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Sample records for accelerator laboratory pal

  1. Status of the PAL-XFEL undulator program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Eon; Park, Ki-Hyeon; Kang, Heung-Sik; Ko, In-Soo; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Pflueger, Jochaim

    2015-05-01

    Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL) is developing a 0.1 nm SASE based FEL based on 10 GeV S-band linear accelerator named PAL-XFEL. At the first stage, PAL-XFEL needs two undulator lines for photon source. The hard Xray undulator line requires 18 units of 5 m long hybrid-type conventional planar undulator and soft X-ray line requires 6 units of 5 m long hybrid type planar undulator with additional few EPUs for final polarization control. PAL is developing undulator magnetic structure based on EU-XFEL concepts. The key parameters are min pole gap of 8.3 mm, with period length 26 mm (HXU), 35 mm (SXU), and 5.0 m magnetic length. . In this report, the prototyping, and the development of pole tuning procedure, the impact of the background field error, and the effects of the girder bending on the optical phase error will be presented.

  2. The Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.

    1992-09-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility comprises a 50 MeV traveling wave electron linear accelerator utilizing a high gradient, photo-excited, raidofrequency electron gun as an injector and an experimental area for study of new acceleration methods or advanced radiation sources using free electron lasers. Early operation of the linear accelerator system including calculated and measured beam parameters are presented together with the experimental program for accelerator physics and free electron laser studies.

  3. The Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility comprises a 50 MeV traveling wave electron linear accelerator utilizing a high gradient, photo-excited, raidofrequency electron gun as an injector and an experimental area for study of new acceleration methods or advanced radiation sources using free electron lasers. Early operation of the linear accelerator system including calculated and measured beam parameters are presented together with the experimental program for accelerator physics and free electron laser studies.

  4. Vehicle Systems Integration Laboratory Accelerates Powertrain Development

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    ORNL's Vehicle Systems Integration (VSI) Laboratory accelerates the pace of powertrain development by performing prototype research and characterization of advanced systems and hardware components. The VSI Lab is capable of accommodating a range of platforms from advanced light-duty vehicles to hybridized Class 8 powertrains with the goals of improving overall system efficiency and reducing emissions.

  5. Vehicle Systems Integration Laboratory Accelerates Powertrain Development

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-15

    ORNL's Vehicle Systems Integration (VSI) Laboratory accelerates the pace of powertrain development by performing prototype research and characterization of advanced systems and hardware components. The VSI Lab is capable of accommodating a range of platforms from advanced light-duty vehicles to hybridized Class 8 powertrains with the goals of improving overall system efficiency and reducing emissions.

  6. Numerical and laboratory simulations of auroral acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Gunell, H.; De Keyser, J.; Mann, I.

    2013-10-15

    The existence of parallel electric fields is an essential ingredient of auroral physics, leading to the acceleration of particles that give rise to the auroral displays. An auroral flux tube is modelled using electrostatic Vlasov simulations, and the results are compared to simulations of a proposed laboratory device that is meant for studies of the plasma physical processes that occur on auroral field lines. The hot magnetospheric plasma is represented by a gas discharge plasma source in the laboratory device, and the cold plasma mimicking the ionospheric plasma is generated by a Q-machine source. In both systems, double layers form with plasma density gradients concentrated on their high potential sides. The systems differ regarding the properties of ion acoustic waves that are heavily damped in the magnetosphere, where the ion population is hot, but weakly damped in the laboratory, where the discharge ions are cold. Ion waves are excited by the ion beam that is created by acceleration in the double layer in both systems. The efficiency of this beam-plasma interaction depends on the acceleration voltage. For voltages where the interaction is less efficient, the laboratory experiment is more space-like.

  7. Observation of particle acceleration in laboratory magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kawazura, Y.; Yoshida, Z.; Nishiura, M.; Saitoh, H.; Yano, Y.; Nogami, T.; Sato, N.; Yamasaki, M.; Kashyap, A.; Mushiake, T.

    2015-11-15

    The self-organization of magnetospheric plasma is brought about by inward diffusion of magnetized particles. Not only creating a density gradient toward the center of a dipole magnetic field, the inward diffusion also accelerates particles and provides a planetary radiation belt with high energy particles. Here, we report the first experimental observation of a “laboratory radiation belt” created in the ring trap 1 device. By spectroscopic measurement, we found an appreciable anisotropy in the ion temperature, proving the betatron acceleration mechanism which heats particles in the perpendicular direction with respect to the magnetic field when particles move inward. The energy balance model, including the heating mechanism, explains the observed ion temperature profile.

  8. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry in Laboratory Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusair, O.; Bauder, W.; Gyürky, G.; Paul, M.; Collon, P.; Fülöp, Zs; Greene, J.; Kinoshita, N.; Palchan, T.; Pardo, R.; Rehm, K. E.; Scott, R.; Vondrasek, R.

    2016-01-01

    The extreme sensitivity and discrimination power of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) allows for the search and the detection of rare nuclides either in natural samples or produced in the laboratory. At Argonne National Laboratory, we are developing an AMS setup aimed in particular at the detection of medium and heavy nuclides, relying on the high ion energy achievable with the ATLAS superconducting linear accelerator and on gas-filled magnet isobaric separation. The setup was recently used for the detection of the 146Sm p-process nuclide and for a new determination of the 146Sm half-life (68.7 My). AMS plays an important role in the measurement of stellar nuclear reaction cross sections by the activation method, extending thus the technique to the study of production of long-lived radionuclides. Preliminary measurements of the 147Sm(γ,n)146Sm are described. A measurement of the 142Nd(α,γ)146Sm and 142Nd(α,n)145Sm reactions is in preparation. A new laser-ablation method for the feeding of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source is described.

  9. PAL: Positional Astronomy Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenness, T.; Berry, D. S.

    2016-06-01

    The PAL library is a partial re-implementation of Pat Wallace's popular SLALIB library written in C using a Gnu GPL license and layered on top of the IAU's SOFA library (or the BSD-licensed ERFA) where appropriate. PAL attempts to stick to the SLA C API where possible.

  10. High Power Beam Test and Measurement of Emittance Evolution of a 1.6-Cell Photocathode RF Gun at Pohang Accelerator Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jang-Ho; Park, Sung-Ju; Kim, Changbum; Parc, Yong-Woon; Hong, Ju-Ho; Huang, Jung-Yun; Xiang, Dao; Wang, Xijie; Ko, In Soo

    2007-04-01

    A Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) GUN-IV type photocathode rf gun has been fabricated to use in femtosecond electron diffraction (FED), femtosecond far infrared radiation (fs-FIR) facility, and X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) facilities at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL). The gun consists of a 1.6-cell cavity with a copper cathode, a solenoid magnet, beam diagnostic components and auxiliary systems. We report here the measurement of the basic beam parameters which confirm a successful fabrication of the photocathode RF gun system. The emittance evolution is measured by an emittance meter and compared with the PARMELA simulation, which shows a good agreement.

  11. Plasma wakefield acceleration at CLARA facility in Daresbury Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, G.; Nie, Y.; Mete, O.; Hanahoe, K.; Dover, M.; Wigram, M.; Wright, J.; Zhang, J.; Smith, J.; Pacey, T.; Li, Y.; Wei, Y.; Welsch, C.

    2016-09-01

    A plasma accelerator research station (PARS) has been proposed to study the key issues in electron driven plasma wakefield acceleration at CLARA facility in Daresbury Laboratory. In this paper, the quasi-nonlinear regime of beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration is analysed. The wakefield excited by various CLARA beam settings are simulated by using a 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) code. For a single drive beam, an accelerating gradient up to 3 GV/m can be achieved. For a two bunch acceleration scenario, simulation shows that a witness bunch can achieve a significant energy gain in a 10-50 cm long plasma cell.

  12. PALS in mathematics classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Mariathy; Mohammed, Siti Rosiah; Bosli, Fazillah; Abdullah, Nurhidayah Masni; Mahat, Aishah; Dasman, Anisah; Tarmuji, Nor Habibah; Ahmad, Salimah

    2014-07-01

    Peer Asissted Learning Strategies (PALS) is a type of cooperative learning where high and low performing students are gathered into a small group to achieve common goals and improve individual's understanding. The objectives of this study are to investigate students' perception about PALS and to identify optional methods to improve the technique for future implementation. The Mengubah Destini Anak Bangsa (MDAB) students selected for this study were from pre diploma level of studies in the Pre-Commerce Program. Cluster sampling was used to randomly select eight out of ten groups. Ninety nine students in the selected group became the respondents. Three groups were identified as Experimental Group (EG) and another five groups as Control Group (CG). A Diagnostic Test was given to all ten groups of students during the first week of class. Students in EG were given instructions using PALS. At the end of the semester, questionnaires were distributed to students in EG and analyzed. This study revealed that students had positive responses to PALS and a few suggestions from students to improve PALS were obtained.

  13. The Paired Associates Learning (PAL) Test: 30 Years of CANTAB Translational Neuroscience from Laboratory to Bedside in Dementia Research.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Jennifer H; Blackwell, Andrew D; Sahakian, Barbara J; Robbins, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    The origins and rationale of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) as a cross-species translational instrument suitable for use in human neuropsychopharmacological studies are reviewed. We focus on its use for the early assessment and detection of Alzheimer's disease, in particular the Paired Associates Learning (PAL) test. We consider its psychometric properties, neural validation, and utility, including studies on large samples of healthy volunteers, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease. We demonstrate how it can be applied in cross-species studies using experimental animals to bridge the cross-species translational 'gap'. We also show how the CANTAB PAL has bridged a second translational 'gap' through its application to the early detection of memory problems in primary care clinics, using iPad technology. PMID:27646012

  14. The target laboratory of the Pelletron Accelerator's facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ueta, Nobuko; Pereira Engel, Wanda Gabriel

    2013-05-06

    A short report on the activities developed in the Target Laboratory, since 1970, will be presented. Basic target laboratory facilities were provided to produce the necessary nuclear targets as well as the ion beam stripper foils. Vacuum evaporation units, a roller, a press and an analytical balance were installed in the Oscar Sala building. A brief historical report will be presented in commemoration of the 40{sup th} year of the Pelletron Accelerator.

  15. Reproduction of natural corrosion by accelerated laboratory testing methods

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, J.S.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Mazer, J.J.; Bates, J.K.

    1996-05-01

    Various laboratory corrosion tests have been developed to study the behavior of glass waste forms under conditions similar to those expected in an engineered repository. The data generated by laboratory experiments are useful for understanding corrosion mechanisms and for developing chemical models to predict the long-term behavior of glass. However, it is challenging to demonstrate that these test methods produce results that can be directly related to projecting the behavior of glass waste forms over time periods of thousands of years. One method to build confidence in the applicability of the test methods is to study the natural processes that have been taking place over very long periods in environments similar to those of the repository. In this paper, we discuss whether accelerated testing methods alter the fundamental mechanisms of glass corrosion by comparing the alteration patterns that occur in naturally altered glasses with those that occur in accelerated laboratory environments. This comparison is done by (1) describing the alteration of glasses reacted in nature over long periods of time and in accelerated laboratory environments and (2) establishing the reaction kinetics of naturally altered glass and laboratory reacted glass waste forms.

  16. The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.

    1990-01-01

    The design of the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility is presented including the design goals and computational results. The heart of the system is a radiofrequency electron gun utilizing a photo-excited metal cathode followed by a conventional electron linac. The Nd:YAG laser used to drive the cathode with 6 ps long pulses can be synchronized to a high peak power CO{sub 2} laser in order to study laser acceleration of electrons. Current operational status of the project will be presented along with early beam tests.

  17. Modeling laser-plasma acceleration in the laboratory frame

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    A simulation of laser-plasma acceleration in the laboratory frame. Both the laser and the wakefield buckets must be resolved over the entire domain of the plasma, requiring many cells and many time steps. While researchers often use a simulation window that moves with the pulse, this reduces only the multitude of cells, not the multitude of time steps. For an artistic impression of how to solve the simulation by using the boosted-frame method, watch the video "Modeling laser-plasma acceleration in the wakefield frame."

  18. Construction status of CXI beamline at PAL-XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaehyun; Nam, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Sangsoo; Kim, Bongsoo; Ko, In Soo; Cho, Moohyun

    2015-05-01

    Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free Electron Laser (PAL-XFEL) is a research facility currently under construction. It will provide ultra-bright (assuming 1 X 1012 photons/pulse at 12.4 keV) and ultra-short (10-60 femtosecond) X-ray pulses. The CXI (Coherent X-ray Imaging) end-station, which will be constructed for hard X-ray beamline at the PAL-XFEL, is designed to deliver brilliant hard x-rays (2-20 keV) and to measure diffraction signals with forward scattering geometry, mainly. Not only will it offer imaging studies of biological, chemical and physical samples by the "diffract-before-destroy" technique, but will also be helpful in high field hard x-ray physics and material science. The scientific programs are currently aimed at serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) for macromolecular systems and coherent diffraction imaging for bio specimens and nano structures etc. In this paper, we describe the details of the beamline layout, X-ray focusing optics (Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and Beryllium CRLs) and sample delivery system (liquid jet/LCP sample injector, fixed target system) that will be installed at the CXI beamline.

  19. Post-accelerator issues at the IsoSpin Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Nitschke, J.M.

    1994-05-01

    The workshop on ``Post-Accelerator Issues at the Isospin Laboratory`` was held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory from October 27--29, 1993. It was sponsored by the Center for Beam Physics in the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division and the ISL Studies Group in the Nuclear Science Division. About forty scientists from around the world participated vigorously in this two and a half day workshop, (c.f. Agenda, Appendix D). Following various invited review talks from leading practitioners in the field on the first day, the workshop focussed around two working groups: (1) the Ion Source and Separators working group and (2) the Radio Frequency Quadrupoles and Linacs working group. The workshop closed with the two working groups summarizing and outlining the tasks for the future. This report documents the proceedings of the workshop and includes the invited review talks, the two summary talks from the working groups and individual contributions from the participants. It is a complete assemblage of state-of-the-art thinking on ion sources, low-{beta}, low(q/A) accelerating structures, e.g. linacs and RFQS, isobar separators, phase-space matching, cyclotrons, etc., as relevant to radioactive beam facilities and the IsoSpin Laboratory. We regret to say that while the fascinating topic of superconducting low-velocity accelerator structure was covered by Dr. K. Shepard during the workshop, we can only reproduce the copies of the transparencies of his talk in the Appendix, since no written manuscript was available at the time of publication of this report. The individual report have been catologed separately elsewhere.

  20. Use of the BINP HLS to measure vertical changes in the locations of the building and ground at the PAL-XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyo-Jin; Seo, Kwang-Won; Gil, Kye-Hwan; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Kang, Heung-Sik

    2016-09-01

    The Pohang Accelerator Laboratory's X-ray free-electron laser (PAL-XFEL), a 4 th generation light source, is currently being installed and will be completed by December 2015 so that users can be supported beginning in 2016. The PAL-XFEL equipment must continuously maintain the bunch-tobunch beam parameters (60 Hz, Energy: 10 GeV, Charge: 200 pC, Bunch Length: 60 fs, Emittance X/Y: 0.481/0.256 mm rad) in order to supply stable photons with the energy and flux appropriate for tests by beamline users. To this end, the PAL-XFEL equipment has to be kept precisely aligned (Linear Accelerator: +/- 100 μm, Undulator: +/- 50 μm). As a part of the process for installing the PAL-XFEL, a GPS-using surface geodetic network is being constructed for precise equipment measurement and alignment, and the installation of a tunnel measurement network inside the buildings is in the preparation stage; additionally, the fiducialization of major equipment is underway. After the PAL-XFEL equipment is optimized and aligned, if the ground and the buildings go through vertical changes during operation, misalignment (and tilt) of the equipment, including various magnets and RF structures, will cause errors in the electron beam's trajectory, which will lead to changes to the beam parameters. For continuous and systemic measurement of vertical changes in the buildings and monitoring of ground sinking and uplifting, the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) Ultrasonic-type Hydrostatic Levelling System (HLS) is to be installed and operated in all sections of the PAL-XFEL for the linear accelerator, the insertion device (undulator) and the beamline. This study will introduce the operation principle, design concept, and advantages (self-calibration) of the HLS and will outline its installation plan and operation plan.

  1. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    SciTech Connect

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Nirkko, M.; Weber, M.; Scampoli, P.; Bremen, K. von

    2013-07-18

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University of Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study.

  2. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Nirkko, M.; Scampoli, P.; von Bremen, K.; Weber, M.

    2013-07-01

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University of Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study.

  3. PREFACE: Acceleration and radiation generation in space and laboratory plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, R.; Katsouleas, T.; Dawson, J. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-six leading researchers from ten nations gathered in the Homeric village of Kardamyli, on the southern coast of mainland Greece, from August 29-September 4, 1993 for the International Workshop on Acceleration and Radiation Generation in Space and Laboratory Plasmas. This Special Issue represents a cross-section of the presentations made at and the research stimulated by that meeting. According to the Iliad, King Agamemnon used Kardamyli as a dowry offering in order to draw a sulking Achilles into the Trojan War. 3000 years later, Kardamyli is no less seductive. Its remoteness and tranquility made it an ideal venue for promoting the free exchange of ideas between various disciplines that do not normally interact. Through invited presen tations, informal poster discussions and working group sessions, the Workshop brought together leaders from the laboratory and space/astrophysics communities working on common problems of acceleration and radiation generation in plasmas. It was clear from the presentation and discussion sessions that there is a great deal of common ground between these disciplines which is not at first obvious due to the differing terminologies and types of observations available to each community. All of the papers in this Special Issue highlight the role collective plasma processes play in accelerating particles or generating radiation. Some are state-of-the-art presentations of the latest research in a single discipline, while others investi gate the applicability of known laboratory mechanisms to explain observations in natural plasmas. Notable among the latter are the papers by Marshall et al. on kHz radiation in the magnetosphere ; Barletta et al. on collective acceleration in solar flares; and by Dendy et al. on ion cyclotron emission. The papers in this Issue are organized as follows: In Section 1 are four general papers by Dawson, Galeev, Bingham et al. and Mon which serves as an introduction to the physical mechanisms of acceleration

  4. Ultra Stable Capacitor charging Power Supply of Klystron-Modulator for PAL XFEL

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Y. G.; Kwon, S. J.; Jang, S. D.; Suh, J. H.; Oh, J. S.

    2007-01-19

    The PAL (Pohang Accelerator Laboratory) 2.5-GeV linac is planed to be converted to a SASE-XFEL facility (PAL XFEL) that supplies coherent X-rays down to 0.3-nm wavelength. The electron beams has to have an emittance of 1.0 mm-mrad, a peak current of 3 kA, and a low energy spread of 1.0 MeV. In order to provide reasonably stable SASE output, the RF stability of 0.02% rms is required for both RF phase and amplitude. This stability is mainly determined by a low level RF drive system and klystron-modulators. The stability level of the modulator has to be improved 10 times better to meet the pulse stability of 0.02%. This is a technologically challenging issue for PAL XFEL. An inverter technology is to be applied to charge the PFN of a new modulator. Therefore, a new inverter system should provide very stable charging performances. This paper presents the development of an ultra stable klystron-modulator with an inverter power.

  5. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), conducted September 14 through 25, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual participants for the Survey team are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Fermilab. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at Fermilab, and interviews with site personnel. 110 refs., 26 figs., 41 tabs.

  6. Los Alamos National Laboratory accelerated tru waste workoff strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Kosiewicz, S.T.; Triay, I.R.; Rogers, P.Z.; Christensen, D.V.

    1997-03-01

    During 1996, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed two transuranic (TRU) waste workoff strategies that were estimated to save $270 - 340M through accelerated waste workoff and the elimination of a facility. The planning effort included a strategy to assure that LANL would have a significant quantity (3000+ drums) of TRU waste certified for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) beginning in April of 1998, when WIPP was projected to open. One of the accelerated strategies can be completed in less than ten years through a Total Optimization of Parameters Scenario ({open_quotes}TOPS{close_quotes}). {open_quotes}TOPS{close_quotes} fully utilizes existing LANL facilities and capabilities. For this scenario, funding was estimated to be unconstrained at $23M annually to certify and ship the legacy inventory of TRU waste at LANL. With {open_quotes}TOPS{close_quotes} the inventory is worked off in about 8.5 years while shipping 5,000 drums per year at a total cost of $196M. This workoff includes retrieval from earthen cover and interim storage costs. The other scenario envisioned funding at the current level with some increase for TRUPACT II loading costs, which total $16M annually. At this funding level, LANL estimates it will require about 17 years to work off the LANL TRU legacy waste while shipping 2,500 drums per year to WIPP. The total cost will be $277M. This latter scenario decreases the time for workoff by about 19 years from previous estimates and saves an estimated $190M. In addition, the planning showed that a $70M facility for TRU waste characterization was not needed. After the first draft of the LANL strategies was written, Congress amended the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) to accelerate the opening of WIPP to November 1997. Further, the No Migration Variance requirement for the WIPP was removed. This paper discusses the LANL strategies as they were originally developed. 1 ref., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Center for accelerator mass spectrometry Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.L.; Southon, J.R.; Proctor, I.D.

    1997-09-01

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a multi-disciplinary research organization that conducts both technological and applications research. CAMS operates both an HVEC FN tandem and a NEC Model 5SDH-2 tandem accelerator. Using highly sensitive accelerator-based element and isotope detection methods, staff at CAMS collaborate with a broad scope of external and internal researchers to solve problems for LLNL, the University of California, the U.S. Department of Energy, and other academic, government, and industrial laboratories. The HVEC FN tandem is used by the LLNL Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) group. AMS is a technique that uses isotope ratio mass spectrometry at MeV energies to quantify long lived radioisotopes. For AMS, the FN tandem is operated under a distributed computer control system that makes possible rapid and precise switching between experimental configurations on a daily basis. The accelerator and beam lines are unshielded with radiation protection provided by a computer supervised radiation monitoring system and proximity shielding. With AMS, we routinely measure the isotopes {sup 3} H, {sup 7} Be, {sup 10} Be, {sup 14} C, {sup 26} Al, {sup 36} Cl, {sup 41} Ca, {sup 59} Ni, and {sup 129} I at abundances as low as 1 part in 10{sup 15} . Research programs are as diverse as archaeology, dosimetry of carcinogens and mutagens, oceanic and atmospheric chemistry, paleoclimatology, and detection of signatures of nuclear fuel reprocessing for non-proliferation purposes. During the past year our AMS group has run approximately 20,000 research samples. The NEC Model 5SDH-2 tandem accelerator is used by the Ion Micro Analysis Group (IMAG), a joint collaboration between LLNL and Sandia National Laboratories/California in biological and materials science research. The 1.7 MV accelerator and an Oxford Microbeams Quadrupole Triplet Lens System are used to create a 3 MeV micron scale focused ion

  8. Tiger Team Assessment of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This draft report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) located in Batavia, Illinois. Fermilab is a program-dedicated national laboratory managed by the Universities Research Association, Inc. (URA) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Tiger Team Assessment was conducted from May 11 to June 8, 1992, under the auspices of DOE's Office of Special Projects (OSP) under the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing environmental, safety and health (ES H), and quality assurance (QA) disciplines; site remediation; facilities management; and waste management operations. Compliance with applicable Federal , State of Illinois, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal Fermilab requirements was addressed. In addition, an evaluation of the effectiveness of DOE and Fermilab management of the ES H/QA and self-assessment programs was conducted. The Fermilab Tiger Team Assessment is part a larger, comprehensive DOE Tiger Team Independent Assessment Program planned for DOE facilities. The objective of the initiative is to provide the Secretary of Energy with information on the compliance status of DOE facilities with regard to ES H requirements, root causes for noncompliance, adequacy of DOE and contractor ES H management programs, response actions to address the identified problem areas, and DOE-wide ES H compliance trends and root causes.

  9. Tiger Team Assessment of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This draft report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) located in Batavia, Illinois. Fermilab is a program-dedicated national laboratory managed by the Universities Research Association, Inc. (URA) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Tiger Team Assessment was conducted from May 11 to June 8, 1992, under the auspices of DOE`s Office of Special Projects (OSP) under the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing environmental, safety and health (ES&H), and quality assurance (QA) disciplines; site remediation; facilities management; and waste management operations. Compliance with applicable Federal , State of Illinois, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal Fermilab requirements was addressed. In addition, an evaluation of the effectiveness of DOE and Fermilab management of the ES&H/QA and self-assessment programs was conducted. The Fermilab Tiger Team Assessment is part a larger, comprehensive DOE Tiger Team Independent Assessment Program planned for DOE facilities. The objective of the initiative is to provide the Secretary of Energy with information on the compliance status of DOE facilities with regard to ES&H requirements, root causes for noncompliance, adequacy of DOE and contractor ES&H management programs, response actions to address the identified problem areas, and DOE-wide ES&H compliance trends and root causes.

  10. PAL(TM) 2.0 Human Anatomy Software Tool Use in Community College Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyatt, Brian Lee

    2012-01-01

    Human anatomy courses, with laboratory, are curricular requirements in graduate medical, undergraduate nursing, and all allied health science programs. Anatomy laboratory courses engage students in hands-on activities, including human cadaver or mammalian dissection, supported by photos from textbooks, detailed plastic models or human anatomical…

  11. Laboratory Test of Newton's Second Law for Small Accelerations

    SciTech Connect

    Gundlach, J. H.; Schlamminger, S.; Spitzer, C. D.; Choi, K.-Y.; Woodahl, B. A.; Coy, J. J.; Fischbach, E.

    2007-04-13

    We have tested the proportionality of force and acceleration in Newton's second law, F=ma, in the limit of small forces and accelerations. Our tests reach well below the acceleration scales relevant to understanding several current astrophysical puzzles such as the flatness of galactic rotation curves, the Pioneer anomaly, and the Hubble acceleration. We find good agreement with Newton's second law at accelerations as small as 5x10{sup -14} m/s{sup 2}.

  12. Laboratory test of Newton's second law for small accelerations.

    PubMed

    Gundlach, J H; Schlamminger, S; Spitzer, C D; Choi, K-Y; Woodahl, B A; Coy, J J; Fischbach, E

    2007-04-13

    We have tested the proportionality of force and acceleration in Newton's second law, F=ma, in the limit of small forces and accelerations. Our tests reach well below the acceleration scales relevant to understanding several current astrophysical puzzles such as the flatness of galactic rotation curves, the Pioneer anomaly, and the Hubble acceleration. We find good agreement with Newton's second law at accelerations as small as 5 x 10(-14) m/s(2).

  13. Analysis of a Proposed Student Laboratory to Study Nonuniform Acceleration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowat, J. Richard

    1991-01-01

    Considered is an experiment used to investigate one-dimensional, nonuniform acceleration. Presented is the correct expression for the acceleration, generalized to include friction and describe simulations supporting student data. The feasibility of the experiment is questioned. (CW)

  14. Individually designed PALs vs. power optimized PALs adaptation comparison.

    PubMed

    Muždalo, Nataša Vujko; Mihelčič, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    The practice shows that in everyday life we encounter ever-growing demand for better visual acuity at all viewing distances. The presbyopic population needs correction to far, near and intermediate distance with different dioptric powers. PAL lenses seem to be a comfortable solution. The object of the present study is the analysis of the factors determining adaptation to progressive addition lenses (PAL) of the first-time users. Only novice test persons were chosen in order to avoid the bias of previously worn particular lens design. For optimal results with this type of lens, several individual parameters must be considered: correct refraction, precise ocular and facial measures, and proper mounting of lenses into the frame. Nevertheless, first time wearers encounter various difficulties in the process of adapting to this type of glasses and adaptation time differs greatly between individual users. The question that arises is how much the individual parameters really affect the ease of adaptation and comfort when wearing progressive glasses. To clarify this, in the present study, the individual PAL lenses--Rodenstock's Impression FreeSign (with inclusion of all parameters related to the user's eye and spectacle frame: prescription, pupillary distance, fitting height, back vertex distance, pantoscopic angle and curvature of the frame) were compared to power optimized PAL--Rodenstock's Multigressiv MyView (respecting only prescription power and pupillary distance). Adaptation process was monitored over a period of four weeks. The collected results represent scores of user's subjective impressions, where the users themselves rated their adaptation to new progressive glasses and the degree of subjective visual impression. The results show that adaptation time to fully individually fit PAL is easier and quickly. The information obtained from users is valuable in everyday optometry practice because along with the manufacturer's specifications, the user's experience can

  15. Individually designed PALs vs. power optimized PALs adaptation comparison.

    PubMed

    Muždalo, Nataša Vujko; Mihelčič, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    The practice shows that in everyday life we encounter ever-growing demand for better visual acuity at all viewing distances. The presbyopic population needs correction to far, near and intermediate distance with different dioptric powers. PAL lenses seem to be a comfortable solution. The object of the present study is the analysis of the factors determining adaptation to progressive addition lenses (PAL) of the first-time users. Only novice test persons were chosen in order to avoid the bias of previously worn particular lens design. For optimal results with this type of lens, several individual parameters must be considered: correct refraction, precise ocular and facial measures, and proper mounting of lenses into the frame. Nevertheless, first time wearers encounter various difficulties in the process of adapting to this type of glasses and adaptation time differs greatly between individual users. The question that arises is how much the individual parameters really affect the ease of adaptation and comfort when wearing progressive glasses. To clarify this, in the present study, the individual PAL lenses--Rodenstock's Impression FreeSign (with inclusion of all parameters related to the user's eye and spectacle frame: prescription, pupillary distance, fitting height, back vertex distance, pantoscopic angle and curvature of the frame) were compared to power optimized PAL--Rodenstock's Multigressiv MyView (respecting only prescription power and pupillary distance). Adaptation process was monitored over a period of four weeks. The collected results represent scores of user's subjective impressions, where the users themselves rated their adaptation to new progressive glasses and the degree of subjective visual impression. The results show that adaptation time to fully individually fit PAL is easier and quickly. The information obtained from users is valuable in everyday optometry practice because along with the manufacturer's specifications, the user's experience can

  16. Pen Pals: Practicing Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampe, Kristen A.; Uselmann, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a semester-long pen-pal project in which preservice teachers composed mathematical problems and the middle school students worked for solutions. The college students assessed the solution and the middle school students provided feedback regarding the problem itself. (Contains 6 figures.)

  17. Dust accelerator tests of the LDEX laboratory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. W.; Bugiel, S.; Hofmann, B.; Horanyi, M.; Sternovsky, Z.; Srama, R.

    2015-10-01

    The LDEX (Lunar Dust EXperiment) sensor onboard lunar orbiter LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer) was designed to characterize the size and spatial distributions of micron and sub-micron sized dust grains. Recent results of the data analysis showed strong evidence for the existence of a dust cloud around the moon. LDEX performs in situ measurements of dust impacts along the LADEE or-bit. The impact speed of the observed dust grains is close to 1.7 km/s (the speed of the spacecraft), since the dust grains are considered on bound orbits close to the maximum height of their ballistic motion. LDEX is an impact ionization dust detector for in situ measurements. The detection of a dust grains is based on measuring the charge generated by high speed impacts (>1km/s) on a rhodium coated target. The impact charge Q is a function of both the speed v and the mass m of the impacting dust particle. The characteristic values are dependent on the instrument geometry, the impact surface properties (material), the impact geometry (impact angle) and the particle properties (material, density, speed, mass, shape). In our tests we used PPy-coated olivine and PPy-coated ortho-pyroxene with impact speeds around 1.7 km/s. A LDEX laboratory model was designed and manufactured by the University of Stuttgart. The model is used to support calibration activities of the Univ. of Colorado and to perform special tests (impact angle and impact location variations) at the dust accelerator facility at MPI-K (Heidelberg) which is operated by the IRS of the University of Stuttgart.

  18. Vacuum Systems Consensus Guideline for Department of Energy Accelerator Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Casey,R.; Haas, E.; Hseuh, H-C.; Kane, S.; Lessard, E.; Sharma, S.; Collins, J.; Toter, W. F.; Olis, D. R.; Pushka, D. R.; Ladd, P.; Jobe, R. K.

    2008-09-09

    inspections of materials, in-process fabrications, non-destructive tests, and acceptance test. (3) Documentation, traceability, and accountability must be maintained for each unique pressure vessel or system, including descriptions of design, pressure conditions, testing, inspection, operation, repair, and maintenance. The purpose of this guideline is to establish a set of expectations and recommendations which will satisfy the requirements for vacuum vessels in general and particularly when an equivalent level of safety as required by 10 CFR 851 must be provided. It should be noted that these guidelines are not binding on DOE Accelerator Laboratories and that other approaches may be equally acceptable in addressing the Part 851 requirements.

  19. The Scanning Electron Microscope As An Accelerator For The Undergraduate Advanced Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Randolph S.; Berggren, Karl K.; Mondol, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Few universities or colleges have an accelerator for use with advanced physics laboratories, but many of these institutions have a scanning electron microscope (SEM) on site, often in the biology department. As an accelerator for the undergraduate, advanced physics laboratory, the SEM is an excellent substitute for an ion accelerator. Although there are no nuclear physics experiments that can be performed with a typical 30 kV SEM, there is an opportunity for experimental work on accelerator physics, atomic physics, electron-solid interactions, and the basics of modern e-beam lithography.

  20. The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.L.; Heikkinen, D.W.; Southon, J.R.; Proctor, I.D.

    1996-10-01

    CAMS operates an HVEC FN tandem accelerator for use in both basic research and technology development. The accelerator is operated under a distributed computer control system with sophisticated auto-scaling, beam flat-topping, archiving, and recall capabilities, which makes possible rapid and precise switching between experimental configurations daily. Using the spectrometer, the AMS group can routinely measure the isotopes {sup 3}H, {sup 9}Be, {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca, and {sup 129}I at abundances as low as 1 part in 10{sup 16}.

  1. Numerical Investigation and Experimental Reproduction of Fermi Acceleration in Laboratory Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, M.; Zhai, C.

    2015-12-01

    Fermi acceleration is widely accepted as the mechanism to explain power law of cosmic ray spectrum. Now this mechanism has been developed to first order Fermi acceleration and second order Fermi acceleration. In first order Fermi acceleration, also known as diffusive shock acceleration, particles are confined around the shock through scattering and accelerated by repeatedly crossing shock front. In second order Fermi acceleration, particles gain energy through statistical collisions with interstellar clouds. In this proposed work, we plan to carefully study these two kinds of acceleration numerically and experimentally. We first consider a single relativistic particle and investigate how it gains energy in Fermi-Ulam model and shock wave acceleration model respectively. We investigate collective behavior of particles with different kinds of wall-oscillation functions and try to find an optimal one in terms of efficiency of acceleration. Then, we plan to go further and consider a group of particles statistically, during which we borrow the correct generalization of Maxwell's velocity distribution in special relativity and compare the results with those in cases where we simply use Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. To this end, we try to provide a scheme to build an accelerator applying both laser technology and mirror effect in Laboratory to reproduce Fermi acceleration, which might be a promising source to obtain high energy particles and further study the mechanism of cosmic rays acceleration.

  2. A compact laboratory device for accelerating thin strikers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, V. K.; Georgievskaya, A. B.; Guk, D. E.; Zamyslov, D. N.; Makarov, S. A.; Meshkov, E. E.; Stepushkin, S. N.

    2016-08-01

    We describe a method for accelerating a thin (~1 mm thick) striker with a diameter of 35 mm in a shock tube channel up to velocities above to ~275 m/s under the pressure of detonation products of acetylene-oxygen fuel mixture. Impact of this striker on a ~1-cm-thick water layer generates a nonstationary decaying shock wave (Taylor wave) with amplitude of ~0.2 GPa on escape from the free surface.

  3. Implementation of the beamline controls at the Florence accelerator laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraresi, L.; Mirto, F. A.

    2008-05-01

    The new Tandetron accelerator in Florence, with many different beamlines, has required a new organization of all the control signals of the used equipment (slow control). We present our solution, which allows us the control of all the employed instruments simultaneously from a number of different workplaces. All of our equipment has been designed to be Ethernet based and this is the key to accomplish two very important requirements: simultaneous remote control from many computers and electrical isolation to achieve a lower noise level. The control of the instruments requires only one Ethernet network and no particular interfaces or drivers on the computers.

  4. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Annual Program Review 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    This book is submitted as a written adjunct to the 1993 Annual DOE High Energy Physics Program Review of Fermilab, scheduled for March 31-April 3. In it are described the functions and activities of the various Laboratory Divisions and Sections plus statements of plans and goals for the coming year. The Review Committee, as this goes to press, consists of·

  5. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Annual Program Review 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, Jeffrey A.; Jovanovic, Drasko; Pordes, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    This book is submitted as a written adjunct to the Annual DOE High Energy Physics Program Review of Fermilab, scheduled this year for April 10-12, 1991. In it are described the functions and activities of the various Laboratory areas plus statements of plans and goals for the coming year.

  6. Accelerator-based techniques for the support of senior-level undergraduate physics laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. R.; Clark, J. C.; Isaacs-Smith, T.

    2001-07-01

    Approximately three years ago, Auburn University replaced its aging Dynamitron accelerator with a new 2MV tandem machine (Pelletron) manufactured by the National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC). This new machine is maintained and operated for the University by Physics Department personnel, and the accelerator supports a wide variety of materials modification/analysis studies. Computer software is available that allows the NEC Pelletron to be operated from a remote location, and an Internet link has been established between the Accelerator Laboratory and the Upper-Level Undergraduate Teaching Laboratory in the Physics Department. Additional software supplied by Canberra Industries has also been used to create a second Internet link that allows live-time data acquisition in the Teaching Laboratory. Our senior-level undergraduates and first-year graduate students perform a number of experiments related to radiation detection and measurement as well as several standard accelerator-based experiments that have been added recently. These laboratory exercises will be described, and the procedures used to establish the Internet links between our Teaching Laboratory and the Accelerator Laboratory will be discussed.

  7. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Annual Program Review 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-03-01

    This book is submitted as one written part of the 2000 Annual DOE High Energy Physics Program Review of Fermilab, scheduled March 22-24, 2000. In it are Director's Overview, some experimental highlights, discussions of several projects, and descriptions of the functions and activities of the four laboratory divisions. This book should be read in conjunction with the 2000 Fermilab Workbook and the review presentations (both in formal sessions and at the poster session).

  8. Chemical depth profiling of photovoltaic backsheets after accelerated laboratory weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chiao-Chi; Krommenhoek, Peter J.; Watson, Stephanie S.; Gu, Xiaohong

    2014-10-01

    Polymeric multilayer backsheets provide protection for the backside of photovoltaic (PV) module from the damage of moisture and ultraviolet (UV). Due to the nature of multilayer films, certain material property characterization of a backsheet could only be studied by examining its cross-section parallel to the thickness direction of the film. In this study, commercial PPE (polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/PET/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)) backsheet films were aged on the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) SPHERE (Simulated Photodegradation via High Energy Radiant Exposure) with UV irradiance at 170 W/m2 (300 nm to 400 nm) under accelerated weathering conditions of 85°C and two relative humidity (R.H.) levels of 5% (low) and 60% (high). Cryo-microtomy was used to obtain cross-sectional PPE samples with a flat surface parallel to the thickness direction, and chemical depth profiling of multilayers was conducted by Raman microscopic mapping. Atomic force microscopy with peak force tapping mode was used complementarily for cross-sectional imaging. The results revealed that the PPE backsheet films were comprised of five main layers, including pigmented-PET, core PET, inner EVA, pigmented-EVA and outer EVA, along with their interfacial regions and two adhesive layers. UV and moisture degradation on the outer pigmented PET layer was clearly observed; while the damage on the core PET layer was less significance, indicating that the outer pigmented PET layer effectively reduced the damage from UV. In high R.H. exposure, both adhesive layers were severely deteriorated. It was found that the EVA layers were susceptible to moisture at elevated temperature, especially for the pigmented-EVA. Based on the results of accelerated weathering, this depth profiling study brings new understanding to the mechanisms of failure observed in polymeric multilayer backsheets during field exposure.

  9. PROVISIONAL ADVISORY LEVELS (PALs) FOR PHOSGENE (CG)

    SciTech Connect

    Glass-Mattie, Dana F; McClanahan, Mark; Koller, Loren; Adeshina, Femi; Ross, Robert Hord

    2009-01-01

    The PAL protocol was applied to estimate inhalation exposure limits for phosgene (CG). Data on humans are limited to occupational exposures or accounts from the use of phosgene as a chemical warfare agent in WWI. Animal studies with phosgene show a steep dose-response curve for pulmonary edema and mortality with little species variability in effects. Although immediately upon exposure lacrimation and upper respiratory irritation can occur, the main effect in the target organ, a progressive pulmonary edema, occurs after a latency period of 1-24 hours. PAL estimates were approved by the Expert Consultation Panel for Provisional Advisory Levels in May 2007. Exposure limits for oral exposure to CG are not developed due to insufficient data. PAL estimates for inhalation exposure to CG are presented: The 24-hour PAL values for severity levels 1, 2, and 3 are 0.0017, 0.0033 and 0.022 ppm, respectively. The 30-day PAL values are 0.0006 and 0.0012 ppm for the PAL 1 and 2 values, respectively. These 30-day inhalation values were also accepted as the 90-day and 2-year PAL 1 and 2 values. Data were not available for deriving 30-day, 90-day and 2-year PAL 3 values.

  10. A design of PAL with astigmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yefei; Xiang, Huazhong; Zhu, Tianfeng; Chen, Jiabi

    2015-08-01

    Progressive addition lens (PAL) is designed for those who suffer from myopia and presbyopia to have a clear vision from a far distance to a nearby distance. Additionally there are many people that also suffer from astigmatism and need to be corrected. The cylinder power can't be simply added to the diopter of the PAL directly, because the diopter of the PAL needs to be changed smoothly. A methods has been proposed in this article to solve the problem, the freeform surface height of a PAL without astigmatism and the cylindrical lens surface height for the correction of astigmatism are calculated separately. The both two surface heights were added together, then the final surface is produced and shown with the both properties of PALs and cylindrical lenses used to correct the astigmatism.

  11. Observation of Ion Acceleration and Heating during Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection in a Laboratory Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Jongsoo; Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, Hantao; Myers, Clayton E.

    2012-12-10

    The ion dynamics in a collisionless magnetic reconnection layer are studied in a laboratory plasma. The measured in-plane plasma potential profile, which is established by electrons accelerated around the electron diffusion region, shows a saddle-shaped structure that is wider and deeper towards the outflow direction. This potential structure ballistically accelerates ions near the separatrices toward the outflow direction. Ions are heated as they travel into the high pressure downstream region.

  12. Installation and commissioning of the new Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory H- Magnetron

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, D. S.

    2014-02-15

    The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) 40 year old Cockcroft-Walton 750 keV injectors with slit aperture magnetron ion sources have been replaced with a circular aperture magnetron, Low Energy Beam Transport, Radio Frequency Quadrupole Accelerator, and Medium Energy Beam Transport, as part of the FNAL Proton Improvement Plan. The injector design is based on a similar system at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The installation, commissioning efforts, and source operations to date will be covered in this paper along with plans for additional changes to the original design to improve reliability by reducing extractor spark rates and arc current duty factor.

  13. AmeriFlux US-IB2 Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory- Batavia (Prairie site)

    SciTech Connect

    Matamala, Roser

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-IB2 Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory- Batavia (Prairie site). Site Description - Two eddy correlation systems are installed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory: one on a restored prairie (established October 2004) and one on a corn/soybean rotation agricultural field (established in July 2005). The prairie site had been farmed for more than 100 years, but was converted to prairie in 1989. April annual to bi-annual prescribed burns have taken place from 1994 - 2007.

  14. AmeriFlux US-IB1 Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory- Batavia (Agricultural site)

    SciTech Connect

    Matamala, Roser

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-IB1 Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory- Batavia (Agricultural site). Site Description - Two eddy correlation systems are installed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory: one on a restored prairie (established October 2004) and one on a corn/soybean rotation agricultural field (established in July 2005). The prairie site had been farmed for more than 100 years, but was converted to prairie in 1989. The agricultural site has likely been farmed for more than 100 years, but the first documented instance of agricultural activity dates back to a picture taken in 1952.

  15. ACCELERATION OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY TRANSURANIC WASTE DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    O'LEARY, GERALD A.

    2007-01-04

    One of Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) most significant risks is the site's inventory of transuranic waste retrievably stored above and below-ground in Technical Area (TA) 54 Area G, particularly the dispersible high-activity waste stored above-ground in deteriorating facilities. The high activity waste represents approximately 50% (by activity) of the total 292,000 PE-Ci inventory remaining to be disposed. The transuramic waste inventory includes contact-handled and remote-handled waste packaged in drums, boxes, and oversized containers which are retrievably stored both above and below-ground. Although currently managed as transuranic waste, some of the inventory is low-level waste that can be disposed onsite or at approved offsite facilities. Dispositioning the transuranic waste inventory requires retrieval of the containers from above and below-ground storage, examination and repackaging or remediation as necessary, characterization, certification and loading for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad New Mexico, all in accordance with well-defined requirements and controls. Although operations are established to process and characterize the lower-activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers, LAN L does not currently have the capability to repack high activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers (> 56 PE-Ci) or to process oversized containers with activity levels over 0.52 PE-Ci. Operational issues and compliance requirements have resulted in less than optimal processing capabilities for lower activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers, limiting preparation and reducing dependability of shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Since becoming the Los Alamos National Laboratory contract in June 2006, Los Alamos National Security (LANS) L.L.C. has developed a comprehensive, integrated plan to effectively and efficiently disposition the transuranic waste inventory, working in concert with the Department of

  16. Radition safety systems at Brookhaven National Laboratory's low-energy accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Flood, Jr, C W

    1982-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has several low-energy accelerators in use at the present time. I intend to discuss the radiation safety systems installed at five of these accelerators. The accelerators included are a Dynamitron, 3.5 MeV Van de Graaff, 60'' Cyclotron, 41'' Cyclotron and Tandem Van de Graaff facility. All of these accelerators are capable of producing radiation levels in excess of 100 rem/h and the radiation safety systems are designed to prevent personnel from being exposed to high levels of radiation. For the purposes of this talk I would like to place the accelerators in two different categories. In the first category are the accelerators which have safety systems that prevent operation unless the radiation facilities are completely enclosed and interlocked, thus preventing any personnel access. Included are the Dynamitron, the 60'' Cyclotron, and the 41'' Cyclotron. In the second category are the accelerators with safety systems which allow access to any part of the accelerator facility when the radiation levels are low, but require complete personnel restrictions when the radiation levels are high. Included are the 3.5 MeV Van de Graaff and the Tandem Van de Graaff.

  17. High-power test of a new Bethe-hole directional coupler for the PAL XFEL S-band linac RF system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Youngdo; Park, Yongjung; Heo, Hoon; Hu, Jinyul; Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Sang-Hee; Hwang, Woonha; Moon, Gun-Young; Lee, Sosung; Lee, Heung-Soo; Noh, Sungju; Oh, Kyoungmin

    2013-11-01

    The directional coupler to be used in the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray free electron laser (PAL XFEL) under construction since 2011 must satisfy the conditions for operating at a peak power of 400 MW and a repetition rate of 120 Hz. In these operational conditions of the PAL XFEL, the old Bethe-hole directional coupler that was originally designed to be used in the Pohang Light Source linac is more likely to inflict damages on the ceramic window that cause vacuum leaks. Therefore, for the new Bethe-hole directional coupler, the original design has been modified to use a conventional N-type RF vacuum feedthrough for vacuum sealing instead of the ceramic window. The new Bethe-hole directional coupler is designed by using a finite-difference time-domain simulation. We have fabricated a prototype, and the result of a high-power test indicates that the RF performance of the new DC satisfies the specifications of the PAL XFEL S-band Linac RF system.

