Science.gov

Sample records for accelerator health physics

  1. VLHC accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Blaskiewicz et al.

    2001-11-01

    A six-month design study for a future high energy hadron collider was initiated by the Fermilab director in October 2000. The request was to study a staged approach where a large circumference tunnel is built that initially would house a low field ({approx}2 T) collider with center-of-mass energy greater than 30 TeV and a peak (initial) luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The tunnel was to be scoped, however, to support a future upgrade to a center-of-mass energy greater than 150 TeV with a peak luminosity of 2 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} using high field ({approx} 10 T) superconducting magnet technology. In a collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a report of the Design Study was produced by Fermilab in June 2001. 1 The Design Study focused on a Stage 1, 20 x 20 TeV collider using a 2-in-1 transmission line magnet and leads to a Stage 2, 87.5 x 87.5 TeV collider using 10 T Nb{sub 3}Sn magnet technology. The article that follows is a compilation of accelerator physics designs and computational results which contributed to the Design Study. Many of the parameters found in this report evolved during the study, and thus slight differences between this text and the Design Study report can be found. The present text, however, presents the major accelerator physics issues of the Very Large Hadron Collider as examined by the Design Study collaboration and provides a basis for discussion and further studies of VLHC accelerator parameters and design philosophies.

  2. Operational health physics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kenneth L

    2005-06-01

    A review of the operational health physics papers published in Health Physics and Operational Radiation Safety over the past fifteen years indicated seventeen general categories or areas into which the topics could be readily separated. These areas include academic research programs, use of computers in operational health physics, decontamination and decommissioning, dosimetry, emergency response, environmental health physics, industrial operations, medical health physics, new procedure development, non-ionizing radiation, radiation measurements, radioactive waste disposal, radon measurement and control, risk communication, shielding evaluation and specification, staffing levels for health physics programs, and unwanted or orphan sources. That is not to say that there are no operational papers dealing with specific areas of health physics, such as power reactor health physics, accelerator health physics, or governmental health physics. On the contrary, there have been a number of excellent operational papers from individuals in these specialty areas and they are included in the broader topics listed above. A listing and review of all the operational papers that have been published is beyond the scope of this discussion. However, a sampling of the excellent operational papers that have appeared in Health Physics and Operational Radiation Safety is presented to give the reader the flavor of the wide variety of concerns to the operational health physicist and the current areas of interest where procedures are being refined and solutions to problems are being developed. PMID:15891458

  3. Operational health physics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kenneth L

    2005-01-01

    A review of the operational health physics papers published in Health Physics and Operational Radiation Safety over the past fifteen years indicated seventeen general categories or areas into which the topics could be readily separated. These areas include academic research programs, use of computers in operational health physics, decontamination and decommissioning, dosimetry, emergency response, environmental health physics, industrial operations, medical health physics, new procedure development, non-ionizing radiation, radiation measurements, radioactive waste disposal, radon measurement and control, risk communication, shielding evaluation and specification, staffing levels for health physics programs, and unwanted or orphan sources. That is not to say that there are no operational papers dealing with specific areas of health physics, such as power reactor health physics, accelerator health physics, or governmental health physics. On the contrary, there have been a number of excellent operational papers from individuals in these specialty areas and they are included in the broader topics listed above. A listing and review of all the operational papers that have been published is beyond the scope of this discussion. However, a sampling of the excellent operational papers that have appeared in Health Physics and Operational Radiation Safety is presented to give the reader the flavor of the wide variety of concerns to the operational health physicist and the current areas of interest where procedures are being refined and solutions to problems are being developed. PMID:15596985

  4. SPEAR3 Accelerator Physics Update

    SciTech Connect

    Safranek, James A.; Corbett, W.Jeff; Gierman, S.; Hettel, R.O.; Huang, X.; Nosochkov, Yuri; Sebek, Jim; Terebilo, Andrei; /SLAC

    2007-11-02

    The SPEAR3 storage ring at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory has been delivering photon beams for three years. We will give an overview of recent and ongoing accelerator physics activities, including 500 mA fills, work toward top-off injection, long-term orbit stability characterization and improvement, fast orbit feedback, new chicane optics, low alpha optics & short bunches, low emittance optics, and MATLAB software. The accelerator physics group has a strong program to characterize and improve SPEAR3 performance

  5. Accelerator physics and modeling: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    1991-12-31

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Physics of high brightness beams; radio frequency beam conditioner for fast-wave free-electron generators of coherent radiation; wake-field and space-charge effects on high brightness beams. Calculations and measured results for BNL-ATF; non-linear orbit theory and accelerator design; general problems of modeling for accelerators; development and application of dispersive soft ferrite models for time-domain simulation; and bunch lengthening in the SLC damping rings.

  6. Accelerator physics and modeling: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Physics of high brightness beams; radio frequency beam conditioner for fast-wave free-electron generators of coherent radiation; wake-field and space-charge effects on high brightness beams. Calculations and measured results for BNL-ATF; non-linear orbit theory and accelerator design; general problems of modeling for accelerators; development and application of dispersive soft ferrite models for time-domain simulation; and bunch lengthening in the SLC damping rings.

  7. Accelerator science in medical physics.

    PubMed

    Peach, K; Wilson, P; Jones, B

    2011-12-01

    The use of cyclotrons and synchrotrons to accelerate charged particles in hospital settings for the purpose of cancer therapy is increasing. Consequently, there is a growing demand from medical physicists, radiographers, physicians and oncologists for articles that explain the basic physical concepts of these technologies. There are unique advantages and disadvantages to all methods of acceleration. Several promising alternative methods of accelerating particles also have to be considered since they will become increasingly available with time; however, there are still many technical problems with these that require solving. This article serves as an introduction to this complex area of physics, and will be of benefit to those engaged in cancer therapy, or who intend to acquire such technologies in the future. PMID:22374548

  8. Accelerator science in medical physics

    PubMed Central

    Peach, K; Wilson, P; Jones, B

    2011-01-01

    The use of cyclotrons and synchrotrons to accelerate charged particles in hospital settings for the purpose of cancer therapy is increasing. Consequently, there is a growing demand from medical physicists, radiographers, physicians and oncologists for articles that explain the basic physical concepts of these technologies. There are unique advantages and disadvantages to all methods of acceleration. Several promising alternative methods of accelerating particles also have to be considered since they will become increasingly available with time; however, there are still many technical problems with these that require solving. This article serves as an introduction to this complex area of physics, and will be of benefit to those engaged in cancer therapy, or who intend to acquire such technologies in the future. PMID:22374548

  9. Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2011-10-24

    Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

  10. Accelerator Physics Code Web Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, F.; Basset, R.; Bellodi, G.; Benedetto, E.; Dorda, U.; Giovannozzi, M.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pieloni, T.; Ruggiero, F.; Rumolo, G.; Schmidt, F.; Todesco, E.; Zotter, B.W.; Payet, J.; Bartolini, R.; Farvacque, L.; Sen, T.; Chin, Y.H.; Ohmi, K.; Oide, K.; Furman, M.; /LBL, Berkeley /Oak Ridge /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /SLAC /TRIUMF /Tech-X, Boulder /UC, San Diego /Darmstadt, GSI /Rutherford /Brookhaven

    2006-10-24

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  11. ACCELERATION PHYSICS CODE WEB REPOSITORY.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  12. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal

    2011-05-01

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  13. Analytical tools in accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-09-01

    This paper is a sub-set of my lectures presented in the Accelerator Physics course (USPAS, Santa Rosa, California, January 14-25, 2008). It is based on my notes I wrote during period from 1976 to 1979 in Novosibirsk. Only few copies (in Russian) were distributed to my colleagues in Novosibirsk Institute of Nuclear Physics. The goal of these notes is a complete description starting from the arbitrary reference orbit, explicit expressions for 4-potential and accelerator Hamiltonian and finishing with parameterization with action and angle variables. To a large degree follow logic developed in Theory of Cyclic Particle Accelerators by A.A.Kolmensky and A.N.Lebedev [Kolomensky], but going beyond the book in a number of directions. One of unusual feature is these notes use of matrix function and Sylvester formula for calculating matrices of arbitrary elements. Teaching the USPAS course motivated me to translate significant part of my notes into the English. I also included some introductory materials following Classical Theory of Fields by L.D. Landau and E.M. Liftsitz [Landau]. A large number of short notes covering various techniques are placed in the Appendices.

  14. Operational health physics training

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-01

    The initial four sections treat basic information concerning atomic structure and other useful physical quantities, natural radioactivity, the properties of {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, x rays and neutrons, and the concepts and units of radiation dosimetry (including SI units). Section 5 deals with biological effects and the risks associated with radiation exposure. Background radiation and man-made sources are discussed next. The basic recommendations of the ICRP concerning dose limitations: justification, optimization (ALARA concepts and applications) and dose limits are covered in Section seven. Section eight is an expanded version of shielding, and the internal dosimetry discussion has been extensively revised to reflect the concepts contained in the MIRD methodology and ICRP 30. The remaining sections discuss the operational health physics approach to monitoring radiation. Individual sections include radiation detection principles, instrument operation and counting statistics, health physics instruments and personnel monitoring devices. The last five sections deal with the nature of, operation principles of, health physics aspects of, and monitoring approaches to air sampling, reactors, nuclear safety, gloveboxes and hot cells, accelerators and x ray sources. Decontamination, waste disposal and transportation of radionuclides are added topics. Several appendices containing constants, symbols, selected mathematical topics, and the Chart of the Nuclides, and an index have been included.

  15. Accelerating Innovation: How Nuclear Physics Benefits Us All

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    2011-01-01

    Innovation has been accelerated by nuclear physics in the areas of improving our health; making the world safer; electricity, environment, archaeology; better computers; contributions to industry; and training the next generation of innovators.

  16. Accelerator Physics Working Group Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Uesugi, T.; Wildnerc, E.

    2010-03-01

    The Accelerator Physics Working Group addressed the worldwide R&D activities performed in support of future neutrino facilities. These studies cover R&D activities for Super Beam, Beta Beam and muon-based Neutrino Factory facilities. Beta Beam activities reported the important progress made, together with the research activity planned for the coming years. Discussion sessions were also organized jointly with other working groups in order to define common ground for the optimization of a future neutrino facility. Lessons learned from already operating neutrino facilities provide key information for the design of any future neutrino facility, and were also discussed in this meeting. Radiation damage, remote handling for equipment maintenance and exchange, and primary proton beam stability and monitoring were among the important subjects presented and discussed. Status reports for each of the facility subsystems were presented: proton drivers, targets, capture systems, and muon cooling and acceleration systems. The preferred scenario for each type of possible future facility was presented, together with the challenges and remaining issues. The baseline specification for the muon-based Neutrino Factory was reviewed and updated where required. This report will emphasize new results and ideas and discuss possible changes in the baseline scenarios of the facilities. A list of possible future steps is proposed that should be followed up at NuFact10.

  17. Health physics ethics.

    PubMed

    Evdokimoff, Victor

    2004-02-01

    Ethics is defined in the New World Dictionary as ". . . moral principles governing appropriate conduct for an individual or group." The Health Physics Membership Directory contains 2 references for professional conduct for health physicists. The first is for members of the Health Physics Society. The second is for Certified Health Physicists. They are similar: A health physicist must always maintain the highest ethical standards whether beginning a career or having practiced for decades. A review of some key principles by example will hopefully demonstrate how to avoid ethical dilemmas for health physicists. PMID:14744062

  18. Accelerator physics R and D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisch, A. D.

    1994-08-01

    This report discusses the NEPTUN-A experiment that will study spin effects in violent proton-proton collisions; the Siberian snake tests at IUCF cooler ring; polarized gas jets; and polarized proton acceleration to 1 TeV at Fermilab.

  19. Emergency response health physics.

    PubMed

    Mena, Rajah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-05-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health. This paper aims to illustrate the unique challenges presented to the health physicist or analyst of radiological data in a large-scale emergency. PMID:22469932

  20. Accelerator physics experiments at Aladdin

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Cornacchia, M.; Jackson, A.; Zisman, M.S.

    1985-07-01

    The Aladdin accelerator is a 1 GeV synchrotron light source located at the University of Wisconsin. The results of experimental studies of the Aladdin accelerator are described. The primary purpose of the experiments reported was to investigate reported anomalies in the behavior of the linear lattice, particularly in the vertical plane. A second goal was to estimate the ring broadband impedance. Experimental observations and interpretation of the linear properties of the Aladdin ring are described, including the beta function and dispersion measurements. Two experiments are described to measure the ring impedance, the first a measurement of the parasitic mode loss, and the second a measurement of the beam transfer function. Measurements of the longitudinal and transverse emittance at 100 and 200 MeV are described and compared with predictions. 10 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs. (LEW)

  1. Physics and Accelerator Applications of RF Superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    H. Padamsee; K. W. Shepard; Ron Sundelin

    1993-12-01

    A key component of any particle accelerator is the device that imparts energy gain to the charged particle. This is usually an electromagnetic cavity resonating at a microwave frequency, chosen between 100 and 3000 MHz. Serious attempts to utilize superconductors for accelerating cavities were initiated more than 25 years ago with the acceleration of electrons in a lead-plated resonator at Stanford University (1). The first full-scale accelerator, the Stanford SCA, was completed in 1978 at the High Energy Physics Laboratory (HEPL) (2). Over the intervening one and a half decades, superconducting cavities have become increasingly important to particle accelerators for nuclear physics and high energy physics. For continuous operation, as is required for many applications, the power dissipation in the walls of a copper structure is quite substantial, for example, 0.1 megawatts per meter of structure operating at an accelerating field of 1 million volts/meter (MV/m). since losses increase as the square of the accelerating field, copper cavities become severely uneconomical as demand for higher fields grows with the higher energies called for by experimenters to probe ever deeper into the structure of matter. Rf superconductivity has become an important technology for particle accelerators. Practical structures with attractive performance levels have been developed for a variety of applications, installed in the targeted accelerators, and operated over significant lengths of time. Substantial progress has been made in understanding field and Q limitations and in inventing cures to advance performance. The technical and economical potential of rf superconductivity makes it an important candidate for future advanced accelerators for free electron lasers, for nuclear physics, and for high energy physics, at the luminosity as well as at the energy frontiers.

  2. New accelerators in high-energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Blewett, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    First, I should like to mention a few new ideas that have appeared during the last few years in the accelerator field. A couple are of importance in the design of injectors, usually linear accelerators, for high-energy machines. Then I shall review some of the somewhat sensational accelerator projects, now in operation, under construction or just being proposed. Finally, I propose to mention a few applications of high-energy accelerators in fields other than high-energy physics. I realize that this is a digression from my title but I hope that you will find it interesting.

  3. CAS CERN Accelerator School 5th General Accelerator Physics Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, S.

    1994-01-01

    The fifth CERN Accelerator School (CAS) basic course on General Accelerator Physics was given at the University of Jyvaeskylae, Finland, from 7 to 18 September 1992. Its syllabus was based on the previous similar courses held at Gif-sur-Yvette in 1984, Aarhus 1986, Salamanca 1988 and Juelich 1990, and whose proceedings were published as CERN Reports 85-19, 87-10, 89-05 and 91-04, respectively. However, certain topics were treated in a different way, improved or extended, while new subjects were introduced. As far as the proceedings of this school are concerned the opportunity was taken not only to include the lectures presented but also to select and revise the most appropriate chapters from the previous similar schools. In this way the present volumes constitute a rather complete introduction to all aspects of the design and construction of particle accelerators, including optics, emittance, luminosity, longitudinal and transverse beam dynamics, insertions, chromaticity, transfer lines, resonances, accelerating structures, tune shifts, coasting beams, lifetime, synchrotron radiation, radiation damping, beam-beam effects, diagnostics, cooling, ion and positron sources, RF and vacuum systems, injection and extraction, conventional, permanent and superconducting magnets, cyclotrons, RF linear accelerators, microtrons, as well as applications of particle accelerators (including therapy) and the history of accelerators. See hints under the relevant topics.

  4. Computational Accelerator Physics Working Group Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, John R.; Bohn, Courtlandt L.

    2004-08-27

    The working group on computational accelerator physics at the 11th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held a series of meetings during the Workshop. Verification, i.e., showing that a computational application correctly solves the assumed model, and validation, i.e., showing that the model correctly describes the modeled system, were discussed for a number of systems. In particular, the predictions of the massively parallel codes, OSIRIS and VORPAL, used for modeling advanced accelerator concepts, were compared and shown to agree, thereby establishing some verification of both codes. In addition, a number of talks on the status and frontiers of computational accelerator physics were presented, to include the modeling of ultrahigh-brightness electron photoinjectors and the physics of beam halo production. Finally, talks discussing computational needs were presented.

  5. Computational Accelerator Physics Working Group Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, John R.; Bohn, Courtlandt L.

    2004-12-07

    The working group on computational accelerator physics at the 11th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held a series of meetings during the Workshop. Verification, i.e., showing that a computational application correctly solves the assumed model, and validation, i.e., showing that the model correctly describes the modeled system, were discussed for a number of systems. In particular, the predictions of the massively parallel codes, OSIRIS and VORPAL, used for modeling advanced accelerator concepts, were compared and shown to agree, thereby establishing some verification of both codes. In addition, a number of talks on the status and frontiers of computational accelerator physics were presented, to include the modeling of ultrahigh-brightness electron photoinjectors and the physics of beam halo production. Finally, talks discussing computational needs were presented.

  6. Non-accelerator particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, R.I.; Lane, C.E.

    1991-09-01

    The goals of this research are the experimental testing of fundamental theories of physics such as grand unification and the exploration of cosmic phenomena through the techniques of particle physics. We are working on the MACRO experiment, which employs a large area underground detector to search for grand unification magnetic monopoles and dark matter candidates and to study cosmic ray muons as well as low and high energy neutrinos: the {nu}IMB project, which seeks to refurbish and upgrade the IMB water Cerenkov detector to perform an improved proton decay search together with a long baseline reactor neutrino oscillation experiment using a kiloton liquid scintillator (the Perry experiment); and development of technology for improved liquid scintillators and for very low background materials in support of the MACRO and Perry experiments and for new solar neutrino experiments. 21 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. The plasma physics of shock acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Frank C.; Ellison, Donald C.

    1991-01-01

    The history and theory of shock acceleration is reviewed, paying particular attention to theories of parallel shocks which include the backreaction of accelerated particles on the shock structure. The work that computer simulations, both plasma and Monte Carlo, are playing in revealing how thermal ions interact with shocks and how particle acceleration appears to be an inevitable and necessary part of the basic plasma physics that governs collisionless shocks is discussed. Some of the outstanding problems that still confront theorists and observers in this field are described.

  8. Laser Wakefield Acceleration and Fundamental Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2011-06-20

    The laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) along with the now available laser technology allows us to look at TeV physics both in leptons and hadrons. Near future proof-of-principle experiments for a collider as well as high energy frontier experiments without a collider paradigm are suggested. The intense laser can also contribute to other fundamental physics explorations such as those of dark matter and dark energy candidates. Finally the combination of intense laser and laser-accelerated particles (electrons, hadrons, gammas) provides a further avenue of fundamental research.

  9. TOPICS IN THE PHYSICS OF PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1984-07-01

    High energy physics, perhaps more than any other branch of science, is driven by technology. It is not the development of theory, or consideration of what measurements to make, which are the driving elements in our science. Rather it is the development of new technology which is the pacing item. Thus it is the development of new techniques, new computers, and new materials which allows one to develop new detectors and new particle-handling devices. It is the latter, the accelerators, which are at the heart of the science. Without particle accelerators there would be, essentially, no high energy physics. In fact. the advances in high energy physics can be directly tied to the advances in particle accelerators. Looking terribly briefly, and restricting one's self to recent history, the Bevatron made possible the discovery of the anti-proton and many of the resonances, on the AGS was found the {mu}-neutrino, the J-particle and time reversal non-invariance, on Spear was found the {psi}-particle, and, within the last year the Z{sub 0} and W{sup {+-}} were seen on the CERN SPS p-{bar p} collider. Of course one could, and should, go on in much more detail with this survey, but I think there is no need. It is clear that as better acceleration techniques were developed more and more powerful machines were built which, as a result, allowed high energy physics to advance. What are these techniques? They are very sophisticated and ever-developing. The science is very extensive and many individuals devote their whole lives to accelerator physics. As high energy experimental physicists your professional lives will be dominated by the performance of 'the machine'; i.e. the accelerator. Primarily you will be frustrated by the fact that it doesn't perform better. Why not? In these lectures, six in all, you should receive some appreciation of accelerator physics. We cannot, nor do we attempt, to make you into accelerator physicists, but we do hope to give you some insight into the

  10. Emergency Response Health Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, RaJah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-05-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health; however, there are major differences between health physics for research or occupational safety and health physics during a large-scale radiological emergency. The deployment of a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) monitoring and assessment team to Japan in the wake of the March 2011 accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant yielded a wealth of lessons on these difference. Critical teams (CMOC (Consequence Management Outside the Continental U.S.) and CMHT (Consequence Management Home Team) ) worked together to collect, compile, review, and analyze radiological data from Japan to support the response needs of and answer questions from the Government of Japan, the U.S. military in Japan, the U.S. Embassy and U.S. citizens in Japan, and U.S. citizens in America. This paper addresses the unique challenges presented to the health physicist or analyst of radiological data in a large-scale emergency. A key lesson learned was that public perception and the availability of technology with social media requires a diligent effort to keep the public informed of the science behind the decisions in a manner that is meaningful to them.

  11. Physics of Health Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baublitz, Millard; Goldberg, Bennett

    A one-semester algebra-based physics course is being offered to Boston University students whose major fields of study are in allied health sciences: physical therapy, athletic training, and speech, language, and hearing sciences. The classroom instruction incorporates high-engagement learning techniques including worksheets, student response devices, small group discussions, and physics demonstrations instead of traditional lectures. The use of pre-session exercises and quizzes has been implemented. The course also requires weekly laboratory experiments in mechanics or electricity. We are using standard pre- and post-course concept inventories to compare this one-semester introductory physics course to ten years of pre- and post-course data collected on students in the same majors but who completed a two-semester course.

  12. EMERGENCY RESPONSE HEALTH PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, RaJah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-01-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health. Topics of discussion included in this manuscript are related to responding to a radiation emergency, and the necessary balance between desired high accuracy laboratory results and rapid turnaround requirements. Considerations are addressed for methodology with which to provide the most competent solutions despite challenges presented from incomplete datasets and, at times, limited methodology. An emphasis is placed on error and uncertainty of sample analysis results, how error affects products, and what is communicated in the final product.

  13. Accelerator Physics: An Undergraduate Course in Experimental Nuclear Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielder, Douglas S.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses a 2-semester-hour experimental physics course utilizing a 0.5 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator. The course requires the completion of six or seven laboratory projects including complete written reports, and theory is emphasized only to the extent needed to understand the projects. (MLH)

  14. Better physical activity classification using smartphone acceleration sensor.

    PubMed

    Arif, Muhammad; Bilal, Mohsin; Kattan, Ahmed; Ahamed, S Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is becoming one of the serious problems for the health of worldwide population. Social interactions on mobile phones and computers via internet through social e-networks are one of the major causes of lack of physical activities. For the health specialist, it is important to track the record of physical activities of the obese or overweight patients to supervise weight loss control. In this study, acceleration sensor present in the smartphone is used to monitor the physical activity of the user. Physical activities including Walking, Jogging, Sitting, Standing, Walking upstairs and Walking downstairs are classified. Time domain features are extracted from the acceleration data recorded by smartphone during different physical activities. Time and space complexity of the whole framework is done by optimal feature subset selection and pruning of instances. Classification results of six physical activities are reported in this paper. Using simple time domain features, 99 % classification accuracy is achieved. Furthermore, attributes subset selection is used to remove the redundant features and to minimize the time complexity of the algorithm. A subset of 30 features produced more than 98 % classification accuracy for the six physical activities. PMID:25000988

  15. Essay: Accelerators, Beams and Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemann, Robert H.

    2008-05-01

    Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

  16. Basic Health Physics: Problems and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    1999-01-01

    Radiation litigation, the cleanup and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, radon exposure, nuclear medicine, food irradiation, stricter regulatory climate--these are some of the reasons health physics and radiation protection professionals are increasingly called upon to upgrade their skills. Designed to prepare candidates for the American Board of Health Physics Comprehensive examination (Part I) and other certification examinations, Basic Health Physics: Problems and Solutions introduces professionals in the field to radiation protection principles and their practical application in routine and emergency situations. It features more than 650 worked examples illustrating concepts under discussion along with an in-depth coverage of sources of radiation, standards and regulations, biological effects of ionizing radiation, instrumentation, external and internal dosimetry, counting statistics, monitoring and interpretations, operational health physics, transportation and waste, nuclear emergencies, and more. Reflecting for the first time the true scope of health physics at an introductory level, Basic Health Physics: Problems and Solutions gives readers the tools to properly evaluate challenging situations in all areas of radiation protection, including the medical, university, power reactor, fuel cycle, research reactor, environmental, non-ionizing radiation, and accelerator health physics.

  17. Pulsed power accelerator for material physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisman, D. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Stygar, W. A.; Austin, K. N.; Waisman, E. M.; Hickman, R. J.; Davis, J.-P.; Haill, T. A.; Knudson, M. D.; Seagle, C. T.; Brown, J. L.; Goerz, D. A.; Spielman, R. B.; Goldlust, J. A.; Cravey, W. R.

    2015-09-01

    We have developed the design of Thor: a pulsed power accelerator that delivers a precisely shaped current pulse with a peak value as high as 7 MA to a strip-line load. The peak magnetic pressure achieved within a 1-cm-wide load is as high as 100 GPa. Thor is powered by as many as 288 decoupled and transit-time isolated bricks. Each brick consists of a single switch and two capacitors connected electrically in series. The bricks can be individually triggered to achieve a high degree of current pulse tailoring. Because the accelerator is impedance matched throughout, capacitor energy is delivered to the strip-line load with an efficiency as high as 50%. We used an iterative finite element method (FEM), circuit, and magnetohydrodynamic simulations to develop an optimized accelerator design. When powered by 96 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 4.1 MA to a load, and achieves peak magnetic pressures as high as 65 GPa. When powered by 288 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 6.9 MA to a load, and achieves magnetic pressures as high as 170 GPa. We have developed an algebraic calculational procedure that uses the single brick basis function to determine the brick-triggering sequence necessary to generate a highly tailored current pulse time history for shockless loading of samples. Thor will drive a wide variety of magnetically driven shockless ramp compression, shockless flyer plate, shock-ramp, equation of state, material strength, phase transition, and other advanced material physics experiments.

  18. Tevatron accelerator physics and operation highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Valishev, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The performance of the Tevatron collider demonstrated continuous growth over the course of Run II, with the peak luminosity reaching 4 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, and the weekly integration rate exceeding 70 pb{sup -1}. This report presents a review of the most important advances that contributed to this performance improvement, including beam dynamics modeling, precision optics measurements and stability control, implementation of collimation during low-beta squeeze. Algorithms employed for optimization of the luminosity integration are presented and the lessons learned from high-luminosity operation are discussed. Studies of novel accelerator physics concepts at the Tevatron are described, such as the collimation techniques using crystal collimator and hollow electron beam, and compensation of beam-beam effects.

  19. Accelerator physics: Surf's up at SLAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, Mike; Zgadzaj, Rafal

    2014-11-01

    A 'plasma afterburner' just 30 centimetres long accelerates electrons hundreds of times faster than giant conventional accelerators. The result may ultimately open up a low-cost technology for particle colliders. See Letter p.92

  20. Guide to accelerator physics program SYNCH: VAX version 1987. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.; Courant, E.

    1987-01-01

    This guide is written to accommodate users of Accelerator Physics Data Base BNLDAG::DUAO:(PARSA1). It describes the contents of the on line Accelerator Physics data base DUAO:(PARSA1.SYNCH). SYNCH is a computer program used for the design and analysis of synchrotrons, storage rings and beamlines.

  1. Advanced Computing Tools and Models for Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, Robert; Ryne, Robert D.

    2008-06-11

    This paper is based on a transcript of my EPAC'08 presentation on advanced computing tools for accelerator physics. Following an introduction I present several examples, provide a history of the development of beam dynamics capabilities, and conclude with thoughts on the future of large scale computing in accelerator physics.

  2. Physical activities to enhance an understanding of acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. A.

    2006-03-01

    On the basis of their everyday experiences, students have developed an understanding of many of the concepts of mechanics by the time they take their first physics course. However, an accurate understanding of acceleration remains elusive. Many students have difficulties distinguishing between velocity and acceleration. In this report, a set of physical activities to highlight the differences between acceleration and velocity are described. These activities involve running and walking on sand (such as an outdoor volleyball court).

  3. The Influence of Accelerator Science on Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haussecker, Enzo F.; Chao, Alexander W.

    2011-06-01

    We evaluate accelerator science in the context of its contributions to the physics community. We address the problem of quantifying these contributions and present a scheme for a numerical evaluation of them. We show by using a statistical sample of important developments in modern physics that accelerator science has influenced 28% of post-1938 physicists and also 28% of post-1938 physics research. We also examine how the influence of accelerator science has evolved over time, and show that on average it has contributed to a physics Nobel Prize-winning research every 2.9 years.

  4. Dysfunctional health service conflict: causes and accelerants.

    PubMed

    Nelson, H Wayne

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the causes and accelerants of dysfunctional health service conflict and how it emerges from the health system's core hierarchical structures, specialized roles, participant psychodynamics, culture, and values. This article sets out to answer whether health care conflict is more widespread and intense than in other settings and if it is, why? To this end, health care power, gender, and educational status gaps are examined with an eye to how they undermine open communication, teamwork, and collaborative forms of conflict and spark a range of dysfunctions, including a pervasive culture of fear; the deny-and-defend lawsuit response; widespread patterns of hierarchical, generational, and lateral bullying; overly avoidant conflict styles among non-elite groups; and a range of other behaviors that lead to numerous human resource problems, including burnout, higher staff turnover, increased errors, poor employee citizenship behavior, patient dissatisfaction, increased patient complaints, and lawsuits. Bad patient outcomes include decreased compliance and increased morbidity and mortality. Health care managers must understand the root causes of these problems to treat them at the source and implement solutions that avoid negative conflict spirals that undermine organizational morale and efficiency. PMID:22534973

  5. Fifty years of accelerator based physics at Chalk River

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, John W.

    1999-04-26

    The Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. was a major centre for Accelerator based physics for the last fifty years. As early as 1946, nuclear structure studies were started on Cockroft-Walton accelerators. A series of accelerators followed, including the world's first Tandem, and the MP Tandem, Superconducting Cyclotron (TASCC) facility that was opened in 1986. The nuclear physics program was shut down in 1996. This paper will describe some of the highlights of the accelerators and the research of the laboratory.

  6. Neutrino physics with accelerator driven subcritical reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuffoli, Emilio; Evslin, Jarah; Zhao, Fengyi

    2016-01-01

    Accelerator driven system (ADS) subcritical nuclear reactors are under development around the world. They will be intense sources of free, 30-55 MeV μ + decay at rest {overline{ν}}_{μ } . These ADS reactor neutrinos can provide a robust test of the LSND anomaly and a precise measurement of the leptonic CP-violating phase δ, including sign(cos(δ)). The first phase of many ADS programs includes the construction of a low energy, high intensity proton or deuteron accelerator, which can yield competitive bounds on sterile neutrinos.

  7. Chaotic dynamics in accelerator physics. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, J.R.

    1992-11-30

    Substantial progress was in several areas of accelerator dynamics. For developing understanding of longitudinal adiabatic dynamics, and for creating efficiency enhancements of recirculating free-electron lasers, was substantially completed. A computer code for analyzing the critical KAM tori that bound the dynamic aperture in circular machines was developed. Studies of modes that arise due to the interaction of coating beams with a narrow-spectrum impedance have begun. During this research educational and research ties with the accelerator community at large have been strengthened.

  8. [Health hazards of physical inactivity].

    PubMed

    Helajärvi, Harri; Lindholm, Harri; Vasankari, Tommi; Heinonen, Olli J

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and non-communicable diseases and related costs increase with physical inactivity. In addition to the lack of recreational exercise, a sedentary lifestyle also seems to have a negative effect of health, independently of other lifestyle and risks. New means, as well as multidisciplinary and multiprofessional collaboration, are required in order to improve health and well-being on the population level and to reduce health-related costs. New, more effective operational models are also needed in health communication in order to achieve the desired and more permanent results. PMID:26591649

  9. Fluid Physics Under a Stochastic Acceleration Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinals, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    The research summarized in this report has involved a combined theoretical and computational study of fluid flow that results from the random acceleration environment present onboard space orbiters, also known as g-jitter. We have focused on a statistical description of the observed g-jitter, on the flows that such an acceleration field can induce in a number of experimental configurations of interest, and on extending previously developed methodology to boundary layer flows. Narrow band noise has been shown to describe many of the features of acceleration data collected during space missions. The scale of baroclinically induced flows when the driving acceleration is random is not given by the Rayleigh number. Spatially uniform g-jitter induces additional hydrodynamic forces among suspended particles in incompressible fluids. Stochastic modulation of the control parameter shifts the location of the onset of an oscillatory instability. Random vibration of solid boundaries leads to separation of boundary layers. Steady streaming ahead of a modulated solid-melt interface enhances solute transport, and modifies the stability boundaries of a planar front.

  10. Fluid Physics in a Fluctuating Acceleration Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, J. Ross; Drolet, Francois; Vinals, Jorge

    1996-01-01

    We summarize several aspects of an ongoing investigation of the effects that stochastic residual accelerations (g-jitter) onboard spacecraft can have on experiments conducted in a microgravity environment. The residual acceleration field is modeled as a narrow band noise, characterized by three independent parameters: intensity (g(exp 2)), dominant angular frequency Omega, and characteristic correlation time tau. Realistic values for these parameters are obtained from an analysis of acceleration data corresponding to the SL-J mission, as recorded by the SAMS instruments. We then use the model to address the random motion of a solid particle suspended in an incompressible fluid subjected to such random accelerations. As an extension, the effect of jitter on coarsening of a solid-liquid mixture is briefly discussed, and corrections to diffusion controlled coarsening evaluated. We conclude that jitter will not be significant in the experiment 'Coarsening of solid-liquid mixtures' to be conducted in microgravity. Finally, modifications to the location of onset of instability in systems driven by a random force are discussed by extending the standard reduction to the center manifold to the stochastic case. Results pertaining to time-modulated oscillatory convection are briefly discussed.

  11. SYMMETRY, HAMILTONIAN PROBLEMS AND WAVELETS IN ACCELERATOR PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    FEDOROVA,A.; ZEITLIN,M.; PARSA,Z.

    2000-03-31

    In this paper the authors consider applications of methods from wavelet analysis to nonlinear dynamical problems related to accelerator physics. In this approach they take into account underlying algebraical, geometrical and topological structures of corresponding problems.

  12. Summary for astrophysics and non-accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kahana, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the presentations at the astrophysics and non-accelerator physics conference. Discussed in this paper are: supernovae, neutrinos, x-rays, gamma rays, cosmic rays, monopoles and primordial nucleosynthesis. 15 refs. (LSP)

  13. Light water reactor health physics.

    PubMed

    Prince, Robert J; Bradley, Scott E

    2004-11-01

    In this article an overview of the historical development of light water reactor health physics programs is presented. Operational health physics programs have developed and matured as experience in operating and maintaining light water reactors has been gained. Initial programs grew quickly in both size and complexity with the number and size of nuclear units under construction and in operation. Operational health physics programs evolved to face various challenges confronted by the nuclear industry, increasing the effectiveness of radiological safety measures. Industry improvements in radiological safety performance have resulted in significant decreases in annual collective exposures from a high value of 790 person-rem in 1980 to 117 person-rem per reactor in 2002. Though significant gains have been made, the continued viability of the nuclear power industry is confronted with an aging workforce, as well as the challenges posed by deregulation and the need to maintain operational excellence. PMID:15551785

  14. Light water reactor health physics.

    PubMed

    Prince, Robert J; Bradley, Scott E

    2005-06-01

    In this article an overview of the historical development of light water reactor health physics programs is presented. Operational health physics programs have developed and matured as experience in operating and maintaining light water reactors has been gained. Initial programs grew quickly in both size and complexity with the number and size of nuclear units under construction and in operation. Operational health physics programs evolved to face various challenges confronted by the nuclear industry, increasing the effectiveness of radiological safety measures. Industry improvements in radiological safety performance have resulted in significant decreases in annual collective exposures from a high value of 790 person-rem in 1980 to 117 person-rem per reactor in 2002. Though significant gains have been made, the continued viability of the nuclear power industry is confronted with an aging workforce, as well as the challenges posed by deregulation and the need to maintain operational excellence. PMID:15891460

  15. Physics With Health Science Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urone, Paul Peter

    1985-09-01

    An accessible, algebra-based text covering the introductory physics necessary for applied health and nursing. Presentation integrates health science applications throughout. Excellent illustrations support the exposition. Chapters contain over 100 worked examples, over 450 review questions, and more than 550 end-of-chapter problems graded according to difficulty. Offers discussion of the latest applications such as ionizing radiation and radiation doses, nuclear imaging techniques, CT scanners, ultrasound techniques, artificial hearts, and laser surgery.

  16. Physics of Laser-driven plasma-based acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Esarey, Eric; Schroeder, Carl B.

    2003-06-30

    The physics of plasma-based accelerators driven by short-pulse lasers is reviewed. This includes the laser wake-field accelerator, the plasma beat wave accelerator, the self-modulated laser wake-field accelerator, and plasma waves driven by multiple laser pulses. The properties of linear and nonlinear plasma waves are discussed, as well as electron acceleration in plasma waves. Methods for injecting and trapping plasma electrons in plasma waves are also discussed. Limits to the electron energy gain are summarized, including laser pulse direction, electron dephasing, laser pulse energy depletion, as well as beam loading limitations. The basic physics of laser pulse evolution in underdense plasmas is also reviewed. This includes the propagation, self-focusing, and guiding of laser pulses in uniform plasmas and plasmas with preformed density channels. Instabilities relevant to intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions, such as Raman, self-modulation, and hose instabilities, are discussed. Recent experimental results are summarized.

  17. Physical activity, hydration and health.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ascensión; Manonelles, Pedro; Palacios, Nieves; Wärnberg, Julia; Casajús, José A; Pérez, Margarita; Aznar, Susana; Benito, Pedro J; Martínez-Gomez, David; Ortega, Francisco B; Ortega, Eduardo; Urrialde, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of mankind, man has sought ways to promote and preserve health as well as to prevent disease. Hydration, physical activity and exercise are key factors for enhancing human health. However, either a little dose of them or an excess can be harmful for health maintenance at any age. Water is an essential nutrient for human body and a major key to survival has been to prevent dehydration. However, there is still a general controversy regarding the necessary amount to drink water or other beverages to properly get an adequate level of hydration. In addition, up to now the tools used to measure hydration are controversial. To this end, there are several important groups of variables to take into account such as water balance, hydration biomarkers and total body water. A combination of methods will be the most preferred tool to find out any risk or situation of dehydration at any age range. On the other hand, physical activity and exercise are being demonstrated to promote health, avoiding or reducing health problems, vascular and inflammatory disea ses and helping weight management. Therefore, physical activity is also being used as a pill within a therapy to promote health and reduce risk diseases, but as in the case of drugs, dose, intensity, frequency, duration and precautions have to be evaluated and taken into account in order to get the maximum effectiveness and success of a treatment. On the other hand, sedentariness is the opposite concept to physical activity that has been recently recognized as an important factor of lifestyle involved in the obesogenic environment and consequently in the risk of the non-communicable diseases. In view of the literature consulted and taking into account the expertise of the authors, in this review a Decalogue of global recommendations is included to achieve an adequate hydration and physical activity status to avoid overweight/obesity consequences. PMID:24972459

  18. Accelerator physics analysis with an integrated toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, J.A.; Michelotti, L.; Satogata, T.

    1992-08-01

    Work is in progress on an integrated software toolkit for linear and nonlinear accelerator design, analysis, and simulation. As a first application, ``beamline`` and ``MXYZPTLK`` (differential algebra) class libraries, were used with an X Windows graphics library to build an user-friendly, interactive phase space tracker which, additionally, finds periodic orbits. This program was used to analyse a theoretical lattice which contains octupoles and decapoles to find the 20th order, stable and unstable periodic orbits and to explore the local phase space structure.

  19. [Physical activity and cardiovascular health].

    PubMed

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that regular moderate physical activity, in the context of a healthy lifestyle, significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention. In addition, it is scientifically proven that exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, breast cancer and colon cancer. Despite this strong evidence, sedentary lifestyle remains a widespread habit in the western world. Even in Italy the adult population has a poor attitude to regular physical activity. It is therefore necessary, as continuously recommended by the World Health Organization, to motivate people to "move" since the transition from inactivity to regular light to moderate physical activity has a huge impact on health, resulting in significant savings of resources. We do not need to be athletes to exercise - it should be part of all our daily routines. PMID:27029874

  20. Particle acceleration, transport and turbulence in cosmic and heliospheric physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaeus, W.

    1992-01-01

    In this progress report, the long term goals, recent scientific progress, and organizational activities are described. The scientific focus of this annual report is in three areas: first, the physics of particle acceleration and transport, including heliospheric modulation and transport, shock acceleration and galactic propagation and reacceleration of cosmic rays; second, the development of theories of the interaction of turbulence and large scale plasma and magnetic field structures, as in winds and shocks; third, the elucidation of the nature of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence processes and the role such turbulence processes might play in heliospheric, galactic, cosmic ray physics, and other space physics applications.

  1. Fluid Physics in a Fluctuating Acceleration Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drolet, Francois; Vinals, Jorge

    1999-01-01

    Our program of research aims at developing a stochastic description of the residual acceleration field onboard spacecraft (g-jitter) to describe in quantitative detail its effect on fluid motion. Our main premise is that such a statistical description is necessary in those cases in which the characteristic time scales of the process under investigation are long compared with the correlation time of g-jitter. Although a clear separation between time scales makes this approach feasible, there remain several difficulties of practical nature: (i), g-jitter time series are not statistically stationary but rather show definite dependences on factors such as active or rest crew periods; (ii), it is very difficult to extract reliably the low frequency range of the power spectrum of the acceleration field. This range controls the magnitude of diffusive processes; and (iii), models used to date are Gaussian, but there is evidence that large amplitude disturbances occur much more frequently than a Gaussian distribution would predict. The lack of stationarity does not constitute a severe limitation in practice, since the intensity of the stochastic components changes very slowly during space missions (perhaps over times of the order of hours). A separate analysis of large amplitude disturbances has not been undertaken yet, but it does not seem difficult a priori to devise models that may describe this range better than a Gaussian distribution. The effect of low frequency components, on the other hand, is more difficult to ascertain, partly due to the difficulty associated with measuring them, and partly because they may be indistinguishable from slowly changing averages. This latter effect is further complicated by the lack of statistical stationarity of the time series. Recent work has focused on the effect of stochastic modulation on the onset of oscillatory instabilities as an example of resonant interaction between the driving acceleration and normal modes of the system

  2. High Energy Density Physics and Exotic Acceleration Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, T.; Colby, E.; /SLAC

    2005-09-27

    The High Energy Density and Exotic Acceleration working group took as our goal to reach beyond the community of plasma accelerator research with its applications to high energy physics, to promote exchange with other disciplines which are challenged by related and demanding beam physics issues. The scope of the group was to cover particle acceleration and beam transport that, unlike other groups at AAC, are not mediated by plasmas or by electromagnetic structures. At this Workshop, we saw an impressive advancement from years past in the area of Vacuum Acceleration, for example with the LEAP experiment at Stanford. And we saw an influx of exciting new beam physics topics involving particle propagation inside of solid-density plasmas or at extremely high charge density, particularly in the areas of laser acceleration of ions, and extreme beams for fusion energy research, including Heavy-ion Inertial Fusion beam physics. One example of the importance and extreme nature of beam physics in HED research is the requirement in the Fast Ignitor scheme of inertial fusion to heat a compressed DT fusion pellet to keV temperatures by injection of laser-driven electron or ion beams of giga-Amp current. Even in modest experiments presently being performed on the laser-acceleration of ions from solids, mega-amp currents of MeV electrons must be transported through solid foils, requiring almost complete return current neutralization, and giving rise to a wide variety of beam-plasma instabilities. As keynote talks our group promoted Ion Acceleration (plenary talk by A. MacKinnon), which historically has grown out of inertial fusion research, and HIF Accelerator Research (invited talk by A. Friedman), which will require impressive advancements in space-charge-limited ion beam physics and in understanding the generation and transport of neutralized ion beams. A unifying aspect of High Energy Density applications was the physics of particle beams inside of solids, which is proving to

  3. Beam Physics of Integrable Optics Test Accelerator at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaitsev, S.; Valishev, A.; Danilov, V.V.; Shatilov, D.N.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2012-05-01

    Fermilab's Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is an electron storage ring designed for testing advanced accelerator physics concepts, including implementation of nonlinear integrable beam optics and experiments on optical stochastic cooling. The machine is currently under construction at the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator facility. In this report we present the goals and the current status of the project, and describe the details of machine design. In particular, we concentrate on numerical simulations setting the requirements on the design and supporting the choice of machine parameters.

  4. An introduction to the physics of high energy accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.A.; Syphers, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This book is an outgrowth of a course given by the authors at various universities and particle accelerator schools. It starts from the basic physics principles governing particle motion inside an accelerator, and leads to a full description of the complicated phenomena and analytical tools encountered in the design and operation of a working accelerator. The book covers acceleration and longitudinal beam dynamics, transverse motion and nonlinear perturbations, intensity dependent effects, emittance preservation methods and synchrotron radiation. These subjects encompass the core concerns of a high energy synchrotron. The authors apparently do not assume the reader has much previous knowledge about accelerator physics. Hence, they take great care to introduce the physical phenomena encountered and the concepts used to describe them. The mathematical formulae and derivations are deliberately kept at a level suitable for beginners. After mastering this course, any interested reader will not find it difficult to follow subjects of more current interests. Useful homework problems are provided at the end of each chapter. Many of the problems are based on actual activities associated with the design and operation of existing accelerators.

  5. Applications of the ARGUS code in accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Petillo, J.J.; Mankofsky, A.; Krueger, W.A.; Kostas, C.; Mondelli, A.A.; Drobot, A.T.

    1993-12-31

    ARGUS is a three-dimensional, electromagnetic, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code that is being distributed to U.S. accelerator laboratories in collaboration between SAIC and the Los Alamos Accelerator Code Group. It uses a modular architecture that allows multiple physics modules to share common utilities for grid and structure input., memory management, disk I/O, and diagnostics, Physics modules are in place for electrostatic and electromagnetic field solutions., frequency-domain (eigenvalue) solutions, time- dependent PIC, and steady-state PIC simulations. All of the modules are implemented with a domain-decomposition architecture that allows large problems to be broken up into pieces that fit in core and that facilitates the adaptation of ARGUS for parallel processing ARGUS operates on either Cray or workstation platforms, and MOTIF-based user interface is available for X-windows terminals. Applications of ARGUS in accelerator physics and design are described in this paper.

  6. Physical health nurse consultant role to improve physical health in mental health services: A carer's perspective.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda; Wilson, Karen; Platania-Phung, Chris; Stanton, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The physical health of people diagnosed with a mental illness is significantly poorer in comparison with the general population. Awareness of this health disparity is increasing; however, strategies to address the problem are limited. Carers play an important role in the physical health care of people with mental illness, particularly in facilitating navigation of and advocating in the health care system. A specialist physical health nurse consultant position has been suggested as a way to address the physical health care disparity and limited research available suggests that positive outcomes are possible. In the present study, a qualitative exploratory research project was undertaken, involving in-depth interviews with people identifying as mental health carers. Two focus groups and one individual interview were conducted involving a total of 13 carers. The resulting data were analyzed thematically. Views and opinions about the proposed physical health nurse consultant (PHNC) position were sought during these interviews and are reported in this paper. Two main sub-themes were evident relating to characteristics of this role: reliability and consistency; and communication and support. Essentially carers expressed a need for support for themselves and consumers in addressing physical health concerns. Successful implementation of this position would require a consistent and reliable approach. Carers are significant stakeholders in the physical health of consumers of mental health services and their active involvement in identifying and tailoring services, including development of the physical health nurse consultant must be seen as a priority. PMID:26876094

  7. NASA's Microgravity Fluid Physics Program: Tolerability to Residual Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skarda, J. Raymond

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the NASA microgravity fluid physics program is presented. The necessary quality of a reduced-gravity environment in terms of tolerable residual acceleration or g levels is a concern that is inevitably raised for each new microgravity experiment. Methodologies have been reported in the literature that provide guidance in obtaining reasonable estimates of residual acceleration sensitivity for a broad range of fluid physics phenomena. Furthermore, a relatively large and growing database of microgravity experiments that have successfully been performed in terrestrial reduced gravity facilities and orbiting platforms exists. Similarity of experimental conditions and hardware, in some cases, lead to new experiments adopting prior experiments g-requirements. Rationale applied to other experiments can, in principle, be a valuable guide to assist new Principal Investigators, PIs, in determining the residual acceleration tolerability of their flight experiments. The availability of g-requirements rationale from prior (mu)g experiments is discussed. An example of establishing g tolerability requirements is demonstrated, using a current microgravity fluid physics flight experiment. The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) which is currently manifested on the US Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS) will provide opportunities for fluid physics and combustion experiments throughout the life of the ISS. Although the FCF is not intended to accommodate all fluid physics experiments, it is expected to meet the science requirements of approximately 80% of the new PIs that enter the microgravity fluid physics program. The residual acceleration requirements for the FCF fluid physics experiments are based on a set of fourteen reference fluid physics experiments which are discussed.

  8. Future Accelerator Challenges in Support of High-Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.; Zisman, M.S.

    2008-05-03

    Historically, progress in high-energy physics has largely been determined by development of more capable particle accelerators. This trend continues today with the imminent commissioning of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and the worldwide development effort toward the International Linear Collider. Looking ahead, there are two scientific areas ripe for further exploration--the energy frontier and the precision frontier. To explore the energy frontier, two approaches toward multi-TeV beams are being studied, an electron-positron linear collider based on a novel two-beam powering system (CLIC), and a Muon Collider. Work on the precision frontier involves accelerators with very high intensity, including a Super-BFactory and a muon-based Neutrino Factory. Without question, one of the most promising approaches is the development of muon-beam accelerators. Such machines have very high scientific potential, and would substantially advance the state-of-the-art in accelerator design. The challenges of the new generation of accelerators, and how these can be accommodated in the accelerator design, are described. To reap their scientific benefits, all of these frontier accelerators will require sophisticated instrumentation to characterize the beam and control it with unprecedented precision.

