despite this distribution, medical research has focused on the impact of increasing medium-high intensity physical activity and many health organizations' recommendations are in accordance. In recent years, research conducted has begun to examine the effect inactivity has on health and has shown that excess sedentary behaviour is an independent risk factor for a wide range of medical problems such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, poor cardiovascular health profile, diabetes mellitus, and possibly cancer. Although the higher risk brought on by sedentary behaviour is partially reduced by increasing medium-high intensity physical activity, it is not completely neutralized. One way to diminish the harm caused by long hours of sitting is to take short breaks during periods of prolonged sitting in order to walk. According to these findings, it is worthwhile to recommend reducing the hours spent in sedentary behaviour, or at least to take frequent short breaks ("activity snacks") during periods of prolonged sitting to get up and walk around.

  11. Racial and Gender Discrimination, Early Life Factors, and Chronic Physical Health Conditions in Midlife

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jasmine A.; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician-diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. Methods We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (N=168, average age=41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression due to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Results Fifty-percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health conditions (RR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health conditions was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Conclusion Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. PMID:24345610

  12. Physical activity and cognitive-health content in top-circulating magazines, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Price, Anna E; Corwin, Sara J; Friedman, Daniela B; Laditka, Sarah B; Colabianchi, Natalie; Montgomery, Kara M

    2011-04-01

    Physical activity may promote cognitive health in older adults. Popular media play an important role in preventive health communication. This study examined articles discussing associations between physical activity and cognitive health in top-circulating magazines targeting older adults. 42,753 pages of magazines published from 2006 to 2008 were reviewed; 26 articles met inclusion criteria. Explanations regarding the link between physical activity and cognitive health were provided in 57.7% of articles. These explanations were generally consistent with empirical evidence; however, few articles included empirical evidence. Physical activity recommendations were presented in 80.8% of articles; a wide range was recommended (90-300 min of physical activity per wk). Socioeconomic status and education level were not mentioned in the text. Results suggest an opportunity for greater coverage regarding the role of physical activity in promoting cognitive health in popular media. Magazine content would benefit from including more empirical evidence, culturally sensitive content, and physical activity recommendations that are consistent with U.S. guidelines.

  13. Integrated physical and mental health care at a nurse-managed clinic: report from the trenches.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Deena

    2011-07-01

    The Health and Wellness Center (HWC), located in Joliet, Illinois, is a nurse-managed universally accessible primary health care center funded by a grant from the Health Resources and Services Administration. The goals of the HWC are to improve access to quality primary health care services for all patients, including those who are uninsured and underserved, and to develop and implement a model of nurse-managed primary health care that integrates both physical and mental health assessment and treatment. After 5 years of developing and using this model, it is clear that integration requires strategic supports from the financial, political, and professional sectors to be considered a cost-effective model of health care delivery. Recommendations for policy and practice change are offered based on the author's experiences of providing integrated health care at the HWC and the health care industry's responses to uninsured or underinsured patients' needs.

  14. [Evaluation of the effectiveness of home-based physical activity promotion by community health workers].

    PubMed

    Costa, Evelyn Fabiana; Andrade, Douglas Roque; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro; Ribeiro, Evelyn Helena Corgosinho; Santos, Taynã Ishi dos; Florindo, Alex Antonio

    2015-10-01

    This study analyzed the effectiveness of physical activity promotion by community health workers (CHW) during home visits. This was a non-randomized controlled trial that lasted six months, with one group of CHW that received training to promote physical activity during home visits among users of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and a control group. Physical activity and stages of behavior change were evaluated in 176 adults (n = 90 in the intervention group and n = 86 in the control group) assisted by the CHW. Associations, prevalence ratios, and generalized estimate equations were conducted to verify differences between groups. No evidence of differences in physical activity and stages of behavior change were observed between the two groups. CHW from the intervention group conducted more home visits promoting physical activity among elders, those with low schooling, unemployed, and those with chronic diseases. It is important to reassess the work and priorities of CHW to expand physical activity promotion under the SUS.

  15. Steps for Improving Physical Activity Orientation Among Health-care Providers of Older Cardiovascular Patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Attaining appropriate levels of physical activity can have many potential physiological and psychological benefits in older adults with cardiovascular disease. However, these individuals often report low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behavior. Older adults encounter many potential “barriers” to physical activity, but numerous studies have demonstrated the ability to positively influence this important health behavior using well-established behavior change theories and models. The information provided in this review is directed at health-care providers who have the potential to impact physical activity behaviors during regular, often brief, clinical interactions. In addition to providing the latest physical activity recommendations, this update will provide a brief summary of some of the more widely used behavioral skills and strategies for promoting physical activity in older adults with cardiovascular disease. PMID:25396112

  16. Assessing nutrition and physical health disparisties for a college population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rural regions are often underserved, and although the Delta region of the United States has a rich history, health disparities abound. A university located in the region has an obligation to address issues of importance to its constituents. Healthy lifestyle obstacles faced by students who hail from...

  17. The Role of Physical Activity in Preconception, Pregnancy and Postpartum Health.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Cheryce L; Brown, Wendy J; Hayman, Melanie; Moran, Lisa J; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-03-01

    The rise in obesity and associated morbidity is currently one of our greatest public health challenges. Women represent a high risk group for weight gain with associated metabolic, cardiovascular, reproductive and psychological health impacts. Regular physical activity is fundamental for health and well-being with protective benefits across the spectrum of women's health. Preconception, pregnancy and the early postpartum period represent opportune windows to engage women in regular physical activity to optimize health and prevent weight gain with added potential to transfer behavior change more broadly to children and families. This review summarizes the current evidence for the role of physical activity for women in relation to preconception (infertility, assisted reproductive therapy, polycystic ovary syndrome, weight gain prevention and psychological well-being) pregnancy (prevention of excess gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes and preeclampsia as well as labor and neonatal outcomes) and postpartum (lactation and breastfeeding, postpartum weight retention and depression) health. Beneficial outcomes validate the importance of regular physical activity, yet key methodological gaps highlight the need for large, high-quality studies to clarify the optimal type, frequency, duration and intensity of physical activity required for beneficial health outcomes during preconception, pregnancy and postpartum.

  18. Impacting Children's Health and Academic Performance through Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusseau, Timothy A.; Hannon, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with numerous academic and health benefits. Furthermore, schools have been identified as an ideal location to promote physical activity as most youth attend school regularly from ages 5-18. Unfortunately, in an effort to increase academic learning time, schools have been eliminating traditional activity…

  19. A Systematic Review of Public Health-Aligned Recommendations for Preparing Physical Education Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Collin A.; Webster, Liana; Russ, Laura; Molina, Sergio; Lee, Heesu; Cribbs, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Since Sallis and McKenzie's seminal article in 1991 outlining physical education's role in public health, increased attention has been given to promoting youth physical activity in schools. The present study systematically reviewed the literature from 1991 to 2013 to identify recommendations for the preparation of physical…

  20. Reliability and Convergent Validity of the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey Physical Activity Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinger, Mary K.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS) vigorous physical activity (VPA), moderate physical activity (MPA), flexibility (FLEX), and muscular strength and/or endurance (MSE) questions. Twenty college students completed the four items twice during the same day. During the next 7…