  18. High-power test of the new 3-dB power splitter for the PAL XFEL S-band LINAC RF system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Youngdo; Park, Yongjung; Heo, Hoon; Hu, Jinyul; Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Sang-Hee; Hwang, Woonha; Moon, Gun-Young; Lee, Sosung; Lee, Heung-Soo; Noh, Sungju; Oh, Kyoungmin

    2014-04-01

    The 3-dB power splitter to be used in the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ay Free-electron Laser (PAL XFEL), which have been under construction since 2011, must operate at a peak power of 400 MW and a repetition rate of 120 Hz. For these operational conditions of the PAL XFEL, the old 3-dB power splitter that was originally designed to be used in the PLS LINAC will most suffer from RF breakdown. Therefore, for the new 3-dB power splitter, the original design has been modified to reduce the field gradient and the surface current. The new 3-dB power splitter is designed by using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. We have fabricated a prototype, and the result of a high-power test indicates that the RF performance of the new 3-dB power splitter satisfies the specifications of the PAL XFEL S-band LINAC RF system.

  19. An improved 8 GeV beam transport system for the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M.J.

    1987-06-01

    A new 8 GeV beam transport system between the Booster and Main Ring synchrotrons at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is presented. The system was developed in an effort to improve the transverse phase space area occupied by the proton beam upon injection into the Main Ring accelerator. Problems with the original system are described and general methods of beamline design are formulated. Errors in the transverse properties of a beamline at the injection point of the second synchrotron and their effects on the region in transverse phase space occupied by a beam of particles are discussed. Results from the commissioning phase of the project are presented as well as measurements of the degree of phase space dilution generated by the transfer of 8 GeV protons from the Booster synchrotron to the Main Ring synchrotron.

  20. Installation of a cw radiofrequency quadrupole accelerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.D.; Bolme, J.; Brown, V.

    1994-09-01

    Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) has had a long history of cw proton beam development for production of intense neutron sources and fissile fuel breeders. In 1986 CRL and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) entered into a collaborative effort to establish a base technologies program for the development of a cw radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ). The initial cw RFQ design had 50-keV proton injection energy with 600-keV output energy. The 75-mA design current at 600-keV beam energy was obtained in 1990. Subsequently, the RFQ output energy was increased to 1250 keV by replacing the RFQ vanes, still maintaining the 75-m A design current. A new 250-kW cw klystrode rf power source at 267-MHz was installed at CRL. By April of 1993, 55-mA proton beams had been accelerated to 1250 keV. Concurrent developments were taking place on proton source development and on 50-keV low-energy beam transport (LEBT) systems. Development of a dc, high-proton fraction ({ge} 70%) microwave ion source led to utilization of a single-solenoid RFQ direct injection scheme. It was decided to continue this cw RFQ demonstration project at Los Alamos when the CRL project was terminated in April 1993. The LANL goals are to find the current limit of the 1250-keV RFQ, better understand the beam transport properties through the single-solenoid focusing LEBT, continue the application of the cw klystrode tube technology to accelerators, and develop a two-solenoid LEBT which could be the front end of an Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies (ADTT) linear accelerator.

  1. Development of an S-band accelerating structure with quasi-symmetric single-feed racetrack couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Hoon; Joo, Young-Do; Park, Yong-Jung; Kang, Heung-Sik; Lee, Heung-Soo; Oh, Kyoung-Min; Seo, Hyung-Seok; Noh, Sung-Ju

    2015-03-01

    We developed an S-band traveling-wave accelerating structure for the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory's X-ray free-electron laser (PAL-XFEL), and we fabricated and tested a full-scale prototype. In order to reduce the field asymmetry inside the coupler cavity, we used the SUPERFISH code and the CST MWS electromagnetic field solvers to design the constant-gradient traveling-wave accelerator to use quasi-symmetric single-feed racetrack couplers. The RF measurement results indicate that the accelerating gradient of the prototype structure is as high as 27 MV/m for an input RF power of 65 MW.

  2. Preliminary Evidence on the Social Standing of Students with Learning Disabilities in PALS and No-PALS Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Mathes, Patricia G.; Martinez, Elizabeth A.

    2002-01-01

    A study collected sociometric data in 39 second- through sixth-grade classrooms, 22 of which were engaged in Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS), a form of peer tutoring. Students with learning disabilities in PALS classes were more socially accepted than those in no-PALS classes and enjoyed the same social standing as controls. (Contains…

  3. PROVISIONAL ADVISORY LEVELS (PALs) FOR HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S)

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Thomas C; Dorman, David; Gardner, Donald; Adeshina, Femi; Ross, Robert Hord

    2009-01-01

    Application of PAL protocols was performed for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as experimental data permitted. The data base includes human experimental studies, worker exposure evaluations, as well as case studies on acute and repeated exposure. The data base of animal studies is substantial covering multiple species and addressing acute, repeated, and subchronic exposure scenarios. PAL estimates were approved by the Expert Consultation Panel for Provisional Advisory Levels in November 2006. No reliable data were found on oral exposure, making it impractical to estimate PALs for drinking water. Since H2S exists as a gas, partitioning to air is likely to occur with an environmental release. H2S inhalation PAL values for 24 hr exposure are: PAL 1 = 1.2 ppm; PAL 2 = 7.0 ppm; and PAL 3 = 27 ppm; the 30-d and 90-d inhalation exposure values are: PAL 1 = 0.85 ppm and PAL 2 = 3.0 ppm. PAL 3 values for 30-d and 90-d are not recommended due to insufficient data. Long-term data were insufficient to estimate 2-year inhalation PALs.

  4. Current status of the CXI beamline at the PAL-XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaehyun; Kim, Sangsoo; Nam, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Bongsoo; Ko, In Soo

    2016-09-01

    The Pohang Accelerator Laboratory's X-ray free electron laser (PAL-XFEL) is a research facility currently under construction. It will provide ultra-bright (1 × 1012 photons/pulse at 12.4 keV) and ultra-short (10 - 60 femtosecond) X-ray pulses. The CXI (coherent X-ray imaging) hard X-ray experimental station is designed to deliver brilliant hard X-rays (2 - 20.4 keV) and to measure diffraction signals with a forward scattering geometry. It will not only offer imaging studies of biological, chemical and physical samples with the "diffraction-before-destruction" scheme, but also be helpful in high-field hard X-ray physics and material science. The scientific programs are currently aimed at serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) and coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) for bio specimens, nano materials, etc. In this paper, we describe the beamline layout, beam diagnostics, X-ray focusing optics, sample environments and detector system at the CXI experimental hutch.

  5. Ion Beam Transport Simulations for the 1.7 MV Tandem Accelerator at the Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naab, F. U.; Toader, O. F.; Was, G. S.

    The Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory houses a 1.7 MV tandem accelerator. For many years this accelerator was configured to run with three ion sources: a TORoidal Volume Ion Source (TORVIS), a Duoplasmatron source and a Sputter source. In this article we describe an application we have created using the SIMION® code to simulate the trajectories of ion beams produced with these sources through the accelerator. The goal of this work is to have an analytical tool to understand the effect of each electromagnetic component on the ion trajectories. This effect is shown in detailed drawings. Each ion trajectory simulation starts at the aperture of the ion source and ends at the position of the target. Using these simulations, new accelerator operators or users quickly understand how the accelerator system works. Furthermore, these simulations allow analysis of modifications in the ion beam optics of the accelerator by adding, removing or replacing components or changing their relative positions.

  6. Laboratory Measurements of Linear Electron Acceleration by Inertial Alfvén Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, J. W. R.

    2015-11-01

    Alfvén waves occur in conjunction with a significant fraction of auroral electron acceleration. Inertial mode Alfvén waves (vA >vte) in the auroral magnetosphere (2 - 4RE) with perpendicular scales on the order of the electron skin depth (c /ωpe) have a parallel electric field that, according to theory, is capable of nonlinearly accelerating suprathermal electrons to auroral energies. Unfortunately, due to space-time ambiguities of rocket and satellite measurements, it has not yet been possible to fully verify how Alfvén waves contribute to the production of accelerated electrons. To overcome the limitations of in situ spacecraft data, laboratory experiments have been carried out using the Large Plasma Device (LaPD), an NSF/DOE user facility at UCLA. An Electron Cyclotron Absorption (ECA) diagnostic has been developed to record the suprathermal parallel electron distribution function with 0.1% precision. The diagnostic records the electron distribution while inertial Alfvén waves simultaneously propagate through the plasma. Recent measurements have isolated oscillations of suprathermal electrons at the Alfvén wave frequency. Despite complications from boundary effects and the finite size of the experiment, a linear kinetic model has been produced that describes the experimental results. To our knowledge this is the first quantitative agreement between the measured and modeled linear response of suprathermal electrons to an inertial Alfvén wave. This verification of the linear physics is a necessary step before the nonlinear acceleration process can be isolated in future experiments. Presently, nonlinear effects cannot be detected because of limited Alfvén wave amplitudes. Ongoing work is focused on designing a higher-power antenna capable of efficiently launching larger-amplitude Alfvén waves with tunable perpendicular wavenumber and developing a theoretical understanding of the nonlinear acceleration process in LaPD plasma conditions. This material is

  7. Proposed low-level radioactive waste handling building at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), evaluating the impacts associated with the proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Building at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. As a result of the high energy physics program at Fermilab, small quantities of low-level radioactive wastes are generated. These wastes are collected, sorted and packaged for shipment to an off-site disposal facility in Hanford, Washington. The proposed project includes the construction of a new building to house, all low-level radioactive waste handling operations. The building would provide workspace for five full-time workers. The proposed project would improve the efficiency and safety of the low-level radioactive waste handling at Fermilab by upgrading equipment and consolidating operations into one facility.

  8. Proposed Casey`s Pond Improvement Project, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), evaluating the impacts associated with the proposed Casey`s Pond Improvement Project at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. The improvement project would maximize the efficiency of the Fermilab Industrial Cooling Water (ICW) distribution system, which removes (via evaporation) the thermal load from experimental and other support equipment supporting the high energy physics program at Fermilab. The project would eliminate the risk of overheating during fixed target experiments, ensure that the Illinois Water Quality Standards are consistently achieved and provide needed additional water storage for fire protection. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  9. Mega-electron-volt ultrafast electron diffraction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, S. P.; Brown, G.; Centurion, M.; Chase, T. F.; Coffee, R.; Corbett, J.; Eichner, J. P.; Frisch, J. C.; Fry, A. R.; Gühr, M.; Hartmann, N.; Hast, C.; Hettel, R.; Jobe, R. K.; Jongewaard, E. N.; Lewandowski, J. R.; Li, R. K.; Lindenberg, A. M.; Makasyuk, I.; May, J. E.; McCormick, D.; Nguyen, M. N.; Reid, A. H.; Shen, X.; Sokolowski-Tinten, K.; Vecchione, T.; Vetter, S. L.; Wu, J.; Yang, J.; Dürr, H. A.; Wang, X. J.

    2015-07-01

    Ultrafast electron probes are powerful tools, complementary to x-ray free-electron lasers, used to study structural dynamics in material, chemical, and biological sciences. High brightness, relativistic electron beams with femtosecond pulse duration can resolve details of the dynamic processes on atomic time and length scales. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory recently launched the Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED) and microscopy Initiative aiming at developing the next generation ultrafast electron scattering instruments. As the first stage of the Initiative, a mega-electron-volt (MeV) UED system has been constructed and commissioned to serve ultrafast science experiments and instrumentation development. The system operates at 120-Hz repetition rate with outstanding performance. In this paper, we report on the SLAC MeV UED system and its performance, including the reciprocal space resolution, temporal resolution, and machine stability.

  10. Mega-electron-volt ultrafast electron diffraction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, S. P.; Brown, G.; Chase, T. F.; Coffee, R.; Corbett, J.; Eichner, J. P.; Frisch, J. C.; Fry, A. R.; Gühr, M.; Hartmann, N.; Hast, C.; Hettel, R.; Jobe, R. K.; Jongewaard, E. N.; Lewandowski, J. R.; Li, R. K. Lindenberg, A. M.; Makasyuk, I.; May, J. E.; McCormick, D.; and others

    2015-07-15

    Ultrafast electron probes are powerful tools, complementary to x-ray free-electron lasers, used to study structural dynamics in material, chemical, and biological sciences. High brightness, relativistic electron beams with femtosecond pulse duration can resolve details of the dynamic processes on atomic time and length scales. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory recently launched the Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED) and microscopy Initiative aiming at developing the next generation ultrafast electron scattering instruments. As the first stage of the Initiative, a mega-electron-volt (MeV) UED system has been constructed and commissioned to serve ultrafast science experiments and instrumentation development. The system operates at 120-Hz repetition rate with outstanding performance. In this paper, we report on the SLAC MeV UED system and its performance, including the reciprocal space resolution, temporal resolution, and machine stability.

  11. The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility: CEBAF at the Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Leemann, Chrisoph; Douglas, David R; Krafft, Geoffrey A

    2001-08-01

    The Jefferson Laboratory's superconducting radiofrequency (srf) Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) provides multi-GeV continuous-wave (cw) beams for experiments at the nuclear and particle physics interface. CEBAF comprises two antiparallel linacs linked by nine recirculation beam lines for up to five passes. By the early 1990s, accelerator installation was proceeding in parallel with commissioning. By the mid-1990s, CEBAF was providing simultaneous beams at different but correlated energies up to 4 GeV to three experimental halls. By 2000, with srf development having raised the average cavity gradient up to 7.5 MV/m, energies up to nearly 6 GeV were routine, at 1-150 muA for two halls and 1-100 nA for the other. Also routine are beams of >75% polarization. Physics results have led to new questions about the quark structure of nuclei, and therefore to user demand for a planned 12 GeV upgrade. CEBAF's enabling srf technology is also being applied in other projects.

  12. Laboratory studies of magnetized collisionless flows and shocks using accelerated plasmoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, T. E.; Smith, R. J.; Hsu, S. C.

    2015-11-01

    Magnetized collisionless shocks are thought to play a dominant role in the overall partition of energy throughout the universe, but have historically proven difficult to create in the laboratory. The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at LANL creates conditions similar to those found in both space and astrophysical shocks by accelerating hot (100s of eV during translation) dense (1022 - 1023 m-3) Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmoids to high velocities (100s of km/s); resulting in β ~ 1, collisionless plasma flows with sonic and Alfvén Mach numbers of ~10. The FRC subsequently impacts a static target such as a strong parallel or anti-parallel (reconnection-wise) magnetic mirror, a solid obstacle, or neutral gas cloud to create shocks with characteristic length and time scales that are both large enough to observe yet small enough to fit within the experiment. This enables study of the complex interplay of kinetic and fluid processes that mediate cosmic shocks and can generate non-thermal distributions, produce density and magnetic field enhancements much greater than predicted by fluid theory, and accelerate particles. An overview of the experimental capabilities of MSX will be presented, including diagnostics, selected recent results, and future directions. Supported by the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under contract DE-AC52-06NA25369.

  13. Plasma-Surface Interaction Research At The Cambridge Laboratory Of Accelerator Studies Of Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, G. M.; Barnard, H. S.; Hartwig, Z. S.; Stahle, P. W.; Sullivan, R. M.; Woller, K. B.; Whyte, D. G.

    2011-06-01

    The material requirements for plasma-facing components in a nuclear fusion reactor are some of the strictest and most challenging facing us today. These materials are simultaneously exposed to extreme heat loads (20 MW/m2 steady-state, 1 GW/m2 in millisecond transients) and particle fluxes (>1024 m-2 s-1) while also undergoing high neutron irradiation (1018 neutrons/m2 s). At the Cambridge Laboratory of Accelerator Studies of Surfaces (CLASS), many of the most important issues in plasma-surface interaction research, such as plasma-driven material erosion and deposition, material transport and irradiation and hydrogenic retention are investigated with the use of a 1.7 MV tandem ion accelerator. Ion-Beam Analysis (IBA) is used to investigate and quantify changes in materials due to plasma exposure and ion irradiation is used as a proxy for neutron irradiation to investigate plasma-surface interactions for irradiated materials. This report will outline the capabilities and current research activities at CLASS.

  14. Advocacy for the Archives and History Office of the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory: Stages and Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Deken, Jean Marie; /SLAC

    2009-06-19

    Advocating for the good of the SLAC Archives and History Office (AHO) has not been a one-time affair, nor has it been a one-method procedure. It has required taking time to ascertain the current and perhaps predict the future climate of the Laboratory, and it has required developing and implementing a portfolio of approaches to the goal of building a stronger archive program by strengthening and appropriately expanding its resources. Among the successful tools in the AHO advocacy portfolio, the Archives Program Review Committee has been the most visible. The Committee and the role it serves as well as other formal and informal advocacy efforts are the focus of this case study My remarks today will begin with a brief introduction to advocacy and outreach as I understand them, and with a description of the Archives and History Office's efforts to understand and work within the corporate culture of the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. I will then share with you some of the tools we have employed to advocate for the Archives and History Office programs and activities; and finally, I will talk about how well - or badly - those tools have served us over the past decade.

  15. A new LabVIEW-based control system for the Naval Research Laboratory Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    DeTurck, T. M.; Treacy, D. J. Jr.; Knies, D. L.; Grabowski, K. S.; Knoll, C.; Kennedy, C. A.; Hubler, G. K.

    1999-06-10

    A new LabVIEW-based control system for the existing tandem accelerator and new AMS components has been implemented at the Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (TEAMS) facility at the Naval Research Laboratory. Through the use of Device Interfaces (DIs) distributed along a fiber optic network, virtually every component of the accelerator system can be controlled from any networked computer terminal as well as remotely via modem or the internet. This paper discusses the LabVIEW-based control software, including remote operation, automatic calculation of ion optical component parameters, beam optimization, and data logging and retrieval.

  16. [Social change and Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (PAL)].

    PubMed

    Masuyama, Koichi; Isobe, Soichiro

    2010-01-01

    Former Japanese pharmaceutical laws, originally based on the Pharmaceutical Marketing and Handling Regulations enacted in 1874 were in operation for many years before World War II. However, in order to address several drug issues, such as poor drug quality and insufficiences regarding the role of pharmacists during the War, the laws needed to be unified and revised. In this paper, we analyzed the record of discussions held by the Imperial Diet on the bill for the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (PAL) in 1943. This is also regarded as the origin of the current PAL (LawNo.145 in 1960). Through this analysis, we tried to clarify the relationship between the social change and the role of PAL in society. During the War, the bill was discussed, aiming at the improvement of both human resources who treated drugs, and the quality of drug materials. Diet members discussed three main points, namely, "the duty of pharmacists", "the mission of the Japan Pharmaceutical Association" and "the quality control of pharmaceutical products". Notably, the bill pharmacists are required not only to dispense drugs, a role they had previously, but also to manage drug and food hygiene through the quality control of pharmaceutical products and the inspection of food and drink, in order to improve the public health in Japan. Originally, the law was passed to deal with the extraordinary circumstances during the War, but through our analysis, we found that they proactively improved the role of the law to comply with various drug issues raised during the War, the rapid change of the pharmaceutical hygiene concept and the social transformation. PMID:21032892

  17. Improving quality management systems of laboratories in developing countries: an innovative training approach to accelerate laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Katy; McKinney, Barbara; Murphy, Anna; Rotz, Phil; Wafula, Winnie; Sendagire, Hakim; Okui, Scolastica; Nkengasong, John N

    2010-09-01

    The Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) program was developed to promote immediate, measurable improvement in laboratories of developing countries. The laboratory management framework, a tool that prescribes managerial job tasks, forms the basis of the hands-on, activity-based curriculum. SLMTA is implemented through multiple workshops with intervening site visits to support improvement projects. To evaluate the effectiveness of SLMTA, the laboratory accreditation checklist was developed and subsequently adopted by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO). The SLMTA program and the implementation model were validated through a pilot in Uganda. SLMTA yielded observable, measurable results in the laboratories and improved patient flow and turnaround time in a laboratory simulation. The laboratory staff members were empowered to improve their own laboratories by using existing resources, communicate with clinicians and hospital administrators, and advocate for system strengthening. The SLMTA program supports laboratories by improving management and building preparedness for accreditation.

  18. Application of the National Ignition Facility distinguishable-from-background program to accelerator facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Packard, Eric D; Mac Kenzie, Carolyn

    2013-06-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory must control potentially activated materials and equipment in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, which requires DOE approval of the process used to release volumetrically contaminated personal property and establishes a dose constraint of 10 µSv y(-1) (1 mrem y(-1)) for clearance of such property. The National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed a technical basis document and protocol for determining the radiological status of property that is potentially activated from exposure to neutron radiation produced via fusion of tritium and deuterium. The technical basis included assessment of the neutron energy, the type of materials potentially exposed and the likely activation products, and the sensitivity of radiation detectors used to survey the property. This paper evaluates the National Ignition Facility technical basis document for applicability to the release of property from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's various accelerator facilities considering the different types of particles accelerated, radiations produced, and resultant activation products. Extensive process knowledge regarding the accelerators' operations, accompanied by years of routine surveys, provides an excellent characterization of these facilities. Activation studies conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization in Japan corroborate that the long-lived radionuclides produced at accelerator facilities are of the same variety produced at the National Ignition Facility. Consequently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory concludes that the release protocol developed for the National Ignition Facility can be used appropriately at all its accelerator facilities.

  19. The Polarity Protein Pals1 Regulates Radial Sorting of Axons.

    PubMed

    Zollinger, Daniel R; Chang, Kae-Jiun; Baalman, Kelli; Kim, Seonhee; Rasband, Matthew N

    2015-07-22

    Myelin is essential for rapid and efficient action potential propagation in vertebrates. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating myelination remain incompletely characterized. For example, even before myelination begins in the PNS, Schwann cells must radially sort axons to form 1:1 associations. Schwann cells then ensheathe and wrap axons, and establish polarized, subcellular domains, including apical and basolateral domains, paranodes, and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures. Intriguingly, polarity proteins, such as Pals1/Mpp5, are highly enriched in some of these domains, suggesting that they may regulate the polarity of Schwann cells and myelination. To test this, we generated mice with Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes that lack Pals1. During early development of the PNS, Pals1-deficient mice had impaired radial sorting of axons, delayed myelination, and reduced nerve conduction velocities. Although myelination and conduction velocities eventually recovered, polyaxonal myelination remained a prominent feature of adult Pals1-deficient nerves. Despite the enrichment of Pals1 at paranodes and incisures of control mice, nodes of Ranvier and paranodes were unaffected in Pals1-deficient mice, although we measured a significant increase in the number of incisures. As in other polarized cells, we found that Pals1 interacts with Par3 and loss of Pals1 reduced levels of Par3 in Schwann cells. In the CNS, loss of Pals1 affected neither myelination nor the establishment of polarized membrane domains. These results demonstrate that Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes use distinct mechanisms to control their polarity, and that radial sorting in the PNS is a key polarization event that requires Pals1. Significance statement: This paper reveals the role of the canonical polarity protein Pals1 in radial sorting of axons by Schwann cells. Radial sorting is essential for efficient and proper myelination and is disrupted in some types of congenital muscular dystrophy.

  20. Health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for Homeland Security

    SciTech Connect

    Adeshina, Femi; Sonich-Mullin, Synthia; Wood, Carol S

    2009-01-01

    In compliance with Homeland Security Presidential Directive No.8, the US EPA National Homeland Security Research Center, in collaboration with the Department of Energy, is developing health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for priority toxic industrial chemicals, pesticides, and chemical warfare agents in air and drinking water. The PALs Program will provide exposure levels to assist emergency response decision-making, and to serve as criteria for determining re-use and re-entry into affected areas resulting from transport/storage accidents, natural disasters, and subversive activities. PALs are applicable at federal, state, and local levels, and are intended for use in homeland security efforts, public health, law enforcement, and emergency response, as well as decisions by water utilities, and national and regional EPA offices. PALS have not been promulgated nor have they been formally issued as regulatory guidance. They are intended to be used at the discretion of risk managers in emergency situations when site specific risk assessments are not available. Three levels (PAL 1, PAL 2, and PAL 3), distinguished by severity of toxic effects, are developed for 24-hour, 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year durations of potential drinking water and inhalation exposures for the general public. Draft PALs are evaluated both by an EPA working group, and an external multidisciplinary panel to ensure scientific credibility and wide acceptance. In this issue, we present background information on the PAL program, the methodology used in deriving PALs, and the technical support documents for the derivation of PALs for acrylonitrile, phosgene, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen sulfide.

  1. Guide for Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) Group Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendale, David R., Ed.; Lilly, Mary, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    The Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) program at the University of Minnesota is a primary academic support program for historically difficult, introductory college courses that serve as gatekeepers to academic degree programs. This document is the training manual used for the new PAL facilitators that manage the small study groups. Based upon operating…

  2. Linear induction accelerators at the Los Alamos National Laboratory DARHT facility

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, Subrata

    2010-09-07

    The Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility (DARHT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory consists of two linear induction accelerators at right angles to each other. The First Axis, operating since 1999, produces a nominal 20-MeV, 2-kA single beam-pulse with 60-nsec width. In contrast, the DARHT Second Axis, operating since 2008, produces up to four pulses in a variable pulse format by slicing micro-pulses out of a longer {approx}1.6-microseconds (flat-top) pulse of nominal beam-energy and -current of 17 MeV and 2 kA respectively. Bremsstrahlung x-rays, shining on a hydro-dynamical experimental device, are produced by focusing the electron beam-pulses onto a high-Z target. Variable pulse-formats allow for adjustment of the pulse-to-pulse doses to record a time sequence of x-ray images of the explosively driven imploding mock device. Herein, we present a sampling of the numerous physics and engineering aspects along with the current status of the fully operational dual axes capability. First successful simultaneous use of both the axes for a hydrodynamic experiment was achieved in 2009.

  3. Health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for homeland security.

    PubMed

    Adeshina, Femi; Sonich-Mullin, Cynthia; Ross, Robert H; Wood, Carol S

    2009-12-01

    The Homeland Security Presidential Directive #8 (HSPD-8) for National Emergency Preparedness was issued to " establish policies to strengthen the preparedness of the United States to prevent and respond to threatened or actual domestic terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies by requiring a national domestic all- hazards preparedness goal. "In response to HSPD-8 and HSPD-22 (classified) on Domestic Chemical Defense, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) is developing health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for priority chemicals (including chemical warfare agents, pesticides, and toxic industrial chemicals) in air and drinking water. PALs are temporary values that will neither be promulgated, nor be formally issued as regulatory guidance. They are intended to be used at the discretion of risk managers in emergency situations. The PAL Program provides advisory exposure levels for chemical agents to assist in emergency planning and response decision-making, and to aid in making informed risk management decisions for evacuation, temporary re-entry into affected areas, and resumed-use of infrastructure, such as water resources. These risk management decisions may be made at the federal, state, and local levels. Three exposure levels (PAL 1, PAL 2, and PAL 3), distinguished by severity of toxic effects, are developed for 24-hour, 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year durations for potential exposure to drinking water and ambient air by the general public. Developed PALs are evaluated both by a US EPA working group, and an external multidisciplinary panel to ensure scientific credibility and wide acceptance. In this Special Issue publication, we present background information on the PAL program, the methodology used in deriving PALs, and the technical support documents for the derivation of PALs for acrylonitrile, hydrogen sulfide, and phosgene.

  4. Health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for homeland security.

    PubMed

    Adeshina, Femi; Sonich-Mullin, Cynthia; Ross, Robert H; Wood, Carol S

    2009-12-01

    The Homeland Security Presidential Directive #8 (HSPD-8) for National Emergency Preparedness was issued to " establish policies to strengthen the preparedness of the United States to prevent and respond to threatened or actual domestic terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies by requiring a national domestic all- hazards preparedness goal. "In response to HSPD-8 and HSPD-22 (classified) on Domestic Chemical Defense, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) is developing health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for priority chemicals (including chemical warfare agents, pesticides, and toxic industrial chemicals) in air and drinking water. PALs are temporary values that will neither be promulgated, nor be formally issued as regulatory guidance. They are intended to be used at the discretion of risk managers in emergency situations. The PAL Program provides advisory exposure levels for chemical agents to assist in emergency planning and response decision-making, and to aid in making informed risk management decisions for evacuation, temporary re-entry into affected areas, and resumed-use of infrastructure, such as water resources. These risk management decisions may be made at the federal, state, and local levels. Three exposure levels (PAL 1, PAL 2, and PAL 3), distinguished by severity of toxic effects, are developed for 24-hour, 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year durations for potential exposure to drinking water and ambient air by the general public. Developed PALs are evaluated both by a US EPA working group, and an external multidisciplinary panel to ensure scientific credibility and wide acceptance. In this Special Issue publication, we present background information on the PAL program, the methodology used in deriving PALs, and the technical support documents for the derivation of PALs for acrylonitrile, hydrogen sulfide, and phosgene. PMID:19814653

  5. Laser-driven shock experiments at PALS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batani, Dimitri; Stabile, H.; Ravasio, A.; Desai, Tara; Lucchini, G.; Strati, F.; Ullschmied, Jiri; Krousky, E.; Skala, Jiri; Kralikova, Bozena; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Kadlec, Christelle; Mocek, Tomas; Prag, A. R.; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Zvorykin, Vladimir D.

    2004-04-01

    Here we discuss the results of the experiments performed using the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) of wavelength 0.44 μm (3ω of Iodine laser) and energy ~ 250 J in 450 ps (FWHM). Two sets of experiments were carried out, firstly, generation of high quality shocks which were steady in time and uniform in space using Phase Zone Plates (PZP), to establish the scaling laws of shock pressure Vs. laser intensity for aluminum foil target of thickness 8 μm. Our results show a good agreement with the delocalized laser absorption model. Secondly, measurements of the Equation of State of carbon compressed by shocks at megabars of pressure have been realized. Equation of State were obtained for carbon using the impedance mismatch technique. Step targets allowed the simultaneous measurements of shock velocity in two different materials. Aluminum was used as a reference material and relative EOS data for carbon have been obtained up to ~ 14 Mbar pressure.

  6. Earthquake Dynamics in Laboratory Model and Simulation - Accelerated Creep as Precursor of Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzemba, B.; Popov, V. L.; Starcevic, J.; Popov, M.

    2012-04-01

    Shallow earthquakes can be considered as a result of tribological instabilities, so called stick-slip behaviour [1,2], meaning that sudden slip occurs at already existing rupture zones. From a contact mechanics point of view it is clear, that no motion can arise completely sudden, the material will always creep in an existing contact in the load direction before breaking loose. If there is a measureable creep before the instability, this could serve as a precursor. To examine this theory in detail, we built up an elementary laboratory model with pronounced stick-slip behaviour. Different material pairings, such as steel-steel, steel-glass and marble-granite, were analysed at different driving force rates. The displacement was measured with a resolution of 8 nm. We were able to show that a measureable accelerated creep precedes the instability. Near the instability, this creep is sufficiently regular to serve as a basis for a highly accurate prediction of the onset of macroscopic slip [3]. In our model a prediction is possible within the last few percents of the preceding stick time. We are hopeful to extend this period. Furthermore, we showed that the slow creep as well as the fast slip can be described very well by the Dieterich-Ruina-friction law, if we include the contribution of local contact rigidity. The simulation meets the experimental curves over five orders of magnitude. This friction law was originally formulated for rocks [4,5] and takes into account the dependency of the coefficient of friction on the sliding velocity and on the contact history. The simulations using the Dieterich-Ruina-friction law back up the observation of a universal behaviour of the creep's acceleration. We are working on several extensions of our model to more dimensions in order to move closer towards representing a full three-dimensional continuum. The first step will be an extension to two degrees of freedom to analyse the interdependencies of the instabilities. We also plan

  7. Actinide Measurements by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Cox, C C; Knezovich, J P; Hamilton, T F

    2003-09-25

    We report on the development of an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system for the measurement of actinides at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This AMS system is centered on a recently completed heavy isotope beam line that was designed particularly for high sensitivity, robust, high-throughput measurements of actinide concentrations and isotopic ratios. A fast isotope switching capability has been incorporated in the system, allowing flexibility in isotope selection and for the quasi-continuous normalization to a reference isotope spike. Initially, our utilization of the heavy isotope system has concentrated on the measurement of Pu isotopes. Under current operating conditions, background levels equivalent to {approx}1 x 10{sup 5} atoms are observed during routine {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu measurements. Measurements of samples containing {approx}10{sup 13} {sup 238}U atoms demonstrate that the system provides a {sup 238}U rejection factor during {sup 239}Pu measurements of {approx}10{sup 7}. Measurements of known materials, combined with results from an externally organized inter-comparison program, indicate that our {sup 239}Pu measurements are accurate and precise down to the {micro}Bq level ({approx}10{sup 6} atoms). Recently, we have investigated the performance of our heavy isotope AMS system in measurements of {sup 237}Np and {sup 236}U. Results of these investigations are discussed. The sensitivity shown by our Pu measurements, combined with the high throughput and interference rejection capabilities of our AMS system, demonstrate that AMS can provide a rapid and cost-effective measurement technique for actinides in a wide variety of studies.

  8. LLNL/UC (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)/(University of California) AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) facility and research program

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.C.; Proctor, I.D.; Southon, J.R.; Caffee, M.W.; Heikkinen, D.W.; Roberts, M.L.; Moore, T.L.; Turteltaub, K.W.; Nelson, D.E.; Loyd, D.H.; Vogel, J.S.

    1990-04-18

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California (UC) now have in operation a large AMS spectrometer built as part of a new multiuser laboratory centered on an FN tandem. AMS measurements are expected to use half of the beam time of the accelerator. LLNL use of AMS is in research on consequences of energy usage. Examples include global warming, geophysical site characterization, radiation biology and dosimetry, and study of mutagenic and carcinogenic processes. UC research activities are in clinical applications, archaeology and anthropology, oceanography, and geophysical and geochemical research. Access is also possible for researchers outside the UC system. The technological focus of the laboratory is on achieving high rates of sample through-put, unattended operation, and advances in sample preparation methods. Because of the expected growth in the research programs and the other obligations of the present accelerator, we are designing a follow-on dedicated facility for only AMS and microprobe analysis that will contain at least two accelerators with multiple spectrometers. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Implementation of an electronic laboratory notebook to accelerate data review in bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Shoup, Ronald E; Beato, Brian D; Pisek, April; White, Jessica; Branstrator, Laurel; Bousum, Abby; Roach, Jasmine; Grever, Tim

    2013-07-01

    Electronic laboratory notebooks increase opportunities for collaboration and information exchange when compared with paper records. Depending on the degree of implementation, a laboratory- or enterprise-wide system can unify the collection, review and dissemination of data to improve laboratory efficiency and productivity. The advantages of an electronic laboratory notebook for speeding data review in bioanalysis are discussed, through the use of validated templates and organizational constructs to block errors in real-time and reduce manual audit tasks. PMID:23822130

  10. THE PAL 5 STAR STREAM GAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Carlberg, R. G.; Hetherington, Nathan; Grillmair, C. J. E-mail: hetherington@astro.utoronto.ca

    2012-11-20

    Pal 5 is a low-mass, low-velocity-dispersion, globular cluster with spectacular tidal tails. We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 data to extend the density measurements of the trailing star stream to 23 deg distance from the cluster, at which point the stream runs off the edge of the available sky coverage. The size and the number of gaps in the stream are measured using a filter which approximates the structure of the gaps found in stream simulations. We find 5 gaps that are at least 99% confidence detections with about a dozen gaps at 90% confidence. The statistical significance of a gap is estimated using bootstrap resampling of the control regions on either side of the stream. The density minimum closest to the cluster is likely the result of the epicyclic orbits of the tidal outflow and has been discounted. To create the number of 99% confidence gaps per unit length at the mean age of the stream requires a halo population of nearly a thousand dark matter sub-halos with peak circular velocities above 1 km s{sup -1} within 30 kpc of the galactic center. These numbers are a factor of about three below cold stream simulation at this sub-halo mass or velocity but, given the uncertainties in both measurement and more realistic warm stream modeling, are in substantial agreement with the LCDM prediction.

  11. Do sediment type and test durations affect results of laboratory-based, accelerated testing studies of permeable pavement clogging?

    PubMed

    Nichols, Peter W B; White, Richard; Lucke, Terry

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have attempted to quantify the clogging processes of Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavers (PICPs) using accelerated testing methods. However, the results have been variable. This study investigated the effects that three different sediment types (natural and silica), and different simulated rainfall intensities, and testing durations had on the observed clogging processes (and measured surface infiltration rates) of laboratory-based, accelerated PICP testing studies. Results showed that accelerated simulated laboratory testing results are highly dependent on the type, and size of sediment used in the experiments. For example, when using real stormwater sediment up to 1.18 mm in size, the results showed that neither testing duration, nor stormwater application rate had any significant effect on PICP clogging. However, the study clearly showed that shorter testing durations generally increased clogging and reduced the surface infiltration rates of the models when artificial silica sediment was used. Longer testing durations also generally increased clogging of the models when using fine sediment (<300 μm). Results from this study will help researchers and designers better anticipate when and why PICPs are susceptible to clogging, reduce maintenance and extend the useful life of these increasingly common stormwater best management practices.

  12. The MIT Accelerator Laboratory for Diagnostic Development for OMEGA, Z and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrasso, R.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Armstrong, E.; Orozco, D.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rojas Herrera, J.; Rosenberg, M.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Hahn, K.; Jones, B.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    The MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator generates D-D and D-3He fusion products, which are used for development of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. Fusion reaction rates around 106 s-1 are routinely achieved with this accelerator, and fluence and energy of the fusion products are accurately characterized. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39 based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) CVD-diamond-based bang time detector. The accelerator is also a vital tool in the education of graduate and undergraduate students at MIT. This work was supported in part by SNL, DOE, LLE and LLNL.

  13. Future Development Of The Flerov Laboratory Accelerator Complex (Project DRIBs-III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbekian, G. G.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Itkis, M. G.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Popeko, A. G.

    2010-04-01

    Future development of the FLNR accelerator complex (project DRIBs-III) includes modernization of existing cyclotrons, construction of a new experimental hall, creation of a new high current cyclotron and of next generation experimental set-ups. Realization of the project is planned for 2010-2016.

  14. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  15. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-10

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ)[1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  16. Recent Developments on ALICE (Accelerators and Lasers In Combined Experiments) at Daresbury Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Saveliev, Y M; Buckley, R K; Buckley, S R; Clarke, J A; Corlett, P A; Dunning, D J; Goulden, A R; Hill, S F; Jackson, F; Jamison, S P; Jones, J K; Jones, L B; Leonard, S; McIntosh, P A; McKenzie, J W; Middleman, K J; Militsyn, B L; Moss, A J; Muratori, B D; Orrett, J F; Pattalwar, S M; Phillips, P J; Scott, D J; Seddon, E A; Shepherd, B.J.A.; Smith, S L; Thompson, N; Wheelhouse, A E; Williams, P H; Harrison, P; Holder, D J; Holder, G M; Schofield, A L; Weightman, P; Williams, R L; Laundry, D; Powers, T; Priebe, G; Surman, M

    2010-05-01

    Progress made in ALICE (Accelerators and Lasers In Combined Experiments) commissioning and a summary of the latest experimental results are presented in this paper. After an extensive work on beam loading effects in SC RF linac (booster) and linac cavities conditioning, ALICE can now operate in full energy recovery mode at the bunch charge of 40pC, the beam energy of 30MeV and train lengths of up to 100us. This improved operation of the machine resulted in generation of coherently enhanced broadband THz radiation with the energy of several tens of uJ per pulse and in successful demonstration of the Compton Backscattering x-ray source experiment. The next steps in the ALICE scientific programme are commissioning of the IR FEL and start of the research on the first non-scaling FFAG accelerator EMMA. Results from both projects will be also reported.

  17. Rapid acceleration leads to rapid weakening in earthquake-like laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Chang, J C; Lockner, D A; Reches, Z

    2012-10-01

    After nucleation, a large earthquake propagates as an expanding rupture front along a fault. This front activates countless fault patches that slip by consuming energy stored in Earth's crust. We simulated the slip of a fault patch by rapidly loading an experimental fault with energy stored in a spinning flywheel. The spontaneous evolution of strength, acceleration, and velocity indicates that our experiments are proxies of fault-patch behavior during earthquakes of moment magnitude (M(w)) = 4 to 8. We show that seismically determined earthquake parameters (e.g., displacement, velocity, magnitude, or fracture energy) can be used to estimate the intensity of the energy release during an earthquake. Our experiments further indicate that high acceleration imposed by the earthquake's rupture front quickens dynamic weakening by intense wear of the fault zone. PMID:23042892

  18. Rapid acceleration leads to rapid weakening in earthquake-like laboratory experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, Jefferson C.; Lockner, David A.; Reches, Z.

    2012-01-01

    After nucleation, a large earthquake propagates as an expanding rupture front along a fault. This front activates countless fault patches that slip by consuming energy stored in Earth’s crust. We simulated the slip of a fault patch by rapidly loading an experimental fault with energy stored in a spinning flywheel. The spontaneous evolution of strength, acceleration, and velocity indicates that our experiments are proxies of fault-patch behavior during earthquakes of moment magnitude (Mw) = 4 to 8. We show that seismically determined earthquake parameters (e.g., displacement, velocity, magnitude, or fracture energy) can be used to estimate the intensity of the energy release during an earthquake. Our experiments further indicate that high acceleration imposed by the earthquake’s rupture front quickens dynamic weakening by intense wear of the fault zone.

  19. Simulation of the laser acceleration experiment at the Fermilab/NICADD photoinjector laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Tikhoplav, R.; Melissinos, A.C.; /Rochester U.

    2005-05-01

    The possibility of using laser beam to accelerate electrons in a waveguide structure with dimension much larger than the laser wavelength was proposed by Pantel and analytically investigated by Xie. In the present paper we present the status of our experimental plan to demonstrate the laser/e{sup -} interaction using an e{sup -} beam with initial energy of 40-50 MeV.

  20. AstroPAL: A Mentoring Program for Grad Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The Astronomy Peer Advising Leaders program (AstroPAL) provides guidance for incoming grad students from a team of student volunteers who have passed their 2nd year Qualifier Exam. The purpose is to pair first years with a mentor who can help them through some of the stresses or difficulties that come with being a new grad student. AstroPALs and mentees meet privately about once a month in a casual setting to talk about how they're adjusting to the new surroundings, how they're handling the workload, etc. New students can join AstroPAL at any time during their first two years, and can stop receiving guidance once they feel comfortable in the program. Mentees will be assigned an AstroPAL based on preference and availability, and an AstroPAL Liason will always be in place to facilitate mentor reassignments or other issues if necessary. After passing the 2nd year Qualifier Exam, mentees are eligible to serve as mentors to incoming students.

  1. Particle optics and accelerator modeling software for industrial and laboratory beamline design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, George H.; Hill, Barrey W.

    1998-04-01

    The expanding variety of accelerator applications in research and industry places increased demands upon scientists and engineers involved in developing new accelerator and beamline designs. Computer codes for particle optics simulation have always played an important role in the design process and enhanced software tools offer the promise of improved productivity for beamline designers. This paper summarizes recent work on the development of advanced graphic user interface (GUI) software components, that can be linked directly to many of the standard particle optics programs used in the accelerator community, and which are aimed at turning that promise of improved productivity into a reality. An object oriented programming (OOP) approach has been adopted and a number of GUI components have been developed that run on several different operating systems. The emphasis is on assisting users in the setup and running of the optics programs without requiring any knowledge of the format, syntax, or similar requirements of the input. The components are being linked with several popular optics programs, including TRANSPORT, TURTLE, TRACE 3-D and PARMILA, to form integrated easy-to-use applications. Several advanced applications linking the GUI components with Lie algebra and other high-order simulation codes, as well as system level and facility modeling codes, are also under development. An overview of the work completed to date is presented, and examples of the new tools running on the Windows 95 operating system are illustrated.

  2. Laboratory Experiments with the Concordia College High-Speed Dust Particle Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, H. L.

    2011-12-01

    During the Apollo Era, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center built a 2MeV high-speed, dust particle accelerator. This facility was used to test and calibrate the LEAM instrument which was flown to the lunar surface by Apollo 17. As the Apollo project wound down, NASA no longer had need of the dust particle accelerator, and in 1975, it was move to Concordia College in Moorhead, MN. Through the years, it has been maintained and some modifications and improvements have been made to it. In the past decade, the facility has been revived and used by several collaborating institutions to study dust detector instrumentation as well as the effects of dust impacts on various materials. We have tested a prototype, space-flight dust particle detector. Also, piezoelectric pins which can be used as dust detectors were studied to learn the pin's response to single particle impacts of different energies and momenta, and then those measured responses were compared with theoretical models. The effects of high speed impacts on ultra-high temperature ceramics, aerogel, and several different thin films have also been studied at our facility. The results of these experiments will be presented.

  3. Rapid estimation of lives of deficient superpave mixes and laboratory-based accelerated mix testing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manandhar, Chandra Bahadur

    The engineers from the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) often have to decide whether or not to accept non-conforming Superpave mixtures during construction. The first part of this study focused on estimating lives of deficient Superpave pavements incorporating nonconforming Superpave mixtures. These criteria were based on the Hamburg Wheel-Tracking Device (HWTD) test results and analysis. The second part of this study focused on developing accelerated mix testing models to considerably reduce test duration. To accomplish the first objective, nine fine-graded Superpave mixes of 12.5-mm nominal maximum aggregate size (NMAS) with asphalt grade PG 64-22 from six administrative districts of KDOT were selected. Specimens were prepared at three different target air void levels Ndesign gyrations and four target simulated in-place density levels with the Superpave gyratory compactor. Average number of wheel passes to 20-mm rut depth, creep slope, stripping slope, and stripping inflection point in HWTD tests were recorded and then used in the statistical analysis. Results showed that, in general, higher simulated in-place density up to a certain limit of 91% to 93%, results in a higher number of wheel passes until 20-mm rut depth in HWTD tests. A Superpave mixture with very low air voids Ndesign (2%) level performed very poorly in the HWTD test. HWTD tests were also performed on six 12.5-mm NMAS mixtures with air voids Ndesign of 4% for six projects, simulated in-place density of 93%, two temperature levels and five load levels with binder grades of PG 64-22, PG 64-28, and PG 70-22. Field cores of 150-mm in diameter from three projects in three KDOT districts with 12.5-mm NMAS and asphalt grade of PG 64-22 were also obtained and tested in HWTD for model evaluation. HWTD test results indicated as expected. Statistical analysis was performed and accelerated mix testing models were developed to determine the effect of increased temperature and load on the duration of

  4. Stunt Barbie - A Laboratory Practicum Combining Constant Velocity and Constant Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertting, Scott

    2011-04-01

    In preparing to teach the advanced physics course at my high school, I found it useful to work through the end-of-chapter problems in the book used by the advanced class. A problem on motion in one dimension involved a stunt woman in free fall from a tree limb onto a horse running beneath her.2 The problem presents a connected learning opportunity for students because it requires the use of the constant velocity model xf = v*t + xi and the constant acceleration model yf = ½* g* t2 + vyi* t + yi (where g = 9.8 m/s/s) to solve it. I named the stunt woman Barbie and created an activity titled "Stunt Barbie."