  9. Physics of laser-driven plasma-based electron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B.; Leemans, W. P.

    2009-07-15

    Laser-driven plasma-based accelerators, which are capable of supporting fields in excess of 100 GV/m, are reviewed. This includes the laser wakefield accelerator, the plasma beat wave accelerator, the self-modulated laser wakefield accelerator, plasma waves driven by multiple laser pulses, and highly nonlinear regimes. The properties of linear and nonlinear plasma waves are discussed, as well as electron acceleration in plasma waves. Methods for injecting and trapping plasma electrons in plasma waves are also discussed. Limits to the electron energy gain are summarized, including laser pulse diffraction, electron dephasing, laser pulse energy depletion, and beam loading limitations. The basic physics of laser pulse evolution in underdense plasmas is also reviewed. This includes the propagation, self-focusing, and guiding of laser pulses in uniform plasmas and with preformed density channels. Instabilities relevant to intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions, such as Raman, self-modulation, and hose instabilities, are discussed. Experiments demonstrating key physics, such as the production of high-quality electron bunches at energies of 0.1-1 GeV, are summarized.

  10. High energy physics advisory panel`s composite subpanel for the assessment of the status of accelerator physics and technology

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    In November 1994, Dr. Martha Krebs, Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Research (OER), initiated a broad assessment of the current status and promise of the field of accelerator physics and technology with respect to five OER programs -- High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, Basic Energy Sciences, Fusion Energy, and Health and Environmental Research. Dr. Krebs asked the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) to establish a composite subpanel with representation from the five OER advisory committees and with a balance of membership drawn broadly from both the accelerator community and from those scientific disciplines associated with the OER programs. The Subpanel was also charged to provide recommendations and guidance on appropriate future research and development needs, management issues, and funding requirements. The Subpanel finds that accelerator science and technology is a vital and intellectually exciting field. It has provided essential capabilities for the DOE/OER research programs with an enormous impact on the nation`s scientific research, and it has significantly enhanced the nation`s biomedical and industrial capabilities. Further progress in this field promises to open new possibilities for the scientific goals of the OER programs and to further benefit the nation. Sustained support of forefront accelerator research and development by the DOE`s OER programs and the DOE`s predecessor agencies has been responsible for much of this impact on research. This report documents these contributions to the DOE energy research mission and to the nation.

  11. Physical Activity and Health: Does Physical Education Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; McIver, Kerry L.

    2011-01-01

    Physical education has been an institution in American schools since the late 19th century, and today almost all American children are exposed to physical education classes. It has often been claimed that physical education provides important benefits to public health. The purpose of this paper is to determine if physical education increases…

  12. Accelerator physics in ERL based polarized electron ion collider

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Yue

    2015-05-03

    This talk will present the current accelerator physics challenges and solutions in designing ERL-based polarized electron-hadron colliders, and illustrate them with examples from eRHIC and LHeC designs. These challenges include multi-pass ERL design, highly HOM-damped SRF linacs, cost effective FFAG arcs, suppression of kink instability due to beam-beam effect, and control of ion accumulation and fast ion instabilities.

  13. Accelerator Physics Challenges for the NSLS-II Project

    SciTech Connect

    Krinsky,S.

    2009-05-04

    The NSLS-II is an ultra-bright synchrotron light source based upon a 3-GeV storage ring with a 30-cell (15 super-period) double-bend-achromat lattice with damping wigglers used to lower the emittance below 1 nm. In this paper, we discuss the accelerator physics challenges for the design including: optimization of dynamic aperture; estimation of Touschek lifetime; achievement of required orbit stability; and analysis of ring impedance and collective effects.

  14. Physics design of linear accelerators for intense ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    Advances in the physics and technology of linear accelerators for intense ion beams are leading to new methods for the design of such machines. The physical effects that limit beam current and brightness are better understood and provide the criteria for choosing the rf frequency and for determining optimum focusing configurations to control longitudinal and transverse emittances. During the past decade, the use of developments such as the radio-frequency quadrupole, multiple beams, funneling, ramped-field linac tanks, and self-matching linac tanks is leading to greater design flexibility and improved performance capabilities. 39 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  15. Future large scale accelerator projects for particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksan, R.

    2013-12-01

    The discovery of a new particle, the properties of which are compatible with the expected Brout-Englert-Higgs scalar field in the Standard Model (SM), is the starting point of an intense program for studying its couplings. With this particle, all the components of the SM have now been unraveled. Yet, the existence of dark matter, baryon asymmetry of the Universe and neutrino mass call for new physics at an energy scale, which is not determined so far. Therefore, new large scale accelerators are needed to investigate these mysteries through ultra-high precision measurements and/or the exploration of higher energy frontiers. In the following, we discuss the various accelerator projects aimed at the achievement of the above objectives. The physics reach of these facilities will be briefly described as well as their main technical features and related challenges, highlighting the importance of accelerator R&D not only for the benefit of particle physics but also for other fields of research, and more generally for the society.

  16. COMPASS, the COMmunity Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation, a broad computational accelerator physics initiative

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Cary; P. Spentzouris; J. Amundson; L. McInnes; M. Borland; B. Mustapha; B. Norris; P. Ostroumov; Y. Wang; W. Fischer; A. Fedotov; I. Ben-Zvi; R. Ryne; E. Esarey; C. Geddes; J. Qiang; E. Ng; S. Li; C. Ng; R. Lee; L. Merminga; H. Wang; D.L. Bruhwiler; D. Dechow; P. Mullowney; P. Messmer; C. Nieter; S. Ovtchinnikov; K. Paul; P. Stoltz; D. Wade-Stein; W.B. Mori; V. Decyk; C.K. Huang; W. Lu; M. Tzoufras; F. Tsung; M. Zhou; G.R. Werner; T. Antonsen; T. Katsouleas

    2007-06-01

    Accelerators are the largest and most costly scientific instruments of the Department of Energy, with uses across a broad range of science, including colliders for particle physics and nuclear science and light sources and neutron sources for materials studies. COMPASS, the Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation, is a broad, four-office (HEP, NP, BES, ASCR) effort to develop computational tools for the prediction and performance enhancement of accelerators. The tools being developed can be used to predict the dynamics of beams in the presence of optical elements and space charge forces, the calculation of electromagnetic modes and wake fields of cavities, the cooling induced by comoving beams, and the acceleration of beams by intense fields in plasmas generated by beams or lasers. In SciDAC-1, the computational tools had multiple successes in predicting the dynamics of beams and beam generation. In SciDAC-2 these tools will be petascale enabled to allow the inclusion of an unprecedented level of physics for detailed prediction.

  17. COMPASS, the COMmunity Petascale Project for Accelerator Science And Simulation, a Broad Computational Accelerator Physics Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, J.R.; Spentzouris, P.; Amundson, J.; McInnes, L.; Borland, M.; Mustapha, B.; Norris, B.; Ostroumov, P.; Wang, Y.; Fischer, W.; Fedotov, A.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Ryne, R.; Esarey, E.; Geddes, C.; Qiang, J.; Ng, E.; Li, S.; Ng, C.; Lee, R.; Merminga, L.; /Jefferson Lab /Tech-X, Boulder /UCLA /Colorado U. /Maryland U. /Southern California U.

    2007-11-09

    Accelerators are the largest and most costly scientific instruments of the Department of Energy, with uses across a broad range of science, including colliders for particle physics and nuclear science and light sources and neutron sources for materials studies. COMPASS, the Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation, is a broad, four-office (HEP, NP, BES, ASCR) effort to develop computational tools for the prediction and performance enhancement of accelerators. The tools being developed can be used to predict the dynamics of beams in the presence of optical elements and space charge forces, the calculation of electromagnetic modes and wake fields of cavities, the cooling induced by comoving beams, and the acceleration of beams by intense fields in plasmas generated by beams or lasers. In SciDAC-1, the computational tools had multiple successes in predicting the dynamics of beams and beam generation. In SciDAC-2 these tools will be petascale enabled to allow the inclusion of an unprecedented level of physics for detailed prediction.

  18. COMPASS, the COMmunity Petascale project for Accelerator Science and Simulation, a board computational accelerator physics initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, J.R.; Spentzouris, P.; Amundson, J.; McInnes, L.; Borland, M.; Mustapha, B.; Ostroumov, P.; Wang, Y.; Fischer, W.; Fedotov, A.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Ryne, R.; Esarey, E.; Geddes, C.; Qiang, J.; Ng, E.; Li, S.; Ng, C.; Lee, R.; Merminga, L.; Wang, H.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Dechow, D.; Mullowney, P.; Messmer, P.; Nieter, C.; Ovtchinnikov, S.; Paul, K.; Stoltz, P.; Wade-Stein, D.; Mori, W.B.; Decyk, V.; Huang, C.K.; Lu, W.; Tzoufras, M.; Tsung, F.; Zhou, M.; Werner, G.R.; Antonsen, T.; Katsouleas, T.; Morris, B.

    2007-07-16

    Accelerators are the largest and most costly scientific instruments of the Department of Energy, with uses across a broad range of science, including colliders for particle physics and nuclear science and light sources and neutron sources for materials studies. COMPASS, the Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation, is a broad, four-office (HEP, NP, BES, ASCR) effort to develop computational tools for the prediction and performance enhancement of accelerators. The tools being developed can be used to predict the dynamics of beams in the presence of optical elements and space charge forces, the calculation of electromagnetic modes and wake fields of cavities, the cooling induced by comoving beams, and the acceleration of beams by intense fields in plasmas generated by beams or lasers. In SciDAC-1, the computational tools had multiple successes in predicting the dynamics of beams and beam generation. In SciDAC-2 these tools will be petascale enabled to allow the inclusion of an unprecedented level of physics for detailed prediction.

  19. COMPASS, the COMmunity petascale project for accelerator science and simulation, a broad computational accelerator physics initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cary, J. R.; Spentzouris, P.; Amundson, J.; McInnes, L.; Borland, M.; Mustapha, B.; Norris, B.; Ostroumov, P.; Wang, Y.; Fischer, W.; Fedotov, A.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Ryne, R.; Esarey, E.; Geddes, C.; Qiang, J.; Ng, E.; Li, S.; Ng, C.; Lee, R.; Merminga, L.; Wang, H.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Dechow, D.; Mullowney, P.; Messmer, P.; Nieter, C.; Ovtchinnikov, S.; Paul, K.; Stoltz, P.; Wade-Stein, D.; Mori, W. B.; Decyk, V.; Huang, C. K.; Lu, W.; Tzoufras, M.; Tsung, F.; Zhou, M.; Werner, G. R.; Antonsen, T.; Katsouleas, T.

    2007-07-01

    Accelerators are the largest and most costly scientific instruments of the Department of Energy, with uses across a broad range of science, including colliders for particle physics and nuclear science and light sources and neutron sources for materials studies. COMPASS, the Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation, is a broad, four-office (HEP, NP, BES, ASCR) effort to develop computational tools for the prediction and performance enhancement of accelerators. The tools being developed can be used to predict the dynamics of beams in the presence of optical elements and space charge forces, the calculation of electromagnetic modes and wake fields of cavities, the cooling induced by comoving beams, and the acceleration of beams by intense fields in plasmas generated by beams or lasers. In SciDAC-1, the computational tools had multiple successes in predicting the dynamics of beams and beam generation. In SciDAC-2 these tools will be petascale enabled to allow the inclusion of an unprecedented level of physics for detailed prediction.

  20. Operational Radiation Protection in High-Energy Physics Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Rokni, S.H.; Fasso, A.; Liu, J.C.; /SLAC

    2012-04-03

    An overview of operational radiation protection (RP) policies and practices at high-energy electron and proton accelerators used for physics research is presented. The different radiation fields and hazards typical of these facilities are described, as well as access control and radiation control systems. The implementation of an operational RP programme is illustrated, covering area and personnel classification and monitoring, radiation surveys, radiological environmental protection, management of induced radioactivity, radiological work planning and control, management of radioactive materials and wastes, facility dismantling and decommissioning, instrumentation and training.

  1. Accelerator-driven molten-salt blankets: Physics issues

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, M.G.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Durkee, J.W.; Perry, R.T.; Poston, D.I.

    1994-10-01

    A number of nuclear physics issues concerning the Los Alamos molten-salt accelerator-driven plutonium converter are discussed. General descriptions of several concepts using internal and external moderation are presented. Burnup and salt processing requirement calculations are presented for four concepts, indicating that both the high power density externally moderated concept and an internally moderated concept achieve total plutonium burnups approaching 90% at salt processing rates of less than 2 m{sup 3} per year. Beginning-of-life reactivity temperature coefficients and system kinetic response are also discussed. Future research should investigate the effect of changing blanket composition on operational and safety characteristics.

  2. Physical Activity, Public Health, and Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…

  3. Accelerating innovation in information and communication technology for health.

    PubMed

    Crean, Kevin W

    2010-02-01

    Around the world, inventors are creating novel information and communication technology applications and systems that can improve health for people in disparate settings. However, it is very difficult to find investment funding needed to create business models to expand and develop the prototype technologies. A comprehensive, long-term investment strategy for e-health and m-health is needed. The field of social entrepreneurship offers an integrated approach to develop needed investment models, so that innovations can reach more patients, more effectively. Specialized financing techniques and sustained support from investors can spur the expansion of mature technologies to larger markets, accelerating global health impacts. PMID:20348074

  4. Physical Activities Monitoring Using Wearable Acceleration Sensors Attached to the Body

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring physical activities by using wireless sensors is helpful for identifying postural orientation and movements in the real-life environment. A simple and robust method based on time domain features to identify the physical activities is proposed in this paper; it uses sensors placed on the subjects’ wrist, chest and ankle. A feature set based on time domain characteristics of the acceleration signal recorded by acceleration sensors is proposed for the classification of twelve physical activities. Nine subjects performed twelve different types of physical activities, including sitting, standing, walking, running, cycling, Nordic walking, ascending stairs, descending stairs, vacuum cleaning, ironing clothes and jumping rope, and lying down (resting state). Their ages were 27.2 ± 3.3 years and their body mass index (BMI) is 25.11 ± 2.6 Kg/m2. Classification results demonstrated a high validity showing precision (a positive predictive value) and recall (sensitivity) of more than 95% for all physical activities. The overall classification accuracy for a combined feature set of three sensors is 98%. The proposed framework can be used to monitor the physical activities of a subject that can be very useful for the health professional to assess the physical activity of healthy individuals as well as patients. PMID:26203909

  5. Measuring Physical Neighborhood Quality Related to Health

    PubMed Central

    Rollings, Kimberly A.; Wells, Nancy M.; Evans, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work. PMID:25938692

  6. Innovative Applications of Genetic Algorithms to Problems in Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hofler, Alicia; Terzic, Balsa; Kramer, Matthew; Zvezdin, Anton; Morozov, Vasiliy; Roblin, Yves; Lin, Fanglei; Jarvis, Colin

    2013-01-01

    The genetic algorithm (GA) is a relatively new technique that implements the principles nature uses in biological evolution in order to optimize a multidimensional nonlinear problem. The GA works especially well for problems with a large number of local extrema, where traditional methods (such as conjugate gradient, steepest descent, and others) fail or, at best, underperform. The field of accelerator physics, among others, abounds with problems which lend themselves to optimization via GAs. In this paper, we report on the successful application of GAs in several problems related to the existing CEBAF facility, the proposed MEIC at Jefferson Lab, and a radio frequency (RF) gun based injector. These encouraging results are a step forward in optimizing accelerator design and provide an impetus for application of GAs to other problems in the field. To that end, we discuss the details of the GAs used, including a newly devised enhancement, which leads to improved convergence to the optimum and make recommendations for future GA developments and accelerator applications.

  7. [Health and the city: physical health and mental health].

    PubMed

    Tubiana, M

    2001-08-01

    In France, city size has very little bearing on the mortality rate as a function of age and life expectancy and it is in large cities that these indicators are the most favorable. No increase in maternal or infant mortality rates or deaths due to cancers has been observed in large cities. The lower mortality rate linked to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in large urban areas contradicts the fears concerning the impact of air pollution. Deaths linked to lifestyle are less frequent in big cities, which could be due to social structures (socio-professional level: the proportion of white-collar workers and professionals is higher in bigger cities than in the suburbs or small cities). However, although the overall mortality rate is lower, it should be emphasized that there is in large cities a greater incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS and certain infectious diseases (because of social diversity and the fact that certain individuals seeking anonymity and marginality are drawn to large cities). In terms of mental health, the breakdown of family structures, instability, unemployment, the lack of parental authority and failing schools render adolescents vulnerable and hinder their social integration. When the proportion of adolescents at risk is high in a neighborhood, individual problems are amplified and social problems result. In order to restore mental and social health to these neighborhoods, ambitious strategies are necessary which take into account family and social factors as well as environmental ones. At the present time, when physical health is constantly improving, the most pressing problems are those related to lifestyle and mental health which depend for a large part on social factors. PMID:11510421

  8. Resource Letter AFHEP-1: Accelerators for the Future of High-Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, William A.

    2012-02-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to literature concerning the development of accelerators for the future of high-energy physics. Research articles, books, and Internet resources are cited for the following topics: motivation for future accelerators, present accelerators for high-energy physics, possible future machine, and laboratory and collaboration websites.

  9. ASP2012: Fundamental Physics and Accelerator Sciences in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darve, Christine

    2012-02-01

    Much remains to be done to improve education and scientific research in Africa. Supported by the international scientific community, our initiative has been to contribute to fostering science in sub-Saharan Africa by establishing a biennial school on fundamental subatomic physics and its applications. The school is based on a close interplay between theoretical, experimental, and applied physics. The lectures are addressed to students or young researchers with at least a background of 4 years of university formation. The aim of the school is to develop capacity, interpret, and capitalize on the results of current and future physics experiments with particle accelerators; thereby spreading education for innovation in related applications and technologies, such as medicine and information science. Following the worldwide success of the first school edition, which gathered 65 students for 3-week in Stellenbosch (South Africa) in August 2010, the second edition will be hosted in Ghana from July 15 to August 4, 2012. The school is a non-profit organization, which provides partial or full financial support to 50 of the selected students, with priority to Sub-Saharan African students.

  10. Physics for Allied Health Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldick, Howard

    2000-04-01

    In this paper I will describe two courses that I have been teaching for the past 6 years to physical therapy and occupational therapy students Emphasis will be paced on those points that distinguish these courses from others with which I am familiar. I will discuss the syllabus: homework, exams, labs and the final grade. I will also present a topic outline of the courses showing how examples are drawn from the human body to illustrate the physics concept under discussion and to stimulate the students's interest in the material. The following basic concepts of physics will be covered (each with human body examples): vectors, components, statics, conservation of energy, efficiency, change of state, heat transfer, electric charge, electric field, voltage and capacitance.

  11. Health Instruction Packages: Physical Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stephen J.; Lupi, Frances A.

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are used in these two learning modules to instruct physical therapists and others involved in the care of the infirm in methods of comfortably positioning patients in beds and chairs. The first module, "Basic Positioning in Bed and Chair," describes how to position a patient in the upright sitting position and on…

  12. Vocal Health for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Josh; McColl, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Evidence suggests that teachers are often at risk for vocal disease and are more likely to change occupations because of their voice problems compared to non-teachers. Physical educators are especially at risk for voice problems due to the intense daily demands of voice projection. Chronic abuse can cause swelling and inflammation of the…

  13. Health and economic costs of physical inactivity.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries and is being recognized as a serious public health problem. Recent evidence shows a high percentages of individuals worldwide who are physically inactive, i.e. do not achieve the WHO's present recommendation of 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous intensity per week in addition to usual activities. Living in sedentary lifestyle is one of the leading causes of deaths and a high risk factor for several chronic diseases, like cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes type 2, and osteoporosis. This article summarizes evidence for relative risk of the civilization diseases attributable to physical inactivity and the most important conclusions available from the recent investigations computing the economic costs specific to physical inactivity. The findings provide health and economic arguments needed for people to understand the meaning of a sedentary lifestyle. This may be also useful for public health policy in the creation of programmes for prevention of physical inactivity. PMID:25292019

  14. Physical Health: An Expanding Horizon for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Thomas W.

    1977-01-01

    Just when many traditional slots for counselors and psychologists are filled or disappearing, appearance of exciting new vistas seems providential. One of these areas is physical well-being, the prevention and remedy of bodily disease. Evidence suggests the central nervous system is the most critical single determinant of physical health. (Author)

  15. Health Care Provider Physical Activity Prescription Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josyula, Lakshmi; Lyle, Roseann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the feasibility and impact of a health care provider’s (HCP) physical activity (PA) prescription on the PA of patients on preventive care visits. Methods: Consenting adult patients completed health and PA questionnaires and were sequentially assigned to intervention groups. HCPs prescribed PA using a written prescription only…

  16. Answers to Health Questions in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert, Ed.

    Culled from the answers of physical education teachers and coaches, this booklet attempts to indicate the scope of health problems and suggests some directions which the solutions may take. It is divided into three parts. Part 1, Health and Safety in Activity Programs, answers questions on first aid, excused absences, and desirability of…

  17. Atomic Physics with Accelerators: Projectile Electron Spectroscopy (APAPES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madesis, I.; Dimitriou, A.; Laoutaris, A.; Lagoyannis, A.; Axiotis, M.; Mertzimekis, T.; Andrianis, M.; Harissopulos, S.; Benis, E. P.; Sulik, B.; Valastyán, I.; Zouros, T. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The new research initiative APAPES (http://apapes.physics.uoc.gr/) has already established a new experimental station with a beam line dedicated for atomic collisions physics research, at the 5 MV TANDEM accelerator of the National Research Centre "Demokritos" in Athens, Greece. A complete zero-degree Auger projectile spectroscopy (ZAPS) apparatus has been put together to perform high resolution studies of electrons emitted in ion-atom collisions. A single stage hemispherical spectrometer with a 2-dimensional Position Sensitive Detector (PSD) combined with a doubly-differentially pumped gas target will be used to perform a systematic isoelectronic investigation of K-Auger spectra emitted from collisions of preexcited and ground state He-like ions with gas targets using novel techniques. Our intention is to provide a more thorough understanding of cascade feeding of the 1s2s2p 4P metastable states produced by electron capture in collisions of He-like ions with gas targets and further elucidate their role in the non-statistical production of excited three-electron 1s2s2p states by electron capture, recently a field of conflicting interpretations awaiting further resolution. At the moment, the apparatus is being completed and the spectrometer will soon be fully operational. Here we present the project progress and the recent high resolution spectrum obtained in collisions of 12 MeV C4+ on a Neon gas target.

  18. Accelerating learning for pro-poor health markets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the rapid evolution of health markets, learning is key to promoting the identification and uptake of health market policies and practices that better serve the needs of the poor. However there are significant challenges to learning about health markets. We discuss the different forms that learning takes, from the development of codified scientific knowledge, through to experience-based learning, all in relationship to health markets. Discussion Notable challenges to learning in health markets include the difficulty of acquiring data from private health care providers, designing evaluations that capture the complex dynamics present within health markets and developing communities of practice that encompass the diverse actors present within health markets, and building trust and mutual understanding across these groups. The paper proposes experimentation with country-specific market data platforms that can integrate relevant evidence from different data sources, and simultaneously exploring strategies to secure better information on private providers and health markets. Possible approaches to adapting evaluation designs so that they are better able to take account of different and changing contexts as well as producing real time findings are discussed. Finally capturing informal knowledge about health markets is key. Communities of practice that bridge different health market actors can help to share such experience-based knowledge and in so doing, may help to formalize it. More geographically-focused communities of practice are needed, and such communities may be supported by innovation brokers and/or be built around member-based organizations. Summary Strategic investments in and support to learning about health markets can address some of the challenges experienced to-date, and accelerate learning that supports health markets that serve the poor. PMID:24961671

  19. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    In the first chapter, terminology, physical and radiological quantities, and units of measurement used to describe the properties of accelerator radiation fields are reviewed. The general considerations of primary radiation fields pertinent to accelerators are discussed. The primary radiation fields produced by electron beams are described qualitatively and quantitatively. In the same manner the primary radiation fields produced by proton and ion beams are described. Subsequent chapters describe: shielding of electrons and photons at accelerators; shielding of proton and ion accelerators; low energy prompt radiation phenomena; induced radioactivity at accelerators; topics in radiation protection instrumentation at accelerators; and accelerator radiation protection program elements.

  20. 42 CFR 484.245 - Accelerated payments for home health agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accelerated payments for home health agencies. 484... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION HOME HEALTH SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Home Health Agencies § 484.245 Accelerated payments for home health agencies. (a) General...

  1. 42 CFR 484.245 - Accelerated payments for home health agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accelerated payments for home health agencies. 484... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION HOME HEALTH SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Home Health Agencies § 484.245 Accelerated payments for home health agencies. (a) General...

  2. 42 CFR 484.245 - Accelerated payments for home health agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accelerated payments for home health agencies. 484... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION HOME HEALTH SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Home Health Agencies § 484.245 Accelerated payments for home health agencies. (a) General...

  3. Environment, safety, and health considerations for a new accelerator facility

    SciTech Connect

    J. Donald Cossairt

    2001-04-23

    A study of siting considerations for possible future accelerators at Fermilab is underway. Each candidate presents important challenges in environment, safety, and health (ES&H) that are reviewed generically in this paper. Some of these considerations are similar to those that have been encountered and solved during the construction and operation of other accelerator facilities. Others have not been encountered previously on the same scale. The novel issues will require particular attention coincident with project design efforts to assure their timely cost-effective resolution. It is concluded that with adequate planning, the issues can be addressed in a manner that merits the support of the Laboratory, the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the public.

  4. Accelerator mass spectrometry: from nuclear physics to dating

    SciTech Connect

    Kutschera, W.

    1983-01-01

    Several applications of accelerator-based mass spectroscopy are reviewed. Among these are the search for unknown species, determination of comogenic radioisotopes in natural materials and measurements of half-lifes, especially those of significance to dating. Accelerator parameters and techniques of importance for these applications are also considered.

  5. Genetic algorithms and their applications in accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hofler, Alicia S.

    2013-12-01

    Multi-objective optimization techniques are widely used in an extremely broad range of fields. Genetic optimization for multi-objective optimization was introduced in the accelerator community in relatively recent times and quickly spread becoming a fundamental tool in multi-dimensional optimization problems. This discussion introduces the basics of the technique and reviews applications in accelerator problems.

  6. Corrigendum: How Positive Emotions Build Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Kok, B. E., Coffey, K. A., Cohn, M. A., Catalino, L. I., Vacharkulksemsuk, T., Algoe, S. B., . . . Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). How positive emotions build physical health: Perceived positive social connections account for the upward spiral between positive emotions and vagal tone. Psychological Science, 24, 1123–1132. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0956797612470827) PMID:27140726

  7. Numeracy in Health and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Colleen; Geiger, Vince; Goos, Merrilyn; Dole, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a teacher's Maths lesson that focuses on numeracy in health and physical education learning area. In the lesson, the students were learning about Directed Numbers, something they often struggle with and a topic where the teacher finds it hard to explain using real life situations when using addition and subtraction. The…

  8. Definitions: Health, Fitness, and Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.; Pangrazi, Robert P.; Franks, B. Don

    2000-01-01

    This paper defines a variety of fitness components, using a simple multidimensional hierarchical model that is consistent with recent definitions in the literature. It groups the definitions into two broad categories: product and process. Products refer to states of being such as physical fitness, health, and wellness. They are commonly referred…

  9. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Capacitor Health Monitoring and Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Celaya, Jose Ramon; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses experimental setups for health monitoring and prognostics of electrolytic capacitors under nominal operation and accelerated aging conditions. Electrolytic capacitors have higher failure rates than other components in electronic systems like power drives, power converters etc. Our current work focuses on developing first-principles-based degradation models for electrolytic capacitors under varying electrical and thermal stress conditions. Prognostics and health management for electronic systems aims to predict the onset of faults, study causes for system degradation, and accurately compute remaining useful life. Accelerated life test methods are often used in prognostics research as a way to model multiple causes and assess the effects of the degradation process through time. It also allows for the identification and study of different failure mechanisms and their relationships under different operating conditions. Experiments are designed for aging of the capacitors such that the degradation pattern induced by the aging can be monitored and analyzed. Experimental setups and data collection methods are presented to demonstrate this approach.

  10. Status and future prospects for United States accelerators and accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H

    1994-12-01

    The recent performance and future prospects of accelerators in the United States are reviewed. The next decade promises significant improvements and major new facilities. There is uncertainty beyond that because of the SSC cancellation and the new, enhanced importance of international accelerator projects.

  11. Future Prospects of Accelerator Science for Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2012-06-15

    Future advances in understanding fundamental questions of nature require revolutionary developments in accelerator science to allow several orders of magnitude enhancements in terms of energy, intensity, faster timing, and higher resolution. The challenges of the 21st century (energy, power, environment, resources, cost, and space) also play a significant role in the development of accelerator tools. In this overview article, we consider several recent developments and ideas that may become steps in addressing the challenges and which may find their way into designs of accelerator tools of the future.

  12. Vascular health late after Kawasaki disease: implications for accelerated atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Yiu-Fai

    2014-11-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD), an acute vasculitis that primarily affects young children, is the most common acquired paediatric cardiovascular disease in developed countries. While sequelae of arterial inflammation in the acute phase of KD are well documented, its late effects on vascular health are increasingly unveiled. Late vascular dysfunction is characterized by structural alterations and functional impairment in term of arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction and shown to involve both coronary and systemic arteries. Further evidence suggests that continuous low grade inflammation and ongoing active remodeling of coronary arterial lesions occur late after acute illness and may play a role in structural and functional alterations of the arteries. Potential importance of genetic modulation on vascular health late after KD is implicated by associations between mannose binding lectin and inflammatory gene polymorphisms with severity of peripheral arterial stiffening and carotid intima-media thickening. The changes in cholesterol and lipoproteins levels late after KD further appear similar to those proposed to be atherogenic. While data on adverse vascular health are less controversial in patients with persistent or regressed coronary arterial aneurysms, data appear conflicting in individuals with no coronary arterial involvements or only transient coronary ectasia. Notwithstanding, concerns have been raised with regard to predisposition of KD in childhood to accelerated atherosclerosis in adulthood. Until further evidence-based data are available, however, it remains important to assess and monitor cardiovascular risk factors and to promote cardiovascular health in children with a history of KD in the long term. PMID:25550701

  13. Physics design of the DARHT 2nd axis accelerator cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y J; Houck, T L; Reginato, L J; Shang, C C; Yu, S S

    1999-08-19

    The next generation of radiographic machines based on induction accelerators require very high brightness electron beams to realize the desired x-ray spot size and intensity. This high brightness must be maintained throughout the beam transport, from source to x-ray converter target. The accelerator for the second-axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility is being designed to accelerate a 4-kA, 2-{micro}s pulse of electrons to 20 MeV. After acceleration, the 2-{micro}s pulse will be chopped into a train of four 50-ns pulses with variable temporal spacing by rapidly deflecting the beam between a beam stop and the final transport section. The short beam pulses will be focused onto an x-ray converter target generating four radiographic pulses within the 2-{micro}s window. Beam instability due to interaction with the accelerator cells can very adversely effect the beam brightness and radiographic pulse quality. This paper describes the various issues considered in the design of the accelerator cell with emphasis on transverse impedance and minimizing beam instabilities.

  14. Probing new physics with underground accelerators and radioactive sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izaguirre, Eder; Krnjaic, Gordan; Pospelov, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    New light, weakly coupled particles can be efficiently produced at existing and future high-intensity accelerators and radioactive sources in deep underground laboratories. Once produced, these particles can scatter or decay in large neutrino detectors (e.g. Super-K and Borexino) housed in the same facilities. We discuss the production of weakly coupled scalars ϕ via nuclear de-excitation of an excited element into the ground state in two viable concrete reactions: the decay of the 0+ excited state of 16O populated via a (p , α) reaction on fluorine and from radioactive 144Ce decay where the scalar is produced in the de-excitation of 144Nd*, which occurs along the decay chain. Subsequent scattering on electrons, e (ϕ , γ) e, yields a mono-energetic signal that is observable in neutrino detectors. We show that this proposed experimental setup can cover new territory for masses 250 keV ≤mϕ ≤ 2me and couplings to protons and electrons, 10-11 ≤gegp ≤10-7. This parameter space is motivated by explanations of the 'proton charge radius puzzle', thus this strategy adds a viable new physics component to the neutrino and nuclear astrophysics programs at underground facilities. For the LUNA-type setup, we show that such light particles can be efficiently produced by populating the first excited 6.05 MeV 0+ state of 16O in (p , α) reactions on fluorine. For the SOX-type setup we find similarly powerful sensitivity from the 144Ce-144Pr (νbare) radioactive source, which can produce a scalar with 2.19 or 1.49 MeV energies from the Nd144* de-excitation that occurs along the decay chain. The subsequent detection of a mono-energetic release in a Borexino-type detector with 6.05, 2.19, or 1.49 MeV will be free from substantial environmental backgrounds. The strategy proposed in this Letter is capable of advancing the sensitivity to such states by many orders of magnitude, completely covering the parameter space relevant for the rp puzzle.

  15. Formation and Acceleration Physics on Plasma Injector 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Plasma Injector 1 (PI-1) is a two stage coaxial Marshal gun with conical accelerator electrodes, similar in shape to the MARAUDER device, with power input of the same topology as the RACE device. The goal of PI-1 research is to produce a self-confined compact toroid with high-flux (200 mWb), high-density (3x10^16 cm-3) and moderate initial temperature (100 eV) to be used as the target plasma in a MTF reactor. PI-1 is 5 meters long and 1.9 m in diameter at the expansion region where a high aspect ratio (4.4) spheromak is formed with a minimum lambda of 9 m-1. The acceleration stage is 4 m long and tapers to an outer diameter of 40 cm. The capacitor banks store 0.5 MJ for formation and 1.13 MJ for acceleration. Power is delivered via 62 independently controlled switch modules. Several geometries for formation bias field, inner electrodes and target chamber have been tested, and trends in accelerator efficiency and target lifetime have been observed. Thomson scattering and ion Doppler spectroscopy show significant heating (>100 eV) as the CT is compressed in the conical accelerator. B-dot probes show magnetic field structure consistent with Grad-Shafranov models and MHD simulations, and CT axial length depends strongly on the lambda profile.

  16. HotSpot Health Physics Codes

    2013-04-18

    The HotSpot Health Physics Codes were created to provide emergency response personnel and emergency planners with a fast, field-portable set of software tools for evaluating insidents involving redioactive material. The software is also used for safety-analysis of facilities handling nuclear material. HotSpot provides a fast and usually conservative means for estimation the radiation effects associated with the short-term (less than 24 hours) atmospheric release of radioactive materials.

  17. HotSpot Health Physics Codes

    2010-03-02

    The HotSpot Health Physics Codes were created to provide emergency response personnel and emergency planners with a fast, field-portable set of software tools for evaluating incidents involving radioactive material. The software is also used for safety-analysis of facilities handling nuclear material. HotSpot provides a fast and usually conservative means for estimation the radiation effects associated with the short-term (less than 24 hours) atmospheric release of radioactive materials.

  18. Linear accelerator for production of tritium: Physics design challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.; Lawrence, G.P.; Bhatia, T.S.; Billen, J.H.; Chan, K.C.D.; Garnett, R.W.; Guy, F.W.; Liska, D.; Nath, S.; Neuschaefer, G.; Shubaly, M.

    1990-01-01

    In the summer of 1989, a collaboration between Los Alamos National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory conducted a study to establish a reference design of a facility for accelerator production of tritium (APT). The APT concept is that of a neutron-spallation source, which is based on the use of high-energy protons to bombard lead nuclei, resulting in the production of large quantities of neutrons. Neutrons from the lead are captured by lithium to produce tritium. This paper describes the design of a 1.6-GeV, 250-mA proton cw linear accelerator for APT.

  19. High Performance Computing Modeling Advances Accelerator Science for High-Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Amundson, James; Macridin, Alexandru; Spentzouris, Panagiotis

    2014-07-28

    The development and optimization of particle accelerators are essential for advancing our understanding of the properties of matter, energy, space, and time. Particle accelerators are complex devices whose behavior involves many physical effects on multiple scales. Therefore, advanced computational tools utilizing high-performance computing are essential for accurately modeling them. In the past decade, the US Department of Energy's SciDAC program has produced accelerator-modeling tools that have been employed to tackle some of the most difficult accelerator science problems. The authors discuss the Synergia framework and its applications to high-intensity particle accelerator physics. Synergia is an accelerator simulation package capable of handling the entire spectrum of beam dynamics simulations. Our authors present Synergia's design principles and its performance on HPC platforms.

  20. High Performance Computing Modeling Advances Accelerator Science for High-Energy Physics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Amundson, James; Macridin, Alexandru; Spentzouris, Panagiotis

    2014-07-28

    The development and optimization of particle accelerators are essential for advancing our understanding of the properties of matter, energy, space, and time. Particle accelerators are complex devices whose behavior involves many physical effects on multiple scales. Therefore, advanced computational tools utilizing high-performance computing are essential for accurately modeling them. In the past decade, the US Department of Energy's SciDAC program has produced accelerator-modeling tools that have been employed to tackle some of the most difficult accelerator science problems. The authors discuss the Synergia framework and its applications to high-intensity particle accelerator physics. Synergia is an accelerator simulation package capable ofmore » handling the entire spectrum of beam dynamics simulations. Our authors present Synergia's design principles and its performance on HPC platforms.« less

  1. International Linear Collider Accelerator Physics R&D

    SciTech Connect

    George D. Gollin; Michael Davidsaver; Michael J. Haney; Michael Kasten; Jason Chang; Perry Chodash; Will Dluger; Alex Lang; Yehan Liu

    2008-09-03

    ILC work at Illinois has concentrated primarily on technical issues relating to the design of the accelerator. Because many of the problems to be resolved require a working knowledge of classical mechanics and electrodynamics, most of our research projects lend themselves well to the participation of undergraduate research assistants. The undergraduates in the group are scientists, not technicians, and find solutions to problems that, for example, have stumped PhD-level staff elsewhere. The ILC Reference Design Report calls for 6.7 km circumference damping rings (which prepare the beams for focusing) using “conventional” stripline kickers driven by fast HV pulsers. Our primary goal was to determine the suitability of the 16 MeV electron beam in the AØ region at Fermilab for precision kicker studies.We found that the low beam energy and lack of redundancy in the beam position monitor system complicated the analysis of our data. In spite of these issues we concluded that the precision we could obtain was adequate to measure the performance and stability of a production module of an ILC kicker, namely 0.5%. We concluded that the kicker was stable to an accuracy of ~2.0% and that we could measure this precision to an accuracy of ~0.5%. As a result, a low energy beam like that at AØ could be used as a rapid-turnaround facility for testing ILC production kicker modules. The ILC timing precision for arrival of bunches at the collision point is required to be 0.1 picosecond or better. We studied the bunch-to-bunch timing accuracy of a “phase detector” installed in AØ in order to determine its suitability as an ILC bunch timing device. A phase detector is an RF structure excited by the passage of a bunch. Its signal is fed through a 1240 MHz high-Q resonant circuit and then down-mixed with the AØ 1300 MHz accelerator RF. We used a kind of autocorrelation technique to compare the phase detector signal with a reference signal obtained from the phase detector

  2. Environmental health physics: 50 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Dade W

    2005-06-01

    Environmental health physics is an interdisciplinary field, involving study of the release, transport, and fate of radioactive material in the environment. Further, it addresses the interaction of humans with radioactive materials within the ambient (outdoor) environment and with the environments associated with modern technology and lifestyles. It also involves both naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides with the former generally being by far the highest source of exposure. In fact, doses from naturally occurring radionuclides are increasingly being used as a benchmark for the establishment of dose rate limits for people. Because of the pioneering work of early environmental health physicists, models exist today that can be used to assess the potential impacts of new nuclear facilities prior to their operation. In fact, these people represent the branch of the health physics profession who conducted environmental monitoring programs and performed the associated research studies that led to the identification of the principal radionuclides of interest, the major pathways and mechanisms through which they expose people, and the doses that may result from radioactive materials in the natural and technologically enhanced environments. One of their most important contributions was the identification and quantification of many of the key parameters that serve as input to such models. Monitoring of nuclear weapons development facilities used during and after World War II was the initial stimulus for the establishment of environmental health physics programs. Thereafter, these programs were expanded both nationally and globally, as a result of the atmospheric weapons testing programs of nations such as France, the People's Republic of China, the former Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Additional stimuli were provided by the development of the commercial nuclear power industry. Current environmental programs, particularly within

  3. Environmental health physics-50 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Dade W

    2004-10-01

    Environmental health physics is an interdisciplinary field, involving study of the release, transport, and fate of radioactive material in the environment. Further, it addresses the interaction of humans with radioactive materials within the ambient (outdoor) environment and with the environments associated with modern technology and lifestyles. It also involves both naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides with the former generally being by far the highest source of exposure. In fact, doses from naturally occurring radionuclides are increasingly being used as a benchmark for the establishment of dose rate limits for people. Because of the pioneering work of early environmental health physicists, models exist today that can be used to assess the potential impacts of new nuclear facilities prior to their operation. In fact, these people represent the branch of the health physics profession who conducted environmental monitoring programs and performed the associated research studies that led to the identification of the principal radionuclides of interest, the major pathways and mechanisms through which they expose people, and the doses that may result from radioactive materials in the natural and technologically enhanced environments. One of their most important contributions was the identification and quantification of many of the key parameters that serve as input to such models. Monitoring of nuclear weapons development facilities used during and after World War II was the initial stimulus for the establishment of environmental health physics programs. Thereafter, these programs were expanded both nationally and globally, as a result of the atmospheric weapons testing programs of nations such as France, the People's Republic of China, the former Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Additional stimuli were provided by the development of the commercial nuclear power industry. Current environmental programs, particularly within

  4. Physical fitness and health education program at NASA Headquarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, Cathy

    1993-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: policy procedures to enter the NASA Headquarters Physical Fitness and Health Program; eligibility; TDY eligibility; health promotions offered; and general facility management.

  5. Acceleration of neutrons in a scheme of a tautochronous mathematical pendulum (physical principles)

    SciTech Connect

    Rivlin, Lev A

    2010-12-09

    We consider the physical principles of neutron acceleration through a multiple synchronous interaction with a gradient rf magnetic field in a scheme of a tautochronous mathematical pendulum. (laser applications and other aspects of quantum electronics)

  6. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  7. Problematic Internet use and physical health.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Kevin J; Gruber, Elon M

    2013-06-01

    Background and aims A considerable body of literature has emerged over the past two decades assessing the relationship between problematic or addictive use of the Internet and various indices of psychological well-being. Conversely, comparatively little research has assessed the relationship between problematic or addictive use of the Internet and one's physical health. Method The current study assesses this relationship using a sample of college students (N = 133) who responded online to two questionnaires: the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ; Demetrovics, Szeredi&Rózsa, 2008) and the SF-36v2 Health Survey (Ware et al., 2008). Results The findings indicate that problematic Internet use is associated with poorer physical health. These results are consistent with other data that assessed the relationship between these two variables. Furthermore, this relationship supersedes the influence of the number of hours spent online per day. Conclusions The findings are discussed in terms of the limitations of the study design and conclusions that can be drawn from this preliminary empirical effort. PMID:26165930

  8. Physics of beam self-modulation in plasma wakefield accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Lotov, K. V.

    2015-10-15

    The self-modulation instability is a key effect that makes possible the usage of nowadays proton beams as drivers for plasma wakefield acceleration. Development of the instability in uniform plasmas and in plasmas with a small density up-step is numerically studied with the focus at nonlinear stages of beam evolution. The step parameters providing the strongest established wakefield are found, and the mechanism of stable bunch train formation is identified.

  9. Seeing the Nature of the Accelerating Physics: It's a SNAP

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, J.; Aldering, G.; Allam, S.; Althouse, W.; Amanullah, R.; Annis, J.; Astier, P.; Aumeunier, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bebek, C.; Bergstom, L.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Besuner, B.; Bigelow, B.; Blandford, R.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; /Caltech /LBL, Berkeley /Fermilab /SLAC /Stockholm U. /Paris, IN2P3 /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. /Yale U. /Pennsylvania U. /UC, Berkeley /Michigan U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Indiana U. /Caltech, JPL /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /American Astron. Society /Chicago U. /Cambridge U. /Saclay /Lyon, IPN

    2005-08-05

    For true insight into the nature of dark energy, measurements of the precision and accuracy of the Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) are required. Precursor or scaled-down experiments are unavoidably limited, even for distinguishing the cosmological constant. They can pave the way for, but should not delay, SNAP by developing calibration, refinement, and systematics control (and they will also provide important, exciting astrophysics).

  10. Synergia: a modern tool for accelerator physics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Spentzouris, P.; Amundson, J.; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    High precision modeling of space-charge effects, together with accurate treatment of single-particle dynamics, is essential for designing future accelerators as well as optimizing the performance of existing machines. Synergia is a high-fidelity parallel beam dynamics simulation package with fully three dimensional space-charge capabilities and a higher order optics implementation. We describe the computational techniques, the advanced human interface, and the parallel performance obtained using large numbers of macroparticles.

  11. Inflationary Expansions Generated by a Physically Real Kinematic Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savickas, David

    2010-02-01

    A repulsive cosmological acceleration is shown to exist that exhibits a behavior very similar to that found in both inflationary models at the time of origin of the universe, and also in the repulsive acceleration found in present-day cosmological observations. It is able to describe an inflationary model of a radiation universe in considerable numerical detail. It is based on a method that defines the Hubble parameter H, and consequently inertial systems themselves, directly in terms of the positions and velocities of mass particles in a universe. This makes it possible to describe a mass particle's motion relative to other particles in the universe, rather than relative to inertial systems. Because of this, the repulsive acceleration is a real kinematic effect existing in the present-day universe. This definition of H cannot include the use of photon positions or velocities because H determines the velocities of receding inertial systems of galaxies, and the velocity of a photon in a distant inertial system then depends on the definition of H itself. Therefore, at the time of its origin the magnitude of H in a radiation dominated universe would be solely determined by the behavior of the relatively few mass particles that it contained while allowing for a near balance with the gravitation of the Friedmann-Lemaître model. )

  12. Integrated Health and Physical Education Program to Reduce Media Use and Increase Physical Activity in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clocksin, Brian D.; Wattson, Doris L.; Williams, Daniel P.; Randsell, Lynda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to compare an integrated health and physical education curriculum, focused on reducing media use and on increasing physical activity in middle school adolescents, to traditional and nonintegrated health and physical education curricula. Two middle schools' health and physical education classes were assigned to an…

  13. The Health Physics Society Science Teacher Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Albert E.

    2001-03-01

    The South Texas Chapter of the Health Physics Society (STC) maintains a program of education for science teachers, grades 4-12. This program, originally funded by the U.S. Department of Energy but now supported by STC, is intended to teach fundamentals of radiation and radiation safety at a level suitable for comprehension by lay persons. Course topics include Fundamentals of Radiation, Cellular Biology and Radiation Health Effects, Exposure to Radiation in Modern Life, Radioactive Waste, and Radiation Safety. The 8-hour course is usually given on Saturdays at locations in Texas as requested by educational or other groups. Classes of up to 25 teacher-students are ideal. Lesson plans, reference materials, a video tape, software, and a radiation detector are provided to each participant. To schedule a workshop in your area, contact alevans@swbell.net or David Fogle, david.fogle@tdh.state.tx.us.

  14. Laser-based acceleration for nuclear physics experiments at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesileanu, O.; Asavei, Th.; Dancus, I.; Gales, S.; Negoita, F.; Turcu, I. C. E.; Ursescu, D.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2016-05-01

    As part of the Extreme Light pan-European research infrastructure, Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) in Romania will focus on topics in Nuclear Physics, fundamental Physics and applications, based on very intense photon beams. Laser-based acceleration of electrons, protons and heavy ions is a prerequisite for a multitude of laser-driven nuclear physics experiments already proposed by the international research community. A total of six outputs of the dual-amplification chain laser system, two of 100TW, two of 1PW and two of 10PW will be employed in 5 experimental areas, with the possibility to use long and short focal lengths, gas and solid targets, reaching the whole range of laser acceleration processes. We describe the main techniques and expectations regarding the acceleration of electrons, protons and heavy nuclei at ELI-NP, and some physics cases for which these techniques play an important role in the experiments.

  15. The Influence of Specific Physical Health Conditions on Retirement Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Kenneth S.; Wang, Mo

    2007-01-01

    Physical health has consistently been shown to strongly influence the retirement decision-making process. Unfortunately, "physical health" is typically operationalized in global terms. As a result, we know little about the specific aspects of physical health that influence the decision to retire. Therefore, in the present study, data from three…

  16. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2005 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2006-03-01

    This annual report details the number of health physics bachelor's, master's, and postdoctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2005. It also looks at health physics degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in health physics degree programs at 30 U.S. universities in 2005.

  17. ACCELERATOR PHYSICS MODEL OF EXPECTED BEAM LOSS ALONG THE SNS ACCELERATOR FACILITY DURING NORMAL OPERATION.

    SciTech Connect

    CATALAN - LASHERAS,N.; COUSINEAU,S.; GALAMBOS,J.; HOLTKAMP,N.; RAPARIA,D.; SHAFER,R.; STAPLES,J.; STOVALL,J.; TANKE,E.; WANGLER,T.; WEI,J.

    2002-06-03

    The most demanding requirement in the design of the SNS accelerator chain is to keep the accelerator complex under hands-on maintenance. This requirement implies a hard limit for residual radiation below 100 mrem/hr at one feet from the vacuum pipe and four hours after shutdown for hundred days of normal operation. It has been shown by measurements as well as simulation [l] that this limit corresponds to 1-2 Watts/meter average beam losses. This loss level is achievable all around the machine except in specific areas where remote handling will be necessary. These areas have been identified and correspond to collimation sections and dumps where a larger amount of controlled beam loss is foreseen. Even if the average level of loss is kept under 1 W/m, there are circumstances under which transient losses occur in the machine. The prompt radiation or potential damage in the accelerator components can not be deduced from an average beam loss of 1 W/m. At the same time, controlled loss areas require a dedicated study to clarify the magnitude and distribution of the beam loss. From the front end to the target, we have estimated the most probable locations for transient losses and given an estimate of their magnitude and frequency. This information is essential to calculate the necessary shielding or determine the safety procedures during machine operation. Losses in controlled areas, and the cleaning systems are the subject of Section 2. The inefficiency of each system will be taken into account for the discussion on Section 3 where n controlled loss is estimated. Section 4 summarizes our findings and presents a global view of the losses along the accelerator chain.