  5. Agreement of the activPAL3 and activPAL for characterising posture and stepping in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Ceri; Dall, Philippa; Grant, Margaret; Stansfield, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Characterisation of physical activity and sedentary behaviour under free-living conditions is becoming increasingly important in light of growing evidence for the health implications of these behaviours. The integrity of long-term follow-up and the ability to compare outcomes between studies is critically dependent on the agreement of outcomes from successive generations of monitors. This study evaluated the agreement of the activPAL and second generation activPAL3 devices. Agreement was assessed in both adults (median 27.6y IQR 22.6) (n=20) and young people (median 12.0y IQR 4.1) (n=8) during standardised and daily living (ADL) test activities. During standardised activities; sedentary duration, upright duration, stepping duration and overall number of steps were all detected within small limits of agreement (≤5%). However, the activPAL characterised more steps during jogging than the activPAL3 (adults +8.36%, young people +6.80%). Also during ADL differences arose due to different posture characterisation in young people and lower step detection in the activPAL than the activPAL3 (adults -20.58%, young people -11.43%). Second-by-second posture analysis demonstrated high levels (>90%) of agreement for all activities between monitors. However, sensitivity (68.7%) and positive predictive value (78.8%) for adult stepping demonstrated disagreement between monitor interpretation of movement patterns during ADL. Agreement between monitor outcomes for standardised activities provides confidence that these outcomes can be considered almost equivalent. However, for characterisation of jogging and smaller movements during ADL, it is likely that significant differences between monitor outcomes will arise.

  6. Agreement of the activPAL3 and activPAL for characterising posture and stepping in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Ceri; Dall, Philippa; Grant, Margaret; Stansfield, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Characterisation of physical activity and sedentary behaviour under free-living conditions is becoming increasingly important in light of growing evidence for the health implications of these behaviours. The integrity of long-term follow-up and the ability to compare outcomes between studies is critically dependent on the agreement of outcomes from successive generations of monitors. This study evaluated the agreement of the activPAL and second generation activPAL3 devices. Agreement was assessed in both adults (median 27.6y IQR 22.6) (n=20) and young people (median 12.0y IQR 4.1) (n=8) during standardised and daily living (ADL) test activities. During standardised activities; sedentary duration, upright duration, stepping duration and overall number of steps were all detected within small limits of agreement (≤5%). However, the activPAL characterised more steps during jogging than the activPAL3 (adults +8.36%, young people +6.80%). Also during ADL differences arose due to different posture characterisation in young people and lower step detection in the activPAL than the activPAL3 (adults -20.58%, young people -11.43%). Second-by-second posture analysis demonstrated high levels (>90%) of agreement for all activities between monitors. However, sensitivity (68.7%) and positive predictive value (78.8%) for adult stepping demonstrated disagreement between monitor interpretation of movement patterns during ADL. Agreement between monitor outcomes for standardised activities provides confidence that these outcomes can be considered almost equivalent. However, for characterisation of jogging and smaller movements during ADL, it is likely that significant differences between monitor outcomes will arise. PMID:27318305

  7. "Playground Pals" and Peer Mediation at Benarty Primary School, Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallacher, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Benarty Primary School is situated in Lochore, Fife, Scotland. The school is proactive in developing self regulation; restorative and nurturing approaches. It aims to build resilience in all of its children, staff and families. Playground Pals have been established at Benarty Primary School since 2009 and as part of that programme, there have been…

  8. Pen-Pal Letters: The Cross-Curricular Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemkuhl, Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a first-grade bilingual program in Tucson, Arizona became class pen pals throughout the year with inner-city second graders from Toledo, Ohio. Notes that this would prove beneficial for lessons in reading and writing and would promote their knowledge about their city and state. Discusses how it expanded into cross-curricular lessons…

  9. A Pen Pal Project Connects Preservice Teachers and Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilfong, Lori G.; Oberhauser, Casey

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a pen pal project that took place between preservice teachers and students in an urban middle school. The purpose of this project was twofold: to expose preservice teachers to the rewards of urban teaching and to expose urban middle school students to adult reading role models. As a result of the project, both goals were…

  10. Content Analysis Schedule for Bilingual Education Programs: Proyecto PAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Castor

    This content analysis schedule for "Proyecto PAL" in San Jose, California, presents information on the history, funding, and scope of the project. Included are sociolinguistic process variables such as the native and dominant languages of students and their interaction. Information is provided on staff selection and the linguistic background of…

  11. Project PALS (Parenting and Literacy Skills). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan Independent School District, TX.

    Project PALS (Parenting and Literacy Skills) was designed as a model of holistic comprehensive family literacy for those families connected with a Head Start program. Forty-three of an anticipated 75 families were served. Adult students who were referred by Head Start personnel participated in classes in English as a Second Language, Adult Basic…

  12. Accuracy of activPAL Self-Attachment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kringen, Nina L.; Healy, Genevieve N.; Winkler, Elisabeth A. H.; Clark, Bronwyn K.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the accuracy of self-attachment of the activPAL activity monitor. A convenience sample of 50 participants self-attached the monitor after being presented with written material only (WMO) and then written and video (WV) instructions; and completed a questionnaire regarding the acceptability of the instructional methods.…

  13. Pen Pal Writing: A Holistic and Socio-Cultural Approach to Adult English Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrotta, Clarena; Serrano, Arlene F.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study reports the findings implementing a pen pal letter exchange project between adult English language learners and volunteer native English speakers. The pen pal project was implemented using a holistic and socio-cultural approach to English literacy development. This article presents pen pal writing as an authentic language…

  14. ACCELERATED SITE TECHNOLOGY DEPLOYMENT COST AND PERFORMANCE REPORT COMPARABILITY OF ISOCS INSTRUMENT IN RADIONUCLIDE CHARACTERICATION AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    KALB,P.; LUCKETT,L.; MILLER,K.; GOGOLAK,C.; MILIAN,L.

    2001-03-01

    This report describes a DOE Accelerated Site Technology Deployment project being conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to deploy innovative, radiological, in situ analytical techniques. The technologies are being deployed in support of efforts to characterize the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) facility, which is currently undergoing decontamination and decommissioning. This report focuses on the deployment of the Canberra Industries In Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) and assesses its data comparability to baseline methods of sampling and laboratory analysis. The battery-operated, field deployable gamma spectrometer provides traditional spectra of counts as a function of gamma energy. The spectra are then converted to radionuclide concentration by applying innovative efficiency calculations using monte carlo statistical methods and pre-defined geometry templates in the analysis software. Measurement of gamma emitting radionuclides has been accomplished during characterization of several BGRR components including the Pile Fan Sump, Above Ground Ducts, contaminated cooling fans, and graphite pile internals. Cs-137 is the predominant gamma-emitting radionuclide identified, with smaller quantities of Co-60 and Am-241 detected. The Project used the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual guidance and the Data Quality Objectives process to provide direction for survey planning and data quality assessment. Analytical results have been used to calculate data quality indicators (DQI) for the ISOCS measurements. Among the DQIs assessed in the report are sensitivity, accuracy, precision, bias, and minimum detectable concentration. The assessment of the in situ data quality using the DQIs demonstrates that the ISOCS data quality can be comparable to definitive level laboratory analysis when the field instrument is supported by an appropriate Quality Assurance Project Plan. A discussion of the results obtained by ISOCS analysis of

  15. Prediction and accelerated laboratory discovery of previously unknown 18-electron ABX compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, Romain; Zhang, Xiuwen; Hu, Linhua; Yu, Liping; Lin, Yuyuan; Sunde, Tor O. L.; Chon, Danbee; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.; Zunger, Alex

    2015-04-01

    Chemists and material scientists have often focused on the properties of previously reported compounds, but neglect numerous unreported but chemically plausible compounds that could have interesting properties. For example, the 18-valence electron ABX family of compounds features examples of topological insulators, thermoelectrics and piezoelectrics, but only 83 out of 483 of these possible compounds have been made. Using first-principles thermodynamics we examined the theoretical stability of the 400 unreported members and predict that 54 should be stable. Of those previously unreported ‘missing’ materials now predicted to be stable, 15 were grown in this study; X-ray studies agreed with the predicted crystal structure in all 15 cases. Among the predicted and characterized properties of the missing compounds are potential transparent conductors, thermoelectric materials and topological semimetals. This integrated process—prediction of functionality in unreported compounds followed by laboratory synthesis and characterization—could be a route to the systematic discovery of hitherto missing, realizable functional materials.

  16. Cracking and delamination behaviors of photovoltaic backsheet after accelerated laboratory weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chiao-Chi; Lyu, Yadong; Hunston, Donald L.; Kim, Jae Hyun; Wan, Kai-Tak; Stanley, Deborah L.; Gu, Xiaohong

    2015-09-01

    The channel crack and delamination phenomena that occurred during tensile tests were utilized to study surface cracking and delamination properties of a multilayered backsheet. A model sample of commercial PPE (polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/PET/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)) backsheet was studied. Fragmentation testing was performed after accelerated aging with and without ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in two relative humidity (RH) levels (5 % RH and 60 % RH) at elevated temperature (85 °C) conditions for 11 days and 22 days. Results suggest that the embrittled surface layer resulting from the UV photo-degradation is responsible for surface cracking when the strain applied on the sample is far below the yielding strain (2.2 %) of the PPE sample. There was no surface cracking observed on the un-aged sample and samples aged without UV irradiation. According to the fragmentation testing results, the calculated fracture toughness (KIC) values of the embrittled surface layer are as low as 0.027 MPa·m1/2 to 0.104 MPa·m1/2, depending on the humidity levels and aging times. Surface analysis using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared and atomic force microscopy shows the degradation mechanism of the embrittled surface layer is a combination of the photodegradation within a certain degradation depth and the moisture erosion effect depending on the moisture levels. Specifically, UV irradiation provides a chemical degradation effect while moisture plays a synergistic effect on surface erosion, which influences surface roughness after aging. Finally, there was no delamination observed during tensile testing in this study, suggesting the surface cracking problem is more significant than the delamination for the PPE backsheet material and conditions tested here.

  17. Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Modeling for Accelerated Design of EV Batteries; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad; Zhang, Chao; Kim, Gi-heon; Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    2015-06-10

    The physical and chemical phenomena occurring in a battery are many and complex and in many different scales. Without a better knowledge of the interplay among the multi-physics occurring across the varied scales, it is very challenging and time consuming to design long-lasting, high-performing, safe, affordable large battery systems, enabling electrification of the vehicles and modernization of the grid. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory, has been developing thermal and electrochemical models for cells and battery packs. Working with software producers, carmakers, and battery developers, computer-aided engineering tools have been developed that can accelerate the electrochemical and thermal design of batteries, reducing time to develop and optimize them and thus reducing the cost of the system. In the past couple of years, we initiated a project to model the mechanical response of batteries to stress, strain, fracture, deformation, puncture, and crush and then link them to electrochemical and thermal models to predict the response of a battery. This modeling is particularly important for understanding the physics and processes that happen in a battery during a crush-inducing vehicle crash. In this paper, we provide an overview of electrochemical-thermal-mechanical models for battery system understanding and designing.

  18. The André E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory - The new accelerator mass spectrometry facility at the University of Ottawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieser, W. E.; Zhao, X.-L.; Clark, I. D.; Cornett, R. J.; Litherland, A. E.; Klein, M.; Mous, D. J. W.; Alary, J.-F.

    2015-10-01

    The University of Ottawa, Canada, has installed a multi-element, 3 MV tandem AMS system as the cornerstone of their new Advanced Research Complex and the principal analytical instrument of the André E. Lalonde Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory. Manufactured by High Voltage Engineering Europa B.V., the Netherlands, it is equipped with a 200 sample ion source, a high resolution, 120° injection magnet, a 90° high energy analysis magnet (mass-energy product 350 MeV-AMU), a 65°, 1.7 m radius electric analyzer and a 2 channel gas ionization detector. It is designed to analyze isotopes ranging from tritium to the actinides and to accommodate the use of fluoride target materials. This system is being extended with a second injection line, consisting of selected components from the IsoTrace Laboratory, University of Toronto. This line will contain a pre-commercial version of the Isobar Separator for Anions, manufactured by Isobarex Corp., Bolton, Ontario, Canada. This instrument uses selective ion-gas reactions in a radio-frequency quadrupole cell to attenuate both atomic and molecular isobars. This paper discusses the specifications of the new AMS equipment, reports on the acceptance test results for 10Be, 14C, 26Al and 127I and presents typical spectra for 10Be and actinide analyses.

  19. Stress analysis at the interface between Ni-P coating and SiC p/Al substrate of space mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shaowen; Li, Libo; Zhang, Guangyu; Wang, Wuyi; Zhao, Xuezeng

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the mechanical properties at the interface of the coating-substrate system, which comprises the electroless nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) coating and the aluminum matrix composite substrate reinforced by the silicon carbide particles (SiC p/Al), and is used for the space mirror. To estimate the adhesion of Ni-P coating on SiC p/Al substrate, the scratch adhesion testing has been performed by drawing a spherically tipped diamond indenter with a radius of 200 μm over the coated surface. The influence of the coating thickness on the interfacial stress induced by the inertial accelerations, temperature gradients and thermal soaks has been evaluated by simulation analysis based on the finite element method. The results of the scratch testing indicate that the adhesion strength of Ni-P coating to SiC p/Al composite is more than 3.0 GPa. Compared the maximum value of the interfacial stress obtained by simulation analysis with results of the scratch testing, it is can be seen that the mirror has enough safety margin. Furthermore, the most significant conclusion that can be drawn from this work is that the coating thickness should not exceed 45 μm in order to ensure the performance and reliability of Ni-P coating and SiC p/Al substrate system for space applications.

  20. Representing Value as Digital Object: A Discussion of Transferability and Anonymity; Digital Library Initiatives of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft; CrossRef Turns One; Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Robert E.; Lyons, Patrice A.; Brahms, Ewald; Brand, Amy; van den Bergen, Mieke

    2001-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss the use of digital objects to represent value in a network environment; digital library initiatives at the central public funding organization for academic research in Germany; an application of the Digital Object Identifier System; and the Web site of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. (LRW)

  1. Do you want to build such a machine? : Designing a high energy proton accelerator for Argonne National Laboratory.

    SciTech Connect

    Paris, E.

    2004-04-05

    Argonne National Laboratory's efforts toward researching, proposing and then building a high-energy proton accelerator have been discussed in a handful of studies. In the main, these have concentrated on the intense maneuvering amongst politicians, universities, government agencies, outside corporations, and laboratory officials to obtain (or block) approval and/or funds or to establish who would have control over budgets and research programs. These ''top-down'' studies are very important but they can also serve to divorce such proceedings from the individuals actually involved in the ground-level research which physically served to create theories, designs, machines, and experiments. This can lead to a skewed picture, on the one hand, of a lack of effect that so-called scientific and technological factors exert and, on the other hand, of the apparent separation of the so-called social or political from the concrete practice of doing physics. An exception to this approach can be found in the proceedings of a conference on ''History of the ZGS'' held at Argonne at the time of the Zero Gradient Synchrotron's decommissioning in 1979. These accounts insert the individuals quite literally as they are, for the most part, personal reminiscences of those who took part in these efforts on the ground level. As such, they are invaluable raw material for historical inquiry but generally lack the rigor and perspective expected in a finished historical work. The session on ''Constructing Cold War Physics'' at the 2002 annual History of Science Society Meeting served to highlight new approaches circulating towards history of science and technology in the post-WWII period, especially in the 1950s. There is new attention towards the effects of training large numbers of scientists and engineers as well as the caution not to equate ''national security'' with military preparedness, but rather more broadly--at certain points--with the explicit ''struggle for the hearts and minds of

  2. Overview of the Standing Operating Procedures (SOP) for the Development of Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs)

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Robert; Bast, Cheryl B; Wood, Carol S; Adeshina, Femi; Ross, Robert Hord

    2009-01-01

    Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) are concentrations in air and drinking water for priority toxic chemicals. This article summarizes the Standing Operating Procedures (SOPs) currently in place for the data-driven development of chemical-specific PALs. To provide consistency and transparency, and to avoid faults of arbitrariness, SOPs were developed for guidance in deriving PAL values. The SOPs for PAL development focus on: 1) data acquisition and analysis, 2) identification of a chemical-specific critical effect, 3) selection of a quantitative point-of-departure (POD), 4) uncertainty analysis and adjustments, 5) exposure duration adjustment and extrapolation, 6) identification of special concerns and issues, and 7) verification, documentation and dissemination of PALs. To avoid uncompromising rigidity in deriving PAL values and to allow for incorporation of new or refined methodologies, the overall procedure is fluid and subject to modification. The purpose of this publication is to provide a summary of these SOPs.

  3. 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program Supports At-Risk Youth and Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Connie L.; Miller, Lucinda B.

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program provides a partnership opportunity with Extension and the juvenile court system to positively impact lives of at-risk youth. At-risk youth are taught by 4-H PetPALS adult volunteer leaders and 4-H PetPALS members to value and respect the human-animal bond, as well as to understand and empathize with…

  4. Dual orientation of the outer membrane lipoprotein Pal in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Juliana; MacPherson, Victoria; Barnard, David; Bettinger, John; D'Arcy, Brooke; Surendran, Naveen; Hellman, Judith; Pichichero, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Peptidoglycan associated lipoprotein (Pal) of Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a characteristic bacterial lipoprotein, with an N-terminal lipid moiety anchoring it to the outer membrane. Since its discovery over three decades ago, Pal has been well studied for its participation in the Tol–Pal complex which spans the periplasm and has been proposed to play important roles in bacterial survival, pathogenesis and virulence. Previous studies of Pal place the lipoprotein in the periplasm of E. coli, allowing it to interact with Tol proteins and the peptidoglycan layer. Here, we describe for the first time, a subpopulation of Pal which is present on the cell surface of E. coli. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy detect anti-Pal antibodies on the surface of intact E. coli cells. Interestingly, Pal is surface exposed in an ‘all or nothing’ manner, such that most of the cells contain only internal Pal, with fewer cells ( < 20  %) exhibiting surface Pal. PMID:25808171

  5. Introduction to Korean Accelerator Science and Activities in Industrial Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namkung, Won

    2012-03-01

    After 20 years of the first large-scale accelerator in Korea, the Pohang Light Source (PLS) of 2.0 GeV at POSTECH, its upgrade (PLS-II) is now under commissioning with energy of 3.0 GeV. The users' service for synchrotron radiation is scheduled in April 2012. There are five big accelerator projects in various stages of construction, namely a high-intensity proton linac of 100 MeV, the PAL-XFEL of 10-GeV, a carbon therapy cyclotron of 400 MeV/u, and rare isotope accelerators for isotope separator on-line (ISOL) and In-flight Fragmentation (IFF). There are also strong demands for industrial uses of accelerators, especially in sterilization applications. In this paper, we report the current status of accelerator projects and its science in Korea, along with a brief review of accelerator R&D going back to the early 1960s at universities.

  6. Magnetostriction and palæomagnetism of igneous rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, John W.; Buddington, A.F.; Balsley, J.R.

    1959-01-01

    IN a recent communication, Stott and Stacey1 report on a “crucial experiment” from which they conclude: “This excellent agreement between the dip and the directions of artificial thermoremanent magnetization of the stressed and unstressed rocks indicates that large systematic errors due to magnetostriction are most improbable in igneous rocks of types normally used for palæomagnetic work”. This experiment was intended to test the proposals2 and measurements3 bearing on the role of magnetostriction in rock magnetism. We present here our reasons for believing that the experiment was not crucial and that the conclusion is not justified.

  7. Note: Recent achievements at the 60-MeV Linac for sub-picosecond terahertz radiation at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, Changmook; Hong, Juho; Parc, Yongwoon; Ko, In Soo; Jung, Seonghoon; Park, Jaehun; Kang, Heung-Sik; Han, Daehun; Ryu, Jaehyun

    2011-10-15

    A femtosecond (fs) terahertz (THz) linac has been constructed to generate fs-THz radiation by using ultrashort electron beam at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory. To generate an ultrashort electron beam with 60-MeV energy, a chicane bunch compressor has been adopted. Simulation studies have been conducted to design the linac. In this note, recent achievements at 60-MeV linac are presented.

  8. Stimulant Drug Effects on Touchscreen Automated Paired-Associates Learning (PAL) in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roschlau, Corinna; Votteler, Angeline; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Here we tested in rats effects of the procognitive drugs modafinil and methylphenidate on post-acquisition performance in an object-location paired-associates learning (PAL) task. Modafinil (32; 64 mg/kg) was without effect, while higher (9 mg/kg) but not lower (4.5 mg/kg) doses of methylphenidate impaired PAL performance. Likewise, higher but not…

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radial velocities in Pal 4 (Frank+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M. J.; Hilker, M.; Baumgardt, H.; Cote, P.; Grebel, E. K.; Haghi, H.; Kupper, A. H. W.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2013-04-01

    B and V images centred on Pal 4 were obtained with LRIS on the night of 1999 January 14. On three different nights in 1999 February and March, spectra for 24 candidate red giants in the direction of Pal 4 were obtained using HIRES mounted on the Keck I telescope. (1 data file).

  10. Writing Pal: Feasibility of an Intelligent Writing Strategy Tutor in the High School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Rod D.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2013-01-01

    The Writing Pal (W-Pal) is a novel intelligent tutoring system (ITS) that offers writing strategy instruction, game-based practice, essay writing practice, and formative feedback to developing writers. Compared to more tractable and constrained learning domains for ITS, writing is an ill-defined domain because the features of effective writing are…

  11. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Level I Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    These eight learning modules were prepared for parents participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning), which was designed for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting. First, materials for the BEST-PAL volunteer sponsors…

  12. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Level II Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    These eight learning modules were prepared for parents participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning), which was designed for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting. First, materials for the BEST-PAL volunteer sponsors…

  13. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Volunteer Sponsor's Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    This handbook was developed for volunteer group leaders participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning). Project BEST-PAL was developed especially for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting, with a primary objective being…

  14. "Aloha", Hoosier! A Pen-Pal Activity in the Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Raymond; Chan, Kam Chi

    2007-01-01

    Ray, a preservice teacher in Indiana, and Maxine, a 35-year teaching veteran in Hawai'i, set up a pen-pal program for the third grade students in their respective classrooms, 4,000 miles apart. This pen-pal program, used in conjunction with children's literature and community and technology resources, brought about memorable learning experiences.…

  15. Getting to Know You: Cross-Cultural Pen Pals Expand Children's World View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandomo, Hibajene M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author described the Poplar Street-Naledi pen pal project. The goals of this project were to provide elementary school students with a broader view of the world, to increase their social and cultural awareness, to develop content knowledge of where their pen pals live, and to determine the impact of this project on student…

  16. [Positron annihilation lifetime spectrometry (PALS) and its pharmaceutical applications].

    PubMed

    Sebe, István; Szabó, Barnabás; Zelkó, Romána

    2012-01-01

    PALS is one of the most widely used "nuclear probe" techniques for the tracking of the structural characteristics of materials. The method is based on the matter-energy equivalence principle recognized by Einstein: the electrons and positrons as particle-antiparticle pairs disappear in mutual destruction of particles, they annihilate with high-energy gamma-radiation, thus "particle-energy transition" occurs. The properties of the resulting radiation exactly correspond to the relevant properties of the electron and positron preceding the annihilation. Since electrons occur in all types of materials, the phenomenon of positron annihilation can play in any environment; consequently the method can be used for the analysis of each type of materials (crystalline and amorphous, organic and inorganic, biotic and abiotic). The present paper provides an overview of the theoretical physical background, the practical realization and evaluation of methods, their limitations, and summarizes the pharmaceutical applications published in recent years. PMID:22570984

  17. [Positron annihilation lifetime spectrometry (PALS) and its pharmaceutical applications].

    PubMed

    Sebe, István; Szabó, Barnabás; Zelkó, Romána

    2012-01-01

    PALS is one of the most widely used "nuclear probe" techniques for the tracking of the structural characteristics of materials. The method is based on the matter-energy equivalence principle recognized by Einstein: the electrons and positrons as particle-antiparticle pairs disappear in mutual destruction of particles, they annihilate with high-energy gamma-radiation, thus "particle-energy transition" occurs. The properties of the resulting radiation exactly correspond to the relevant properties of the electron and positron preceding the annihilation. Since electrons occur in all types of materials, the phenomenon of positron annihilation can play in any environment; consequently the method can be used for the analysis of each type of materials (crystalline and amorphous, organic and inorganic, biotic and abiotic). The present paper provides an overview of the theoretical physical background, the practical realization and evaluation of methods, their limitations, and summarizes the pharmaceutical applications published in recent years.

  18. Integrating knowledge-based systems into operations at the McMaster University FN tandem accelerator laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Poehlman, W.F.S. ); Stark, J.W. . Tandem Accelerator Lab.)

    1989-10-01

    The introduction of computer-based expertise in accelerator operations has resulted in the development of an Accelerator Operators' Companion which incorporates a knowledge-based front-end that is tuned to user operational expertise. The front-end also provides connections to traditional software packages such as database and spreadsheet programs. During work on the back-end, that is, real-time expert system control development, the knowledge engineering phase has revealed the importance of modifying expert procedures when a multitasking environment is involved.

  19. Production and isolation of homologs of flerovium and element 115 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Despotopulos, John D.; Kmak, Kelly N.; Gharibyan, Narek; Brown, Thomas A.; Grant, Patrick M.; Henderson, Roger A.; Moody, Kent J.; Tumey, Scott J.; Shaughnessy, Dawn A.; Sudowe, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    Here, new procedures have been developed to isolate no-carrier-added (NCA) radionuclides of the homologs and pseudo-homologs of flerovium (Hg, Sn) and element 115 (Sb), produced by 12–15 MeV proton irradiation of foil stacks with the tandem Van-de-Graaff accelerator at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) facility. The separation of 113Sn from natIn foil was performed with anion-exchange chromatography from hydrochloric and nitric acid matrices. A cation-exchange chromatography method based on hydrochloric and mixed hydrochloric/hydroiodic acids was used to separate 124Sb from natSn foil. A procedure using Eichrom TEVA resin was developed to separate 197Hg from Au foil. These results demonstrate the suitability of using the CAMS facility to produce NCA radioisotopes for studies of transactinide homologs.

  20. Production and isolation of homologs of flerovium and element 115 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Despotopulos, John D.; Kmak, Kelly N.; Gharibyan, Narek; Brown, Thomas A.; Grant, Patrick M.; Henderson, Roger A.; Moody, Kent J.; Tumey, Scott J.; Shaughnessy, Dawn A.; Sudowe, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    Here, new procedures have been developed to isolate no-carrier-added (NCA) radionuclides of the homologs and pseudo-homologs of flerovium (Hg, Sn) and element 115 (Sb), produced by 12–15 MeV proton irradiation of foil stacks with the tandem Van-de-Graaff accelerator at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) facility. The separation of 113Sn from natIn foil was performed with anion-exchange chromatography from hydrochloric and nitric acid matrices. A cation-exchange chromatography method based on hydrochloric and mixed hydrochloric/hydroiodic acids was used to separate 124Sb from natSn foil. A procedure using Eichrom TEVA resin was developed to separate 197Hg frommore » Au foil. These results demonstrate the suitability of using the CAMS facility to produce NCA radioisotopes for studies of transactinide homologs.« less

  1. World Pendulum--A Distributed Remotely Controlled Laboratory (RCL) to Measure the Earth's Gravitational Acceleration Depending on Geographical Latitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grober, S.; Vetter, M.; Eckert, B.; Jodl, H.-J.

    2007-01-01

    We suggest that different string pendulums are positioned at different locations on Earth and measure at each place the gravitational acceleration (accuracy [delta]g is approximately equal to 0.01 m s[superscript -2]). Each pendulum can be remotely controlled via the internet by a computer located somewhere on Earth. The theoretical part describes…

  2. Cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of PAL31 overexpression in glial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to a series of reactive changes and causes severe neurological deficits. A pronounced inflammation contributes to secondary pathology after SCI. Astroglia respond to SCI by proliferating, migrating, and altering phenotype. The impact of reactive gliosis on the pathogenesis of SCI is not fully understood. Our previous study has identified an inflammatory modulating protein, proliferation related acidic leucine-rich protein (PAL31) which is upregulated in the microglia/macrophage of injured cords. Because PAL31 participates in cell cycle progression and reactive astroglia often appears in the injured cord, we aim to examine whether PAL31 is involved in glial modulation after injury. Results Enhanced PAL31 expression was shown not only in microglia/macrophages but also in spinal astroglia after SCI. Cell culture study reveal that overexpression of PAL31 in mixed glial cells or in C6 astroglia significantly reduced LPS/IFNγ stimulation. Further, enhanced PAL31 expression in C6 astroglia protected cells from H2O2 toxicity; however, this did not affect its proliferative activity. The inhibiting effect of PAL31 on LPS/IFNγ stimulation was observed in glia or C6 after co-culture with neuronal cells. The results demonstrated that the overexpressed PAL31 in glial cells protected neuronal damages through inhibiting NF-kB signaling and iNOS. Conclusions Our data suggest that PAL31upregulation might be beneficial after spinal cord injury. Reactive gliosis might become a good target for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:25034417

  3. Accelerating technology transfer from federal laboratories to the private sector by industrial R and D collaborations - A new business model

    SciTech Connect

    LOMBANA,CESAR A.; ROMIG JR.,ALTON D.; LINTON,JONATHAN D.; MARTINEZ,J. LEONARD

    2000-04-13

    Many important products and technologies were developed in federal laboratories and were driven initially by national needs and for federal applications. For example, the clean room technology that enhanced the growth of the semiconductor industry was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) decades ago. Similarly, advances in micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS)--an important set of process technologies vital for product miniaturization--are occurring at SNL. Each of the more than 500 federal laboratories in the US, are sources of R and D that contributes to America's economic vitality, productivity growth and, technological innovation. However, only a fraction of the science and technology available at the federal laboratories is being utilized by industry. Also, federal laboratories have not been applying all the business development processes necessary to work effectively with industry in technology commercialization. This paper addresses important factors that federal laboratories, federal agencies, and industry must address to translate these under utilized technologies into profitable products in the industrial sector.

  4. Characterisation of the willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene family reveals expression differences compared with poplar

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Femke; Hanley, Steven J.; Beale, Michael H.; Karp, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Willow is an important biomass crop for the bioenergy industry, and therefore optimal growth with minimal effects of biotic and abiotic stress is essential. The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of not only lignin but also of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids and phenolic glycosides which all have a role in protecting the plant against biotic and abiotic stress. All products of the phenylpropanoid pathway are important for the healthy growth of short rotation cropping species such as willow. However, the phenylpropanoid pathway in willow remains largely uncharacterised. In the current study we identified and characterised five willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) genes, which encode enzymes that catalyse the deamination of l-phenylalanine to form trans-cinnamic acid, the entry point into the phenylpropanoid pathway. Willow PAL1, PAL2, PAL3 and PAL4 genes were orthologous to the poplar genes. However no orthologue of PAL5 appears to be present in willow. Moreover, two tandemly repeated PAL2 orthologues were identified in a single contig. Willow PALs show similar sub-cellular localisation to the poplar genes. However, the enzyme kinetics and gene expression of the willow PAL genes differed slightly, with willow PAL2 being more widely expressed than its poplar orthologues implying a wider role for PALs in the production of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids, and phenolic glycosides, in willow. PMID:26070140

  5. Characterisation of the willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene family reveals expression differences compared with poplar.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Femke; Hanley, Steven J; Beale, Michael H; Karp, Angela

    2015-09-01

    Willow is an important biomass crop for the bioenergy industry, and therefore optimal growth with minimal effects of biotic and abiotic stress is essential. The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of not only lignin but also of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids and phenolic glycosides which all have a role in protecting the plant against biotic and abiotic stress. All products of the phenylpropanoid pathway are important for the healthy growth of short rotation cropping species such as willow. However, the phenylpropanoid pathway in willow remains largely uncharacterised. In the current study we identified and characterised five willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) genes, which encode enzymes that catalyse the deamination of l-phenylalanine to form trans-cinnamic acid, the entry point into the phenylpropanoid pathway. Willow PAL1, PAL2, PAL3 and PAL4 genes were orthologous to the poplar genes. However no orthologue of PAL5 appears to be present in willow. Moreover, two tandemly repeated PAL2 orthologues were identified in a single contig. Willow PALs show similar sub-cellular localisation to the poplar genes. However, the enzyme kinetics and gene expression of the willow PAL genes differed slightly, with willow PAL2 being more widely expressed than its poplar orthologues implying a wider role for PALs in the production of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids, and phenolic glycosides, in willow.

  6. Accelerating Ocean Energy to the Marketplace – Environmental Research at the U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; Cada, G. F.; Roberts, Jesse; Bevelhimer, Mark

    2010-10-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) has mobilized its National Laboratories to address the broad range of environmental effects of ocean and river energy development. The National Laboratories are using a risk-based approach to set priorities among environmental effects, and to direct research activities. Case studies will be constructed to determine the most significant environmental effects of ocean energy harvest for tidal systems in temperate estuaries, for wave energy installations in temperate coastal areas, wave installations in sub-tropical waters, and riverine energy installations in large rivers. In addition, the National Laboratories are investigating the effects of energy removal from waves, tides and river currents using numerical modeling studies. Laboratory and field research is also underway to understand the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), acoustic noise, toxicity from anti-biofouling coatings, effects on benthic habitats, and physical interactions with tidal and wave devices on marine and freshwater organisms and ecosystems. Outreach and interactions with stakeholders allow the National Laboratories to understand and mitigate for use conflicts and to provide useful information for marine spatial planning at the national and regional level.

  7. Statistical correlation of the soil incubation and the accelerated laboratory extraction methods to estimate nitrogen release rates of slow- and controlled-release fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Medina, L Carolina; Sartain, Jerry; Obreza, Thomas; Hall, William L; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies have been proposed to characterize the nutrient release patterns of enhanced-efficiency fertilizers (EEFs) during the last few decades. These technologies have been developed mainly by manufacturers and are product-specific based on the regulation and analysis of each EEF product. Despite previous efforts to characterize nutrient release of slow-release fertilizer (SRF) and controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) materials, no official method exists to assess their nutrient release patterns. However, the increased production and distribution of EEFs in specialty and nonspecialty markets requires an appropriate method to verify nutrient claims and material performance. Nonlinear regression was used to establish a correlation between the data generated from a 180-day soil incubation-column leaching procedure and 74 h accelerated lab extraction method, and to develop a model that can predict the 180-day nitrogen (N) release curve for a specific SRF and CRF product based on the data from the accelerated laboratory extraction method. Based on the R2 > 0.90 obtained for most materials, results indicated that the data generated from the 74 h accelerated lab extraction method could be used to predict N release from the selected materials during 180 days, including those fertilizers that require biological activity for N release. PMID:25051612

  8. Relativistic electron acceleration by compressional-mode ULF waves: Evidence from correlated Cluster, Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft, and ground-based magnetometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Lun C.; Shao, X.; Sharma, A. S.; Fung, Shing F.

    2011-07-01

    Simultaneous observations by Cluster and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) spacecraft and Canadian Array for Real-Time Investigations of Magnetic Activity and International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effects magnetometer arrays during a sudden storm commencement on 25 September 2001 show evidence of relativistic electron acceleration by compressional-mode ULF waves. The waves are driven by the quasiperiodic solar wind dynamical pressure fluctuations that continuously buffet the magnetosphere for ˜3 h. The compressional-mode ULF waves are identified by comparing the power of magnetic field magnitude fluctuations with the total magnetic field power. The radial distribution and azimuthal propagation of both toroidal and poloidal-mode ULF waves are derived from ground-based magnetometer data. The energetic electron fluxes measured by LANL show modulation of low-energy electrons and acceleration of high-energy electrons by the compressional poloidal-mode electric field oscillations. The energy threshold of accelerated electrons at the geosynchronous orbit is ˜0.4 MeV, which is roughly consistent with drift-resonant interaction of magnetospheric electrons with compressional-mode ULF waves.

  9. Statistical correlation of the soil incubation and the accelerated laboratory extraction methods to estimate nitrogen release rates of slow- and controlled-release fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Medina, L Carolina; Sartain, Jerry; Obreza, Thomas; Hall, William L; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies have been proposed to characterize the nutrient release patterns of enhanced-efficiency fertilizers (EEFs) during the last few decades. These technologies have been developed mainly by manufacturers and are product-specific based on the regulation and analysis of each EEF product. Despite previous efforts to characterize nutrient release of slow-release fertilizer (SRF) and controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) materials, no official method exists to assess their nutrient release patterns. However, the increased production and distribution of EEFs in specialty and nonspecialty markets requires an appropriate method to verify nutrient claims and material performance. Nonlinear regression was used to establish a correlation between the data generated from a 180-day soil incubation-column leaching procedure and 74 h accelerated lab extraction method, and to develop a model that can predict the 180-day nitrogen (N) release curve for a specific SRF and CRF product based on the data from the accelerated laboratory extraction method. Based on the R2 > 0.90 obtained for most materials, results indicated that the data generated from the 74 h accelerated lab extraction method could be used to predict N release from the selected materials during 180 days, including those fertilizers that require biological activity for N release.

  10. Stimulant drug effects on touchscreen automated paired-associates learning (PAL) in rats.

    PubMed

    Roschlau, Corinna; Votteler, Angeline; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    Here we tested in rats effects of the procognitive drugs modafinil and methylphenidate on post-acquisition performance in an object-location paired-associates learning (PAL) task. Modafinil (32; 64 mg/kg) was without effect, while higher (9 mg/kg) but not lower (4.5 mg/kg) doses of methylphenidate impaired PAL performance. Likewise, higher but not lower doses of amphetamine (0.4; 0.8 mg/kg) and MK-801 (0.08; 0.12 mg/kg) decreased PAL performance. Impaired PAL performance induced by methylphenidate, amphetamine, and MK801 most likely reflects compromised cognitive function, e.g., retrieval of learned paired associates. Our data suggest that stimulant drugs such as methylphenidate and modafinil might not facilitate performance in hippocampus-related cognitive tasks. PMID:27421894

  11. Accelerating aerobic DRO biodegradation in stream bank sediments through oxygen enhancements: Laboratory results and field pilot demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Sturman, P.J.; Cunningham, A.B.; Wemple, C.

    1997-12-31

    A novel technique has been developed for accomplishing in situ, aerobic bioremediation of low-temperature, low-permeability, high-organic carbon containing stream bank sediments impacted with diesel range petroleum hydrocarbons. Laboratory microcosms tests have demonstrated efficient removal of diesel range organics (DRO) when sediments are amended with oxygen-releasing and solubilizing compounds. This technique was conceived, designed and tested to provide a superior alternative to destructive and costly intrusive remediation for a fragile, pristine, riparian environment. Laboratory microcosm tests using sediments from a DRO impacted mountain stream were amended with surfactant (alcohol ethoxylate 810-4.5), a magnesium peroxide containing mixture (Oxygen Release Compound{reg_sign}, Regenesis, Inc.), hydrogen peroxide, and ethanol to determine the effects of these oxygen-enhancing and solubilizing amendments on biodegradation extent and DRO bioavailability. Laboratory test results and subsequent field toxicity testing using aquatic biota indicated the MgO, mixture to be most suitable for field use at this site. While laboratory microcosm tests showed significant reductions to both DRO and the water surface sheen associated with trapped hydrocarbons, biodegradation endpoints in the range of 500-1000 mg/kg were observed. These non-zero biotreatment endpoints suggest that biodegradation in situ is limited by DRO bioavailability. Because contaminant transport to groundwater and adjacent surface waters is very slow, exposure risk is minimal. Based on successful laboratory testing, a field pilot test was initiated in September 1996 wherein slurried Oxygen Release Compound{reg_sign} (ORC) was pressure-injected into shallow, DRO impacted stream bank sediments.

  12. Structural and thermodynamic characterization of Pal, a phage natural chimeric lysin active against pneumococci.

    PubMed

    Varea, Julio; Monterroso, Begoña; Sáiz, José L; López-Zumel, Consuelo; García, José L; Laynez, José; García, Pedro; Menéndez, Margarita

    2004-10-15

    Pal amidase, encoded by pneumococcal bacteriophage Dp-1, represents one step beyond in the modular evolution of pneumococcal murein hydrolases. It exhibits the choline-binding module attaching pneumococcal lysins to the cell wall, but the catalytic module is different from those present in the amidases coded by the host or other pneumococcal phages. Pal is also an effective antimicrobial agent against Streptococcus pneumoniae that may constitute an alternative to antibiotic prophylaxis. The structural implications of Pal singular structure and their effect on the choline-amidase interactions have been examined by means of several techniques. Pal stability is maximum around pH 8.0 (Tm approximately 50.2 degrees C; DeltaHt = 183 +/- 4 kcal mol(-1)), and its constituting modules fold as two tight interacting cooperative units whose denaturation merges into a single process in the free amidase but may proceed as two well resolved events in the choline-bound state. Choline titration curves reflect low energy ligand-protein interactions and are compatible with two sets of sites. Choline binding strongly stabilizes the cell wall binding module, and the conformational stabilization is transmitted to the catalytic region. Moreover, the high proportion of aggregates formed by the unbound amidase together with choline preferential interaction with Pal dimers suggest the existence of marginally stable regions that would become stabilized through choline-protein interactions without significantly modifying Pal secondary structure. This structural rearrangement may underlie in vitro "conversion" of Pal from the low to the full activity form triggered by choline. The Pal catalytic module secondary structure could denote folding conservation within pneumococcal lytic amidases, but the number of functional choline binding sites is reduced (2-3 sites per monomer) when compared with pneumococcal LytA amidase (4-5 sites per monomer) and displays different intermodular interactions.

  13. Pal 12 - A metal-rich globular cluster in the outer halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J. G.; Frogel, J. A.; Persson, S. E.; Zinn, R.

    1980-01-01

    New optical and infrared observations of several stars in the distant globular cluster Pal 12 show that they have CO strengths and heavy element abundances only slightly less than in M 71, one of the more metal-rich globular clusters. Pal 12 thus has a metal abundance near the high end of the range over which globular clusters exist and lies in the outer galactic halo. Its red horizontal branch is not anomalous in view of the abundance that has been found.

  14. Union of Compact Accelerator-Driven Neutron Sources (UCANS) I & II Neutron applications laboratory for ESS-Bilbao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrón, S.; Magán, M.; Sordo, F.; Ghiglino, A.; Mart«ınez, F.; Bermejo, F. J.; Perlado, J. M.

    The ESS-Bilbao Accelerator Center site at Lejoa UPV/EHU campus will be provided with a proton accelerator up to 300-400 MeV. In the first construction phase, a beam extraction will be set at the end of the DTL, which will produce a 50 MeV proton beam with an average current of 2.25 mA and 1.5 ms pulses at a frequency of 20 Hz. These beam characteristics allow to configure a low intensity neutron source based on Be (p, n) reactions, which enables experimentation with cold neutrons similar to that of LENS. The total beam power will be 112 kW, so the configuration of the neutron production target will be based on a rotating disk of beryllium slabs facing the beam on one side and a cryogenic methane moderator on the other, with the target-moderator system surrounded by a beryllium reflector. In this paper, first estimates will be presented for thermomechanical conditions of the target cooling scheme, neutron source intensities, and cold neutron pulses.

  15. The erosion of the beaches on the coast of Alicante: Study of the mechanisms of weathering by accelerated laboratory tests.

    PubMed

    López, I; López, M; Aragonés, L; García-Barba, J; López, M P; Sánchez, I

    2016-10-01

    One of the main problems that coasts around the world present, is the regression and erosion of beaches. However, the factors involved in these processes are unclear. In this study, the influence of sediment erosion on beach regression has been analysed. In order to do that, a three-step investigation has been carried out. Firstly, coastline variations of four Spanish beaches have been analysed. Secondly, a study on sediment position along the beach profile has been developed. Finally, the process that beach sediments undergo along the surf zone when they are hit by the incident waves has been simulated by an accelerated particle weathering test. Samples of sand and shells were subjected to this accelerated particle weathering test. Results were supplemented with those from carbonate content test, XRD, SEM and granulometric analysis. Results shows a cross-shore classification of sediments along the beach profile in which finer particles move beyond offshore limit. Besides, it was observed that sediment erosion process is divided into three sages: i) particles wear due to crashes ii) dissolution of the carbonate fraction, and iii) breakage and separation of mineral and carbonate parts of particles. All these processes lead to a reduction of particle size. The mechanism responsible of beach erosion would consist of multiples and continuous particle location exchanges along the beach profile as a consequence of grain-size decrease due to erosion.

  16. The erosion of the beaches on the coast of Alicante: Study of the mechanisms of weathering by accelerated laboratory tests.

    PubMed

    López, I; López, M; Aragonés, L; García-Barba, J; López, M P; Sánchez, I

    2016-10-01

    One of the main problems that coasts around the world present, is the regression and erosion of beaches. However, the factors involved in these processes are unclear. In this study, the influence of sediment erosion on beach regression has been analysed. In order to do that, a three-step investigation has been carried out. Firstly, coastline variations of four Spanish beaches have been analysed. Secondly, a study on sediment position along the beach profile has been developed. Finally, the process that beach sediments undergo along the surf zone when they are hit by the incident waves has been simulated by an accelerated particle weathering test. Samples of sand and shells were subjected to this accelerated particle weathering test. Results were supplemented with those from carbonate content test, XRD, SEM and granulometric analysis. Results shows a cross-shore classification of sediments along the beach profile in which finer particles move beyond offshore limit. Besides, it was observed that sediment erosion process is divided into three sages: i) particles wear due to crashes ii) dissolution of the carbonate fraction, and iii) breakage and separation of mineral and carbonate parts of particles. All these processes lead to a reduction of particle size. The mechanism responsible of beach erosion would consist of multiples and continuous particle location exchanges along the beach profile as a consequence of grain-size decrease due to erosion. PMID:27220096

  17. Laser-driven ablation through fast electrons in PALS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Chodukowski, T.; Demchenko, N.; Kalinowska, Z.; Kasperczuk, A.; Krousky, E.; Pfeifer, M.; Pisarczyk, P.; Pisarczyk, T.; Renner, O.; Skala, J.; Smid, M.; Ullschmied, J.

    2016-03-01

    Energy transfer to shock wave in Al and Cu targets irradiated by a laser pulse with intensity of I≈1-50 PW/cm2 and duration of 250 ps was investigated at Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS). The iodine laser provided energy in the range of 100-600 J at the first and third harmonic frequencies. The focal spot radius of laser beam on the target was varied from 160 to 40 μm. The dominant contribution of fast electron energy transfer into the ablation process was found when using the first harmonic radiation, the focal spot radius of 40-100 μm, and the energy of 300-600 J. The fast electron heating results in the growth of ablation pressure from 60 Mbar at the intensity of 10 PW/cm2 to 180 Mbar at the intensity of 50 PW/cm2 and in the growth of the efficiency of the energy conversion into the shock wave from 2 to 7% under the conditions of 2D ablation.

  18. VE-cadherin interacts with cell polarity protein Pals1 to regulate vascular lumen formation.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Benjamin F; Steinbacher, Tim; Hartmann, Christian; Kummer, Daniel; Pajonczyk, Denise; Mirzapourshafiyi, Fatemeh; Nakayama, Masanori; Weide, Thomas; Gerke, Volker; Ebnet, Klaus

    2016-09-15

    Blood vessel tubulogenesis requires the formation of stable cell-to-cell contacts and the establishment of apicobasal polarity of vascular endothelial cells. Cell polarity is regulated by highly conserved cell polarity protein complexes such as the Par3-aPKC-Par6 complex and the CRB3-Pals1-PATJ complex, which are expressed by many different cell types and regulate various aspects of cell polarity. Here we describe a functional interaction of VE-cadherin with the cell polarity protein Pals1. Pals1 directly interacts with VE-cadherin through a membrane-proximal motif in the cytoplasmic domain of VE-cadherin. VE-cadherin clusters Pals1 at cell-cell junctions. Mutating the Pals1-binding motif in VE-cadherin abrogates the ability of VE-cadherin to regulate apicobasal polarity and vascular lumen formation. In a similar way, deletion of the Par3-binding motif at the C-terminus of VE-cadherin impairs apicobasal polarity and vascular lumen formation. Our findings indicate that the biological activity of VE-cadherin in regulating endothelial polarity and vascular lumen formation is mediated through its interaction with the two cell polarity proteins Pals1 and Par3.

  19. Design of a hard X-ray beamline and end-station for pump and probe experiments at Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free Electron Laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaeku; Eom, Intae; Kang, Tai-Hee; Rah, Seungyu; Nam, Ki Hyun; Park, Jaehyun; Kim, Sangsoo; Kwon, Soonam; Park, Sang Han; Kim, Kyung Sook; Hyun, Hyojung; Kim, Seung Nam; Lee, Eun Hee; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Seonghan; Kim, Myong-jin; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Ahn, Docheon; Lim, Jun; Yu, Chung-Jong; Song, Changyong; Kim, Hyunjung; Noh, Do Young; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Bongsoo; Kim, Kwang-Woo; Ko, In Soo; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Kim, Sunam

    2016-02-01

    The Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free Electron Laser project, a new worldwide-user facility to deliver ultrashort, laser-like x-ray photon pulses, will begin user operation in 2017 after one year of commissioning. Initially, it will provide two beamlines for hard and soft x-rays, respectively, and two experimental end-stations for the hard x-ray beamline will be constructed by the end of 2015. This article introduces one of the two hard x-ray end-stations, which is for hard x-ray pump-probe experiments, and primarily outlines the overall design of this end-station and its critical components. The content of this article will provide useful guidelines for the planning of experiments conducted at the new facility.

  20. A Convenient Ultraviolet Irradiation Technique for Synthesis of Antibacterial Ag-Pal Nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuai; Zhang, He; Kang, Lianwei; Li, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Chong; Dong, Yongjie; Qin, Shenjun

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, palygorskite (Pal) was initially subjected to an ion-exchange reaction with silver ions (Pal-Ag(+)). Subsequently, Ag-Pal nanocomposites were assembled by a convenient ultraviolet irradiation technique, using carbon dots (CDs) derived from wool fiber as the reducing agent. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The XRD patterns and UV-vis absorption spectra confirmed the formation of the Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Meanwhile, the TEM images showed that the Ag NPs, which exhibited sizes in the range of 3-7 nm, were located on the surface of the Pal nanofiber structures. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the nanocomposites was evaluated against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria by applying the disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration test. Owing to their good antibacterial properties, the Ag-Pal nanocomposites are considered to be a promising bactericide with great potential applications. PMID:27677302

  1. A Convenient Ultraviolet Irradiation Technique for Synthesis of Antibacterial Ag-Pal Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Shuai; Zhang, He; Kang, Lianwei; Li, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Chong; Dong, Yongjie; Qin, Shenjun

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, palygorskite (Pal) was initially subjected to an ion-exchange reaction with silver ions (Pal-Ag+). Subsequently, Ag-Pal nanocomposites were assembled by a convenient ultraviolet irradiation technique, using carbon dots (CDs) derived from wool fiber as the reducing agent. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The XRD patterns and UV-vis absorption spectra confirmed the formation of the Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Meanwhile, the TEM images showed that the Ag NPs, which exhibited sizes in the range of 3-7 nm, were located on the surface of the Pal nanofiber structures. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the nanocomposites was evaluated against Gram-positive ( Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli) bacteria by applying the disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration test. Owing to their good antibacterial properties, the Ag-Pal nanocomposites are considered to be a promising bactericide with great potential applications.

  2. Logic synthesis strategy based on BDD decomposition and PAL-oriented optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opara, Adam; Kania, Dariusz

    2015-12-01

    A new strategy of logic synthesis for PAL-based CPLDs is presented in the paper. This approach consists of an original method of two-stage BDD-based decomposition and a two-level PAL-oriented optimization. The aim of the proposed approach is oriented towards balanced (speed/area) optimization. The first element of the strategy is original PAL-oriented decomposition. This decomposition consists in the sequential search for an input partition providing the feasibility for implementation of the free block in one PAL-based logic block containing a predefined number of product terms. The presented non-standard decomposition provides a means to minimize the area of the implemented circuit and to reduce of the necessary logic blocks in the programmable structure. The second element of the proposed logic synthesis strategy is oriented towards speed optimization. This optimization is based on utilizing tri-state buffers. Results of experiments prove that the presented synthesis strategy is especially effective for CPLD structures, which consist of PAL-based logic blocks containing a low number of product terms.

  3. Gluconic acid produced by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 possesses antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Peñalver, Carlos G; Savino, María J; Bertini, Elisa V; Sánchez, Leandro A; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2014-09-01

    Gluconic acid is produced in large quantities by the endophytic and diazotrophic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5. This organic acid derives from direct oxidation of glucose by a pyrroloquinoline-quinone-linked glucose dehydrogenase in this plant growth-promoting bacterium. In the present article, evidence is presented showing that gluconic acid is also responsible for the antimicrobial activity of G. diazotrophicus Pal5. The broad antagonistic spectrum includes Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Eukaryotic microorganisms are more resistant to growth inhibition by this acid. Inhibition by gluconic acid can be modified through the presence of other organic acids. In contrast to other microorganisms, the Quorum Sensing system of G. diazotrophicus Pal5, a regulatory mechanism that plays a key role in several microbe-microbe interactions, is not related to gluconic acid production and the concomitant antagonistic activity. PMID:25049167

  4. Gluconic acid produced by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 possesses antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Peñalver, Carlos G; Savino, María J; Bertini, Elisa V; Sánchez, Leandro A; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2014-09-01

    Gluconic acid is produced in large quantities by the endophytic and diazotrophic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5. This organic acid derives from direct oxidation of glucose by a pyrroloquinoline-quinone-linked glucose dehydrogenase in this plant growth-promoting bacterium. In the present article, evidence is presented showing that gluconic acid is also responsible for the antimicrobial activity of G. diazotrophicus Pal5. The broad antagonistic spectrum includes Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Eukaryotic microorganisms are more resistant to growth inhibition by this acid. Inhibition by gluconic acid can be modified through the presence of other organic acids. In contrast to other microorganisms, the Quorum Sensing system of G. diazotrophicus Pal5, a regulatory mechanism that plays a key role in several microbe-microbe interactions, is not related to gluconic acid production and the concomitant antagonistic activity.

  5. PAL-XFEL cavity beam position monitor pick-up design and beam test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sojeong; Park, Young Jung; Kim, Changbum; Kim, Seung Hwan; Shin, Dong Cheol; Han, Jang-Hui; Ko, In Soo

    2016-08-01

    As an X-ray Free Electron Laser, PAL-XFEL is about to start beam commissioning. X-band cavity beam position monitor (BPM) is used in the PAL-XFEL undulator beam line. Prototypes of cavity BPM pick-up were designed and fabricated to test the RF characteristics. Also, the beam test of a cavity BPM pick-up was done in the Injector Test Facility (ITF). In the beam test, the raw signal properties of the cavity BPM pick-up were measured at a 200 pC bunch charge. According to the RF test and beam test results, the prototype cavity BPM pick-up design was confirmed to meet the requirements of the PAL-XFEL cavity BPM system.

  6. Accelerating the Whiteshell Laboratories Decommissioning Through the Implementation of a Projectized and Delivery-Focused Organization - 13074

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, Brian; Mellor, Russ; Michaluk, Craig

    2013-07-01

    Whiteshell Laboratories (WL) is a nuclear research site in Canada that was commissioned in 1964 by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. It covers a total area of approximately 4,375 hectares (10,800 acres) and includes the main campus site, the Waste Management Area (WMA) and outer areas of land identified as not used for or impacted by nuclear development or operations. The WL site employed up to 1100 staff. Site activities included the successful operation of a 60 MW organic liquid-cooled research reactor from 1965 to 1985, and various research programs including reactor safety research, small reactor development, fuel development, biophysics and radiation applications, as well as work under the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. In 1997, AECL made a business decision to discontinue research programs and operations at WL, and obtained government concurrence in 1998. The Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP) was established in 2006 by the Canadian Government to remediate nuclear legacy liabilities in a safe and cost effective manner, including the WL site. The NLLP is being implemented by AECL under the governance of a Natural Resources Canada (NRCan)/AECL Joint Oversight Committee (JOC). Significant progress has since been made, and the WL site currently holds the only Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) nuclear research site decommissioning license in Canada. The current decommissioning license is in place until the end of 2018. The present schedule planned for main campus decommissioning is 30 years (to 2037), followed by institutional control of the WMA until a National plan is implemented for the long-term management of nuclear waste. There is an impetus to advance work and complete decommissioning sooner. To accomplish this, AECL has added significant resources, reorganized and moved to a projectized environment. This presentation outlines changes made to the organization, the tools implemented to foster projectization, and the benefits

  7. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 12. Sequence analysis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) cDNA clones and appearance of PAL transcripts in elicitor-treated cell cultures and developing plants.

    PubMed

    Gowri, G; Paiva, N L; Dixon, R A

    1991-09-01

    An expression library containing cDNAs derived from transcripts from fungal elicitor-treated alfalfa cell suspension cultures was screened with an antiserum raised against phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) from alfalfa. A single immunoreactive clone was isolated which encoded a full-length PAL cDNA (APAL1) consisting of a 2175 bp open reading frame, 96 bp 5'-untranslated leader and 128 bp 3'-non-coding region. The deduced amino acid sequence was 86.5% similar to that of the PAL2 gene of bean, and encoded a polypeptide of Mr 78,865. A second PAL cDNA species was isolated, whose 3'-untranslated region was 86% identical to that of APAL1. Southern blot analysis indicated that PAL is encoded by a small multigene family in alfalfa. PAL transcript levels were rapidly and massively induced, and preceded increased PAL extractable activity, on exposure of alfalfa suspension cells to elicitor from baker's yeast. PAL transcripts were most abundant in roots, stems and petioles during growth and development of alfalfa seedlings. These studies provide the basis for an examination of the developmental and environmental control of a key enzyme of phenylpropanoid synthesis in a plant species which is readily amenable to stable genetic transformation.

  8. PAL: An Object Oriented Data Access Layer for Herschel Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Guest, S.; Huang, M.; Balm, P.; Siddiqui, H.; Bakker, J.; Segovia, J. C.; Saiz, J.; Edwards, K.

    2012-09-01

    The Herschel Ground Segment Product Access Layer (PAL), an object oriented software package that provides a consistent means for accessing Herschel Space Observatory data products, isolates the complexity of underlying storage systems and makes it possible for scientific data analysis scripts to be reused in different environments and over a long period of time as software and hardware evolve. The pluggable design of the PAL makes it easier for users to handle new underlying storage systems and to optimize performance according to different system characteristics.

  9. Calculation of Transactinide Homolog Isotope Production Reactions Possible with the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, K J; Shaughnessy, D A; Gostic, J M

    2011-11-29

    The LLNL heavy element group has been investigating the chemical properties of the heaviest elements over the past several years. The properties of the transactinides (elements with Z > 103) are often unknown due to their low production rates and short half-lives, which require lengthy cyclotron irradiations in order to make enough atoms for statistically significant evaluations of their chemistry. In addition, automated chemical methods are often required to perform consistent and rapid chemical separations on the order of minutes for the duration of the experiment, which can last from weeks to months. Separation methods can include extraction chromatography, liquid-liquid extraction, or gas-phase chromatography. Before a lengthy transactinide experiment can be performed at an accelerator, a large amount of preparatory work must be done both to ensure the successful application of the chosen chemical system to the transactinide chemistry problem being addressed, and to evaluate the behavior of the lighter elemental homologs in the same chemical system. Since transactinide chemistry is literally performed on one single atom, its chemical properties cannot be determined from bulk chemical matrices, but instead must be inferred from the behavior of the lighter elements that occur in its chemical group and in those of its neighboring elements. By first studying the lighter group homologs in a particular chemical system, when the same system is applied to the transactinide element under investigation, its decay properties can be directly compared to those of the homologues, thereby allowing an inference of its own chemistry. The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) includes a 1 MV Tandem accelerator, capable of accelerating light ions such as protons to energies of roughly 15 MeV. By using the CAMS beamline, tracers of transactinide homolog elements can be produced both for development of chemical systems and

  10. Validation of the Actigraph GT3X and ActivPAL Accelerometers for the Assessment of Sedentary Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Youngdeok; Barry, Vaughn W.; Kang, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    This study examined (a) the validity of two accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X [ActiGraph LLC, Pensacola, FL, USA] and activPAL [PAL Technologies Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland]) for the assessment of sedentary behavior; and (b) the variations in assessment accuracy by setting minimum sedentary bout durations against a proxy for direct observation using an…

  11. Problems with McAdams and Pals's (2006) Proposal of a Framework for an Integrative Theory of Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Seymour

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the original article "A New Big Five: Fundamental Principles for an Integrative Science of Personality," by Dan P. McAdams and Jennifer L. Pals (see record 2006-03947-002). Here, the current author begins with a critique of McAdams and Pals's (April 2006) five principles for a framework for an integrative theory of personality. The…

  12. Immediate Impacts of PALS: A School-Wide Multi-Level Programme Targeting Behaviour Problems in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorlie, Mari-Anne; Ogden, Terje

    2007-01-01

    The article describes the main outcomes of the intervention programme "Positive behaviour, interactions and learning environment in school" (PALS). PALS is an adapted Norwegian version of the School-Wide Positive Behaviour Support model, developed in the United States with school-wide interventions aiming at the prevention of behaviour problems…

  13. Philosophy and Adult Educators: An Inquiry into the Philosophy-Practice Link Using the PALS, EOQ, and PAEI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachal, John R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    To explore philosophical predilections, the Principles of Adult Learning Scale (PALS), Educational Orientation Questionnaire, and Philosophy of Adult Education Inventory were administered to 111 adult education graduate students. The overall population was progressive on the PALS and scored close to reported means on the other tests. (SLD)

  14. Investigations of the output energy deviation and other parameters during commissioning of the four-rod radio frequency quadrupole at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J. S.; et al.,

    2014-03-01

    After 30 years of operation, the Cockcroft-Walton based injector at FNAL (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory) has been replaced by a new beam line including a dimpled magnetron 35 keV source in combination with a 750 keV 4-rod Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). The new injector is followed by the existing drift tube linac (DTL). Prior to installation, a test beam line was built which included the magnetron source and the 4-rod RFQ with a number of beam measurement instrumentation. The first beam test with the RFQ showed an output energy deviation greater than 2.5%. Other problems also showed up which led to investigations of the output energy, power consumption and transmission properties using RF simulations which were complemented with additional beam measurements. The sources of this deviation and the mechanical modifications of the RFQ to solve this matter will be presented in this paper. Meanwhile, the nominal output energy of 750 keV has been confirmed and the new injector with the 4-rod RFQ is in full operation.

  15. Optimization and validation of an accelerated laboratory extraction method to estimate nitrogen release patterns of slow- and controlled-release fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Medina, L Carolina; Sartain, Jerry B; Obreza, Thomas A; Hall, William L; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies have been proposed to characterize the nutrient release and availability patterns of enhanced-efficiency fertilizers (EEFs), especially slow-release fertilizers (SRFs) and controlled-release fertilizers (CRFs) during the last few decades. These technologies have been developed mainly by manufacturers and are product-specific based on the regulation and analysis of each EEF product. Despite previous efforts to characterize EEF materials, no validated method exists to assess their nutrient release patterns. However, the increased use of EEFs in specialty and nonspecialty markets requires an appropriate method to verify nutrient claims and material performance. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature, fertilizer test portion size, and extraction time on the performance of a 74 h accelerated laboratory extraction method to measure SRF and CRF nutrient release profiles. Temperature was the only factor that influenced nutrient release rate, with a highly marked effect for phosphorus and to a lesser extent for nitrogen (N) and potassium. Based on the results, the optimal extraction temperature set was: Extraction No. 1-2:00 h at 25 degrees C; Extraction No. 2-2:00 h at 50 degrees C; Extraction No. 3-20:00 h at 55 degrees C; and Extraction No. 4-50:00 h at 60 degrees C. Ruggedness of the method was tested by evaluating the effect of small changes in seven selected factors on method behavior using a fractional multifactorial design. Overall, the method showed ruggedness for measuring N release rates of coated CRFs.

  16. Investigations of the output energy deviation and other parameters during commissioning of the four-rod radio frequency quadrupole at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. S.; Koubek, B.; Schempp, A.; Tan, C. Y.; Bollinger, D. S.; Duel, K. L.; Karns, P. R.; Pellico, W. A.; Scarpine, V. E.; Schupbach, B. A.; Kurennoy, S. S.

    2014-03-01

    After 30 years of operation, the Cockcroft-Walton based injector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory has been replaced by a new beam line including a dimpled magnetron 35 keV source in combination with a 750 keV four-rod radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ). The new injector is followed by the existing drift tube linac. Prior to installation, a test beam line was built which included the magnetron source and the four-rod RFQ with a number of beam measurement instrumentation. The first beam test with the RFQ showed an output energy deviation greater than 2.5%. Other problems also showed up which led to investigations of the output energy, power consumption and transmission properties using rf simulations which were complemented with additional beam measurements. The sources of this deviation and the mechanical modifications of the RFQ to solve this matter will be presented in this paper. Meanwhile, the nominal output energy of 750 keV has been confirmed and the new injector with the four-rod RFQ is in full operation.

  17. RaPAL Bulletin, Numbers 5-13, 1988-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RaPAL Bulletin, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This document consists of a 3-year compilation (9 issues) of the RaPAL (Research and Practice in Adult Literacy) Bulletin. Typical articles are: "Student Involvement in Research" (a report of a workshop by Alex Golightly, Nick Nicola, and Marilyn Stone); part of a dialogue between Paolo Freire and Ira Shor, writer/educators of Brazil and the…

  18. META-ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL ( PAL ) DATA FOR U.S. YOUTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes analytical research undertaken by EMRB staff to obtain age- and gender-specific distributions of Physical Activity Level (PAL) values for children measured in studies published between 1990-2004 in the clinical nutrition and exercise physiology literatures. ...

  19. The Crumbs3-Pals1 complex participates in the establishment of polarity in mammalian epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Roh, Michael H; Fan, Shuling; Liu, Chia-Jen; Margolis, Ben

    2003-07-15

    In Drosophila, the Crumbs-Stardust-Discs-lost complex is required during the establishment of polarized epithelia. Embryos that lack a component of this complex or overexpress Crumbs exhibit defects in epithelial morphogenesis. We recently cloned a novel mammalian epithelial Crumbs isoform, Crumbs3 (CRB3). CRB3 exists in a complex at tight junctions (TJs) with Pals1 and PATJ, the mammalian homologues of Stardust and Discs lost, respectively. Here, we observe that overexpression of CRB3 leads to delayed TJ formation in MDCK epithelial cell monolayers and disruption of polarity in MDCK cysts cultured in collagen. Both phenomena require the last four residues of CRB3. Next, we expressed, in MDCK cells, a dominant-negative Myc-Lin-2-Pals1 chimeric protein, where the PDZ domain of Lin-2 was replaced with that of Pals1. TJ and apical polarity defects were also observed in these cells. Collectively, this suggests that the CRB-Pals1 interaction is important for formation of TJs and polarized epithelia. These results provide insight into the function of the mammalian Crumbs complex during TJ formation and epithelial polarization.

  20. The Web Pen Pals Project: Students' Perceptions of a Learning Community in an Online Synchronous Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maples, Joellen; Groenke, Susan; Dunlap, Dan

    2005-01-01

    This paper draws on data gathered from a five-month phenomenological study of middle school students' perceptions of the effects of computer-based technologies on a learning community in an online synchronous environment. Twenty-four eighth-grade students participated in the Web Pen Pals project, a university-secondary telecollaborative…

  1. An Ethnographic Study of a Key-Pal Project: Learning a Foreign Language through Bilingual Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edasawa, Yasuyo; Kabata, Kaori

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of a cross-cultural bilingual communication project on students' second language learning. A collaborative key-pal project was conducted between Japanese university students learning English and Canadian university students learning Japanese. Ethnographic data were collected from the students' exchanged messages…

  2. Connecting in Rhizomic Spaces: Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL) and E-Learning in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bone, Jane; Edwards, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A PAL (Peer-Assisted Learning) project supported research that focused on e-learning and Web 2.0 technologies as part of a pedagogical approach in the context of a tertiary institution. This project responded to a call for a rejuvenation of conventional approaches to pedagogy while teaching an early childhood unit in a large Australian university.…

  3. Polar localization of Escherichia coli chemoreceptors requires an intact Tol–Pal complex

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Thiago M. A.; Lin, Ti-Yu; Rajendran, Madhusudan; Anderson, Samantha M.; Weibel, Douglas B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Subcellular biomolecular localization is critical for the metabolic and structural properties of the cell. The functional implications of the spatiotemporal distribution of protein complexes during the bacterial cell cycle have long been acknowledged; however, the molecular mechanisms for generating and maintaining their dynamic localization in bacteria are not completely understood. Here we demonstrate that the trans-envelope Tol–Pal complex, a widely conserved component of the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria, is required to maintain the polar positioning of chemoreceptor clusters in Escherichia coli. Localization of the chemoreceptors was independent of phospholipid composition of the membrane and the curvature of the cell wall. Instead, our data indicate that chemoreceptors interact with components of the Tol–Pal complex and that this interaction is required to polarly localize chemoreceptor clusters. We found that disruption of the Tol–Pal complex perturbs the polar localization of chemoreceptors, alters cell motility, and affects chemotaxis. We propose that the E. coli Tol–Pal complex restricts mobility of the chemoreceptor clusters at the cell poles and may be involved in regulatory mechanisms that co-ordinate cell division and segregation of the chemosensory machinery. PMID:24720726

  4. Yash Pal Committee Report on Higher Education: Certain Reflections by Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumthas, N. S.; Anju Krishnan, K.

    2011-01-01

    In the present scenario, Indian higher education is expanding in quantity but compromising with quality. Hats off to Yash Pal Committee, which took this matter into account, worked on it and submitted a report (renovation and rejuvenation of higher education in India) on June 24, 2009 to the Human Resource Ministry. Major attributes of Yash Pal…

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Pal1-I elemental equivalent widths and abundances (Monaco+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, L.; Saviane, I.; Correnti, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Geisler, D.

    2010-11-01

    Table A1. reports the line list and atomic parameters adopted for the Palomar 1 giant Pal1-I and the Sun. For the Mn and Co lines we adopted the hyperfine structures (HFS) tabulated by Prochaska et al. (2000AJ....120.2513P). The measured equivalent width and the corresponding abundance obtained for each line are also reported. (1 data file).

  6. Pen Pal Letter Exchanges: Taking First Steps toward Developing Cultural Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barksdale, Mary Alice; Watson, Carol; Park, Eun Soo

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative research project that examined pen pal letters exchanged between children in Virginia, USA, and Malawi in Sub-Saharan Africa. The goal was to study the nature of communication between students living in these two very different cultural contexts. The results of this study indicated that there were three primary…

  7. Adaptation of the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS) to Turkish Students: Factorial Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cikrikci-Demirtash, R. Nukhet

    2005-01-01

    The study presented in this article was conducted to determine psychometric features of scales for Turkish students by adapting the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS) developed by Midgley and others (2000) to the Turkish language in order to measure personal and classroom goal orientations. The scales were developed to test…

  8. E-Pals: An Exercise in the Seduction of Student Technophobes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Susan L.

    This paper presents a case study of an "e-pal" experiment which suggests that negative assumptions and orientations toward computer technology for communication purposes can be altered through one-to-one peer relationships. The experiment was conducted through a communication seminar at a small private university in the Northwest. Necessary…

  9. Phase 1 Trial of Subcutaneous rAvPAL-PEG in Subjects with Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Nicola; Harding, Cary O.; Burton, Barbara K.; Grange, Dorothy K.; Vockley, Jerry; Wasserstein, Melissa; Rice, Gregory M.; Musson, Donald G.; Gu, Zhonghua; Sile, Saba

    2014-01-01

    Objective Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease caused by impaired activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and subsequent neurocognitive dysfunction. A phenylalanine-restricted diet initiated early in life can ameliorate the toxic effects of phenylalanine. However, the diet is onerous and compliance is extremely difficult. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is a prokaryotic enzyme that converts phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid. This Phase 1, multicenter clinical trial evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of rAvPAL-PEG (recombinant Anabaena variabilis PAL produced in E. coli conjugated with polyethylene glycol [PEG] to reduce immunogenicity) in reducing phenylalanine levels in subjects with phenylketonuria. Methods Single subcutaneous injections of rAvPAL-PEG in escalating doses (0·001, 0·003, 0·01, 0·03, and 0·1 mg/kg) were administered to 25 adults with phenylketonuria recruited from those attending metabolic clinics in North America whose blood phenylalanine concentrations were ≥600 μmol/L. Results The most frequently reported adverse events were injection-site reactions and dizziness. Reactions were self-limited without sequelae. During the trial, two subjects had adverse reactions to intramuscular (IM) medroxyprogesterone acetate, a drug containing polyethylene glycol as an excipient. Three subjects developed a generalized skin rash at the highest rAvPAL-PEG dose (0·1 mg/kg). Drug levels peaked ∼5 days after the injection. Treatment was effective in reducing blood phenylalanine in all five subjects receiving the highest dose (0·1 mg/kg, mean percent change of -58 from baseline), with a nadir ∼6 days after injection and inverse correlation between drug and phenylalanine concentrations in plasma. Phenylalanine concentrations returned to near-baseline levels ∼20 days after the single injection. Conclusions

  10. StarPals International Young Astronomers' Network Collaborative Projects for IYA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingan, Jessi

    2008-09-01

    StarPals is a nascent non-profit organization with the goal of providing opportunities for international collaboration between students of all ages within space science research. We believe that by encouraging an interest in the cosmos, the one thing that is truly Universal, from a young age, students will not only further their knowledge of and interest in science but will learn valuable teamwork and life skills. The goal is to foster respect, understanding and appreciation of cultural diversity among all StarPals participants, whether students, teachers, or mentors. StarPals aims to inspire students by providing opportunities in which, more than simply visualizing themselves as research scientists, they can actually become one. The technologies of robotic telescopes, videoconferencing, and online classrooms are expanding the possibilities like never before. In honor of IYA2009, StarPals would like to encourage 400 schools to participate on a global scale in astronomy/cosmology research on various concurrent projects. We will offer in-person or online workshops and training sessions to teach the teachers. We will be seeking publication in scientific journals for some student research. For our current project, the Double Stars Challenge, students use the robotic telescopes to take a series of four images of one of 30 double stars from a list furnished by the US Naval Observatory and then use MPO Canopus software to take distance and position angle measurements. StarPals provides students with hands-on training, telescope time, and software to complete the imaging and measuring. A paper will be drafted from our research data and submitted to the Journal of Double Star Observations. The kids who participate in this project may potentially be the youngest contributors to an article in a vetted scientific journal. Kids rapidly adapt and improve their computer skills operating these telescopes and discover for themselves that science is COOL!

  11. US Particle Accelerators at Age 50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the development of accelerators over the past 50 years. Topics include: types of accelerators, including cyclotrons; sociology of accelerators (motivation, financing, construction, and use); impact of war; national laboratories; funding; applications; future projects; foreign projects; and international collaborations. (JN)

  12. Optimization and validation of an accelerated laboratory extraction method to estimate nitrogen release patterns of slow- and controlled-release fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Medina, L Carolina; Sartain, Jerry B; Obreza, Thomas A; Hall, William L; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies have been proposed to characterize the nutrient release and availability patterns of enhanced-efficiency fertilizers (EEFs), especially slow-release fertilizers (SRFs) and controlled-release fertilizers (CRFs) during the last few decades. These technologies have been developed mainly by manufacturers and are product-specific based on the regulation and analysis of each EEF product. Despite previous efforts to characterize EEF materials, no validated method exists to assess their nutrient release patterns. However, the increased use of EEFs in specialty and nonspecialty markets requires an appropriate method to verify nutrient claims and material performance. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature, fertilizer test portion size, and extraction time on the performance of a 74 h accelerated laboratory extraction method to measure SRF and CRF nutrient release profiles. Temperature was the only factor that influenced nutrient release rate, with a highly marked effect for phosphorus and to a lesser extent for nitrogen (N) and potassium. Based on the results, the optimal extraction temperature set was: Extraction No. 1-2:00 h at 25 degrees C; Extraction No. 2-2:00 h at 50 degrees C; Extraction No. 3-20:00 h at 55 degrees C; and Extraction No. 4-50:00 h at 60 degrees C. Ruggedness of the method was tested by evaluating the effect of small changes in seven selected factors on method behavior using a fractional multifactorial design. Overall, the method showed ruggedness for measuring N release rates of coated CRFs. PMID:25051611

  13. Effective learning techniques for military applications using the Personalized Assistant that Learns (PAL) enhanced Web-Based Temporal Analysis System (WebTAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMonica, Peter; Dziegiel, Roger; Liuzzi, Raymond; Hepler, James

    2009-05-01

    The Personalized Assistant that Learns (PAL) Program is a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) research effort that is advancing technologies in the area of cognitive learning by developing cognitive assistants to support military users, such as commanders and decision makers. The Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Information Directorate leveraged several core PAL components and applied them to the Web-Based Temporal Analysis System (WebTAS) so that users of this system can have automated features, such as task learning, intelligent clustering, and entity extraction. WebTAS is a modular software toolset that supports fusion of large amounts of disparate data sets, visualization, project organization and management, pattern analysis and activity prediction, and includes various presentation aids. WebTAS is predominantly used by analysts within the intelligence community and with the addition of these automated features, many transition opportunities exist for this integrated technology. Further, AFRL completed an extensive test and evaluation of this integrated software to determine its effectiveness for military applications in terms of timeliness and situation awareness, and these findings and conclusions, as well as future work, will be presented in this report.

  14. Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-05

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  15. PALS: A unique probe for the molecular organisation of biopolymer matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussenova, M.; Alam, M. A.

    2013-06-01

    This short review aims to illustrate the versatility of Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) when utilized for the characterization of biopolymers (e.g.: starch, fractionated maltooligomers, gelatin and cellulose derivatives) commonly used for the formulation of pharmaceutical encapsulants. By showing examples from a number of recent PALS studies, we illustrate that this technique can be used to probe the changes in thermodynamic state and molecular packing for a wide range of biopolymer matrices as a function of temperature, matrix composition and water content. This provides a basis for establishing composition-structure-property relationships for these materials, which would eventually enable the rational control of their macroscopic properties and the design of optimal encapsulating matrices and intelligent drug delivery systems.

  16. Syntax PAL: a system to improve the written syntax of language-impaired users.

    PubMed

    Morris, C; Newell, A; Booth, L; Ricketts, I; Arnott, J

    1992-01-01

    In our work with children who have difficulty with spelling or with the physical action of writing, we have found a number of children who also have difficulty with written grammar. As an extension of PAL, an existing predictive spelling and typing aid, we have developed a writing aid to help these children with sentence construction. The enhanced system uses the syntax of the initial part of a sentence to enhance the position in the prediction list of syntactically correct words. It was postulated that this would discourage the use of incorrect syntax and encourage the use of correct syntax. In two case studies, the use of Syntax PAL significantly improved the quality and quantity of one child's written output, but had little effect on the other child's work.

  17. Synchronized stress-PALS test on a series of polyester copolymer glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Yee, Albert F.

    2001-03-01

    Previous work in our group suggests that, in craze nucleation, only when a nanovoid grows to a critical size can it serve as a nucleus for stable craze growth. However, what factors influence this nanovoid growth process remains unclear. A new technique, synchronized stress-PALS test, has been established to study the change in size and intensity of nanovoids when polymer glasses are under stress. A series of glassy copolymers based on poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly (1,4-cyclohexylenedimethylene terephthalate) (PCT) were investigated by synchronized stress-PALS at different stress levels. The results suggest that both stress level and chain mobility of the polymers influence nanovoid growth. Based on these experimental results, a craze nucleation model has been proposed. This model, based on thermodynamic and kinetic analysis, show that the craze nucleation process is determined by the modulus, surface energy and chain mobility of polymer glasses.

  18. NCI QuitPal, an App from the National Cancer Institute | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. NCI QuitPal, an App from the National Cancer Institute Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table ... Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute What if the tools you need to quit smoking were as ...

  19. Supplementation of CHROMagar Candida Medium with Pal's Medium for Rapid Identification of Candida dubliniensis

    PubMed Central

    Sahand, Ismail H.; Moragues, María D.; Eraso, Elena; Villar-Vidal, María; Quindós, Guillermo; Pontón, José

    2005-01-01

    CHROMagar Candida medium is used for the isolation and identification of Candida species, but it does not differentiate Candida albicans from Candida dubliniensis. This differentiation can be achieved by using Pal's agar, which cannot be used in primary isolation. We have combined both media to obtain a new medium that can be used for the isolation and identification of C. dubliniensis in primary cultures. PMID:16272515

  20. Structure and function of the Escherichia coli Tol-Pal stator protein TolR.

    PubMed

    Wojdyla, Justyna A; Cutts, Erin; Kaminska, Renata; Papadakos, Grigorios; Hopper, Jonathan T S; Stansfeld, Phillip J; Staunton, David; Robinson, Carol V; Kleanthous, Colin

    2015-10-30

    TolR is a 15-kDa inner membrane protein subunit of the Tol-Pal complex in Gram-negative bacteria, and its function is poorly understood. Tol-Pal is recruited to cell division sites where it is involved in maintaining the integrity of the outer membrane. TolR is related to MotB, the peptidoglycan (PG)-binding stator protein from the flagellum, suggesting it might serve a similar role in Tol-Pal. The only structure thus far reported for TolR is of the periplasmic domain from Haemophilus influenzae in which N- and C-terminal residues had been deleted (TolR(62-133), Escherichia coli numbering). H. influenzae TolR(62-133) is a symmetrical dimer with a large deep cleft at the dimer interface. Here, we present the 1.7-Å crystal structure of the intact periplasmic domain of E. coli TolR (TolR(36-142)). E. coli TolR(36-142) is also dimeric, but the architecture of the dimer is radically different from that of TolR(62-133) due to the intertwining of its N and C termini. TolR monomers are rotated ∼180° relative to each other as a result of this strand swapping, obliterating the putative PG-binding groove seen in TolR(62-133). We found that removal of the strand-swapped regions (TolR(60-133)) exposes cryptic PG binding activity that is absent in the full-length domain. We conclude that to function as a stator in the Tol-Pal complex dimeric TolR must undergo large scale structural remodeling reminiscent of that proposed for MotB, where the N- and C-terminal sequences unfold in order for the protein to both reach and bind the PG layer ∼90 Å away from the inner membrane.

  1. Tol-Pal proteins are critical cell envelope components of Erwinia chrysanthemi affecting cell morphology and virulence.

    PubMed

    Dubuisson, Jean-François; Vianney, Anne; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, Nicole; Lazzaroni, Jean Claude

    2005-10-01

    The tol-pal genes are necessary for maintaining the outer-membrane integrity of Gram-negative bacteria. These genes were first described in Escherichia coli, and more recently in several other species. They are involved in the pathogenesis of E. coli, Haemophilus ducreyi, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella enterica. The role of the tol-pal genes in bacterial pathogenesis was investigated in the phytopathogenic enterobacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi, assuming that this organism might be a good model for such a study. The whole Er. chrysanthemi tol-pal region was characterized. Tol-Pal proteins, except TolA, showed high identity scores with their E. coli homologues. Er. chrysanthemi mutants were constructed by introducing a uidA-kan cassette in the ybgC, tolQ, tolA, tolB, pal and ybgF genes. All the mutants were hypersensitive to bile salts. Mutations in tolQ, tolA, tolB and pal were deleterious for the bacteria, which required high concentrations of sugars or osmoprotectants for their viability. Consistent with this observation, they were greatly impaired in their cell morphology and division, which was evidenced by observations of cell filaments, spherical forms, membrane blebbing and mislocalized bacterial septa. Moreover, tol-pal mutants showed a reduced virulence in a potato tuber model and on chicory leaves. This could be explained by a combination of impaired phenotypes in the tol-pal mutants, such as reduced growth and motility and a decreased production of pectate lyases, the major virulence factor of Er. chrysanthemi.

  2. One NASA: Sharing Knowledge Through an Agency-wide Process Asset Library (PAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truss, Baraka J.

    2006-01-01

    This poster session will cover the key purpose and components behind implementing the NASA PAL website. This session will present the current results, describing the process used to create the website, the current usage measure, and will demonstrate how NASA is truly becoming ONE. The target audience for the poster session includes those currently implementing the CMMI model and looking for PAL adoption techniques. To continue to be the leader in space, science and technology, NASA is using this agency-wide PAL to share knowledge, work products and lessons learned through this website. Many organizations have failed to recognize how the efforts of process improvement fit into overall organizational effort. However, NASA as an agency has adopted the benefits of process improvement by the creation of this website to foster communication between its ten centers. The poster session will cover the following, topics outlined below: 1) Website purpose; 2) Characteristics of the website; 3) User accounts status; 4) Website content size; and 5) Usage percentages.

  3. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 possesses an active quorum sensing regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Bertini, Elisa V; Nieto Peñalver, Carlos G; Leguina, Ana C; Irazusta, Verónica P; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2014-09-01

    The endophytic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus colonizes a broad range of host plants. Its plant growth-promoting capability is related to the capacity to perform biological nitrogen fixation, the biosynthesis of siderophores, antimicrobial substances and the solubilization of mineral nutrients. Colonization of and survival in these endophytic niche requires a complex regulatory network. Among these, quorum sensing systems (QS) are signaling mechanisms involved in the control of several genes related to microbial interactions, host colonization and stress survival. G. diazotrophicus PAL5 possesses a QS composed of a luxR and a luxI homolog, and produces eight molecules from the AHL family as QS signals. In this report data are provided showing that glucose concentration modifies the relative levels of these signal molecules. The activity of G. diazotrophicus PAL5 QS is also altered in presence of other carbon sources and under saline stress conditions. Inactivation of the QS system of G. diazotrophicus PAL5 by means of a quorum quenching strategy allowed the identification of extracellular and intracellular proteins under the control of this regulatory mechanism. PMID:24974195

  4. Saccharothrix sp. PAL54, a new chloramphenicol-producing strain isolated from a Saharan soil.

    PubMed

    Aouiche, Adel; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Meklat, Atika; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Bijani, Christian; Mathieu, Florence; Lebrihi, Ahmed

    2012-03-01

    An actinomycete strain designated PAL54, producing an antibacterial substance, was isolated from a Saharan soil in Ghardaïa, Algeria. Morphological and chemical studies indicated that this strain belonged to the genus Saccharothrix. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence showed a similarity level ranging between 96.9 and 99.2% within Saccharothrix species, with S. longispora DSM 43749(T), the most closely related. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that strain PAL54 belonged to Saccharothrix longispora. It showed very strong activity against pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria responsible for nosocomial infections and resistant to multiple antibiotics. Strain PAL54 secreted the antibiotic optimally during mid-stationary and decline phases of growth. One antibacterial compound was isolated from the culture broth and purified by HPLC. The active compound was elucidated by uv-visible and NMR spectroscopy and by mass spectrometry. The results showed that this compound was a D: (-)-threo chloramphenicol. This is the first report of chloramphenicol production by a Saccharothrix species.

  5. Palæomagnetic evidence relevant to a change in the earth's radius

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Allan; Doell, Richard R.

    1961-01-01

    INTEREST in the hypothesis that the Earth's radius has increased during geological history has been renewed in recent years because of several sets of independent observations and interpretations. From studies of the deformation of mountain ranges and the distribution of faults and oceans, Carey1 proposes an increase in the Earth's area of 45 per cent since the Palæozoic era. Heezen2 similarly interprets submarine topography as indicating that the oceans may be immense rift valleys formed by a pulling apart of the continents as the Earth expanded. Using a different approach, Egyed3,4 infers a rate of increase of the Earth's radius of 0.4–0.8 mm. per year. This calculation is based on a decrease in the total amount of continental area covered by oceans during the past 400 million years, as determined palæographically. Egyed4 has also pointed out the desirability of using palæomagnetic data to test this hypothesis.

  6. Molecular cloning and promoter analysis of the specific salicylic acid biosynthetic pathway gene phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AaPAL1) from Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Fu, Xueqing; Hao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Lida; Wang, Luyao; Qian, Hongmei; Zhao, Jingya

    2016-07-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of salicylic acid (SA). In this study, a full-length cDNA of PAL gene (named as AaPAL1) was cloned from Artemisia annua. The gene contains an open reading frame of 2,151 bps encoding 716 amino acids. Comparative and bioinformatics analysis revealed that the polypeptide protein of AaPAL1 was highly homologous to PALs from other plant species. Southern blot analysis revealed that it belonged to a gene family with three members. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of various tissues of A. annua showed that AaPAL1 transcript levels were highest in the young leaves. A 1160-bp promoter region was also isolated resulting in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements including W-box, TGACG-motif, and TC-rich repeats. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that AaPAL1 was upregulated by salinity, drought, wounding, and SA stresses, which were corroborated positively with the identified cis-elements within the promoter region. AaPAL1 was successfully expressed in Escherichia. coli and the enzyme activity of the purified AaPAL1 was approximately 287.2 U/mg. These results substantiated the involvement of AaPAL1 in the phenylalanine pathway. PMID:26040426

  7. Regulation of a phenylalanine ammonia lyase (BbPAL) by calmodulin in response to environmental changes in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Park, Hyesung; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Seong Hwan; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2015-11-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, E.C. 4.3.1.5) catalyses the deamination of L -phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid and ammonia, facilitating a critical step in the phenylpropanoid pathway that produces a variety of secondary metabolites. In this study, we isolated BbPAL gene in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. According to multiple sequence alignment, homology modelling and in vitro PAL activity, we demonstrated that BbPAL acts as a typical PAL enzyme in B. bassiana. BbPAL interacted with calmodulin (CaM) in vitro and in vivo, indicating that BbPAL is a novel CaM-binding protein. The functional role of CaM in BbPAL action was to negatively regulate the BbPAL activity in B. bassiana. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that L -phenylalanine was reduced and trans-cinnamic acid was increased in response to the CaM inhibitor W-7. Dark conditions suppressed BbPAL activity in B. bassiana, compared with light. In addition, heat and cold stresses inhibited BbPAL activity in B. bassiana. Interestingly, these negative effects of BbPAL activity by dark, heat and cold conditions were recovered by W-7 treatment, suggesting that the inhibitory mechanism is mediated through stimulation of CaM activity. Therefore, this work suggests that BbPAL plays a role in the phenylpropanoid pathway mediated by environmental stimuli via the CaM signalling pathway.

  8. A Population-Average, Landmark- and Surface-based (PALS) atlas of human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Van Essen, David C

    2005-11-15

    This report describes a new electronic atlas of human cerebral cortex that provides a substrate for a wide variety of brain-mapping analyses. The Population-Average, Landmark- and Surface-based (PALS) atlas approach involves surface-based and volume-based representations of cortical shape, each available as population averages and as individual subject data. The specific PALS-B12 atlas introduced here is derived from structural MRI volumes of 12 normal young adults. Accurate cortical surface reconstructions were generated for each hemisphere, and the surfaces were inflated, flattened, and mapped to standard spherical configurations using SureFit and Caret software. A target atlas sphere was generated by averaging selected landmark contours from each of the 24 contributing hemispheres. Each individual hemisphere was deformed to this target using landmark-constrained surface registration. The utility of the resultant PALS-B12 atlas was demonstrated using a variety of analyses. (i) Probabilistic maps of sulcal identity were generated using both surface-based registration (SBR) and conventional volume-based registration (VBR). The SBR approach achieved markedly better consistency of sulcal alignment than did VBR. (ii) A method is introduced for 'multi-fiducial mapping' of volume-averaged group data (e.g., fMRI data, probabilistic architectonic maps) onto each individual hemisphere in the atlas, followed by spatial averaging across the individual maps. This yielded a population-average surface representation that circumvents the biases inherent in choosing any single hemisphere as a target. (iii) Surface-based and volume-based morphometry applied to maps of sulcal depth and sulcal identity demonstrated prominent left-right asymmetries in and near the superior temporal sulcus and Sylvian fissure. Moreover, shape variability in the temporal lobe is significantly greater in the left than the right hemisphere. The PALS-B12 atlas has been registered to other surface

  9. Acceleration in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.

    1993-12-31

    The origin of cosmic rays and applicable laboratory experiments are discussed. Some of the problems of shock acceleration for the production of cosmic rays are discussed in the context of astrophysical conditions. These are: The presumed unique explanation of the power law spectrum is shown instead to be a universal property of all lossy accelerators; the extraordinary isotropy of cosmic rays and the limited diffusion distances implied by supernova induced shock acceleration requires a more frequent and space-filling source than supernovae; the near perfect adiabaticity of strong hydromagnetic turbulence necessary for reflecting the accelerated particles each doubling in energy roughly 10{sup 5} to {sup 6} scatterings with negligible energy loss seems most unlikely; the evidence for acceleration due to quasi-parallel heliosphere shocks is weak. There is small evidence for the expected strong hydromagnetic turbulence, and instead, only a small number of particles accelerate after only a few shock traversals; the acceleration of electrons in the same collisionless shock that accelerates ions is difficult to reconcile with the theoretical picture of strong hydromagnetic turbulence that reflects the ions. The hydromagnetic turbulence will appear adiabatic to the electrons at their much higher Larmor frequency and so the electrons should not be scattered incoherently as they must be for acceleration. Therefore the electrons must be accelerated by a different mechanism. This is unsatisfactory, because wherever electrons are accelerated these sites, observed in radio emission, may accelerate ions more favorably. The acceleration is coherent provided the reconnection is coherent, in which case the total flux, as for example of collimated radio sources, predicts single charge accelerated energies much greater than observed.