  18. Physical Restraint Initiation in Nursing Homes and Subsequent Resident Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas G.; McCaffrey, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: It is widely believed that physical restraint use causes mental and physical health decline in nursing home residents. Yet few studies exist showing an association between restraint initiation and health decline. In this research, we examined whether physical restraint initiation is associated with subsequent lower physical or mental…

  19. Accelerating Innovation: How Nuclear Physics Benefits Us All

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    From fighting cancer to assuring food is safe to protecting our borders, nuclear physics impacts the lives of people around the globe every day. In learning about the nucleus of the atom and the forces that govern it, scientists develop a depth of knowledge, techniques and remarkable research tools that can be used to develop a variety of often unexpected, practical applications. These applications include devices and technologies for medical diagnostics and therapy, energy production and exploration, safety and national security, and for the analysis of materials and environmental contaminants. This brochure by the Office of Nuclear Physics of the USDOE Office of Science discusses nuclear physics and ways in which its applications fuel our economic vitality, and make the world and our lives safer and healthier.

  20. Physical analysis of the radiation shielding for the medical accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q. F.; Xing, Q. Z.; Kong, C. C.

    2009-02-01

    Radiation safety standards today require comprehensive shielding protection schemes for all particle accelerators. The original shielding system of BJ-20 (BeiJing-20 MeV), the high-energy medical electron linac, was designed only for the 18 MeV level. And the dose caused by the lost electrons in the 270° bending magnet system was neglected. In this paper, the leakage dose of BJ-20 is carefully analyzed. The radiation leakage dose distribution of the photons coming from the accelerator head is obtained for energy levels of 6, 12, 14, and 18 MeV. The dose of the photoneutrons is especially analyzed for the 18 MeV level. The result gives that even neglecting the dose from the 270° bending magnet system, the shielding system is still not enough for the energy levels lower than 18 MeV. The radiation leakage produced by electrons that are lost in the 270° bending magnet system has been particularly studied. Using beam transport theory and Monte Carlo sampling methods, which have been combined in calculations, we have obtained the distribution of the energy, position, and direction of the lost electrons. These data were then further processed by the Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) code as input data. The results show that when the electron loss rate in the 270° bending magnet system is 13.5%, the radiation leakage dose of the photons generated by the lost electrons is 0.1% higher than that at the isocenter, and the corresponding relative leakage dose of the photoneutrons reaches 0.045% around an angle of 170° at 18 MeV level. Both of these parameters exceed radioprotection safety standards for medical accelerators. The original shielding design is therefore not suitable and is also incomplete since the radiation produced by the electrons being lost in the 270° bending magnet system was neglected and the leakage dose for the low-energy levels was not considered in the original design. Our calculations provide a very useful tool for further optimization and design

  1. The physics design of accelerator-driven transmutation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Venneri, F.

    1995-02-01

    Nuclear systems under study in the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology program (ADTT) will allow the destruction of nuclear spent fuel and weapons-return plutonium, as well as the production of nuclear energy from the thorium cycle, without a long-lived radioactive waste stream. The subcritical systems proposed represent a radical departure from traditional nuclear concepts (reactors), yet the actual implementation of ADTT systems is based on modest extrapolations of existing technology. These systems strive to keep the best that the nuclear technology has developed over the years, within a sensible conservative design envelope and eventually manage to offer a safer, less expensive and more environmentally sound approach to nuclear power.

  2. Exploring Physical Health in a Sample of Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, Stacy; Gillespie, Gordon L; Christianson, Jane

    2015-06-01

    Firefighters' work responsibilities involve strenuous physical activity and exposure to extremely stressful situations. The purpose of this research study was to describe the physical activity, stress, and culture promoting or inhibiting a healthy work environment. A descriptive qualitative study design was used with a convenience sample of firefighters from an urban Midwestern public fire service. Respondents participated in focus groups from which data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological method. Themes derived from the data were Stressors Affecting Physical Health, Barriers to Physical Health, Facilitators of Physical Health, and Motivators for Physical Health. Future research is needed to test interventions based on the study findings. PMID:26012517

  3. Proceedings of the workshop on B physics at hadron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, P.; Mishra, C.S.

    1993-12-31

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Measurement of Angle {alpha}; Measurement of Angle {beta}; Measurement of Angle {gamma}; Other B Physics; Theory of Heavy Flavors; Charged Particle Tracking and Vertexing; e and {gamma} Detection; Muon Detection; Hadron ID; Electronics, DAQ, and Computing; and Machine Detector Interface. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion the in Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. The value of physical examination in mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Martin, Carolyn T

    2016-03-01

    This article explores the use of a physical examination assignment in a mental health general nursing clinical placement course that addresses the poor physical health of people with mental illness and the barriers traditionally impeding health care provision for this population. A descriptive qualitative approach utilizes inductive content analysis to investigate 145 student survey responses. The assignment assists student nurses in understanding that physical and mental well-being are intrinsically linked. Students report increased comfort performing a physical examination on patients with mental illness post assignment. Students' initial bias towards this population was minimized post the clinical assignment. Poor physical health is common among people with mental health problems. Many view the provision of care as a major public health issue. Nurses are the front line caregivers of mental health service consumers and are well positioned to assess their physical needs. Their assessment may be the first step in recognizing health care issues in this population. PMID:26643656

  5. Implementation of an Accelerated Physical Examination Course in a Doctor of Pharmacy Program

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jackie; Lopes, Ingrid C.; Shah, Bijal M.; Ip, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To describe the implementation of a 1-day accelerated physical examination course for a doctor of pharmacy program and to evaluate pharmacy students’ knowledge, attitudes, and confidence in performing physical examination. Design. Using a flipped teaching approach, course coordinators collaborated with a physician faculty member to design and develop the objectives of the course. Knowledge, attitude, and confidence survey questions were administered before and after the practical laboratory. Assessment. Following the practical laboratory, knowledge improved by 8.3% (p<0.0001). Students’ perceived ability and confidence to perform a physical examination significantly improved (p<0.0001). A majority of students responded that reviewing the training video (81.3%) and reading material (67.4%) prior to the practical laboratory was helpful in learning the physical examination. Conclusion. An accelerated physical examination course using a flipped teaching approach was successful in improving students’ knowledge of, attitudes about, and confidence in using physical examination skills in pharmacy practice. PMID:25657369

  6. Outage management and health physics issue, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2006-05-15

    The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles/reports in this issue include: A design with experience for the U.S., by Michael J. Wallace, Constellation Generation Group; Hope to be among the first, by Randy Hutchinson, Entergy Nuclear; Plans to file COLs in 2008, by Garry Miller, Progress Energy; Evolution of ICRP's recommendations, by Lars-Erik Holm, ICRP; European network on education and training in radiological protection, by Michele Coeck, SCK-CEN, Belgium; Outage managment: an important tool for improving nuclear power plant performance, by Thomas Mazour and Jiri Mandula, IAEA, Austria; and Plant profile: Exploring new paths to excellence, by Anne Thomas, Exelon Nuclear.

  7. Outage management and health physics issue, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2009-05-15

    The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles include the following: Planning and scheduling to minimize refueling outage, by Pat McKenna, AmerenUE; Prioritizing safety, quality and schedule, by Tom Sharkey, Dominion; Benchmarking to high standards, by Margie Jepson, Energy Nuclear; Benchmarking against U.S. standards, by Magnox North, United Kingdom; Enabling suppliers for new build activity, by Marcus Harrington, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Identifying, cultivating and qualifying suppliers, by Thomas E. Silva, AREVA NP; Creating new U.S. jobs, by Francois Martineau, Areva NP. Industry innovation articles include: MSL Acoustic source load reduction, by Amir Shahkarami, Exelon Nuclear; Dual Methodology NDE of CRDM nozzles, by Michael Stark, Dominion Nuclear; and Electronic circuit board testing, by James Amundsen, FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company. The plant profile article is titled The future is now, by Julia Milstead, Progress Energy Service Company, LLC.

  8. Outage management and health physics issue, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2007-05-15

    The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles/reports in this issue include: India: a potential commercial opportunity, a U.S. Department of Commerce Report, by Joe Neuhoff and Justin Rathke; The changing climate for nuclear energy, by Skip Bowman, Nuclear Energy Insitute; Selecting protective clothing, by J. Mark Price, Southern California Edison; and Succssful refurbishment outage, by Sudesh K. Gambhir, Omaha Public Power District. Industry innovation articles in this issue are: Containment radiation monitoring spiking, by Michael W. Lantz and Robert Routolo, Arizona Public Service Company; Improved outage performance, by Michael Powell and Troy Wilfong, Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station; Stop repacking valves and achieve leak-free performance, by Kenneth Hart, PPL Susquehanna LLC; and Head assembly upgrade package, by Timothy Petit, Dominion Nuclear.

  9. HOTSPOT Health Physics codes for the PC

    SciTech Connect

    Homann, S.G.

    1994-03-01

    The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculation tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes are a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. HOTSPOT programs are reasonably accurate for a timely initial assessment. More importantly, HOTSPOT codes produce a consistent output for the same input assumptions and minimize the probability of errors associated with reading a graph incorrectly or scaling a universal nomogram during an emergency. The HOTSPOT codes are designed for short-term (less than 24 hours) release durations. Users requiring radiological release consequences for release scenarios over a longer time period, e.g., annual windrose data, are directed to such long-term models as CAPP88-PC (Parks, 1992). Users requiring more sophisticated modeling capabilities, e.g., complex terrain; multi-location real-time wind field data; etc., are directed to such capabilities as the Department of Energy`s ARAC computer codes (Sullivan, 1993). Four general programs -- Plume, Explosion, Fire, and Resuspension -- calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Other programs deal with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. Additional programs estimate the dose commitment from the inhalation of any one of the radionuclides listed in the database of radionuclides; calibrate a radiation survey instrument for ground-survey measurements; and screen plutonium uptake in the lung (see FIDLER Calibration and LUNG Screening sections).

  10. Health Physics Positions Data Base: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.; Borges, T.; Stafford, R.S.; Lu, P.Y.; Carter, D.

    1994-02-01

    The Health Physics Positions (HPPOS) Data Base of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is a collection of NRC staff positions on a wide range of topics involving radiation protection (health physics). It consists of 328 documents in the form of letters, memoranda, and excerpts from technical reports. The HPPOS Data Base was developed by the NRC Headquarters and Regional Offices to help ensure uniformity in inspections, enforcement, and licensing actions. Staff members of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have assisted the NRC staff in summarizing the documents during the preparation of this NUREG report. These summaries are also being made available as a {open_quotes}stand alone{close_quotes} software package for IBM and IBM-compatible personal computers. The software package for this report is called HPPOS Version 2.0. A variety of indexing schemes were used to increase the usefulness of the NUREG report and its associated software. The software package and the summaries in the report are written in the context of the {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} 10 CFR Part 20 ({section}{section}20.1001--20.2401). The purpose of this NUREG report is to allow interested individuals to familiarize themselves with the contents of the HPPOS Data Base and with the basis of many NRC decisions and regulations. The HPPOS summaries and original documents are intended to serve as a source of information for radiation protection programs at nuclear research and power reactors, nuclear medicine, and other industries that either process or use nuclear materials.

  11. Report of the Subpanel on Accelerator Research and Development of the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Accelerator R and D in the US High Energy Physics (HEP) program is reviewed. As a result of this study, some shift in priority, particularly as regards long-range accelerator R and D, is suggested to best serve the future needs of the US HEP program. Some specific new directions for the US R and D effort are set forth. 18 figures, 5 tables. (RWR)

  12. Infusing Health-Related Physical Fitness in Physical Education Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulger, Sean M.; Mohr, Derek J.; Carson, Linda M.; Wiegand, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the infusion of a health-related physical fitness education strand into the physical education teacher education curriculum at West Virginia University, also discussing the role of health-related physical fitness in teacher preparation and explaining the infused curricular approach to physical education teacher education (sample infused…

  13. Health physics research reactor reference dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, C.S.; Ragan, G.E.

    1987-06-01

    Reference neutron dosimetry is developed for the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) in the new operational configuration directly above its storage pit. This operational change was physically made early in CY 1985. The new reference dosimetry considered in this document is referred to as the 1986 HPRR reference dosimetry and it replaces any and all HPRR reference documents or papers issued prior to 1986. Reference dosimetry is developed for the unshielded HPRR as well as for the reactor with each of five different shield types and configurations. The reference dosimetry is presented in terms of three different dose and six different dose equivalent reporting conventions. These reporting conventions cover most of those in current use by dosimetrists worldwide. In addition to the reference neutron dosimetry, this document contains other useful dosimetry-related data for the HPRR in its new configuration. These data include dose-distance measurements and calculations, gamma dose measurements, neutron-to-gamma ratios, ''9-to-3 inch'' ratios, threshold detector unit measurements, 56-group neutron energy spectra, sulfur fluence measurements, and details concerning HPRR shields. 26 refs., 11 figs., 31 tabs.

  14. Year Book 1979. Reports of Physical Culture and Health 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haajanen, Timo, Ed.

    The organization, functions, and work of the Research Institute of Physical Culture and Health, and the Research Unit for Sport and Physical Fitness, both functioning at the premises of the Foundatlon of Physical Culture and Health in Jyvaskyla, Finland, are discussed. Research papers which have been presented at international congresses during…

  15. Year Book 1977. Reports of Physical Culture and Health 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Inst. of Physical Culture and Health, Jyvaskyla (Finland).

    The organization, functions, and work of the Research Institute of Physical Culture and Health, and the Research Unit for Sport and Physical Fitness, both functioning at the premises of the Foundation of Physical Culture and Health in Jyvaskyla, Finland, are discussed. Research papers which have been presented at international congresses during…

  16. Year Book 1978. Reports of Physical Culture and Health 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Inst. of Physical Culture and Health, Jyvaskyla (Finland).

    The organization, functions, and work of the Research Institute of Physical Culture and Health, and the Research Unit for Sport and Physical Fitness, both functioning at the premises of the Foundation of Physical Culture and Health in Jyvaskyla, Finland, are discussed. Research papers which have been presented at international congresses during…

  17. The Afrocentric Paradigm in Health-Related Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Beverly D.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the potential role of culture in health-related physical activity participation, discussing kinesiology and reporting results from a health-related physical activity study of women, some of whom had taken a culturally designed aerobics class. Participants demonstrated the positive impact of culture on physical activity participation.…

  18. Physical and mechanical metallurgy of high purity Nb accelerator cavities.

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, N. T.; Bieler, T. R.; Pourgoghart , F.; Compton, C.; Hartwig, K. T.; Baars, D.; Zamiri, A.; Chandrasekaran, S.; Darbandi, P.; Jiang, H.; Skoug, E.; Balachandran, S.; Ice, G. E.; Liu, W.; Michigan State Univ.; Texas A & M Univ.; ORNL

    2010-01-01

    In the past decade, high Q values have been achieved in high purity Nb superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Fundamental understanding of the physical metallurgy of Nb that enables these achievements is beginning to reveal what challenges remain to establish reproducible and cost-effective production of high performance SRF cavities. Recent studies of dislocation substructure development and effects of recrystallization arising from welding and heat treatments and their correlations with cavity performance are considered. With better fundamental understanding of the effects of dislocation substructure evolution and recrystallization on electron and phonon conduction, as well as the interior and surface states, it will be possible to design optimal processing paths for cost-effective performance using approaches such as hydroforming, which minimizes or eliminates welds in a cavity.

  19. Navajo Area Health and Physical Education Curriculum Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomah, Kent; And Others

    Based on health education needs of Navajo children as established by the Navajo Area health and physical education committees, this curriculum guideline for health and physical education is delineated into three phases reflecting emphasis of instructional techniques (introductory, exploration/extended learning, widened learning) and three levels…

  20. Health-Related Measures of Children's Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes health-related physical fitness measurement procedures for children, emphasizing field measures. Health-related physical fitness encompasses cardiorespiratory endurance, body composition, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility. The article presents several issues pertinent to research on health-related fitness testing. (SM)

  1. Strand I, Physical Health: Health Status. Health Curriculum Materials for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Curriculum Development Center.

    This health curriculum guide, intended for use with children in grades four through six, contends that the school is in a unique position to supplement efforts by home and community in raising the levels of physical, mental, and social-emotional health for each child. The contents of the guide are presented in outline form and cover observing…

  2. Deep ocean mineral water accelerates recovery from physical fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Deep oceans have been suggested as a possible site where the origin of life occurred. Along with this theoretical lineage, experiments using components from deep ocean water to recreate life is underway. Here, we propose that if terrestrial organisms indeed evolved from deep oceans, supply of deep ocean mineral water (DOM) to humans, as a land creature, may replenish loss of molecular complexity associated with evolutionary sea-to-land migration. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover human study to evaluate the effect of DOM, taken from a depth of 662 meters off the coast of Hualien, Taiwan, on time of recovery from a fatiguing exercise conducted at 30°C. Results The fatiguing exercise protocol caused a protracted reduction in aerobic power (reduced VO2max) for 48 h. However, DOM supplementation resulted in complete recovery of aerobic power within 4 h (P < 0.05). Muscle power was also elevated above placebo levels within 24 h of recovery (P < 0.05). Increased circulating creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin, indicatives of exercise-induced muscle damage, were completely eliminated by DOM (P < 0.05) in parallel with attenuated oxidative damage (P < 0.05). Conclusion Our results provide compelling evidence that DOM contains soluble elements, which can increase human recovery following an exhaustive physical challenge. PMID:23402436

  3. Optimism and Physical Health: A Meta-analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Heather N.; Greenhouse, Joel B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Prior research links optimism to physical health, but the strength of the association has not been systematically evaluated. Purpose The purpose of this study is to conduct a meta-analytic review to determine the strength of the association between optimism and physical health. Methods The findings from 83 studies, with 108 effect sizes (ESs), were included in the analyses, using random-effects models. Results Overall, the mean ES characterizing the relationship between optimism and physical health outcomes was 0.17, p<.001. ESs were larger for studies using subjective (versus objective) measures of physical health. Subsidiary analyses were also conducted grouping studies into those that focused solely on mortality, survival, cardiovascular outcomes, physiological markers (including immune function), immune function only, cancer outcomes, outcomes related to pregnancy, physical symptoms, or pain. In each case, optimism was a significant predictor of health outcomes or markers, all p<.001. Conclusions Optimism is a significant predictor of positive physical health outcomes. PMID:19711142

  4. James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics: The Physics of Magnetic Reconnection and Associated Particle Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, James

    2010-11-01

    Solar and stellar flares, substorms in the Earth's magnetosphere, and disruptions in laboratory fusion experiments are driven by the explosive release of magnetic energy through the process of magnetic reconnection. During reconnection oppositely directed magnetic fields break and cross-connect. The resulting magnetic slingshots convert magnetic energy into high velocity flows, thermal energy and energetic particles. A major scientific challenge has been the multi-scale nature of the problem: a narrow boundary layer, ``the dissipation region,'' breaks field lines and controls the release of energy in a macroscale system. Significant progress has been made on fundamental questions such as how magnetic energy is released so quickly and why the release occurs as an explosion. At the small spatial scales of the dissipation region the motion of electrons and ions decouples, the MHD description breaks down and whistler and kinetic Alfven dynamics drives reconnection. The dispersive property of these waves leads to fast reconnection, insensitive to system size and weakly dependent on dissipation, consistent with observations. The evidence for these waves during reconnection in the magnetosphere and the laboratory is compelling. The role of turbulence within the dissipation region in the form of ``secondary islands'' or as a source of anomalous resistivity continues to be explored. A large fraction of the magnetic energy released during reconnection appears in the form of energetic electrons and protons -- up to 50% or more during solar flares. The mechanism for energetic particle production during magnetic reconnection has remained a mystery. Models based on reconnection at a single large x-line are incapable of producing the large numbers of energetic electrons seen in observations. Scenarios based on particle acceleration in a multi-x-line environment are more promising. In such models a link between the energy gain of electrons and the magnetic energy released, a

  5. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 3--Recommended Amounts of Physical Activity for Optimal Health)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    By promoting physical activities and incorporating them into their community-based programs, Extension professionals are improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the third in a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: (1) biological health benefits of…

  6. Can Low-Cost Support Programmes with Coaching Accelerate Doctoral Completion in Health Science Faculty Academics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geber, Hilary; Bentley, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Career development for full-time Health Sciences academics through to doctoral studies is a monumental task. Many academics have difficulty completing their studies in the minimum time as well as publishing after obtaining their degree. As this problem is particularly acute in the Health Sciences, the PhD Acceleration Programme in Health Sciences…

  7. Harsh Parenting May Harm a Child's Physical Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158709.html Harsh Parenting May Harm a Child's Physical Health Problems might ... 2016 FRIDAY, May 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Harsh parenting may leave more than psychological scars, it might ...

  8. Pyroelectric Crystal Accelerator In The Department Of Physics And Nuclear Engineering At West Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillich, Don; Shannon, Mike; Kovanen, Andrew; Anderson, Tom; Bright, Kevin; Edwards, Ronald; Danon, Yaron; Moretti, Brian; Musk, Jeffrey

    2011-06-01

    The Nuclear Science and Engineering Research Center (NSERC), a Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) office located at the United States Military Academy (USMA), sponsors and manages cadet and faculty research in support of DTRA objectives. The NSERC has created an experimental pyroelectric crystal accelerator program to enhance undergraduate education at USMA in the Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering. This program provides cadets with hands-on experience in designing their own experiments using an inexpensive tabletop accelerator. This device uses pyroelectric crystals to ionize and accelerate gas ions to energies of ˜100 keV. Within the next year, cadets and faculty at USMA will use this device to create neutrons through the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion process, effectively creating a compact, portable neutron generator. The double crystal pyroelectric accelerator will also be used by students to investigate neutron, x-ray, and ion spectroscopy.

  9. Using a mobile phone acceleration sensor in physics experiments on free and damped harmonic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos Castro-Palacio, Juan; Velázquez-Abad, Luisberis; Giménez, Marcos H.; Monsoriu, Juan A.

    2013-06-01

    We have used a mobile phone acceleration sensor, and the Accelerometer Monitor application for Android, to collect data in physics experiments on free and damped oscillations. Results for the period, frequency, spring constant, and damping constant agree very well with measurements obtained by other methods. These widely available sensors are likely to find increased use in instructional laboratories.

  10. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health. C.H. McCloy Research Lecture: 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.

    1993-01-01

    Examines recent evidence on the relations between physical activity, physical fitness, and health, noting the possible causal nature of the associations. The article evaluates the public health burden of sedentary lifestyles in the United States and provides suggestions for increasing participation in physical activity. (SM)

  11. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Content Knowledge of Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…

  12. Opportunities for public health to increase physical activity among youths.

    PubMed

    Piercy, Katrina L; Dorn, Joan M; Fulton, Janet E; Janz, Kathleen F; Lee, Sarah M; McKinnon, Robin A; Pate, Russell R; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Young, Deborah Rohm; Troiano, Richard P; Lavizzo-Mourey, Risa

    2015-03-01

    Despite the well-known benefits of youths engaging in 60 or more minutes of daily physical activity, physical inactivity remains a significant public health concern. The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (PAG) provides recommendations on the amount of physical activity needed for overall health; the PAG Midcourse Report (2013) describes effective strategies to help youths meet these recommendations. Public health professionals can be dynamic change agents where youths live, learn, and play by changing environments and policies to empower youths to develop regular physical activity habits to maintain throughout life. We have summarized key findings from the PAG Midcourse Report and outlined actions that public health professionals can take to ensure that all youths regularly engage in health-enhancing physical activity. PMID:25602864

  13. Physical Interpretation of the Schott Energy of An Accelerating Point Charge and the Question of Whether a Uniformly Accelerating Charge Radiates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, David R.

    2010-01-01

    A core topic in graduate courses in electrodynamics is the description of radiation from an accelerated charge and the associated radiation reaction. However, contemporary papers still express a diversity of views on the question of whether or not a uniformly accelerating charge radiates suggesting that a complete "physical" understanding of the…

  14. Accelerator physics and technology challenges of very high energy hadron colliders

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shiltsev, Vladimir D.

    2015-08-20

    High energy hadron colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics for more than three decades. At present, international particle physics community considers several options for a 100 TeV proton–proton collider as a possible post-LHC energy frontier facility. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but has slowed down considerably in its progress. This article briefly reviews the accelerator physics and technology challenges of the future very high energy colliders and outlines the areas of required research and development towards their technical and financial feasibility.

  15. Accelerator physics and technology challenges of very high energy hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir D.

    2015-08-01

    High energy hadron colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics for more than three decades. At present, international particle physics community considers several options for a 100 TeV proton-proton collider as a possible post-LHC energy frontier facility. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but has slowed down considerably in its progress. This paper briefly reviews the accelerator physics and technology challenges of the future very high energy colliders and outlines the areas of required research and development towards their technical and financial feasibility.

  16. Physical Activity Protects against the Health Risks of Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Blair, Steven N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the relationships between physical fitness and body composition and their combined effect on health. After discussing the epidemiologic evidence for a protective effect of physical fitness on the health risks associated with obesity, it describes the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, an ongoing observational study that…

  17. The West Virginia Health and Physical Education Leadership Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housner, Lynn; Chapman, Don; Childers, Sue; Deem, Rick; Elliott, Eloise; Klemick, Peggy; McCracken, Bane; Weikle, Mary; Workman, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Health and physical education are expected to improve the wellness of children and youths. Unfortunately, many health and physical educators may not be fully prepared to meet the challenge of providing high quality, standards-based programs that produce tangible results. In view of the current standards and policies and the important role that…

  18. Distance Education: A New Paradigm for Physical Education and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Danny R.

    Increasingly, limited financial resources have resulted in program reductions in undergraduate physical education and health education at several higher education institutions. As traditional methods of program delivery are phased out, physical and health educators need to consider alternative forms of training and servicing future professionals.…

  19. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  20. Grief, Depressive Symptoms, and Physical Health among Recently Bereaved Spouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utz, Rebecca L.; Caserta, Michael; Lund, Dale

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Widowhood is among the most distressing of all life events, resulting in both mental and physical health declines. This paper explores the dynamic relationship between physical health and psychological well-being among recently bereaved spouses. Design and Methods: Using a sample of 328 bereaved persons who participated in the "Living…

  1. Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of physical activity are well documented, and the important role that schools and physical education (PE) can play in reducing sedentary behavior and contributing to population health has been identified. Although effective teaching is ultimately judged by student achievement, a major component of teacher and school…

  2. Application of Measurement to Health and Physical Education. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison

    Measurement is presented here as a means of enabling health and physical education programs to assume their place as indispensible phases of the educational process. Measurement is considered vital to health and physical education programs; teachers in these fields are admonished to turn to measurement activities as readily and as naturally as…

  3. Programed Instruction in Health Education and Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayshark, Cyrus; Evaul, Thomas W.

    This book contains eight chapters by several different authors, most of them professors of health or physical education. Focus is on applications and implications of programed instruction for professionals in the health and physical education fields. "Overview of Programed Instruction" defines programing, its development and implications for…

  4. Contributions of Physical Therapists to Primary Preventive Health Care.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    The limitations of what physical therapists can differ from country to country. In Japan, physical therapists are national licensed health care professionals who can help patients improve or restore their mobility. Most Japanese physical therapists provide care for people in health care facilities, medical-welfare transitional facilities, and welfare facilities for the elderly. Currently, physical therapists are unable to sufficiently contribute to primary preventive health care in Japan. However, there are many health problems that physical therapists could help alleviate. For example, low back pain (LBP) more likely than any other condition prevents people from working; thus, making the establishment of effective measures to prevent and reduce LBP vital. An estimated 20,500,000 Japanese individuals have diabetes mellitus (DM) or are at a high risk of developing the disease. DM commonly accompanies stroke and/or heart disease, and is characterized by complications that result from chronic hyperglycemia. Evidence-based physical therapy is effective for the prevention and treatment of LBP and DM. The Japanese Physical Therapy Association established the Japanese Society of Physical Therapy (JSPT) in June 2013. The JSPT has 12 departmental societies and 10 sections. We believe that the JSPT will advance the study of the potential role of physical therapists in primary preventive health care. In the future, it is expected that Japanese physical therapists will contribute to primary preventive health care. PMID:27246148

  5. W-026, health physics instrumentation operational test report

    SciTech Connect

    Hackworth, M.F.

    1998-02-13

    This report documents the testing of the Health Physics Instrumentation associated with phase 2 and 3 start-up of Project W-026, WRAP. The Health Physics Instrumentation includes: Alpha and Beta Continuous Air Monitors (CAMS), Personnel Contamination Monitors (PCMs), Gamma Area Radiation Monitors (ARMs), Criticality Monitors, Alpha and Beta Smear Sample Counters, Portable Friskers, and Operator Breathing Zone Air Samplers. This OTR will cover only the Health Physics Instrumentation that was tested under the Operational test Plan for Health Physics Instrumentation (Phase 2 and 3). That instrumentation included: Alpha CAMS, Beta CAMs and ARMs located in rooms 107 and 113 of 2336-W. The remaining Health Physics Instrumentation that will be used for phase 2 and 3 start-up is tested during calibrations. These calibrations are outside the scope of the Operational Test Plan.

  6. Predictors of Obesity and Physical Health Complaints Among 911 Telecommunicators

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, Michelle M.; London, Melissa J.; Mercer, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aims to: (1) examine rates of obesity and physical health complaints among 911 telecommunicators; and (2) document the role of emotion dysregulation, psychological inflexibility, duty-related distress and dissociation, and psychopathology in predicting obesity and physical health complaints in this population. Methods The sample consisted of 911 telecommunicators from across the country (N = 758). Participants completed an online survey assessing their mental and physical health functioning. Results A total of 82.5% of the sample reported a body mass index that fell within the overweight or obese category and an average of 17 physical health complaints within the past month. Peritraumatic reactions (distress and dissociation), emotion dysregulation, and psychological inflexibility had effects on physical health largely through psychopathology (alcohol abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, and depression). Conclusion Development of adapted prevention and intervention efforts with this population is needed. PMID:27014492

  7. Induction-accelerator heavy-ion fusion: Status and beam physics issues

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.

    1996-01-26

    Inertial confinement fusion driven by beams of heavy ions is an attractive route to controlled fusion. In the U.S., induction accelerators are being developed as {open_quotes}drivers{close_quotes} for this process. This paper is divided into two main sections. In the first section, the concept of induction-accelerator driven heavy-ion fusion is briefly reviewed, and the U.S. program of experiments and theoretical investigations is described. In the second, a {open_quotes}taxonomy{close_quotes} of space-charge-dominated beam physics issues is presented, accompanied by a brief discussion of each area.

  8. Physical activity and health outcomes: evidence from Canada.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Brad R; McLeod, Logan; Ruseski, Jane E

    2014-01-01

    Health production models include participation in physical activity as an input. We investigate the relationship between participation in physical activity and health using a bivariate probit model. Participation is identified with an exclusion restriction on a variable reflecting sense of belonging to the community. Estimates based on data from Cycle 3.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey indicate that participation in physical activity reduces the reported incidence of diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, asthma, and arthritis as well as being in fair or poor health. Increasing the intensity above the moderate level and frequency of participation in physical activity appears to have a diminishing marginal impact on adverse health outcomes. Our results provide support for guidelines about engaging in exercise regularly to achieve health benefits. PMID:23364850

  9. Proceedings of the 2005 International Linear Collider Physics and Detector Workshop and 2nd ILC Accelerator Workshop (Snowmass 2005)

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2006-06-21

    For two weeks in August of 2005, 668 physicists gathered in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado to study the physics, the detectors and the accelerator of the International Linear Collider. For the first time, a fully international physics and detector workshop was held in conjunction with the ILC Accelerator workshop.

  10. Mainstreaming Modeling and Simulation to Accelerate Public Health Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Martin-J.; Mabry, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic modeling and simulation are systems science tools that examine behaviors and outcomes resulting from interactions among multiple system components over time. Although there are excellent examples of their application, they have not been adopted as mainstream tools in population health planning and policymaking. Impediments to their use include the legacy and ease of use of statistical approaches that produce estimates with confidence intervals, the difficulty of multidisciplinary collaboration for modeling and simulation, systems scientists’ inability to communicate effectively the added value of the tools, and low funding for population health systems science. Proposed remedies include aggregation of diverse data sets, systems science training for public health and other health professionals, changing research incentives toward collaboration, and increased funding for population health systems science projects. PMID:24832426

  11. Health physics/radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The ''Health Physics/Radiation Protection Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 1987'' included 59 institutions with programs offering a major in health physics or an option within another major with equivalent course work which will prepare the graduate to take a major role in conducting, coordinating, directing, or planning a program for the evaluation and control of radiation hazards, i.e., programs which prepare graduates to perform as health physicists. This report discusses the results of this survey.

  12. Brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion

    PubMed Central

    Sebastião, Emerson; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-01-01

    Public health actions endorsed by the federal government, for instance, health promotion initiatives, usually have greater impact at population level compared to other types of initiatives. This commentary aims to instigate debate on the importance and necessity of producing federally endorsed brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion. PMID:25210830

  13. Physical Activity, Physical Performance, and Biological Markers of Health among Sedentary Older Latinos.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Gerardo; Mangione, Carol M; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Trejo, Laura; Butch, Anthony; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Sarkisian, Catherine A

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physical activity is associated with better physical health, possibly by changing biological markers of health such as waist circumference and inflammation, but these relationships are unclear and even less understood among older Latinos-a group with high rates of sedentary lifestyle. Methods. Participants were 120 sedentary older Latino adults from senior centers. Community-partnered research methods were used to recruit participants. Inflammatory (C-reactive protein) and metabolic markers of health (waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose), physical activity (Yale physical activity survey), and physical performance (short physical performance NIA battery) were measured at baseline and 6-month followup. Results. Eighty percent of the sample was female. In final adjusted cross-sectional models, better physical activity indices were associated with faster gait speed (P < 0.05). In adjusted longitudinal analyses, change in self-reported physical activity level correlated inversely with change in CRP (β = -0.05; P = 0.03) and change in waist circumference (β = -0.16; P = 0.02). Biological markers of health did not mediate the relationship between physical activity and physical performance. Conclusion. In this community-partnered study, higher physical activity was associated with better physical performance in cross-sectional analyses. In longitudinal analysis, increased physical activity was associated with improvements in some metabolic and inflammatory markers of health. PMID:25136359

  14. Using a 400 kV Van de Graaff accelerator to teach physics at West Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marble, D. K.; Bruch, S. E.; Lainis, T.

    1997-02-01

    A small accelerator visitation laboratory is being built at the United States Military Academy using two 400 kV Van de Graaff accelerators. This laboratory will provide quality teaching experiments and increased research opportunities for both faculty and cadets as well as enhancing the department's ability to teach across the curriculum by using nuclear techniques to solve problems in environmental engineering, material science, archeology, art, etc. This training enhances a students ability to enter non-traditional fields that are becoming a large part of the physics job market. Furthermore, a small accelerator visitation laboratory for high school students can stimulate student interest in science and provide an effective means of communicating the scientific method to a general audience. A discussion of the USMA facility, class experiments and student research projects will be presented.

  15. Physical Activity, Health, and Well-Being: An International Scientific Consensus Conference. Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Claude; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents eight papers: "Physical Activity and Health"; "Exercise and Physical Health"; "Exercise and Physical Health: Cancer and Immune Function"; "Exercise and Psychosocial Health"; "Physical Activity, Health, and Wellbeing at Different Life Stages"; "Descriptive Epidemiology of Health-Related Physical Activity and Fitness"; "Dose-Response…

  16. Improving physical health monitoring for patients with chronic mental health problems who receive antipsychotic medications

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Nihad; Conn, Rory; Latif Marini, Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Physical health monitoring is an integral part of caring for patients with mental health problems. It is proven that serious physical health problems are more common among patients with severe mental health illness (SMI), this monitoring can be challenging and there is a need for improvement. The project aimed at improving the physical health monitoring among patients with SMI who are receiving antipsychotic medications. The improvement process focused on ensuring there is a good communication with general practitioners (GPs) as well as patient's education and education of care home staff. GP letters requesting physical health monitoring were updated; care home staff and patients were given more information about the value of regular physical health monitoring. There was an improvement in patients' engagement with the monitoring and the monitoring done by GPs was more adherent to local and national guidelines and was communicated with the mental health service.

  17. Improving physical health monitoring for patients with chronic mental health problems who receive antipsychotic medications.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Nihad; Conn, Rory; Latif Marini, Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Physical health monitoring is an integral part of caring for patients with mental health problems. It is proven that serious physical health problems are more common among patients with severe mental health illness (SMI), this monitoring can be challenging and there is a need for improvement. The project aimed at improving the physical health monitoring among patients with SMI who are receiving antipsychotic medications. The improvement process focused on ensuring there is a good communication with general practitioners (GPs) as well as patient's education and education of care home staff. GP letters requesting physical health monitoring were updated; care home staff and patients were given more information about the value of regular physical health monitoring. There was an improvement in patients' engagement with the monitoring and the monitoring done by GPs was more adherent to local and national guidelines and was communicated with the mental health service. PMID:27559474

  18. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…

  19. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 2-Mental Health Benefits)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    By promoting physical activities and incorporating them into their community-based programs, Extension professionals are improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the second in a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: (1) biological health benefits of…

  20. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 1--Biological Health Benefits)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been promoting and incorporating physical activities into their community-based programs and improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the first of a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: 1) biological health benefits of…

  1. DEVELOPING THE PHYSICS DESIGN FOR NDCX-II, A UNIQUE PULSE-COMPRESSING ION ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Grote, D. P.; Lund, S. M.; Sharp, W. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J-Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Leitner, M. A.; Logan, B. G.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.; Gilson, E.P.; Kaganovich, I.

    2009-07-20

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory(a collaboration of LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL) is using intense ion beams to heat thin foils to the"warm dense matter" regime at<~;; 1 eV, and is developing capabilities for studying target physics relevant to ion-driven inertial fusion energy. The need for rapid target heating led to the development of plasma-neutralized pulse compression, with current amplification factors exceeding 50 now routine on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX). Construction of an improved platform, NDCX-II, has begun at LBNL with planned completion in 2012. Using refurbished induction cells from the Advanced Test Accelerator at LLNL, NDCX-II will compress a ~;;500 ns pulse of Li+ ions to ~;;1 ns while accelerating it to 3-4 MeV over ~;;15 m. Strong space charge forces are incorporated into the machine design at a fundamental level. We are using analysis, an interactive 1D PIC code (ASP) with optimizing capabilities and centroid tracking, and multi-dimensional Warpcode PIC simulations, to develop the NDCX-II accelerator. This paper describes the computational models employed, and the resulting physics design for the accelerator.

  2. Developing The Physics Desing for NDCS-II, A Unique Pulse-Compressing Ion Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Cohen, R H; Grote, D P; Lund, S M; Sharp, W M; Faltens, A; Henestroza, E; Jung, J; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Leitner, M A; Logan, B G; Vay, J -; Waldron, W L; Davidson, R C; Dorf, M; Gilson, E P; Kaganovich, I

    2009-09-24

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (a collaboration of LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL) is using intense ion beams to heat thin foils to the 'warm dense matter' regime at {approx}< 1 eV, and is developing capabilities for studying target physics relevant to ion-driven inertial fusion energy. The need for rapid target heating led to the development of plasma-neutralized pulse compression, with current amplification factors exceeding 50 now routine on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX). Construction of an improved platform, NDCX-II, has begun at LBNL with planned completion in 2012. Using refurbished induction cells from the Advanced Test Accelerator at LLNL, NDCX-II will compress a {approx}500 ns pulse of Li{sup +} ions to {approx} 1 ns while accelerating it to 3-4 MeV over {approx} 15 m. Strong space charge forces are incorporated into the machine design at a fundamental level. We are using analysis, an interactive 1D PIC code (ASP) with optimizing capabilities and centroid tracking, and multi-dimensional Warpcode PIC simulations, to develop the NDCX-II accelerator. This paper describes the computational models employed, and the resulting physics design for the accelerator.

  3. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tallner, Alexander; Waschbisch, Anne; Hentschke, Christian; Pfeifer, Klaus; Mäurer, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients. PMID:26147422

  4. Physical access to primary health care in Andean Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Perry, B; Gesler, W

    2000-05-01

    Limited physical access to primary health care is a major factor contributing to the poor health of populations in developing countries, particularly in mountain areas with rugged topography, harsh climates and extensive socioeconomic barriers. Assessing physical access to primary health care is an important exercise for health care planners and policy makers. The development of geographic information system (GIS) technology has greatly improved this assessment process in industrialized countries where digital cartographic data are widely available. In developing countries particularly in mountain areas, however, detailed cartographic data, even in hardcopy form, are nonexistent, inaccurate or severely lacking. This paper uses GIS technology to assess physical access to primary health care in a remote and impoverished region of Andean Bolivia. In addition, it proposes an alternative model of health personnel distribution to maximize physical accessibility. Methods involved extensive fieldwork in the region, utilizing GPS (global positioning system) technology in the development of the GIS and gathering other pertinent health data for the study. Satellite imagery also contributed to the development of the GIS and in the modeling process. The results indicate significant variation in physical access to primary health care across the three study sites. More importantly, this paper highlights the use of GIS technology as a powerful tool in improving physical accessibility in mountain areas of developing countries. PMID:10728839

  5. Physical activity recognition based on rotated acceleration data using quaternion in sedentary behavior: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Y E; Choi, W H; Shin, T M

    2014-01-01

    This paper suggests a physical activity assessment method based on quaternion. To reduce user inconvenience, we measured the activity using a mobile device which is not put on fixed position. Recognized results were verified with various machine learning algorithms, such as neural network (multilayer perceptron), decision tree (J48), SVM (support vector machine) and naive bayes classifier. All algorithms have shown over 97% accuracy including decision tree (J48), which recognized the activity with 98.35% accuracy. As a result, physical activity assessment method based on rotated acceleration using quaternion can classify sedentary behavior with more accuracy without considering devices' position and orientation. PMID:25571109

  6. Assessing the social and physical determinants of circumpolar population health

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, David L.; Dotterrer, Bruce; Brown, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Systematic reviews of the social and physical determinants of health provide metrics for evaluation of programs to mitigate health disparities. Previous meta-analyses of the population health literature have identified several proximate social and physical determinants of population health in the circumpolar north including addiction, environmental exposures, diet/nutrition and global climate change. Proximate health determinants are most amenable to early detection and modification or mitigation through disease prevention or health promotion interventions. Design There is a need for research to replicate these findings based on the latest science. This presentation describes a study applying Dahlgren and Whitehead's (1991) socio-ecological model of health determinants to identify the proximate social and physical determinants of health in the circumpolar north. Methods The study consisted of a systematic review of recent studies that link determinants of health with the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Alaska. Our search strategy employed a keyword search using the Circumpolar Health Bibliographic Database (CHBD) and 4 databases within the Web of Knowledge (WoK) data gateway. Keywords included various terms for the arctic, all relevant nations and territories within the region, as well as leading health outcomes. Results Studies meeting the following inclusion criteria were reviewed: original research within a circumpolar population, published in English during 2011, and involving a rigorous demonstration of a link between a social determinant and selected health outcomes. Conclusions Study conclusions includes a list of determinants identified, their associated outcomes and the study designs implemented to assess that association. PMID:23986893

  7. Health-Engagement Control Strategies and 2-Year Changes in Older Adults’ Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between older adults’ daily physical symptoms (e.g., chest pain or difficulty breathing) and 2-year changes in chronic health problems (e.g., cardiovascular disease or cancer) and in functional problems (e.g., difficulty dressing or moving around at home). We reasoned that these associations depend on a person’s active control processes aimed at counteracting physical health problems (i.e., health-engagement control strategies, or HECS). In particular, we hypothesized that high levels of HECS buffer the adverse effect of daily physical symptoms on increases in chronic and functional health problems. We found that daily physical symptoms were associated with declines in chronic and functional health among older adults who were not engaged in addressing their health problems, but not among their counterparts who reported high levels of HECS. These findings suggest that active control strategies play an important role in the maintenance of older adults’ physical health. PMID:18578842

  8. Research on acceleration method of reactor physics based on FPGA platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.; Yu, G.; Wang, K.

    2013-07-01

    The physical designs of the new concept reactors which have complex structure, various materials and neutronic energy spectrum, have greatly improved the requirements to the calculation methods and the corresponding computing hardware. Along with the widely used parallel algorithm, heterogeneous platforms architecture has been introduced into numerical computations in reactor physics. Because of the natural parallel characteristics, the CPU-FPGA architecture is often used to accelerate numerical computation. This paper studies the application and features of this kind of heterogeneous platforms used in numerical calculation of reactor physics through practical examples. After the designed neutron diffusion module based on CPU-FPGA architecture achieves a 11.2 speed up factor, it is proved to be feasible to apply this kind of heterogeneous platform into reactor physics. (authors)

  9. Optical diagnostics for plasma physics and accelerator science: commonalities and differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkov, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    Optical diagnostics are widely used both for experiments of plasma physics and for measurements of parameters of electron/positron beams in accelerators. The approaches applied for these often have the same methodological basis explained by the similarity of the properties of the studied phenomena. Nevertheless, these branches of physics are very specific and require special diagnostics. The possibility of closed contacts and cooperation between scientists solving similar problems in different areas of physics helps to overcome these problems. It is especially typical for BINP SB RAS known by pioneering works on electron-positron colliders and nuclear fusion. This paper describes the diagnostics that are used in plasma physics experiments, especially for plasma heating by a high-current electron beam, and contains a comparison with optical diagnostics which are recognized tools in colliders and storage rings.

  10. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult

  11. Correlates of negative physical health in call center shift workers.

    PubMed

    Rameshbabu, Anjali; Reddy, Diane M; Fleming, Raymond

    2013-05-01

    The call center industry, a burgeoning sector is characterized by unique job demands, which render it susceptible to high attrition rates and negative health concerns. This study examined the relationship between job stress from interpersonal factors, job stress from work factors, coping, inadequate sleep, and negative physical health reports among call center shift workers (n = 239), a relatively under-researched population. Inadequate sleep and job stress from interpersonal factors were associated with negative physical health outcome for the participants in this study. Further, spending longer in the call center industry was associated with negative health outcome for the shift worker participants. PMID:23040668

  12. James E. Watson, Jr.: Named to the Health Physics Society

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.; Stansbury, Paul S.

    2010-11-18

    At its 2010 Annual Meeting, the Health Physics Society named James E. Watson, Jr. to its Honor Roll of distinguished members. This citation summarizes Professor Jim Watson's life and professional career at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he led the Radiological Hygiene program in the School of Public Health for nearly 3 decades. He was President of the Health Physics Society during the 1985-1986 term. He did pioneering work in radiation dose reconstruction for epidemiology as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Health and Mortality Studies.

  13. The Benefit Aftereffects of ACA--Accelerating Toward a New Health Economy.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Greg; Thompson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    While the Affordable Care Act (ACA) focused largely on improving access to health care coverage for the uninsured, its broader and longer-term influence may have been its impact on accelerating key trends and strategies that major employers and other stakeholders have been targeting for years. This article looks at some of these trends, where we were pre-ACA and how ACA (through benefit mandates, shared responsibility penalties, Cadillac plan tax, health information technology, accountable care organizations, etc.) has helped to accelerate and refocus efforts. In addition, the public exchange paradigm has given rise to a private exchange movement that is helping further accelerate the transformation of the New Health Economy. PMID:26540940

  14. Long Term Physical Health Consequences of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Chandler, Raeven Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between adverse childhood family experiences and adult physical health using data from 52,250 US adults aged 18–64 from the 2009–2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We found that experiencing childhood physical, verbal, or sexual abuse, witnessing parental domestic violence, experiencing parental divorce, and living with someone who was depressed, abused drugs or alcohol, or who had been incarcerated were associated with one or more of the following health outcomes: self-rated health, functional limitations, diabetes, and heart attack. Adult socioeconomic status and poor mental health and health behaviors significantly mediated several of these associations. The results of this study highlight the importance of family-based adverse childhood experiences on adult health outcomes and suggest that adult SES and stress-related coping behaviors may be crucial links between trauma in the childhood home and adult health. PMID:26500379

  15. A Survey of Health-Related Physical Fitness Knowledge Among Preservice and Inservice Physical Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael G.; Housner, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Assessed the health-related physical-fitness knowledge of preservice and inservice physical education teachers and graduate students in physical education and exercise physiology. Survey results indicated that exercise-physiology graduate students surpassed all others in knowledge. Though preservice teachers had relatively poor knowledge levels,…

  16. Harsh Parenting May Harm a Child's Physical Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... physical health," said Schofield, an assistant professor of human development and family studies at Iowa State University. For ... Medicine . SOURCES: Thomas Schofield, Ph.D., assistant professor, human development and family studies, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa; ...

  17. Physical Education and Health in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Michael C.; Fry, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    As a school subject, physical education (PE) in Singapore took on its own shape with the introduction of a conceptual games teaching approach in response to the national government's "Thinking Schools, Learning Nation" policy of the late 1990s. With the recent media attention on hosting two main international events (Asian Youth Games and the…

  18. Health and Fitness Through Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; And Others

    A synthesis of research findings in exercise and physical fitness is presented to provide the general public with insights into establishing an individualized exercise program. The material is divided into seven subtopics: (1) a general overview of the need for exercise and fitness and how it is an integral part of preventive medicine programs;…

  19. Brief 75 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2014 Data

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-03-05

    The 2014 survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2014. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2014. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. Since 2009, data for two health physics programs located in engineering departments are also included in the nuclear engineering survey. The enrollments and degrees data includes students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major.