  10. Overview of accelerators in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Lennox, A.J. |

    1993-06-01

    Accelerators used for medicine include synchrotrons, cyclotrons, betatrons, microtrons, and electron, proton, and light ion linacs. Some accelerators which were formerly found only at physics laboratories are now being considered for use in hospital-based treatment and diagnostic facilities. This paper presents typical operating parameters for medical accelerators and gives specific examples of clinical applications for each type of accelerator, with emphasis on recent developments in the field.

  11. PalC, One of Two Bro1 Domain Proteins in the Fungal pH Signalling Pathway, Localizes to Cortical Structures and Binds Vps32

    PubMed Central

    Galindo, Antonio; Hervás-Aguilar, América; Rodríguez-Galán, Olga; Vincent, Olivier; Arst, Herbert N; Tilburn, Joan; Peñalva, Miguel A

    2007-01-01

    PalC, distantly related to Saccharomyces cerevisiaeperipheral endosomal sorting complexes required for transport III (ESCRT-III) component Bro1p and one of six Aspergillus nidulanspH signalling proteins, contains a Bro1 domain. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged PalC is recruited to plasma membrane-associated punctate structures upon alkalinization, when pH signalling is active. PalC recruitment to these structures is dependent on the seven transmembrane domain (7-TMD) receptor and likely pH sensor PalH. PalC is a two-hybrid interactor of the ESCRT-III Vps20/Vps32 subcomplex and binds Vps32 directly. This binding is largely impaired by Pro439Phe, Arg442Ala and Arg442His substitutions in a conserved region mediating interaction of Bro1p with Vps32p, but these substitutions do not prevent cortical punctate localization, indicating Vps32 independence. In contrast, Arg442Δ impairs Vps32 binding and prevents PalC-GFP recruitment to cortical structures. pH signalling involves a plasma membrane complex including the 7-TMD receptor PalH and the arrestin-like PalF and an endosomal membrane complex involving the PalB protease, the transcription factor PacC and the Vps32 binding, Bro1-domain-containing protein PalA. PalC, which localizes to cortical structures and can additionally bind a component of ESCRT-III, has the features required to bridge these two entities. A likely S. cerevisiaeorthologue of PalC has been identified, providing the basis for a unifying hypothesis of gene regulation by ambient pH in ascomycetes. PMID:17696968

  12. Structure of Crumbs tail in complex with the PALS1 PDZ-SH3-GK tandem reveals a highly specific assembly mechanism for the apical Crumbs complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Youjun; Wei, Zhiyi; Yan, Yan; Wan, Qingwen; Du, Quansheng; Zhang, Mingjie

    2014-12-01

    The Crumbs (Crb) complex, formed by Crb, PALS1, and PATJ, is evolutionarily conserved in metazoans and acts as a master cell-growth and -polarity regulator at the apical membranes in polarized epithelia. Crb intracellular functions, including its direct binding to PALS1, are mediated by Crb's highly conserved 37-residue cytoplasmic tail. However, the mechanistic basis governing the highly specific Crb-PALS1 complex formation is unclear, as reported interaction between the Crb tail (Crb-CT) and PALS1 PSD-95/DLG/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain is weak and promiscuous. Here we have discovered that the PDZ-Src homolgy 3 (SH3)-Guanylate kinase (GK) tandem of PALS1 binds to Crb-CT with a dissociation constant of 70 nM, which is ∼ 100-fold stronger than the PALS1 PDZ-Crb-CT interaction. The crystal structure of the PALS1 PDZ-SH3-GK-Crb-CT complex reveals that PDZ-SH3-GK forms a structural supramodule with all three domains contributing to the tight binding to Crb. Mutations disrupting the tertiary interactions of the PDZ-SH3-GK supramodule weaken the PALS1-Crb interaction and compromise PALS1-mediated polarity establishment in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cysts. We further show that specific target binding of other members of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) (e.g., CASK binding to neurexin) also requires the presence of their PDZ-SH3-GK tandems.

  13. Breakthrough: Fermilab Accelerator Technology

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    There are more than 30,000 particle accelerators in operation around the world. At Fermilab, scientists are collaborating with other laboratories and industry to optimize the manufacturing processes for a new type of powerful accelerator that uses superconducting niobium cavities. Experimenting with unique polishing materials, a Fermilab team has now developed an efficient and environmentally friendly way of creating cavities that can propel particles with more than 30 million volts per meter.

  14. Neuroprotective role of (Val8)GLP-1-Glu-PAL in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Liu, Ke; Zhao, Juan; Holscher, Christian; Li, Guang-lai; Liu, Yue-ze

    2016-01-01

    The growth factor glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is neuroprotective in several animal models of neurodegeneration. Here, we analyzed the neuroprotective effects of a novel protease-resistant GLP-1 analogue, (Val8)GLP-1-Glu-PAL, which has advantages over older analogues, such as improvement of hippocampal neurogenesis, glucose homeostasis, and insulin secretion. We established an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease using the mitochondrial stressor rotenone in primary cultured mouse neurons pretreated with (Val8)GLP-1-Glu-PAL. (Val8)GLP-1-Glu-PAL alone did not affect neuronal viability, but prevented the rotenone-induced reduction in cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, (Val8)GLP-1-Glu-PAL pretreatment prevented rotenone-induced proapoptotic changes manifesting as downregulation of procaspase-3 and Bcl-2 and upregulation of cleaved caspase-3. These results demonstrate that the novel agent (Val8)GLP-1-Glu-PAL shows promise as a drug treatment for Parkinson's disease. PMID:27073388

  15. Structure and Function of the Escherichia coli Tol-Pal Stator Protein TolR*

    PubMed Central

    Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Cutts, Erin; Kaminska, Renata; Papadakos, Grigorios; Hopper, Jonathan T. S.; Stansfeld, Phillip J.; Staunton, David; Robinson, Carol V.; Kleanthous, Colin

    2015-01-01

    TolR is a 15-kDa inner membrane protein subunit of the Tol-Pal complex in Gram-negative bacteria, and its function is poorly understood. Tol-Pal is recruited to cell division sites where it is involved in maintaining the integrity of the outer membrane. TolR is related to MotB, the peptidoglycan (PG)-binding stator protein from the flagellum, suggesting it might serve a similar role in Tol-Pal. The only structure thus far reported for TolR is of the periplasmic domain from Haemophilus influenzae in which N- and C-terminal residues had been deleted (TolR(62–133), Escherichia coli numbering). H. influenzae TolR(62–133) is a symmetrical dimer with a large deep cleft at the dimer interface. Here, we present the 1.7-Å crystal structure of the intact periplasmic domain of E. coli TolR (TolR(36–142)). E. coli TolR(36–142) is also dimeric, but the architecture of the dimer is radically different from that of TolR(62–133) due to the intertwining of its N and C termini. TolR monomers are rotated ∼180° relative to each other as a result of this strand swapping, obliterating the putative PG-binding groove seen in TolR(62–133). We found that removal of the strand-swapped regions (TolR(60–133)) exposes cryptic PG binding activity that is absent in the full-length domain. We conclude that to function as a stator in the Tol-Pal complex dimeric TolR must undergo large scale structural remodeling reminiscent of that proposed for MotB, where the N- and C-terminal sequences unfold in order for the protein to both reach and bind the PG layer ∼90 Å away from the inner membrane. PMID:26354441

  16. (0,m) Pal-type interpolation on the Mobius transform of roots of unity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruin, Marcel G.

    2005-06-01

    Define for integer m[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 and [alpha] a complex number with [alpha]2,[alpha]m[not equal to]1, the polynomial of degree mwm([alpha];z)=(z+[alpha])m-(1+[alpha]z)m,whose (simple) zeros can be seen as the Mobius transforms of the mth roots of unity.In this paper it will be shown that (0,m) Pal-type interpolation on the zeros of {wn+m([alpha];z),wn([alpha];z)} is regular for all integers and complex numbers [alpha] with [alpha]2,[alpha]m,[alpha]n,[alpha]n+m[not equal to]1.

  17. Mutational analysis of the Aspergillus ambient pH receptor PalH underscores its potential as a target for antifungal compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lucena‐Agell, Daniel; Hervás‐Aguilar, América; Múnera‐Huertas, Tatiana; Pougovkina, Olga; Rudnicka, Joanna; Galindo, Antonio; Tilburn, Joan; Arst, Herbert N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The pal/RIM ambient pH signalling pathway is crucial for the ability of pathogenic fungi to infect hosts. The Aspergillus nidulans 7‐TMD receptor PalH senses alkaline pH, subsequently facilitating ubiquitination of the arrestin PalF. Ubiquitinated PalF triggers downstream signalling events. The mechanism(s) by which PalH transduces the alkaline pH signal to PalF is poorly understood. We show that PalH is phosphorylated in a signal dependent manner, resembling mammalian GPCRs, although PalH phosphorylation, in contrast to mammalian GPCRs, is arrestin dependent. A genetic screen revealed that an ambient‐exposed region comprising the extracellular loop connecting TM4‐TM5 and ambient‐proximal residues within TM5 is required for signalling. In contrast, substitution by alanines of four aromatic residues within TM6 and TM7 results in a weak ‘constitutive’ activation of the pathway. Our data support the hypothesis that PalH mechanistically resembles mammalian GPCRs that signal via arrestins, such that the relative positions of individual helices within the heptahelical bundle determines the Pro316‐dependent transition between inactive and active PalH conformations, governed by an ambient‐exposed region including critical Tyr259 that potentially represents an agonist binding site. These findings open the possibility of screening for agonist compounds stabilizing the inactive conformation of PalH, which might act as antifungal drugs against ascomycetes. PMID:27279148

  18. Structural studies of an exopolysaccharide produced by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5.

    PubMed

    Serrato, Rodrigo V; Meneses, Carlos H S G; Vidal, Marcia S; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes P; Iacomini, Marcello; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Baldani, José I

    2013-10-15

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium that has been found colonizing several plants. This acid-tolerant bacterium produces phytohormones that promote plant growth and is also able to grow in high-sugar concentrations. It has been demonstrated that exopolysaccharides (EPS), which are produced by strain Pal5 of G. diazotrophicus, play an important role in plant infection. We have investigated the structure of the EPS, which was produced by a strain of Pal5 grown in liquid medium containing mannitol as the sole carbon source. The results reveal an EPS with Glc, Gal, Man in a molar ratio of 6:3:1, respectively. NMR spectroscopy and chemical derivatization have revealed that the EPS structure has 4-O-substituted units of β-glucose, 3-O-substituted units of β-galactose and 2-O-substituted units of α-mannose. Glucose and galactose units linked at C6 were also found. The structure proposed herein is different from EPS produced by other species of Gluconacetobacter published to date.

  19. Phosphate enhances levan production in the endophytic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5

    PubMed Central

    Idogawa, Nao; Amamoto, Ryuta; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a gram-negative and endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that has several beneficial effects in host plants; thus, utilization of this bacterium as a biofertilizer in agriculture may be possible. G. diazotrophicus synthesizes levan, a D-fructofuranosyl polymer with β-(2→6) linkages, as an exopolysaccharide and the synthesized levan improves the stress tolerance of the bacterium. In this study, we found that phosphate enhances levan production by G. diazotrophicus Pal5, a wild type strain that showed a stronger mucous phenotype on solid medium containing 28 mM phosphate than on solid medium containing 7 mM phosphate. A G. diazotrophicus Pal5 levansucrase disruptant showed only a weak mucous phenotype regardless of the phosphate concentration, indicating that the mucous phenotype observed on 28 mM phosphate medium was caused by levan. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the effect of a high concentration of phosphate on exopolysaccharide production. PMID:24717418

  20. Complete genome sequence of the sugarcane nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5

    PubMed Central

    Bertalan, Marcelo; Albano, Rodolpho; de Pádua, Vânia; Rouws, Luc; Rojas, Cristian; Hemerly, Adriana; Teixeira, Kátia; Schwab, Stefan; Araujo, Jean; Oliveira, André; França, Leonardo; Magalhães, Viviane; Alquéres, Sylvia; Cardoso, Alexander; Almeida, Wellington; Loureiro, Marcio Martins; Nogueira, Eduardo; Cidade, Daniela; Oliveira, Denise; Simão, Tatiana; Macedo, Jacyara; Valadão, Ana; Dreschsel, Marcela; Freitas, Flávia; Vidal, Marcia; Guedes, Helma; Rodrigues, Elisete; Meneses, Carlos; Brioso, Paulo; Pozzer, Luciana; Figueiredo, Daniel; Montano, Helena; Junior, Jadier; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo; Martin Quintana Flores, Victor; Ferreira, Beatriz; Branco, Alan; Gonzalez, Paula; Guillobel, Heloisa; Lemos, Melissa; Seibel, Luiz; Macedo, José; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Sachetto-Martins, Gilberto; Coelho, Ana; Santos, Eidy; Amaral, Gilda; Neves, Anna; Pacheco, Ana Beatriz; Carvalho, Daniela; Lery, Letícia; Bisch, Paulo; Rössle, Shaila C; Ürményi, Turán; Rael Pereira, Alessandra; Silva, Rosane; Rondinelli, Edson; von Krüger, Wanda; Martins, Orlando; Baldani, José Ivo; Ferreira, Paulo CG

    2009-01-01

    Background Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Results Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to be completely sequenced. Its genome is composed of a 3.9 Mb chromosome and 2 plasmids of 16.6 and 38.8 kb, respectively. We annotated 3,938 coding sequences which reveal several characteristics related to the endophytic lifestyle such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism, transport systems, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Genomic analysis identified a core component of 894 genes shared with phylogenetically related bacteria. Gene clusters for gum-like polysaccharide biosynthesis, tad pilus, quorum sensing, for modulation of plant growth by indole acetic acid and mechanisms involved in tolerance to acidic conditions were identified and may be related to the sugarcane endophytic and plant-growth promoting traits of G. diazotrophicus. An accessory component of at least 851 genes distributed in genome islands was identified, and was most likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer. This portion of the genome has likely contributed to adaptation to the plant habitat. Conclusion The genome data offer an important resource of information that can be used to manipulate plant/bacterium interactions with the aim of improving sugarcane crop production and other biotechnological applications. PMID:19775431

  1. Effects of methcathinone and 3-Cl-methcathinone (PAL-434) in cocaine discrimination or self-administration in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kohut, Stephen J; Fivel, Peter A; Blough, Bruce E; Rothman, Richard B; Mello, Nancy K

    2013-10-01

    Monoamine releasers with varying selectivity for dopamine (DA)/norepinephrine and serotonin (5-HT) release are potential treatment medications for cocaine abuse. Although DA-selective monoamine releasers effectively reduce cocaine abuse, their clinical usefulness is limited by abuse liability. It is hypothesized that increasing 5-HT neurotransmission may reduce the abuse-related effects of DA releasers, but the optimal DA:5-HT release ratio remains to be determined. This study in rhesus monkeys compared the effects of two compounds with differing potency for 5-HT release. Methcathinone and 3-Cl-methcathinone (PAL-434) have equal potency for DA release, but PAL-434 has 10-fold higher potency for 5-HT release. In drug discrimination studies, monkeys were trained to discriminate cocaine (0.4 mg/kg i.m.) from saline in a two-key, food-reinforced procedure. In drug self-administration studies, a separate group of monkeys was trained to respond for cocaine [0.01 mg/kg/injection (inj)] and food (1 g pellets) under a second order schedule of reinforcement [FR2(VR16:S)]. When responding was stable, methcathinone (0.1–0.56 mg/kg.h i.v.) or PAL-434 (0.32–1.8 mg/kg.h i.v.) was administered chronically (one injection every 20 min for 23 h/d) for 7–10 d. In discrimination studies, both compounds dose-dependently increased cocaine-like responding but with different potencies (cocaine=methcathinone >PAL-434). Chronic treatment with methcathinone or PAL-434 dose-dependently and selectively reduced cocaine self-administration. PAL-434 was about 4-fold and methcathinone about 1.6-fold more potent at decreasing cocaine- over food-maintained responding. These data suggest that compounds with moderate selectivity for DA vs. 5-HT release (8–15-fold) may be effective for the treatment of cocaine dependence. PMID:23768644

  2. Future accelerators (?)

    SciTech Connect

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  3. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960`s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore`s Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail.

  4. Vibration Analysis of the Space Shuttle External Tank Cable Tray Flight Data With and Without PAL Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Bruce E.; Panda, Jayanta; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    External Tank Cable Tray vibration data for three successive Space Shuttle flights were analyzed to assess response to buffet and the effect of removal of the Protuberance Air Loads (PAL) ramp. Waveform integration, spectral analysis, cross-correlation analysis and wavelet analysis were employed to estimate vibration modes and temporal development of vibration motion from a sparse array of accelerometers and an on-board system that acquired 16 channels of data for approximately the first 2 min of each flight. The flight data indicated that PAL ramp removal had minimal effect on the fluctuating loads on the cable tray. The measured vibration frequencies and modes agreed well with predicted structural response.

  5. Vibration Analysis of the Space Shuttle External Tank Cable Tray Flight Data with and without PAL Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, B. E.; Panda, B. E.; Sutliff, D. L.

    2008-01-01

    External Tank Cable Tray vibration data for three successive Space Shuttle flights were analyzed to assess response to buffet and the effect of removal of the Protuberance Air Loads (PAL) ramp. Waveform integration, spectral analysis, cross-correlation analysis and wavelet analysis were employed to estimate vibration modes and temporal development of vibration motion from a sparse array of accelerometers and an on-board system that acquired 16 channels of data for approximately the first two minutes of each flight. The flight data indicated that PAL ramp removal had minimal effect on the fluctuating loads on the cable tray. The measured vibration frequencies and modes agreed well with predicted structural response.

  6. Structures of the human Pals1 PDZ domain with and without ligand suggest gated access of Crb to the PDZ peptide-binding groove

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, Marina E.; Fletcher, Georgina C.; O’Reilly, Nicola; Purkiss, Andrew G.; Thompson, Barry J.; McDonald, Neil Q.

    2015-03-01

    This study characterizes the interaction between the carboxy-terminal (ERLI) motif of the essential polarity protein Crb and the Pals1/Stardust PDZ-domain protein. Structures of human Pals1 PDZ with and without a Crb peptide are described, explaining the highly conserved nature of the ERLI motif and revealing a sterically blocked peptide-binding groove in the absence of ligand. Many components of epithelial polarity protein complexes possess PDZ domains that are required for protein interaction and recruitment to the apical plasma membrane. Apical localization of the Crumbs (Crb) transmembrane protein requires a PDZ-mediated interaction with Pals1 (protein-associated with Lin7, Stardust, MPP5), a member of the p55 family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs). This study describes the molecular interaction between the Crb carboxy-terminal motif (ERLI), which is required for Drosophila cell polarity, and the Pals1 PDZ domain using crystallography and fluorescence polarization. Only the last four Crb residues contribute to Pals1 PDZ-domain binding affinity, with specificity contributed by conserved charged interactions. Comparison of the Crb-bound Pals1 PDZ structure with an apo Pals1 structure reveals a key Phe side chain that gates access to the PDZ peptide-binding groove. Removal of this side chain enhances the binding affinity by more than fivefold, suggesting that access of Crb to Pals1 may be regulated by intradomain contacts or by protein–protein interaction.

  7. Molecular Characterization of a Recombinant Zea mays Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase (ZmPAL2) and Its Application in trans-Cinnamic Acid Production from L-Phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Zang, Ying; Jiang, Ting; Cong, Ying; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Ouyang, Jia

    2015-06-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is one of the most extensively studied enzymes with its crucial role in secondary phenylpropanoid metabolism of plants. Recently, its demand has been increased for aromatic chemical production, but its applications in trans-cinnamic acid production were not much explored. In the present study, a putative PAL gene from Zea mays designated as ZmPAL2 was expressed and characterized in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant ZmPAL2 exhibited a high PAL activity (7.14 U/mg) and a weak tyrosine ammonia-lyase activity. The optimal temperature of ZmPAL2 was 55 °C, and the thermal stability results showed that about 50 % of enzyme activity remained after a treatment at 60 °C for 6 h. The recombinant ZmPAL2 is a good candidate for the production of trans-cinnamic acid. The vitro conversion indicated that the recombinant ZmPAL2 could effectively catalyze the L-phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid, and the trans-cinnamic acid concentration can reach up to 5 g/l.

  8. Biomedical accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Vogel, John S.

    1995-05-01

    Ultrasensitive SIMS with accelerator based spectrometers has recently begun to be applied to biomedical problems. Certain very long-lived radioisotopes of very low natural abundances can be used to trace metabolism at environmental dose levels ( [greater-or-equal, slanted] z mol in mg samples). 14C in particular can be employed to label a myriad of compounds. Competing technologies typically require super environmental doses that can perturb the system under investigation, followed by uncertain extrapolation to the low dose regime. 41Ca and 26Al are also used as elemental tracers. Given the sensitivity of the accelerator method, care must be taken to avoid contamination of the mass spectrometer and the apparatus employed in prior sample handling including chemical separation. This infant field comprises the efforts of a dozen accelerator laboratories. The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has been particularly active. In addition to collaborating with groups further afield, we are researching the kinematics and binding of genotoxins in-house, and we support innovative uses of our capability in the disciplines of chemistry, pharmacology, nutrition and physiology within the University of California. The field can be expected to grow further given the numerous potential applications and the efforts of several groups and companies to integrate more the accelerator technology into biomedical research programs; the development of miniaturized accelerator systems and ion sources capable of interfacing to conventional HPLC and GMC, etc. apparatus for complementary chemical analysis is anticipated for biomedical laboratories.

  9. From the Last Interglacial to the Anthropocene: Modelling a Complete Glacial Cycle (PalMod)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brücher, Tim; Latif, Mojib; Claussen, Martin; Schulz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    We will give a short overview of the national climate modelling initiative (PalMod - Paleo Modelling, www.palmod.de) on the understanding of the climate system dynamics and its variability during the last glacial cycle. PalMod is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and its specific topics are: (i) to identify and quantify the relative contributions of the fundamental processes which determined the Earth's climate trajectory and variability during the last glacial cycle, (ii) to simulate with comprehensive Earth System Models (ESMs) the climate from the peak of the last interglacial - the Eemian warm period - up to the present, including the changes in the spectrum of variability, and (iii) to assess possible future climate trajectories beyond this century during the next millennia with sophisticated ESMs tested in such a way. The research is intended to be conducted over a period of 10 years, but with shorter funding cycles. The envisioned approach is innovative in three respects. First, the consortium aims at simulating a full glacial cycle in transient mode and with comprehensive ESMs which allow full interactions between the physical and biogeochemical components of the Earth system, including ice sheets. Second, we shall address climate variability during the last glacial cycle on a large range of time scales, from interannual to multi-millennial, and attempt to quantify the relative contributions of external forcing and processes internal to the Earth system to climate variability at different time scales. Third, in order to achieve a higher level of understanding of natural climate variability at time scales of millennia, its governing processes and implications for the future climate, we bring together three different research communities: the Earth system modeling community, the proxy data community and the computational science community. The consortium consists of 18 partners including all major modelling centers within

  10. New methods for high current fast ion beam production by laser-driven acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Margarone, D.; Krasa, J.; Prokupek, J.; Velyhan, A.; Laska, L.; Jungwirth, K.; Mocek, T.; Korn, G.; Rus, B.; Torrisi, L.; Gammino, S.; Cirrone, P.; Cutroneo, M.; Romano, F.; Picciotto, A.; Serra, E.; Giuffrida, L.; Mangione, A.; Rosinski, M.; Parys, P.; and others

    2012-02-15

    An overview of the last experimental campaigns on laser-driven ion acceleration performed at the PALS facility in Prague is given. Both the 2 TW, sub-nanosecond iodine laser system and the 20 TW, femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser, recently installed at PALS, are used along our experiments performed in the intensity range 10{sup 16}-10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. The main goal of our studies was to generate high energy, high current ion streams at relatively low laser intensities. The discussed experimental investigations show promising results in terms of maximum ion energy and current density, which make the laser-accelerated ion beams a candidate for new-generation ion sources to be employed in medicine, nuclear physics, matter physics, and industry.

  11. The Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Fernow, R.C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, A.S.; Gallardo, J.; Jialin, Xie; Kirk, H.G.; Parsa, Z.; Palmer, R.B.; Rao, T.; Rogers, J.; Sheehan, J.; Tsang, T.Y.F.; Ulc, S.; Van Steenbergen, A.; Woodle, M.; Zhang, R.S. ); McDonald, K.T.; Russell, D.P. ); Jiang, Z.Y. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (Un

    1990-01-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), presently under construction at Brookhaven National laboratory, is described. It consists of a 50-MeV electron beam synchronizable to a high-peak power CO{sub 2} laser. The interaction of electrons with the laser field will be probed, with some emphasis on exploring laser-based acceleration techniques. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Overcoming Obstacles Posed by "NCLB": When Preservice Teachers and Special Needs Children Pen Pal with Each Other

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceprano, Maria A.; Sivret, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a pen pal partnership experience wherein undergraduate teacher education candidates enrolled in a Reading Language Arts Methods course and exchanged a series of 6-8 letters with elementary level children designated as having special needs. The project resulted in a number of benefits for both the children and the teacher…

  13. Tight junction protein Par6 interacts with an evolutionarily conserved region in the amino terminus of PALS1/stardust.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Hurd, Toby W; Margolis, Ben

    2004-07-16

    Tight junctions are the structures in mammalian epithelial cells that separate the apical and basolateral membranes and may also be important in the establishment of cell polarity. Two evolutionarily conserved multiprotein complexes, Crumbs-PALS1 (Stardust)-PATJ and Cdc42-Par6-Par3-atypical protein kinase C, have been implicated in the assembly of tight junctions and in polarization of Drosophila melanogaster epithelia. These two complexes have been linked physically and functionally by an interaction between PALS1 and Par6. Here we identify an evolutionarily conserved region in the amino terminus of PALS1 as the Par6 binding site and identify valine and aspartic acid residues in this region as essential for interacting with the PDZ domain of Par6. We have also characterized, in more detail, the amino terminus of Drosophila Stardust and demonstrate that the interaction mechanism between Stardust and Drosophila Par6 is evolutionarily conserved. Par6 interferes with PATJ in binding PALS1, and these two interactions do not appear to function synergistically. Taken together, these results define the molecular mechanisms linking two conserved polarity complexes.

  14. Impact of a Parenting Program in a High-Risk, Multi-Ethnic Community: The PALS Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Stephen; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Futh, Annabel; Matias, Carla; Price, Jenny; Doolan, Moira

    2010-01-01

    Background: Parenting programs have been shown to work when delivered to motivated ethnic majority parents in demonstration projects, but comparatively little is known about their impact when delivered to high-risk, multi-ethnic populations by routine local services. Methods: The Primary Age Learning Skills (PALS) trial was a randomized controlled…

  15. Retrieving soil moisture for non-forested areas using PALS radiometer measurements in SMAPVEX12 field campaign

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper we investigate retrieval of soil moisture based on L-band brightness temperature under diverse conditions and land cover types. We apply the PALS (Passive Active L-band System) radiometer data collected in the SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012) field ex...

  16. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Process Manual for Program Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    This manual describes and evaluates the implementation of Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parent Affective Learning), Brevard Community College's special demonstration training project intended to return adults who have dropped out of the educational system back into the learning environment by bringing them to parenting classes…

  17. Multivariate statistical analysis of stream-sediment geochemistry in the Grazer Paläozoikum, Austria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, L.; Davis, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Austrian reconnaissance study of stream-sediment composition — more than 30000 clay-fraction samples collected over an area of 40000 km2 — is summarized in an atlas of regional maps that show the distributions of 35 elements. These maps, rich in information, reveal complicated patterns of element abundance that are difficult to compare on more than a small number of maps at one time. In such a study, multivariate procedures such as simultaneous R-Q mode components analysis may be helpful. They can compress a large number of variables into a much smaller number of independent linear combinations. These composite variables may be mapped and relationships sought between them and geological properties. As an example, R-Q mode components analysis is applied here to the Grazer Paläozoikum, a tectonic unit northeast of the city of Graz, which is composed of diverse lithologies and contains many mineral deposits.

  18. Spin probe dynamics in relation to free volume in crystalline organics from ESR and PALS: Cyclohexane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švajdlenková, H.; Zgardzinska, B.; Lukešová, M.; Bartoš, J.

    2016-01-01

    A joint external probe ESR and PALS study on cyclohexane (CHX) using stable free radical 2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) or ortho-positronium (o-Ps), respectively, is reported. The slow to fast transition of TEMPO occurs at the characteristic ESR temperature T50G coinciding with the solid to solid transition temperature, TSS. Moreover, o-Ps lifetime τ3(T50G) = 2.0 ns is close to an empirical rule τ3(T50G) = 2.17 ± 0.15 ns found for a series of amorphous glass-formers indicating that main transition of the TEMPO connected with the 'rigid' to plastic crystalline state transition in CHX occurs under the similar local free volume condition as in amorphous media.

  19. Regulation of genes encoding cellulolytic enzymes by Pal-PacC signaling in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Kunitake, Emi; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Kentaro; Kanamaru, Kyoko; Kimura, Makoto; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2016-04-01

    Cellulosic biomass represents a valuable potential substitute for fossil-based fuels. As such, there is a strong need to develop efficient biotechnological processes for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass via the optimization of cellulase production by fungi. Ambient pH is an important factor affecting the industrial production of cellulase. In the present study, we demonstrate that several Aspergillus nidulans genes encoding cellulolytic enzymes are regulated by Pal-PacC-mediated pH signaling, as evidenced by the decreased cellulase productivity of the palC mutant and pacC deletants of A. nidulans. The deletion of pacC was observed to result in delayed induction and decreased expression of the cellulase genes based on time course expression analysis. The genome-wide identification of PacC-regulated genes under cellobiose-induced conditions demonstrated that genes expressed in a PacC-dependent manner included 82 % of ClrB (a transcriptional activator of the cellulase genes)-regulated genes, including orthologs of various transporter and β-glucosidase genes considered to be involved in cellobiose uptake or production of stronger inducer molecules. Together with the significant overlap between ClrB- and PacC-regulated genes, the results suggest that PacC-mediated regulation of the cellulase genes involves not only direct regulation by binding to their promoter regions but also indirect regulation via modulation of the expression of genes involved in ClrB-dependent transcriptional activation. Our findings are expected to contribute to the development of more efficient industrial cellulase production methods.

  20. Validity and reliability of the activPAL3 for measuring posture and stepping in adults and young people.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Ceri; Dall, Philippa; Grant, Margaret; Stansfield, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Characterisation of free-living physical activity requires the use of validated and reliable monitors. This study reports an evaluation of the validity and reliability of the activPAL3 monitor for the detection of posture and stepping in both adults and young people. Twenty adults (median 27.6y; IQR22.6y) and 8 young people (12.0y; IQR4.1y) performed standardised activities and activities of daily living (ADL) incorporating sedentary, upright and stepping activity. Agreement, specificity and positive predictive value were calculated between activPAL3 outcomes and the gold-standard of video observation. Inter-device reliability was calculated between 4 monitors. Sedentary and upright times for standardised activities were within ±5% of video observation as was step count (excluding jogging) for both adults and young people. Jogging step detection accuracy reduced with increasing cadence >150stepsmin(-1). For ADLs, sensitivity to stepping was very low for adults (40.4%) but higher for young people (76.1%). Inter-device reliability was either good (ICC(1,1)>0.75) or excellent (ICC(1,1)>0.90) for all outcomes. An excellent level of detection of standardised postures was demonstrated by the activPAL3. Postures such as seat-perching, kneeling and crouching were misclassified when compared to video observation. The activPAL3 appeared to accurately detect 'purposeful' stepping during ADL, but detection of smaller stepping movements was poor. Small variations in outcomes between monitors indicated that differences in monitor placement or hardware may affect outcomes. In general, the detection of posture and purposeful stepping with the activPAL3 was excellent indicating that it is a suitable monitor for characterising free-living posture and purposeful stepping activity in healthy adults and young people.

  1. "Peer-Assisted Learning"(PAL) in the Skills-Lab – an inventory at the medical faculties of the Federal Republic of Germany

    PubMed Central

    Blohm, M.; Lauter, J.; Branchereau, S.; Krautter, M.; Köhl-Hackert, N.; Jünger, J.; Herzog, W.; Nikendei, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over multiple years, the didactic concept of „peer-assisted learning“ (PAL) has proved to be valuable for medical education. Particularly in the field of the nowadays widely established Skills-Labs, the assignment of student tutors is both popular and effective. The aim of the underlying study is to assess the current status of PAL programs within German medical faculties’ Skills-Labs regarding their distribution, extent, structure and content based on a nation-wide survey. Methods: All 36 medical faculties in Germany were contacted and asked for their participation (via telephone or in written form) in the survey encompassing 16 central questions as to the structure of established PAL programs. Data obtained were subject to quantitative and qualitative analysis. Results: 35 of 36 (97.2%) medical faculties participated in the survey. A PAL program was shown to be established at 33 (91.7%) faculties. However, the results show distinct differences between different faculties with respect to extent and content of the PAL programs. Conclusions: Among German medical Skills-Labs, PAL has been established almost ubiquitously. Further studies on the conception and standardization of training concepts appear to be pivotal for the advancement of PAL in the context of Skills-Labs. PMID:25699102

  2. Characterization of the TolB-Pal trans-envelope complex from Xylella fastidiosa reveals a dynamic and coordinated protein expression profile during the biofilm development process.

    PubMed

    Santos, Clelton A; Janissen, Richard; Toledo, Marcelo A S; Beloti, Lilian L; Azzoni, Adriano R; Cotta, Monica A; Souza, Anete P

    2015-10-01

    The intriguing roles of the bacterial Tol-Pal trans-envelope protein complex range from maintenance of cell envelope integrity to potential participation in the process of cell division. In this study, we report the characterization of the XfTolB and XfPal proteins of the Tol-Pal complex of Xylella fastidiosa. X. fastidiosa is a major plant pathogen that forms biofilms inside xylem vessels, triggering the development of diseases in important cultivable plants around the word. Based on functional complementation experiments in Escherichia coli tolB and pal mutant strains, we confirmed the role of xftolB and xfpal in outer membrane integrity. In addition, we observed a dynamic and coordinated protein expression profile during the X. fastidiosa biofilm development process. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), the low-resolution structure of the isolated XfTolB-XfPal complex in solution was solved for the first time. Finally, the localization of the XfTolB and XfPal polar ends was visualized via immunofluorescence labeling in vivo during bacterial cell growth. Our results highlight the major role of the components of the cell envelope, particularly the TolB-Pal complex, during the different phases of bacterial biofilm development. PMID:26049080

  3. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    Variable Gravity Laboratory studies are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) conceptual design and engineering analysis; (2) control strategies (fast crawling maneuvers, main perturbations and their effect upon the acceleration level); and (3) technology requirements.

  4. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) thermal control issues; (2) attitude control sybsystem; (3) configuration constraints; (4) payload; (5) acceleration requirements on Variable Gravity Laboratory (VGL); and (6) VGL configuration highlights.

  5. Accelerator and electrodynamics capability review

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Kevin W

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.

  6. HIGH GRADIENT INDUCTION ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G J; Sampayan, S; Chen, Y; Blackfield, D; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Krogh, M; Nelson, S; Nunnally, W; Paul, A; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2007-06-21

    A new type of compact induction accelerator is under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that promises to increase the average accelerating gradient by at least an order of magnitude over that of existing induction machines. The machine is based on the use of high gradient vacuum insulators, advanced dielectric materials and switches and is stimulated by the desire for compact flash x-ray radiography sources. Research describing an extreme variant of this technology aimed at proton therapy for cancer will be described. Progress in applying this technology to several applications will be reviewed.

  7. Microwave inverse Cerenkov accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T. B.; Marshall, T. C.; LaPointe, M. A.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    1997-03-01

    A Microwave Inverse Cerenkov Accelerator (MICA) is currently under construction at the Yale Beam Physics Laboratory. The accelerating structure in MICA consists of an axisymmetric dielectrically lined waveguide. For the injection of 6 MeV microbunches from a 2.856 GHz RF gun, and subsequent acceleration by the TM01 fields, particle simulation studies predict that an acceleration gradient of 6.3 MV/m can be achieved with a traveling-wave power of 15 MW applied to the structure. Synchronous injection into a narrow phase window is shown to allow trapping of all injected particles. The RF fields of the accelerating structure are shown to provide radial focusing, so that longitudinal and transverse emittance growth during acceleration is small, and that no external magnetic fields are required for focusing. For 0.16 nC, 5 psec microbunches, the normalized emittance of the accelerated beam is predicted to be less than 5πmm-mrad. Experiments on sample alumina tubes have been conducted that verify the theoretical dispersion relation for the TM01 mode over a two-to-one range in frequency. No excitation of axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric competing waveguide modes was observed. High power tests showed that tangential electric fields at the inner surface of an uncoated sample of alumina pipe could be sustained up to at least 8.4 MV/m without breakdown. These considerations suggest that a MICA test accelerator can be built to examine these predictions using an available RF power source, 6 MeV RF gun and associated beam line.

  8. Wakefield accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The search for new methods to accelerate particle beams to high energy using high gradients has resulted in a number of candidate schemes. One of these, wakefield acceleration, has been the subject of considerable R D in recent years. This effort has resulted in successful proof of principle experiments and in increased understanding of many of the practical aspects of the technique. Some wakefield basics plus the status of existing and proposed experimental work is discussed, along with speculations on the future of wake field acceleration. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  9. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, S.A.

    1958-05-27

    An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.

  10. Rail accelerator research at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, W. R.; Cybyk, B. Z.

    1982-01-01

    A rail accelerator was chosen for study as an electromagnetic space propulsion device because of its simplicity and existing technology base. The results of a mission feasibility study using a large rail accelerator for direct launch of ton-size payloads from the Earth's surface to space, and the results of initial tests with a small, laboratory rail accelerator are presented. The laboratory rail accelerator has a bore of 3 by 3 mm and has accelerated 60 mg projectiles to velocities of 300 to 1000 m/s. Rail materials of Cu, W, and Mo were tested for efficiency and erosion rate.

  11. US accelerator contribution to the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Lamm, Michael J.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    In 1998, the United States entered into an agreement with CERN to help build the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with contributions to the accelerator and to the large HEP detectors. To accomplish this, the US LHC Accelerator Project was formed, encompassing expertise from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This report is a summary of these contributions including the progress towards project completion, as well as a discussion of future plans for continued US participation in the LHC accelerator.

  12. Accelerator simulation of astrophysical processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tombrello, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    Phenomena that involve accelerated ions in stellar processes that can be simulated with laboratory accelerators are described. Stellar evolutionary phases, such as the CNO cycle, have been partially explored with accelerators, up to the consumption of He by alpha particle radiative capture reactions. Further experimentation is indicated on reactions featuring N-13(p,gamma)O-14, O-15(alpha, gamma)Ne-19, and O-14(alpha,p)F-17. Accelerated beams interacting with thin foils produce reaction products that permit a determination of possible elemental abundances in stellar objects. Additionally, isotopic ratios observed in chondrites can be duplicated with accelerator beam interactions and thus constraints can be set on the conditions producing the meteorites. Data from isotopic fractionation from sputtering, i.e., blasting surface atoms from a material using a low energy ion beam, leads to possible models for processes occurring in supernova explosions. Finally, molecules can be synthesized with accelerators and compared with spectroscopic observations of stellar winds.

  13. ION ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Bell, J.S.

    1959-09-15

    An arrangement for the drift tubes in a linear accelerator is described whereby each drift tube acts to shield the particles from the influence of the accelerating field and focuses the particles passing through the tube. In one embodiment the drift tube is splii longitudinally into quadrants supported along the axis of the accelerator by webs from a yoke, the quadrants. webs, and yoke being of magnetic material. A magnetic focusing action is produced by energizing a winding on each web to set up a magnetic field between adjacent quadrants. In the other embodiment the quadrants are electrically insulated from each other and have opposite polarity voltages on adjacent quadrants to provide an electric focusing fleld for the particles, with the quadrants spaced sufficienily close enough to shield the particles within the tube from the accelerating electric field.

  14. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P. Jr.; Devaney, H.F.; Hake, L.W.

    1979-08-29

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  15. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Jr., Joseph P.; Devaney, Howard F.; Hake, Lewis W.

    1982-08-17

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  16. Characterization of the tol-pal region of Escherichia coli K-12: translational control of tolR expression by TolQ and identification of a new open reading frame downstream of pal encoding a periplasmic protein.

    PubMed Central

    Vianney, A; Muller, M M; Clavel, T; Lazzaroni, J C; Portalier, R; Webster, R E

    1996-01-01

    The TolQ, TolR, TolA, TolB, and Pal proteins appear to function in maintaining the integrity of the outer membrane, as well as facilitating the uptake of the group A colicins and the DNA of the infecting filamentous bacteriophages. Sequence data showed that these genes are clustered in a 6-kb segment of DNA with the gene order orf1 tolQ tolR tolA tolB pal orf2 (a newly identified open reading frame encoding a 29-kD9 protein). Like those containing orf1, bacteria containing an insertion mutation in this gene showed no obvious phenotype. Analysis of beta-galactosidase activity from fusion constructs in which the lac operon was fused to various genes in the cluster showed that the genes in this region constitute two separate operons: orf1 tolQRA and tolB pal orf2. In the orf1 tolQRA operon, translation of MR was dependent on translation of the upstream tolQ region. Consistent with this result, no functional ribosome-binding site for TolR synthesis was detected. PMID:8763928

  17. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  18. Water-Vapor Sorption Processes in Nanoporous MgO-Al2O3 Ceramics: the PAL Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Klym, Halyna; Ingram, Adam; Shpotyuk, Oleh; Hadzaman, Ivan; Solntsev, Viacheslav

    2016-12-01

    The water-vapor sorption processes in nanoporous MgO-Al2O3 ceramics are studied with positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy employing positron trapping and positronium (Ps)-decaying modes. It is demonstrated that the longest-lived components in the four-term reconstructed PAL spectra with characteristic lifetimes near 2 and 60-70 ns can be, respectively, attributed to ortho-positronium (o-Ps) traps in nanopores with 0.3- and 1.5-1.8-nm radii. The first o-Ps decaying process includes "pick-off" annihilation in the "bubbles" of liquid water, while the second is based on o-Ps interaction with physisorbed water molecules at the walls of the pores. In addition, the water vapor modifies structural defects located at the grain boundaries in a vicinity of pores, this process being accompanied by void fragmentation during water adsorption and agglomeration during water desorption after drying.

  19. Reliability and validity of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Palliative care (FACIT-Pal) scale.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Bakitas, Marie; Hegel, Mark T; Hanscom, Brett; Hull, Jay; Ahles, Tim A

    2009-01-01

    The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) system provides a general, multidimensional measure of health-related quality of life (FACT-G) that can be augmented with disease or symptom-specific subscales. The 19-item palliative care subscale of the FACIT system has undergone little psychometric evaluation to date. The aim of this paper is to report the internal consistency, factor structure, and construct validity of the instrument using the palliative care subscale (FACIT-Pal). Two hundred fifty-six persons with advanced cancer in a randomized trial testing a palliative care psychoeducational intervention completed the 46-item FACIT-Pal at baseline. Internal consistency was greater than 0.74 for all subscales and the total score. Seventeen of the 19 palliative care subscale items loaded onto the four-factor solution of the established core measure (FACT-G). As hypothesized, total scores were correlated with measures of symptom intensity (r=-0.73, P<0.001) and depression (r=-0.75, P<0.001). The FACIT-Pal was able to discriminate between participants who died within three months of completing the baseline and participants who lived for at least one year after completing the baseline assessment (t=-4.05, P<0.001). The functional well-being subscale discriminated between participants who had a Karnofsky performance score of 70 and below and participants with a Karnofsky performance score of 80 and above (t=3.40, P<0.001). The findings support the internal consistency reliability and validity of the FACIT-Pal as a measure of health-related quality of life for persons with advanced cancer.

  20. Effects of PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL) knockdown on cell wall composition, biomass digestibility, and biotic and abiotic stress responses in Brachypodium

    PubMed Central

    Cass, Cynthia L.; Peraldi, Antoine; Dowd, Patrick F.; Mottiar, Yaseen; Santoro, Nicholas; Karlen, Steven D.; Bukhman, Yury V.; Foster, Cliff E.; Thrower, Nick; Bruno, Laura C.; Moskvin, Oleg V.; Johnson, Eric T.; Willhoit, Megan E.; Phutane, Megha; Ralph, John; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Nicholson, Paul; Sedbrook, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The phenylpropanoid pathway in plants synthesizes a variety of structural and defence compounds, and is an important target in efforts to reduce cell wall lignin for improved biomass conversion to biofuels. Little is known concerning the trade-offs in grasses when perturbing the function of the first gene family in the pathway, PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL). Therefore, PAL isoforms in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon were targeted, by RNA interference (RNAi), and large reductions (up to 85%) in stem tissue transcript abundance for two of the eight putative BdPAL genes were identified. The cell walls of stems of BdPAL-knockdown plants had reductions of 43% in lignin and 57% in cell wall-bound ferulate, and a nearly 2-fold increase in the amounts of polysaccharide-derived carbohydrates released by thermochemical and hydrolytic enzymic partial digestion. PAL-knockdown plants exhibited delayed development and reduced root growth, along with increased susceptibilities to the fungal pathogens Fusarium culmorum and Magnaporthe oryzae. Surprisingly, these plants generally had wild-type (WT) resistances to caterpillar herbivory, drought, and ultraviolet light. RNA sequencing analyses revealed that the expression of genes associated with stress responses including ethylene biosynthesis and signalling were significantly altered in PAL knocked-down plants under non-challenging conditions. These data reveal that, although an attenuation of the phenylpropanoid pathway increases carbohydrate availability for biofuel, it can adversely affect plant growth and disease resistance to fungal pathogens. The data identify notable differences between the stress responses of these monocot pal mutants versus Arabidopsis (a dicot) pal mutants and provide insights into the challenges that may arise when deploying phenylpropanoid pathway-altered bioenergy crops. PMID:26093023

  1. A touch-screen based paired-associates learning (PAL) task for the rat may provide a translatable pharmacological model of human cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Talpos, John C; Aerts, Nancy; Fellini, Laetitia; Steckler, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The use of touch-screen equipped operant boxes is an increasingly popular approach for modeling human cognition in the rodent. However little data is currently available describing the effects of pharmacological manipulations on touch-screen based tasks. Owing to the relationship between performance on visual-spatial paired associates learning (PAL) with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease one task of specific interest is the touch-screen PAL task developed for rodents (J. Talpos et al., 2009). The goal of this study was to profile a range of the commonly used pharmacological models of schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to investigate the sensitivity of PAL to these models of disease. Male Lister hooded rats were trained on PAL until stable performance was obtained. The effects of PCP, ketamine, amphetamine, LSD, scopolamine, and biperiden (recently proposed as an alternative to scopolamine) were then tested on animals performing the PAL task. While all compounds influenced responding during PAL, only PCP and amphetamine impaired performance with minimal changes in secondary measures (response latencies, trials completed). Surprisingly ketamine did not cause a change in percent correct despite being an NMDA antagonist, indicating that not all NMDA antagonists are equal in the touch-screen platform. This finding is in agreement with existing literature showing differential effects of NMDA antagonists on a wide variety of behavioral assays include tasks of attention, memory, and cognitive flexibility (Gilmour et al., 2009; Dix et al., 2010; Smith et al., 2011). Moreover biperiden showed no benefit when compared to scopolamine, highlighting the current lack of an effective pharmacological model of cholinergic dysfunction in the touch-screen platform. These data demonstrate that performance on PAL can be disrupted by common pharmacological disease models, suggesting that PAL may have the sensitivity to serve as a translational test for the study of cognition in

  2. Effects of PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL) knockdown on cell wall composition, biomass digestibility, and biotic and abiotic stress responses in Brachypodium.

    PubMed

    Cass, Cynthia L; Peraldi, Antoine; Dowd, Patrick F; Mottiar, Yaseen; Santoro, Nicholas; Karlen, Steven D; Bukhman, Yury V; Foster, Cliff E; Thrower, Nick; Bruno, Laura C; Moskvin, Oleg V; Johnson, Eric T; Willhoit, Megan E; Phutane, Megha; Ralph, John; Mansfield, Shawn D; Nicholson, Paul; Sedbrook, John C

    2015-07-01

    The phenylpropanoid pathway in plants synthesizes a variety of structural and defence compounds, and is an important target in efforts to reduce cell wall lignin for improved biomass conversion to biofuels. Little is known concerning the trade-offs in grasses when perturbing the function of the first gene family in the pathway, PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL). Therefore, PAL isoforms in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon were targeted, by RNA interference (RNAi), and large reductions (up to 85%) in stem tissue transcript abundance for two of the eight putative BdPAL genes were identified. The cell walls of stems of BdPAL-knockdown plants had reductions of 43% in lignin and 57% in cell wall-bound ferulate, and a nearly 2-fold increase in the amounts of polysaccharide-derived carbohydrates released by thermochemical and hydrolytic enzymic partial digestion. PAL-knockdown plants exhibited delayed development and reduced root growth, along with increased susceptibilities to the fungal pathogens Fusarium culmorum and Magnaporthe oryzae. Surprisingly, these plants generally had wild-type (WT) resistances to caterpillar herbivory, drought, and ultraviolet light. RNA sequencing analyses revealed that the expression of genes associated with stress responses including ethylene biosynthesis and signalling were significantly altered in PAL knocked-down plants under non-challenging conditions. These data reveal that, although an attenuation of the phenylpropanoid pathway increases carbohydrate availability for biofuel, it can adversely affect plant growth and disease resistance to fungal pathogens. The data identify notable differences between the stress responses of these monocot pal mutants versus Arabidopsis (a dicot) pal mutants and provide insights into the challenges that may arise when deploying phenylpropanoid pathway-altered bioenergy crops. PMID:26093023

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CCD photometry of Pal 1 (Borissova+ 1995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borissova, J.; Spassova, N.

    1997-06-01

    A CCD photometry of the halo cluster Palomar 1 is presented in the Thuan-Gunn photometric system. The principal sequences of the color-magnitude diagrams are delineated in different spectral bands. The color- magnitude diagrams of the cluster show a well defined red horizontal branch, a subgiant branch and a main-sequence down to about two magnitudes below the main sequence turnoff. The giant branch is absent and the brightest stars are the horizontal branch stars. The age of the cluster determined by comparison with the isochrones of Bell & VandenBerg (1987ApJS...63..335B) is consistent with an age in the interval 12-14Gyr. A distance modulus of (m-M)g0=15.38+/-0.15 magnitude and E(g-r)=0.16 has been derived. An estimate of the cluster structural parameters such as core radius and concentration parameter gives rc=1.5pc and c=1.46. A mass estimate of 1.1x103M⊙ and a mass-to-light ratio of 1.79 have been obtained using King's (1966AJ.....71...64K) method. The morphology of color-magnitude diagrams allows Pal 1 to be interpreted as probably a globular cluster rather than an old open one. For a description of the uvgr photometric system, see e.g. (1 data file).

  4. Passive aquatic listener (PAL): An adoptive underwater acoustic recording system for the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostou, Marios N.; Nystuen, Jeffrey A.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Lykousis, Vassilios

    2011-01-01

    The ambient sound field in the ocean is a combination of natural and manmade sounds. Consequently, the interpretation of the ambient sound field can be used to quantify these processes. In the frequency range from 1 to 50 kHz, the general character of ocean ambient sound is a slowly changing background that is closely associated with local wind speed, interspersed with shorter time scale events such as rain storms, ships and animal calls. At lower frequencies the underwater ambient sound budget includes geologically generated sound activities including underwater volcanic eruptions, seismic and seepage faults that generate bubbles, etc. that can also potentially be classified and quantified. Acoustic data are collected on hydrophones. Hydrophones are simple, robust sensors that can be deployed on most ocean instrumentation systems including surface or sub-surface moorings, bottom mounted systems, drifters, ARGO floats or autonomous underwater platforms. A dedicated oceanic underwater recorder called a passive acoustic listener (PAL) has been developed. A principal issue is to accurately distinguish different sound sources so that they can be quantified as part of a sound budget, and then quantified if appropriate. Based on ongoing data collected from the Poseidon II network the retrieval potential of multi-parameters from underwater sound, including meteorological (i.e., precipitation and winds) and in general geophysical, anthropogenetic (i.e., ships, submarines, etc.) and biological (whales, etc.) sources is presented.

  5. [An operational remote sensing algorithm of land surface evapotranspiration based on NOAA PAL dataset].

    PubMed

    Hou, Ying-Yu; He, Yan-Bo; Wang, Jian-Lin; Tian, Guo-Liang

    2009-10-01

    Based on the time series 10-day composite NOAA Pathfinder AVHRR Land (PAL) dataset (8 km x 8 km), and by using land surface energy balance equation and "VI-Ts" (vegetation index-land surface temperature) method, a new algorithm of land surface evapotranspiration (ET) was constructed. This new algorithm did not need the support from meteorological observation data, and all of its parameters and variables were directly inversed or derived from remote sensing data. A widely accepted ET model of remote sensing, i. e., SEBS model, was chosen to validate the new algorithm. The validation test showed that both the ET and its seasonal variation trend estimated by SEBS model and our new algorithm accorded well, suggesting that the ET estimated from the new algorithm was reliable, being able to reflect the actual land surface ET. The new ET algorithm of remote sensing was practical and operational, which offered a new approach to study the spatiotemporal variation of ET in continental scale and global scale based on the long-term time series satellite remote sensing images.

  6. [An operational remote sensing algorithm of land surface evapotranspiration based on NOAA PAL dataset].

    PubMed

    Hou, Ying-Yu; He, Yan-Bo; Wang, Jian-Lin; Tian, Guo-Liang

    2009-10-01

    Based on the time series 10-day composite NOAA Pathfinder AVHRR Land (PAL) dataset (8 km x 8 km), and by using land surface energy balance equation and "VI-Ts" (vegetation index-land surface temperature) method, a new algorithm of land surface evapotranspiration (ET) was constructed. This new algorithm did not need the support from meteorological observation data, and all of its parameters and variables were directly inversed or derived from remote sensing data. A widely accepted ET model of remote sensing, i. e., SEBS model, was chosen to validate the new algorithm. The validation test showed that both the ET and its seasonal variation trend estimated by SEBS model and our new algorithm accorded well, suggesting that the ET estimated from the new algorithm was reliable, being able to reflect the actual land surface ET. The new ET algorithm of remote sensing was practical and operational, which offered a new approach to study the spatiotemporal variation of ET in continental scale and global scale based on the long-term time series satellite remote sensing images. PMID:20077694

  7. Identification of N-acyl homoserine lactones produced by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 cultured in complex and synthetic media.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Peñalver, Carlos G; Bertini, Elisa V; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2012-07-01

    The endophytic diazotrophic Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 was originally isolated from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum). The biological nitrogen fixation, phytohormones secretion, solubilization of mineral nutrients and phytopathogen antagonism allow its classification as a plant growth-promoting bacterium. The recent genomic sequence of PAL5 unveiled the presence of a quorum sensing (QS) system. QS are regulatory mechanisms that, through the production of signal molecules or autoinducers, permit a microbial population the regulation of the physiology in a coordinated manner. The most studied autoinducers in gram-negative bacteria are the N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). The usage of biosensor strains evidenced the presence of AHL-like molecules in cultures of G. diazotrophicus PAL5 grown in complex and synthetic media. Analysis of AHLs performed by LC-APCI-MS permitted the identification of eight different signal molecules, including C6-, C8-, C10-, C12- and C14-HSL. Mass spectra confirmed that this diazotrophic strain also synthesizes autoinducers with carbonyl substitutions in the acyl chain. No differences in the profile of AHLs could be determined under both culture conditions. However, although the level of short-chain AHLs was not affected, a decrease of 30% in the production of long-chain AHLs could be measured in synthetic medium. PMID:22350020

  8. Differential effects of salinity and osmotic stress on the plant growth-promoting bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Marcos Vinicius V; Intorne, Aline C; Vespoli, Luciano de S; Madureira, Hérika C; Leandro, Mariana R; Pereira, Telma N S; Olivares, Fábio L; Berbert-Molina, Marília A; De Souza Filho, Gonçalo A

    2016-04-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) represent a promising alternative to the massive use of industrial fertilizers in agriculture. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a PGPB that colonizes several plant species. Although this bacterium is able to grow at high sucrose concentrations, its response to environmental stresses is poorly understood. The present study evaluated G. diazotrophicus PAL5 response to stresses caused by sucrose, PEG 400, NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4 and K2SO4. Morphological, ultrastructural and cell growth analysis revealed that G. diazotrophicus PAL5 is more sensitive to salt than osmotic stress. Growth inhibition and strong morphological changes were caused by salinity, in consequence of Cl ion-specific toxic effect. Interestingly, low osmotic stress levels were beneficial for bacterial multiplication, which was able to tolerate high sucrose concentrations, Na2SO4 and K2SO4. Our data show that G. diazotrophicus PAL5 has differential response to osmotic and salinity stress, which may influence its use as inoculant in saline environments. PMID:26809283

  9. Differential effects of salinity and osmotic stress on the plant growth-promoting bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Marcos Vinicius V; Intorne, Aline C; Vespoli, Luciano de S; Madureira, Hérika C; Leandro, Mariana R; Pereira, Telma N S; Olivares, Fábio L; Berbert-Molina, Marília A; De Souza Filho, Gonçalo A

    2016-04-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) represent a promising alternative to the massive use of industrial fertilizers in agriculture. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a PGPB that colonizes several plant species. Although this bacterium is able to grow at high sucrose concentrations, its response to environmental stresses is poorly understood. The present study evaluated G. diazotrophicus PAL5 response to stresses caused by sucrose, PEG 400, NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4 and K2SO4. Morphological, ultrastructural and cell growth analysis revealed that G. diazotrophicus PAL5 is more sensitive to salt than osmotic stress. Growth inhibition and strong morphological changes were caused by salinity, in consequence of Cl ion-specific toxic effect. Interestingly, low osmotic stress levels were beneficial for bacterial multiplication, which was able to tolerate high sucrose concentrations, Na2SO4 and K2SO4. Our data show that G. diazotrophicus PAL5 has differential response to osmotic and salinity stress, which may influence its use as inoculant in saline environments.

  10. LINAC for ADS application - accelerator technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, Robert W; Sheffreld, Richard L

    2009-01-01

    Sifnificant high-current, high-intensity accelerator research and development have been done in the recent past in the US, centered primarily at Los Alamos National Laboratory. These efforts have included designs for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project, Accelerator Transmutation of Waste, and Accelerator Driven Systems, as well as many others. This past work and some specific design principles that were developed to optimie linac designs for ADS and other high-intensity applications will be discussed briefly.

  11. Structures of the human Pals1 PDZ domain with and without ligand suggest gated access of Crb to the PDZ peptide-binding groove.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Marina E; Fletcher, Georgina C; O'Reilly, Nicola; Purkiss, Andrew G; Thompson, Barry J; McDonald, Neil Q

    2015-03-01

    Many components of epithelial polarity protein complexes possess PDZ domains that are required for protein interaction and recruitment to the apical plasma membrane. Apical localization of the Crumbs (Crb) transmembrane protein requires a PDZ-mediated interaction with Pals1 (protein-associated with Lin7, Stardust, MPP5), a member of the p55 family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs). This study describes the molecular interaction between the Crb carboxy-terminal motif (ERLI), which is required for Drosophila cell polarity, and the Pals1 PDZ domain using crystallography and fluorescence polarization. Only the last four Crb residues contribute to Pals1 PDZ-domain binding affinity, with specificity contributed by conserved charged interactions. Comparison of the Crb-bound Pals1 PDZ structure with an apo Pals1 structure reveals a key Phe side chain that gates access to the PDZ peptide-binding groove. Removal of this side chain enhances the binding affinity by more than fivefold, suggesting that access of Crb to Pals1 may be regulated by intradomain contacts or by protein-protein interaction.

  12. Structures of the human Pals1 PDZ domain with and without ligand suggest gated access of Crb to the PDZ peptide-binding groove

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Marina E.; Fletcher, Georgina C.; O’Reilly, Nicola; Purkiss, Andrew G.; Thompson, Barry J.; McDonald, Neil Q.

    2015-01-01

    Many components of epithelial polarity protein complexes possess PDZ domains that are required for protein interaction and recruitment to the apical plasma membrane. Apical localization of the Crumbs (Crb) transmembrane protein requires a PDZ-mediated interaction with Pals1 (protein-associated with Lin7, Stardust, MPP5), a member of the p55 family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs). This study describes the molecular interaction between the Crb carboxy-terminal motif (ERLI), which is required for Drosophila cell polarity, and the Pals1 PDZ domain using crystallography and fluorescence polarization. Only the last four Crb residues contribute to Pals1 PDZ-domain binding affinity, with specificity contributed by conserved charged interactions. Comparison of the Crb-bound Pals1 PDZ structure with an apo Pals1 structure reveals a key Phe side chain that gates access to the PDZ peptide-binding groove. Removal of this side chain enhances the binding affinity by more than fivefold, suggesting that access of Crb to Pals1 may be regulated by intradomain contacts or by protein–protein interaction. PMID:25760605

  13. Particle acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

  14. Accelerated Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the accelerated associate degree program at Ivy Tech Community College (Indiana) in which low-income students will receive an associate degree in one year. The three-year pilot program is funded by a $2.3 million grant from the Lumina Foundation for Education in Indianapolis and a $270,000 grant from the Indiana Commission…

  15. ACCELERATION INTEGRATOR

    DOEpatents

    Pope, K.E.

    1958-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved acceleration integrator and more particularly to apparatus of this nature which is gyrostabilized. The device may be used to sense the attainment by an airborne vehicle of a predetermined velocitv or distance along a given vector path. In its broad aspects, the acceleration integrator utilizes a magnetized element rotatable driven by a synchronous motor and having a cylin drical flux gap and a restrained eddy- current drag cap deposed to move into the gap. The angular velocity imparted to the rotatable cap shaft is transmitted in a positive manner to the magnetized element through a servo feedback loop. The resultant angular velocity of tae cap is proportional to the acceleration of the housing in this manner and means may be used to measure the velocity and operate switches at a pre-set magnitude. To make the above-described dcvice sensitive to acceleration in only one direction the magnetized element forms the spinning inertia element of a free gyroscope, and the outer housing functions as a gimbal of a gyroscope.

  16. Plasma accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui; Barnes, Cris W.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.

  17. Imaging using accelerated heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.T.

    1982-05-01

    Several methods for imaging using accelerated heavy ion beams are being investigated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using the HILAC (Heavy-Ion Linear Accelerator) as an injector, the Bevalac can accelerate fully stripped atomic nuclei from carbon (Z = 6) to krypton (Z = 34), and partly stripped ions up to uranium (Z = 92). Radiographic studies to date have been conducted with helium (from 184-inch cyclotron), carbon, oxygen, and neon beams. Useful ranges in tissue of 40 cm or more are available. To investigate the potential of heavy-ion projection radiography and computed tomography (CT), several methods and instrumentation have been studied.

  18. A phenylalanine ammonia-lyase ortholog (PkPAL1) from Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex. Benth: molecular cloning, promoter analysis and response to biotic and abiotic elicitors.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Razdan, Sumeer; Rana, Satiander; Dhar, Niha; Wani, Tariq Ahmad; Qazi, Parvaiz; Vishwakarma, Ram; Lattoo, Surrinder K

    2014-09-01

    Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. is a highly reputed medicinal herb utilised in the preparation of a number of herbal drug formulations, principally due to the presence of novel monoterpene iridoid glycosides kenned as picrosides. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase catalyses an important rate-limiting step in phenylpropanoid pathway and supplies precursors like cinnamic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, etc., to a variety of secondary metabolites including picrosides. The imperilled status of P. kurrooa coupled with lack of information regarding biogenesis of picrosides necessitates deciphering the biosynthetic pathway for picrosides. In the present study, a PAL gene, designated PkPAL1 was isolated from P. kurrooa. The cDNA is 2312 bp in length, consisting of an ORF of 2142 bp encoding for a 713 amino acid protein having a predicted molecular weight of 77.66 kDa and an isoelectric point of pH 6.82. qRT-PCR analysis of various tissues of P. kurrooa showed that PkPAL1 transcript levels were highest in the leaves, consistent with picroside accumulation pattern. Using Genome walking, a 718 bp promoter region was also isolated resulting in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements including TGA-element, TGACG-motif, CGTCA-motif, etc. qRT-PCR indicated up-regulation of PkPAL1 by methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, 2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid and UV-B elicitations that corroborated positively with the identified cis-elements within the promoter region. Moreover, altitude was found to have a positive effect on the PkPAL1 transcript levels, driving the expression of PkPAL1 abundantly. Based on docking analysis, we identified eight residues as potentially essential for substrate binding in PkPAL1.

  19. UCLA Neptune Facility for Advanced Accelerator Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tochitsky, Sergei Ya.; Clayton, Christopher E.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Joshi, Chandrashekhar; Rosenzweig, James B.; Pellegrini, Claudio

    2004-12-07

    The Neptune Laboratory at UCLA is being used for exploring concepts useful for advanced accelerators. This facility hosts a TW-class CO2 laser system and a high-brightness photoinjector producing a 14 MeV electron beam. The goal for the laboratory is to carry out experiments on high-gradient acceleration of externally injected electrons in both laser-driven relativistic plasma waves and EM laser field in vacuum. Experiments on plasma beat-wave acceleration using a prebunched electron beam, a high-energy gain 10-{mu}m inverse free electron laser accelerator, longitudinal electron beam shaping and laser based light-sources are planned.

  20. Compact accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    2007-02-06

    A compact linear accelerator having at least one strip-shaped Blumlein module which guides a propagating wavefront between first and second ends and controls the output pulse at the second end. Each Blumlein module has first, second, and third planar conductor strips, with a first dielectric strip between the first and second conductor strips, and a second dielectric strip between the second and third conductor strips. Additionally, the compact linear accelerator includes a high voltage power supply connected to charge the second conductor strip to a high potential, and a switch for switching the high potential in the second conductor strip to at least one of the first and third conductor strips so as to initiate a propagating reverse polarity wavefront(s) in the corresponding dielectric strip(s).

  1. BICEP's acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Contaldi, Carlo R.

    2014-10-01

    The recent Bicep2 [1] detection of, what is claimed to be primordial B-modes, opens up the possibility of constraining not only the energy scale of inflation but also the detailed acceleration history that occurred during inflation. In turn this can be used to determine the shape of the inflaton potential V(φ) for the first time — if a single, scalar inflaton is assumed to be driving the acceleration. We carry out a Monte Carlo exploration of inflationary trajectories given the current data. Using this method we obtain a posterior distribution of possible acceleration profiles ε(N) as a function of e-fold N and derived posterior distributions of the primordial power spectrum P(k) and potential V(φ). We find that the Bicep2 result, in combination with Planck measurements of total intensity Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, induces a significant feature in the scalar primordial spectrum at scales k∼ 10{sup -3} Mpc {sup -1}. This is in agreement with a previous detection of a suppression in the scalar power [2].

  2. Acceleration Environment of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPherson, Kevin; Kelly, Eric; Keller, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the microgravity acceleration environment on the International Space Station has been accomplished by two accelerometer systems since 2001. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System records the quasi-steady microgravity environment, including the influences of aerodynamic drag, vehicle rotation, and venting effects. Measurement of the vibratory/transient regime, comprised of vehicle, crew, and equipment disturbances, has been accomplished by the Space Acceleration Measurement System-II. Until the arrival of the Columbus Orbital Facility and the Japanese Experiment Module, the location of these sensors, and therefore, the measurement of the microgravity acceleration environment, has been limited to within the United States Laboratory. Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency has developed a vibratory acceleration measurement system called the Microgravity Measurement Apparatus which will be deployed within the Japanese Experiment Module to make distributed measurements of the Japanese Experiment Module's vibratory acceleration environment. Two Space Acceleration Measurement System sensors from the United States Laboratory will be re-deployed to support vibratory acceleration data measurement within the Columbus Orbital Facility. The additional measurement opportunities resulting from the arrival of these new laboratories allows Principal Investigators with facilities located in these International Space Station research laboratories to obtain microgravity acceleration data in support of their sensitive experiments. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project, at NASA Glenn Research Center, in Cleveland, Ohio, has supported acceleration measurement systems and the microgravity scientific community through the processing, characterization, distribution, and archival of the microgravity acceleration data obtained from the International Space Station acceleration measurement systems. This paper summarizes the PIMS capabilities available

  3. Flexible vs Rigid Epitope Conformations for Diagnostic- and Vaccine-Oriented Applications: Novel Insights from the Burkholderia pseudomallei BPSL2765 Pal3 Epitope.

    PubMed

    Gori, Alessandro; Peri, Claudio; Quilici, Giacomo; Nithichanon, Arnone; Gaudesi, Davide; Longhi, Renato; Gourlay, Louise; Bolognesi, Martino; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Musco, Giovanna; Colombo, Giorgio

    2016-03-11

    Peptides seldom retain stable conformations if separated from their native protein structure. In an immunological context, this potentially affects the development of selective peptide-based bioprobes and, from a vaccine perspective, poses inherent limits in the elicitation of cross-reactive antibodies by candidate epitopes. Here, a 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazole-mediated stapling strategy was used to stabilize the native α-helical fold of the Pal3 peptidic epitope from the protein antigen PalBp (BPSL2765) from Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiological agent of melioidosis. Whereas Pal3 shows no propensity to fold outside its native protein context, the engineered peptide (Pal3H) forms a stable α-helix, as assessed by MD, NMR, and CD structural analyses. Importantly, Pal3H shows an enhanced ability to discriminate between melioidosis patient subclasses in immune sera reactivity tests, demonstrating the potential of the stapled peptide for diagnostic purposes. With regard to antibody elicitation and related bactericidal activities, the linear peptide is shown to elicit a higher response. On these bases, we critically discuss the implications of epitope structure engineering for diagnostic- and vaccine-oriented applications. PMID:27623032

  4. Dispersion and interaction of graphene oxide in amorphous and semi-crystalline nano-composites: a PALS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Frans H. J.; Arza, Carlos R.

    2015-06-01

    The influence of dispersion and interaction of Graphene Oxide (GO) in semicrystalline Polyhydroxy butyrate (PHB) and glassy amorphous Poly(tBP-oda) is explored by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). The ortho-Positronium lifetimes which represent the main free volume hole size of both polymers are mainly affected by the large differences in internal stresses built up by the shrinkage of the polymers during their preparation, restricted by the platelet structure of GO. The ortho-Positronium intensities, which represent the ortho-Positronium formation probabilities, suggest a strong dependency of on the dispersion of the nano-particles and their aspect ratio.

  5. Identification of Genes Involved in Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 Strain Using Transposon Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Elisete P.; Soares, Cleiton de Paula; Galvão, Patrícia G.; Imada, Eddie L.; Simões-Araújo, Jean L.; Rouws, Luc F. M.; de Oliveira, André L. M.; Vidal, Márcia S.; Baldani, José I.

    2016-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a beneficial nitrogen-fixing endophyte found in association with sugarcane plants and other important crops. Beneficial effects of G. diazotrophicus on sugarcane growth and productivity have been attributed to biological nitrogen fixation process and production of phytohormones especially indole-3-acetic acid (IAA); however, information about the biosynthesis and function of IAA in G. diazotrophicus is still scarce. Therefore, the aim of this work was to identify genes and pathways involved in IAA biosynthesis in this bacterium. In our study, the screening of two independent Tn5 mutant libraries of PAL5T strain using the Salkowski colorimetric assay revealed two mutants (Gdiaa34 and Gdiaa01), which exhibited 95% less indolic compounds than the parental strain when grown in LGIP medium supplemented with L-tryptophan. HPLC chromatograms of the wild-type strain revealed the presence of IAA and of the biosynthetic intermediates indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) and indole-3-lactate (ILA). In contrast, the HPLC profiles of both mutants showed no IAA but only a large peak of non-metabolized tryptophan and low levels of IPyA and ILA were detected. Molecular characterization revealed that Gdiaa01 and Gdiaa34 mutants had unique Tn5 insertions at different sites within the GDI2456 open read frame, which is predicted to encode a L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO). GDI2456 (lao gene) forms a cluster with GDI2455 and GDI2454 ORFs, which are predicted to encode a cytochrome C and an RidA protein, respectively. RT-qPCR showed that transcript levels of lao. cccA, and ridA genes were reduced in the Gdiaa01 as compared to PAL5T. In addition, rice plants inoculated with Gdiaa01 showed significantly smaller root development (length, surface area, number of forks and tips) than those plants inoculated with PAL5T. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that G. diazotrophicus PAL5T produces IAA via the IPyA pathway in cultures supplemented with tryptophan and

  6. Alimini Lakes Project (PAL). Human-environment interaction during the Holocene in Mediterranean coastal wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbo, Andrea; Primavera, Milena; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Simone, Oronzo; Caldara, Massimo; Quarta, Gianluca; Calcagnile, Lucio

    2010-05-01

    A diachronical understanding of the co-evolution of people and Mediterranean wetlands requires the combined study of archaeological and palaeoenvironmental records. By focusing on an extended chronology, and relying on the update of known and new archaeological and palaeonvironmental sequences, PAL investigates how the Alimini Lakes disctrict (Apulia, S Italy) has changed over the past 10ka (the Holocene), a period witnessing great climatic environmental and social change. Holocene climate change is amplified in coastal wetlands, greatly affecting hydrology vegetation and people. Likewise, socio-economical changes (e.g. the introduction of agriculture) play a fundamental role in the shaping of wet landscapes. Under the combined action of environmental and human factors, coastal wetlands are prone to rapid and drastic ecological shifts and constitute ideal locations for developing a geoarchaeological approach. The results of the first year of research are presented here and include (1) the visit, description and GPS positioning of previously and newly discovered archaeological areas (cave and open air sites), (2) sampling of two Holocene sedimentary sequences from the Alimini Lakes disctict, (3) the results of the preliminary analyses (including AMS radiocarbon dating) carried out on the samples. The relocation of new and previously found archaeological sites was necessary to overcome some confusions caused by the contrasting published information. Relocated archaeological sites were normalized in a GIS environment. Two main Pleistocene/Holocene palaeoenvironmental sequences were sampled within the Alimini Lakes district: (1) the Frassanito dune reference sequence, obtained from a portion of the coastal dune (up to 10 m high) bordering the trait of the Adriatic coast situated in front of the Alimini lakes, (2) the ALI G 1 core (9m long) sampled on the W shore of Alimini Grande Lake. The multiproxy study of these sedimentary sequences provides a record of Holocene

  7. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  8. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  9. Evaluation of CHROM-Pal medium for the isolation and direct identification of Candida dubliniensis in primary cultures from the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Sahand, Ismail H; Maza, José L; Eraso, Elena; Montejo, Miguel; Moragues, María D; Aguirre, José M; Quindós, Guillermo; Pontón, José

    2009-11-01

    Candida albicans is the species most frequently isolated from oral specimens, but the recovery of other Candida species such as Candida dubliniensis is increasing. Differentiation of C. dubliniensis from C. albicans requires special tests and both species are misidentified in some studies. CHROM-Pal (CH-P) is a novel chromogenic medium used in our laboratory for differentiation between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis on the basis of colony colour and morphology, and chlamydospore production. The performance of CH-P and CHROMagar Candida (CAC) was compared for primary isolation and presumptive identification of yeasts from oral specimens from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected individuals. The identification of Candida species on both media was compared with two reference identification methods (API ID 32 C and multiplex PCR). A total of 137/205 oral swabs (66.8 %) plated onto CH-P and CAC media were positive by culture and resulted in the growth of 171 isolates of Candida species on CH-P, whilst only 159 isolates grew on CAC. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species in both groups of patients, followed by Candida parapsilosis in the HIV-negative group, and by C. dubliniensis in the HIV-infected group. The other Candida species isolated were Candida guilliermondii, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Candida famata, Candida rugosa, Candida kefyr, Candida pelliculosa and Candida pulcherrima. The sensitivity and specificity for identifying C. albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis on CH-P were over 98.5 %, always equal to or higher than those obtained when CAC was used. CH-P is a simple reliable medium for primary isolation and presumptive identification of yeast isolates from oral samples. The ability of CH-P to discriminate between C. dubliniensis and C. albicans was significantly higher (P <0.05) than that of CAC.

  10. Independent Study Unit on Accelerated Reference Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poultney, S. K.

    1973-01-01

    Presents a list of topics, research areas, references, and laboratory equipment which is prepared to facilitate general-science students' understanding of physics aspects in accelerated reference frames after their study of circular motion and Galilean relativity in mechanics. (CC)

  11. The CSU Accelerator and FEL Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedron, Sandra; Milton, Stephen; D'Audney, Alex; Edelen, Jonathan; Einstein, Josh; Harris, John; Hall, Chris; Horovitz, Kahren; Martinez, Jorge; Morin, Auralee; Sipahi, Nihan; Sipahi, Taylan; Williams, Joel

    2014-03-01

    The Colorado State University (CSU) Accelerator Facility will include a 6-MeV L-Band electron linear accelerator (linac) with a free-electron laser (FEL) system capable of producing Terahertz (THz) radiation, a laser laboratory, a microwave test stand, and a magnetic test stand. The photocathode drive linac will be used in conjunction with a hybrid undulator capable of producing THz radiation. Details of the systems used in CSU Accelerator Facility are discussed.

  12. The initial break-up of Pangæa elicited by Late Palæozoic deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Meng-Wan; Shellnutt, J Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The break-up of Pangæa was principally facilitated by tensional plate stress acting on pre-existing suture zones. The rifting of Pangæa began during the Early Permian along the southern Tethys margin and produced the lenticular-shaped continent known as Cimmeria. A mantle-plume model is ascribed to explain the rift-related volcanism but the NW-SE oriented Cimmerian rifts do not correlate well with pre-existing suture zones or 'structural heterogeneities' but appear to have a pertinent spatial and temporal association with Late Palæozoic glacial-interglacial cycles. Mantle potential temperature estimates of Cimmerian rift-related basalts (1410 °C ± 50 °C) are similar to ambient mantle conditions rather than an active mantle-plume rift as previously suggested. Moreover, we find that the distribution of glacial deposits shows significant temporal and spatial concurrence between the glacial retreat margins and rifting sites. We conclude that the location and timing of Cimmerian rifting resulted from the exploitation of structural heterogeneities within the crust that formed due to repeated glacial-interglacial cycles during the Late Palæozoic. Such effects of continental deglaciation helped to create the lenticular shape of Cimmeria and Neotethys Ocean suggesting that, in some instances, climate change may directly influence the location of rifting. PMID:27511791

  13. Localization and Function of Pals1-associated Tight Junction Protein in Drosophila Is Regulated by Two Distinct Apical Complexes.

    PubMed

    Sen, Arnab; Sun, Rui; Krahn, Michael P

    2015-05-22

    The transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb) and its intracellular adaptor protein Pals1 (Stardust, Sdt in Drosophila) play a crucial role in the establishment and maintenance of apical-basal polarity in epithelial cells in various organisms. In contrast, the multiple PDZ domain-containing protein Pals1-associated tight junction protein (PATJ), which has been described to form a complex with Crb/Sdt, is not essential for apical basal polarity or for the stability of the Crb/Sdt complex in the Drosophila epidermis. Here we show that, in the embryonic epidermis, Sdt is essential for the correct subcellular localization of PATJ in differentiated epithelial cells but not during cellularization. Consistently, the L27 domain of PATJ is crucial for the correct localization and function of the protein. Our data further indicate that the four PDZ domains of PATJ function, to a large extent, in redundancy, regulating the function of the protein. Interestingly, the PATJ-Sdt heterodimer is not only recruited to the apical cell-cell contacts by binding to Crb but depends on functional Bazooka (Baz). However, biochemical experiments show that PATJ associates with both complexes, the Baz-Sdt and the Crb-Sdt complex, in the mature epithelium of the embryonic epidermis, suggesting a role of these two complexes for the function of PATJ during the development of Drosophila.

  14. The initial break-up of Pangæa elicited by Late Palæozoic deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Meng-Wan; Shellnutt, J Gregory

    2016-08-11

    The break-up of Pangæa was principally facilitated by tensional plate stress acting on pre-existing suture zones. The rifting of Pangæa began during the Early Permian along the southern Tethys margin and produced the lenticular-shaped continent known as Cimmeria. A mantle-plume model is ascribed to explain the rift-related volcanism but the NW-SE oriented Cimmerian rifts do not correlate well with pre-existing suture zones or 'structural heterogeneities' but appear to have a pertinent spatial and temporal association with Late Palæozoic glacial-interglacial cycles. Mantle potential temperature estimates of Cimmerian rift-related basalts (1410 °C ± 50 °C) are similar to ambient mantle conditions rather than an active mantle-plume rift as previously suggested. Moreover, we find that the distribution of glacial deposits shows significant temporal and spatial concurrence between the glacial retreat margins and rifting sites. We conclude that the location and timing of Cimmerian rifting resulted from the exploitation of structural heterogeneities within the crust that formed due to repeated glacial-interglacial cycles during the Late Palæozoic. Such effects of continental deglaciation helped to create the lenticular shape of Cimmeria and Neotethys Ocean suggesting that, in some instances, climate change may directly influence the location of rifting.

  15. Localization and Function of Pals1-associated Tight Junction Protein in Drosophila Is Regulated by Two Distinct Apical Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Arnab; Sun, Rui; Krahn, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb) and its intracellular adaptor protein Pals1 (Stardust, Sdt in Drosophila) play a crucial role in the establishment and maintenance of apical-basal polarity in epithelial cells in various organisms. In contrast, the multiple PDZ domain-containing protein Pals1-associated tight junction protein (PATJ), which has been described to form a complex with Crb/Sdt, is not essential for apical basal polarity or for the stability of the Crb/Sdt complex in the Drosophila epidermis. Here we show that, in the embryonic epidermis, Sdt is essential for the correct subcellular localization of PATJ in differentiated epithelial cells but not during cellularization. Consistently, the L27 domain of PATJ is crucial for the correct localization and function of the protein. Our data further indicate that the four PDZ domains of PATJ function, to a large extent, in redundancy, regulating the function of the protein. Interestingly, the PATJ-Sdt heterodimer is not only recruited to the apical cell-cell contacts by binding to Crb but depends on functional Bazooka (Baz). However, biochemical experiments show that PATJ associates with both complexes, the Baz-Sdt and the Crb-Sdt complex, in the mature epithelium of the embryonic epidermis, suggesting a role of these two complexes for the function of PATJ during the development of Drosophila. PMID:25847234

  16. The initial break-up of Pangæa elicited by Late Palæozoic deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Meng-Wan; Shellnutt, J. Gregory

    2016-08-01

    The break-up of Pangæa was principally facilitated by tensional plate stress acting on pre-existing suture zones. The rifting of Pangæa began during the Early Permian along the southern Tethys margin and produced the lenticular-shaped continent known as Cimmeria. A mantle-plume model is ascribed to explain the rift-related volcanism but the NW-SE oriented Cimmerian rifts do not correlate well with pre-existing suture zones or ‘structural heterogeneities’ but appear to have a pertinent spatial and temporal association with Late Palæozoic glacial-interglacial cycles. Mantle potential temperature estimates of Cimmerian rift-related basalts (1410 °C ± 50 °C) are similar to ambient mantle conditions rather than an active mantle-plume rift as previously suggested. Moreover, we find that the distribution of glacial deposits shows significant temporal and spatial concurrence between the glacial retreat margins and rifting sites. We conclude that the location and timing of Cimmerian rifting resulted from the exploitation of structural heterogeneities within the crust that formed due to repeated glacial-interglacial cycles during the Late Palæozoic. Such effects of continental deglaciation helped to create the lenticular shape of Cimmeria and Neotethys Ocean suggesting that, in some instances, climate change may directly influence the location of rifting.

  17. The initial break-up of Pangæa elicited by Late Palæozoic deglaciation

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Meng-Wan; Shellnutt, J. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The break-up of Pangæa was principally facilitated by tensional plate stress acting on pre-existing suture zones. The rifting of Pangæa began during the Early Permian along the southern Tethys margin and produced the lenticular-shaped continent known as Cimmeria. A mantle-plume model is ascribed to explain the rift-related volcanism but the NW-SE oriented Cimmerian rifts do not correlate well with pre-existing suture zones or ‘structural heterogeneities’ but appear to have a pertinent spatial and temporal association with Late Palæozoic glacial-interglacial cycles. Mantle potential temperature estimates of Cimmerian rift-related basalts (1410 °C ± 50 °C) are similar to ambient mantle conditions rather than an active mantle-plume rift as previously suggested. Moreover, we find that the distribution of glacial deposits shows significant temporal and spatial concurrence between the glacial retreat margins and rifting sites. We conclude that the location and timing of Cimmerian rifting resulted from the exploitation of structural heterogeneities within the crust that formed due to repeated glacial-interglacial cycles during the Late Palæozoic. Such effects of continental deglaciation helped to create the lenticular shape of Cimmeria and Neotethys Ocean suggesting that, in some instances, climate change may directly influence the location of rifting. PMID:27511791

  18. Measurement of Coriolis Acceleration with a Smartphone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaku, Asif; Kraft, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate physics laboratories seldom have experiments that measure the Coriolis acceleration. This has traditionally been the case owing to the inherent complexities of making such measurements. Articles on the experimental determination of the Coriolis acceleration are few and far between in the physics literature. However, because modern…

  19. TRACKING ACCELERATOR SETTINGS.

    SciTech Connect

    D OTTAVIO,T.; FU, W.; OTTAVIO, D.P.

    2007-10-15

    Recording setting changes within an accelerator facility provides information that can be used to answer questions about when, why, and how changes were made to some accelerator system. This can be very useful during normal operations, but can also aid with security concerns and in detecting unusual software behavior. The Set History System (SHS) is a new client-server system developed at the Collider-Accelerator Department of Brookhaven National Laboratory to provide these capabilities. The SHS has been operational for over two years and currently stores about IOOK settings per day into a commercial database management system. The SHS system consists of a server written in Java, client tools written in both Java and C++, and a web interface for querying the database of setting changes. The design of the SHS focuses on performance, portability, and a minimal impact on database resources. In this paper, we present an overview of the system design along with benchmark results showing the performance and reliability of the SHS over the last year.

  20. Accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hellborg, Ragnar; Skog, Göran

    2008-01-01

    In this overview the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its use are described. AMS is a highly sensitive method of counting atoms. It is used to detect very low concentrations of natural isotopic abundances (typically in the range between 10(-12) and 10(-16)) of both radionuclides and stable nuclides. The main advantages of AMS compared to conventional radiometric methods are the use of smaller samples (mg and even sub-mg size) and shorter measuring times (less than 1 hr). The equipment used for AMS is almost exclusively based on the electrostatic tandem accelerator, although some of the newest systems are based on a slightly different principle. Dedicated accelerators as well as older "nuclear physics machines" can be found in the 80 or so AMS laboratories in existence today. The most widely used isotope studied with AMS is 14C. Besides radiocarbon dating this isotope is used in climate studies, biomedicine applications and many other fields. More than 100,000 14C samples are measured per year. Other isotopes studied include 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 59Ni, 129I, U, and Pu. Although these measurements are important, the number of samples of these other isotopes measured each year is estimated to be less than 10% of the number of 14C samples.

  1. VLHC accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Blaskiewicz et al.

    2001-11-01

    A six-month design study for a future high energy hadron collider was initiated by the Fermilab director in October 2000. The request was to study a staged approach where a large circumference tunnel is built that initially would house a low field ({approx}2 T) collider with center-of-mass energy greater than 30 TeV and a peak (initial) luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The tunnel was to be scoped, however, to support a future upgrade to a center-of-mass energy greater than 150 TeV with a peak luminosity of 2 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} using high field ({approx} 10 T) superconducting magnet technology. In a collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a report of the Design Study was produced by Fermilab in June 2001. 1 The Design Study focused on a Stage 1, 20 x 20 TeV collider using a 2-in-1 transmission line magnet and leads to a Stage 2, 87.5 x 87.5 TeV collider using 10 T Nb{sub 3}Sn magnet technology. The article that follows is a compilation of accelerator physics designs and computational results which contributed to the Design Study. Many of the parameters found in this report evolved during the study, and thus slight differences between this text and the Design Study report can be found. The present text, however, presents the major accelerator physics issues of the Very Large Hadron Collider as examined by the Design Study collaboration and provides a basis for discussion and further studies of VLHC accelerator parameters and design philosophies.

  2. Accelerator system and method of accelerating particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirz, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator system and method that utilize dust as the primary mass flux for generating thrust are provided. The accelerator system can include an accelerator capable of operating in a self-neutralizing mode and having a discharge chamber and at least one ionizer capable of charging dust particles. The system can also include a dust particle feeder that is capable of introducing the dust particles into the accelerator. By applying a pulsed positive and negative charge voltage to the accelerator, the charged dust particles can be accelerated thereby generating thrust and neutralizing the accelerator system.

  3. Electron Acceleration by Transient Ion Foreshock Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, L. B., III; Turner, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Particle acceleration is a topic of considerable interest in space, laboratory, and astrophysical plasmas as it is a fundamental physical process to all areas of physics. Recent THEMIS [e.g., Turner et al., 2014] and Wind [e.g., Wilson et al., 2013] observations have found evidence for strong particle acceleration at macro- and meso-scale structures and/or pulsations called transient ion foreshock phenomena (TIFP). Ion acceleration has been extensively studied, but electron acceleration has received less attention. Electron acceleration can arise from fundamentally different processes than those affecting ions due to differences in their gyroradii. Electron acceleration is ubiquitous, occurring in the solar corona (e.g., solar flares), magnetic reconnection, at shocks, astrophysical plasmas, etc. We present new results analyzing the dependencies of electron acceleration on the properties of TIFP observed by the THEMIS spacecraft.

  4. Quality of Life in Patients With Brain Metastases Using the EORTC QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL

    SciTech Connect

    Caissie, Amanda; Nguyen, Janet; Chen, Emily; Zhang Liying; Sahgal, Arjun; Clemons, Mark; Kerba, Marc; Arnalot, Palmira Foro; Danjoux, Cyril; Tsao, May; Barnes, Elizabeth; Holden, Lori; Danielson, Brita; Chow, Edward

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The 20-item European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Brain Neoplasm (QLQ-BN20) is a validated quality-of-life (QOL) questionnaire for patients with primary brain tumors. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 15 Palliative (QLQ-C15-PAL) core palliative questionnaire is a 15-item version of the core 30-item QLQ-C30 and was developed to decrease the burden on patients with advanced cancer. The combination of the QLQ-BN20 and QLQ-C30 to assess QOL may be too burdensome for patients. The primary aim of this study was to assess QOL in patients before and after treatment for brain metastases using the QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL, a version of the QLQ-BN20 questionnaire with 2 additional questions assessing cognitive functioning that were not addressed in the QLQ-C15-PAL. Methods and Materials: Patients with brain metastases completed the QLQ-C15-PAL and QLQ-BN20+2 questionnaires to assess QOL before and 1 month after radiation. Linear regression analysis was used to assess changes in QOL scores over time, as well as to explore associations between the QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL scales, patient demographics, and clinical variables. Spearman correlation assessed associations between the QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL scales. Results: Among 108 patients, the majority (55%) received whole-brain radiotherapy only, with 65% of patients completing follow-up at 1 month after treatment. The most prominent symptoms at baseline were future uncertainty (QLQ-BN20+2) and fatigue (QLQ-C15-PAL). After treatment, significant improvement was seen for the QLQ-C15-PAL insomnia scale, as well as the QLQ-BN20+2 scales of future uncertainty, visual disorder, and concentration difficulty. Baseline Karnofsky Performance Status was negatively correlated to QLQ-BN20+2 motor dysfunction but positively related to QLQ-C15-PAL physical functioning and QLQ-BN20+2 cognitive functioning at

  5. Mass spectrometry with accelerators.

    PubMed

    Litherland, A E; Zhao, X-L; Kieser, W E

    2011-01-01

    As one in a series of articles on Canadian contributions to mass spectrometry, this review begins with an outline of the history of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), noting roles played by researchers at three Canadian AMS laboratories. After a description of the unique features of AMS, three examples, (14)C, (10)Be, and (129)I are given to illustrate the methods. The capabilities of mass spectrometry have been extended by the addition of atomic isobar selection, molecular isobar attenuation, further ion acceleration, followed by ion detection and ion identification at essentially zero dark current or ion flux. This has been accomplished by exploiting the techniques and accelerators of atomic and nuclear physics. In 1939, the first principles of AMS were established using a cyclotron. In 1977 the selection of isobars in the ion source was established when it was shown that the (14)N(-) ion was very unstable, or extremely difficult to create, making a tandem electrostatic accelerator highly suitable for assisting the mass spectrometric measurement of the rare long-lived radioactive isotope (14)C in the environment. This observation, together with the large attenuation of the molecular isobars (13)CH(-) and (12)CH 2(-) during tandem acceleration and the observed very low background contamination from the ion source, was found to facilitate the mass spectrometry of (14)C to at least a level of (14)C/C ~ 6 × 10(-16), the equivalent of a radiocarbon age of 60,000 years. Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, or AMS, has now made possible the accurate radiocarbon dating of milligram-sized carbon samples by ion counting as well as dating and tracing with many other long-lived radioactive isotopes such as (10)Be, (26)Al, (36)Cl, and (129)I. The difficulty of obtaining large anion currents with low electron affinities and the difficulties of isobar separation, especially for the heavier mass ions, has prompted the use of molecular anions and the search for alternative

  6. The IAE Peking HI-13 tandem accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju-xian, Yu

    1981-05-01

    A new tandem accelerator laboratory is under construction at the Institute of Atomic Energy in Peking. This institute was built in 1958 and equipped with a reactor, cyclotron, electrostatic accelerator and some other facilities to meet the increasing interest in nuclear study and its application in China. The project of this tandem laboratory was approved in 1978. A 13 MV tandem accelerator will be provided by the High Voltage Engineering Corporation of Burlington, Massachusetts, USA, and a Q3D magnetic spectrometer by AB Scanditronix, Sweden. Some auxiliary systems, experimental equipment and the tank of the tandem are being designed and manufactured in China.