  20. Brief 73 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2013 Data

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-02-15

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2012 and August 31, 2013. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2013. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. Since 2009, data for two health physics programs located in engineering departments are also included in the nuclear engineering survey. The enrollments and degrees data includes students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major.taoi_na

  1. Physical health and well-being: Experiences and perspectives of young adult mental health consumers.

    PubMed

    McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim; Kerley, David; Delgado, Cynthia; Turnell, Adrienne

    2016-08-01

    Compromised physical health and raised levels of morbidity and mortality are experienced by young people (16-24 years) with mental illness, and are compounded by psychotropic medication. How this group conceives and experiences physical health is not well understood. We investigated the meanings, beliefs, and endeavours of young people that impact their physical health understandings and behaviours. The present study formed the qualitative phase of a sequential mixed-methods study, and incorporated semistructured interviews with 12 hospitalized young people. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse data. Participants held a holistic ideal of physical health that they did not meet. Weight change, poor sleep, and limited exercise adversely impacted their lives and self-image. Sedentary behaviour, reduced energy, and limited health literacy compromised effective management of physical health. Young people needed structure and support to assist them in addressing their physical health needs when amotivation overwhelmed their internal resources. Nurses are well placed to help young people increase their competency for health management. Individualized information and methods to promote good physical health are required for this group in jeopardy from physical morbidity and mortality. PMID:26856981

  2. Physical Activity and Health: "What is Old is New Again".

    PubMed

    Hills, Andrew P; Street, Steven J; Byrne, Nuala M

    2015-01-01

    Much recent interest has focused on the relationship between physical activity and health and supported with an abundance of scientific evidence. However, the concept of Exercise is Medicine™ copromoted by the American College of Sports Medicine and American Medical Association and similar august bodies worldwide is far from new--the importance of exercise for health has been reported for centuries. Participation in regular physical activity and exercise provides numerous benefits for health with such benefits typically varying according to the volume completed as reflected by intensity, duration, and frequency. Evidence suggests a dose-response relationship such that being active, even to a modest level, is preferable to being inactive or sedentary. Greatest benefits are commonly associated with the previously sedentary individual assuming a more active lifestyle. There is an apparent linear relationship between physical activity and health status and as a general rule, increases in physical activity and fitness result in additional improvements in health status. This narrative review provides a selective appraisal of the evidence for the importance of physical activity for health, commencing with a baseline historical perspective followed by a summary of key health benefits associated with an active lifestyle. PMID:26319905

  3. Applications of FLUKA Monte Carlo Code for Nuclear and Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Battistoni, Giuseppe; Broggi, Francesco; Brugger, Markus; Campanella, Mauro; Carboni, Massimo; Empl, Anton; Fasso, Alberto; Gadioli, Ettore; Cerutti, Francesco; Ferrari, Alfredo; Ferrari, Anna; Lantz, Matthias; Mairani, Andrea; Margiotta, M.; Morone, Christina; Muraro, Silvia; Parodi, Katerina; Patera, Vincenzo; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Pinsky, Lawrence; Ranft, Johannes; /Siegen U. /CERN /Seibersdorf, Reaktorzentrum /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /SLAC /INFN, Legnaro /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /CERN /HITS, Heidelberg /CERN /CERN /Frascati /CERN /CERN /CERN /CERN /NASA, Houston

    2012-04-17

    FLUKA is a general purpose Monte Carlo code capable of handling all radiation components from thermal energies (for neutrons) or 1 keV (for all other particles) to cosmic ray energies and can be applied in many different fields. Presently the code is maintained on Linux. The validity of the physical models implemented in FLUKA has been benchmarked against a variety of experimental data over a wide energy range, from accelerator data to cosmic ray showers in the Earth atmosphere. FLUKA is widely used for studies related both to basic research and to applications in particle accelerators, radiation protection and dosimetry, including the specific issue of radiation damage in space missions, radiobiology (including radiotherapy) and cosmic ray calculations. After a short description of the main features that make FLUKA valuable for these topics, the present paper summarizes some of the recent applications of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code in the nuclear as well high energy physics. In particular it addresses such topics as accelerator related applications.

  4. Applications of FLUKA Monte Carlo code for nuclear and accelerator physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistoni, Giuseppe; Broggi, Francesco; Brugger, Markus; Campanella, Mauro; Carboni, Massimo; Empl, Anton; Fassò, Alberto; Gadioli, Ettore; Cerutti, Francesco; Ferrari, Alfredo; Ferrari, Anna; Lantz, Matthias; Mairani, Andrea; Margiotta, M.; Morone, Cristina; Muraro, Silvia; Parodi, Katia; Patera, Vincenzo; Pelliccioni, Mauricio; Pinsky, Larry; Ranft, Johannes; Roesler, Stefan; Rollet, Sofia; Sala, Paola R.; Santana, Mario; Sarchiapone, Lucia; Sioli, Massimiliano; Smirnov, George; Sommerer, Florian; Theis, Christian; Trovati, Stefania; Villari, R.; Vincke, Heinz; Vincke, Helmut; Vlachoudis, Vasilis; Vollaire, Joachim; Zapp, Neil

    2011-12-01

    FLUKA is a general purpose Monte Carlo code capable of handling all radiation components from thermal energies (for neutrons) or 1 keV (for all other particles) to cosmic ray energies and can be applied in many different fields. Presently the code is maintained on Linux. The validity of the physical models implemented in FLUKA has been benchmarked against a variety of experimental data over a wide energy range, from accelerator data to cosmic ray showers in the Earth atmosphere. FLUKA is widely used for studies related both to basic research and to applications in particle accelerators, radiation protection and dosimetry, including the specific issue of radiation damage in space missions, radiobiology (including radiotherapy) and cosmic ray calculations. After a short description of the main features that make FLUKA valuable for these topics, the present paper summarizes some of the recent applications of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code in the nuclear as well high energy physics. In particular it addresses such topics as accelerator related applications.

  5. Physical Attractiveness and Health in Western Societies: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeden, Jason; Sabini, John

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from developed Western societies is reviewed for the claims that (a) physical attractiveness judgments are substantially based on body size and shape, symmetry, sex-typical hormonal markers, and other specific cues and (b) physical attractiveness and these cues substantially predict health. Among the cues that the authors review, only…

  6. Is physical activity in natural environments better for mental health than physical activity in other environments?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that there may be synergy between the psychological benefits of physical activity, and the restorative effects of contact with a natural environment; physical activity in a natural environment might produce greater mental health benefits than physical activity elsewhere. However, such experiments are typically short-term and, by definition, artificially control the participant types, physical activity and contact with nature. This observational study asked whether such effects can be detected in everyday settings at a population level. It used data from the Scottish Health Survey 2008, describing all environments in which respondents were physically active. Associations were sought between use of each environment, and then use of environments grouped as natural or non-natural, and the risk of poor mental health (measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)) and level of wellbeing (measured by the Warwick Edinburgh Mental health and Wellbeing Score (WEMWBS). Results showed an independent association between regular use of natural environments and a lower risk of poor mental health, but not for activity in other types of environment. For example, the odds of poor mental health (GHQ ≥ 4) among those regularly using woods or forests for physical activity were 0.557 (95% CI 0.323-0.962), compared to non-users. However, regular use of natural environments was not clearly associated with greater wellbeing, whilst regular use of non-natural environments was. The study concludes that physical activity in natural environments is associated with a reduction in the risk of poor mental health to a greater extent than physical activity in other environments, but also that activity in different types of environment may promote different kinds of positive psychological response. Access to natural environments for physical activity should be protected and promoted as a contribution to protecting and improving population mental health. PMID

  7. Quantum Physics and Mental Health Counseling: The Time Is...!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstein, Lawrence H.; Bennett, Matt

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a new framework of mental health counseling based on quantum physics. The framework stresses systemic thinking and intervention, interdependence, and the importance of adopting a novel perspective about time, space, reality, and change. This framework has the potential of modifying mental health counseling practice and training. Offers…

  8. Study Guide for TCT in Health and Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullan, Marie R.

    This study guide is designed for those individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in health and physical education. The test covers nine broad subareas: (1) health, body systems, disease; (2) tennis, handball, fencing, bowling, track, and recreational games; (3) development, hygiene, safety, nutrition; (4) softball,…

  9. Explaining Outsourcing in Health, Sport and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Benjamin J.; Macdonald, Doune

    2015-01-01

    Outsourcing is a complex, controversial and pervasive practice that is increasingly becoming a matter of concern for educational researchers. This article contributes to this literature by examining outsourcing practices related to health, sport and physical education (HSPE). Specifically, it reports data on specialist health and physical…

  10. On Being Critical in Health and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Katie; Russell, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper is a reflection on being a critical teacher of health and physical education. It is a conversation of sorts between the two authors: a critical educator and researcher, and a critical teacher. It is based on the shared experiences of one of the author's (Dan) high-school PE and health classes over the course of a year…

  11. Prediction of reliability on thermoelectric module through accelerated life test and Physics-of-failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyoung-Seuk; Seo, Won-Seon; Choi, Duck-Kyun

    2011-09-01

    Thermoelectric cooling module (TEM) which is electric device has a mechanical stress because of temperature gradient in itself. It means that structure of TEM is vulnerable in an aspect of reliability but research on reliability of TEM was not performed a lot. Recently, the more the utilization of thermoelectric cooling devices grows, the more the needs for life prediction and improvement are increasing. In this paper, we investigated life distribution, shape parameter of the TEM through accelerated life test (ALT). And we discussed about how to enhance life of TEM through the Physics-of-failure. Experimental results of ALT showed that the thermoelectric cooling module follows the Weibull distribution, shape parameter of which is 3.6. The acceleration model is coffin Coffin-Manson and material constant is 1.8.

  12. Health physics measurement of Princeton Tokamaks, 1977-1987.

    PubMed

    Stencel, J R; Gilbert, J D; Couch, J G; Griesbach, O A; Fennimore, J J; Greco, J M

    1989-06-01

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) began fusion experiments in 1951. In the early years, the major health physics concerns were associated with x radiation produced by energetic electrons in the plasma. Within the past year, neutron and 3H production from 2H-2H (represented hereafter as D-D) reactions has increased significantly on the larger fusion devices. Tritium retention noted in graphite tiles underscores the significance of material selection in present and future 3H-fueled fusion devices. This paper reports on operational health physics radiation measurements made on various PPPL machines over the past 10 y. PMID:2722515

  13. Aspiring to physical health: The role of aspirations for physical health in facilitating long-term tobacco abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Niemiec, Christopher P.; Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.; Williams, Geoffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess aspirations for physical health over 18 months. To examine whether maintained importance of aspirations for physical health mediated and/or moderated the effect of an intensive intervention on long-term tobacco abstinence. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention based on self-determination theory or to community care, and provided data at baseline and at 18 and 30 months post-randomization. Results Aspirations for physical health were better maintained over 18 months among participants in the intervention (mean change = .05), relative to community care (mean change = -.13), t = 2.66, p < .01. Maintained importance of aspirations for physical health partially mediated the treatment condition effects on seven-day point prevalence tobacco abstinence (z′ = 1.68, p < .01) and the longest number of days not smoking (z′ = 2.16, p < .01), and interacted with treatment condition to facilitate the longest number of days not smoking (β = .08, p < .05). Conclusion Maintained importance of aspirations for physical health facilitated tobacco abstinence. Practice implications Smokers may benefit from discussing aspirations for physical health within autonomy-supportive interventions. Patients may benefit from discussing aspirations during counseling about therapeutic lifestyle change and medication use. PMID:18838243

  14. The ADVANCE network: accelerating data value across a national community health center network

    PubMed Central

    DeVoe, Jennifer E; Gold, Rachel; Cottrell, Erika; Bauer, Vance; Brickman, Andrew; Puro, Jon; Nelson, Christine; Mayer, Kenneth H; Sears, Abigail; Burdick, Tim; Merrell, Jonathan; Matthews, Paul; Fields, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The ADVANCE (Accelerating Data Value Across a National Community Health Center Network) clinical data research network (CDRN) is led by the OCHIN Community Health Information Network in partnership with Health Choice Network and Fenway Health. The ADVANCE CDRN will ‘horizontally’ integrate outpatient electronic health record data for over one million federally qualified health center patients, and ‘vertically’ integrate hospital, health plan, and community data for these patients, often under-represented in research studies. Patient investigators, community investigators, and academic investigators with diverse expertise will work together to meet project goals related to data integration, patient engagement and recruitment, and the development of streamlined regulatory policies. By enhancing the data and research infrastructure of participating organizations, the ADVANCE CDRN will serve as a ‘community laboratory’ for including disadvantaged and vulnerable patients in patient-centered outcomes research that is aligned with the priorities of patients, clinics, and communities in our network. PMID:24821740

  15. Towards Extreme Field Physics: Relativistic Optics and Particle Acceleration in the Transparent-Overdense Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegelich, B. Manuel

    2011-10-01

    A steady increase of on-target laser intensity with also increasing pulse contrast is leading to light-matter interactions of extreme laser fields with matter in new physics regimes which in turn enable a host of applications. A first example is the realization of interactions in the transperent-overdense regime (TOR), which is reached by interacting a highly relativistic (a0 >10), ultra high contrast laser pulse [1] with a solid density target, turning it transparent to the laser by the relativistic mass increase of the electrons. Thus, the interactions becomes volumetric, increasing the energy coupling from laser to plasma, facilitating a range of effects, including relativistic optics and pulse shaping, mono-energetic electron acceleration [3], highly efficient ion acceleration in the break-out afterburner regime [4], and the generation of relativistic and forward directed surface harmonics. Experiments at the LANL 130TW Trident laser facility successfully reached the TOR, and show relativistic pulse shaping beyond the Fourier limit, the acceleration of mono-energetic ~40 MeV electron bunches from solid targets, forward directed coherent relativistic high harmonic generation >1 keV Break-Out Afterburner (BOA) ion acceleration of Carbon to >1 GeV and Protons to >100 MeV. Carbon ions were accelerated with a conversion efficiency of >10% for ions >20 MeV and monoenergetic carbon ions with an energy spread of <20%, have been accelerated at up to ~500 MeV, demonstrating 3 out of 4 for key requirements for ion fast ignition. The shown results now approach or exceed the limits set by many applications from ICF diagnostics over ion fast ignition to medical physics. Furthermore, TOR targets traverse a wide range of HEDP parameter space during the interaction ranging from WDM conditions (e.g. brown dwarfs) to energy densities of ~1011 J/cm3 at peak, then dropping back to the underdense but extremely hot parameter range of gamma-ray bursts. Whereas today this regime can

  16. Report of the HEPAP Subpanel on Major Detectors in Non-Accelerator Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-05-01

    The subpanel on Major Detectors in Non-Accelerator Particle Physics was formed in February 1989 as the result of a letter from Robert Hunter, Director, Office of Energy Research, to Francis Low, Chairman of HEPAP. A copy of the letter is included in the Appendix to this report. The letter referred to the previous report of HEPAP Subpanel on High Energy Gamma Ray and Neutrino Astronomy which had found that several groups of scientists were working on promising new ideas and proposals in non-accelerator high energy physics and astrophysics; this report recommended that panel be formed to evaluate large projects in these areas of science when specific proposals were received by the funding agencies. In concurring with the recommendation, the request to establish this new Subpanel included the following specific charge: Within the context of changing world wide high energy physics activities and opportunities, review as necessary and evaluate the following major research proposals which have been submitted to the Department of Energy and/or to the National Science foundation: DUMAND II, GRANDE, and the Fly's Eye Upgrade.

  17. Social Provisions and Young Women's Health-Related Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Ulvick, Jocelyn D; Spink, Kevin S

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors involved in being active enough for health benefits is necessary to promote health-related physical activity. Given the documented role of social support in women's activity (Molloy et al. 2010), this study examined the relationship between Weiss's (1974) social provisions and health-related physical activity in young women. College undergraduate women (N = 136) from a kinesiology course completed a modified Social Provisions Scale (Cutrona and Russell 1987) and reported on the physical activity they engaged in with others over a 4-week period in the fall of 2011. We used average daily energy expenditure, calculated based on participants' reported activity involvement, to classify participants as either sufficiently or insufficiently active (Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Research Institute 1999). A logistic regression using sufficient/insufficient activity levels for health as the dependent variable revealed that the six provisions reliably differentiated between those who were active enough for health benefits versus not. Of the six, two provisions were significantly associated with health-related physical activity--specifically, those who held higher perceptions of reassurance of worth and social integration were more likely to be in the sufficiently-active group. These results provide an initial indication of the specific social provisions associated with young women who are active enough to achieve health benefits. PMID:26086201

  18. Childhood physical abuse and midlife physical health: Testing a multi-pathway life course model

    PubMed Central

    Springer, K. W.

    2009-01-01

    Although prior research has established that childhood abuse adversely affects midlife physical health outcomes, it is unclear how abuse continues to harm health decades after the abuse has ended. In this project, I assess four life course pathways (behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and social relations) that plausibly link childhood physical abuse to three midlife physical health outcomes (bronchitis diagnosis, ulcer diagnosis, and general physical health). These three outcomes are etiologically distinct, leading to unique testable hypotheses. Multivariate models controlling for childhood background and early adversity were estimated using data from over 3,000 respondents in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, USA. The results indicate that midlife social relations and cognition do not function as pathways for any outcome. However, smoking is a crucial pathway connecting childhood abuse with bronchitis; mental health is important for ulcers; and BMI, smoking, and mental health are paramount for general physical health. These findings suggest that abuse survivors’ coping mechanisms can lead to an array of midlife health problems. Furthermore, the results validate the use of etiologically distinct outcomes for understanding plausible causal pathways when using cross-sectional data. PMID:19446943

  19. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Composition of Accelerator Radiation Fields; Shielding of Electrons and Photons at Accelerators; Shielding of Hadrons at Accelerators; Low Energy Prompt Radiation Phenomena; Induced Radioactivity at Accelerators; Topics in Radiation Protection Instrumentation at Accelerators; and Accelerator Radiation Protection Program Elements.

  20. Accelerating Translation of Physical Activity and Cancer Survivorship Research into Practice: Recommendations for a More Integrated and Collaborative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Siobhan M.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Perna, Frank M.; Glasgow, Russell E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has been deemed safe and effective in reducing many negative side effects of treatment for cancer survivors and promoting better overall health. However, most of this research has focused on highly controlled randomized trials and little of this research has been translated into care or policy for survivors. The purpose of the present paper is to present a research agenda for the field to accelerate the dissemination and implementation of empirically-supported physical activity interventions into care. We provide rationale for the role of basic, behavioral, clinical implementation and population scientists in moving this science forward and call for a more coordinated effort across different phases of research. In addition, we provide key strategies and examples for ongoing and future studies using the RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy/Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance) framework and pose recommendations for collaborations between researchers and stakeholders to enhance the integration of this research into policy and practice. Overall, we recommend that physical activity and cancer survivorship research employ additional study designs, include relevant stakeholders and be more collaborative, integrated, contextual, and representative in terms of both setting and participants. PMID:24599577

  1. Food policies for physical and mental health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) account for the largest burden of early mortality and are predicted to cost the global community more than US $30 trillion over the next 20 years. Unhealthy dietary habits, in large part driven by substantial changes to global food systems, are recognised as major contributors to many of the common NCDs, including cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. Recent evidence now indicates that unhealthy diets are also risk factors for mental disorders, particularly depression and dementia. This affords substantial scope to leverage on the established and developing approaches to the nutrition-related NCDs to address the large global burden of these mental disorders and reinforces the imperative for governments take substantial actions in regards to improving the food environment and consequent population health via policy initiatives. PMID:24884515

  2. Food policies for physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Jacka, Felice N; Sacks, Gary; Berk, Michael; Allender, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) account for the largest burden of early mortality and are predicted to cost the global community more than US $30 trillion over the next 20 years. Unhealthy dietary habits, in large part driven by substantial changes to global food systems, are recognised as major contributors to many of the common NCDs, including cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. Recent evidence now indicates that unhealthy diets are also risk factors for mental disorders, particularly depression and dementia. This affords substantial scope to leverage on the established and developing approaches to the nutrition-related NCDs to address the large global burden of these mental disorders and reinforces the imperative for governments take substantial actions in regards to improving the food environment and consequent population health via policy initiatives. PMID:24884515

  3. Acceleration mass spectrometer of the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastigeev, S. A.; Frolov, A. R.; Goncharov, A. D.; Klyuev, V. F.; Konstantinov, E. S.; Kutnyakova, L. A.; Parkhomchuk, V. V.; Petrozhitskii, A. V.

    2014-09-01

    An accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) made at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, is installed in the Geochronology of the Cenozoic Era Center for Collective Use for the carbon 14 dating of samples. Distinctive features of the BINP AMS include the use of a middle energy separator of ion beams, magnesium vapor target as a stripping target, and a time-of-flight telescope with thin films for accurate ion selection. Results of experiments measuring the radiocarbon concentration in test samples with radiocarbon labels for biomedical applications are presented.

  4. Strand I - Physical Health; Health Status for Grades K-3. Special Edition for Evaluation and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Curriculum Development Center.

    This health curriculum guide, intended for use with children in kindergarten through grade three, is based upon the discovery of the multi-dimensionality of the concept of health and fitness, with its physical, emotional, and social components. The contents of the guide are presented in outline form and cover health measurement, getting to know…

  5. Exploring physical health perceptions, fatigue and stress among health care professionals

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Vanessa; Glass, Nel; Ogle, KR; Parsian, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Nurses, midwives, and paramedics are exposed to high degrees of job demand, which impacts health status and job satisfaction. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of health with a group of nurses, midwives and paramedics in Australia. Specifically, this paper reveals the findings related to the dataset on physical health. In this regard, the researchers sought to explore the relationship between physical health and job satisfaction, and the relationship between health status and stress levels. The study adopted a mixed methodology and used two methods for data collection: one-on-one interviews exploring the relationship between physical health and job satisfaction, and a survey questionnaire focusing on self-rated stress management. The individual interviews were conducted for further exploration of the participants’ responses to the survey. There were 24 health care participants who were drawn from metropolitan and regional Australia. The findings revealed participants: had a desire to increase their physical activity levels; had different perspectives of physical health from those recommended by government guidelines; and viewed physical health as important to job satisfaction, yet related to stress and fatigue. PMID:24729714

  6. [Physical activity and public health: recommendations for exercise prescription].

    PubMed

    Mendes, Romeu; Sousa, Nelson; Barata, J L Themudo

    2011-01-01

    During the last half century scientific data have been accumulated, through epidemiological and clinical studies that clearly document the significant health benefits associated with regular physical activity. This paper will analyse the latest recommendations for prescribing exercise in all age groups in healthy subjects and to individuals with chronic non-communicable diseases such as overweight, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cancer, that contribute to the leading causes of global mortality. A search in the Pubmed database was performed and were also searched the recommendations of the World Health Organization and scientific organizations in Portugal. Most health benefits occur with at least 150 minutes of aerobic exercise of moderate intensity, accumulated over the week, which can be split into periods of at least 10 minutes. Brisk walking seems to be the preferred aerobic exercise. Vigorous intensity aerobic exercise and resistance exercises for muscle strengthening, at least two days a week are also recommended. Children, youth, older adults and people with overweight have particular needs for physical activity. Additional benefits occur with increasing quantity and quality of physical activity through the proper manipulation of the exercise density (intensity, frequency and duration). However, some physical activity is better than none. The role of health professionals in prescribing appropriate exercise to their patients is fundamental to their involvement in increasing their physical activity levels and thus contributing to their health promotion and prevention and treatment of major non-communicable chronic diseases. PMID:22713198

  7. Comorbid mental and physical health and health access in Cambodian refugees in the US.

    PubMed

    Berthold, S Megan; Kong, Sengly; Mollica, Richard F; Kuoch, Theanvy; Scully, Mary; Franke, Todd

    2014-12-01

    Little research has been conducted on the prevalence of physical health problems in Cambodian refugees and the relationship between their mental and physical health. We identified the relationship between mental and physical health problems and barriers to healthcare access in Cambodian refugee adults. We used a cross-sectional survey design with a snowball sample of 136 Cambodian refugee adult residents of Connecticut and Western Massachusetts. 61% reported being diagnosed with three or more physical conditions and 73% with depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or both. Language and transportation problems were the primary barriers to accessing care. Participants with probable comorbid PTSD and depression had 1.850 times more physical health problems than those without either condition (p > .001; CI 1.334-2.566). Age moderated this relationship. Participants who had been diagnosed with both depression and PTSD reported a consistent number of health conditions across the age span while those who had no mental health conditions or only one of the two reported fewer health conditions when they were younger and more when they were older. These two groups were significantly different from the group reporting both. There is a significant relationship between chronic comorbid mental and physical health diseases affecting Cambodian refugees resettled in the US Having comorbid depression and PTSD puts Cambodian refugees at risk for physical health problems no matter their age. It is vital that those treating Cambodian genocide survivors identify and treat their prevalent comorbid health conditions. Language and transportation barriers must be addressed to improve access to mental and physical health care in this population. PMID:24651944

  8. Physics and engineering studies on the MITICA accelerator: comparison among possible design solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Chitarin, G.; Pilan, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.

    2011-09-26

    Consorzio RFX in Padova is currently using a comprehensive set of numerical and analytical codes, for the physics and engineering design of the SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) and MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advancement) experiments, planned to be built at Consorzio RFX. This paper presents a set of studies on different possible geometries for the MITICA accelerator, with the objective to compare different design concepts and choose the most suitable one (or ones) to be further developed and possibly adopted in the experiment. Different design solutions have been discussed and compared, taking into account their advantages and drawbacks by both the physics and engineering points of view.

  9. Physical Education at Preschools: Practitioners' and Children's Engagements with Physical Activity and Health Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvilly, Nollaig; Verheul, Martine; Atencio, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on one aspect of a qualitative study concerned with investigating the place and meaning of "physical education" to practitioners and children at three preschools in Scotland. We examine the ways in which the participants engaged with discourses related to physical activity and health in order to construct their…

  10. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  11. Born Fat: The Relations Between Weight Changeability Beliefs and Health Behaviors and Physical Health.

    PubMed

    Parent, Mike C; Alquist, Jessica L

    2016-06-01

    Although some popular press and nonscholarly sources have claimed that weight is largely unchangeable, the relationship between this belief and objective measures of health remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that people who believe weight is unchangeable will have poorer objective and subjective health, and fewer exercise behaviors and poorer eating habits, than people who believe weight is changeable. Participants were 4,166 men and 4,655 women enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the 2007 to 2010 iterations. Believing that weight was uncontrollable was negatively related to exercise and healthful dietary practices and positively related to unhealthful eating. Lack of exercise and unhealthful eating were, in turn, associated with poor physical health. Age, but not gender, moderated the relationships between belief in weight changeability and exercise behaviors, healthful eating, and unhealthful eating. This study suggests that believing weight is unchangeable is associated with poor health behaviors and poorer physical health. PMID:26351266

  12. The physics of sub-critical lattices in accelerator driven hybrid systems: The MUSE experiments in the MASURCA facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chauvin, J. P.; Lebrat, J. F.; Soule, R.; Martini, M.; Jacqmin, R.; Imel, G. R.; Salvatores, M.

    1999-06-10

    Since 1991, the CEA has studied the physics of hybrid systems, involving a sub-critical reactor coupled with an accelerator. These studies have provided information on the potential of hybrid systems to transmute actinides and, long lived fission products. The potential of such a system remains to be proven, specifically in terms of the physical understanding of the different phenomena involved and their modelling, as well as in terms of experimental validation of coupled systems, sub-critical environment/accelerator. This validation must be achieved through mock-up studies of the sub-critical environments coupled to a source of external neutrons. The MUSE-4 mock-up experiment is planed at the MASURCA facility and will use an accelerator coupled to a tritium target. The great step between the generator used in the past and the accelerator will allow to increase the knowledge in hybrid physic and to decrease the experimental biases and the measurement uncertainties.

  13. ANL-E Health Physics experience with D and D

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.I.; Mosho, G.D.; Munyon, W.J.; Murdoch, B.T.; Sholeen, C.M.; Shuman, J.P.

    1996-04-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory--East (ANL-E) Health Physics Section provides direct and/or oversight support to various D&D projects at ANL-E. The health physics problems encountered have been challenging, primarily because they involved the potential for high internal exposures as well as actual high external exposures. The lessons learned are applicable to other radiological facilities. A number of D&D projects being conducted concurrently at ANL-E are described. The problems encountered are then categorized, and lessons learned and recommendations are provided. The main focus will be limited to the support and technical assistance provided by personnel from the ANL Health Physics Section during the course of the work activities.

  14. Physical property comparison of 11 soft denture lining materials as a function of accelerated aging.

    PubMed

    Dootz, E R; Koran, A; Craig, R G

    1993-01-01

    Soft denture-lining materials are an important treatment option for patients who have chronic soreness associated with dental prostheses. Three distinctly different types of materials are generally used. These are plasticized polymers or copolymers, silicones, or polyphosphazene fluoroelastomer. The acceptance of these materials by patients and dentists is variable. The objective of this study is to compare the tensile strength, percent elongation, hardness, tear strength, and tear energy of eight plasticized polymers or copolymers, two silicones, and one polyphosphazene fluoroelastomer. Tests were run at 24 hours after specimen preparation and repeated after 900 hours of accelerated aging in a Weather-Ometer device. The data indicated a wide range of physical properties for soft denture-lining materials and showed that accelerated aging dramatically affected the physical and mechanical properties of many of the elastomers. No soft denture liner proved to be superior to all others. The data obtained should provide clinicians with useful information for selecting soft denture lining materials for patients. PMID:8455156

  15. Tsallis entropy and complexity theory in the understanding of physics of precursory accelerating seismicity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallianatos, Filippos; Chatzopoulos, George

    2014-05-01

    Strong observational indications support the hypothesis that many large earthquakes are preceded by accelerating seismic release rates which described by a power law time to failure relation. In the present work, a unified theoretical framework is discussed based on the ideas of non-extensive statistical physics along with fundamental principles of physics such as the energy conservation in a faulted crustal volume undergoing stress loading. We derive the time-to-failure power-law of: a) cumulative number of earthquakes, b) cumulative Benioff strain and c) cumulative energy released in a fault system that obeys a hierarchical distribution law extracted from Tsallis entropy. Considering the analytic conditions near the time of failure, we derive from first principles the time-to-failure power-law and show that a common critical exponent m(q) exists, which is a function of the non-extensive entropic parameter q. We conclude that the cumulative precursory parameters are function of the energy supplied to the system and the size of the precursory volume. In addition the q-exponential distribution which describes the fault system is a crucial factor on the appearance of power-law acceleration in the seismicity. Our results based on Tsallis entropy and the energy conservation gives a new view on the empirical laws derived by other researchers. Examples and applications of this technique to observations of accelerating seismicity will also be presented and discussed. This work was implemented through the project IMPACT-ARC in the framework of action "ARCHIMEDES III-Support of Research Teams at TEI of Crete" (MIS380353) of the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" and is co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national funds

  16. Selecting a PC database management system for health physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Slaback, L.A.; Webber, W.R. )

    1987-01-01

    An integrated system of data management is a necessity for the variety and volume of data encountered in many health physics programs. A Personal Computer (PC) Database Management System (DBMS) can fill these data management needs if it is designed and constructed properly. This article presents a suggested approach to PC database design and outlines the specific features that should be examined when choosing DBMS software. This approach was used to set up a health physics database system at the National Bureau of Standards in 1985. The NBS system is described, and an example of dosimetry data entry is used to illustrate how the system works.

  17. Supporting public health priorities: recommendations for physical education and physical activity promotion in schools.

    PubMed

    Hills, Andrew P; Dengel, Donald R; Lubans, David R

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) provides numerous physiological and psychosocial benefits. However, lifestyle changes, including reduced PA opportunities in multiple settings, have resulted in an escalation of overweight and obesity and related health problems. Poor physical and mental health, including metabolic and cardiovascular problems is seen in progressively younger ages, and the systematic decline in school PA has contributed to this trend. Of note, the crowded school curriculum with an intense focus on academic achievement, lack of school leadership support, funding and resources, plus poor quality teaching are barriers to PA promotion in schools. The school setting and physical educators in particular, must embrace their role in public health by adopting a comprehensive school PA program. We provide an overview of key issues and challenges in the area plus best bets and recommendations for physical education and PA promotion in the school system moving forward. PMID:25269062

  18. Physical and Emotional Health Problems Experienced by Youth Engaged in Physical Fighting and Weapon Carrying

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Sophie D.; Molcho, Michal; Craig, Wendy; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Huynh, Quynh; Kukaswadia, Atif; Aasvee, Katrin; Várnai, Dora; Ottova, Veronika; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Pickett, William

    2013-01-01

    Then aims of the current study were 1) to provide cross-national estimates of the prevalence of physical fighting and weapon carrying among adolescents aged 11–15 years; (2) To examine the possible effects of physical fighting and weapon carrying on the occurrence of physical (medically treated injuries) and emotional health outcomes (multiple health complaints) among adolescents within the theoretical framework of Problem Behaviour Theory. 20,125 adolescents aged 11–15 in five countries (Belgium, Israel, USA, Canada, FYR Macedonia) were surveyed via the 2006 Health Behaviour in School Aged Children survey. Prevalence was calculated for physical fighting and weapon carrying along with physical and emotional measures that potentially result from violence. Regression analyses were used to quantify associations between violence/weapon carrying and the potential health consequences within each country. Large variations in fighting and weapon carrying were observed across countries. Boys reported more frequent episodes of fighting/weapon carrying and medically attended injuries in every country, while girls reported more emotional symptoms. Although there were some notable variations in findings between different participating countries, increased weapon carrying and physical fighting were both independently and consistently associated with more frequent reports of the potential health outcomes. Adolescents engaging in fighting and weapon carrying are also at risk for physical and emotional health outcomes. Involvement in fighting and weapon carrying can be seen as part of a constellation of risk behaviours with obvious health implications. Our findings also highlight the importance of the cultural context when examining the nature of violent behaviour for adolescents. PMID:23437126

  19. Seasonal variations in physical activity and implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J; Aoyagi, Yukitoshi

    2009-10-01

    This review explores the implications of seasonal changes in physical activity for fitness and human health. Photosensitivity and nutrient shortages mediate animal hibernation via the hypothalamus and changes in leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Opportunities for hunting and crop cultivation determine seasonal activity in under-developed human societies, but in developed societies temperature and rainfall are dominant influences, usually over-riding innate rhythms. Both questionnaire data and objective measurements show that many groups from children to the elderly increase their physical activity from winter to spring or summer. Measurements of maximal oxygen intake and muscle strength commonly show parallel seasonal changes. However, potential effects upon body mass and body fat may be counteracted by changes of food intake; subsistence agriculturists sometimes maintain or increase physical activity at the expense of a decrease in body mass. In developed societies, body fat commonly increases during the winter, with parallel changes in blood lipids, blood pressure and blood coagulability; moreover, these changes are not always fully reversed the following summer. Most developed societies show increased all-cause and cardiac mortalities in the winter. Health consequences of seasonal variations in physical activity including an increased vulnerability to cardiac catastrophe and a year-by-year increase in total body fat seem most likely if the average level of physical activity for the year is low. Public health recommendations should underline the importance of maintaining physical activity during adverse environmental conditions by adapting clothing, modifying behaviour and exploiting any available air-conditioned indoor facilities. PMID:19609553

  20. Physical activity to overcome the adversity of widowhood: Benefits beyond physical health.

    PubMed

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Lee, June Han; Chang, Ly-Yun; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Chan, Yan-Lan; Wen, Christopher; Chiu, Mu-Lin; Tsai, Min Kuang; Tsai, Shan Pou; Wai, Jackson Pui Man; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Wu, Xifeng; Wen, Chi Pang

    2016-08-01

    Widowhood has been increasingly encountered because of increasing longevity of women, often characterized by social stigmatization and poor physical and mental health. However, applied research to overcome its adversity has been quite limited. The goal of this study is to explore the role of physical activity in improving the health of widows.A cohort of 446,582 adults in Taiwan who successively participated in a comprehensive medical screening program starting in 1994, including 232,788 women, was followed up for mortality until 2008. Each individual provided detailed health history, and extensive lab tests results.The number of widows increased with time trend. Every other woman above age 65 was a widow (44%). Widows were less active, more obese, and smoked and drank more, had sleep problems, were more depressed with taking sedatives or psychoactive drugs, leading to more suicides. In the global development of health policies by World Health Organization (WHO), physical activity is one of the main factors to reverse poor health. The poor health of inactive widow was mitigated when becoming fully active in this study. Exercise not only reduced the observed 18% increase in all-cause mortality, but also gained 4 years and as much as 14% mortality advantage over the married but inactive. More importantly, becoming physically active energized their mental status, improved sleep quality and quantity, reduced depressions and the need for psychoactive drugs, and increased socialization circles.Widows, a rapidly growing and socially stigmatized group, suffered from social and financial inequality and tended to develop poorer health. Sustained physical activity could be one of the ways for them to overcome and reverse some of the physical and mental adversities of widowhood, and improve their quality and quantity of life. PMID:27512856

  1. A 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator as a tool for planetary and impact physics research

    SciTech Connect

    Mocker, Anna; Bugiel, Sebastian; Srama, Ralf; Auer, Siegfried; Baust, Guenter; Matt, Guenter; Otto, Katharina; Colette, Andrew; Drake, Keith; Kempf, Sascha; Munsat, Tobin; Shu, Anthony; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Fiege, Katherina; Postberg, Frank; Gruen, Eberhard; Heckmann, Frieder; Helfert, Stefan; Hillier, Jonathan; Mellert, Tobias; and others

    2011-09-15

    Investigating the dynamical and physical properties of cosmic dust can reveal a great deal of information about both the dust and its many sources. Over recent years, several spacecraft (e.g., Cassini, Stardust, Galileo, and Ulysses) have successfully characterised interstellar, interplanetary, and circumplanetary dust using a variety of techniques, including in situ analyses and sample return. Charge, mass, and velocity measurements of the dust are performed either directly (induced charge signals) or indirectly (mass and velocity from impact ionisation signals or crater morphology) and constrain the dynamical parameters of the dust grains. Dust compositional information may be obtained via either time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the impact plasma or direct sample return. The accurate and reliable interpretation of collected spacecraft data requires a comprehensive programme of terrestrial instrument calibration. This process involves accelerating suitable solar system analogue dust particles to hypervelocity speeds in the laboratory, an activity performed at the Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg, Germany. Here, a 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator electrostatically accelerates charged micron and submicron-sized dust particles to speeds up to 80 km s{sup -1}. Recent advances in dust production and processing have allowed solar system analogue dust particles (silicates and other minerals) to be coated with a thin conductive shell, enabling them to be charged and accelerated. Refinements and upgrades to the beam line instrumentation and electronics now allow for the reliable selection of particles at velocities of 1-80 km s{sup -1} and with diameters of between 0.05 {mu}m and 5 {mu}m. This ability to select particles for subsequent impact studies based on their charges, masses, or velocities is provided by a particle selection unit (PSU). The PSU contains a field programmable gate array, capable of monitoring in real time the particles' speeds and

  2. Technical Challenges and Scientific Payoffs of Muon BeamAccelerators for Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2007-09-25

    Historically, progress in particle physics has largely beendetermined by development of more capable particle accelerators. Thistrend continues today with the recent advent of high-luminosityelectron-positron colliders at KEK and SLAC operating as "B factories,"the imminent commissioning of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and theworldwide development effort toward the International Linear Collider.Looking to the future, one of the most promising approaches is thedevelopment of muon-beam accelerators. Such machines have very highscientific potential, and would substantially advance thestate-of-the-art in accelerator design. A 20-50 GeV muon storage ringcould serve as a copious source of well-characterized electron neutrinosor antineutrinos (a Neutrino Factory), providing beams aimed at detectorslocated 3000-7500 km from the ring. Such long baseline experiments areexpected to be able to observe and characterize the phenomenon ofcharge-conjugation-parity (CP) violation in the lepton sector, and thusprovide an answer to one of the most fundamental questions in science,namely, why the matter-dominated universe in which we reside exists atall. By accelerating muons to even higher energies of several TeV, we canenvision a Muon Collider. In contrast with composite particles likeprotons, muons are point particles. This means that the full collisionenergy is available to create new particles. A Muon Collider has roughlyten times the energy reach of a proton collider at the same collisionenergy, and has a much smaller footprint. Indeed, an energy frontier MuonCollider could fit on the site of an existing laboratory, such asFermilab or BNL. The challenges of muon-beam accelerators are related tothe facts that i) muons are produced as a tertiary beam, with very large6D phase space, and ii) muons are unstable, with a lifetime at rest ofonly 2 microseconds. How these challenges are accommodated in theaccelerator design will be described. Both a Neutrino Factory and a Muon

  3. A 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator as a tool for planetary and impact physics research.

    PubMed

    Mocker, Anna; Bugiel, Sebastian; Auer, Siegfried; Baust, Günter; Colette, Andrew; Drake, Keith; Fiege, Katherina; Grün, Eberhard; Heckmann, Frieder; Helfert, Stefan; Hillier, Jonathan; Kempf, Sascha; Matt, Günter; Mellert, Tobias; Munsat, Tobin; Otto, Katharina; Postberg, Frank; Röser, Hans-Peter; Shu, Anthony; Sternovsky, Zoltán; Srama, Ralf

    2011-09-01

    Investigating the dynamical and physical properties of cosmic dust can reveal a great deal of information about both the dust and its many sources. Over recent years, several spacecraft (e.g., Cassini, Stardust, Galileo, and Ulysses) have successfully characterised interstellar, interplanetary, and circumplanetary dust using a variety of techniques, including in situ analyses and sample return. Charge, mass, and velocity measurements of the dust are performed either directly (induced charge signals) or indirectly (mass and velocity from impact ionisation signals or crater morphology) and constrain the dynamical parameters of the dust grains. Dust compositional information may be obtained via either time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the impact plasma or direct sample return. The accurate and reliable interpretation of collected spacecraft data requires a comprehensive programme of terrestrial instrument calibration. This process involves accelerating suitable solar system analogue dust particles to hypervelocity speeds in the laboratory, an activity performed at the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik in Heidelberg, Germany. Here, a 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator electrostatically accelerates charged micron and submicron-sized dust particles to speeds up to 80 km s(-1). Recent advances in dust production and processing have allowed solar system analogue dust particles (silicates and other minerals) to be coated with a thin conductive shell, enabling them to be charged and accelerated. Refinements and upgrades to the beam line instrumentation and electronics now allow for the reliable selection of particles at velocities of 1-80 km s(-1) and with diameters of between 0.05 μm and 5 μm. This ability to select particles for subsequent impact studies based on their charges, masses, or velocities is provided by a particle selection unit (PSU). The PSU contains a field programmable gate array, capable of monitoring in real time the particles' speeds and charges, and

  4. A 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator as a tool for planetary and impact physics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocker, Anna; Bugiel, Sebastian; Auer, Siegfried; Baust, Günter; Colette, Andrew; Drake, Keith; Fiege, Katherina; Grün, Eberhard; Heckmann, Frieder; Helfert, Stefan; Hillier, Jonathan; Kempf, Sascha; Matt, Günter; Mellert, Tobias; Munsat, Tobin; Otto, Katharina; Postberg, Frank; Röser, Hans-Peter; Shu, Anthony; Sternovsky, Zoltán; Srama, Ralf

    2011-09-01

    Investigating the dynamical and physical properties of cosmic dust can reveal a great deal of information about both the dust and its many sources. Over recent years, several spacecraft (e.g., Cassini, Stardust, Galileo, and Ulysses) have successfully characterised interstellar, interplanetary, and circumplanetary dust using a variety of techniques, including in situ analyses and sample return. Charge, mass, and velocity measurements of the dust are performed either directly (induced charge signals) or indirectly (mass and velocity from impact ionisation signals or crater morphology) and constrain the dynamical parameters of the dust grains. Dust compositional information may be obtained via either time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the impact plasma or direct sample return. The accurate and reliable interpretation of collected spacecraft data requires a comprehensive programme of terrestrial instrument calibration. This process involves accelerating suitable solar system analogue dust particles to hypervelocity speeds in the laboratory, an activity performed at the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik in Heidelberg, Germany. Here, a 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator electrostatically accelerates charged micron and submicron-sized dust particles to speeds up to 80 km s-1. Recent advances in dust production and processing have allowed solar system analogue dust particles (silicates and other minerals) to be coated with a thin conductive shell, enabling them to be charged and accelerated. Refinements and upgrades to the beam line instrumentation and electronics now allow for the reliable selection of particles at velocities of 1-80 km s-1 and with diameters of between 0.05 μm and 5 μm. This ability to select particles for subsequent impact studies based on their charges, masses, or velocities is provided by a particle selection unit (PSU). The PSU contains a field programmable gate array, capable of monitoring in real time the particles' speeds and charges, and is

  5. Recommendations for the school health physical examination in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Hamadeh, G N; Saab, B R; Adib, S M; Mroueh, S M

    1999-01-01

    School health developed gradually over the years; starting with efforts to keep contagion out of schools to global programs of comprehensive services. One of its components, school medicine, covers screening examinations, record maintenance, emergency care, immunization monitoring and health counseling. This paper proposes the essential health activities to be performed during a screening school examination in Lebanon. The recommendations are based on a combination of international literature review of evidence and the existence of Lebanese epidemiological reports identifying specific problems. Vaccination record review, tuberculin testing, vision, hearing, dental and skin disorders screening procedures are proposed as essential activities of the school physical examination. PMID:10758706

  6. Embedding a physical health nurse consultant within mental health services: Consumers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda; Ewart, Stephanie B; Platania-Phung, Chris; Bocking, Julia; Griffiths, Kathleen; Scholz, Brett; Stanton, Robert

    2016-08-01

    The life expectancy of people living with mental illness is significantly shorter than that of the rest of the population. Despite the profound impact of physical health issues on both quality of life and life expectancy, the perspectives of mental health consumers have yet to be thoroughly explored. Furthermore, research has focused far more on describing barriers than on identifying solutions. This paper reports on findings from a qualitative exploratory research study, with the aim to examine the potential role of a specialist nurse with advanced physical health-care skills. Focus groups were conducted with 31 consumers. Data were analysed thematically. The concept of a role like this was supported; however, participants stressed: (i) the importance of integration between health professionals and various components of the health-care system; and (ii) the need for culture change for nurses to work from a less medically-dominated approach. Previous research literature suggests that a nursing position dedicated to physical health care and coordination might produce positive outcomes for mental health consumers. The findings from the current research project emphasize the need for consumers to be identified as key stakeholders in a solution-focused approach to improved physical health care for mental health consumers. PMID:26748945

  7. Obesity, Health, and Physical Activity: Discourses from the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zieff, Susan G.; Veri, Maria J.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the obesity, health, and physical activity discourses of the past 35 years in the context of the United States with particular reference to five social sectors: the biomedical domain; the popular media; nonprofit foundations, centers and agencies; various national and multinational corporations; and government at all levels.…

  8. Women's Health-Enhancing Physical Activity and Eudaimonic Well Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Leah J.; Kowalski, Kent C.; Mack, Diane E.; Wilson, Philip M.; Crocker, Peter R. E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored the role of health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA; Miilunpalo, 2001) in women's eudaimonic well being (i.e., psychological flourishing at one's maximal potential; Ryff, 1989). We used a quantitative approach (N = 349) to explore the relationship between HEPA and eudaimonic well being. While HEPA was not related to…

  9. Health and Physical Activity Content Knowledge of Pima Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusseau, Timothy; Kulinna, Pamela H.; Cothran, Donetta J.

    2011-01-01

    This study grounded in constructivist theory and the public health literature investigated Native American children's knowledge related to physical activity and healthy behavior concepts. Learning tends to be more meaningful and relevant when teachers take into consideration the students' knowledge and experiences. Therefore it is important to…

  10. What Factors Predict Student Self-Rated Physical Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vingilis, Evelyn; Wade, Terrance J.; Adlaf, Edward

    1998-01-01

    Data from a randomly selected sample of 840 Ontario students were used to examine factors that affect self-rated physical health. Analyses focused on demographics, family structure, financial situation, child-parent relationship, school achievement, self-esteem, alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use as factors which directly and indirectly influence…

  11. Physical and Mental Health Effects of Family Caregiving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Richard; Sherwood, Paula R.

    2008-01-01

    The associations between physical and psychological health and being an informal caregiver are well established. In this article, "caregiving" denotes care that is provided by a family member or friend rather than by a professional who is reimbursed for services. Clinical observation and early empirical research showed that assuming a caregiving…

  12. Health and Physical Education in Australia: A Defining Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores contemporary Health and Physical Education (HPE) curriculum in Australia in the context of the ongoing development of a new national curriculum. Drawing on policy documents and academic commentaries it reviews and problematises the current position and prospective development of HPE in the Australian Curriculum, examining key…

  13. Comprehensive Health and Physical Education. Colorado Academic Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Preparing students for the 21st century cannot be accomplished without a strong and sustained emphasis on all students' health and wellness. It no is longer acceptable to think of "gym class" and "hygiene lessons." Today's world has exploded with physical, mental, and social influences that affect not only learning in school, but also the lifelong…

  14. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  15. Obesity, Health and Physical Education: A Bourdieuean Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Katie

    2011-01-01

    Assumptions and interventions about the so-called "obesity epidemic" pervade health and physical education classrooms and national policy agendas in New Zealand, as they do elsewhere in the Western world. In contrast, critical scholars in these subjects advocate an active deconstruction of the tenets and presumptions underpinning public and media…

  16. Health and Physical Activity Research as Represented in RQES

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2005-01-01

    In the past 75 years, articles in Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (RQES) have contributed to the understanding of the role physical activity plays in the health of individuals and populations. Articles have described laboratory and community research studies in humans and animals, presented reviews of topics and conference proceedings,…

  17. Health and Physical Education Programs in the National Diffusion Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguro, Joseph F.

    This catalog contains descriptions of the Health and Physical Education programs in the National Diffusion Network. These programs are available to school systems or other educational institutions for implementation in their classrooms. While all of the programs have been validated as effective by the U.S. Department of Education's Program…

  18. The Preparation of Physical Educators: A Public Health Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    Sedentary living is a serious global public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Schools are in a position to be the most cost-effective public resource to combat inactivity. In schools physical educators are positioned to be the strongest advocates of a healthy, active lifestyle. To effectively promote physical…

  19. [Secondary Career Education Activities: Health and Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford City Schools, VA.

    The guide is one of a series developed in a pilot project to integrate career education concepts with subject matter in secondary grades. The units are designed to reveal career orientation aspects of traditional topics within five major subject areas: English, social studies, mathematics, science, and health and physical education. The lesson…

  20. Sexual Victimization and Physical Health: An Examination of Explanatory Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palm, Kathleen M.; Follette, Victoria M.