  7. Technology of magnetically driven accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Birx, D.L.; Hawkins, S.A.; Poor, S.E.; Reginato, L.L.; Rogers, D. Jr.; Smith, M.W.

    1985-03-26

    The marriage of Induction Linac technology with Nonlinear Magnetic Modulators has produced some unique capabilities. It appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, at gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, and with power efficiencies approaching 50%. A 2 MeV, 5 kA electron accelerator has been constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to demonstrate these concepts and to provide a test facility for high brightness sources. The pulse drive for the accelerator is based on state-of-the-art magnetic pulse compressors with very high peak power capability, repetition rates exceeding a kilohertz and excellent reliability. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Technology of magnetically driven accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Brix, D.L.; Hawkins, S.A.; Poor, S.E.; Reginato, L.L.; Smith, M.W.

    1985-10-01

    The marriage of Induction Linac technology with Nonlinear Magnetic Modulators has produced some unique capabilities. It appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, at gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, and with power efficiencies approaching 50%. A 2 MeV, 5 kA electron accelerator has been constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to demonstrate these concepts and to provide a test facility for high brightness sources. The pulse drive for the accelerator is based on state-of-the-art magnetic pulse compressors with very high peak power capability, repetition rates exceeding a kilohertz and excellent reliability.

  9. STATUS OF THE DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G J; Chen, Y; Sampayan, S; Akana, G; Anaya, R; Blackfield, D; Carroll, J; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Guethlein, G; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Hickman, B; Holmes, C; Horner, A; Nelson, S; Paul, A; Pearson, D; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J; Weir, J

    2009-04-22

    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) system being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses fast switched high voltage transmission lines to generate pulsed electric fields on the inside of a high gradient insulating (HGI) acceleration tube. High electric field gradients are achieved by the use of alternating insulators and conductors and short pulse times. The system is capable of accelerating any charge to mass ratio particle. Applications of high gradient proton and electron versions of this accelerator will be discussed. The status of the developmental new technologies that make the compact system possible will be reviewed. These include, high gradient vacuum insulators, solid dielectric materials, photoconductive switches and compact proton sources.

  10. "Do You Have a Brother? I Have Two!": The Nature of Questions Asked and Answered in Text-Focused Pen Pal Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Evering, Lea; Malloy, Jacquelynn A.; Gambrell, Linda B.

    2014-01-01

    Authentic learning experiences are those in which students engage with texts as well as the behaviors of reading and writing within contexts of real-world use beyond traditional academic use. This study provides quantitative analysis of how students (n = 200) engaged with an adult pen pal in a shared literacy experience. Findings indicate that…

  11. Measuring Early Spanish Literacy: Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the "Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Kindergarteners" in Spanish ("PALS español K")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Francis L.; Ford, Karen L.; Invernizzi, Marcia; Fan, Xitao

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the latent factor structure of the "Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Kindergarteners" in Spanish ("PALS español K"). Participants included 590 Spanish-speaking, public-school kindergarteners from five states. Three theoretically-guided factor structures were measured and tested with one half of our…

  12. Remedial Help in Inclusive Classrooms: Gender Differences in the Enhancement of Mathematics Achievement of Students through PAL (Peer-Assisted Learning)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obidoa, Mabel A.; Eskay, Michael; Onwubolu, Catherine O.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the effect of PAL (peer-assisted learning) on students' mathematics performance in Enugu State of Nigeria. It used pre-test and post-test non-randomized control group design. Four research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. The population was SS II (senior secondary school class II)…

  13. Effects of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) knockdown on cell wall composition, biomass digestibility, and biotic and abiotic stress responses in Brachypodium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL) catalyzes the first step in the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants, controlling biosynthesis of a variety of structural and defense compounds including monolignols that polymerize into lignin. Gaps remain in our understanding of how genetic alterations to this pathwa...

  14. Computer simulations of the experiments at RAL, LULI, and PALS carried out under HiPER including those performed at ILE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Yong-Joo

    2011-06-01

    Comparison of computer simulations applied to the experiments at RAL(UK), LULI(France), PALS(Czech Republic), and ILE(Japan) is given. Temporal evolution of densities, electron temperatures, compression/implosion velocities, are discussed using one dimensional hydrodynamic code (HYADES).

  15. "Did You Like Living in a Trailer? Why or Why Not?": Discourse and the Third Space in a Rural Pen Pal Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eppley, Karen; Shannon, Patrick; Gilbert, Lauren K.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes efforts in a U.S. teacher education program to raise the teacher candidates' awareness of how place impacts schooling. The preservice teachers and second graders exchanged pen pal letters based on books set in contemporary rural America. The teacher candidates enacted four major discourses in the correspondence: personal,…

  16. PALS and DSC measurements in 8 MeV electron irradiated natural rubber filled with different fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Arunava; Pan, Sandip; Roychowdhury, Anirban; Sengupta, Asmita

    2015-10-01

    The effect of high energy electron irradiation on the microstructure and thermal properties of natural rubber (NR) filled with different fillers at different concentrations are studied. The samples are irradiated with 8 MeV electron beam to a total dose of 100 KGy. The change in free volume size and specific heat due to addition of fillers and irradiation are studied using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) respectively. The Positron lifetime spectra are de-convoluted into two components. The longer lived component (τo-Ps) signifies the pick-off annihilation of ortho-positronium (o-Ps) at free volume site which may be related to the radius of the free volume holes. It is observed that the specific heat (Cp) and free volume size are all affected by both irradiation and addition of fillers.

  17. Isolation and characterization of active promoters from Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strain PAL5 using a promoter-trapping plasmid.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Stefan; Pessoa, Cristiane Alves; de Lima Bergami, Amanda Aparecida; de Azevedo Figueiredo, Nathália Lima; Dos Santos Teixeira, Kátia Regina; Baldani, José Ivo

    2016-07-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen-fixing, endophytic bacterium that has the potential to promote plant growth and increase yield. Genetically modified strains might get more benefits to host plants, including through expression of useful proteins, such as Cry toxins from B. thuringiensis, or enzymes involved in phytohormone production, proteins with antagonistic activity for phytopathogens, or that improve nutrient utilization by the plant. For that, expression systems for G. diazotrophicus are needed, which requires active promoters fused to foreign (or innate) genes. This article describes the construction of a G. diazotrophicus PAL5 promoter library using a promoter-less lacZ-bearing vector, and the identification of six active promoters through β-galactosidase activity assays, sequencing and localization in the bacterial genome. The characterized promoters, which are located on distinct regions of the bacterial genome and encoding either sense or antisense transcripts, present variable expression strengths and might be used in the future for expressing useful proteins. PMID:26914247

  18. Azimuthal Signature of Coincidental Brightness Temperature and Normalized Radar Cross-Section Obtained Using Airborne PALS Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colliander, Andreas; Kim, Seungbum; Yueh, Simon; Cosh, Mike; Jackson, Tom; Njoku, Eni

    2010-01-01

    Coincidental airborne brightness temperature (TB) and normalized radar-cross section (NRCS) measurements were carried out with the PALS (Passive and Active L- and S-band) instrument in the SMAPVEX08 (SMAP Validation Experiment 2008) field campaign. This paper describes results obtained from a set of flights which measured a field in 45(sup o) steps over the azimuth angle. The field contained mature soy beans with distinct row structure. The measurement shows that both TB and NRCS experience modulation effects over the azimuth as expected based on the theory. The result is useful in development and validation of land surface parameter forward models and retrieval algorithms, such as the soil moisture algorithm for NASA's SMAP (Soil Moisture Active and Passive) mission. Although the footprint of the SMAP will not be sensitive to the small resolution scale effects as the one presented in this paper, it is nevertheless important to understand the effects at smaller scale.

  19. Acceleration schedules for a recirculating heavy-ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W.M.; Grote, D.P.

    2002-05-01

    Recent advances in solid-state switches have made it feasible to design programmable, high-repetition-rate pulsers for induction accelerators. These switches could lower the cost of recirculating induction accelerators, such as the ''small recirculator'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), by substantially reducing the number of induction modules. Numerical work is reported here to determine what effects the use of fewer pulsers at higher voltage would have on the beam quality of the LLNL small recirculator. Lattices with different numbers of pulsers are examined using the fluid/envelope code CIRCE, and several schedules for acceleration and compression are compared for each configuration. For selected schedules, the phase-space dynamics is also studied using the particle-in-cell code WARP3d.

  20. Late Neolithic vegetation history at the pile-dwelling site of Palù di Livenza (northeastern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pini, Roberta

    2004-12-01

    The Late Neolithic pile-dwelling of Palù di Livenza yielded archaeological remains typical of the Square Mouth Pottery and Lagozza Cultures. A palynological investigation reveals important changes in the vegetation due to anthropogenic pressure. Between ca. 6590 and 5960 cal. yr BP, dense oak wood forests with deciduous Quercus, Fagus and Corylus extended around the mire, with no signs of human impact. The establishment of the pile-dwelling, dated to ca. 5960 cal. yr BP, led to a strong reduction of forests, reclamation of wetlands, and expansion of herbaceous communities, with cultivated species, infestant weeds, nitrophilous and ruderal herbs, pastures and meadows. According to AMS dates and previous archaeological chronologies, the pile-dwelling persisted for about 700 years (from ca. 5960 to 5260 cal. yr BP). The history of the pile-dwelling after ca. 5260 cal. yr BP cannot be reconstructed because of recent contamination of the top part of the section. Rarefaction analysis was applied to estimate changes of palynological richness through time: the highest E(Tn) (between 56 and 69 taxa) are contemporaneous with the local development of the pile-dwelling. The comparison of pollen data with archaeobotanical evidence indicates that Fragaria vesca, Malus sylvestris, Papaver somniferum and Physalis alkekengi were gathered at some distance from the site and that Linum usitatissimum is strongly under-represented in pollen samples. Crop cultivation can be estimated for a radius of several hundred metres around the mire. Palù di Livenza is significant in the context of Neolithic archaeobotany of northern Italy and neighbouring countries. Copyright

  1. The Accelerating Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Blandford, Roger

    2013-05-15

    From keV electrons in terrestrial aurorae to Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays from unidentified "Zevatrons", the cosmos shows a plutocratic proclivity to concentrate energy in a tiny minority of suprathermal particles. The mechanisms involved can be traced back to the ideas of Faraday, Fermi and Alfvén though we are learning that the details are idiosyncratic to the many environments that we have observed and that much can be learned from comparing and contrasting particle acceleration in laboratory and diverse astronomical locations. It will be argued that new mechanisms are required to account for recent observations of galactic nuclei, pulsar wind nebulae and interplanetary, interstellar and intergalactic media and some candidates will be discussed.

  2. Hadron accelerators for radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Hywel; MacKay, Ranald; Peach, Ken; Smith, Susan

    2014-04-01

    Over the last twenty years the treatment of cancer with protons and light nuclei such as carbon ions has moved from being the preserve of research laboratories into widespread clinical use. A number of choices now exist for the creation and delivery of these particles, key amongst these being the adoption of pencil beam scanning using a rotating gantry; attention is now being given to what technologies will enable cheaper and more effective treatment in the future. In this article the physics and engineering used in these hadron therapy facilities is presented, and the research areas likely to lead to substantive improvements. The wider use of superconducting magnets is an emerging trend, whilst further ahead novel high-gradient acceleration techniques may enable much smaller treatment systems. Imaging techniques to improve the accuracy of treatment plans must also be developed hand-in-hand with future sources of particles, a notable example of which is proton computed tomography.

  3. 2011 Dielectric Laser Acceleration Workshop (DLA2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Bermel, Peter; Byer, Robert L.; Colby, Eric R.; Cowan, Benjamin M.; Dawson, Jay; England, R.Joel; Noble, Robert J.; Qi, Ming-Hao; Yoder, Rodney B.; /Manhattanville Coll., Purchase

    2012-04-17

    The first ICFA Mini-workshop on Dielectric Laser Accelerators was held on September 15-16, 2011 at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We present the results of the Workshop, and discuss the main conclusions of the Accelerator Applications, Photonics, and Laser Technologies working groups. Over 50 participants from 4 countries participated, discussing the state of the art in photonic structures, laser science, and nanofabrication as it pertains to laser-driven particle acceleration in dielectric structures. Applications of this new and promising acceleration concept to discovery science and industrial, medical, and basic energy sciences were explored. The DLA community is presently focused on making demonstrations of high gradient acceleration and a compatible attosecond injector source - two critical steps towards realizing the potential of this technology.

  4. APT accelerator. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.; Rusthoi, D.

    1995-03-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, sponsored by Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE/DP), involves the preconceptual design of an accelerator system to produce tritium for the nation`s stockpile of nuclear weapons. Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen used in nuclear weapons, and must be replenished because of radioactive decay (its half-life is approximately 12 years). Because the annual production requirements for tritium has greatly decreased since the end of the Cold War, an alternative approach to reactors for tritium production, based on a linear accelerator, is now being seriously considered. The annual tritium requirement at the time this study was undertaken (1992-1993) was 3/8 that of the 1988 goal, usually stated as 3/8-Goal. Continued reduction in the number of weapons in the stockpile has led to a revised (lower) production requirement today (March, 1995). The production requirement needed to maintain the reduced stockpile, as stated in the recent Nuclear Posture Review (summer 1994) is approximately 3/16-Goal, half the previous level. The Nuclear Posture Review also requires that the production plant be designed to accomodate a production increase (surge) to 3/8-Goal capability within five years, to allow recovery from a possible extended outage of the tritium plant. A multi-laboratory team, collaborating with several industrial partners, has developed a preconceptual APT design for the 3/8-Goal, operating at 75% capacity. The team has presented APT as a promising alternative to the reactor concepts proposed for Complex-21. Given the requirements of a reduced weapons stockpile, APT offers both significant safety, environmental, and production-fexibility advantages in comparison with reactor systems, and the prospect of successful development in time to meet the US defense requirements of the 21st Century.

  5. Muon Collider Progress: Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2011-09-10

    A muon collider would be a powerful tool for exploring the energy-frontier with leptons, and would complement the studies now under way at the LHC. Such a device would offer several important benefits. Muons, like electrons, are point particles so the full center-of-mass energy is available for particle production. Moreover, on account of their higher mass, muons give rise to very little synchrotron radiation and produce very little beamstrahlung. The first feature permits the use of a circular collider that can make efficient use of the expensive rf system and whose footprint is compatible with an existing laboratory site. The second feature leads to a relatively narrow energy spread at the collision point. Designing an accelerator complex for a muon collider is a challenging task. Firstly, the muons are produced as a tertiary beam, so a high-power proton beam and a target that can withstand it are needed to provide the required luminosity of ~1 × 10{sup 34} cm{sup –2}s{sup –1}. Secondly, the beam is initially produced with a large 6D phase space, which necessitates a scheme for reducing the muon beam emittance (“cooling”). Finally, the muon has a short lifetime so all beam manipulations must be done very rapidly. The Muon Accelerator Program, led by Fermilab and including a number of U.S. national laboratories and universities, has undertaken design and R&D activities aimed toward the eventual construction of a muon collider. Design features of such a facility and the supporting R&D program are described.

  6. Structure of Crumbs tail in complex with the PALS1 PDZ–SH3–GK tandem reveals a highly specific assembly mechanism for the apical Crumbs complex

    PubMed Central

    Li, Youjun; Wei, Zhiyi; Yan, Yan; Wan, Qingwen; Du, Quansheng; Zhang, Mingjie

    2014-01-01

    The Crumbs (Crb) complex, formed by Crb, PALS1, and PATJ, is evolutionarily conserved in metazoans and acts as a master cell-growth and -polarity regulator at the apical membranes in polarized epithelia. Crb intracellular functions, including its direct binding to PALS1, are mediated by Crb’s highly conserved 37-residue cytoplasmic tail. However, the mechanistic basis governing the highly specific Crb–PALS1 complex formation is unclear, as reported interaction between the Crb tail (Crb-CT) and PALS1 PSD-95/DLG/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain is weak and promiscuous. Here we have discovered that the PDZ–Src homolgy 3 (SH3)–Guanylate kinase (GK) tandem of PALS1 binds to Crb-CT with a dissociation constant of 70 nM, which is ∼100-fold stronger than the PALS1 PDZ–Crb-CT interaction. The crystal structure of the PALS1 PDZ–SH3–GK–Crb-CT complex reveals that PDZ–SH3–GK forms a structural supramodule with all three domains contributing to the tight binding to Crb. Mutations disrupting the tertiary interactions of the PDZ–SH3–GK supramodule weaken the PALS1–Crb interaction and compromise PALS1-mediated polarity establishment in Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cysts. We further show that specific target binding of other members of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) (e.g., CASK binding to neurexin) also requires the presence of their PDZ–SH3–GK tandems. PMID:25385611

  7. EDITORIAL: Laser and plasma accelerators Laser and plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Robert

    2009-02-01

    This special issue on laser and plasma accelerators illustrates the rapid advancement and diverse applications of laser and plasma accelerators. Plasma is an attractive medium for particle acceleration because of the high electric field it can sustain, with studies of acceleration processes remaining one of the most important areas of research in both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. The rapid advance in laser and accelerator technology has led to the development of terawatt and petawatt laser systems with ultra-high intensities and short sub-picosecond pulses, which are used to generate wakefields in plasma. Recent successes include the demonstration by several groups in 2004 of quasi-monoenergetic electron beams by wakefields in the bubble regime with the GeV energy barrier being reached in 2006, and the energy doubling of the SLAC high-energy electron beam from 42 to 85 GeV. The electron beams generated by the laser plasma driven wakefields have good spatial quality with energies ranging from MeV to GeV. A unique feature is that they are ultra-short bunches with simulations showing that they can be as short as a few femtoseconds with low-energy spread, making these beams ideal for a variety of applications ranging from novel high-brightness radiation sources for medicine, material science and ultrafast time-resolved radiobiology or chemistry. Laser driven ion acceleration experiments have also made significant advances over the last few years with applications in laser fusion, nuclear physics and medicine. Attention is focused on the possibility of producing quasi-mono-energetic ions with energies ranging from hundreds of MeV to GeV per nucleon. New acceleration mechanisms are being studied, including ion acceleration from ultra-thin foils and direct laser acceleration. The application of wakefields or beat waves in other areas of science such as astrophysics and particle physics is beginning to take off, such as the study of cosmic accelerators considered

  8. Nano-G Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Bun, Friedrich O.; Garriott, O. K.

    1990-01-01

    Freely floating platform isolated from all but gravity gradient forces. Report discribes conceptual orbiting spacecraft laboratory that creates environment where acceleration does not exceed 10 to the negative 9th power that of normal acceleration at surface of Earth. Consists of two parts: outer part (spacecraft) and separable inner free-floating part housing experimental apparatus. Equipped with radio and/or optical communication links for control of experiment and recording of data. Used for research in such delicate phenomena as the lambda transition in helium, growth of crystals, and formation of alloys separating into constituents before solidification if gravitation (G) present.

  9. Laser driven ion accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2006-04-18

    A system and method of accelerating ions in an accelerator to optimize the energy produced by a light source. Several parameters may be controlled in constructing a target used in the accelerator system to adjust performance of the accelerator system. These parameters include the material, thickness, geometry and surface of the target.

  10. Controlled Electron Acceleration in a Plane Laser Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataronis, J. A.; Petržílka, V.; Krlín, L.

    2002-11-01

    Through numerical modeling of the relativistic test particle motion of an ensemble of electrons in a plane laser beam, we show in the present contribution that a significant electron acceleration arises if an additional perpendicularly propagagating transverse laser beam with a randomized phase is present. We also demonstrate that the acceleration rate can be controlled by the power flux intensity of the additional laser beam. The power flux intensity of the additional beam can be typically much lower than the power flux intensity of the main laser beam. In the main laser beam, the electrons perform also a forward oscillating motion because of the effects of the magnetic field intensity of the beam. The acceleration results from the accumulation of the forward electron motion due to phase changes provided by the additional laser beam. For parameters of the PALS^1 device (Prague Asterix Laser System), the attainable electron energy is about 40 MeV in 10^4 wave periods. [2pt] Acknowledgments: This work has been supported by Czech grant GACR 202/00/1217 and USDOE Grant DE-FG02-97ER54398. [2pt] ^1K.Jungwirth et al., Phys. Plasmas 8 (2001) 2495.

  11. Space Radiation Effects Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The SREL User's Handbook is designed to provide information needed by those who plan experiments involving the accelerators at this laboratory. Thus the Handbook will contain information on the properties of the machines, the beam parameters, the facilities and services provided for experimenters, etc. This information will be brought up to date as new equipment is added and modifications accomplished. This Handbook is influenced by the many excellent models prepared at other accelerator laboratories. In particular, the CERN Synchrocyclotron User's Handbook (November 1967) is closely followed in some sections, since the SREL Synchrocyclotron is a duplicate of the CERN machine. We wish to thank Dr. E. G. Michaelis for permission to draw so heavily on his work, particularly in Section II of this Handbook. We hope that the Handbook will prove useful, and will welcome suggestions and criticism.

  12. An investigation of the effect of silicone oil on polymer intraocular lenses by means of PALS, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Chamerski, Kordian; Lesniak, Magdalena; Sitarz, Maciej; Stopa, Marcin; Filipecki, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    The effect of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based silicone oil, that is widely used in vitreoretinal surgery, on internal structures of the polymer intraocular lenses was investigated. The effect of PDMS was studied on the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) rigid lenses and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) flexible lenses. The research was carried out by means of the positron lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) as well as the infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and the Raman spectroscopy (RS). The studies involving the use of PALS and FT-IR methods have revealed that the PHEMA based lenses absorbed, whereas the PMMA lenses did not absorb, silicone oil. The results obtained with the use of the RS method were inconclusive, probably due to the too low intensity of the characteristic PDMS bands. The evidence from this study was discussed in terms of physics and related to the clinical use of both silicone oil and intraocular lenses.

  13. An investigation of the effect of silicone oil on polymer intraocular lenses by means of PALS, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamerski, Kordian; Lesniak, Magdalena; Sitarz, Maciej; Stopa, Marcin; Filipecki, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    The effect of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based silicone oil, that is widely used in vitreoretinal surgery, on internal structures of the polymer intraocular lenses was investigated. The effect of PDMS was studied on the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) rigid lenses and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) flexible lenses. The research was carried out by means of the positron lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) as well as the infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and the Raman spectroscopy (RS). The studies involving the use of PALS and FT-IR methods have revealed that the PHEMA based lenses absorbed, whereas the PMMA lenses did not absorb, silicone oil. The results obtained with the use of the RS method were inconclusive, probably due to the too low intensity of the characteristic PDMS bands. The evidence from this study was discussed in terms of physics and related to the clinical use of both silicone oil and intraocular lenses.

  14. The Spallation Neutron Source accelerator system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Abraham, W.; Aleksandrov, A.; Allen, C.; Alonso, J.; Anderson, D.; Arenius, D.; Arthur, T.; Assadi, S.; Ayers, J.; Bach, P.; Badea, V.; Battle, R.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Bergmann, B.; Bernardin, J.; Bhatia, T.; Billen, J.; Birke, T.; Bjorklund, E.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Blind, B.; Blokland, W.; Bookwalter, V.; Borovina, D.; Bowling, S.; Bradley, J.; Brantley, C.; Brennan, J.; Brodowski, J.; Brown, S.; Brown, R.; Bruce, D.; Bultman, N.; Cameron, P.; Campisi, I.; Casagrande, F.; Catalan-Lasheras, N.; Champion, M.; Champion, M.; Chen, Z.; Cheng, D.; Cho, Y.; Christensen, K.; Chu, C.; Cleaves, J.; Connolly, R.; Cote, T.; Cousineau, S.; Crandall, K.; Creel, J.; Crofford, M.; Cull, P.; Cutler, R.; Dabney, R.; Dalesio, L.; Daly, E.; Damm, R.; Danilov, V.; Davino, D.; Davis, K.; Dawson, C.; Day, L.; Deibele, C.; Delayen, J.; DeLong, J.; Demello, A.; DeVan, W.; Digennaro, R.; Dixon, K.; Dodson, G.; Doleans, M.; Doolittle, L.; Doss, J.; Drury, M.; Elliot, T.; Ellis, S.; Error, J.; Fazekas, J.; Fedotov, A.; Feng, P.; Fischer, J.; Fox, W.; Fuja, R.; Funk, W.; Galambos, J.; Ganni, V.; Garnett, R.; Geng, X.; Gentzlinger, R.; Giannella, M.; Gibson, P.; Gillis, R.; Gioia, J.; Gordon, J.; Gough, R.; Greer, J.; Gregory, W.; Gribble, R.; Grice, W.; Gurd, D.; Gurd, P.; Guthrie, A.; Hahn, H.; Hardek, T.; Hardekopf, R.; Harrison, J.; Hatfield, D.; He, P.; Hechler, M.; Heistermann, F.; Helus, S.; Hiatt, T.; Hicks, S.; Hill, J.; Hill, J.; Hoff, L.; Hoff, M.; Hogan, J.; Holding, M.; Holik, P.; Holmes, J.; Holtkamp, N.; Hovater, C.; Howell, M.; Hseuh, H.; Huhn, A.; Hunter, T.; Ilg, T.; Jackson, J.; Jain, A.; Jason, A.; Jeon, D.; Johnson, G.; Jones, A.; Joseph, S.; Justice, A.; Kang, Y.; Kasemir, K.; Keller, R.; Kersevan, R.; Kerstiens, D.; Kesselman, M.; Kim, S.; Kneisel, P.; Kravchuk, L.; Kuneli, T.; Kurennoy, S.; Kustom, R.; Kwon, S.; Ladd, P.; Lambiase, R.; Lee, Y. Y.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.-N.; Lewis, S.; Liaw, C.; Lionberger, C.; Lo, C. C.; Long, C.; Ludewig, H.; Ludvig, J.; Luft, P.; Lynch, M.; Ma, H.; MacGill, R.; Macha, K.; Madre, B.; Mahler, G.; Mahoney, K.; Maines, J.; Mammosser, J.; Mann, T.; Marneris, I.; Marroquin, P.; Martineau, R.; Matsumoto, K.; McCarthy, M.; McChesney, C.; McGahern, W.; McGehee, P.; Meng, W.; Merz, B.; Meyer, R.; Meyer, R.; Miller, B.; Mitchell, R.; Mize, J.; Monroy, M.; Munro, J.; Murdoch, G.; Musson, J.; Nath, S.; Nelson, R.; Nelson, R.; O`Hara, J.; Olsen, D.; Oren, W.; Oshatz, D.; Owens, T.; Pai, C.; Papaphilippou, I.; Patterson, N.; Patterson, J.; Pearson, C.; Pelaia, T.; Pieck, M.; Piller, C.; Plawski, T.; Plum, M.; Pogge, J.; Power, J.; Powers, T.; Preble, J.; Prokop, M.; Pruyn, J.; Purcell, D.; Rank, J.; Raparia, D.; Ratti, A.; Reass, W.; Reece, K.; Rees, D.; Regan, A.; Regis, M.; Reijonen, J.; Rej, D.; Richards, D.; Richied, D.; Rode, C.; Rodriguez, W.; Rodriguez, M.; Rohlev, A.; Rose, C.; Roseberry, T.; Rowton, L.; Roybal, W.; Rust, K.; Salazer, G.; Sandberg, J.; Saunders, J.; Schenkel, T.; Schneider, W.; Schrage, D.; Schubert, J.; Severino, F.; Shafer, R.; Shea, T.; Shishlo, A.; Shoaee, H.; Sibley, C.; Sims, J.; Smee, S.; Smith, J.; Smith, K.; Spitz, R.; Staples, J.; Stein, P.; Stettler, M.; Stirbet, M.; Stockli, M.; Stone, W.; Stout, D.; Stovall, J.; Strelo, W.; Strong, H.; Sundelin, R.; Syversrud, D.; Szajbler, M.; Takeda, H.; Tallerico, P.; Tang, J.; Tanke, E.; Tepikian, S.; Thomae, R.; Thompson, D.; Thomson, D.; Thuot, M.; Treml, C.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Tuzel, W.; Vassioutchenko, A.; Virostek, S.; Wallig, J.; Wanderer, P.; Wang, Y.; Wang, J. G.; Wangler, T.; Warren, D.; Wei, J.; Weiss, D.; Welton, R.; Weng, J.; Weng, W.-T.; Wezensky, M.; White, M.; Whitlatch, T.; Williams, D.; Williams, E.; Wilson, K.; Wiseman, M.; Wood, R.; Wright, P.; Wu, A.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Young, K.; Young, L.; Yourd, R.; Zachoszcz, A.; Zaltsman, A.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhukov, A.

    2014-11-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) was designed and constructed by a collaboration of six U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories. The SNS accelerator system consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator and an accumulator ring providing 1.4 MW of proton beam power in microsecond-long beam pulses to a liquid mercury target for neutron production. The accelerator complex consists of a front-end negative hydrogen-ion injector system, an 87 MeV drift tube linear accelerator, a 186 MeV side-coupled linear accelerator, a 1 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, a 248-m circumference accumulator ring and associated beam transport lines. The accelerator complex is supported by ~100 high-power RF power systems, a 2 K cryogenic plant, ~400 DC and pulsed power supply systems, ~400 beam diagnostic devices and a distributed control system handling ~100,000 I/O signals. The beam dynamics design of the SNS accelerator is presented, as is the engineering design of the major accelerator subsystems.

  15. Validity of GT3X and Actiheart to estimate sedentary time and breaks using ActivPAL as the reference in free-living conditions.

    PubMed

    Júdice, Pedro B; Santos, Diana A; Hamilton, Marc T; Sardinha, Luís B; Silva, Analiza M

    2015-05-01

    Sedentary time, specifically sitting/reclining, is a risk factor for many non-communicable diseases and premature mortality. Inclinometers have been used as a valid measurement of sedentary time and its patterns; however, there is a lack of information regarding the validity of alternative accelerometry and heart rate methods. The validity of GT3X and Actiheart in estimating changes in daily sedentary time and breaks, during free-living settings, using ActivPAL as the reference was examined. A crossover randomized control trial of an intervention that aimed to reduce ∼3 h/day of sitting time included 10 overweight/obese adults (37-65 years). Participants had a total of 74 valid days for the three devices (29 controls; 45 interventions). For ActivPAL, sedentary time was measured directly based upon posture (sitting/reclining); Actiheart, the presumed MET cutpoint for sedentary time (<1.5 METs) based on accelerometry+heart rate; GT3X, the traditional <100countsmin(-1). A break in sedentary time was defined as when the participants were above the aforementioned cutoffs. GT3X overestimated and Actiheart underestimated sedentary time (bias=135min; bias=-156min, respectively) and both methods overestimated breaks in sedentary time (bias=78; bias=235 breaks, respectively). The GT3X method was in better agreement with the ActivPAL sedentary time (r2=0.70; concordance correlation coefficient (CCC)=0.56) than the Actiheart (r2=0.24; CCC=0.31). The present results highlight the magnitude of potential errors in estimating sedentary time and breaks from common alternative methods other than ActivPAL. Because misclassification errors from the commonly used surrogates are potentially large, this raises concern that alternative methods used in many epidemiological observations may have underestimated the true effects caused by too much sitting (ClinicalTrials.govID:NCT02007681).

  16. National accelerated coated conductor initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawsey, Robert A.; Peterson, Dean E.

    2002-01-01

    The national Accelerated Coated Conductor Initiative (ACCI) is committed to assuring continued U.S. leadership in the development of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wire for electric power and other applications of national interest. Increased energy efficiency, power density, and power-to-weight ratio are just a few of the tangible benefits that will be possible if today's meter lengths of HTS wire based upon the compound yttrium-barium-copper-oxygen (YBCO) can be scaled up by U.S. industry to kilometer lengths. This paper presents an evaluation of the current state of the development of coated conductor technology and a vision for its future. The challenges that U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories and their industrial and university partners face will be presented against the backdrop of the history of superconductivity program achievements. It is the purpose of this initiative to accelerate the development, commercialization, and application of high temperature superconductors through joint efforts among DOE laboratories, American industry, and universities, so that future challenges of the electric power industry can be met. Based on their advances in HTS coated conductor development in a program funded by the DOE's Office of Power Technologies, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories lead and support this effort by improving their own capabilities, including equipment, facilities, and technical expertise. Each laboratory has, in 2001, acquired new laboratory space, new capital equipment, and new personnel with the goal of working closely with U.S. companies to take technologies invented in the labs and demonstrated in 1-m lengths and transfer these technologies to the commercial sector. The present status of the performance of the second-generation YBCO wires will be described, and the future plans of the national laboratories will be presented. Opportunities for collaboration are discussed, as well. .

  17. Polarized proton acceleration program at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.

    1981-01-01

    The unexpected importance of high energy spin effects and the success of the ZGS in correcting many intrinsic and imperfection depolarizing resonances led us to attempt to accelerate polarized protons in the AGS. A multi-university/laboratory collaborative effort involving Argonne, Brookhaven, Michigan, Rice and Yale is underway to improve and modify to accelerate polarized protons. From the experience at the ZGS and careful studies made us confident of the feasibility of achieving a polarization of over 60 percent up to 26 GeV/c with an intensity of 10/sup 11/ approx. 10/sup 12/ per pulse. The first polarized proton acceleration at the AGS is expected in 1983.

  18. Separating Hazardous Aerosols from Ambient Aerosols: Role of Fluorescence-Spectral Determination, Aerodynamic Deflector and Pulse Aerodynamic Localizer (PAL)

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Yong-Le; Cobler, Patrick J.; Rhodes, Scott A.; Halverson, Justin; Chang, Richard K.

    2005-08-22

    An aerosol deflection technique based on the single-shot UV-laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from a flowing particle is presented as a possible front-end bio-aerosol/hazardous-aerosol sensor/identifier. Cued by the fluorescence spectra, individual flowing bio-aerosol particles (1-10 {micro}m in diameter) have been successfully deflected from a stream of ambient aerosols. The electronics needed to compare the fluorescence spectrum of a particular particle with that of a pre-determined fluorescence spectrum are presented in some detail. The deflected particles, with and without going through a funnel for pulse aerodynamic localization (PAL), were collected onto a substrate for further analyses. To demonstrate how hazardous materials can be deflected, TbCl{sub 3} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O (a simulant material for some chemical forms of Uranium Oxide) aerosol particles (2 {micro}m in diameter) mixed with Arizona road dust was separated and deflected with our system.

  19. QUIRKY interacts with STRUBBELIG and PAL OF QUIRKY to regulate cell growth anisotropy during Arabidopsis gynoecium development.

    PubMed

    Trehin, Christophe; Schrempp, Sandra; Chauvet, Aurélie; Berne-Dedieu, Annick; Thierry, Anne-Marie; Faure, Jean-Emmanuel; Negrutiu, Ioan; Morel, Patrice

    2013-12-01

    Organ morphogenesis largely relies on cell division and elongation, which need to be both coordinated between cells and orchestrated with cytoskeleton dynamics. However, components that bridge the biological signals and the effectors that define cell shape remain poorly described. We have addressed this issue through the functional characterisation of QUIRKY (QKY), previously isolated as being involved in the STRUBBELIG (SUB) genetic pathway that controls cell-cell communication and organ morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. QKY encodes a protein containing multiple C2 domains and transmembrane regions, and SUB encodes an atypical LRR-receptor-like kinase. We show that twisting of the gynoecium observed in qky results from the abnormal division pattern and anisotropic growth of clustered cells arranged sporadically along the gynoecium. Moreover, the cortical microtubule (CMT) network of these cells is disorganised. A cross to botero, a katanin mutant in which the normal orientation of CMTs and anisotropic cell expansion are impaired, strongly reduces silique deviation, reinforcing the hypothesis of a role for QKY in CMT-mediated cell growth anisotropy. We also show that QKY is localised at the plasma membrane and functions in a multiprotein complex that includes SUB and PAL OF QUIRKY (POQ), a previously uncharacterised PB1-domain-containing protein that localises both at the plasma membrane and in intracellular compartments. Our data indicate that QKY and its interactors play central roles linking together cell-cell communication and cellular growth.

  20. Maastrichtian-Early Eocene litho-biostratigraphy and palægeography of the northern Gulf of Suez region, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibner, C.; Marzouk, A. M.; Kuss, J.

    2001-02-01

    The Maastrichtian-Lower Eocene sediments on both sides of the northern Gulf of Suez can be subdivided into eight formal formations (including one group) and one informal formation that are described in detail. These lithostratigraphic units reflect three different environmental regimes of deposition or non-deposition. The first regime is characterised by uplift and erosion or non-deposition resulting mostly from the uplift of the Northern Galala/Wadi Araba structure, a branch of the Syrian Arc Foldbelt. The shallow water carbonate platform and slope deposits of the Late Campanian-Maastrichtian St Anthony Formation and the Paleocene-Lower Eocene Southern Galala and Garra Formations represent the second regime and are found north and south of the Northern Galala/Wadi Araba High. The third regime is represented by basinal chalks, marls and shales of the Maastrichtian Sudr Formation and of the Paleocene-Eocene Dakhla, Tarawan and Esna Formations, the Dakhla/Tarawan/Esna informal formation and the Thebes Group. The distribution and lateral interfingering of the above mentioned environmental regimes reflect different vertical movements, changing basin morphology, sea level changes and progradation of shallow water sediments and is illustrated on 11 palæogeographic maps.

  1. Individual information beam broadcasting system using a PAL-SLM based CGH beam former for the location based information services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Shunichi; Itoh, Hideo; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Nishimura, Takuichi; Lin, Xin; Tokuda, Masamitsu

    2006-01-01

    As an implementation of ubiquitous information service environments, we have been researching location-based information service systems at indoor and short distance area. The system should provide adequate information services, which fit the user's attributes, such as language, knowledge level and the volume of information, what is so-called "Right now, Here, and for Me" information services. Keeping privacy and security of the user is an important issue. Spatial optical communication technique is used for the system because the technique is easy to implement a location- and direction-based communication system. Information broadcasting in an area can be realized by an omnidirectional modulated light emission. However, the omnidirectional beam causes spill out of secure information to others, and has lower energy conservation than a focused beam communication. In this paper, a new spatial optical information broadcasting system, which can focus modulated beams only to intended users. CGH (Computer Generated Hologram) technique on a SLM (Spatial Light Modulator) is proposed and demonstrated. The system is composed of a PAL-SLM (Parallel Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator), an eye-safe semiconductor laser or a semiconductor laser pumped YAG laser for the beam emitter, and an infrared video camera with an infrared LED illuminator for user locator. Experimental results of beam deflecting characteristics are described on beam uniformity, deflecting angle and the enhancement, communication characteristics, and real time tracking of user with a corner-reflecting sheet.

  2. Polycystin-2 activity is controlled by transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif and PALS1-associated tight junction protein.

    PubMed

    Duning, Kerstin; Rosenbusch, Deike; Schlüter, Marc A; Tian, Yuemin; Kunzelmann, Karl; Meyer, Nina; Schulze, Ulf; Markoff, Arseni; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Weide, Thomas

    2010-10-29

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent monogenic cause of kidney failure, characterized by the development of renal cysts. ADPKD is caused by mutations of the polycystin-1 (PC1) or polycystin-2 (PC2) genes. PC2 encodes a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel, and its dysfunction has been implicated in cyst development. The transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif (TAZ) is required for the integrity of renal cilia. Its absence results in the development of renal cysts in a knock-out mouse model. TAZ directly interacts with PC2, and it has been suggested that another yet unidentified PDZ domain protein may be involved in the TAZ/PC2 interaction. Here we describe a novel interaction of TAZ with the multi-PDZ-containing PALS1-associated tight junction protein (PATJ). TAZ interacts with both the N-terminal PDZ domains 1-3 and the C-terminal PDZ domains 8-10 of PATJ, suggesting two distinct TAZ binding domains. We also show that the C terminus of PC2 strongly interacts with PDZ domains 8-10 and to a weaker extent with PDZ domains 1-3 of PATJ. Finally, we demonstrate that both TAZ and PATJ impair PC2 channel activity when co-expressed with PC2 in oocytes of Xenopus laevis. These results implicate TAZ and PATJ as novel regulatory elements of the PC2 channel and might thus be involved in ADPKD pathology.

  3. Isolation of an organic solvent-tolerant bacterium Bacillus licheniformis PAL05 that is able to secrete solvent-stable lipase.

    PubMed

    Anbu, Periasamy; Hur, Byung Ki

    2014-01-01

    In this study, seven lipase-producing bacterial strains were isolated from salt-enriched and cattle farm soil samples after incubation in toluene- and benzene-enriched media. One strain (PAL05) showed significantly greater lipase activity on spirit blue agar medium and stability in organic solvents. The positive strain (PAL05) was identified as Bacillus licheniformis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Lipase production was optimized in a medium containing glycerol as the carbon source and Tween 80 as an inducer (0.5% glycerol+0.5% Tween 80) at pH 8.0 and a temperature of 30 °C. In addition, the enzyme was moderately halotolerant as it exhibited increased activity in the presence of 2.5% NaCl. Optimized conditions increased the lipase production threefold. Crude lipase retained its activity for 14 days of incubation in the presence of various organic solvents at a level of 25% and 50%. The enzyme was stable at 25% in most solvents; some of the solvents such as hexane, benzene, and ethanol actually stimulated enzyme activity. The organic solvent stability of the lipase produced by the strain PAL05 enables the enzyme to be used as a potential biocatalyst for ester synthesis and other applications in nonaqueous conditions. PMID:24397298

  4. Accelerated/abbreviated test methods for predicting life of solar cell encapsulants to Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology for the encapsulation task of the low-cost solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolyer, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    An important principle is that encapsulants should be tested in a total array system allowing realistic interaction of components. Therefore, micromodule test specimens were fabricated with a variety of encapsulants, substrates, and types of circuitry. One common failure mode was corrosion of circuitry and solar cell metallization due to moisture penetration. Another was darkening and/or opacification of encapsulant. A test program plan was proposed. It includes multicondition accelerated exposure. Another method was hyperaccelerated photochemical exposure using a solar concentrator. It simulates 20 year of sunlight exposure in a short period of one to two weeks. The study was beneficial in identifying some cost effective encapsulants and array designs.

  5. The Gran Sasso Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votano, L.

    2012-09-01

    The Gran Sasso underground laboratory is one of the four national laboratories run by the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). It is located under the Gran Sasso massif, in central Italy, between the cities of L'Aquila and Teramo, 120 km far from Rome. It is the largest underground laboratory for astroparticle physics in the world and the most advanced in terms of complexity and completeness of its infrastructures. The scientific program at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories (Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, LNGS)is mainly focused on astroparticle, particle and nuclear physics. The laboratory presently hosts many experiments as well as R&D activities, including world-leading research in the fields of solar neutrinos, accelerator neutrinos (CNGS neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso), dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay and nuclear cross-section of astrophysical interest. Associate sciences like earth physics, biology and fundamental physics complement the activities. The laboratory is operated as an international science facility and hosts experiments whose scientific merit is assessed by an international advisory Scientific Committee. A review of the main experiments carried out at LNGS will be given, together with the most recent and relevant scientific results achieved.

  6. Fifty years of accelerator based physics at Chalk River

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, John W.

    1999-04-26

    The Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. was a major centre for Accelerator based physics for the last fifty years. As early as 1946, nuclear structure studies were started on Cockroft-Walton accelerators. A series of accelerators followed, including the world's first Tandem, and the MP Tandem, Superconducting Cyclotron (TASCC) facility that was opened in 1986. The nuclear physics program was shut down in 1996. This paper will describe some of the highlights of the accelerators and the research of the laboratory.

  7. TURBULENT SHEAR ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Yutaka

    2013-04-10

    We consider particle acceleration by large-scale incompressible turbulence with a length scale larger than the particle mean free path. We derive an ensemble-averaged transport equation of energetic charged particles from an extended transport equation that contains the shear acceleration. The ensemble-averaged transport equation describes particle acceleration by incompressible turbulence (turbulent shear acceleration). We find that for Kolmogorov turbulence, the turbulent shear acceleration becomes important on small scales. Moreover, using Monte Carlo simulations, we confirm that the ensemble-averaged transport equation describes the turbulent shear acceleration.

  8. The direction of acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Thomas; Burde, Jan-Philipp; Lück, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration is a physical quantity that is difficult to understand and hence its complexity is often erroneously simplified. Many students think of acceleration as equivalent to velocity, a ˜ v. For others, acceleration is a scalar quantity, which describes the change in speed Δ|v| or Δ|v|/Δt (as opposed to the change in velocity). The main difficulty with the concept of acceleration therefore lies in developing a correct understanding of its direction. The free iOS app AccelVisu supports students in acquiring a correct conception of acceleration by showing acceleration arrows directly at moving objects.

  9. A Portable Accelerator Control Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, W. A., III

    1997-05-01

    In recent years, the expense of creating good control software has led to a number of collaborative efforts between laboratories to share this effort and expense. The EPICS collaboration is a particularly successful example of this trend. More recently another collaborative effort has addressed the need for sophisticated high level software, including model driven accelerator controls. This work builds upon the cdev (Common DEVice) software framework, which provides a generic abstraction of a control system, and maps that abstraction onto a number of site-specific control systems including EPICS, the SLAC control system, CERN/PS and others. With the advent of cdev, it is now possible to create portable accelerator control applications which have no knowledge of the underlying and site-specific control system. Applications based on cdev now provide a large suite of tools for accelerator operations, including general purpose displays, on-line accelerator models, beamline steering, machine status displays incorporating both hardware and model information (for example beam positions overlaid with beta functions) and more. A survey of cdev compatible portable applications will be presented, as well as plans for future enhancements.

  10. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Grames, Douglas Higinbotham, Hugh Montgomery

    2010-09-01

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in Newport News, Virginia, USA, is one of ten national laboratories under the aegis of the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). It is managed and operated by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC. The primary facility at Jefferson Lab is the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) as shown in an aerial photograph in Figure 1. Jefferson Lab was created in 1984 as CEBAF and started operations for physics in 1995. The accelerator uses superconducting radio-frequency (srf) techniques to generate high-quality beams of electrons with high-intensity, well-controlled polarization. The technology has enabled ancillary facilities to be created. The CEBAF facility is used by an international user community of more than 1200 physicists for a program of exploration and study of nuclear, hadronic matter, the strong interaction and quantum chromodynamics. Additionally, the exceptional quality of the beams facilitates studies of the fundamental symmetries of nature, which complement those of atomic physics on the one hand and of high-energy particle physics on the other. The facility is in the midst of a project to double the energy of the facility and to enhance and expand its experimental facilities. Studies are also pursued with a Free-Electron Laser produced by an energy-recovering linear accelerator.