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing body of research illustrating a significant relationship between a history of sexual victimization and the development of physical health problems; however, few researchers have examined variables that mediate this relationship. The present study examined two potential mediating variables: experiential avoidance and current…

  1. Audit report: health physics technician subcontracts at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brendlinger, Terry L.

    1999-05-01

    To supplement its health physics staff, Brookhaven National Laboratory (Brookhaven) subcontracted with a support service business (the subcontractor) to obtain the services of health physics technicians. During the pefiormance of these subcontracts, certain issues arose concerning per diem payments to the subcontractor for local technicians. The objective of this audit was to determine whether Brookhaven fi.dly etiorced the terms and conditions of its subcontracts for health physics technicians. Brookhaven had not fully enforced the terms of its subcontracts, and as a result, Brookhaven and the Department paid about $288,000 more than necessary for health physics technicians. For example, Brookhaven reimbursed the subcontractor for per diem on days when work was not performed and when the subcontractor did not pay subsistence expenses to its technicians. Brookhaven also increased the subcontracts' fixed reimbursement rates without adequate justification and reimbursed the subcontractor for overtime even though the subcontract did not provide for an overtime reimbursement rate. We recommend that the Manager, Chicago Operations Office, recover the unreasonable costs identified in the audit and require Brookhaven to strengthen its subcontract administration practices. Management agreed in principle with the audit finding and recommendations. However, management - stated that additional time was needed to further examine the issues.

  2. Predicting Physical Activity Promotion in Health Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Guy; Biddle, Stuart

    2001-01-01

    Tested the theory of planned behavior's (TPB) ability to predict stage of change for physical activity promotion among health professionals. Researchers measured attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, perceived behavioral control, and stage of change, then later reassessed stage of change. TPB variables of attitude, subjective norms, perceived…

  3. Athletic Training: From Physical Education to Allied Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, David H.

    2007-01-01

    Athletic training was spawned from physical education in the 1960s, and since that time has evolved into a recognized health care profession. The majority of accredited athletic training education programs (ATEPs) are housed within academic units of kinesiology. However, the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) has recommended that ATEPs…

  4. Adventurous Physical Activity Environments: A Mainstream Intervention for Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Clough, Peter; Houge Mackenzie, Susan; Mallabon, Liz; Brymer, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Adventurous physical activity has traditionally been considered the pastime of a small minority of people with deviant personalities or characteristics that compel them to voluntarily take great risks purely for the sake of thrills and excitement. An unintended consequence of these traditional narratives is the relative absence of adventure activities in mainstream health and well-being discourses and in large-scale governmental health initiatives. However, recent research has demonstrated that even the most extreme adventurous physical activities are linked to enhanced psychological health and well-being outcomes. These benefits go beyond traditional 'character building' concepts and emphasize more positive frameworks that rely on the development of effective environmental design. Based on emerging research, this paper demonstrates why adventurous physical activity should be considered a mainstream intervention for positive mental health. Furthermore, the authors argue that understanding how to design environments that effectively encourage appropriate adventure should be considered a serious addition to mainstream health and well-being discourse. PMID:26895993

  5. Health: The No-Man's-Land Between Physics and Biology.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    Health as a positive attribute is poorly understood because understanding requires concepts from physics, of which physicians and other life scientists have a very poor grasp. This paper reviews the physics that bears on biology, in particular complex quaternions and scalar fields, relates these to the morphogenetic fields proposed by biologists, and defines health as an attribute of living action within these fields. The distinction of quality, as juxtaposed with quantity, proves essential. Its basic properties are set out, but a science and mathematics of quality are awaited. The implications of this model are discussed, particularly as proper health enhancement could set a natural limit to demand for, and therefore the cost of, medical services. PMID:26447724

  6. Emerging terawatt picosecond CO{sub 2} laser technology and possible applications in accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelsky, I.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    1997-07-01

    The first terawatt picosecond (TWps) CO{sub 2} laser is under construction at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). TWps-CO{sub 2} lasers, having the order of magnitude longer wavelength than the well-known table-top terawatt solid state lasers, offer new opportunities for the strong-field physics research. For processes based on electro quiver motion, such as laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA), the advantage of the new class of lasers is due to a gain of two orders of magnitude in the ponderomotive potential for the same peak power. The large average power capability of CO{sub 2} lasers is important for the generation of hard radiation through Compton back-scattering of the laser off energetic electron beams, as well as for other applications. Among them are: LWFA modules of a tentative electron-positron collider, {gamma}-{gamma} (or {gamma}-lepton) collider, a possible table-top source of high-intensity x-rays and gamma rays and the generation of polarized positron beams.

  7. GPU-based acceleration of free energy calculations in solid state physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Januszewski, Michał; Ptok, Andrzej; Crivelli, Dawid; Gardas, Bartłomiej

    2015-07-01

    Obtaining a thermodynamically accurate phase diagram through numerical calculations is a computationally expensive problem that is crucially important to understanding the complex phenomena of solid state physics, such as superconductivity. In this work we show how this type of analysis can be significantly accelerated through the use of modern GPUs. We illustrate this with a concrete example of free energy calculation in multi-band iron-based superconductors, known to exhibit a superconducting state with oscillating order parameter (OP). Our approach can also be used for classical BCS-type superconductors. With a customized algorithm and compiler tuning we are able to achieve a 19×speedup compared to the CPU (119×compared to a single CPU core), reducing calculation time from minutes to mere seconds, enabling the analysis of larger systems and the elimination of finite size effects.

  8. Monitoring Health, Activity and Fitness in Physical Education: Its Current and Future State of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo; Chen, Ming Hung

    2014-01-01

    Various government policies, strategies and responses in England over the years have highlighted schools and physical education to be instrumental in addressing health and the focus on health has been strengthened within subsequent revisions of the National Curriculum. Whilst this might seem encouraging, concerns have been expressed that such…

  9. Physical Health, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems of Shelter Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Shirley N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined physical health of 72 users of homeless shelters, comparing shelter users with mental illness or substance abuse problems with those without these problems. Found that alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to have low blood pressure, symptoms of liver disease, and tuberculosis treatment history. Found no health differences for…

  10. Psychological and physical health of mostly heterosexuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vrangalova, Zhana; Savin-Williams, Ritch C

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed whether mostly heterosexuals, a sexual orientation group characterized by a small amount of same-sex sexuality, differ from heterosexuals and bisexuals on a variety of mental and physical health outcomes (e.g., internalizing problems, body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, obesity, sexual/reproductive health, physical health), health risk behaviors (e.g., substance use, sexual risk taking), and risk and protective factors (e.g., victimization, stressful/risky environment, socioeconomic status, personal and social relationships, gender nonconformity). A narrative and quantitative literature review was conducted of 60 papers covering 22 samples from five Western countries. Individual, mean, and median effect sizes (Cohen ds) were calculated whenever possible. Mostly heterosexuals reported higher levels of risk in most reviewed outcomes compared to heterosexuals (unweighted mean effect sizes ranged from 0.20 to 0.50) but typically somewhat lower than bisexuals (unweighted mean effect sizes ranged from -0.10 to -0.30). Various risk factors frequently reduced, but rarely eliminated, health disparities between mostly heterosexuals and heterosexuals. Findings are discussed through the lens of three potential explanations of elevated health risks among nonheterosexuals: minority stress, nonheterosexual lifestyles, and common causes. Because data on many outcomes were scarce or missing, particularly for men and in comparison with bisexuals, further research is needed. PMID:24754361

  11. mHealth Physical Activity Intervention: A Randomized Pilot Study in Physically Inactive Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Choi, JiWon; Lee, Ji Hyeon; Vittinghoff, Eric; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity is prevalent in pregnant women, and innovative strategies to promote physical activity are strongly needed. The purpose of the study was to test a 12-week mobile health (mHealth) physical activity intervention for feasibility and potential efficacy. Methods Participants were recruited between December 2012 and February 2014 using diverse recruitment methods. Thirty pregnant women between 10 and 20 weeks of gestation were randomized to an intervention (mobile phone app plus Fitbit) or a control (Fitbit) group. Both conditions targeted gradual increases in physical activity. The mHealth intervention included daily messages and a mobile phone activity diary with automated feedback and self-monitoring systems. Results On monthly average, 4 women were screened for initial eligibility by telephone and 2.5 were randomized. Intervention participants had a 1096 ± 1898 step increase in daily steps compared to an increase of 259 ± 1604 steps in control participants at 12 weeks. The change between groups in weekly mean steps per day during the 12-week study period was not statistically significant (p = 0.38). The intervention group reported lower perceived barrier to being active, lack of energy, than the control group at 12-week visit (p = 0.02). The rates of responding to daily messages and using the daily diary through the mobile app declined during the 12 week study period. Discussion It was difficult to recruit and randomize inactive women who wanted to increase physical activity during pregnancy. Pregnant women who were motivated to increase physical activity might find using mobile technologies in assessing and promoting PA acceptable. Possible reasons for the non-significant treatment effect of the mHealth intervention on physical activity are discussed. Public awareness of safety and benefits of physical activity during pregnancy should be promoted. Clinicaltrials.Gov Identifier NCT01461707. PMID:26649879

  12. National health expenditure projections: modest annual growth until coverage expands and economic growth accelerates.

    PubMed

    Keehan, Sean P; Cuckler, Gigi A; Sisko, Andrea M; Madison, Andrew J; Smith, Sheila D; Lizonitz, Joseph M; Poisal, John A; Wolfe, Christian J

    2012-07-01

    For 2011-13, US health spending is projected to grow at 4.0 percent, on average--slightly above the historically low growth rate of 3.8 percent in 2009. Preliminary data suggest that growth in consumers' use of health services remained slow in 2011, and this pattern is expected to continue this year and next. In 2014, health spending growth is expected to accelerate to 7.4 percent as the major coverage expansions from the Affordable Care Act begin. For 2011 through 2021, national health spending is projected to grow at an average rate of 5.7 percent annually, which would be 0.9 percentage point faster than the expected annual increase in the gross domestic product during this period. By 2021, federal, state, and local government health care spending is projected to be nearly 50 percent of national health expenditures, up from 46 percent in 2011, with federal spending accounting for about two-thirds of the total government share. Rising government spending on health care is expected to be driven by faster growth in Medicare enrollment, expanded Medicaid coverage, and the introduction of premium and cost-sharing subsidies for health insurance exchange plans. PMID:22692089

  13. Federal spending on behavioral health accelerated during recession as individuals lost employer insurance.

    PubMed

    Levit, Katharine R; Mark, Tami L; Coffey, Rosanna M; Frankel, Sasha; Santora, Patricia; Vandivort-Warren, Rita; Malone, Kevin

    2013-05-01

    The 2007-09 recession had a dramatic effect on behavioral health spending, with the effect most prominent for private, state, and local payers. During the recession behavioral health spending increased at a 4.6 percent average annual rate, down from 6.1 percent in 2004-07. Average annual growth in private behavioral health spending during the recession slowed to 2.7 percent from 7.2 percent in 2004-07. State and local behavioral health spending showed negative average annual growth, -1.2 percent, during the recession, compared with 3.7 percent increases in 2004-07. In contrast, federal behavioral health spending growth accelerated to 11.1 percent during the recession, up from 7.2 percent in 2004-07. These behavioral health spending trends were driven largely by increased federal spending in Medicaid, declining private insurance enrollment, and severe state budget constraints. An increased federal Medicaid match reduced the state share of Medicaid spending, which prevented more drastic cuts in state-funded behavioral health programs during the recession. Federal Medicaid served as a critical safety net for people with behavioral health treatment needs during the recession. PMID:23650330

  14. Accelerating health equity: the key role of universal health coverage in the Sustainable Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Mills, Anne; Palu, Toomas

    2015-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), to be committed to by Heads of State at the upcoming 2015 United Nations General Assembly, have set much higher and more ambitious health-related goals and targets than did the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The main challenge among MDG off-track countries is the failure to provide and sustain financial access to quality services by communities, especially the poor. Universal health coverage (UHC), one of the SDG health targets indispensable to achieving an improved level and distribution of health, requires a significant increase in government investment in strengthening primary healthcare - the close-to-client service which can result in equitable access. Given the trend of increased fiscal capacity in most developing countries, aiming at long-term progress toward UHC is feasible, if there is political commitment and if focused, effective policies are in place. Trends in high income countries, including an aging population which increases demand for health workers, continue to trigger international migration of health personnel from low and middle income countries. The inspirational SDGs must be matched with redoubled government efforts to strengthen health delivery systems, produce and retain more and relevant health workers, and progressively realize UHC. PMID:25925656

  15. Is age-related decline in lean mass and physical function accelerated by Obstructive Lung Disease or smoking?

    PubMed Central

    van den Borst, Bram; Koster, Annemarie; Yu, Binbing; Gosker, Harry R.; Meibohm, Bernd; Bauer, Douglas C.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Liu, Yongmei; Newman, Anne B.; Harris, Tamara B.; Schols, Annemie M.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Cross-sectional studies suggest that Obstructive Lung Disease (OLD) and smoking affect lean mass and mobility. We aimed to investigate whether OLD and smoking accelerate aging-related decline in lean mass and physical functioning. Methods 260 persons with OLD (FEV1 63±18 %predicted), 157 smoking controls (FEV1 95±16 %predicted), 866 formerly smoking controls (FEV1 100±16 %predicted) and 891 never-smoking controls (FEV1 104±17 %predicted) participating in the Health, Aging and Body Composition (ABC) Study were studied. At baseline, the mean age was 74±3 y and participants reported no functional limitations. Baseline and seven-year longitudinal data were investigated of body composition (by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), muscle strength (by hand and leg dynamometry) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Results Compared to never-smoking controls, OLD persons and smoking controls had a significantly lower weight, fat mass, lean mass and bone mineral content (BMC) at baseline (p<0.05). While the loss of weight, fat mass, lean mass and strength was comparable between OLD persons and never-smoking controls, the SPPB declined 0.12 points/yr faster in OLD men (p=0.01) and BMC 4 g/yr faster in OLD women (p=0.02). In smoking controls, only lean mass declined 0.1 kg/yr faster in women (p=0.03) and BMC 8 g/yr faster in men (p=0.02) compared to never-smoking controls. Conclusions Initially well-functioning older adults with mild-to-moderate OLD and smokers without OLD have a comparable compromised baseline profile of body composition and physical functioning, while seven-year longitudinal trajectories are to a large extent comparable to those observed in never-smokers without OLD. This suggests a common insult earlier in life related to smoking. 3 PMID:21724748

  16. ELSa interventional Portuguese health program to promote physical activity.

    PubMed

    Mourão Carvalhal, Maria Isabel Martins; Fonseca, Sandra; de Castro Coelho, Eduarda Maria Rocha Teles

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the communication was to present the baseline data from incidence of obesity, eating habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, before ELSa, interventional Portuguese health program. The sample was composed of 496 children (238 girls and 258 boys) with an average 7.7 (± 2.5) years of age. Thinness, overweight and obesity were calculated by using the BMI and the cut off of Cole et al., 24 h dietary recalls and a general questionnaire was completed by the parents to provide information about eating habits, sedentary behaviour and physical activity. The results indicated high incidence of overweight and obesity, many hours in screen activities and low level of physical activity. The eating habits seemed healthy, but our children's lifestyles were sedentary. To combat the high incidence of obesity it is very urgent to design a multi-level intervention aimed to modify key behaviours: physical activity, screen time and nutrition. PMID:21923295

  17. Academic affairs and global health: how global health electives can accelerate progress towards ACGME milestones.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Alison Schroth; Jacquet, Gabrielle A; Sanson, Tracy; Mowafi, Hani; Hansoti, Bhakti

    2015-12-01

    Global health electives (GHEs) have become a standard offering in many residency programs. Residency electives should aid residents in achieving outcomes in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competency domains. In this paper, the authors review existing literature and provide expert opinion to highlight how global health electives can complement traditional training programs to assist residents in achieving ACGME milestones, using emergency medicine residency as an example. Recommendations are provided for identifying exemplary global health electives and for the development of institutional global health elective curricula in order to facilitate milestone achievement. Global health electives can advance progress towards ACGME milestones; however, they may vary greatly in terms of potential for learner advancement. Electives should thus be rigorously vetted to ensure they meet standards that will facilitate this process. Given that milestones are a newly introduced tool for assessing resident educational achievement, very little research is available currently to directly determine impacts, and further study will be needed. PMID:26628320

  18. Child Physical Abuse and Adult Mental Health: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S.; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000–2001 and 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16–2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. PMID:22806701

  19. Physical processes at work in sub-30 fs, PW laser pulse-driven plasma accelerators: Towards GeV electron acceleration experiments at CILEX facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, A.; Kalmykov, S. Y.; Davoine, X.; Lifschitz, A.; Shadwick, B. A.; Malka, V.; Specka, A.

    2014-03-01

    Optimal regimes and physical processes at work are identified for the first round of laser wakefield acceleration experiments proposed at a future CILEX facility. The Apollon-10P CILEX laser, delivering fully compressed, near-PW-power pulses of sub-25 fs duration, is well suited for driving electron density wakes in the blowout regime in cm-length gas targets. Early destruction of the pulse (partly due to energy depletion) prevents electrons from reaching dephasing, limiting the energy gain to about 3 GeV. However, the optimal operating regimes, found with reduced and full three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, show high energy efficiency, with about 10% of incident pulse energy transferred to 3 GeV electron bunches with sub-5% energy spread, half-nC charge, and absolutely no low-energy background. This optimal acceleration occurs in 2 cm length plasmas of electron density below 1018 cm-3. Due to their high charge and low phase space volume, these multi-GeV bunches are tailor-made for staged acceleration planned in the framework of the CILEX project. The hallmarks of the optimal regime are electron self-injection at the early stage of laser pulse propagation, stable self-guiding of the pulse through the entire acceleration process, and no need for an external plasma channel. With the initial focal spot closely matched for the nonlinear self-guiding, the laser pulse stabilizes transversely within two Rayleigh lengths, preventing subsequent evolution of the accelerating bucket. This dynamics prevents continuous self-injection of background electrons, preserving low phase space volume of the bunch through the plasma. Near the end of propagation, an optical shock builds up in the pulse tail. This neither disrupts pulse propagation nor produces any noticeable low-energy background in the electron spectra, which is in striking contrast with most of existing GeV-scale acceleration experiments.

  20. Marital Psychological and Physical Aggression and Children's Mental and Physical Health: Direct, Mediated, and Moderated Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Cummings, E. Mark; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Elmore-Staton, Lori; Buckhalt, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Relations between marital aggression (psychological and physical) and children's health were examined. Children's emotional insecurity was assessed as a mediator of these relations, with distinctions made between marital aggression against mothers and fathers and ethnicity (African American or European American), socioeconomic status, and child…

  1. Importance of Health-Related Fitness Knowledge to Increasing Physical Activity and Physical Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferkel, Rick C.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Stodden, David F.; Griffin, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is expanding across all ages in the United States. Research has documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) among elementary- through college-aged students. The need for a credible and reliable resource that provides research-based information regarding the importance of HRFK is significant. The purpose…

  2. Behavioral Medicine and the Health of Our Nation: Accelerating Our Impact

    PubMed Central

    Emmons, Karen

    2015-01-01

    A key goal of this paper is to illustrate the impact of behavioral medicine on the factors that influence population health. A second goal is to consider the delicate balance between relevance and excellence as we bring our science to bear on important social and public health problems. If we are to increase the translation of our evidence and accelerate our impact, we must increase our relevance while maintaining excellence in our scientific methods. What are the pressing questions facing those that we would like to use our work, and how we can increase our relevance to theirs? We must work on the marriage of relevance and excellence–use rigorous methodologies, but be flexible in our approach, using study designs and methods that will get rapid yet rigorous answers to the questions that are facing practice and policy settings. We have the tools and the knowledge to impact the health of our nation. PMID:22076696

  3. Physical and Mental Health Correlates of Pregnancy Following Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Jessica R.; Roesch, Scott C.; Parker, Barbara A.; Madlensky, Lisa; Saquib, Nazmus; Newman, Vicky A.; Pierce, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The safety of pregnancy after breast cancer is an important issue for many younger breast cancer survivors and their health care providers. Current research does not indicate that pregnancy negatively affects survival, but the “healthy mother bias,” suggesting that survivors who go on to become pregnant are a self-selected healthier group based on their prognosis, has led to cautious interpretation of these findings. No studies have systematically evaluated the potential for this bias. Methods This nested case-control study includes 81 younger participants from the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living Study (WHEL) (N=3088). Our sample includes 27 cases who had children after breast cancer and 54 controls, matched on age and stage at diagnosis. We used hierarchical linear modeling to accommodate longitudinal data with individuals nested within matched sets (cases and controls). The primary aim was to evaluate the association between summary scores of health and childbearing after breast cancer. Covariates were added for adjustment and to improve model precision. Results Controlling for other variables in the model, physical health scores were not different between cases and controls (B=0.14, p=0.96). Mental health scores were marginally higher among cases (B=6.40, p=0.08), as compared to controls, a difference considered clinically significant. Conclusion This preliminary study did not find evidence of a healthy mother bias based on physical health. However, mental health was 6 points higher (p=0.08) among those who had children, indicating that the role of mental health needs evaluation in future research. Larger studies are needed to verify these findings. PMID:20425779

  4. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1992-01-01

    In the area of solar physics, new calculations of the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone was performed. The original theory developed was corrected by including a new frequency factor describing temporal variations of the turbulent energy spectrum. We have modified the original Stein code by including this new frequency factor, and tested the code extensively. Another possible source of the mechanical energy generated in the solar convective zone is the excitation of magnetic flux tube waves which can carry energy along the tubes far away from the region. The problem as to how efficiently those waves are generated in the Sun was recently solved. The propagation of nonlinear magnetic tube waves in the solar atmosphere was calculated, and mode coupling, shock formation, and heating of the local medium was studied. The wave trapping problems and evaluation of critical frequencies for wave reflection in the solar atmosphere was studied. It was shown that the role played by Alfven waves in the wind accelerations and the coronal hole heating is dominant. Presently, we are performing calculations of wave energy fluxes generated in late-type dwarf stars and studying physical processes responsible for the heating of stellar chromospheres and coronae. In the area of physics of waves, a new analytical approach for studying linear Alfven waves in smoothly nonuniform media was recently developed. This approach is presently being extended to study the propagation of linear and nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in stratified, nonisothermal and solar atmosphere. The Lighthill theory of sound generation to nonisothermal media (with a special temperature distribution) was extended. Energy cascade by nonlinear MHD waves and possible chaos driven by these waves are presently considered.

  5. Health physics considerations in UF{sub 6} handling

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.C.

    1991-12-31

    Uranium is a radioactive substance that emits alpha particles and very small amounts of gamma radiation. Its daughter products emit beta and gamma radiation. In uranium handling operations these are the radiations one must consider. This presentation will review the characteristics of the radiations, the isotopes from which they originate, the growth and decay of the uranium daughter products, and some specific health physics practices dictated by these factors.

  6. Mount Aragats as a stable electron accelerator for atmospheric high-energy physics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, Ashot; Hovsepyan, Gagik; Mnatsakanyan, Eduard

    2016-03-01

    Observation of the numerous thunderstorm ground enhancements (TGEs), i.e., enhanced fluxes of electrons, gamma rays, and neutrons detected by particle detectors located on the Earth's surface and related to the strong thunderstorms above it, helped to establish a new scientific topic—high-energy physics in the atmosphere. Relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) are believed to be a central engine initiating high-energy processes in thunderstorm atmospheres. RREAs observed on Mount Aragats in Armenia during the strongest thunderstorms and simultaneous measurements of TGE electron and gamma-ray energy spectra proved that RREAs are a robust and realistic mechanism for electron acceleration. TGE research facilitates investigations of the long-standing lightning initiation problem. For the last 5 years we were experimenting with the "beams" of "electron accelerators" operating in the thunderclouds above the Aragats research station. Thunderstorms are very frequent above Aragats, peaking in May-June, and almost all of them are accompanied with enhanced particle fluxes. The station is located on a plateau at an altitude 3200 asl near a large lake. Numerous particle detectors and field meters are located in three experimental halls as well as outdoors; the facilities are operated all year round. All relevant information is being gathered, including data on particle fluxes, fields, lightning occurrences, and meteorological conditions. By the example of the huge thunderstorm that took place at Mount Aragats on August 28, 2015, we show that simultaneous detection of all the relevant data allowed us to reveal the temporal pattern of the storm development and to investigate the atmospheric discharges and particle fluxes.

  7. A nuclear physics program at the Rare Isotope Beams Accelerator Facility in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Chang-Bum

    2014-04-15

    This paper outlines the new physics possibilities that fall within the field of nuclear structure and astrophysics based on experiments with radioactive ion beams at the future Rare Isotope Beams Accelerator facility in Korea. This ambitious multi-beam facility has both an Isotope Separation On Line (ISOL) and fragmentation capability to produce rare isotopes beams (RIBs) and will be capable of producing and accelerating beams of wide range mass of nuclides with energies of a few to hundreds MeV per nucleon. The large dynamic range of reaccelerated RIBs will allow the optimization in each nuclear reaction case with respect to cross section and channel opening. The low energy RIBs around Coulomb barrier offer nuclear reactions such as elastic resonance scatterings, one or two particle transfers, Coulomb multiple-excitations, fusion-evaporations, and direct capture reactions for the study of the very neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclides. In contrast, the high energy RIBs produced by in-flight fragmentation with reaccelerated ions from the ISOL enable to explore the study of neutron drip lines in intermediate mass regions. The proposed studies aim at investigating the exotic nuclei near and beyond the nucleon drip lines, and to explore how nuclear many-body systems change in such extreme regions by addressing the following topics: the evolution of shell structure in areas of extreme proton to neutron imbalance; the study of the weak interaction in exotic decay schemes such as beta-delayed two-neutron or two-proton emission; the change of isospin symmetry in isobaric mirror nuclei at the drip lines; two protons or two neutrons radioactivity beyond the drip lines; the role of the continuum states including resonant states above the particle-decay threshold in exotic nuclei; and the effects of nuclear reaction rates triggered by the unbound proton-rich nuclei on nuclear astrophysical processes.

  8. National Survey of Yoga Practitioners: Mental and Physical Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Alyson; Friedmann, Erika; Bevans, Margaret; Thomas, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objectives to describe yoga practice and health characteristics of individuals who practice yoga, and to explore their beliefs regarding the effects of their yoga practice on their health. Design a cross-sectional design with anonymous online surveys Setting 4307 randomly selected individuals from 15 US Iyengar yoga studios (n = 18,160), representing 41 states; 1087 individuals responded, with 1045 (24.3%) surveys completed. Outcome Measures Freiberg Mindfulness Inventory, Mental Health Continuum (subjective well-being), Multi-factor Screener (diet), PROMIS sleep disturbance, fatigue, and social support, International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results Age: 19 to 87 years (M = 51.7 ± 11.7), 84.2% female, 89.2% white, 87.4% well educated (≥ bachelor’s degree). Mean years of yoga practice = 11.4 (± 7.5). BMI = 12.1–49.4 (M = 23.1 ± 3.9). Levels of obesity (4.9%), smoking (2%), and fruit and vegetable consumption (M = 6.1 ± 1.1) were favorable compared to national norms. 60% reported at least one chronic/serious health condition, yet most reported very good (46.3%) or excellent (38.8%) general health. Despite high levels of depression (24.8 %), nearly all were moderately mentally healthy (55.2%) or flourishing (43.8%). Participants agreed yoga improved: energy (84.5%), happiness (86.5%), social relationships (67%), sleep (68.5%), and weight (57.3%), and beliefs did not differ substantially according to race or gender. The more they practiced yoga, whether in years or in amount of class or home practice, the higher their odds of believing yoga improved their health. Conclusions Individuals who practice yoga are not free of health concerns, but most believe their health improved because of yoga. Yoga might be beneficial for a number of populations including elderly women and those with chronic health conditions. PMID:23876562

  9. The promise of exergames as tools to measure physical health

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Exergames are popular video games that combine physical activity with digital gaming. To measure effects of exergame play on physical outcomes and health behaviors, most studies use external measures including accelerometry, indirect calorimetry, heart rate monitors, and written surveys. These measures may reduce external validity by burdening participants during gameplay. Many exergames have the capability to measure activity levels unobtrusively through monitors built into game equipment, and preliminary analysis indicates that exergame measures are significantly correlated with external measures of caloric expenditure, duration of play, and balance. Exergames also have unique capabilities to measure additional data, such as the game challenges, player movement, and levels of performance that affect aerobic activity. Researchers could capitalize on the data collected by the exergame itself, providing an efficient, unobtrusive, comprehensive measure of physical activity during exergame play. PMID:23378860

  10. The promise of exergames as tools to measure physical health.

    PubMed

    Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2011-01-01

    Exergames are popular video games that combine physical activity with digital gaming. To measure effects of exergame play on physical outcomes and health behaviors, most studies use external measures including accelerometry, indirect calorimetry, heart rate monitors, and written surveys. These measures may reduce external validity by burdening participants during gameplay. Many exergames have the capability to measure activity levels unobtrusively through monitors built into game equipment, and preliminary analysis indicates that exergame measures are significantly correlated with external measures of caloric expenditure, duration of play, and balance. Exergames also have unique capabilities to measure additional data, such as the game challenges, player movement, and levels of performance that affect aerobic activity. Researchers could capitalize on the data collected by the exergame itself, providing an efficient, unobtrusive, comprehensive measure of physical activity during exergame play. PMID:23378860

  11. Summary Report of Working Group 3: High Energy Density Physics and Exotic Acceleration Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Shvets, Gennady; Schoessow, Paul

    2006-11-27

    This report summarizes presented results and discussions in the Working Group 3 at the Twelfth Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop in 2006. Presentations on varied topics, such as laser proton acceleration, novel radiation sources, active medium accelerators, and many others, are reviewed, and the status and future directions of research in these areas are summarized.

  12. The Physical and Mental Health of Children in Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    FERRARA, Pietro; ROMANI, Lorenza; BOTTARO, Giorgia; IANNIELLO, Francesca; FABRIZIO, Giovanna Carmela; CHIARETTI, Antonio; ALVARO, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate physical and mental health in children in foster care and comparison with general population. Methods: The study is carried out between September 2011 and April 2012 into nine group homes in Rome. It involved 112 children ranging in age 2–17 years, living in temporary care facilities or institutes. All data came out of clinical history and physical exams, validated by a pediatrician. Such data were being then compared with samples of general population. Results: Significant themes were high percentage of children with psychiatric disorders in foster care (22.3%); high percentage of psychiatric disorders diagnosed immediately while arriving at the foster care (56%); no significant differences in weight, height and BMI between children in foster care and general population; significant differences (P<0.05) for allergy, gastrointestinal diseases and caries between children in foster care and general population. Conclusion: The results suggest that the physical health of children in group homes is no worse than that of children living care in their own homes and that the foster care provides necessary conditions to support the growth of the children and their physical, mental and social needs. PMID:23785675

  13. Operational Radiation Protection in High-Energy Physics Accelerators: Implementation of ALARA in Design and Operation of Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fasso, A.; Rokni, S.; /SLAC

    2011-06-30

    It used to happen often, to us accelerator radiation protection staff, to be asked by a new radiation worker: ?How much dose am I still allowed?? And we smiled looking at the shocked reaction to our answer: ?You are not allowed any dose?. Nowadays, also thanks to improved training programs, this kind of question has become less frequent, but it is still not always easy to convince workers that staying below the exposure limits is not sufficient. After all, radiation is still the only harmful agent for which this is true: for all other risks in everyday life, from road speed limits to concentration of hazardous chemicals in air and water, compliance to regulations is ensured by keeping below a certain value. It appears that a tendency is starting to develop to extend the radiation approach to other pollutants (1), but it will take some time before the new attitude makes it way into national legislations.

  14. Physical Therapy for Musculoskeletal Disorders of Workers: Role of Physical Therapists in Occupational Health.

    PubMed

    Asada, Fuminari; Takano, Kenichiro

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders in workers decrease the productivity of companies and result in socioeconomic losses. Low back pain accounted for approximately 60% of occupational diseases in the past and this is still true at present, making it a major occupational health problem in Japan. Herein, the findings about low back pain are explained as follows: the correlation between imaging examination findings and low back pain is low; psychosocial factors are involved in the onset of low back pain and how it becomes chronic; and improvement of activity is more useful than rest. Furthermore, the advantages of employing physical therapists for improving occupational health are as follows: they can 1) evaluate and intervene ergonomically; 2) provide instructions using a behavioral modification technique based on psychosocial factors; and 3) provide instructions regarding exercise programs considering obstacles to the development of a good exercise habit (painful diseases including osteoarthritis and other diseases such as hypertension and diabetes). In addition, falling, whose incidence has recently been increasing and is an important issue in occupational health, is examined from the aspect of musculoskeletal disorders. The following activities of physical therapists are introduced: the items to be checked during a tour of inspection of a workplace and detailed descriptions of work management and working environment management measures. Physical therapists are rarely involved in studies of low back pain and falling, but their knowledge and skills have been demonstrated to contribute to improving occupational health. PMID:27246149

  15. Current Physical and Mental Health of Former Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; DeFreese, J.D.; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a dearth of research on the current health of former collegiate athletes. Purpose: To examine the current health and related correlates in a cohort of former collegiate athletes who played in a diverse range of men’s and women’s sports with various levels of contact. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Former collegiate athletes (N = 3657) were asked to complete an online questionnaire addressing sports history, medical history, and demographics. The questionnaire also included the Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12), which yielded 2 composite scores for physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) health. The VR-12 PCS and MCS scores were compared with published US normative data using t tests and analyses of variance. Results: Mean PCS and MCS scores of the 797 respondents with complete data (21.9% of target sample; average, 14.5 years since last played collegiate sport) were 53.0 ± 6.1 and 51.7 ± 9.4, respectively. When stratified by age and sex, PCS and MCS scores were similar to normative scores in the United States. Lower PCS scores were associated with sustaining ≥3 concussions, playing in collision sports during college, and sustaining a career-ending injury (all, P < .001). No association was found between concussion and MCS scores (P = .06). Among former collegiate athletes, prevalent medical conditions included anxiety (16.2%), hypercholesterolemia/high cholesterol (10.6%), and depression (10.4%). Additionally, 5.8% screened positive for alcohol dependence, and 5.8% screened positive for disordered eating (eg, binge eating, purging). These findings were more prevalent than those reported by the World Health Organization as representative of the US population. Conversely, there was a lower prevalence of depression, bipolar disorders, and attention deficit disorder, with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD), than in the World Health Organization US population data sample. Conclusion: Former collegiate

  16. Physically and psychologically hazardous jobs and mental health in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Strazdins, Lyndall; Lim, Lynette L.-Y.; Kelly, Matthew; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates associations between hazardous jobs, mental health and wellbeing among Thai adults. In 2005, 87 134 distance-learning students from Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University completed a self-administered questionnaire; at the 2009 follow-up 60 569 again participated. Job characteristics were reported in 2005, psychological distress and life satisfaction were reported in both 2005 and 2009. We derived two composite variables grading psychologically and physically hazardous jobs and reported adjusted odds ratios (AOR) from multivariate logistic regressions. Analyses focused on cohort members in paid work: the total was 62 332 at 2005 baseline and 41 671 at 2009 follow-up. Cross-sectional AORs linking psychologically hazardous jobs to psychological distress ranged from 1.52 (one hazard) to 4.48 (four hazards) for males and a corresponding 1.34–3.76 for females. Similarly AORs for physically hazardous jobs were 1.75 (one hazard) to 2.76 (four or more hazards) for males and 1.70–3.19 for females. A similar magnitude of associations was found between psychologically adverse jobs and low life satisfaction (AORs of 1.34–4.34 among males and 1.18–3.63 among females). Longitudinal analyses confirm these cross-sectional relationships. Thus, significant dose–response associations were found linking hazardous job exposures in 2005 to mental health and wellbeing in 2009. The health impacts of psychologically and physically hazardous jobs in developed, Western countries are equally evident in transitioning Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand. Regulation and monitoring of work conditions will become increasingly important to the health and wellbeing of the Thai workforce. PMID:24218225

  17. Physically and psychologically hazardous jobs and mental health in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Strazdins, Lyndall; Lim, Lynette L-Y; Kelly, Matthew; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates associations between hazardous jobs, mental health and wellbeing among Thai adults. In 2005, 87 134 distance-learning students from Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University completed a self-administered questionnaire; at the 2009 follow-up 60 569 again participated. Job characteristics were reported in 2005, psychological distress and life satisfaction were reported in both 2005 and 2009. We derived two composite variables grading psychologically and physically hazardous jobs and reported adjusted odds ratios (AOR) from multivariate logistic regressions. Analyses focused on cohort members in paid work: the total was 62 332 at 2005 baseline and 41 671 at 2009 follow-up. Cross-sectional AORs linking psychologically hazardous jobs to psychological distress ranged from 1.52 (one hazard) to 4.48 (four hazards) for males and a corresponding 1.34-3.76 for females. Similarly AORs for physically hazardous jobs were 1.75 (one hazard) to 2.76 (four or more hazards) for males and 1.70-3.19 for females. A similar magnitude of associations was found between psychologically adverse jobs and low life satisfaction (AORs of 1.34-4.34 among males and 1.18-3.63 among females). Longitudinal analyses confirm these cross-sectional relationships. Thus, significant dose-response associations were found linking hazardous job exposures in 2005 to mental health and wellbeing in 2009. The health impacts of psychologically and physically hazardous jobs in developed, Western countries are equally evident in transitioning Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand. Regulation and monitoring of work conditions will become increasingly important to the health and wellbeing of the Thai workforce. PMID:24218225

  18. The Coronal Physics Investigator (cpi) Experiment For Iss: A New Vision For Understanding Solar Wind Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, John C.; Janzen, P. H.; Kohl, J. L.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Chandran, B. D. G.; Cranmer, S. R.; Forbes, T. G.; Isenberg, P. A.; Panasyuk, A. V.; van Ballegooijen, A. A.

    2011-05-01

    We propose an Explorer Mission of Opportunity program to develop and operate a large-aperture ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer called the Coronal Physics Investigator (CPI) as an attached International Space Station (ISS) payload. The primary goal of this program is to identify and characterize the physical processes that heat and accelerate the primary and secondary components of the fast and slow solar wind. Also, CPI can make key measurements needed to understand CMEs. CPI is dedicated to high spectral resolution measurements of the off-limb extended corona with far better stray light suppression than can be achieved by a conventional instrument. UVCS/SOHO allowed us to identify what additional measurements need to be made to answer the fundamental questions about how solar wind streams are produced, and CPI's next-generation capabilities were designed specifically to make those measurements. Compared to previous instruments, CPI provides unprecedented sensitivity, a wavelength range extending from 25.7 to 126 nm, higher temporal resolution, and the capability to measure line profiles of He II, N V, Ne VII, Ne VIII, Si VIII, S IX, Ar VIII, Ca IX, and Fe X, never before seen in coronal holes above 1.3 solar radii. CPI will constrain the properties and effects of coronal MHD waves by (1) observing many ions over a large range of charge and mass,(2) providing simultaneous measurements of proton and electron temperatures to probe turbulent dissipation mechanisms, and (3) measuring amplitudes of low-frequency compressive fluctuations. CPI is an internally occulted ultraviolet coronagraph that provides the required high sensitivity without the need for a deployable boom, and with all technically mature hardware including an ICCD detector. A highly experienced Explorer and ISS contractor, L-3 Com Integrated Optical Systems and Com Systems East will provide the tracking and pointing system as well as the instrument, and the integration to the ISS.

  19. Featured Article: Accelerated decline of physical strength in peroxiredoxin-3 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Gang; Wang, Li; Kaifu, Tomonori; Li, Jingmin; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Lianqin

    2016-07-01

    As a member of peroxiredoxin family, peroxiredoxin-3 plays a major role in the control of mitochondrial level of reactive oxygen species. During the breeding of experimental mice, we noticed that the peroxiredoxin-3 knockout mice were listless with aging. In the present study, we compared the swimming exercise performance and oxidative status between peroxiredoxin-3 knockout mice (n = 15) and wild-type littermates (n = 15). At the age of 10 months, the physical strength of peroxiredoxin-3 knockout mice was much lower than the wild-type littermates. Increased oxidative damage and decreased mitochondrial DNA copy number of the animal skeletal muscles were observed in peroxiredoxin-3 knockout mice as compared to that in the wild-type littermates. In addition, we found increased apoptotic cells in the brains of peroxiredoxin-3 knockout mice. Our results suggest that the deficiency of peroxiredoxin-3 induces accelerated oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment, resulting in the decrease of energy supply and cellular activities. Peroxiredoxin-3 might be involved in the inhibition of aging process. PMID:27037278

  20. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents work performed on the generation and physics of acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere. The investigators have incorporated spatial and temporal turbulent energy spectra in a newly corrected version of the Lighthill-Stein theory of acoustic wave generation in order to calculate the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone. The investigators have also revised and improved the treatment of the generation of magnetic flux tube waves, which can carry energy along the tubes far away from the region of their origin, and have calculated the tube energy fluxes for the sun. They also examine the transfer of the wave energy originated in the solar convective zone to the outer atmospheric layers through computation of wave propagation and dissipation in highly nonhomogeneous solar atmosphere. These waves may efficiently heat the solar atmosphere and the heating will be especially significant in the chromospheric network. It is also shown that the role played by Alfven waves in solar wind acceleration and coronal hole heating is dominant. The second part of the project concerned investigation of wave propagation in highly inhomogeneous stellar atmospheres using an approach based on an analytic tool developed by Musielak, Fontenla, and Moore. In addition, a new technique based on Dirac equations has been developed to investigate coupling between different MHD waves propagating in stratified stellar atmospheres.

  1. Assessing positive mental health in people with chronic physical health problems: correlations with socio-demographic variables and physical health status

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A holistic perspective on health implies giving careful consideration to the relationship between physical and mental health. In this regard the present study sought to determine the level of Positive Mental Health (PMH) among people with chronic physical health problems, and to examine the relationship between the observed levels of PMH and both physical health status and socio-demographic variables. Methods The study was based on the Multifactor Model of Positive Mental Health (Lluch, 1999), which comprises six factors: Personal Satisfaction (F1), Prosocial Attitude (F2), Self-control (F3), Autonomy (F4), Problem-solving and Self-actualization (F5), and Interpersonal Relationship Skills (F6). The sample comprised 259 adults with chronic physical health problems who were recruited through a primary care center in the province of Barcelona (Spain). Positive mental health was assessed by means of the Positive Mental Health Questionnaire (Lluch, 1999). Results Levels of PMH differed, either on the global scale or on specific factors, in relation to the following variables: age: global PMH scores decreased with age (r=-0.129; p=0.038); b) gender: men scored higher on F1 (t=2.203; p=0.028) and F4 (t=3.182; p=0.002), while women scored higher on F2 (t -3.086; p=0.002) and F6 (t=-2.744; p=0.007); c) number of health conditions: the fewer the number of health problems the higher the PMH score on F5 (r=-0.146; p=0.019); d) daily medication: polymedication patients had lower PMH scores, both globally and on various factors; e) use of analgesics: occasional use of painkillers was associated with higher PMH scores on F1 (t=-2.811; p=0.006). There were no significant differences in global PMH scores according to the type of chronic health condition. The only significant difference in the analysis by factors was that patients with hypertension obtained lower PMH scores on the factor Autonomy (t=2.165; p=0.032). Conclusions Most people with chronic physical health

  2. Physical Health Problems and Environmental Challenges Influence Balancing Behaviour in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Stephanie; Tobalske, Bret; Quinton, Margaret; Springthorpe, Dwight; Szkotnicki, Bill; Wuerbel, Hanno; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    With rising public concern for animal welfare, many major food chains and restaurants are changing their policies, strictly buying their eggs from non-cage producers. However, with the additional space in these cage-free systems to perform natural behaviours and movements comes the risk of injury. We evaluated the ability to maintain balance in adult laying hens with health problems (footpad dermatitis, keel damage, poor wing feather cover; n = 15) using a series of environmental challenges and compared such abilities with those of healthy birds (n = 5). Environmental challenges consisted of visual and spatial constraints, created using a head mask, perch obstacles, and static and swaying perch states. We hypothesized that perch movement, environmental challenges, and diminished physical health would negatively impact perching performance demonstrated as balance (as measured by time spent on perch and by number of falls of the perch) and would require more exaggerated correctional movements. We measured perching stability whereby each bird underwent eight 30-second trials on a static and swaying perch: with and without disrupted vision (head mask), with and without space limitations (obstacles) and combinations thereof. Video recordings (600 Hz) and a three-axis accelerometer/gyroscope (100 Hz) were used to measure the number of jumps/falls, latencies to leave the perch, as well as magnitude and direction of both linear and rotational balance-correcting movements. Laying hens with and without physical health problems, in both challenged and unchallenged environments, managed to perch and remain off the ground. We attribute this capacity to our training of the birds. Environmental challenges and physical state had an effect on the use of accelerations and rotations to stabilize themselves on a perch. Birds with physical health problems performed a higher frequency of rotational corrections to keep the body centered over the perch, whereas, for both health categories

  3. Physical Health Problems and Environmental Challenges Influence Balancing Behaviour in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Stephanie; Tobalske, Bret; Quinton, Margaret; Springthorpe, Dwight; Szkotnicki, Bill; Wuerbel, Hanno; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    With rising public concern for animal welfare, many major food chains and restaurants are changing their policies, strictly buying their eggs from non-cage producers. However, with the additional space in these cage-free systems to perform natural behaviours and movements comes the risk of injury. We evaluated the ability to maintain balance in adult laying hens with health problems (footpad dermatitis, keel damage, poor wing feather cover; n = 15) using a series of environmental challenges and compared such abilities with those of healthy birds (n = 5). Environmental challenges consisted of visual and spatial constraints, created using a head mask, perch obstacles, and static and swaying perch states. We hypothesized that perch movement, environmental challenges, and diminished physical health would negatively impact perching performance demonstrated as balance (as measured by time spent on perch and by number of falls of the perch) and would require more exaggerated correctional movements. We measured perching stability whereby each bird underwent eight 30-second trials on a static and swaying perch: with and without disrupted vision (head mask), with and without space limitations (obstacles) and combinations thereof. Video recordings (600 Hz) and a three-axis accelerometer/gyroscope (100 Hz) were used to measure the number of jumps/falls, latencies to leave the perch, as well as magnitude and direction of both linear and rotational balance-correcting movements. Laying hens with and without physical health problems, in both challenged and unchallenged environments, managed to perch and remain off the ground. We attribute this capacity to our training of the birds. Environmental challenges and physical state had an effect on the use of accelerations and rotations to stabilize themselves on a perch. Birds with physical health problems performed a higher frequency of rotational corrections to keep the body centered over the perch, whereas, for both health categories

  4. Neuropsychological test norms controlled for physical health: does it matter?

    PubMed

    Bergman, Ingvar; Almkvist, Ove

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of physical health on neuropsychological test norms. Medical and neuropsychological data from 118 healthy volunteer controls, aged 26-91 years, were collected during five recruitment occasions. The examinations included a clinical investigation, brain neuroimaging, and a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Test-specific statistical regression-weights for age, education and gender were calculated to establish preliminary test norms. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that control in addition for physical health moved best performance from age 60 to 65 for abstraction; replaced a plateau above age 70 for verbal fluency, with a continued rise in performance; eliminated significant negative influences of age on auditory learning, spatial reasoning and complex copying; reduced them on wordlist recall, psychomotor speed, visual scanning and mental shifting; and slightly reduced negative influences of low education on most verbal tests, several memory tests, and psychomotor speed, indicating rises in normative scores of up to 0.8 SD at age 80 and 0.4 SD at age 60. No differences were found at age 40. Although the sample size is not adequate to be used for normative data, the findings indicate that norms uncontrolled for health overestimate the negative influence of advanced age and low education, implying a risk of drawing false diagnostic conclusions. PMID:25356656

  5. Health status of air force veterans occupationally exposed to herbicides in Vietnam: I. Physical health

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.H.; Michalek, J.E.; Miner, J.C. ); Rahe, A. ); Silva, J. ); Thomas, W.F.; Lustik, M.B.; Grubbs, W.D.; Roegner, R.H. ); Karrison, T.G. ); Williams, D.E. )

    1990-10-10

    The Air Force Health Study is a 20-year comprehensive assessment of the health of Air Force veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam. The study compares the health and noncombat mortality of Ranch Hand veterans with a comparison group of Air Force veterans primarily involved with cargo missions in Southeast Asia but who were not exposed to herbicides. This report summarizes the health of these veterans as determined at the third in a series of physical examinations. Nine hundred ninety-five Ranch Hands and 1,299 comparison subjects attended the second follow-up examination in 1987. The two groups were similar in reported health problems, diagnosed skin conditions, and hepatic, cardiovascular, and immune profiles. Ranch Hands have experienced significantly more basal cell carcinomas than comparison subjects. The two groups were not different with respect to melanoma and systemic cancer.

  6. Evaluation of ‘OpenCL for FPGA’ for Data Acquisition and Acceleration in High Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Srikanth

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the data acquisition and processing needs of High Energy Physics experiments has made it more essential to use FPGAs to meet those needs. However harnessing the capabilities of the FPGAs has been hard for anyone but expert FPGA developers. The arrival of OpenCL with the two major FPGA vendors supporting it, offers an easy software-based approach to taking advantage of FPGAs in applications such as High Energy Physics. OpenCL is a language for using heterogeneous architectures in order to accelerate applications. However, FPGAs are capable of far more than acceleration, hence it is interesting to explore if OpenCL can be used to take advantage of FPGAs for more generic applications. To answer these questions, especially in the context of High Energy Physics, two applications, a DAQ module and an acceleration workload, were tested for implementation with OpenCL on FPGAs2. The challenges on using OpenCL for a DAQ application and their solutions, together with the performance of the OpenCL based acceleration are discussed. Many of the design elements needed to realize a DAQ system in OpenCL already exists, mostly as FPGA vendor extensions, but a small number of elements were found to be missing. For acceleration of OpenCL applications, using FPGAs has become as easy as using GPUs. OpenCL has the potential for a massive gain in productivity and ease of use enabling non FPGA experts to design, debug and maintain the code. Also, FPGA power consumption is much lower than other implementations. This paper describes one of the first attempts to explore the use of OpenCL for applications outside the acceleration workloads.

  7. Mental health starts with physical health: current status and future directions of non-pharmacological interventions to improve physical health in first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Gates, Jesse; Killackey, Eóin; Phillips, Lisa; Álvarez-Jiménez, Mario

    2015-08-01

    People with psychotic disorders have reduced life expectancy compared with the general population. This difference is primarily due to increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease associated with antipsychotic drugs and with modifiable risk factors, including weight gain, low exercise, poor diet, and high prevalence of cigarette smoking. We review non-pharmacological interventions for physical health behaviour in patients with chronic and first-episode psychosis. Our findings suggest that weight loss and attenuation of weight gain are achievable but limited and might not persist beyond the end of an intervention. Evidence for smoking cessation interventions is scarce. The case for early intervention to prevent deterioration of physical health is strong. We propose a framework for development of interventions, which addresses three main factors largely absent in previous research: (1) examination of aetiological factors related to poor physical health, (2) theory-driven interventions that target aetiological factors, and (3) assessment of feasibility. PMID:26249304

  8. Phenomenology of a realistic accelerating universe using only planck-scale physics

    PubMed

    Albrecht; Skordis

    2000-03-01

    Modern data are showing increasing evidence that the Universe is accelerating. So far, all attempts to account for the acceleration have required some fundamental dimensionless quantities to be extremely small. We show how a class of scalar field models (which may emerge naturally from superstring theory) can account for acceleration which starts in the present epoch with all the potential parameters O(1) in Planck units. PMID:11017213

  9. Towards a novel laser-driven method of exotic nuclei extraction-acceleration for fundamental physics and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiuchi, M.; Sakaki, H.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Nishio, K.; Pikuz, T. A.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Orlandi, R.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Sagisaka, A.; Ogura, K.; Kanasaki, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Fukuda, Y.; Koura, H.; Kando, M.; Yamauchi, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kondo, K.; Imai, K.; Nagamiya, S.

    2016-04-01

    A combination of a petawatt laser and nuclear physics techniques can crucially facilitate the measurement of exotic nuclei properties. With numerical simulations and laser-driven experiments we show prospects for the Laser-driven Exotic Nuclei extraction-acceleration method proposed in [M. Nishiuchi et al., Phys, Plasmas 22, 033107 (2015)]: a femtosecond petawatt laser, irradiating a target bombarded by an external ion beam, extracts from the target and accelerates to few GeV highly charged short-lived heavy exotic nuclei created in the target via nuclear reactions.

  10. Women's health-enhancing physical activity and eudaimonic well being.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Leah J; Kowalski, Kent C; Mack, Diane E; Wilson, Philip M; Crocker, Peter R E

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we explored the role of health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA; Miilunpalo, 2001) in women's eudaimonic well being (i.e., psychological flourishing at one's maximal potential; Ryff 1989). We used a quantitative approach (N= 349) to explore the relationship between HEPA and eudaimonic well being. While HEPA was not related to eudaimonic well being, experiencing eudaimonia through HEPA contributed unique variance in eudaimonic well being beyond HEPA and experiencing hedonia through HEPA. As quality of activity was more important than quantity, a qualitative component (N = 10) provided further insight on if and how HEPA contributes to women's eudaimonic well being. Participants supported HEPA in fulfilling their potential through goal setting/striving providing bonding experiences, allowing for self-reflection, and developing a physical/able body. PMID:22978195

  11. Environmental and Community Health: Individualized Health Incentive Program Modules for Physically Disabled Students for Grades Kindergarten Through Twelve. Teacher's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reggio, Kathryn D.; And Others

    The fourth in a series of health education modules for physically handicapped students (grades K-12) centers on environmental and community health. Considered in an introductory section are definitions and descriptions of nine types of physical disabilities, and reviewed are learning activities in environmental and community health at The Human…

  12. Health benefits of physical activity during pregnancy: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Lanay M; Owe, Katrine M; Mottola, Michelle F; Pivarnik, James M

    2013-02-01

    While early studies on the effects of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) during pregnancy were concerned about possible harm to the mother or fetus, these fears have not been substantiated. Instead, a growing body of literature has documented several health benefits related to pregnancy LTPA. The purpose of this article was to synthesize evidence from epidemiological studies conducted in the United States, Canada, and Scandinavia on the benefits of LTPA and exercise during pregnancy with regard to maternal health, pregnancy outcomes, and child health. We focused on studies evaluating relations between pregnancy LTPA and gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders, excessive gestational weight gain, birth weight, timing of delivery, and child body composition. The bulk of evidence supports beneficial effects of pregnancy LTPA on each outcome; however, most previous studies have been observational and used self-reported LTPA at only one or two time points in pregnancy. Limitations of the current knowledge base and suggestions for future research on the health benefits of LTPA during pregnancy are provided. PMID:22895379

  13. Public health experts urge U.S. hospitals to be prepared as Ebola outbreak accelerates.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    With the outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EBD) accelerating in West Africa, public health authorities are urging frontline providers in the United States to be vigilant in questioning patients who present with a suspected infectious disease, and in adhering to infection control practices. Recent travel to West Africa and contact with others who may have been exposed to EVD are key points that need to be covered at triage, say experts. The World Health Organization (WHO) indicates that mortality from the latest outbreak is 55%, although it is as high as 75% in Guinea. Health care workers are particularly vulnerable to EVD, with WHO noting that more than 250 workers in West Africa have contracted EVD and at least 120 have died from the disease. Experts say that one of the greatest times of risk for health care workers is while a patient is at triage because he or she has not yet been placed in isolation precautions. The CDC is recommending that hospitals rigorously apply standard infection control policies at a minimum, and that extra protective equipment may be required when there are body fluids in the patient environment. Hospitals in 27 states have reported dozens of suspected cases of EVD to the CDC, but at press time, none had yet tested positive. PMID:25291835

  14. Possibilities and Pitfalls of a Public Health Agenda for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Mary

    2004-01-01

    The 1996 Surgeon General?s Report (SGR), "Physical Activity and Health," was one of the more significant U.S. Federal documents to outline national priorities for health and physical activity. In this monograph Marlene Tappe and Charlene Burgeson and Stephen Cone remind us that "Physical Activity and Health" was the third in a series of Surgeon…

  15. Promoting Physical and Mental Health among College Students: A Needs Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezyak, Jill; Clark, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an initial needs assessment of physical and mental health behavior among college students to improve understanding of physical and mental health needs among future helping professionals. Method: A sample of 24 undergraduate students was used to provide a description of mental health, physical activity, and healthy eating…

  16. J-PAS: The Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupke, Renato A.; Benitez, Narciso; Moles, Mariano; Sodre, Laerte; Irwin, Jimmy; J-PAS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey (J-PAS) is a narrow band, very wide field Cosmological Survey to be carried out from the Javalambre Astrophysical Observatory in Spain with a dedicated 2.5m telescope and a 4.7deg^2 camera with 1.2Gpix. Starting in 2016, J-PAS will observe 8600 deg^2 of the Northern Sky and measure 0.003(1+z) precision photometric redshifts for nearly 1E08 LRG and ELG galaxies plus several million QSOs, sampling an effective volume of ~14 Gpc^3 up to z = 1.3. J-PAS will also detect and measure the mass of more than a hundred thousand galaxy clusters, setting constrains on Dark Energy which rival those obtained from BAO measurements.The key to the J-PAS potential is its innovative approach the combination of 54 145°A filters, placed 100°A apart, and a multi-degree field of view (FOV) which makes it a powerful "redshift machine", with the survey speed of a 4000 multiplexing low resolution spectrograph, but many times cheaper and much faster to build. Moreover, since the J-PAS camera is equivalent to a very large, 4.7deg^2 "IFU", it will produce a time-resolved, 3D image of the Northern Sky with a very wide range of Astrophysical applications in Galaxy Evolution, the nearby Universe and the study of resolved stellar populations. J-PAS will have a lasting legacy value in many areas of Astrophysics, serving as a fundamental dataset for future Cosmological projects.Here, we present the overall description, status and scientific potential of the survey.

  17. J-PAS: The Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupke, Renato a.; Benitez, Narciso; Moles, Mariano; Sodre, Laerte; J-PAS Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    The Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey (J-PAS) is a narrow band, very wide field Cosmological Survey to be carried out from the Javalambre Astrophysical Observatory in Spain with a dedicated 2.5m telescope and a 4.7deg^2 camera with 1.2Gpix. Starting in 2016, J-PAS will observe 8600 deg^2 of the Northern Sky and measure 0.003(1+z) precision photometric redshifts for nearly 1E08 LRG and ELG galaxies plus several million QSOs, sampling an effective volume of ~14 Gpc^3 up to z = 1.3. J-PAS will also detect and measure the mass of more than a hundred thousand galaxy clusters, setting constrains on Dark Energy which rival those obtained from BAO measurements.The key to the J-PAS potential is its innovative approach the combination of 54 145°A filters, placed 100°A apart, and a multi-degree field of view (FOV) which makes it a powerful “redshift machine”, with the survey speed of a 4000 multiplexing low resolution spectrograph, but many times cheaper and much faster to build. Moreover, since the J-PAS camera is equivalent to a very large, 4.7deg^2 “IFU”, it will produce a time-resolved, 3D image of the Northern Sky with a very wide range of Astrophysical applications in Galaxy Evolution, the nearby Universe and the study of resolved stellar populations. J-PAS will have a lasting legacy value in many areas of Astrophysics, serving as a fundamental dataset for future Cosmological projects.Here, we present the overall description, status and scientific potential of the survey.

  18. Accelerators/decelerators of achieving universal access to sexual and reproductive health services: a case study of Iranian health system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background At the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo, the global community agreed to the goal of achieving universal access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and rights by 2015. This research explores the accelerators and decelerators of achieving universal access to the sexual and reproductive health targets and accordingly makes some suggestions. Method We have critically reviewed the latest national reports and extracted the background data on each SRH indicator. The key stakeholders, both national and international, were visited and interviewed at two sites. A total of 55 in-depth interviews were conducted with religious leaders, policy-makers, senior managers, senior academics, and health care managers. Six focus-group discussions were also held among health care providers. The study was qualitative in nature. Results Obstacles on the road to achieving universal access to SRH can be viewed from two perspectives. One gap exists between current achievements and the targets. The other gap arises due to age, marital status, and residency status. The most recently observed trends in the indicators of the universal access to SRH shows that the achievements in the “unmet need for family planning” have been poor. Unmet need for family planning could directly be translated to unwanted pregnancies and unwanted childbirths; the former calls for sexual education to underserved people, including adolescents; and the latter calls for access to safe abortion. Local religious leaders have not actively attended international goal-setting programs. Therefore, they usually do not presume a positive attitude towards these goals. Such negative attitudes seem to be the most important factors hindering the progress towards universal access to SRH. Lack of international donors to fund for SRH programs is also another barrier. In national levels both state and the society are interactively playing their roles. We have used a

  19. Differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health in Vietnamese and German older adults.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung M; Cihlar, Volker

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health of Vietnamese and German older adults in a community dwelling. The Vietnamese sample was a random sample of 96 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 to 80 years; 50 % were women. Education is 0 % less than 5 years, 23.95 % 5 to 9 years, 47.91 % 10 to 12 years, and 28.12 % more than 12 years. The German sample was a random sample of 159 community-dwelling persons aged 59 to 90 years; 79.8 % were women. Education is 1.25 % less than 5 years, 40.25 % 5 to 9 years, 38.84 % 10 to 12 years, and 21.38 % more than 12 years. Senior Fitness Test and Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures. The Vietnamese sample shows significantly higher performance levels in motor abilities, i.e., aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. The Vietnamese sample indicates a lower difference in performance levels between age groups than the German sample. No differences in subjectively rated physical health factors were found. The higher performance levels of the Vietnamese sample might reflect a more active lifestyle throughout the life span, especially in socially mediated domains like living arrangements or labor work. Lower performance levels in the studied age groups of the German sample might lead to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and proneness of falls. A more active lifestyle after retirement could contribute to a healthier, more capable, and more independent individual and collective aging. Subjectively rated health stated is a culturally mitigated domain and therefore might be independent of actual physical fitness levels. PMID:23666598

  20. Seeking Health Information Online: Association With Young Australian Women’s Physical, Mental, and Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Loxton, Deborah; Dobson, Annette; Mishra, Gita Devi

    2015-01-01

    Background Relatively little is known about the extent to which young adults use the Internet as a health information resource and whether there are factors that distinguish between those who do and do not go online for health information. Objective The aim was to identify the sociodemographic, physical, mental, and reproductive health factors associated with young women’s use of the Internet for health information. Methods We used data from 17,069 young women aged 18-23 years who participated in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between sociodemographic, physical, mental, and reproductive health factors associated with searching the Internet for health information. Results Overall, 43.54% (7433/17,069) of women used the Internet for health information. Women who used the Internet had higher odds of regular urinary or bowel symptoms (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.36-1.54), psychological distress (very high distress: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13-1.37), self-reported mental health diagnoses (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.09-1.23), and menstrual symptoms (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.15-1.36) than women who did not use the Internet for health information. Internet users were less likely to have had blood pressure checks (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.78-0.93) and skin cancer checks (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84-0.97) and to have had a live birth (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.64-0.86) or pregnancy loss (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.98) than non-Internet users. Conclusions Women experiencing “stigmatized” conditions or symptoms were more likely to search the Internet for health information. The Internet may be an acceptable resource that offers “anonymized” information or support to young women and this has important implications for health service providers and public health policy. PMID:25986630

  1. Improving documentation of physical health investigations in an adolescent mental health inpatient unit.

    PubMed

    Horton, David

    2015-01-01

    Physical health investigations, such as blood tests, ECGs, and appropriate radiological tests, are essential in the assessment and management of many patients in inpatient mental health settings. This project took place in a 12-bed adolescent mental health unit in Swindon, UK, where on average at least two-thirds of patients have a diagnosed eating disorder. Multidisciplinary ward rounds provide an appropriate setting for discussion and documentation of physical investigations. Over a two-week period, 22 electronic ward round entries were audited for any documentation of five common investigations - blood tests, ECG, MRI head, DEXA, and ovarian ultrasound. Blood tests were documented in 2/22 (9.1%), ECG, MRI head, DEXA, and ovarian ultrasound were documented in 0/22 (0%). Modifications were made to an electronic ward round template, to include headings for each of these investigations, with free-text boxes as well as drop-down boxes for the radiological tests. Following this, re-audit of 22 ward round entries over a two-week period showed documentation had hugely improved - blood tests were documented in 21/22 (95.5%), with ECG, MRI head, DEXA, and pelvis US all documented in 22/22 (100%). A further audit a month later showed these results were largely sustained. In conclusion, use of a simple, structured ward round template can hugely improve documentation of important physical investigations within mental health settings. PMID:26734411

  2. Improving documentation of physical health investigations in an adolescent mental health inpatient unit

    PubMed Central

    Horton, David

    2015-01-01

    Physical health investigations, such as blood tests, ECGs, and appropriate radiological tests, are essential in the assessment and management of many patients in inpatient mental health settings. This project took place in a 12-bed adolescent mental health unit in Swindon, UK, where on average at least two-thirds of patients have a diagnosed eating disorder. Multidisciplinary ward rounds provide an appropriate setting for discussion and documentation of physical investigations. Over a two-week period, 22 electronic ward round entries were audited for any documentation of five common investigations - blood tests, ECG, MRI head, DEXA, and ovarian ultrasound. Blood tests were documented in 2/22 (9.1%), ECG, MRI head, DEXA, and ovarian ultrasound were documented in 0/22 (0%). Modifications were made to an electronic ward round template, to include headings for each of these investigations, with free-text boxes as well as drop-down boxes for the radiological tests. Following this, re-audit of 22 ward round entries over a two-week period showed documentation had hugely improved - blood tests were documented in 21/22 (95.5%), with ECG, MRI head, DEXA, and pelvis US all documented in 22/22 (100%). A further audit a month later showed these results were largely sustained. In conclusion, use of a simple, structured ward round template can hugely improve documentation of important physical investigations within mental health settings. PMID:26734411

  3. Physical activity and health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Ching; Malina, Robert M

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between physical activity and health-related physical fitness was evaluated in 282 Taiwanese adolescents 12-14 years of age. The subjects were randomly selected from the 7th, 8th and 9th grades in two junior high schools in Taiwan. Physical activity was estimated as total daily energy expenditure and energy expenditure in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from 24-hour activity records for three days, two week days and one weekend day. Health-related fitness was assessed as the one-mile run (cardiorespiratory endurance), timed sit-ups (abdominal strength and endurance), sit-and-reach (lower back flexibility), and subcutaneous fatness (sum of the triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, and medial calf skinfolds). Physical activity is significantly and positively correlated with one-mile run performance and the sit-and-reach, but not with sit-ups and subcutaneous fatness. Overall, the strength of the relationships between estimated energy expenditure and specific fitness items in the total sample vary from low to moderate, with only 1% to 12% of the variance in fitness variables being explained by estimated energy expenditure. Comparisons of active versus inactive, and fit versus unfit adolescents provide additional insights. The more active (highest quartile) are also more fit in cardiorespiratory endurance and in the sit-and-reach than the less active (lowest quartile), and the more fit in the one-mile run (better time, lowest quartile) and the sit-and-reach (highest quartile) are more active than the less fit in each item, respectively. PMID:11938605

  4. Early-Life Adversity and Physical and Emotional Health Across the Lifespan: A Neuroimmune Network Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Nusslock, Robin; Miller, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    Children who experience chronic stressors are vulnerable to emotional and physical health problems across the lifespan. This phenomenon raises questions for scientists and clinicians alike. How does adversity get under the skin of the developing child? Through what mechanisms does it confer vulnerability to a heterogeneous set of mental and physical illnesses? And how does it instantiate risk across different life stages, engendering vulnerability to conditions that develop shortly after stressor exposure-like depression-and conditions that manifest decades later, like heart disease? Although answers to these questions have started to emerge, research has typically focused on single diseases or organ systems. To understand the plethora of health problems associated with childhood adversity, we argue that the field needs a second generation of research that recognizes multidirectional transactions among biological systems. To help facilitate this process, we propose a neuroimmune network hypothesis as a heuristic framework for organizing knowledge from disparate literatures and as a springboard for generating integrative research. Drawing on existing data, we argue that early-life adversity amplifies crosstalk between peripheral inflammation and neural circuitries subserving threat-related, reward-related, and executive control-related processes. This crosstalk results in chronic low-grade inflammation, thereby contributing to adiposity, insulin resistance, and other predisease states. In the brain, inflammatory mediators act on cortico-amygdala threat and cortico-basal ganglia reward, circuitries in a manner that predisposes individuals to self-medicating behaviors like smoking, drug use, and consumption of high-fat diets. Acting in concert with inflammation, these behaviors accelerate the pathogenesis of emotional and physical health problems. PMID:26166230

  5. Managing the physics of the economics of integrated health care.

    PubMed

    Zismer, Daniel K; Werner, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    The physics metaphor, as applied to the economics (and financial performance) of the integrated health system, seems appropriate when considered together with the nine principles of management framework provided. The nature of the integrated design enhances leaders' management potential as they consider organizational operations and strategy in the markets ahead. One question begged by this argument for the integrated design is the durability, efficiency and ultimate long-term survivability of the more "traditional" community health care delivery models, which, by design, are fragmented, internally competitive and less capital efficient. They also cannot exploit the leverage of teams, optimal access management or the pursuit of revenues made available in many forms. For those who wish to move from the traditional to the more integrated community health system designs (especially those who have not yet started the journey), the path requires: * Sufficient balance sheet capacity to fund the integration process-especially as the model requires physician practice acquisitions and electronic health record implementations * A well-prepared board13, 14 * A functional, durable and sustainable physician services enterprise design * A redesigned organizational and governance structure * Favorable internal financial incentives alignment design * Effective accountable physician leadership * Awareness that the system is not solely a funding strategy for acquired physicians, rather a fully -.. committed clinical and business model, one in which patient-centered integrated care is the core service (and not acute care hospital-based services) A willingness to create and exploit the implied and inherent potential of an integrated design and unified brand Last, it's important to remember that an integrated health system is a tool that creates a "new potential" (a physics metaphor reference, one last time). The design doesn't operate itself. Application of the management principles

  6. Accelerator System Model (ASM) user manual with physics and engineering model documentation. ASM version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    The Accelerator System Model (ASM) is a computer program developed to model proton radiofrequency accelerators and to carry out system level trade studies. The ASM FORTRAN subroutines are incorporated into an intuitive graphical user interface which provides for the {open_quotes}construction{close_quotes} of the accelerator in a window on the computer screen. The interface is based on the Shell for Particle Accelerator Related Codes (SPARC) software technology written for the Macintosh operating system in the C programming language. This User Manual describes the operation and use of the ASM application within the SPARC interface. The Appendix provides a detailed description of the physics and engineering models used in ASM. ASM Version 1.0 is joint project of G. H. Gillespie Associates, Inc. and the Accelerator Technology (AT) Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Neither the ASM Version 1.0 software nor this ASM Documentation may be reproduced without the expressed written consent of both the Los Alamos National Laboratory and G. H. Gillespie Associates, Inc.

  7. International Students: A Comparison of Health Status and Physical Health before and after Coming to the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msengi, Clementine M.; Msengi, Israel G.; Harris, Sandra; Hopson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the health status and physical health of international students at five American universities. International students in the United States were asked to compare the status of their health before and after coming to the United States. Findings suggested that health status of international students declined…

  8. Accelerator mass spectrometry of strontium-90 for homeland security, environmental monitoring and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumey, Scott J.; Brown, Thomas A.; Hamilton, Terry E.; Hillegonds, Darren J.

    2008-05-01

    Strontium-90 is one of the most hazardous materials managed by agencies charged with protecting the public from radiation. Traditional radiometric methods have been limited by low sample throughput and slow turnaround times. Mass spectrometry offers the advantage of shorter analysis times and the ability to measure samples immediately after processing, however conventional mass spectrometric techniques are susceptible to molecular isobaric interferences that limit their overall sensitivity. In contrast, accelerator mass spectrometry is insensitive to molecular interferences and we have therefore begun developing a method for determination of 90Sr by accelerator mass spectrometry. Despite a pervasive interference from 90Zr, our initial development has yielded an instrumental background of ∼108 atoms (75 mBq) per sample. Further refinement of our system (e.g. redesign of our detector, use of alternative target materials) is expected to push the background below 106 atoms, close to the theoretical limit for AMS. Once we have refined our system and developed suitable sample preparation protocols, we will utilize our capability in applications to homeland security, environmental monitoring and human health.

  9. Accelerator mass spectrometry of Strontium-90 for homeland security, environmental monitoring, and human health

    SciTech Connect

    Tumey, S J; Brown, T A; Hamilton, T F; Hillegonds, D J

    2008-03-03

    Strontium-90 is one of the most hazardous materials managed by agencies charged with protecting the public from radiation. Traditional radiometric methods have been limited by low sample throughput and slow turnaround times. Mass spectrometry offers the advantage of shorter analysis times and the ability to measure samples immediately after processing, however conventional mass spectrometric techniques are susceptible to molecular isobaric interferences that limit their overall sensitivity. In contrast, accelerator mass spectrometry is insensitive to molecular interferences and we have therefore begun developing a method for determination of {sup 90}Sr by accelerator mass spectrometry. Despite a pervasive interference from {sup 90}Zr, our initial development has yielded an instrumental background of {approx} 10{sup 8} atoms (75 mBq) per sample. Further refinement of our system (e.g., redesign of our detector, use of alternative target materials) is expected to push the background below 10{sup 6} atoms, close to the theoretical limit for AMS. Once we have refined our system and developed suitable sample preparation protocols, we will utilize our capability in applications to homeland security, environmental monitoring, and human health.

  10. Physical conditions for conducting radiobiological experiments in beams of accelerated particles with high linear energy transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudryashov, Y. I.; Marennyy, A. M.; Popov, V. I.; Aykhorn, K.; Ertsgreber, G.

    1974-01-01

    The design and construction of an accelerator to conduct radiobiological experiments is reported that uses aluminum filters to control the accelerated ion beam while preserving its stability, and a vacuum chamber to conduct the ion beam with the help of a collector through a lavsan exit port to the target. Depth distribution of the absorbed dose from a monodirectional ion beam is practically completely represented by the change in the energy spectrum of the biological object.

  11. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  12. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stygar, W. A.; Awe, T. J.; Bailey, J. E.; Bennett, N. L.; Breden, E. W.; Campbell, E. M.; Clark, R. E.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Ennis, J. B.; Fehl, D. L.; Genoni, T. C.; Gomez, M. R.; Greiser, G. W.; Gruner, F. R.; Herrmann, M. C.; Hutsel, B. T.; Jennings, C. A.; Jobe, D. O.; Jones, B. M.; Jones, M. C.; Jones, P. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Lash, J. S.; LeChien, K. R.; Leckbee, J. J.; Leeper, R. J.; Lewis, S. A.; Long, F. W.; Lucero, D. J.; Madrid, E. A.; Martin, M. R.; Matzen, M. K.; Mazarakis, M. G.; McBride, R. D.; McKee, G. R.; Miller, C. L.; Moore, J. K.; Mostrom, C. B.; Mulville, T. D.; Peterson, K. J.; Porter, J. L.; Reisman, D. B.; Rochau, G. A.; Rochau, G. E.; Rose, D. V.; Rovang, D. C.; Savage, M. E.; Sceiford, M. E.; Schmit, P. F.; Schneider, R. F.; Schwarz, J.; Sefkow, A. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Spielman, R. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Thoma, C.; Vesey, R. A.; Wakeland, P. E.; Welch, D. R.; Wisher, M. L.; Woodworth, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    We have developed conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators: Z 300 and Z 800. The designs are based on an accelerator architecture that is founded on two concepts: single-stage electrical-pulse compression and impedance matching [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 030401 (2007)]. The prime power source of each machine consists of 90 linear-transformer-driver (LTD) modules. Each module comprises LTD cavities connected electrically in series, each of which is powered by 5-GW LTD bricks connected electrically in parallel. (A brick comprises a single switch and two capacitors in series.) Six water-insulated radial-transmission-line impedance transformers transport the power generated by the modules to a six-level vacuum-insulator stack. The stack serves as the accelerator's water-vacuum interface. The stack is connected to six conical outer magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs), which are joined in parallel at a 10-cm radius by a triple-post-hole vacuum convolute. The convolute sums the electrical currents at the outputs of the six outer MITLs, and delivers the combined current to a single short inner MITL. The inner MITL transmits the combined current to the accelerator's physics-package load. Z 300 is 35 m in diameter and stores 48 MJ of electrical energy in its LTD capacitors. The accelerator generates 320 TW of electrical power at the output of the LTD system, and delivers 48 MA in 154 ns to a magnetized-liner inertial-fusion (MagLIF) target [Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF target is 870 TW, which is the highest power throughout the accelerator. Power amplification is accomplished by the centrally located vacuum section, which serves as an intermediate inductive-energy-storage device. The principal goal of Z 300 is to achieve thermonuclear ignition; i.e., a fusion yield that exceeds the energy transmitted by the accelerator to the liner. 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations

  13. 2004 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU Transparency Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R

    2005-04-01

    During the 2004 calendar year, LLNL provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Implementation Program (HEU-TIP) in external and internal radiation protection and technical expertise into matters related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2004, there were 200 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 200 person-trips, 183 person-trips were SMVs and 17 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. Eight person-trips from the SMV trips were continuation trips of TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIP. The LLNL Safety Laboratories' Division provided the dosimetry services for the HEU-TIP monitors.

  14. 2005 Annual Health Physics Report for HEU Transparency Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R

    2006-04-21

    During the 2005 calendar year, LLNL provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Program (HEU-TP) in external and internal radiation protection and technical expertise into matters related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2005, there were 161 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 161 person-trips, 149 person-trips were SMVs and 12 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. Additionally, there were 11 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 3 to UEIE itself. There were two monitoring visits (source changes) that were back to back with 16 monitors. Each of these concurring visits were treated as single person-trips for dosimetry purposes. Counted individually, there were 191 individual person-visits in 2005. The LLNL Safety Laboratories Division provided the dosimetry services for the HEU-TP monitors.

  15. 2007 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU Transparency Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R

    2008-04-09

    During the 2007 calendar year, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program for external and internal radiation protection and technical expertise related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2007, there were 172 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 172 person-trips, 160 person-trips were SMVs and 12 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. There were 12 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 10 to UEIE itself. There were two monitoring visits (source changes) that were back to back with 14 monitors. LLNL's Hazard Control Division laboratories provided the dosimetry services for the HEU Transparency monitors.

  16. Health physics aspects of processing EBR-I coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, L.L.; Thalgott, J.O.; Poston, J.W. Jr.

    1998-12-31

    The sodium-potassium reactor coolant removed from the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One after a partial reactor core meltdown had been stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for 40 years. The State of Idaho considered this waste the most hazardous waste stored in the state and required its processing. The reactor coolant was processed in three phases. The first phase converted the alkali metal into a liquid sodium-potassium hydroxide. The second phase converted this caustic to a liquid sodium-potassium carbonate. The third phase solidified the sodium-potassium carbonate into a form acceptable for land disposal. Health physics aspects and dose received during each phase of the processing are discussed.

  17. Young People's Perceptions of Mental and Physical Health in the Context of General Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singletary, Joanne H.; Bartle, Craig L.; Svirydzenka, Nadzeya; Suter-Giorgini, Nicola M.; Cashmore, Annette M.; Dogra, Nisha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Increased recognition of the need for health education in schools has seen advances in health literacy in recent years. Most of these have focussed on physical health, whereas education about mental health is generally lacking and focussed on tackling stigma rather than promoting good mental health. This study evaluated a pilot…

  18. How attempts to meet others' unrealistic expectations affect health: health-promoting behaviours as a mediator between perfectionism and physical health.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Fleur; Craddock, Alan E

    2016-01-01

    The traits of perfectionism have been associated with health and longevity. Theoretically and empirically, health behaviours are considered a primary mechanism through which such associations of personality and health occur. However, scant evidence to date indicates behaviours did not mediate between perfectionism and health as anticipated. The aim of the current research was therefore to rigorously examine whether health behaviours mediated associations of perfectionism and physical health-related quality of life (HRQL). A sample of 263 students completed questionnaires measuring subtypes of perfectionism, HRQL, self-efficacy and health-promoting behaviours. Hierarchical regression analyses investigated predictors of physical HRQL and health-promoting behaviours. Non-parametric bootstrapping techniques assessed whether health-promoting behaviours mediated significant associations between perfectionism and physical HRQL. Socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) significantly predicted poorer physical HRQL, and this association was mediated by health-promoting behaviours, a unique finding. Self-oriented perfectionism did not significantly predict physical HRQL, but was linked with more numerous health-promoting behaviours. In conclusion, results suggest that individuals higher in SPP, who are overly concerned with evaluation by others and with meeting perceived unrealistically high standards of performance, performed fewer health-promoting behaviours, and this mediated the association between SPP and poorer physical HRQL. More broadly, perfectionism predicted physical HRQL and engagement or lack thereof in health-promoting behaviours and should be considered as part of health promotion strategies. PMID:26167729

  19. 2011 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU transparency Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R

    2012-04-30

    During the 2008 calendar year, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program for external and internal radiation protection. They also provided technical expertise related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2008, there were 158 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 158 person-trips, 148 person-trips were SMVs and 10 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. There were 6 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 8 to UEIE itself. There were three monitoring visits (source changes) that were back-to-back with a total of 24 monitors. LLNL's Hazard Control Department laboratories provided the dosimetry services for the HEU Transparency monitors. In 2008, the HEU Transparency activities in Russia were conducted in a radiologically safe manner for the HEU Transparency monitors in accordance with the expectations of the HEU Transparency staff, NNSA and DOE. The HEU Transparency now has thirteen years of successful experience in developing and providing health and safety support in meeting its technical objectives.

  20. 2009 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU Transparency Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R

    2010-04-14

    During the 2009 calendar year, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program for external and internal radiation protection. LLNL also provided technical expertise related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2009, there were 159 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 159 person-trips, 149 person-trips were SMVs and 10 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. There were 4 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 10 to UEIE itself. LLNL's Hazard Control Department laboratories provided the dosimetry services for the HEU Transparency monitors. In 2009, the HEU Transparency activities in Russia were conducted in a radiologically safe manner for the HEU Transparency monitors in accordance with the expectations of the HEU Transparency staff, NNSA and DOE. The HEU Transparency Program now has over fifteen years of successful experience in developing and providing health and safety support in meeting its technical objectives.

  1. [Physical activities and sport; implications for health and society].

    PubMed

    Bazex, Jacques; Pène, Pierre; Rivière, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    The practice of physical and sporting activities (PSA) throughout life is now known to increase healthy life expectancy, to delay the onset of dependency, and to be an effective complementary treatment for many disorders, particularly obesity and disability. The notion of a "sedentary death syndrome " [SeDS] has been evoked on the other side of the Atlantic. Although the beneficial effects of PSA have long been known, statistical analyses have only recently confirmed at the group level what was often disputed at the individual level. Knowledge of the impacts of PSA on cellular, tissular and metabolic functions has improved considerably. PSA is no longer seen simply as a leisure activity but is now considered necessary for a healthy body and mind. PSA also has considerable social, educational and integrative implications. Can any society ignore these evident health benefits with impunity? The aims of this article are 1) to provide a quick overview of the advantages of regular, measured and reasonable PSA, as well as the potential risks of excess; 2) to discuss the quantity of PSA providing the optimal balance between benefits and risks, and the means of achieving this balance; 3) to highlight the lack of enthusiasm for PSA among the French population, and to analyze its causes, and 4) to propose a new organization designed to help more of our fellow citizens to adopt PSA, in the interests of their health and well-being. PMID:23815024

  2. Attitudes towards health and physical activity in the elderly. Effects of a physical training program.

    PubMed

    Sidney, K H; Shephard, R J

    1976-01-01

    Attitudes towards physical activity, perceived health, body image, anxiety and life satisfaction have been studied in men and women 60 years of age and older, volunteering for progressive endurance training. Relative to other studies of younger volunteers, the senior citizens placed more value upon activity as "an esthetic experience" and as "a means to health and fitness" showing less interest in "the pursuit of vertigo." Many non-participants and "drop-outs" perceived their current fitness as satisfactory. Subjects who selected a low frequency and low intensity of training were obese, with high Cornell Medical Index (CMI) scores on both organic and psychological scales. After 14 weeks of conditioning, 83% of subjects reported improvements in well-being. However, CMI scores were reduced on only one of twelve organic scales and none of the behavior, mood and feeling scales. Neugarten's Life Satisfaction Index, Kenyon's Body Image scales, and McPherson's the Real Me scores remained unchanged, but there was a decrease of Manifest Anxiety (Taylor scale) and a greater regard for physical activity as "the relief of tension." When subjects were classed according to changes in aerobic power, between group differences were found for "Real Me" scores and for three of Kenyon's attitude scales. Persons who trained frequently and intensively showed improvements for body image and for five of Kenyon's attitude scales. PMID:1011965

  3. Attitudes towards health and physical activity in the elderly. Effects of a physical training program.

    PubMed

    Sidney, K H; Shephard, R J

    1976-01-01

    Attitudes towards physical activity, perceived health, body image, anxiety and life satisfaction have been studied in men and women 60 years of age and older, volunteering for progressive endurance training. Relative to other studies of younger volunteers, the senior citizens placed more value upon activity as "an esthetic experience" and as "a means to health and fitness" showing less interest in "the pursuit of vertigo." Many non-participants and "drop-outs" perceived their current fitness as satisfactory. Subjects who selected a low frequency and low intensity of training were obese, with high Cornell Medical Index (CMI) scores on both organic and psychological scales. After 14 weeks of conditioning, 83% of subjects reported improvements in well-being. However, CMI scores were reduced on only one of twelve organic scales and none of the behavior, mood and feeling scales. Neugarten's Life Satisfaction Index, Kenyon's Body Image scales, and McPherson's the Real Me scores remained unchanged, but there was a decrease of Manifest Anxiety (Taylor scale) and a greater regard of physical activity as "the relief of tension." When subjects were classed according to changes in aerobic power, between group differences were found for "Real Me" scores and for three of Kenyon's attitude scales. Persons who trained frequently and intensively showed improvements for body image and for five of Kenyon's attitude scales. PMID:1011964

  4. The impact of social support on mental and physical health.

    PubMed

    Ganster, D C; Victor, B

    1988-03-01

    Early research on life-stress grappled with the question of whether significant life-events bring about changes in health status. The emphasis has now shifted to the identification of factors that explain why some people seem to be so severely affected by life's adversities and others are not. From a class of what might be called 'vulnerability variables' (Kessler, 1979), support from one's social network has emerged as a significant factor that can account for at least some of the vulnerability differences between groups of stressed individuals. Since Cassel's (1974) review of the evidence linking social upheavals to adverse health consequences for both humans and animals, hundreds of empirical studies have been completed that assess the direct and indirect effects of social support on mental and physical health. This literature is so voluminous as to require several books devoted to reviews of various aspects of it (e.g. Cohen & Syme, 1985; Gottlieb, 1981; and Gottlieb, 1983). In this paper we will distil these as well as highlight some of the recent empirical developments, particularly in those areas that have received less attention in prior reviews. Social support has been defined as the presence of others, or the resources provided by them, prior to, during, and following a stressful event. While there is no general agreement on a single definition, the variety has spawned a number of typologies attempting to organize the literature (e.g. Cohen & Syme, 1985; Cohen & Wills, 1985; Gottlieb, 1983; House & Kahn, 1985). Most of these typologies initially distinguish between functional and structural operationalizations of social support. PMID:3282536

  5. Self-reported physical health of inmates: Impact of incarceration and relation to optimism

    PubMed Central

    Heigel, Caron P.; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Tangney, June P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between inmates’ physical health concerns and optimism. Optimism has been consistently associated with physical health in community samples, but little research has examined this potentially malleable variable in an inmate population. This study of 502 male and female jail inmates attempts to bridge this gap. Results showed optimism was negatively associated with physical health concerns upon entry to jail and prior to release or transfer. Additionally, optimism assessed upon entry to jail predicted modest decreases in physical health concerns over incarceration. Results suggest that optimism is a health-related variable that may be beneficial when optimism-increasing components are integrated into treatment. PMID:20339128

  6. The relationships between posttraumatic stress disorder severity, depression severity and physical health.

    PubMed

    Rytwinski, Nina K; Avena, Jennifer S; Echiverri-Cohen, Aileen M; Zoellner, Lori A; Feeny, Norah C

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the relationship among posttraumatic stress disorder severity, depression severity, and subjective and objective physical health in a sample of 200 adults with posttraumatic stress disorder. Posttraumatic stress disorder severity was correlated with subjective, but not objective, health. Similarly, depression symptoms had an indirect effect on the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity and three measures of subjective physical health. Finally, depression symptoms had an indirect effect on the relationship between both reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms and subjective physical health. This research underscores the important role that posttraumatic stress disorder, particularly reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms, and depression may have on perceptions of physical health. PMID:23449677

  7. The relationships between posttraumatic stress disorder severity, depression severity and physical health

    PubMed Central

    Rytwinski, Nina K; Avena, Jennifer S; Echiverri-Cohen, Aileen M; Zoellner, Lori A; Feeny, Norah C

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship among posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity, depression severity, and subjective and objective physical health in a sample of 200 adults with PTSD. PTSD severity was correlated with subjective, but not objective, health. Similarly, depression symptoms had an indirect effect on the relationship between PTSD symptom severity and three measures of subjective physical health. Finally, depression symptoms had an indirect effect on the relationship between both reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms and subjective physical health. This research underscores the important role that PTSD, particularly reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms, and depression may have on perceptions of physical health. PMID:23449677

  8. Self-reported physical health of inmates: impact of incarceration and relation to optimism.

    PubMed

    Heigel, Caron P; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Tangney, June P

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between inmates' physical health concerns and optimism. Optimism has been consistently associated with physical health in community samples, but little research has examined this potentially malleable variable in an inmate population. This study of 501 male and female jail inmates attempts to bridge this gap. Results showed optimism was negatively associated with physical health concerns upon entry to jail and prior to release or transfer. Additionally, optimism assessed upon entry to jail predicted modest decreases in physical health concerns over incarceration. Results suggest that optimism is a health-related variable that may be beneficial when optimism-increasing components are integrated into treatment. PMID:20339128

  9. Conceptual design project: Accelerator complex for nuclear physics studies and boron neutron capture therapy application at the Yerevan Physics Institute (YerPhI) Yerevan, Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avagyan, R. H.; Kerobyan, I. A.

    2015-07-01

    The final goal of the proposed project is the creation of a Complex of Accelerator Facilities at the Yerevan Physics Institute (CAF YerPhI) for nuclear physics basic researches, as well as for applied programs including boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The CAF will include the following facilities: Cyclotron C70, heavy material (uranium) target/ion source, mass-separator, LINAC1 (0.15-1.5 MeV/u) and LINAC2 (1.5-10 MeV/u). The delivered by C70 proton beams with energy 70 MeV will be used for investigations in the field of basic nuclear physics and with energy 30 MeV for use in applications.

  10. Algorithmic Skin: Health-Tracking Technologies, Personal Analytics and the Biopedagogies of Digitized Health and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of digitized health and physical education, or "eHPE", embeds software algorithms in the organization of health and physical education pedagogies. Particularly with the emergence of wearable and mobile activity trackers, biosensors and personal analytics apps, algorithmic processes have an increasingly powerful part to play…

  11. Constructing Health and Physical Education Curriculum for Indigenous Girls in a Remote Australian Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatman, Susan L.; Singh, Parlo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over the last 20 years, curriculum development in Health and Physical Education (HPE) (or Physical Education, Physical Education and Health, Sport Education as it is variously called) has repeatedly attempted to address issues of equity and social inclusion. Why then does systemic educational disadvantage persist, and why do the…

  12. Physical and Mental Health of Mothers Caring for a Child with Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurvick, Crystal L.; Msall, Michael E.; Silburn, Sven; Bower, Carol; de Klerk, Nicholas; Leonard, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Our goal was to investigate the physical and mental health of mothers who care for a child with Rett syndrome. Methods: We assessed maternal physical and mental health by using the SF-12 version 1 physical component summary and mental component summary scores as the outcome measures of interest. Mothers (n = 135) of children with Rett…

  13. A Treasure Trove of Physics from a Common Source-Automobile Acceleration Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graney, Christopher M.

    2005-11-01

    What is better than interesting, challenging physics with good data free for the taking to which everyone can relate? That's what is available to anyone who digs into the reams of automobile performance tests that have been available in popular magazines since the 1950s. Opportunities to do and teach interesting physics abound, as evidenced by the frequent appearance of "physics of cars" articles in The Physics Teacher.1-6

  14. Association between Psychopathology and Physical Health Problems among Youth in Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Timothy D.; Smith, Tori R.; Duppong Hurley, Kristin; Epstein, Michael H.; Thompson, Ronald W.; Tonniges, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Youth in residential treatment settings often present with a complex combination of mental and physical health problems. Despite an emerging literature documenting significant associations between mental health and physical health, the relationship between these two areas of functioning has not been systematically examined in youth presenting to…

  15. The Pill Not Taken: Revisiting Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2014-01-01

    In "Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context," we took a broad view of physical education (PE) teacher effectiveness that included public health need and support for PE. Public health officials have been consistent and fervent in their support of PE, and for more than two decades, they have called on schools to…

  16. Relationship between Frequency and Intensity of Physical Activity and Health Behaviors of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Tony T.; Werch, Chudley E.; Wong, Alvin H.; Bian, Hui; Weiler, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background: While studies have determined the importance of physical activity in advancing health outcomes, relatively few have explored the relationship between exercise and various health behaviors of adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between frequency and intensity of physical activity and both health risk…

  17. Are We Promoting the Health of People with Physical Mobility Impairments? A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Donna Marie; Adams, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine whether the health education and health promotion literature is inclusive of people with physical mobility impairments. The English government Department of Health statistics indicate that the number of people living with physical mobility impairments is increasing and this is largely a result of chronic illness…

  18. Accelerator searches for new physics in the context of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowette, Steven

    2016-05-01

    A review is given of the current status of searches for dark matter at accelerators. Particular emphasis is put on generic searches for direct production of dark matter at the LHC during its first run, and on the recent developments for the interpretation of the results, where the models using an effective field theory approach are now being complemented with more generic interpretations in the context of simplified models. Furthermore, results are reported briefly for searches for dark matter at the LHC in the context of supersymmetry, as well as for non-LHC accelerator searches.

  19. Chaotic dynamics in accelerator physics. [Dept. of Astrophysical, Planetary, and Atmospheric Sciences, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, J.R.

    1992-11-30

    Substantial progress was in several areas of accelerator dynamics. For developing understanding of longitudinal adiabatic dynamics, and for creating efficiency enhancements of recirculating free-electron lasers, was substantially completed. A computer code for analyzing the critical KAM tori that bound the dynamic aperture in circular machines was developed. Studies of modes that arise due to the interaction of coating beams with a narrow-spectrum impedance have begun. During this research educational and research ties with the accelerator community at large have been strengthened.

  20. The Adaptive Basis of Psychosocial Acceleration: Comment on beyond Mental Health, Life History Strategies Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettle, Daniel; Frankenhuis, Willem E.; Rickard, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    Four of the articles published in this special section of "Developmental Psychology" build on and refine psychosocial acceleration theory. In this short commentary, we discuss some of the adaptive assumptions of psychosocial acceleration theory that have not received much attention. Psychosocial acceleration theory relies on the behavior of…

  1. Physics of Phase Space Matching for Staging Plasma and Traditional Accelerator Components Using Longitudinally Tailored Plasma Profiles.

    PubMed

    Xu, X L; Hua, J F; Wu, Y P; Zhang, C J; Li, F; Wan, Y; Pai, C-H; Lu, W; An, W; Yu, P; Hogan, M J; Joshi, C; Mori, W B

    2016-03-25

    Phase space matching between two plasma-based accelerator (PBA) stages and between a PBA and a traditional accelerator component is a critical issue for emittance preservation. The drastic differences of the transverse focusing strengths as the beam propagates between stages and components may lead to a catastrophic emittance growth even when there is a small energy spread. We propose using the linear focusing forces from nonlinear wakes in longitudinally tailored plasma density profiles to control phase space matching between sections with negligible emittance growth. Several profiles are considered and theoretical analysis and particle-in-cell simulations show how these structures may work in four different scenarios. Good agreement between theory and simulation is obtained, and it is found that the adiabatic approximation misses important physics even for long profiles. PMID:27058082

  2. Physics of Phase Space Matching for Staging Plasma and Traditional Accelerator Components Using Longitudinally Tailored Plasma Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. L.; Hua, J. F.; Wu, Y. P.; Zhang, C. J.; Li, F.; Wan, Y.; Pai, C.-H.; Lu, W.; An, W.; Yu, P.; Hogan, M. J.; Joshi, C.; Mori, W. B.

    2016-03-01

    Phase space matching between two plasma-based accelerator (PBA) stages and between a PBA and a traditional accelerator component is a critical issue for emittance preservation. The drastic differences of the transverse focusing strengths as the beam propagates between stages and components may lead to a catastrophic emittance growth even when there is a small energy spread. We propose using the linear focusing forces from nonlinear wakes in longitudinally tailored plasma density profiles to control phase space matching between sections with negligible emittance growth. Several profiles are considered and theoretical analysis and particle-in-cell simulations show how these structures may work in four different scenarios. Good agreement between theory and simulation is obtained, and it is found that the adiabatic approximation misses important physics even for long profiles.

  3. Michigan Council on Physical Fitness and Health Annual Report to the Michigan Department of Public Health, December 29, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Public Health, Lansing. Council on Physical Fitness & Health.

    The projects which the Michigan Council on Physical Fitness and Health undertook in 1978 are reported and described here. The projects and activities include: a school physical fitness program that provided assistance to public, private, and parochial schools in monitoring the physical fitness levels of all students in grades kindergarten through…

  4. Effects of lifetime stress exposure on mental and physical health in young adulthood: How stress degrades and forgiveness protects health.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Loren; Shields, Grant S; Dorn, Gabriel; Slavich, George M

    2016-06-01

    To examine risk and resilience factors that affect health, lifetime stress exposure histories, dispositional forgiveness levels, and mental and physical health were assessed in 148 young adults. Greater lifetime stress severity and lower levels of forgiveness each uniquely predicted worse mental and physical health. Analyses also revealed a graded Stress × Forgiveness interaction effect, wherein associations between stress and mental health were weaker for persons exhibiting more forgiveness. These data are the first to elucidate the interactive effects of cumulative stress severity and forgiveness on health, and suggest that developing a more forgiving coping style may help minimize stress-related disorders. PMID:25139892

  5. Health Literacy and the Australian Curriculum for Health and Physical Education: A Marriage of Convenience or a Process of Empowerment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfrey, Laura; Brown, Trent D.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "health literacy" is becoming increasingly prominent internationally, and it has been identified as one of the five key propositions that underpin the forthcoming Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (ACHPE). The ACHPE is one of few national curricula to explicitly refer to health literacy, identifying it…

  6. Leisure-time physical activity moderates the longitudinal associations between work-family spillover and physical health

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bora; Lawson, Katie M.; Chang, Po-Ju; Neuendorf, Claudia; Dmitrieva, Natalia O.; Almeida, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented cross-sectional associations between negative and positive work-family spillover and physical health. Using an effort-recovery model, the study tested the hypothesis that engagement in greater leisure-time physical activity would facilitate recovery processes that buffer the negative health effects of increasing work-family spillover. Employed adults (N = 1,354) completed two waves of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS). Results indicated that an increase in negative work-family spillover across nine years was associated with decreased physical health and increased number of chronic conditions at Time 2. Moreover, more time spent on moderate leisure-time physical activity buffered many of the associations between increasing negative spillover and declining health. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25999602

  7. Health Physics Code System for Evaluating Accidents Involving Radioactive Materials.

    2014-10-01

    Version 03 The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculational tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes provide a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. The developer's website is: http://www.llnl.gov/nhi/hotspot/. Four general programs, PLUME, EXPLOSION, FIRE, and RESUSPENSION, calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosivemore » release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Additional programs deal specifically with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. The FIDLER program can calibrate radiation survey instruments for ground survey measurements and initial screening of personnel for possible plutonium uptake in the lung. The HOTSPOT codes are fast, portable, easy to use, and fully documented in electronic help files. HOTSPOT supports color high resolution monitors and printers for concentration plots and contours. The codes have been extensively used by the DOS community since 1985. Tables and graphical output can be directed to the computer screen, printer, or a disk file. The graphical output consists of dose and ground contamination as a function of plume centerline downwind distance, and radiation dose and ground contamination contours. Users have the option of displaying scenario text on the plots. HOTSPOT 3.0.1 fixes three significant Windows 7 issues: � Executable installed properly under "Program Files/HotSpot 3.0". Installation package now smaller: removed dependency on older Windows DLL files which previously needed to \\ � Forms now properly scale based on DPI instead of font for users who change their screen resolution to something other than 100%. This is a more common feature in Windows 7

  8. Health Physics Code System for Evaluating Accidents Involving Radioactive Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    Version 03 The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculational tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes provide a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. The developer's website is: http://www.llnl.gov/nhi/hotspot/. Four general programs, PLUME, EXPLOSION, FIRE, and RESUSPENSION, calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Additional programs deal specifically with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. The FIDLER program can calibrate radiation survey instruments for ground survey measurements and initial screening of personnel for possible plutonium uptake in the lung. The HOTSPOT codes are fast, portable, easy to use, and fully documented in electronic help files. HOTSPOT supports color high resolution monitors and printers for concentration plots and contours. The codes have been extensively used by the DOS community since 1985. Tables and graphical output can be directed to the computer screen, printer, or a disk file. The graphical output consists of dose and ground contamination as a function of plume centerline downwind distance, and radiation dose and ground contamination contours. Users have the option of displaying scenario text on the plots. HOTSPOT 3.0.1 fixes three significant Windows 7 issues: � Executable installed properly under "Program Files/HotSpot 3.0". Installation package now smaller: removed dependency on older Windows DLL files which previously needed to \\ � Forms now properly scale based on DPI instead of font for users who change their screen resolution to something other than 100%. This is a more common feature in Windows 7.

  9. [Swimming, physical activity and health: a historical perspective].

    PubMed

    Conti, A A

    2015-01-01

    Swimming, which is the coordinated and harmonic movement of the human body inside a liquid medium by means of the combined action of the superior and inferior limbs, is a physical activity which is diffused throughout the whole world and it is practiced by healthy and non-healthy subjects. Swimming is one of the physical activities with less contraindications and, with limited exceptions, can be suggested to individuals of both sexes and of every age range, including the most advanced. Swimming requires energy both for the floating process and for the anterograde progression, with a different and variable osteo-arthro-muscular involvement according to the different styles. The energetic requirement is about four times that for running, with an overall efficiency inferior to 10%; the energetic cost of swimming in the female subject is approximately two thirds of that in the male subject. The moderate aerobic training typical of swimming is useful for diabetic and hypertensive individuals, for people with painful conditions of rachis, as also for obese and orthopaedic patients. Motor activity inside the water reduces the risk of muscular-tendinous lesions and, without loading the joints in excess, requires the harmonic activation of the whole human musculature. Swimming is an activity requiring multiple abilities, ranging from a sense of equilibrium to that of rhythm, from reaction speed to velocity, from joint mobility to resistance. The structured interest for swimming in the perspective of human health from the beginning of civilization, as described in this contribution, underlines the relevance attributed to this activity in the course of human history. PMID:26378756

  10. Conceptual design of a 1013 -W pulsed-power accelerator for megajoule-class dynamic-material-physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stygar, W. A.; Reisman, D. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Austin, K. N.; Ao, T.; Benage, J. F.; Breden, E. W.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Davis, J.-P.; Ennis, J. B.; Gard, P. D.; Greiser, G. W.; Gruner, F. R.; Haill, T. A.; Hutsel, B. T.; Jones, P. A.; LeChien, K. R.; Leckbee, J. J.; Lewis, S. A.; Lucero, D. J.; McKee, G. R.; Moore, J. K.; Mulville, T. D.; Muron, D. J.; Root, S.; Savage, M. E.; Sceiford, M. E.; Spielman, R. B.; Waisman, E. M.; Wisher, M. L.

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a conceptual design of a next-generation pulsed-power accelerator that is optimized for megajoule-class dynamic-material-physics experiments. Sufficient electrical energy is delivered by the accelerator to a physics load to achieve—within centimeter-scale samples—material pressures as high as 1 TPa. The accelerator design is based on an architecture that is founded on three concepts: single-stage electrical-pulse compression, impedance matching, and transit-time-isolated drive circuits. The prime power source of the accelerator consists of 600 independent impedance-matched Marx generators. Each Marx comprises eight 5.8-GW bricks connected electrically in series, and generates a 100-ns 46-GW electrical-power pulse. A 450-ns-long water-insulated coaxial-transmission-line impedance transformer transports the power generated by each Marx to a system of twelve 2.5-m-radius water-insulated conical transmission lines. The conical lines are connected electrically in parallel at a 66-cm radius by a water-insulated 45-post sextuple-post-hole convolute. The convolute sums the electrical currents at the outputs of the conical lines, and delivers the combined current to a single solid-dielectric-insulated radial transmission line. The radial line in turn transmits the combined current to the load. Since much of the accelerator is water insulated, we refer to it as Neptune. Neptune is 40 m in diameter, stores 4.8 MJ of electrical energy in its Marx capacitors, and generates 28 TW of peak electrical power. Since the Marxes are transit-time isolated from each other for 900 ns, they can be triggered at different times to construct-over an interval as long as 1 μ s -the specific load-current time history required for a given experiment. Neptune delivers 1 MJ and 20 MA in a 380-ns current pulse to an 18 -m Ω load; hence Neptune is a megajoule-class 20-MA arbitrary waveform generator. Neptune will allow the international scientific community to conduct dynamic

  11. Brief 71 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees, 2011 Summary (11-12

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Don Johnson

    2012-11-07

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2011. The enrollment and degree data include students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major. Twenty-four academic programs reported having health physics programs during 2011. The data for two health physics options within nuclear engineering programs are also included in the enrollments and degrees that are reported in the nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees data.

  12. Physical Health of Young, Australian Women: A Comparison of Two National Cohorts Surveyed 17 Years Apart

    PubMed Central

    Rowlands, Ingrid J; Dobson, Annette J; Mishra, Gita D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Very little is known about the extent of physical health issues among young women in early adulthood and whether this is changing over time. Methods We used data from two national samples of young women aged 18–23 years, surveyed 17 years apart, who participated in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. We used multinomial logistic regression to compare the women’s physical health (i.e., self-rated health, common symptoms and conditions) and identify whether sociodemographic factors, health behaviours and stress explained any physical health differences between the samples. Results Women aged 18–23 years in 2013 (N = 17,069) were more likely to report poor self-rated health and physical symptoms (particularly urogenital and bowel symptoms) than women aged 18–23 years in 1996 (N = 14,247). Stress accounted for a large proportion of the physical health differences between the cohorts, particularly for allergies, headaches, self-rated health, severe tiredness, skin problems, severe period pain and hypertension. Conclusions Women’s health appears to be changing, with young women born in more recent decades reporting greater physical symptom levels. Changing socio-cultural and economic conditions may place pressure on young adults, negatively affecting their health and wellbeing. Assessing the extent to which social structures and health care policies are offering adequate support to young women may offer avenues for promoting positive health and wellbeing. PMID:26528902

  13. Enculturating science: Community-centric design of behavior change interactions for accelerating health impact.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Aarti; Ghosh, Amit Kumar; Samphel, Rigzin; Yadav, Ranjanaa; Yeung, Diana; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Despite significant advancements in the scientific evidence base of interventions to improve newborn survival, we have not yet been able to "bend the curve" to markedly accelerate global rates of reduction in newborn mortality. The ever-widening gap between discovery of scientific best practices and their mass adoption by families (the evidence-practice gap) is not just a matter of improving the coverage of health worker-community interactions. The design of the interactions themselves must be guided by sound behavioral science approaches such that they lead to mass adoption and impact at a large scale. The main barrier to the application of scientific approaches to behavior change is our inability to "unbox" the "black box" of family health behaviors in community settings. The authors argue that these are not black boxes, but in fact thoughtfully designed community systems that have been designed and upheld, and have evolved over many years keeping in mind a certain worldview and a common social purpose. An empathetic understanding of these community systems allows us to deconstruct the causal pathways of existing behaviors, and re-engineer them to achieve desired outcomes. One of the key reasons for the failure of interactions to translate into behavior change is our failure to recognize that the content, context, and process of interactions need to be designed keeping in mind an organized community system with a very different worldview and beliefs. In order to improve the adoption of scientific best practices by communities, we need to adapt them to their culture by leveraging existing beliefs, practices, people, context, and skills. The authors present a systems approach for community-centric design of interactions, highlighting key principles for achieving intrinsically motivated, sustained change in social norms and family health behaviors, elucidated with progressive theories from systems thinking, management sciences, cross-cultural psychology, learning

  14. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Physical Health Symptoms Among Women Seeking Help for Relationship Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Taft, Casey T.; Vogt, Dawne S.; Mechanic, Mindy B.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between intimate partner aggression and physical health symptoms among a sample of help-seeking women experiencing relationship aggression (N = 388). Using a structural equation modeling framework, the authors found posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms to fully mediate the associations of both physical and psychological aggression with physical health symptoms. The influence of PTSD symptoms on physical health symptoms was partially mediated by anger/irritability. Results were consistent with studies from other trauma groups suggesting that PTSD is pivotal with respect to explaining the effects of trauma on health. PMID:17874920

  15. The perception of physical therapy leaders in Saudi Arabia regarding physical therapy scope of practice in primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Al-Abbad, Hani Mohammed; Al-Haidary, Hisham Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To explore the views of the physical therapy service leaders in Saudi Arabia regarding the integration of physical therapy service in primary health care settings. [Subjects and Methods] A self-administered questionnaire consisting of both open and closed ended questions was distributed during May–July 2013 via email to physical therapy leaders representing different regions and health care providers in Saudi Arabia. [Results] Twenty-six participants answered the questionnaire. Eighty five percent of the sample had ≥ 10 years of experience with 57.6% of them holding a post-graduate degree. Participants were from different health care providers and represented different geographical regions of Saudi Arabia. Eighty one percent of the sample reported that the adoption of physical therapy services in primary health care would be advantageous, as it would offer earlier access to health care and would be more cost-effective. The respondents also stated that such a service would contribute towards the prevention of common non-communicable health diseases. [Conclusion] The results of this survey provide generally positive recommendations for the provision of physical therapy service in Saudi Arabia primary health care centers. However, challenges and barriers identified by this study require consideration during the development of the service. PMID:26957740

  16. Effect of physical training in cool and hot environments on +Gz acceleration tolerance in women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, P. J.; Sciaraffa, D.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Acceleration tolerance, plasma volume, and maximal oxygen uptake were measured in 15 healthy women before and after submaximal isotonic exercise training periods in cool and hot environments. The women were divided on the basis of age, maximal oxygen uptake, and +Gz tolerance into three groups: a group that exercised in heat (40.6 C), a group that exercised at a lower temperature (18.7 C), and a sedentary control group that functioned in the cool environment. There was no significant change in the +Gz tolerance in any group after training, and terminal heart rates were similar within each group. It is concluded that induction of moderate acclimation responses without increases in sweat rate or resting plasma volume has no influence on +Gz acceleration tolerance in women.

  17. Physical characteristics of photon beam from a CLINAC-DBX single energy accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umbarkar, Rahul; Supe, Sanjay; Pandey, Manoy; Ashok, Jayanty

    2011-01-01

    Commissioning beam data are treated as a reference and ultimately used by treatment planning systems, therefore, it is vitally important that the collected data are of the highest quality, in order to avoid dosimetric and patient treatment errors that may subsequently lead to a poor radiation outcome. High-energy photon and electron beams from different accelerators of the same nominal energy may have different dosimetric characteristics due to differences in target and flattening filter materials, accelerator guide and collimator designs. In the present study, clinically pertinent data for the available photon energy were investigated. For making measurements in water, first time in India, a three dimensional radiation field analyzer RFA (CRS- Scan -O-Plan) was used. For absolute dosimetry and other measurements like relative output factors, wedge factors etc., a DOSE1 electrometer (Scanditronix Wellhofer) in a white polystyrene was employed. All the measured data were utilized as an input to the ECLIPSE treatment planning system for further clinical use.

  18. Can Low-Energy Electrons Affect High-Energy Physics Accelerators?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimino, R.; Collins, I. R.; Furman, M. A.; Pivi, M.; Ruggiero, F.; Rumolo, G.; Zimmermann, F.

    2004-06-01

    Present and future accelerators' performances may be limited by the electron cloud (EC) effect. The EC formation and evolution are determined by the wall-surface properties of the accelerator vacuum chamber. We present measurements of the total secondary electron yield (SEY) and the related energy distribution curves of the secondary electrons as a function of incident-electron energy. Particular attention has been paid to the emission process due to very low-energy primary electrons (<20 eV). It is shown that the SEY approaches unity and the reflected electron component is predominant in the limit of zero primary incident electron energy. Motivated by these measurements, we have used state-of-the-art EC simulation codes to predict how these results may impact the production of the electron cloud in the Large Hadron Collider, under construction at CERN, and the related surface heat load.

  19. Plasma physics. Stochastic electron acceleration during spontaneous turbulent reconnection in a strong shock wave.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Y; Amano, T; Kato, T N; Hoshino, M

    2015-02-27

    Explosive phenomena such as supernova remnant shocks and solar flares have demonstrated evidence for the production of relativistic particles. Interest has therefore been renewed in collisionless shock waves and magnetic reconnection as a means to achieve such energies. Although ions can be energized during such phenomena, the relativistic energy of the electrons remains a puzzle for theory. We present supercomputer simulations showing that efficient electron energization can occur during turbulent magnetic reconnection arising from a strong collisionless shock. Upstream electrons undergo first-order Fermi acceleration by colliding with reconnection jets and magnetic islands, giving rise to a nonthermal relativistic population downstream. These results shed new light on magnetic reconnection as an agent of energy dissipation and particle acceleration in strong shock waves. PMID:25722406

  20. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Stygar, W. A.; Awe, T. J.; Bennett, N L; Breden, E. W.; Campbell, E. M.; Clark, R. E.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Ennis, J. B.; Fehl, D. L.; Genoni, T. C.; Gomez, M. R.; Greiser, G. W.; Gruner, F. R.; Herrmann, M. C.; Hutsel, B. T.; Jennings, C. A.; Jobe, D. O.; Jones, B. M.; Jones, M. C.; Jones, P. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Lash, J. S.; LeChien, K. R.; Leckbee, J. J.; Leeper, R. J.; Lewis, S. A.; Long, F. W.; Lucero, D. J.; Madrid, E. A.; Martin, M. R.; Matzen, M. K.; Mazarakis, M. G.; McBride, R. D.; McKee, G. R.; Miller, C. L.; Moore, J. K.; Mostrom, C. B.; Mulville, T. D.; Peterson, K. J.; Porter, J. L.; Reisman, D. B.; Rochau, G. A.; Rochau, G. E.; Rose, D. V.; Savage, M. E.; Sceiford, M. E.; Schmit, P. F.; Schneider, R. F.; Schwarz, J.; Sefkow, A. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Spielman, R. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Thoma, C.; Vesey, R. A.; Wakeland, P. E.; Welch, D. R.; Wisher, M. L.; Woodworth, J. R.; Bailey, J. E.; Rovang, D. C.

    2015-11-30

    Here, we have developed conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators: Z 300 and Z 800. The designs are based on an accelerator architecture that is founded on two concepts: single-stage electrical-pulse compression and impedance matching [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 030401 (2007)]. The prime power source of each machine consists of 90 linear-transformer-driver (LTD) modules. Each module comprises LTD cavities connected electrically in series, each of which is powered by 5-GW LTD bricks connected electrically in parallel. (A brick comprises a single switch and two capacitors in series.) Six water-insulated radial-transmission-line impedance transformers transport the power generated by the modules to a six-level vacuum-insulator stack. The stack serves as the accelerator’s water-vacuum interface. The stack is connected to six conical outer magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs), which are joined in parallel at a 10-cm radius by a triple-post-hole vacuum convolute. The convolute sums the electrical currents at the outputs of the six outer MITLs, and delivers the combined current to a single short inner MITL. The inner MITL transmits the combined current to the accelerator’s physics-package load. Z 300 is 35 m in diameter and stores 48 MJ of electrical energy in its LTD capacitors. The accelerator generates 320 TW of electrical power at the output of the LTD system, and delivers 48 MA in 154 ns to a magnetized-liner inertial-fusion (MagLIF) target [Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF target is 870 TW, which is the highest power throughout the accelerator. Power amplification is accomplished by the centrally located vacuum section, which serves as an intermediate inductive-energy-storage device. The principal goal of Z 300 is to achieve thermonuclear ignition; i.e., a fusion yield that exceeds the energy transmitted by the accelerator to the liner. 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD

  1. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stygar, W. A.; Awe, T. J.; Bennett, N L; Breden, E. W.; Campbell, E. M.; Clark, R. E.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Ennis, J. B.; Fehl, D. L.; et al

    2015-11-30

    Here, we have developed conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators: Z 300 and Z 800. The designs are based on an accelerator architecture that is founded on two concepts: single-stage electrical-pulse compression and impedance matching [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 030401 (2007)]. The prime power source of each machine consists of 90 linear-transformer-driver (LTD) modules. Each module comprises LTD cavities connected electrically in series, each of which is powered by 5-GW LTD bricks connected electrically in parallel. (A brick comprises a single switch and two capacitors in series.) Six water-insulated radial-transmission-line impedance transformers transport the power generated bymore » the modules to a six-level vacuum-insulator stack. The stack serves as the accelerator’s water-vacuum interface. The stack is connected to six conical outer magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs), which are joined in parallel at a 10-cm radius by a triple-post-hole vacuum convolute. The convolute sums the electrical currents at the outputs of the six outer MITLs, and delivers the combined current to a single short inner MITL. The inner MITL transmits the combined current to the accelerator’s physics-package load. Z 300 is 35 m in diameter and stores 48 MJ of electrical energy in its LTD capacitors. The accelerator generates 320 TW of electrical power at the output of the LTD system, and delivers 48 MA in 154 ns to a magnetized-liner inertial-fusion (MagLIF) target [Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF target is 870 TW, which is the highest power throughout the accelerator. Power amplification is accomplished by the centrally located vacuum section, which serves as an intermediate inductive-energy-storage device. The principal goal of Z 300 is to achieve thermonuclear ignition; i.e., a fusion yield that exceeds the energy transmitted by the accelerator to the liner. 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD

  2. Developing confidence in mental health students to recognise and manage physical health problems using a learning intervention.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Angelina Lilja; Withnell, Neil

    2016-07-01

    Globally, there is increased recognition of a higher prevalence of physical ill health and mortality in individuals with mental health problems. A review of the literature highlighted the need to address deterioration in physical health of those with mental health problems through better recognition and management on the part of mental health nurses. However, mental health nurses have been found to lack confidence and be unsure of their role within this area. The aim of the project was to develop pre-registration mental health students' confidence to be able to recognise and manage physical health deterioration through the use of high fidelity human patient simulation, the development of contextualised clinical scenarios and additional theory around the A to E mnemonic structured assessment. The project involved 95 third year mental health student nurses, using a self-rating pre and post intervention questionnaire to measure their perceived confidence levels and to evaluate the effectiveness of the learning intervention. Findings demonstrate improved overall confidence levels in recognising and managing physical health deterioration in human patient simulators displaying mental health problems. PMID:27428688

  3. Important considerations when studying the impact of physical education on health in youth.

    PubMed

    Cañadas, Laura; Veiga, Oscar L; Martinez-Gomez, David

    2014-01-01

    Klakk et al. conducted an intervention study by increasing the frequency of physical education lessons in children aged 8 to 13 years, and they examined its effect on body fat during two school years. Physical education has potential to provide health in childhood and adolescence. For achieving these benefits, one of the most relevant aspects that need to be addressed during physical education classes is to provide students with high levels of physical activity. A well-recognized recommendation suggests that students should engage in moderate to vigorous physical activity for at least 50% of the time they spend in physical education classes. Therefore, it would be crucial to know what is happening during physical education classes before increasing their frequency. On the other hand, it seems that the main concern of health-related researchers is provide evidence on the impact of physical education on physical health outcomes (e.g. obesity), whereas other dimensions of health such as social, emotional, intellectual, and spiritual health are understudied. New evidence on the role of physical education on other health outcomes beyond physical health would also be important for the recognition of this curricular subject. PMID:24628825

  4. Important considerations when studying the impact of physical education on health in youth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Klakk et al. conducted an intervention study by increasing the frequency of physical education lessons in children aged 8 to 13 years, and they examined its effect on body fat during two school years. Physical education has potential to provide health in childhood and adolescence. For achieving these benefits, one of the most relevant aspects that need to be addressed during physical education classes is to provide students with high levels of physical activity. A well-recognized recommendation suggests that students should engage in moderate to vigorous physical activity for at least 50% of the time they spend in physical education classes. Therefore, it would be crucial to know what is happening during physical education classes before increasing their frequency. On the other hand, it seems that the main concern of health-related researchers is provide evidence on the impact of physical education on physical health outcomes (e.g. obesity), whereas other dimensions of health such as social, emotional, intellectual, and spiritual health are understudied. New evidence on the role of physical education on other health outcomes beyond physical health would also be important for the recognition of this curricular subject. PMID:24628825

  5. Population prevalence of personality disorder and associations with physical health comorbidities and health care service utilization: A review.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Shae E; Berk, Michael; Chanen, Andrew M; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Pasco, Julie A; Williams, Lana J

    2016-04-01

    Personality disorder (PD), outcomes of diverse comorbid physical health conditions, and the associated burden on health service resources have seldom been studied at a population level. Consequently, there is limited evidence that might inform a public health approach to managing PD and associated mental and physical disability. A review was conducted of population-based studies examining the prevalence of PD and associations between physical comorbidities and service utilization. The prevalence of any PDs were common (4.4% -21.5%) among populations spanning England, Wales, Scotland, Western Europe, Norway, Australia, and the United States. Preliminary evidence supports associations between PDs from Clusters A and B and physical comorbidities, namely cardiovascular diseases and arthritis. PD appears to increase health care utilization, particularly in primary care. In order to facilitate rational population health planning, further population studies are required. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26461047

  6. Children's Physical Activity, Health and Physical Education in Isolated Rural Contexts: The Views of Parent Educators in Queensland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Tony; Wright, Jan

    2002-01-01

    A study of rural Queensland (Australia) parents' views of their children's involvement in physical activity interviewed parents who taught their children at home using distance education. Physical activity was encouraged, but not formally taught; health was linked more to nutrition than exercise; and lack of participation in team games was…

  7. Project: "Teach 'n' Reach" Physically Handicapped: Physical and Health Impaired, Visually Impaired. (Book 4 out of 4.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Arleen

    The final volume (the fifth in the series and the fourth curriculum guide) in Project Teach 'n' Reach, a program designed to teach nondisabled students about disabilities, focuses on physical disabilities. Information on goals, performance objectives, and activity procedures are presented for topics dealing with physical and health impairments,…

  8. FERTILITY INTENTIONS AND EARLY LIFE HEALTH STRESS AMONG WOMEN IN EIGHT INDIAN CITIES: TESTING THE REPRODUCTIVE ACCELERATION HYPOTHESIS.

    PubMed

    Kulathinal, Sangita; Säävälä, Minna

    2015-09-01

    In life history theory, early life adversity is associated with an accelerated reproductive tempo. In harsh and unpredictable conditions in developing societies fertility is generally higher and the reproductive tempo faster than in more secure environments. This paper examines whether differences in female anthropometry, particularly adult height, are associated with fertility intentions of women in urban environments in India. The study population consists of women aged 15-29 (N=4485) in slums and non-slums of eight Indian cities in the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) of 2005-2006. Adult height is taken as a proxy for early childhood health and nutritional condition. Fertility intentions are examined by using two variables: the desire to have a child or another child, and to have it relatively soon, as indicative of accelerated reproductive scheduling. Evidence supporting the acceleration hypothesis is found in two urban frames out of 26 examined in a two-staged multinomial logistic model. In three cases, the relationship between fertility intentions and height is the opposite than expected by the acceleration hypothesis: taller women have a higher predictive probability of desiring a(nother) child and/or narrower birth spacing. Potential explanations for the partly contradictory relationship between the childhood health indicator and fertility intentions are discussed. PMID:25115228

  9. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, physical health, and health care utilization 50 years after repeated exposure to a toxic gas.

    PubMed

    Ford, Julian D; Schnurr, Paula P; Friedman, Matthew J; Green, Bonnie L; Adams, Gary; Jex, Steve

    2004-06-01

    The posttraumatic sequelae of contaminant exposure are a contemporary international concern due to the threats posed to military personnel and civilians by war and bioterrorism. The role of PTSD symptoms as a mediator between potentially traumatic toxin exposure and physical health outcomes was examined with structural equation modeling in a probability sample of 302 male World War II-era U.S. military veterans 50 years after exposure to mustard gas tests. Controlling for age and psychological distress, the most parsimonious structural model involved PTSD symptoms mediating the relationship between toxin exposure and physical health problems, and physical health problems mediating the relationship between PTSD symptoms and outpatient health care utilization. Implications for researchers, mental health clinicians, and health care providers are discussed. PMID:15253090

  10. Doing masculinity, not doing health? a qualitative study among dutch male employees about health beliefs and workplace physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Being female is a strong predictor of health promoting behaviours. Workplaces show great potential for lifestyle interventions, but such interventions do not necessarily take the gendered background of lifestyle behaviours into account. A perspective analyzing how masculine gender norms affect health promoting behaviours is important. This study aims to explore men's health beliefs and attitudes towards health promotion; in particular, it explores workplace physical activity in relation to masculine ideals among male employees. Methods In the Fall of 2008, we interviewed 13 white Dutch male employees aged 23-56 years. The men worked in a wide range of professions and occupational sectors and all interviewees had been offered a workplace physical activity program. Interviews lasted approximately one to one-and-a-half hour and addressed beliefs about health and lifestyle behaviours including workplace physical activity, as well as normative beliefs about masculinity. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two normative themes were found: first, the ideal man is equated with being a winner and real men are prepared to compete, and second, real men are not whiners and ideally, not vulnerable. Workplace physical activity is associated with a particular type of masculinity - young, occupied with looks, and interested in muscle building. Masculine norms are related to challenging health while taking care of health is feminine and, hence, something to avoid. Workplace physical activity is not framed as a health measure, and not mentioned as of importance to the work role. Conclusions Competitiveness and nonchalant attitudes towards health shape masculine ideals. In regards to workplace physical activity, some men resist what they perceive to be an emphasis on muscled looks, whereas for others it contributes to looking self-confident. In order to establish a greater reach among vulnerable employees such as ageing men, worksite health promotion

  11. Physical, Cognitive, Social, and Emotional Mediators of Activity Involvement and Health in Later Life.

    PubMed

    Matz-Costa, Christina; Carr, Dawn C; McNamara, Tay K; James, Jacquelyn Boone

    2016-10-01

    The current study tests the indirect effect of activity-related physical activity, cognitive activity, social interaction, and emotional exchange on the relationship between activity involvement and health (physical and emotional) in later life. Longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 5,442) were used to estimate a series of linear regression models. We found significant indirect effects for social interaction and benefit to others (emotional exchange) on emotional health (depressive symptoms) and indirect effects for use of body and benefit to others (physical) on physical health (frailty). The most potent indirect effect associated with emotional and physical health was experienced by those engaged in all four domains (use of body, use of mind, social interaction, and benefit to others). While effect sizes are small and results should be interpreted with caution, findings shed light on ways in which public health interventions aimed toward increasing role engagement in later life could be improved. PMID:26429863

  12. Hadron Physics at the Charm and Bottom Thresholds and Other Novel QCD Physics Topics at the NICA Accelerator Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2012-06-20

    The NICA collider project at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna will have the capability of colliding protons, polarized deuterons, and nuclei at an effective nucleon-nucleon center-of mass energy in the range {radical}s{sub NN} = 4 to 11 GeV. I briefly survey a number of novel hadron physics processes which can be investigated at the NICA collider. The topics include the formation of exotic heavy quark resonances near the charm and bottom thresholds, intrinsic strangeness, charm, and bottom phenomena, hidden-color degrees of freedom in nuclei, color transparency, single-spin asymmetries, the RHIC baryon anomaly, and non-universal antishadowing.

  13. The relationship between religion/spirituality and physical health, mental health, and pain in a chronic pain population.

    PubMed

    Rippentrop, Elizabeth A; Altmaier, Elizabeth M; Chen, Joseph J; Found, Ernest M; Keffala, Valerie J

    2005-08-01

    This study sought to better understand the relationship between religion/spirituality and physical health and mental health in 122 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. The current study conceptualized religion/spirituality as a multidimensional factor, and measured it with a new measure of religion/spirituality for research on health outcomes (Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religion/Spirituality). Pain patients' religious and spiritual beliefs appear different than the general population (e.g. pain patients feel less desire to reduce pain in the world and feel more abandoned by God). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed significant associations between components of religion/spirituality and physical and mental health. Private religious practice (e.g. prayer, meditation, consumption of religious media) was inversely related to physical health outcomes, indicating that those who were experiencing worse physical health were more likely to engage in private religious activities, perhaps as a way to cope with their poor health. Forgiveness, negative religious coping, daily spiritual experiences, religious support, and self-rankings of religious/spiritual intensity significantly predicted mental health status. Religion/spirituality was unrelated to pain intensity and life interference due to pain. This study establishes relationships between religion/spirituality and health in a chronic pain population, and emphasizes that religion/spirituality may have both costs and benefits for the health of those with chronic pain. PMID:15979795

  14. Physical Education and Physical Activity: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sarah M.; Burgeson, Charlene R.; Fulton, Janet E.; Spain, Christine G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive school-based physical activity programs consist of physical education and other physical activity opportunities including recess and other physical activity breaks, intramurals, interscholastic sports, and walk and bike to school initiatives. This article describes the characteristics of school physical education and…

  15. Urban Sprawl, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index: Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II

    PubMed Central

    Troped, Philip J.; Hart, Jaime E.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Colditz, Graham A.; Brownson, Ross C.; Ewing, Reid; Laden, Francine

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the association between the county sprawl index, a measure of residential density and street accessibility, and physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Methods. We conducted a multilevel cross-sectional analysis in a sample of Nurses’ Health Study participants living throughout the United States in 2000 to 2001 (n = 136 592). Results. In analyses adjusted for age, smoking status, race, and husband’s education, a 1-SD (25.7) increase in the county sprawl index (indicating a denser, more compact county) was associated with a 0.13 kilograms per meters squared (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.18, −0.07) lower BMI and 0.41 (95% CI = 0.17, 0.65) more metabolic equivalent (MET) hours per week of total physical activity, 0.26 (95% CI = 0.19, 0.33) more MET hours per week of walking, and 0.47 (95% CI = 0.34, 0.59) more MET hours per week of walking, bicycling, jogging, and running. We detected potential effect modification for age, previous disease status, husband’s education level (a proxy for socioeconomic status), and race. Conclusions. Our results suggest that living in a dense, compact county may be conducive to higher levels of physical activity and lower BMI in women. PMID:22698015

  16. National Standards for Physical Education. Nutrition Health, and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Judith C.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a rationale for physical education in the schools. Examines standards set by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE), and their implication for instruction and program support. (HTH)

  17. The High-Luminosity upgrade of the LHC: Physics and Technology Challenges for the Accelerator and the Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Burkhard

    2016-04-01

    In the second phase of the LHC physics program, the accelerator will provide an additional integrated luminosity of about 2500/fb over 10 years of operation to the general purpose detectors ATLAS and CMS. This will substantially enlarge the mass reach in the search for new particles and will also greatly extend the potential to study the properties of the Higgs boson discovered at the LHC in 2012. In order to meet the experimental challenges of unprecedented pp luminosity, the experiments will need to address the aging of the present detectors and to improve the ability to isolate and precisely measure the products of the most interesting collisions. The lectures gave an overview of the physics motivation and described the conceptual designs and the expected performance of the upgrades of the four major experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb, along with the plans to develop the appropriate experimental techniques and a brief overview of the accelerator upgrade. Only some key points of the upgrade program of the four major experiments are discussed in this report; more information can be found in the references given at the end.

  18. Development of structural health assessment system for steel and reinforced concrete structures using acceleration data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yu; Mita, Akira

    2014-03-01

    Because of the repeated earthquake and the problem such as the aging of buildings, a number of studies of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is have been done. Now, the writer is developing structural health assessment system for steel and reinforced concrete structures aiming for completion in 2014. In this system, following three programs for automatically estimating the physical quantity that is important for assessing the integrity of the structure are planned. First program is what automatically estimate the modal parameters (natural frequency and damping ratio) of the structure by the time history by using the subspace method. Second program is what automatically estimate the inter-layer parameters (stiffness and damping coefficient) by the time history by using the adaptive Kalman filter. Third program is what automatically estimate the story drift angle by time history by using the adaptive Kalman filter. The proposed method is expected to be estimated in consideration of the higher order modes than the conventional method by reverse modal analysis.

  19. Industrial safety and applied health physics. Annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    In connection with personnel monitoring, there were no external or internal exposures to personnel which exceeded the standards for radiation protection as defined in DOE Manual Chapter 0524. Only 55 employees received whole-body dose equivalent of one rem or greater. The highest whole-body dose equivalent to an employee was 2.8 rem. The highest internal exposure was less than one-half of a maximum permissible dose for any calendar quarter. During 1979, 57 portable health physics instruments were added to the inventory and 75 retired. The total number in service on January 1, 1979, was 977. With regards to environmental monitoring, there were no releases of gaseous waste from the Laboratory which were of a level that required an incident report to DOE. There were no releases of liquid radioactive waste from the Laboratory which were of a level that required an incident report to DOE. Soil samples were collected at all perimeter and remote monitoring stations and analyzed for eleven radionuclides including plutonium and uranium. Plutonium-239 content ranged from 0.01 to 0.06 pCi/g, and the uranium-235 content ranged from 0.01 to 0.05 pCi/g. Grass samples were collected at all perimeter and remote monitoring stations and analyzed for twelve radionuclides including plutonium and uranium. Plutonium-239 content ranged from 0.001 to 0.010 pCi/g, and uranium-235 content ranged from 0.001 to 0.010 pCi/g. Two radiation incidents involving radioactive materials were recorded during 1979. This compares with 14 incidents in 1978. (ERB)

  20. Association of physical activity with future mental health in older, mid-life and younger women

    PubMed Central

    Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Väänänen, Ari; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mental ill-health, particularly depression and anxiety, is a leading and increasing cause of disability worldwide, especially for women. Methods: We examined the prospective association between physical activity and symptoms of mental ill-health in younger, mid-life and older working women. Participants were 26 913 women from the ongoing cohort Finnish Public Sector Study with complete data at two phases, excluding those who screened positive for mental ill-health at baseline. Mental health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Self-reported physical activity was expressed in metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours per week. Logistic regression models were used to analyse associations between physical activity levels and subsequent mental health. Results: There was an inverse dose–response relationship between physical activity and future symptoms of mental ill-health. This association is consistent with a protective effect of physical activity and remained after adjustments for socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle factors, health and body mass index. Furthermore, those mid-life and older women who reported increased physical activity by more than 2 MET hours per week demonstrated a reduced risk of later mental ill-health in comparison with those who did not increase physical activity. This protective effect of increased physical activity did not hold for younger women. Conclusions: This study adds to the evidence for the protective effect of physical activity for later mental health in women. It also suggests that increasing physical activity levels may be beneficial in terms of mental health among mid-life and older women. The alleviation of menopausal symptoms may partly explain age effects but further research is required. PMID:24532567

  1. Wellness Promotion in the Schools: Enhancing Students' Mental and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David N.; Gilman, Rich; Martens, Matthew P.

    2007-01-01

    Wellness promotion addresses both the reduction of disorder and disease and the enhancement of mental and physical health. There is increasing evidence of a strong and reciprocal relationship between mental and physical health, and linking these two areas may be particularly useful for promoting positive youth development in school contexts. This…

  2. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  3. Knowledge in Action: Fitness Lesson Segments That Teach Health-Related Fitness in Elementary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Michael G.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; van der Mars, Hans; Lee, Chong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine students' health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity levels after the implementation of a series of fitness lessons segments called Knowledge in Action (KIA). KIA aims to teach health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) during short episodes of the physical education lesson. Teacher…

  4. Allied Health Occupations II. Physical Therapy Aide Component. Student Learning Guide. Middletown Public Schools Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middletown Public Schools, CT.

    This volume outlines the requirements and content of a second-year course in allied health occupations education that is designed to provide students with a practical understanding of the work done by physical therapists and physical therapy assistants. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: the health team for…

  5. Physical Education Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Health-Related Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfrey, Laura; Cale, Lorraine; Webb, Louisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As a component of the physical education curriculum, Health-Related Exercise (HRE) has been subject to intensive critique in terms of its status, organisation and expression in schools. Concerns and questions have also been raised about physical education teachers' professional knowledge of health and the extent to which HRE features…

  6. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness and Leukocyte Telomere Length: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed Central

    Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Imamura, Fumiaki; Siscovick, David; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The influence of physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF) at older ages on changes in telomere length (TL), repetitive DNA sequences that may mark biologic aging, is not well-established. Few prior studies have been conducted in older adults, these were mainly cross-sectional, and few evaluated PF. Methods We investigated cross-sectional and prospective associations of PA and PF with leukocyte TL among 582 older adults (age 73±5 y at baseline) in the Cardiovascular Health Study, having serial TL measures and PA and PF assessed multiple times. Cross-sectional associations were assessed using multivariable repeated-measures regression, in which cumulatively averaged PA and PF measures were related to TL. Longitudinal analyses assessed cumulatively averaged PA and PF against later changes in TL; and changes in cumulatively averaged PA and PF against changes in TL. Results Cross-sectionally, greater walking distance and chair test performance, but not other PA and PF measures, were each associated with longer TL (p-trend=0.007, 0.04 respectively). In longitudinal analyses, no significant associations of baseline PA and PF with change in TL were observed. In contrast, changes in leisure-time activity and chair test performance were each inversely associated with changes in TL. Conclusions Cross-sectional analyses suggest that greater PA and PF are associated with longer TL. Prospective analyses show that changes in PA and PF are associated with differences in changes in TL. Even later in life, changes in certain PA and PF measures are associated with changes in TL, suggesting that leisure-time activity and fitness could reduce leukocyte telomere attrition among older adults. PMID:26083773

  7. Accelerated resolution therapy: an innovative mental health intervention to treat post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Alan; Kip, K; Hernandez, D; McGhee, S; Rosenzweig, L; Hynes, C; Thomas, M

    2016-04-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling trauma and stress-related disorder that may occur after a person experiences a traumatic event, and evokes a combination of intrusion and avoidance symptoms, negative alterations in cognitions and mood, and alterations in arousal and reactivity. Accelerated resolution therapy (ART) is an emerging psychotherapy that provides fast and lasting resolution for mental health problems such as PTSD. ART has been shown to achieve a positive result in one to five sessions, typically over a 2-week period, and requires no homework, skills practice or repeated exposure to targeted events. Initial research, including one randomised control trial, has demonstrated that ART interventions can significantly reduce symptoms of psychological trauma in both civilians and US service members and veterans. These results suggest that ART be considered as either a primary treatment option or for refractory PTSD in those with a suboptimal response to endorsed first-line therapies. Conservative estimates indicate substantial potential cost savings in PTSD treatment. Despite the need for more definitive clinical trials, there is increasing interest in ART in the USA, including in the US Army. The growing positive empirical evidence is compelling, and there appears to be sufficient evidence to warrant UK researchers undertaking ART research. The armed forces offer the potential for comparative international trials. However, equally important are veterans, emergency services personnel and those subjected to violence. ART appears to also have application in other conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, and alcohol or drug misuse. ART can potentially help personnel traumatised by the unique challenges of war and conflict zones by providing brief psychotherapy in a readily accessible and culturally competent manner. ART facilitates the provision of interventions and resolutions in theatre, thus enhancing forces' fighting capability

  8. Dosimetric Characteristics of 6 MV Modified Beams by Physical Wedges of a Siemens Linear Accelerator.

    PubMed

    Zabihzadeh, Mansour; Birgani, Mohammad Javad Tahmasebi; Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi, Mojtaba; Arvandi, Sholeh; Hoseini, Seyed Mohammad; Fadaei, Mahbube

    2016-01-01

    Physical wedges still can be used as missing tissue compensators or filters to alter the shape of isodose curves in a target volume to reach an optimal radiotherapy plan without creating a hotspot. The aim of this study was to investigate the dosimetric properties of physical wedges filters such as off-axis photon fluence, photon spectrum, output factor and half value layer. The photon beam quality of a 6 MV Primus Siemens modified by 150 and 450 physical wedges was studied with BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) code. The calculated present depth dose and dose profile curves for open and wedged photon beam were in good agreement with the measurements. Increase of wedge angle increased the beam hardening and this effect was more pronounced at the heal region. Using such an accurate MC model to determine of wedge factors and implementation of it as a calculation algorithm in the future treatment planning systems is recommended. PMID:27221838

  9. The pill not taken: revisiting Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Thomas L; Lounsbery, Monica A F

    2014-09-01

    In "Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context," we took a broad view of physical education (PE) teacher effectiveness that included public health need and support for PE. Public health officials have been consistent and fervent in their support of PE, and for more than two decades, they have called on schools to promote and provide physical activity. They have strongly recommended PE because: (a) It is part of the formalized school curriculum and an essential access point to provide and promote physical activity for nearly all children, and (b) it is the only venue where the least active children experience physical activity at higher intensities. Within the current marginalized status of PE, public health is an ally. Hence, we took a broad public health position, indicated that teacher effectiveness is tied closely to PE program effectiveness, identified physical activity and its assessment as important parts of PE, offered a vision of teacher effectiveness that goes beyond the PE lesson to include components of the comprehensive school physical activity model, and emphasized the need for the collection of data to support PE and physical activity programs. We have read the written reviews and listened to dialogue about our article. In this follow-up article, we address the major comments using 4 themes: prioritizing public health over other PE emphases, PE having a muddled mission, concerns about physical activity, and extending the roles and skills of physical educators. PMID:25141081

  10. Introduction to high-energy physics and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Clearwater, S.

    1983-03-01

    The type of research done at SLAC is called High Energy Physics, or Particle Physics. This is basic research in the study of fundamental particles and their interactions. Basic research is research for the sake of learning something. Any practical application cannot be predicted, the understanding is the end in itself. Interactions are how particles behave toward one another, for example some particles attract one another while others repel and still others ignore each other. Interactions of elementary particles are studied to reveal the underlying structure of the universe.

  11. Black hole physics. Black hole lightning due to particle acceleration at subhorizon scales.

    PubMed

    Aleksić, J; Ansoldi, S; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; Barrio, J A; Becerra González, J; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biasuzzi, B; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; de Oña Wilhelmi, E; Delgado Mendez, C; Dominis Prester, D; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; Galindo, D; García López, R J; Garczarczyk, M; Garrido Terrats, D; Gaug, M; Godinović, N; González Muñoz, A; Gozzini, S R; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Persic, M; Poutanen, J; Prada Moroni, P G; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rodriguez Garcia, J; Rügamer, S; Saito, T; Saito, K; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Strzys, M; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Zanin, R; Kadler, M; Schulz, R; Ros, E; Bach, U; Krauß, F; Wilms, J

    2014-11-28

    Supermassive black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses are commonly found in the centers of galaxies. Astronomers seek to image jet formation using radio interferometry but still suffer from insufficient angular resolution. An alternative method to resolve small structures is to measure the time variability of their emission. Here we report on gamma-ray observations of the radio galaxy IC 310 obtained with the MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov) telescopes, revealing variability with doubling time scales faster than 4.8 min. Causality constrains the size of the emission region to be smaller than 20% of the gravitational radius of its central black hole. We suggest that the emission is associated with pulsar-like particle acceleration by the electric field across a magnetospheric gap at the base of the radio jet. PMID:25378461

  12. Social and Physical Environmental Correlates of Adults’ Weekend Sitting Time and Moderating Effects of Retirement Status and Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Van Holle, Veerle; McNaughton, Sarah A.; Teychenne, Megan; Timperio, Anna; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Salmon, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Emerging research suggests that prolonged sedentary behaviour (SB) is detrimental to health. Changes in SB patterns are likely to occur during particular life stages, for example at retirement age (55–65-year-old). Evidence on socio-ecological SB correlates is scarce and inconsistent in this age group. Moreover, the influence of socio-ecological correlates may vary depending on health and retirement status. This study examined social and environment correlates of overall weekend day sitting among adults at or approaching retirement age, and moderating effects of perceived physical health and retirement status. Baseline data from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life study in 2839 Australian adults (55–65-year-old) were analysed. Participants self-reported proximal social factors, neighbourhood social and physical environment, physical health and retirement status. MLwiN multilevel regression analyses were conducted. In the multivariable model, only social support from friends/colleagues to discourage sitting (B = −0.891; p = 0.036) was associated with overall weekend day sitting. No moderation of retirement status, nor physical health were found in the multivariable results. Results from this study suggest the importance of social factors in relation to weekend day sitting among 55–65-year-old adults. Health promotion initiatives in this age group should pay special attention to enhancing social interaction opportunities. Moreover, findings suggest that SB-specific correlates may need to be examined in future research. PMID:25243886

  13. Income group differences in relationships among survey measures of physical and mental health.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, S A; Ware, J E

    1976-01-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that the experience of health is hierarchically organized such that gratification of physical health needs must precede gratification of mental health needs. It was reasoned that because the nondisadvantaged possess greater resources for the gratification of health needs in general, symptoms of mental illness would be more salient for this group and thus better able to explain variance in both mental and physical illness. On the other hand, it was reasoned that symptoms of physical illness would be more salient and thus better able to explain variance in both mental and physical illness for the disadvantaged. Results of the study indicate income group differences in patterns of relationships among health variables, supporting the hypothesis and suggesting important differences in the validity of health measures across income groups. The results are related to previous findings in medical sociology, and suggestions for future research are made. PMID:1030697

  14. Accelerated Integrated Science Sequence (AISS): An Introductory Biology, Chemistry, and Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis-Roberts, Kathleen L.; Edwalds-Gilbert, Gretchen; Landsberg, Adam S.; Copp, Newton; Ulsh, Lisa; Drew, David E.

    2009-01-01

    A new interdisciplinary, introductory science course was offered for the first time during the 2007-2008 school year. The purpose of the course is to introduce students to the idea of working at the intersections of biology, chemistry, and physics and to recognize interconnections between the disciplines. Interdisciplinary laboratories are a key…

  15. Growing older with health and vitality: a nexus of physical activity, exercise and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Witard, Oliver C; McGlory, Chris; Hamilton, D Lee; Phillips, Stuart M

    2016-06-01

    The preservation of skeletal muscle mass and strength with advancing age are, we propose, critical aspects of ageing with health and vitality. Physical inactivity and poor nutrition are known to accelerate the gradual age-related decline in muscle mass and strength-sarcopenia-however, both are subject to modification. The main purpose of this review is to present the latest, evidence-based recommendations for physical activity and exercise, as well as diet for older adults that would help in preserving muscle mass and strength. We take the position that future physical activity/exercise guidelines need to make specific reference to resistance exercise and highlight the benefits of higher-intensity aerobic exercise training, alongside advocating older adults perform aerobic-based physical activity and household tasks (e.g., carrying groceries). In terms of dietary recommendations, greater emphasis should be placed on optimal rather than minimum protein intakes for older adults. Indeed, guidelines that endorse a daily protein intake of 1.2-1.5 g/kg BM/day, which are levels 50-90 % greater than the current protein Recommendation Dietary Allowance (0.8 g/kg BM/day), are likely to help preserve muscle mass and strength and are safe for healthy older adults. Being cognisant of factors (e.g., reduced appetite) that may preclude older adults from increasing their total daily protein intake, we echo the viewpoint of other active researchers in advocating that protein recommendations for older adults be based on a per meal approach in order to maximize muscle protein synthesis (MPS). On this basis, assuming three meals are consumed daily, a protein dose of 0.4-0.5 g/kg BM should be contained in each meal. We are beginning to understand ways in which to increase the utilization of ingested protein for the stimulation of MPS, namely by increasing the proportion of leucine contained in a given dose of protein, co-ingesting other nutrients (e.g., carbohydrate and fat or

  16. The Impact of Professionally Conducted Cultural Programs on the Physical Health, Mental Health, and Social Functioning of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Gene D.; Perlstein, Susan; Chapline, Jeff; Kelly, Jeanne; Firth, Kimberly M.; Simmens, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to measure the impact of professionally conducted community-based cultural programs on the physical health, mental health, and social activities of individuals aged 65 and older. Design and Methods: Participants in the study were 166 healthy, ambulatory older adults from the Washington, DC, area. We assigned them…

  17. Physical and Mental Health and Access to Care among Nonmetropolitan Veterans Health Administration Patients Younger than 65 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Alan; Weeks, William B.

    2006-01-01

    Context: The 4.5 million military veterans treated by the Veterans Health Administration (VA) are believed to experience poorer physical and mental health than nonveterans. Furthermore, nonmetropolitan residents have less access to medical services, whether or not they are veterans in VA care. A direct comparison of metropolitan and…

  18. Assessing Health-Related Quality of Life in Northern Plains American Indians: Prominence of Physical Activity as a Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poltavski, Dmitri; Holm, Jeffrey; Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; McDonald, Leander

    2010-01-01

    Associations of behavioral health risks and healthy behaviors with self-reported health-related quality of life measures were investigated in a Northern Plains American Indian sample. Participants were surveyed in person using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. The results showed that regular physical activity was significantly…

  19. School Physical Education: The Effectiveness of Health-Related Interventions and Recommendations for Health-Promotion Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quitério, Ana Luísa Dias

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of physical education (PE) interventions designed to foster health features among school-aged children, and to present a qualitative perspective of the different approaches that are most effective in promoting health among youth. Design: Systematic review. Method: An extensive electronic literature search was…

  20. Physical Activity and Aging: Implications for Health and Quality of Life in Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J.

    1998-01-01

    This publication summarizes what is known about the influence of regular physical activity on the health and quality of life of older individuals, addressing both the acute effects of a single bout of physical activity and the more persistent, long-term effects of sustained participation in exercise and physical activity. Section 1 discusses the…

  1. Healthy Bodies: Construction of the Body and Health in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Louisa; Quennerstedt, Mikael; Ohman, Marie

    2008-01-01

    In physical education, bodies are not only moved but made. There are perceived expectations for bodies in physical education to be "healthy bodies"--for teachers to be "appropriate" physical, fit, healthy and skillful "role models" and for students to display a slim body that is equated with fitness and health. In teachers' monitoring of students…

  2. The Physical and Emotional Health of Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren in the Crack Cocaine Epidemic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minkler, Meredith; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Explored physical and emotional health status of 71 African-American grandmothers raising their grandchildren as result of crack cocaine involvement of children's parents. Comparison of self-assessed health ratings with qualitative responses revealed tendency for respondents to downplay their own health problems and symptoms. (Author/NB)

  3. What Are the Costs of Marital Conflict and Dissolution to Children's Physical Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2004-01-01

    Do parental marital conflict and dissolution influence the risk trajectory of children's physical health risk? This paper reviews evidence addressing this question in the context of understanding how early environmental adversities may trigger a succession of risks that lead to poor health in childhood and greater risk for chronic health problems…

  4. Effects of Stress on Students' Physical and Mental Health and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankar, Nilani L.; Park, Crystal L.

    2016-01-01

    Stress affects students in multiple ways. This article provides a conceptual overview of the direct (e.g., psychoneuroimmunological, endocrine) and indirect (health behavior) pathways through which stress affects physical health, the psychological effects of stress on mental health, and the cognitive effects of stress (e.g., attention,…

  5. The Role of Personality Factors in Predicting the Reported Physical Health Symptoms of Turkish College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ustundag-Budak, Meltem; Mocan-Aydin, Gul

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the role of optimism, health control beliefs, perceived health competence, and medical help-seeking variables in predicting the frequency of reported physical symptoms. A total of 345 college students (207 male and 138 female) were presented with the Life Orientation Test, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control, Perceived…

  6. Theory of elementary particles and accelerator theory: Task C: Experimental high energy physics. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Brau, J.E.

    1992-12-31

    The experimental high energy physics group at the University of Oregon broadened its effort during the past year. The SLD effort extends from maintaining and operating the SLD luminosity monitor which was built at Oregon, to significant responsibility in physics analysis, such as event selection and background analysis for the left-right asymmetry measurement. The OPAL work focussed on the luminosity monitor upgrade to a silicon-tungsten calorimeter. Building on the work done at Oregon for SLD, the tungsten for this upgrade was machined by the Oregon shops and shipped to CERN for assembly. The Oregon GEM effort now concentrates on tracking, specifically silicon tracking. Oregon also has developed a silicon strip preradiator prototype, and tested it in a Brookhaven beam.

  7. Theory of elementary particles and accelerator theory: Task C: Experimental high energy physics. [Univ. of Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Brau, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental high energy physics group at the University of Oregon broadened its effort during the past year. The SLD effort extends from maintaining and operating the SLD luminosity monitor which was built at Oregon, to significant responsibility in physics analysis, such as event selection and background analysis for the left-right asymmetry measurement. The OPAL work focussed on the luminosity monitor upgrade to a silicon-tungsten calorimeter. Building on the work done at Oregon for SLD, the tungsten for this upgrade was machined by the Oregon shops and shipped to CERN for assembly. The Oregon GEM effort now concentrates on tracking, specifically silicon tracking. Oregon also has developed a silicon strip preradiator prototype, and tested it in a Brookhaven beam.

  8. Neutronic and Physical Characteristics of an Accelerator Driven System with a Lead-208 Coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Khorasanov, Georgy L.; Ivonov, Anatoly P.; Blokhin, Anatoly I.

    2006-07-01

    In the paper a possibility of using a lead isotope, pure Pb-208, as a coolant for a subcritical core of 80 MW thermal capacity of the PDS-XADS type facility is considered. Calculations of neutronic characteristics were performed using Monte Carlo technique. The following initial data were chosen: an annular core with a target, as a neutron source, at its centre; the core coolant -- Pb-208 (100%); a fuel -- a mix of mono nitrides of depleted uranium and power plutonium with a small share of neptunium and americium; the target coolant -- a modified lead and bismuth eutectic, Pb-208(80%)-Bi(20%); proton beam energy -- 600 MeV; effective multiplication factor of the core under operation -- K{sub eff} = 0.97; thermal capacity of the core -- N = 80 MW. From calculations performed it follows that in using Pb-208 as the core coolant the necessary intensity of the external source of neutrons to deliver 80 MW thermal capacity is equal to S = 2.29-10{sup 17} n/s that corresponds to proton beam current I{sub p} = 2.8 mA and beam capacity P{sub p} 1.68 MW. In using natural lead instead of Pb-208 as the core coolant, effective multiplication factor of the core in normal operating regime falls down to the value equal to K{sub eff} = 0.95. In these conditions multiplication of external neutrons in the core and thermal capacity of the subcritical core are below nominal by 1.55 times. For achievement the rated core power N=80 MW it is required on {approx}20-30% to increase the fuel loading and volume of the core, or by 1.55 times to increase intensity of the external source of neutrons. In the last case, the required parameters of the neutron source and of the corresponding proton beam are following: intensity of the neutron source S = 3.55 10{sup 17} n/s., beam current I{sub p} = 4.32 mA, beam capacity P{sub p} 2.59 MW. To exploit the accelerator with the reduced proton beam current it will be required about 56 tons of Pb-208, as a minimum, for the core coolant. Charges for its

  9. Progress on plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.

    1986-05-01

    Several plasma accelerator concepts are reviewed, with emphasis on the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator (PBWA) and the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator (PWFA). Various accelerator physics issues regarding these schemes are discussed, and numerical examples on laboratory scale experiments are given. The efficiency of plasma accelerators is then revealed with suggestions on improvements. Sources that cause emittance growth are discussed briefly.

  10. Physical Fitness: The Pathway to Healthful Living. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockey, Robert V.

    This text is designed for university-level foundations of physical education courses that incorporate student participation in alternate lecture and laboratory sessions. The material is presented so that each individual might evaluate his present level of physical fitness, might carefully consider all the information available, and then make an…

  11. Health-Related Fitness Models in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Jennifer; Kulinna, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Physical education has been an integral part of the school curriculum for more than a century. Although the focus has changed over time, the major objective has remained relatively constant: to provide students with the knowledge, skills, abilities, behaviors, and confidence to be physically active throughout their lifetime. As more physical…

  12. Maintaining Your Health & Physical Fitness: Expert Recommendations | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    The evidence is clear—physical activity helps to reduce the risk of heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. But did you know that it also has many other benefits that support your overall well-being? Other benefits include more positive mood, increased energy, better sleep, and improved stress management. So how much physical activity do we need?

  13. Nutritional Counseling: A Humanistic Approach to Psychological and Physical Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of a holistic health program. Notes common problems aided by a holistic health approach. Considers the use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol and their relationship to mental and emotional distress. Provides nutritional information and recommendations for counselors. (RC)

  14. Heart Health: A Resource for Senior High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Heart Health is grounded in the skill of learning to listen to the language of the heart. It connects students to their heart-rate data, and offers insights into what these numbers mean using the framework of Heart Zones Training. There are eight learning opportunities that originate from the following questions: How does heart health information…

  15. Effective seismic acceleration measurements for low-cost Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentaris, Fragkiskos; Makris, John P.

    2015-04-01

    There is increasing demand on cost effective Structural Health Monitoring systems for buildings as well as important and/or critical constructions. The front end for all these systems is the accelerometer. We present a comparative study of two low cost MEMS accelaration sensors against a very sensitive, high dynamic range strong motion accelerometer of force balance type but much more expensive. A real experiment was realized by deploying the three sesnors in a reinforced concrete building of the premises of TEI of Crete at Chania Crete, an earthquake prone region. The analysis of the collected accelararion data from many seismic events indicates that all sensors are able to efficiently reveal the seismic response of the construction in terms of PSD. Furthermore, it is shown that coherence diagrams between excitation and response of the building under study, depict structural characteristics but also the seismic energy distribution. This work is supported by the Archimedes III Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece, through the Operational Program "Educational and Lifelong Learning", in the framework of the project entitled "Interdisciplinary Multi-Scale Research of Earthquake Physics and Seismotectonics at the front of the Hellenic Arc (IMPACT-ARC)" and is co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national funds.

  16. The Type Ia Supernova Pipeline for the Javalambre Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey (J-PAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siffert, B. B.; Reis, R. R. R.; Calvão, M. O.

    2014-10-01

    The Javalambre Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey (J-PAS) is an astronomical facility being built in Sierra de Javalambre, Spain. The main goal is to study the expansion of the Universe through different cosmological observables such as baryonic acoustic oscillations, type Ia supernovae and galaxy clusters. The main instrument will be a 2.5 m telescope equipped with a system of 56 narrow band filters in the optical. Here we present a sketch of the pipeline we are developing to detect type Ia supernovae with J-PAS. First we describe each individual step of the pipeline, such as image subtraction and source selection. Then we show some results we obtained when applying our pipeline to images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the ALHAMBRA survey, which had a set of narrow band filters similar to the ones that will be used by J-PAS.

  17. Physical violence against health care workers: A nationwide study from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Najafi, Fereshteh; Ghazanfari, Nahid; Tamizi, Zahra; Afshani, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    Background: Workplace violence is a serious and problematic phenomenon in health care settings. Research shows that health care workers are at the highest risk of such violence. The aim of this study was to address the frequency of physical violence against Iranian health personnel, their response to such violence, as well as the contributing factors to physical violence. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011, in which 6500 out of 57,000 health personnel working in some teaching hospitals were selected using multi-stage random sampling. Data were collected using the questionnaire of “Workplace Violence in the Health Sector” developed by the International Labor Organization, the International Council of Nurses, the World Health Organization, and the Public Services International. Results: The findings revealed that 23.5% of the participants were exposed to physical violence in the 12 months prior to the study. Nurses were the main victims of physical violence (78%) and patients' families were the main perpetrators of violence (56%). The most common reaction of victims to physical violence was asking the aggressor to stop violence (45%). Lack of people's knowledge of employees' tasks was the most common contributing factor to physical violence (49.2%). Conclusions: Based on the results, legislating appropriate laws in order to prevent and control violence in the workplace is necessary. Moreover, developing educational programs to manage the incidence of physical violence should be on health centers' agenda. PMID:27186199

  18. Lifetime Victimization and Physical Health Outcomes among Lesbian and Heterosexual Women

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Judith P.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Zou, Christopher; Wilsnack, Sharon C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lifetime victimization experiences, including child sexual abuse (CSA), child physical abuse (CPA), adult sexual assault (ASA), and adult physical assault (APA), are associated with health problems. Purpose To examine relationships between cumulative victimization and physical health among heterosexual and lesbian women and determine whether these relationships differ by sexual identity. Methods Large samples of heterosexual (n = 482) and lesbian women (n = 394) were interviewed. Questions included lifetime victimization experiences and physical health problems. Results Compared to women who reported no childhood victimization, those who reported experiencing both CSA and CPA were 44% more likely to report health problems and women who experienced all four types of victimization (CSA, CPA, APA, ASA) were nearly 240% as likely to report physical health problems. Interaction analyses revealed the association between victimization and physical health did not differ by sexual identity. Conclusions Although lesbians were more likely to report all types of victimization, results suggest that victimization conferred increased physical health risks regardless of sexual identity. PMID:25068978

  19. THE RHIC INJECTOR ACCELERATORS CONFIGURATIONS, AND PERFORMANCE FOR THE RHIC 2003 AU - D PHYSICS RUN.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, L; Benjamin, J; Blaskiewicz, M; Brennan, J M; Brown, K A; Carlson, K A; Delong, J; D' Ottavio, T; Frak, B; Gardner, C J; Glenn, J W; Harvey, M; Hayes, T; Hseuh, H- C; Ingrassia, P; Lowenstein, D; Mackay, W; Marr, G; Morris, J; Roser, T; Satogata, T; Smith, G; Smith, K S; Steski, D; Tsoupas, N; Thieberger, P; Zeno, K

    2003-05-12

    The RHIC 2003 Physics Run [1] required collisions between gold ions and deuterons. The injector necessarily had to deliver adequate quality (transverse and longitudinal emittance) and quantity of both species. For gold this was a continuing evolution from past work [2]. For deuterons it was new territory. For the filling of the RHIC the injector not only had to deliver quality beams but also had to switch between these species quickly. This paper details the collider requirements and our success in meeting these. Some details of the configurations employed are given.

  20. Subjective relative deprivation is associated with poorer physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sandeep; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    Substantial epidemiological evidence has shown that income inequality and objective measures of relative deprivation are associated with poorer health outcomes. However, surprisingly little research has examined whether subjective feelings of relative deprivation are similarly linked with poorer health outcomes. The relative deprivation hypothesis suggests that inequality affects health at the individual level through negative consequences of social comparison. We directly examined the relationship between subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation and self-reported physical and mental health in a diverse community sample (n = 328). Results demonstrated that subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation are associated with significantly poorer physical and mental health. These relationships held even when accounting for covariates that have been previously associated with both relative deprivation and health. These results further support the link between relative deprivation and health outcomes and suggest that addressing root causes of relative deprivation may lead to greater individual health. PMID:26575605

  1. Accelerator beam data commissioning equipment and procedures: Report of the TG-106 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the AAPM

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Indra J.; Cheng, C.-W.; Watts, Ronald J.; Ahnesjoe, Anders; Gibbons, John; Li, X. Allen; Lowenstein, Jessica; Mitra, Raj K.; Simon, William E.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2008-09-15

    For commissioning a linear accelerator for clinical use, medical physicists are faced with many challenges including the need for precision, a variety of testing methods, data validation, the lack of standards, and time constraints. Since commissioning beam data are treated as a reference and ultimately used by treatment planning systems, it is vitally important that the collected data are of the highest quality to avoid dosimetric and patient treatment errors that may subsequently lead to a poor radiation outcome. Beam data commissioning should be performed with appropriate knowledge and proper tools and should be independent of the person collecting the data. To achieve this goal, Task Group 106 (TG-106) of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine was formed to review the practical aspects as well as the physics of linear accelerator commissioning. The report provides guidelines and recommendations on the proper selection of phantoms and detectors, setting up of a phantom for data acquisition (both scanning and no-scanning data), procedures for acquiring specific photon and electron beam parameters and methods to reduce measurement errors (<1%), beam data processing and detector size convolution for accurate profiles. The TG-106 also provides a brief discussion on the emerging trend in Monte Carlo simulation techniques in photon and electron beam commissioning. The procedures described in this report should assist a qualified medical physicist in either measuring a complete set of beam data, or in verifying a subset of data before initial use or for periodic quality assurance measurements. By combining practical experience with theoretical discussion, this document sets a new standard for beam data commissioning.

  2. Accelerator beam data commissioning equipment and procedures: report of the TG-106 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the AAPM.

    PubMed

    Das, Indra J; Cheng, Chee-Wai; Watts, Ronald J; Ahnesjö, Anders; Gibbons, John; Li, X Allen; Lowenstein, Jessica; Mitra, Raj K; Simon, William E; Zhu, Timothy C

    2008-09-01

    For commissioning a linear accelerator for clinical use, medical physicists are faced with many challenges including the need for precision, a variety of testing methods, data validation, the lack of standards, and time constraints. Since commissioning beam data are treated as a reference and ultimately used by treatment planning systems, it is vitally important that the collected data are of the highest quality to avoid dosimetric and patient treatment errors that may subsequently lead to a poor radiation outcome. Beam data commissioning should be performed with appropriate knowledge and proper tools and should be independent of the person collecting the data. To achieve this goal, Task Group 106 (TG-106) of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine was formed to review the practical aspects as well as the physics of linear accelerator commissioning. The report provides guidelines and recommendations on the proper selection of phantoms and detectors, setting up of a phantom for data acquisition (both scanning and no-scanning data), procedures for acquiring specific photon and electron beam parameters and methods to reduce measurement errors (<1%), beam data processing and detector size convolution for accurate profiles. The TG-106 also provides a brief.discussion on the emerging trend in Monte Carlo simulation techniques in photon and electron beam commissioning. The procedures described in this report should assist a qualified medical physicist in either measuring a complete set of beam data, or in verifying a subset of data before initial use or for periodic quality assurance measurements. By combining practical experience with theoretical discussion, this document sets a new standard for beam data commissioning. PMID:18841871

  3. Evidence-Based Decision Making When Designing Environments for Physical Activity: The Role of Public Health.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, Paul; Powell, Jane; Davis, Adrian

    2016-07-01

    The important role that the environment plays in health and well-being is widely accepted, as is the impact that the built and natural environment can have on levels of physical activity. As levels of physical activity are a key determinant of health, promoting physical activity through actions to improve the environment is a priority for public health action. The challenge for public health is to ensure that the way the environment is shaped and transformed by a range of professionals, organisations and agencies, maximises health gain in relation to health, including physical activity. This article discusses how the public health profession can and should contribute to generating and disseminating evidence to inform decision-making processes for designing environments to promote physical activity. There are significant challenges to building and applying the evidence base in this area. These include the complex environments in which interventions operate, disciplinary differences in approaches to evidence generation and use, and the fact that public health has little responsibility for environmental change. However, case studies of best practice, presented in the article, offer a snapshot of how challenges can be overcome, to build an accessible evidence base and help to improve the environment for the promotion of physical activity. PMID:26842016

  4. A systematic review of nurse physical healthcare for consumers utilizing mental health services.

    PubMed

    Happell, B; Platania-Phung, C; Scott, D

    2014-02-01

    People with serious mental illness have higher rates of physical illness and are more likely to experience premature death than the general population. Nurse-led strategies to improve physical healthcare in mental healthcare services could potentially reduce these inequalities. However the extent of nurse involvement in physical healthcare (such as physical risk screening, health education and care co-ordination) in mental health settings is not known. A systematic review was conducted on nurse-led physical healthcare reported for consumers with serious mental illness (SMI) in mental health services, and their benefits. Electronic literature bases (CINAHL, Proquest, PsychINFO and Web of Science) were systematically searched, in conjunction with a manual search of literature reviews on physical healthcare in mental health services. Articles were included if they: (a) were published in the last 10 years; (b) were English language; (c) involved physical healthcare of adult consumers receiving mental healthcare services; and (d) reported nurse involvement in physical healthcare. Forty articles were included in the review. The distribution of types of care were: health education (47%), screening and/or monitoring (33.3%), care co-ordination and management (33.3%), lifestyle programme delivery (30.5%), follow-up actions to screening results (25%) and registers and data administration (5.5%). Overall, the evaluation of nurse-based physical healthcare is in early stages. Thus far, they appear to have positive implications for consumers with SMI. PMID:23419025

  5. Can exergames impart health messages? Game play, framing, and drivers of physical activity among children.

    PubMed

    Lwin, May O; Malik, Shelly

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of incorporating exergaming into physical education lessons as a platform for imparting health education messages and influencing children's beliefs about and attitudes toward physical activity. The authors launched a 6-week intervention program using Nintendo Wii games coupled with protection motivation theory-based health messaging among 5th-grade school children in Singapore. Results indicated that when children who were exposed to threat-framed messages played Wii exergames during physical education lessons, they reported more positive physical activity attitude, self-efficacy, and perceived behavioral control than did those who underwent regular physical education lessons and were exposed to the same message. In addition, among children playing Wii, the threat and coping frames had similar effects on the degree of message influence on physical activity attitudes and beliefs. The implications for schools, parents, and health policy are discussed. PMID:24191779

  6. Gardening Activities and Physical Health Among Older Adults: A Review of the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Nicklett, Emily J; Anderson, Lynda A; Yen, Irene H

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined the health-related consequences of gardening among older adults. This scoping review summarizes and characterizes current research that examines the relationship between physical health and participation in planned gardening activities, including establishing, maintaining, or caring for plants. Six databases were searched. Eligible studies were published between 2000 and 2013, were published in English, and assessed different aspects of physical health (e.g., functional ability, energy expenditure, injury) for older adults who had participated in a planned gardening activity. Of the eight eligible studies identified with these criteria, four assessed energy expenditures and four assessed physical functioning. Studies assessing energy expenditures documented that the majority of gardening tasks were classified into low-to-moderate intensity physical activity. The current literature does not provide sufficient evidence of the physical functioning consequences of gardening. Future studies should consider how specific gardening interventions help older adults meet physical activity guidelines. PMID:25515757

  7. Racial Differences in Self-Rated Health at Similar Levels of Physical Functioning: An Examination of Health Pessimism in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Richard; Rooks, Ronica N.; Albert, Steven M.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Brenes, Gretchen A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Koster, Annemarie; Satterfield, Suzanne; Ayonayon, Hilsa N.; Newman, Anne B.

    2009-01-01

    Background The health pessimism hypothesis suggests that Black elders are more pessimistic about health than Whites and therefore tend to report lower self-rated health (SRH) at comparable health status. The current analysis examined the factors associated with SRH and tested the health pessimism hypothesis among older adults at similar levels of physical functioning. Methods The study example included 2,729 Health, Aging, and Body Composition study participants aged 70–79 years. We used hierarchical logistic regression to examine the association between race and SRH while adjusting for demographic, physical health, and psychosocial factors. The analyses were repeated for participants at similar levels of objective functioning to test the health pessimism hypothesis. Results The association between race and SRH remained independent of physical and psychosocial health variables, with Whites being 3.7 times more likely than Black elders to report favorable SRH. This association was significant at each level of physical functioning and greater at the higher (odds ratio [OR] = 5.5) versus lower (OR = 2.2) levels of functioning. Conclusions The results suggest greater health pessimism among Black elders and expand previous work by including objective functioning in multidimensional models to deconstruct race variations in the SRH of older adults. PMID:19176485

  8. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1994-01-01

    New calculations of the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone have been performed. The treatment of convective turbulence in the sun and solar-like stars, in particular, the precise nature of the turbulent power spectrum has been recognized as one of the most important issues in the wave generation problem. Several different functional forms for spatial and temporal spectra have been considered in the literature and differences between the energy fluxes obtained for different forms often exceed two orders of magnitude. The basic criterion for choosing the appropriate spectrum was the maximal efficiency of the wave generation. We have used a different approach based on physical and empirical arguments as well as on some results from numerical simulation of turbulent convection.

  9. Physical and mechanical metallurgy of high purity Nb for accelerator cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Bieler, T. R.; Wright, N. T.; Pourboghrat, F.; Compton, C.; Hartwig, K. T.; Baars, D.; Zamiri, A.; Chandrasekaran, S.; Darbandi, P.; Jiang, H.; Skoug, E.; Balachandran, S.; Ice, Gene E; Liu, W.

    2010-01-01

    In the past decade, high Q values have been achieved in high purity Nb superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Fundamental understanding of the physical metallurgy of Nb that enables these achievements is beginning to reveal what challenges remain to establish reproducible and cost-effective production of high performance SRF cavities. Recent studies of dislocation substructure development and effects of recrystallization arising from welding and heat treatments and their correlations with cavity performance are considered. With better fundamental understanding of the effects of dislocation substructure evolution and recrystallization on electron and phonon conduction, as well as the interior and surface states, it will be possible to design optimal processing paths for cost-effective performance using approaches such as hydroforming, which minimizes or eliminates welds in a cavity.

  10. Accelerating reproductive and child health programme impact with community-based services: the Navrongo experiment in Ghana.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, James F.; Bawah, Ayaga A.; Binka, Fred N.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the demographic and health impact of deploying health service nurses and volunteers to village locations with a view to scaling up results. METHODS: A four-celled plausibility trial was used for testing the impact of aligning community health services with the traditional social institutions that organize village life. Data from the Navrongo Demographic Surveillance System that tracks fertility and mortality events over time were used to estimate impact on fertility and mortality. RESULTS: Assigning nurses to community locations reduced childhood mortality rates by over half in 3 years and accelerated the time taken for attainment of the child survival Millennium Development Goal (MDG) in the study areas to 8 years. Fertility was also reduced by 15%, representing a decline of one birth in the total fertility rate. Programme costs added 1.92 US Dollar per capita to the 6.80 US Dollar per capita primary health care budget. CONCLUSION: Assigning nurses to community locations where they provide basic curative and preventive care substantially reduces childhood mortality and accelerates progress towards attainment of the child survival MDG. Approaches using community volunteers, however, have no impact on mortality. The results also demonstrate that increasing access to contraceptive supplies alone fails to address the social costs of fertility regulation. Effective deployment of volunteers and community mobilization strategies offsets the social constraints on the adoption of contraception. The research in Navrongo thus demonstrates that affordable and sustainable means of combining nurse services with volunteer action can accelerate attainment of both the International Conference on Population and Development agenda and the MDGs. PMID:17242830

  11. Mental Health and Family Life Education. Individualized Health Incentive Program Modules for Physically Disabled Students for Grades Kindergarten Through Twelve. Teacher's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reggio, Kathryn D.

    Presented is a module in mental health and family life education adapted from the New York State Health Education curriculum to meet the needs of physically disabled students in grades K-12. It is explained that physically disabled students need to understand regular health habits in addition to special health concerns relating to their…

  12. Exergaming in Youth: Effects on Physical and Cognitive Health.

    PubMed

    Best, John R

    2013-04-01

    Exergaming (a portmanteau of "exercise" and "gaming") is a relatively new genre of interactive video gaming that stimulates an active, whole-body gaming experience. Exergaming could have a significant positive impact on youth as across the globe youth are living more sedentary lifestyles. Exergaming has the potential to thwart this trend by engaging youth in physical activity (PA). Exergaming is not only physically-engaging but is also cognitively-engaging, and this combination of physical and cognitive engagement may translate into improved cognitive function in youth. The purpose of this review article is to examine the state-of-the-art in exergaming research to address whether exergames are a viable tool to promote PA in youth and benefit cognitive functioning among youth. The research addressing these questions is still quite nascent; therefore, only tentative conclusions can be drawn. However, this review points out promising lines of research and makes suggestions for future research to obtain more firm conclusions. PMID:25097828

  13. Predictors of depressive symptoms and physical health in caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Thunyadee, Chanya; Sitthimongkol, Yajai; Sangon, Sopin; Chai-Aroon, Teradech; Hegadoren, Kathleen M

    2015-12-01

    This cross-sectional study examined relationships among factors influencing caregiver burden, depressive symptoms, and physical health in family caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia. Two hundred family caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia completed standardized questionnaires related to depressive symptoms, physical health, perceptions of burden, coping, and social support. The results revealed that 19.5% of family caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia experienced significant depressive symptoms and 65.5% perceived themselves in poor physical health. Burden, self-controlling coping strategies, and physical health status were all independently predictive of depressive symptoms. Two emotion-focused coping strategies (self-controlling and escape-avoidance) were independently predictive of caregiver burden. Only burden predicted physical health status. The findings suggest that health professionals who provide community care for those with schizophrenia need to consider the "unit of care" as the family rather than the individual. The health status of family caregivers should be routinely assessed. Individualized interventions to reduce family burden could include community-based health professionals as well as trained community volunteers, opportunities for social interaction, and improving self-care for all family members. PMID:26081195

  14. Reconsidering the role of social disadvantage in physical and mental health: stressful life events, health behaviors, race, and depression.

    PubMed

    Mezuk, Briana; Rafferty, Jane A; Kershaw, Kiarri N; Hudson, Darrell; Abdou, Cleopatra M; Lee, Hedwig; Eaton, William W; Jackson, James S

    2010-12-01

    Prevalence of depression is associated inversely with some indicators of socioeconomic position, and the stress of social disadvantage is hypothesized to mediate this relation. Relative to whites, blacks have a higher burden of most physical health conditions but, unexpectedly, a lower burden of depression. This study evaluated an etiologic model that integrates mental and physical health to account for this counterintuitive patterning. The Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (Maryland, 1993-2004) was used to evaluate the interaction between stress and poor health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, poor diet, and obesity) and risk of depression 12 years later for 341 blacks and 601 whites. At baseline, blacks engaged in more poor health behaviors and had a lower prevalence of depression compared with whites (5.9% vs. 9.2%). The interaction between health behaviors and stress was nonsignificant for whites (odds ratio (OR = 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 0.98, 1.11); for blacks, the interaction term was significant and negative (β: -0.18, P < 0.014). For blacks, the association between median stress and depression was stronger for those who engaged in zero (OR = 1.34) relative to 1 (OR = 1.12) and ≥2 (OR = 0.94) poor health behaviors. Findings are consistent with the proposed model of mental and physical health disparities. PMID:20884682

  15. Refocusing on physical health: Community psychiatric nurses' perceptions of using enhanced health checks for people with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Bressington, Daniel; Mui, Jolene; Wells, Harvey; Chien, Wai Tong; Lam, Claire; White, Jacquie; Gray, Richard

    2016-06-01

    In the present qualitative, descriptive study, we explored Hong Kong community psychiatric nurses' (CPN) perceptions of using comprehensive physical health checks for service users diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI). Research interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 11 CPN in order to explore their perceptions about the use of the Health Improvement Profile (HIP) over a 1-year period. Interview data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The analysis revealed that the majority of CPN appreciated the comprehensive focus on the physical health of their clients and reported positive changes in their clinical practice. Many of them observed an increase in the motivation of their clients to improve their physical health, and also noted observable benefits in service users' well-being. The use of the HIP also helped the CPN identify implementation barriers, and highlighted areas of the tool that required modifications to suit the local cultural and clinical context. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted in an Asian mental health service that explores nurses' views about using comprehensive health checks for people with SMI. The findings suggest that such approaches are viewed as being acceptable, feasible, and potentially beneficial in the community mental health setting. PMID:26857108

  16. Multi-processor developments in the United States for future high energy physics experiments and accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, I.

    1988-03-01

    The use of multi-processors for analysis and high-level triggering in High Energy Physics experiments, pioneered by the early emulator systems, has reached maturity, in particular with the multiple microprocessor systems in use at Fermilab. It is widely acknowledged that such systems will fulfill the major portion of the computing needs of future large experiments. Recent developments at Fermilab's Advanced Computer Program will make such systems even more powerful, cost-effective, and easier to use than they are at present. The next generation of microprocessors, already available, will provide CPU power of about one VAX 780 equivalent/$300, while supporting most VMS FORTRAN extensions and large (>8MB) amounts of memory. Low cost high density mass storage devices (based on video tape cartridge technology) will allow parallel I/O to remove potential I/O bottlenecks in systems of over 1000 VAX equipment processors. New interconnection schemes and system software will allow more flexible topologies and extremely high data bandwidth, especially for on-line systems. This talk will summarize the work at the Advanced Computer Program and the rest of the US in this field. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Hybrid parallel code acceleration methods in full-core reactor physics calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Courau, T.; Plagne, L.; Ponicot, A.; Sjoden, G.

    2012-07-01

    When dealing with nuclear reactor calculation schemes, the need for three dimensional (3D) transport-based reference solutions is essential for both validation and optimization purposes. Considering a benchmark problem, this work investigates the potential of discrete ordinates (Sn) transport methods applied to 3D pressurized water reactor (PWR) full-core calculations. First, the benchmark problem is described. It involves a pin-by-pin description of a 3D PWR first core, and uses a 8-group cross-section library prepared with the DRAGON cell code. Then, a convergence analysis is performed using the PENTRAN parallel Sn Cartesian code. It discusses the spatial refinement and the associated angular quadrature required to properly describe the problem physics. It also shows that initializing the Sn solution with the EDF SPN solver COCAGNE reduces the number of iterations required to converge by nearly a factor of 6. Using a best estimate model, PENTRAN results are then compared to multigroup Monte Carlo results obtained with the MCNP5 code. Good consistency is observed between the two methods (Sn and Monte Carlo), with discrepancies that are less than 25 pcm for the k{sub eff}, and less than 2.1% and 1.6% for the flux at the pin-cell level and for the pin-power distribution, respectively. (authors)

  18. J-PAS: The Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerated Universe Astrophysical Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benítez, N.; Dupke, R.; Moles, M.; Sodré, L.; Cenarro, A. J.; Marín Franch, A.; Taylor, K.; Cristóbal, D.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Cepa-Nogué, J.; Abramo, L. R.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Overzier, R.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Alfaro, E. J.; Kanaan, A.; Carvano, M.; Reis, R. R. R.; J-PAS Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    J-PAS is a Spanish-Brazilian 8500 deg^2 Cosmological Survey which will be carried out from the Javalambre Observatory with a purpose-built, dedicated 2.5 m telescope and a 4.7 deg^2 camera with 1.2 Gpix. Starting in 2015, J-PAS will use 59 filters to measure high precision 0.003(1+z) photometric redshifts for 90M galaxies plus several million QSOs, about 50 times more than the largest current spectroscopic survey, sampling an effective volume of ˜ 14 Gpc^3 up to z=1.3. J-PAS will not only be first radial BAO experiment to reach Stage IV; it will also detect and measure the mass of 7× 10^5 galaxy clusters and groups, setting constrains on Dark Energy which rival those obtained from BAO measurements. The combination of a set of 145 Å NB filters, placed 100 Å apart, and a multi-degree field of view is a powerful ``redshift machine'', equivalent to a 4000 multiplexing spectrograph, but many times cheaper to build. The J-PAS camera is equivalent to a very large, 4.7 deg^2 ``IFU'', which will produce a time-resolved, 3D image of the Northern Sky with a very wide range of scientific applications in Galaxy Evolution, Stellar Physics and the Solar System.

  19. A Health Connection. Helping Physical Educators Address Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Billie J.; Janz, Kathleen F.

    1985-01-01

    In response to concern about the prevalence of anorexia and bulimia, several departments of the University of Iowa collaborated to design and implement an inservice training program for dance and physical educators, coaches and athletic trainers. The rationale, planning, program content, and implications of the eating disorders project are…

  20. Relationships between sleep, physical activity and human health.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Greg; Davenne, Damien

    2007-02-28

    Although sleep and exercise may seem to be mediated by completely different physiological mechanisms, there is growing evidence for clinically important relationships between these two behaviors. It is known that passive body heating facilitates the nocturnal sleep of healthy elderly people with insomnia. This finding supports the hypothesis that changes in body temperature trigger somnogenic brain areas to initiate sleep. Nevertheless, little is known about how the core and distal thermoregulatory responses to exercise fit into this hypothesis. Such knowledge could also help in reducing sleep problems associated with nocturnal shiftwork. It is difficult to incorporate physical activity into a shiftworker's lifestyle, since it is already disrupted in terms of family commitments and eating habits. A multi-research strategy is needed to identify what the optimal amounts and timing of physical activity are for reducing shiftwork-related sleep problems. The relationships between sleep, exercise and diet are also important, given the recently reported associations between short sleep length and obesity. The cardiovascular safety of exercise timing should also be considered, since recent data suggest that the reactivity of blood pressure to a change in general physical activity is highest during the morning. This time is associated with an increased risk in general of a sudden cardiac event, but more research work is needed to separate the influences of light, posture and exercise per se on the haemodynamic responses to sleep and physical activity following sleep taken at night and during the day as a nap. PMID:17067643

  1. Relationship between diet/physical activity and health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity and four of the leading causes of death - heart disease, cancer, stroke, and type 2 diabetes mellitus - are related to lifestyle. The combination of a healthy weight, prudent diet, and daily physical activity clearly plays a role in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of these and o...

  2. Relationships between sleep, physical activity and human health

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Greg; Davenne, Damien

    2009-01-01

    Although sleep and exercise may seem to be mediated by completely different physiological mechanisms, there is growing evidence for clinically important relationships between these two behaviors. It is known that passive body heating facilitates the nocturnal sleep of healthy elderly people with insomnia. This finding supports the hypothesis that changes in body temperature trigger somnogenic brain areas to initiate sleep. Nevertheless, little is known about how the core and distal thermoregulatory responses to exercise fit into this hypothesis. Such knowledge could also help in reducing sleep problems associated with nocturnal shiftwork. It is difficult to incorporate physical activity into a shiftworker's lifestyle, since it is already disrupted in terms of family commitments and eating habits. A multi-research strategy is needed to identify what the optimal amounts and timing of physical activity are for reducing shiftwork-related sleep problems. The relationships between sleep, exercise and diet are also important, given the recently reported associations between short sleep length and obesity. The cardiovascular safety of exercise timing should also be considered, since recent data suggest that the reactivity of blood pressure to a change in general physical activity is highest during the morning. This time is associated with an increased risk in general of a sudden cardiac event, but more research work is needed to separate the influences of light, posture and exercise per se on the haemodynamic responses to sleep and physical activity following sleep taken at night and during the day as a nap. PMID:17067643

  3. Health-Promoting Physical Activity and Extra-Curricular Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtner-Smith, Matthew; Sofo, Seidu; Chouinard, Jeremy; Wallace, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this exploratory study was to determine the percentage of time in which school pupils coached by teachers were engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during extra-curricular sport practices. Three secondary purposes of the study were to determine (a) the percentage of time allocated by teachers for pupils…

  4. Canted-Cosine-Theta Superconducting Accelerator Magnets for High Energy Physics and Ion Beam Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, Lucas Nathan

    Advances in superconducting magnet technology have historically enabled the construction of new, higher energy hadron colliders. Looking forward to the needs of a potential future collider, a significant increase in magnet field and performance is required. Such a task requires an open mind to the investigation of new design concepts for high field magnets. Part I of this thesis will present an investigation of the Canted-Cosine-Theta (CCT) design for high field Nb3Sn magnets. New analytic and finite element methods for analysis of CCT magnets will be given, along with a discussion on optimization of the design for high field. The design, fabrication, and successful test of the 2.5 T NbTi dipole CCT1 will be presented as a proof-of-principle step towards a high field Nb3Sn magnet. Finally, the design and initial steps in the fabrication of the 16 T Nb3Sn dipole CCT2 will be described. Part II of this thesis will investigate the CCT concept extended to a curved magnet for use in an ion beam therapy gantry. The introduction of superconducting technology in this field shows promise to reduce the weight and cost of gantries, as well as open the door to new beam optics solutions with high energy acceptance. An analytic approach developed for modeling curved CCT magnets will be presented, followed by a design study of a superconducting magnet for a proton therapy gantry. Finally, a new magnet concept called the "Alternating Gradient CCT" (AG-CCT) will be introduced. This concept will be shown to be a practical magnet solution for achieving the alternating quadrupole fields desired for an achromatic gantry, allowing for the consideration of treatment with minimal field changes in the superconducting magnets. The primary motivation of this thesis is to share new developments for Canted-Cosine-Theta superconducting magnets, with the hope this design will improve technology for high energy physics and ion beam cancer therapy.

  5. An Examination of the Relationship between Enjoyment, Physical Education, Physical Activity and Health in Irish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Catherine B.; Tannehill, Deborah; Walsh, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Enjoyment of physical activity (EPA) is positively correlated with activity, yet little is known of its relationship with enjoyment of physical education (EPE). This study's purpose was to explore EPE and its relationship to EPA. Cross-sectional data (N = 4122, average age 14.5 plus or minus 1.7 years, 48% male) were collected as part of the CSPPA…

  6. Dog ownership and dog walking to promote physical activity and health in patients.

    PubMed

    Epping, Jacqueline N

    2011-07-01

    Lack of physical activity is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases and conditions and is associated with significant medical costs. Approximately half of adults and more than a third of adolescents and youth in the United States do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Effective population-level strategies are needed to promote activities that are practical, accessible, and sustainable and that can reach a large proportion of the population. Dog walking may be such a strategy. Walking is popular, easy, and sustainable and has a low risk of injury. Owning dogs confers many health benefits, and dog walking, in particular, can help promote physical activity and improve health. Physicians and other health care providers can play a unique and integral role in promoting physical activity among patients by recommending dog walking both to dog owners and to non-dog owners as a purposeful, enjoyable, and sustainable form of regular physical activity. PMID:23531898

  7. Nuclear engineering, health physics, and radioactive waste management fellowship program: Summary of program activities: Nuclear engineering and health physics fellowship, 1985-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Progress is reported in the nuclear engineering and health physics elements of the fellowship program. Statistics are given on numbers of student applications and new appointments, the degree areas of applicants, GPA and GRE score averages of the fellows, and employment of completed fellows. (LEW)

  8. Assessing nutrition and physical health disparisties for a college population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rural regions are often underserved, and although the Delta region of the United States has a rich history, health disparities abound. A university located in the region has an obligation to address issues of importance to its constituents. Healthy lifestyle obstacles faced by students who hail from...

  9. Physical Attractiveness and Health: Comment on Weeden and Sabini

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammer, Karl; Fink, Bernhard; Moller, Anders P.; Manning, John T.

    2005-01-01

    Evolutionary behavioral biology suggests that certain characteristics of the human face and body are important for mate preferences and are therefore subject to sexual selection. J. Weeden and J. Sabini identify a number of weaknesses in the association between traits' attractiveness and health. In contrast, the authors argue that (a) studies on…

  10. Forgiving the self and physical and mental health correlates: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Davis, Don E; Ho, Man Yee; Griffin, Brandon J; Bell, Chris; Hook, Joshua N; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Worthington, Everett L; Westbrook, Charles J

    2015-04-01

    Self-forgiveness has been conceptualized as a coping strategy that may improve health and well-being. To better understand the functions of self-forgiveness, this meta-analysis examines the correlates of self-forgiveness associated with physical and mental health. For physical health, across 18 samples and 5,653 participants, the correlation was .32. For psychological well-being, across 65 samples and 17,939 participants, the correlation was .45. To augment this primary focus on physical and mental health correlates, we estimated the relationships between self-forgiveness and specific mental health constructs and relationship outcomes. Implications for future basic and applied research on self-forgiveness are discussed. PMID:25867697

  11. Factors Contributing to Mental and Physical Health Care in a Disaster-Prone Environment.

    PubMed

    Osofsky, Howard J; Hansel, Tonya Cross; Osofsky, Joy D; Speier, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Environment as a contextual factor plays an important role in southeastern Louisiana, as this area represents a major economic hub for the United States port, petroleum, and fishing industries. The location also exposes the population to both natural and technological disasters, including Hurricane Katrina and the Gulf oil spill. This study explored associations among hurricane loss, oil spill disruption, and environmental quality of life on mental and physical health on over 1,000 residents (N = 1,225) using structural equation modeling techniques. Results showed that oil spill distress was associated with increased symptoms of mental and physical health; Hurricane Katrina loss; and decreased environmental quality of life. Findings also indicate that mental health symptoms explain the association among oil spill distress and physical health symptoms-specifically, those that overlap with somatic complaints. These findings provide important support of the need for mental health assessment and service availability for disaster recovery. PMID:26287389

  12. Health physics fundamentals, radiation protection, and radioactive waste treatment. Volume ten

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Topics include health physics fundamentals (is radiation dangerous, what is health physics, federal regulations, presence of radiation, sources of radiation, types of radiation), radiation protection (amounts of radiation, radiation measurement, individual radiation exposure measurements, reducing the effects of radiation), and radioactive waste treatment (what are radioactive wastes, gaseous radioactive waste, liquid radioactive waste, solid radioactive waste, methods of rad-waste treatment, PWR and BWR radwaste treatment.

  13. Physical Education's Role in Public Health: Steps Forward and Backward over 20 Years and HOPE for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallis, James F.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Beets, Michael W.; Beighle, Aaron; Erwin, Heather; Lee, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The 1991 paper, "Physical Education's Role in Public Health" described the importance of physical education in addressing public health problems. On its 20th anniversary, this article reviews accomplishments in improving the health impact of physical education and identifies areas lacking progress. Major accomplishments include development of…

  14. The Impact of Violence and Abuse on Women's Physical Health: Can Trauma-Informed Treatment Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbecker, Inka; Clark, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    A history of traumatic experiences has been associated with poor physical health. This study examined associations between trauma and physical health, as well as changes in physical health over time, in women with co-occurring disorders and histories of violence who received either integrated trauma-informed services or usual care. Results…

  15. A relational model of sexual minority mental and physical health: The negative effects of shame on relationships, loneliness, and health.

    PubMed

    Mereish, Ethan H; Poteat, V Paul

    2015-07-01

    Sexual minorities (e.g., lesbians, gay men, bisexual individuals) are at an increased risk for poorer mental and physical health outcomes than heterosexuals, and some of these health disparities relate to minority stressors such as discrimination. Yet, there is little research elucidating pathways that predict health or that promote resiliency among sexual minorities. Building on the minority stress model, the present study utilized relational cultural theory to situate sexual minority health within a relational framework. Specifically, the study tested mediators of the relationships between distal (i.e., discrimination, rejection, victimization) and proximal stressors (i.e., internalized homophobia, sexual orientation concealment) and psychological and physical distress for sexual minorities. Among 719 sexual minority adults, structural equation modeling analyses were used to test 4 models reflecting the mediating effects of shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) community, and loneliness on the associations between minority stressors and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) and physical distress (i.e., distressing physical symptoms). As hypothesized, the associations between distal and proximal minority stressors and distress were mediated by shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness. Findings underscore the possible relational and interpersonal mechanisms by which sexual minority stressors lead to psychological and physical distress. PMID:26010289

  16. Biological mechanisms underlying the role of physical fitness in health and resilience

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Marni N.; Deuster, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical fitness, achieved through regular exercise and/or spontaneous physical activity, confers resilience by inducing positive psychological and physiological benefits, blunting stress reactivity, protecting against potentially adverse behavioural and metabolic consequences of stressful events and preventing many chronic diseases. In this review, we discuss the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical fitness on mental and physical health. Physical fitness appears to buffer against stress-related disease owing to its blunting/optimizing effects on hormonal stress responsive systems, such as the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system. This blunting appears to contribute to reduced emotional, physiological and metabolic reactivity as well as increased positive mood and well-being. Another mechanism whereby regular exercise and/or physical fitness may confer resilience is through minimizing excessive inflammation. Chronic psychological stress, physical inactivity and abdominal adiposity have been associated with persistent, systemic, low-grade inflammation and exert adverse effects on mental and physical health. The anti-inflammatory effects of regular exercise/activity can promote behavioural and metabolic resilience, and protect against various chronic diseases associated with systemic inflammation. Moreover, exercise may benefit the brain by enhancing growth factor expression and neural plasticity, thereby contributing to improved mood and cognition. In summary, the mechanisms whereby physical fitness promotes increased resilience and well-being and positive psychological and physical health are diverse and complex. PMID:25285199

  17. The impact of anticipated stigma on psychological and physical health problems in the unemployed group

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Aisling T.; Corrigan, Fiona; Gallagher, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the unemployed suffer increased psychological and physical health problems compared to their employed counterparts. Further, unemployment leads to an unwanted new social identity that is stigmatizing, and stigma is known to be a stressor causing psychological and physical health problems. However, it is not yet known whether being stigmatized as an unemployed group member is associated with psychological and physical health in this group. The current study tested the impact of anticipated stigma (AS) on psychological distress (PD) and physical health problems, operationalized as somatic symptoms (SSs), in a volunteer sample of unemployed people. Results revealed that AS had a direct effect on both PD and SSs, such that greater AS significantly predicted higher levels of both. Moreover, the direct effect on SSs became non-significant when PD was taken into account. Thus, to the extent that unemployed participants anticipated experiencing greater stigma, they also reported increased PD, and this PD predicted increased SSs. Our findings complement and extend the existing literature on the relationships between stigmatized identities, PD and physical health problems, particularly in relation to the unemployed group. This group is important to consider both theoretically, given the unwanted and transient nature of the identity compared to other stigmatized identities, but also practically, as the findings indicate a need to orient to the perceived valence of the unemployed identity and its effects on psychological and physical health. PMID:26379589

  18. Associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Pate, R R; Heath, G W; Dowda, M; Trost, S G

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents. METHODS: In the 1990 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 11631 high school students provided information on physical activity; diet; substance use; and other negative health behaviors. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a subset of 2652 high-active and 1641 low-active students. RESULTS: Low activity was associated with cigarette smoking, marijuana use, lower fruit and vegetable consumption, greater television watching, failure to wear a seat belt, and low perception of academic performance. For consumption of fruit, television watching, and alcohol consumption, significant interactions were found with race/ethnicity or sex, suggesting that sociocultural factors may affect the relationships between physical activity and some health behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Low physical activity was associated with several other negative health behaviors in teenagers. Future studies should examine whether interventions for increasing physical activity in youth can be effective in reducing negative health behaviors. PMID:8916523

  19. Physical and Mental Health Disparities among Young Children of Asian Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Cheng, Sabrina; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine physical and mental health functioning among Asian-American children of US-born and immigrant parents. Study design We used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999 base-year public data file. The sample was restricted to 7726 Asian and US-born white children. Asian subgroups were created based on parents’ country of birth. Child physical and mental health was assessed based on multiple sources of data and measures. Analyses included multivariate linear and logistic regression. Results After adjusting for demographic and contextual differences, disparities were found for physical and mental health indicators. Children of foreign-born Asian families (from east, southeast, and south Asia) were at greater risk for poor physical health, internalizing problems, and inadequate interpersonal relationships compared with children of US-born white families. Conclusion There is little support for the “model minority” myth with regard to physical and mental health. Evidence of physical and mental health disparities among young Asian-American children and differing risk based on region of origin of immigrant parents suggests the need for culturally informed prevention efforts during early childhood. PMID:21907351

  20. The Role of Physical Activity in Preconception, Pregnancy and Postpartum Health.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Cheryce L; Brown, Wendy J; Hayman, Melanie; Moran, Lisa J; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-03-01

    The rise in obesity and associated morbidity is currently one of our greatest public health challenges. Women represent a high risk group for weight gain with associated metabolic, cardiovascular, reproductive and psychological health impacts. Regular physical activity is fundamental for health and well-being with protective benefits across the spectrum of women's health. Preconception, pregnancy and the early postpartum period represent opportune windows to engage women in regular physical activity to optimize health and prevent weight gain with added potential to transfer behavior change more broadly to children and families. This review summarizes the current evidence for the role of physical activity for women in relation to preconception (infertility, assisted reproductive therapy, polycystic ovary syndrome, weight gain prevention and psychological well-being) pregnancy (prevention of excess gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes and preeclampsia as well as labor and neonatal outcomes) and postpartum (lactation and breastfeeding, postpartum weight retention and depression) health. Beneficial outcomes validate the importance of regular physical activity, yet key methodological gaps highlight the need for large, high-quality studies to clarify the optimal type, frequency, duration and intensity of physical activity required for beneficial health outcomes during preconception, pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:27169984