  11. A portable accelerator control toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.A. III

    1997-06-01

    In recent years, the expense of creating good control software has led to a number of collaborative efforts among laboratories to share this cost. The EPICS collaboration is a particularly successful example of this trend. More recently another collaborative effort has addressed the need for sophisticated high level software, including model driven accelerator controls. This work builds upon the CDEV (Common DEVice) software framework, which provides a generic abstraction of a control system, and maps that abstraction onto a number of site-specific control systems including EPICS, the SLAC control system, CERN/PS and others. In principle, it is now possible to create portable accelerator control applications which have no knowledge of the underlying and site-specific control system. Applications based on CDEV now provide a growing suite of tools for accelerator operations, including general purpose displays, an on-line accelerator model, beamline steering, machine status displays incorporating both hardware and model information (such as beam positions overlaid with beta functions) and more. A survey of CDEV compatible portable applications will be presented, as well as plans for future development.

  12. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) is based on a 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which is used to generate a variety of well-characterized radiation beams for research in radiobiology, radiological physics, and radiation chemistry. It is part of the Center for Radiological Research (CRR) -- formerly the Radiological Research Laboratory (RRL) -- of Columbia University, and its operation is supported as a National Facility by the US Department of Energy (DOE). As such, RARAF is available to all potential users on an equal basis, and scientists outside the CRR are encouraged to submit proposals for experiments at RARAF. The operation of the Van de Graaff is supported by the DOE, but the research projects themselves must be supported separately. Experiments performed from May 1991--April 1992 are described.

  13. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E.J.; Marino, S.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) is based on a 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which is used to generate a variety of well-characterized radiation beams for research in radiobiology, radiological physics, and radiation chemistry. It is part of the Center for Radiological Research (CRR) - formerly the Radiological Research Laboratory of Columbia University, and its operation is supported as a National Facility by the US Department of Energy (DOE). As such, RARAF is available to all potential users on an equal basis and scientists outside the CRR are encouraged to submit proposals for experiments at RARAF. The operation of the Van de Graaff is supported by the DOE, but the research projects themselves must be supported separately. This report provides a listing and brief description of experiments performed at RARAF during the May 1, 1992 through April 30, 1993.

  14. Archimedes: Accelerator Reveals Ancient Text

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, Uwe

    2004-02-24

    Archimedes (287-212 BC), who is famous for shouting 'Eureka' (I found it) is considered one of the most brilliant thinkers of all times. The 10th-century parchment document known as the 'Archimedes Palimpsest' is the unique source for two of the great Greek's treatises. Some of the writings, hidden under gold forgeries, have recently been revealed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC. An intense x-ray beam produced in a particle accelerator causes the iron in original ink, which has been partly erased and covered, to send out a fluorescence glow. A detector records the signal and a digital image showing the ancient writings is produced. Please join us in this fascinating journey of a 1,000-year-old parchment from its origin in the Mediterranean city of Constantinople to a particle accelerator in Menlo Park.

  15. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

    2014-11-05

    Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

  16. Accelerator Technology Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-04-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1991, the Accelerator Technology (AT) division continued fulfilling its mission to pursue accelerator science and technology and to develop new accelerator concepts for application to research, defense, energy, industry, and other areas of national interest. This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; (Phi) Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  17. Linear accelerator: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mutzberg, J.

    1972-01-01

    Design is proposed for inexpensive accelerometer which would work by applying pressure to fluid during acceleration. Pressure is used to move shuttle, and shuttle movement is sensed and calibrated to give acceleration readings.

  18. Improved plasma accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  19. EDITORIAL: Laser and plasma accelerators Laser and plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Robert

    2009-02-01

    This special issue on laser and plasma accelerators illustrates the rapid advancement and diverse applications of laser and plasma accelerators. Plasma is an attractive medium for particle acceleration because of the high electric field it can sustain, with studies of acceleration processes remaining one of the most important areas of research in both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. The rapid advance in laser and accelerator technology has led to the development of terawatt and petawatt laser systems with ultra-high intensities and short sub-picosecond pulses, which are used to generate wakefields in plasma. Recent successes include the demonstration by several groups in 2004 of quasi-monoenergetic electron beams by wakefields in the bubble regime with the GeV energy barrier being reached in 2006, and the energy doubling of the SLAC high-energy electron beam from 42 to 85 GeV. The electron beams generated by the laser plasma driven wakefields have good spatial quality with energies ranging from MeV to GeV. A unique feature is that they are ultra-short bunches with simulations showing that they can be as short as a few femtoseconds with low-energy spread, making these beams ideal for a variety of applications ranging from novel high-brightness radiation sources for medicine, material science and ultrafast time-resolved radiobiology or chemistry. Laser driven ion acceleration experiments have also made significant advances over the last few years with applications in laser fusion, nuclear physics and medicine. Attention is focused on the possibility of producing quasi-mono-energetic ions with energies ranging from hundreds of MeV to GeV per nucleon. New acceleration mechanisms are being studied, including ion acceleration from ultra-thin foils and direct laser acceleration. The application of wakefields or beat waves in other areas of science such as astrophysics and particle physics is beginning to take off, such as the study of cosmic accelerators considered

  20. MEQALAC rf accelerating structure

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, J.; Brodowski, J.

    1981-01-01

    A prototype MEQALAC capable of replacing the Cockcroft Walton pre-injector at BNL is being fabricated. Ten milliamperes of H/sup -/ beam supplied from a source sitting at a potential of -40 kilovolt is to be accelerated to 750 keV. This energy gain is provided by a 200 Megahertz accelerating system rather than the normal dc acceleration. Substantial size and cost reduction would be realized by such a system over conventional pre-accelerator systems.

  1. AREAL test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsakanov, V. M.; Amatuni, G. A.; Amirkhanyan, Z. G.; Aslyan, L. V.; Avagyan, V. Sh.; Danielyan, V. A.; Davtyan, H. D.; Dekhtiarov, V. S.; Gevorgyan, K. L.; Ghazaryan, N. G.; Grigoryan, B. A.; Grigoryan, A. H.; Hakobyan, L. S.; Haroutiunian, S. G.; Ivanyan, M. I.; Khachatryan, V. G.; Laziev, E. M.; Manukyan, P. S.; Margaryan, I. N.; Markosyan, T. M.; Martirosyan, N. V.; Mehrabyan, Sh. A.; Mkrtchyan, T. H.; Muradyan, L. Kh.; Nikogosyan, G. H.; Petrosyan, V. H.; Sahakyan, V. V.; Sargsyan, A. A.; Simonyan, A. S.; Toneyan, H. A.; Tsakanian, A. V.; Vardanyan, T. L.; Vardanyan, A. S.; Yeremyan, A. S.; Zakaryan, S. V.; Zanyan, G. S.

    2016-09-01

    Advanced Research Electron Accelerator Laboratory (AREAL) is a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator project with a laser driven RF gun being constructed at the CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute. In addition to applications in life and materials sciences, the project aims as a test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts. In this paper, the AREAL RF photoinjector performance, the facility design considerations and its highlights in the fields of free electron laser, the study of new high frequency accelerating structures, the beam microbunching and wakefield acceleration concepts are presented.

  2. Acceleration gradient of a plasma wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.

    2008-02-25

    The phase velocity of the wakefield waves is identical to the electron beam velocity. A theoretical analysis indicates that the acceleration gradient of the wakefield accelerator normalized by the wave breaking amplitude is K{sub 0}({xi})/K{sub 1}({xi}), where K{sub 0}({xi}) and K{sub 1}({xi}) are the modified Bessel functions of the second kind of order zero and one, respectively and {xi} is the beam parameter representing the beam intensity. It is also shown that the beam density must be considerably higher than the diffuse plasma density for the large radial velocity of plasma electrons that are required for a high acceleration gradient.

  3. Pulsars and Acceleration Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for the studying particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields and relativity. But even forty years after their discovery, we still do not understand their pulsed emission at any wavelength. I will review both the basic physics of pulsars as well as the latest developments in understanding their high-energy emission. Special and general relativistic effects play important roles in pulsar emission, from inertial frame-dragging near the stellar surface to aberration, time-of-flight and retardation of the magnetic field near the light cylinder. Understanding how these effects determine what we observe at different wavelengths is critical to unraveling the emission physics. Fortunately the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), with launch in May 2008 will detect many new gamma-ray pulsars and test the predictions of these models with unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution for gamma-rays in the range of 30 MeV to 300 GeV.

  4. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  5. Acceleration: It's Elementary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Acceleration is one tool for providing high-ability students the opportunity to learn something new every day. Some people talk about acceleration as taking a student out of step. In actuality, what one is doing is putting a student in step with the right curriculum. Whole-grade acceleration, also called grade-skipping, usually happens between…

  6. Far field acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Fernow, R.C.

    1995-07-01

    Far fields are propagating electromagnetic waves far from their source, boundary surfaces, and free charges. The general principles governing the acceleration of charged particles by far fields are reviewed. A survey of proposed field configurations is given. The two most important schemes, Inverse Cerenkov acceleration and Inverse free electron laser acceleration, are discussed in detail.

  7. Angular Acceleration without Torque?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

  8. Airborne active and passive L-band measurements using PALS instrument in SMAPVEX12 soil moisture field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, Andreas; Yueh, Simon; Chazanoff, Seth; Dinardo, Steven; O'Dwyer, Ian; Jackson, Thomas; McNairn, Heather; Bullock, Paul; Wiseman, Grant; Berg, Aaron; Magagi, Ramata; Njoku, Eni

    2012-10-01

    NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in late 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. Merging of active and passive L-band observations of the mission will enable unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrieval. For pre-launch algorithm development and validation the SMAP project and NASA coordinated a field campaign named as SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012) together with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, and other Canadian and US institutions in the vicinity of Winnipeg, Canada in June-July, 2012. The main objective of SMAPVEX12 was acquisition of a data record that features long time-series with varying soil moisture and vegetation conditions over an aerial domain of multiple parallel flight lines. The coincident active and passive L-band data was acquired with the PALS (Passive Active L-band System) instrument. The measurements were conducted over the experiment domain every 2-3 days on average, over a period of 43 days. The preliminary calibration of the brightness temperatures obtained in the campaign has been performed. Daily lake calibrations were used to adjust the radiometer calibration parameters, and the obtained measurements were compared against the raw in situ soil moisture measurements. The evaluation shows that this preliminary calibration of the data produces already a consistent brightness temperature record over the campaign duration, and only secondary adjustments and cleaning of the data is need before the data can be applied to the development and validation of SMAP algorithms.

  9. Colliding-beam-accelerator lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Claus, J.; Cornacchia, M.; Courant, E.D.; Parzen, G.

    1983-01-01

    We describe the lattice of the Colliding Beam Accelerator, a 400 x 400 GeV pp facility proposed for construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The structure adopted is very versatile, in part in consequence of its desirable behavior as function of momentum deviation and as function of the betatron tunes. Each of the six insertions can be arranged to meet specific requirements at the crossing points as illustrated by a discussion of the tuneable low-beta insertions. The luminosity in these low-beta insertions (2 x 10/sup 33/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/) would be an order of magnitude larger than the standard insertions.

  10. Particle acceleration in solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klecker, Berndt; Cliver, Ed; Kahler, Steve; Cane, Hilary

    Particle acceleration in solar flares was the topic of a workshop held at the University of Tasmania in Hobart, Australia, January 24-26, 1990. The workshop was held in conjunction with the 21st International Cosmic Ray Conference in Adelaide, South Australia, January 6-19, 1990. Forty-six scientists participated in the workshop, which was organized by Hilary Cane and John Humble of the University of Tasmania; Marc Duldig, Australian Antarctic Division, University of Tasmania; Ed Cliver, Geophysics Laboratory, U.S. Air Force Systems Command; and Steve Kahler, Boston College, Mass.

  11. Reduction of Effective Acceleration to Microgravity Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, James P.

    2000-01-01

    Acceleration due to earth's gravity causes buoyancy driven convection and sedimentation in solutions. In addition. pressure gradients occur as a function of the height within a liquid column. Hence gravity effects both equilbria conditions and phase transitions as a result of hydrostatic pressure gradients. The affect of gravity on the rate of heat and man transfer in solutal processes can be particularly important in polymer processing due to the high sensitivity of polymeric materials to processing conditions. The term microgravity has been coined to describe an environment in which the affects of gravitational acceleration am greatly reduced. It may seem odd to talk in term of reducing the effects of gravitational acceleration since gravitational attraction is a basic property of matter. However, die presence of gravity on in situ processing or measurements can be negated by achieving conditions in which the laboratory, or more specifically the container of the experimental materials, a subjected to the same acceleration as the materials themselves. With regard to the laboratory reference frame, there is virtually no force on the experimental solutions. This is difficult to achieve but can be done. A short review of Newtonian physics provides an explanation on both how processes we affected by gravity and how microgravity conditions are achieved. The fact that fluids deform when subject to a force bid solids do not indicates that solids have a structure able to exert an opposing force that negates an externally applied force. Liquids deform when a force is applied, indicating that a liquid structure cannot completely negate an applied force. Just how easily a liquid resists deformation is related to its viscosity. Spaceflight provides an environment in which the laboratory reference frame i.e. the spacecraft and all the equipment therein an experiencing virtually identical forces. There is no solid foundation underneath such a laboratory, so the laboratory

  12. Compact Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2004-01-01

    A plasma accelerator has been conceived for both material-processing and spacecraft-propulsion applications. This accelerator generates and accelerates ions within a very small volume. Because of its compactness, this accelerator could be nearly ideal for primary or station-keeping propulsion for spacecraft having masses between 1 and 20 kg. Because this accelerator is designed to generate beams of ions having energies between 50 and 200 eV, it could also be used for surface modification or activation of thin films.

  13. The BNL Accelerator Test Facility control system

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R.; Bottke, I.; Fernow, R.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    1993-01-01

    Described is the VAX/CAMAC-based control system for Brookhaven National Laboratory's Accelerator Test Facility, a laser/linac research complex. Details of hardware and software configurations are presented along with experiences of using Vsystem, a commercial control system package.

  14. Radiation safety training for accelerator facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Trinoskey, P.A.

    1997-02-01

    In November 1992, a working group was formed within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) accelerator facilities to develop a generic safety training program to meet the basic requirements for individuals working in accelerator facilities. This training, by necessity, includes sections for inserting facility-specific information. The resulting course materials were issued by DOE as a handbook under its technical standards in 1996. Because experimenters may be at a facility for only a short time and often at odd times during the day, the working group felt that computer-based training would be useful. To that end, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) together have developed a computer-based safety training program for accelerator facilities. This interactive course not only enables trainees to receive facility- specific information, but time the training to their schedule and tailor it to their level of expertise.

  15. High brightness electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, Richard L.; Carlsten, Bruce E.; Young, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of acclerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electons as the electrons enter the first cavity.

  16. Fiber Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, Andrew P.; /Reed Coll. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    One of the options for future particle accelerators are photonic band gap (PBG) fiber accelerators. PBG fibers are specially designed optical fibers that use lasers to excite an electric field that is used to accelerate electrons. To improve PBG accelerators, the basic parameters of the fiber were tested to maximize defect size and acceleration. Using the program CUDOS, several accelerating modes were found that maximized these parameters for several wavelengths. The design of multiple defects, similar to having closely bound fibers, was studied to find possible coupling or the change of modes. The amount of coupling was found to be dependent on distance separated. For certain distances accelerating coupled modes were found and examined. In addition, several non-periodic fiber structures were examined using CUDOS. The non-periodic fibers produced several interesting results and promised more modes given time to study them in more detail.

  17. Biological assessments for the low energy demonstration accelerator, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, S.

    1997-03-01

    This report discusses the biological impact to the area around the Los Alamos National Laboratory of the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator. In particular the impact to the soils, water quality, vegetation, and wildlife are discussed.

  18. Don't Use Airtracks to Measure Gravity Acceleration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluk, Edward; Lopez, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Presents one way, using simple materials available in hardware stores, to obtain accurate measurements of gravity acceleration in student laboratories. Analyzes a time-of-flight measuring scheme and discusses the experimental arrangements to make the measurements. (MDH)

  19. Pulsed power accelerators for particle beam fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.H.; Barr, G.W.; VanDevender, J.P.; White, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is completing the construction phase of the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator-I (PBFA-I). Testing of the 36 module, 30 TW, 1 MJ output accelerator is in the initial stages. The 4 MJ, PBFA Marx generator has provided 3.6 MA into water-copper sulfate load resistors with a spread from first to last Marx firing between 15 to 25 ns and an output power of 5.7 TW. This accelerator is a modular, lower voltage, pulsed power device that is capable of scaling to power levels exceeding 100 TW. The elements of the PBFA technology and their integration into an accelerator system for particle beam fusion will be discussed.

  20. Measurement of Coriolis Acceleration with a Smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakur, Asif; Kraft, Jakob

    2016-05-01

    Undergraduate physics laboratories seldom have experiments that measure the Coriolis acceleration. This has traditionally been the case owing to the inherent complexities of making such measurements. Articles on the experimental determination of the Coriolis acceleration are few and far between in the physics literature. However, because modern smartphones come with a raft of built-in sensors, we have a unique opportunity to experimentally determine the Coriolis acceleration conveniently in a pedagogically enlightening environment at modest cost by using student-owned smartphones. Here we employ the gyroscope and accelerometer in a smartphone to verify the dependence of Coriolis acceleration on the angular velocity of a rotatingtrack and the speed of the sliding smartphone.

  1. Radio-frequency quadrupole linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.; Stokes, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) is a new linear accelerator concept in which rf electric fields are used to focus, bunch, and accelerate the beam. Because the RFQ can provide strong focusing at low velocities, it can capture a high-current dc ion beam from a low-voltage source and accelerate it to an energy of 1 MeV/nucleon within a distance of a few meters. A recent experimental test at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has confirmed the expected performance of this structure and has stimulated interest in a wide variety of applications. The general properties of the RFQ are reviewed and examples of applications of this new accelerator are presented.

  2. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: Summary of activities, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-15

    This report contains a summary of activities at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division for the year 1986. Topics and facilities investigated in individual papers are: 1-2 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source, the Center for X-Ray Optics, Accelerator Operations, High-Energy Physics Technology, Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research and Magnetic Fusion Energy. Six individual papers have been indexed separately. (LSP)

  3. Physics and Accelerator Applications of RF Superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    H. Padamsee; K. W. Shepard; Ron Sundelin

    1993-12-01

    A key component of any particle accelerator is the device that imparts energy gain to the charged particle. This is usually an electromagnetic cavity resonating at a microwave frequency, chosen between 100 and 3000 MHz. Serious attempts to utilize superconductors for accelerating cavities were initiated more than 25 years ago with the acceleration of electrons in a lead-plated resonator at Stanford University (1). The first full-scale accelerator, the Stanford SCA, was completed in 1978 at the High Energy Physics Laboratory (HEPL) (2). Over the intervening one and a half decades, superconducting cavities have become increasingly important to particle accelerators for nuclear physics and high energy physics. For continuous operation, as is required for many applications, the power dissipation in the walls of a copper structure is quite substantial, for example, 0.1 megawatts per meter of structure operating at an accelerating field of 1 million volts/meter (MV/m). since losses increase as the square of the accelerating field, copper cavities become severely uneconomical as demand for higher fields grows with the higher energies called for by experimenters to probe ever deeper into the structure of matter. Rf superconductivity has become an important technology for particle accelerators. Practical structures with attractive performance levels have been developed for a variety of applications, installed in the targeted accelerators, and operated over significant lengths of time. Substantial progress has been made in understanding field and Q limitations and in inventing cures to advance performance. The technical and economical potential of rf superconductivity makes it an important candidate for future advanced accelerators for free electron lasers, for nuclear physics, and for high energy physics, at the luminosity as well as at the energy frontiers.

  4. Controlled Ion Acceleration in Two Crossed Laser Beams Propagating in Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataronis, J. A.; Petržílka, V.; Krlín, L.

    2003-10-01

    Electron acceleration occurs in a single plane laser beam that is in the presence of a secondary perpendicularly propagating plane laser beam with a randomized phase. As the accelerated electrons are pushed away, they leave the heavier ions behind, producing thereby a charge separation electrostatic field and consequent ion flows. The power flux carried by the accelerated ions can be controlled by varying the intensity of the secondary beam. Results of a numerical study of this control process are presented here. The laser beam parameters chosen for the computations of the primary electron acceleration match the parameters available at the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS)^1. For the modeling, we use an advanced version of our 3-d two-fluid numerical code^2, originally developed for the analysis of fast electron generation and subsequent ion acceleration in front of lower hybrid wave launchers in large tokamaks. [2pt] ^1K. Jungwirth et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2495 (2001). [2pt] ^2V. Petržílka et al., Proc. 29th EPS Conference, Montreux, June 2002, paper 2.105.

  5. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division 1989 summary of activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses the research being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. The main topics covered are: heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; high-energy physics technology; and bevalac operations.

  6. Free volume in ionic liquids: a connection of experimentally accessible observables from PALS and PVT experiments with the molecular structure from XRD data.

    PubMed

    Beichel, Witali; Yu, Yang; Dlubek, Günter; Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard; Pionteck, Jürgen; Pfefferkorn, Dirk; Bulut, Safak; Bejan, Dana; Friedrich, Christian; Krossing, Ingo

    2013-06-14

    In the current work, free volume concepts, primarily applied to glass formers in the literature, were transferred to ionic liquids (ILs). A series of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C4MIM](+)) based ILs was investigated by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). The phase transition and dynamic properties of the ILs [C4MIM][X] with [X](-) = [Cl](-), [BF4](-), [PF6](-), [OTf](-), [NTf2](-) and [B(hfip)4](-) were reported recently (Yu et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2012, 14, 6856-6868). In this subsequent work, attention was paid to the connection of the free volume from PALS (here the mean hole volume, ) with the molecular structure, represented by volumes derived from X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. These were the scaled molecular volume Vm,scaled and the van der Waals volume V(vdw). Linear correlations of at the "knee" temperature ((T(k))) with V(m,scaled) and V(vdw) gave good results for the [C4MIM](+) series. Further relationships between volumes from XRD data with the occupied volume Vocc determined from PALS/PVT (Pressure Volume Temperature) measurements and from Sanchez-Lacombe Equation of State (SL-EOS) fits were elaborated (V(occ)(SL-EOS) ≈ 1.63 V(vdw), R(2) = 0.981 and V(occ)(SL-EOS) ≈ 1.12 V(m,scaled), R(2) = 0.980). Finally, the usability of V(m,scaled) was justified in terms of the Cohen-Turnbull (CT) free volume theory. Empirical CT type plots of viscosity and electrical conductivity showed a systematic increase in the critical free volume with molecular size. Such correlations allow descriptions of IL properties with the easily accessible quantity V(m,scaled) within the context of the free volume.

  7. Expression profiles of key phenylpropanoid genes during Vanilla planifolia pod development reveal a positive correlation between PAL gene expression and vanillin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Fock-Bastide, Isabelle; Palama, Tony Lionel; Bory, Séverine; Lécolier, Aurélie; Noirot, Michel; Joët, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    In Vanilla planifolia pods, development of flavor precursors is dependent on the phenylpropanoid pathway. The distinctive vanilla aroma is produced by numerous phenolic compounds of which vanillin is the most important. Because of the economic importance of vanilla, vanillin biosynthetic pathways have been extensively studied but agreement has not yet been reached on the processes leading to its accumulation. In order to explore the transcriptional control exerted on these pathways, five key phenylpropanoid genes expressed during pod development were identified and their mRNA accumulation profiles were evaluated during pod development and maturation using quantitative real-time PCR. As a prerequisite for expression analysis using qRT-PCR, five potential reference genes were tested, and two genes encoding Actin and EF1 were shown to be the most stable reference genes for accurate normalization during pod development. For the first time, genes encoding a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (VpPAL1) and a cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (VpC4H1) were identified in vanilla pods and studied during maturation. Among phenylpropanoid genes, differential regulation was observed from 3 to 8 months after pollination. VpPAL1 was gradually up-regulated, reaching the maximum expression level at maturity. In contrast, genes encoding 4HBS, C4H, OMT2 and OMT3 did not show significant increase in expression levels after the fourth month post-pollination. Expression profiling of these key phenylpropanoid genes is also discussed in light of accumulation patterns for key phenolic compounds. Interestingly, VpPAL1 gene expression was shown to be positively correlated to maturation and vanillin accumulation.

  8. Self-accelerating Warped Braneworlds

    SciTech Connect

    Carena, Marcela; Lykken, Joseph; Park, Minjoon; Santiago, Jose; /Fermilab

    2006-11-01

    Braneworld models with induced gravity have the potential to replace dark energy as the explanation for the current accelerating expansion of the Universe. The original model of Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati (DGP) demonstrated the existence of a ''self-accelerating'' branch of background solutions, but suffered from the presence of ghosts. We present a new large class of braneworld models which generalize the DGP model. Our models have negative curvature in the bulk, allow a second brane, and have general brane tensions and localized curvature terms. We exhibit three different kinds of ghosts, associated to the graviton zero mode, the radion, and the longitudinal components of massive graviton modes. The latter two species occur in the DGP model, for negative and positive brane tension respectively. In our models, we find that the two kinds of DGP ghosts are tightly correlated with each other, but are not always linked to the feature of self-acceleration. Our models are a promising laboratory for understanding the origins and physical meaning of braneworld ghosts, and perhaps for eliminating them altogether.

  9. Self-accelerating warped braneworlds

    SciTech Connect

    Carena, Marcela; Lykken, Joseph; Santiago, Jose; Park, Minjoon

    2007-01-15

    Braneworld models with induced gravity have the potential to replace dark energy as the explanation for the current accelerating expansion of the Universe. The original model of Dvali, Gabadadze, and Porrati (DGP) demonstrated the existence of a 'self-accelerating' branch of background solutions, but suffered from the presence of ghosts. We present a new large class of braneworld models which generalize the DGP model. Our models have negative curvature in the bulk, allow a second brane, and have general brane tensions and localized curvature terms. We exhibit three different kinds of ghosts, associated to the graviton zero mode, the radion, and the longitudinal components of massive graviton modes. The latter two species occur in the DGP model, for negative and positive brane tension, respectively. In our models, we find that the two kinds of DGP ghosts are tightly correlated with each other, but are not always linked to the feature of self-acceleration. Our models are a promising laboratory for understanding the origins and physical meaning of braneworld ghosts, and perhaps for eliminating them altogether.

  10. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal

    2011-05-01

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  11. Cloning and construction of recombinant palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca on pET-32b into E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS for production of isomaltulose, a new generation of sugar

    SciTech Connect

    Moeis, Maelita R. Berlian, Liska Suhandono, Sony Prima, Alex Komalawati, Eli Kristianti, Tati

    2014-03-24

    Klebsiella oxytoca produces sucrose isomerase which catalyses the conversion of sucrose to isomaltulose, a new generation of sugar. From the previous study, palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca was succesfully isolated from sapodilla fruit (Manilkara zapota). The full-length palI gene sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca was cloned in E. coli DH5α. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 498 residues which includes conserved motif for sucrose isomerisation {sup 325}RLDRD{sup 329} and 97% identical to palI gene from Klebsiella sp. LX3 (GenBank:AAK82938.1). This fragment was succesfullly ligated into the expression vector pET-32b using overlap-extension PCR and cloned in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. DNA sequencing result shows that palI gene of Klebsiella oxytoca was inserted in-frame in pET-32b. This is the first report on cloning of palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca.

  12. Cloning and construction of recombinant palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca on pET-32b into E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS for production of isomaltulose, a new generation of sugar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeis, Maelita R.; Berlian, Liska; Suhandono, Sony; Prima, Alex; Komalawati, Eli; Kristianti, Tati

    2014-03-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca produces sucrose isomerase which catalyses the conversion of sucrose to isomaltulose, a new generation of sugar. From the previous study, palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca was succesfully isolated from sapodilla fruit (Manilkara zapota). The full-length palI gene sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca was cloned in E. coli DH5α. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 498 residues which includes conserved motif for sucrose isomerisation 325RLDRD329 and 97% identical to palI gene from Klebsiella sp. LX3 (GenBank:AAK82938.1). This fragment was succesfullly ligated into the expression vector pET-32b using overlap-extension PCR and cloned in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. DNA sequencing result shows that palI gene of Klebsiella oxytoca was inserted in-frame in pET-32b. This is the first report on cloning of palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca.

  13. Laboratory Building.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  14. PALS (Passive Active L-band System) Radiometer-Based Soil Moisture Retrieval for the SMAP Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, A.; Jackson, T. J.; Chan, S.; Bindlish, R.; O'Neill, P. E.; Chazanoff, S. L.; McNairn, H.; Bullock, P.; Powers, J.; Wiseman, G.; Berg, A. A.; Magagi, R.; Njoku, E. G.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is scheduled for launch in early January 2015. For pre-launch soil moisture algorithm development and validation, the SMAP project and NASA coordinated a SMAP Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) together with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in the vicinity of Winnipeg, Canada in June 7-July 19, 2012. Coincident active and passive airborne L-band data were acquired using the Passive Active L-band System (PALS) on 17 days during the experiment. Simultaneously with the PALS measurements, soil moisture ground truth data were collected manually. The vegetation and surface roughness were sampled on non-flight days. The SMAP mission will produce surface (top 5 cm) soil moisture products a) using a combination of its L-band radiometer and SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) measurements, b) using the radiometer measurement only, and c) using the SAR measurements only. The SMAPVEX12 data are being utilized for the development and testing of the algorithms applied for generating these soil moisture products. This talk will focus on presenting results of retrieving surface soil moisture using the PALS radiometer. The issues that this retrieval faces are very similar to those faced by the global algorithm using the SMAP radiometer. However, the different spatial resolution of the two observations has to be accounted for in the analysis. The PALS 3 dB footprint in the experiment was on the order of 1 km, whereas the SMAP radiometer has a footprint of about 40 km. In this talk forward modeled brightness temperature over the manually sampled fields and the retrieved soil moisture over the entire experiment domain are presented and discussed. In order to provide a retrieval product similar to that of the SMAP passive algorithm, various ancillary information had to be obtained for the SMAPVEX12 domain. In many cases there are multiple options on how to choose and reprocess these data

  15. The Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Sampayan, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    The Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), a class of induction accelerators, employs a novel insulating beam tube to impress a longitudinal electric field on a bunch of charged particles. The surface flashover characteristics of this tube may permit the attainment of accelerating gradients on the order of 100 MV/m for accelerating pulses on the order of a nanosecond in duration. A virtual traveling wave of excitation along the tube is produced at any desired speed by controlling the timing of pulse generating modules that supply a tangential electric field to the tube wall. Because of the ability to control the speed of this virtual wave, the accelerator is capable of handling any charge to mass ratio particle; hence it can be used for electrons, protons and any ion. The accelerator architectures, key technologies and development challenges will be described.

  16. Switched matrix accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Whittum, David H.; Tantawi, Sami G.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a new concept for a microwave circuit functioning as a charged-particle accelerator at mm wavelengths, permitting an accelerating gradient higher than conventional passive circuits can withstand consistent with cyclic fatigue. The device provides acceleration for multiple bunches in parallel channels, and permits a short exposure time for the conducting surface of the accelerating cavities. Our analysis includes scalings based on a smooth transmission line model and a complementary treatment with a coupled-cavity simulation. We also provide an electromagnetic design for the accelerating structure, arriving at rough dimensions for a seven-cell accelerator matched to standard waveguide and suitable for bench tests at low power in air at 91.392 GHz. A critical element in the concept is a fast mm-wave switch suitable for operation at high power, and we present the considerations for implementation in an H-plane tee. We discuss the use of diamond as the photoconductor switch medium.

  17. Switched Matrix Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Whittum, David H

    2000-10-04

    We describe a new concept for a microwave circuit functioning as a charged-particle accelerator at mm-wavelengths, permitting an accelerating gradient higher than conventional passive circuits can withstand consistent with cyclic fatigue. The device provides acceleration for multiple bunches in parallel channels, and permits a short exposure time for the conducting surface of the accelerating cavities. Our analysis includes scalings based on a smooth transmission line model and a complementary treatment with a coupled-cavity simulation. We provide also an electromagnetic design for the accelerating structure, arriving at rough dimensions for a seven-cell accelerator matched to standard waveguide and suitable for bench tests at low power in air at 91.392. GHz. A critical element in the concept is a fast mm-wave switch suitable for operation at high-power, and we present the considerations for implementation in an H-plane tee. We discuss the use of diamond as the photoconductor switch medium.

  18. Operation of the accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.C.; Batzka, B.; Billquist, P.J.

    1995-08-01

    Fiscal Year 1994 was the first year of seven-day operation since ATLAS became a national user facility in 1985. ATLAS made the most of the opportunity this year by providing 5200 hours of beam on-target to the research program. A record number of 60 experiments were completed and the {open_quotes}facility reliability{close_quotes} remained near the 90% level. Seven-day operation was made possible with the addition to the staff of two operator positions providing single-operator coverage during the weekend period. The normally scheduled coverage was augmented by an on-call list of system experts who respond to emergencies with phone-in advice and return to the Laboratory when necessary. This staffing approach continues but we rearranged our staffing patterns so that we now have one cryogenics engineer working a shift pattern which includes 8-hour daily coverage during the weekend. ATLAS provided a beam mix to users consisting of 26 different isotopic species, 23% of which were for A>100 in FY 1994. Approximately 60% of the beam time was provided by the Positive Ion Injector, slightly less than the usage rate of FY 1993. Experiments using uranium or lead beams accounted for 16.4% of the total beam time. The ECR ion source and high-voltage platform functioned well throughout the year. A new technique for solid material production in the source was developed which uses a sputtering process wherein the sample of material placed near the plasma chamber wall is biased negatively. Plasma ions are accelerated into the sample and material is sputtered from the surface into the plasma. This technique is now used routinely for many elements. Runs of calcium, germanium, nickel, lead, tellurium, and uranium were carried out with this technique.

  19. Effect of curing agent polarity on water absorption and free volume in epoxy resin studied by PALS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junjun; Gong, Jing; Gong, Zhenli; Yan, Xiaoli; Wang, Bo; Wu, Qili; Li, Shanjun

    2010-07-01

    Microstructure and water absorption were systematically studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), gravimetric measurements and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) for epoxy resins DER331 (E51) cured with three different kinds of amine curing agents DDS, DDM and MOCA. Experimental results indicated that the water absorption as a function of immersed time could be well fitted to Fick's second law. Based on the gravimetric measurement, we found that the equilibrium water sorption M∞ and the diffusion coefficients D of the epoxy resins have an order: E51-DDS > E51-DDM > E51-MOCA, which indicated that the curing agent plays an important role in determining the content of the water absorbed. Positron experimental results showed that the o-Ps lifetime dramatically decreased with the immersed time from 0 to 6 h, which suggested that water molecules were filled into free-volume holes and the interaction between the water-polymer decreased the mobility of molecular chains. In order to deeply discern the influence of water absorption upon the free volume, the continuous lifetime analysis, i.e. the maximum entropy lifetime method (MELT) was employed to obtain the distributions of the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime and the of the free-volume holes. From MELT analyses, we found the existences of two the long-lived components ( τ3 and τ4), which indicated that two kinds of different o-Ps states exist. The shorter long-lived component ( τ3) is related to the segmental packing density in local ordered region. Compared to dry sample, two peaks of the o-Ps lifetime and the free-volume hole in the wet samples all drift to low values, especially, this drifts is more marked for the water sorption occurring at higher temperature 75 °C. This fact suggested that when the epoxy resin is in the glassy state, the interaction between the water and matrix restricts the motion of segmental chains and prevents from the free-volume hole swelling.

  20. Wake field accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.B.

    1986-02-01

    In a wake field accelerator a high current driving bunch injected into a structure or plasma produces intense induced fields, which are in turn used to accelerate a trailing charge or bunch. The basic concepts of wake field acceleration are described. Wake potentials for closed cavities and periodic structures are derived, as are wake potentials on a collinear path with a charge distribution. Cylindrically symmetric structures excited by a beam in the form of a ring are considered. (LEW)

  1. ACCELERATION RESPONSIVE SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Chabrek, A.F.; Maxwell, R.L.

    1963-07-01

    An acceleration-responsive device with dual channel capabilities whereby a first circuit is actuated upon attainment of a predetermined maximum acceleration level and when the acceleration drops to a predetermined minimum acceleriltion level another circuit is actuated is described. A fluid-damped sensing mass slidably mounted in a relatively frictionless manner on a shaft through the intermediation of a ball bushing and biased by an adjustable compression spring provides inertially operated means for actuating the circuits. (AEC)

  2. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Fraser, John S.; Sheffield, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radio frequency powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  3. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Fraser, J.S.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1985-05-20

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radiofrequency-powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  4. Acceleration of polarized protons in circular accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.

    1980-09-12

    The theory of depolarization in circular accelerators is presented. The spin equation is first expressed in terms of the particle orbit and then converted to the equivalent spinor equation. The spinor equation is then solved for three different situations: (1) a beam on a flat top near a resonance, (2) uniform acceleration through an isolated resonance, and (3) a model of a fast resonance jump. Finally, the depolarization coefficient, epsilon, is calculated in terms of properties of the particle orbit and the results are applied to a calculation of depolarization in the AGS.

  5. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Robert B.

    1986-01-01

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams into the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  6. Particle acceleration in flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, Arnold O.; Kosugi, Takeo; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Benka, Steve G.; Chupp, Edward L.; Enome, Shinzo; Garcia, Howard; Holman, Gordon D.; Kurt, Victoria G.; Sakao, Taro

    1994-01-01

    Particle acceleration is intrinsic to the primary energy release in the impulsive phase of solar flares, and we cannot understand flares without understanding acceleration. New observations in soft and hard X-rays, gamma-rays and coherent radio emissions are presented, suggesting flare fragmentation in time and space. X-ray and radio measurements exhibit at least five different time scales in flares. In addition, some new observations of delayed acceleration signatures are also presented. The theory of acceleration by parallel electric fields is used to model the spectral shape and evolution of hard X-rays. The possibility of the appearance of double layers is further investigated.

  7. Accelerator-based BNCT.

    PubMed

    Kreiner, A J; Baldo, M; Bergueiro, J R; Cartelli, D; Castell, W; Thatar Vento, V; Gomez Asoia, J; Mercuri, D; Padulo, J; Suarez Sandin, J C; Erhardt, J; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Igarzabal, M; Minsky, D M; Herrera, M S; Capoulat, M E; Gonzalez, S J; del Grosso, M F; Gagetti, L; Suarez Anzorena, M; Gun, M; Carranza, O

    2014-06-01

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the (9)Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases.

  8. Accelerator-based BNCT.

    PubMed

    Kreiner, A J; Baldo, M; Bergueiro, J R; Cartelli, D; Castell, W; Thatar Vento, V; Gomez Asoia, J; Mercuri, D; Padulo, J; Suarez Sandin, J C; Erhardt, J; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Igarzabal, M; Minsky, D M; Herrera, M S; Capoulat, M E; Gonzalez, S J; del Grosso, M F; Gagetti, L; Suarez Anzorena, M; Gun, M; Carranza, O

    2014-06-01

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the (9)Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases. PMID:24365468

  9. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Robert B.

    1986-09-02

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams into the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  10. LANGUAGE LABORATORIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUBAKER, CHARLES WILLIAM

    THE USE OF THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY HAS GIVEN MANY THOUSANDS OF INDIVIDUALS GOOD LISTENING AND SPEAKING PRACTICE AND HAS BECOME AN EFFECTIVE LEARNING TOOL. THE BASIC PIECE OF EQUIPMENT OF THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY IS THE TAPE RECORDER-AND-PLAYBACK, DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH AUDIOPASSIVE STUDY, AUDIOACTIVE STUDY, AUDIOACTIVE-COMPARATIVE STUDY, AND…

  11. Learning Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Lyn; Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Considers the school library media center as an information learning laboratory. Topics include information literacy; Kuhlthau's Information Search Process model; inquiry theory and approach; discovery learning; process skills of laboratory science; the information scientist; attitudes of media specialists, teachers, and students; displays and Web…

  12. Prospects of High Energy Laboratory Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, J.S.T.; Chen, P.; /SLAC

    2006-09-21

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) have been observed but their sources and production mechanisms are yet to be understood. We envision a laboratory astrophysics program that will contribute to the understanding of cosmic accelerators with efforts to: (1) test and calibrate UHECR observational techniques, and (2) elucidate the underlying physics of cosmic acceleration through laboratory experiments and computer simulations. Innovative experiments belonging to the first category have already been done at the SLAC FFTB. Results on air fluorescence yields from the FLASH experiment are reviewed. Proposed future accelerator facilities can provided unprecedented high-energy-densities in a regime relevant to cosmic acceleration studies and accessible in a terrestrial environment for the first time. We review recent simulation studies of nonlinear plasma dynamics that could give rise to cosmic acceleration, and discuss prospects for experimental investigation of the underlying mechanisms.

  13. Angular velocities, angular accelerations, and coriolis accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.

    1975-01-01

    Weightlessness, rotating environment, and mathematical analysis of Coriolis acceleration is described for man's biological effective force environments. Effects on the vestibular system are summarized, including the end organs, functional neurology, and input-output relations. Ground-based studies in preparation for space missions are examined, including functional tests, provocative tests, adaptive capacity tests, simulation studies, and antimotion sickness.

  14. Impact of soil field water capacity on secondary metabolites, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), maliondialdehyde (MDA) and photosynthetic responses of Malaysian kacip fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Mohamad Fakri, Nur Farhana

    2012-06-13

    A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER) (100%; well watered), (75%, moderate water stress), (50%; high water stress) and (25%; severe water stress). The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100%) ER L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (f(v)/f(m)) and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement) compared to severe water stress (25% ER). From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth.

  15. A novel design of dual-channel optical system of star-tracker based on non-blind area PAL system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yujie; Bai, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Star-tracker plays an important role in satellite navigation. Considering the satellites on near-Earth orbit, the system usually has two optical systems: one for observing the profile of Earth and the other for capturing the positions of stars. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel kind of dual-channel optical observation system of star-tracker with non-blind area PAL imaging system based on dichroic filter, which can combine both different observation channels into an integrated structure and realize the feature of miniaturization. According to the practical usage of star-tracker and the features of dichroic filter, we set the ultraviolet band as the PAL channel to observe the Earth with the FOV ranging from 40°-60°, and set the visible band as the front imaging channel to capture the stars far away from this system with the FOV ranging from 0°-20°. Consequently, the rays of both channels are converged on the same image plane, improving the efficiency of pixels of detector and reducing the weight and size of whole star-tracker system.

  16. Application of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) to study the nanostructure in amphiphile self-assembly materials: phytantriol cubosomes and hexosomes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Aurelia W; Fong, Celesta; Waddington, Lynne J; Hill, Anita J; Boyd, Ben J; Drummond, Calum J

    2015-01-21

    Self-assembled amphiphile nanostructures of colloidal dimensions such as cubosomes and hexosomes are of interest as delivery vectors in pharmaceutical and nanomedicine applications. Translation would be assisted through a better of understanding of the effects of drug loading on the internal nanostructure, and the relationship between this nanostructure and drug release profile. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is sensitive to local microviscosity and is used as an in situ molecular probe to examine the Q2 (cubosome) → H2 (hexosome) → L2 phase transitions of the pharmaceutically relevant phytantriol-water system in the presence of a model hydrophobic drug, vitamin E acetate (VitEA). It is shown that the ortho-positronium lifetime (τ) is sensitive to molecular packing and mobility and this has been correlated with the rheological properties of individual lyotropic liquid crystalline mesophases. Characteristic PALS lifetimes for L2 (τ4∼ 4 ns) ∼ H2 (τ4∼ 4 ns) > Q(2 Pn3m) (τ4∼ 2.2 ns) are observed for the phytantriol-water system, with the addition of VitEA yielding a gradual increase in τ from τ∼ 2.2 ns for cubosomes to τ∼ 3.5 ns for hexosomes. The dynamic chain packing at higher temperatures and in the L2 and H2 phases is qualitatively less "viscous", consistent with rheological measurements. This information offers increased understanding of the relationship between internal nanostructure and species permeability.

  17. The Naples University 3 MV tandem accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Campajola, L.; Brondi, A.

    2013-07-18

    The 3 MV tandem accelerator of the Naples University is used for research activities and applications in many fields. At the beginning of operation (1977) the main utilization was in the field of nuclear physics. Later, the realization of new beam lines allowed the development of applied activities as radiocarbon dating, ion beam analysis, biophysics, ion implantation etc. At present, the availability of different ion sources and many improvements on the accelerator allow to run experiments in a wide range of subjects. An overview of the characteristics and major activities of the laboratory is presented.

  18. COMPACT ACCELERATOR CONCEPT FOR PROTON THERAPY

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G; Sampayan, S; Chen, Y; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Krogh, M; Nelson, S; Nunnally, W; Paul, A; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2006-08-18

    A new type of compact induction accelerator is under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that promises to increase the average accelerating gradient by at least an order of magnitude over that of existing induction machines. The machine is based on the use of high gradient vacuum insulators, advanced dielectric materials and switches and is being developed as a compact flash x-ray radiography source. Research describing an extreme variant of this technology aimed at proton therapy for cancer will be presented.

  19. Technology development for high power induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Birx, D.L.; Reginato, L.L.

    1985-06-11

    The marriage of Induction Linac technology with Nonlinear Magnetic Modulators has produced some unique capabilities. It appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, at gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, and with power efficiencies approaching 50%. A 2 MeV, 5 kA electron accelerator has been constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to demonstrate these concepts and to provide a test facility for high brightness sources. The pulse drive for the accelerator is based on state-of-the-art magnetic pulse compressors with very high peak power capability, repetition rates exceeding a kilohertz and excellent reliability.

  20. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    SciTech Connect

    Lach, Joseph; /Fermilab

    2010-07-01

    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?

  1. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    SciTech Connect

    Lach, Joseph

    2010-07-29

    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?.

  2. Accelerators (4/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  3. Induction linear accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birx, Daniel

    1992-03-01

    Among the family of particle accelerators, the Induction Linear Accelerator is the best suited for the acceleration of high current electron beams. Because the electromagnetic radiation used to accelerate the electron beam is not stored in the cavities but is supplied by transmission lines during the beam pulse it is possible to utilize very low Q (typically<10) structures and very large beam pipes. This combination increases the beam breakup limited maximum currents to of order kiloamperes. The micropulse lengths of these machines are measured in 10's of nanoseconds and duty factors as high as 10-4 have been achieved. Until recently the major problem with these machines has been associated with the pulse power drive. Beam currents of kiloamperes and accelerating potentials of megavolts require peak power drives of gigawatts since no energy is stored in the structure. The marriage of liner accelerator technology and nonlinear magnetic compressors has produced some unique capabilities. It now appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, peak currents in kiloamperes and gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, with power efficiencies approaching 50%. The nonlinear magnetic compression technology has replaced the spark gap drivers used on earlier accelerators with state-of-the-art all-solid-state SCR commutated compression chains. The reliability of these machines is now approaching 1010 shot MTBF. In the following paper we will briefly review the historical development of induction linear accelerators and then discuss the design considerations.

  4. Accelerators (3/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  5. Accelerators (5/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  6. Accelerators (5/5)

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-09

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  7. Accelerators (4/5)

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-08

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  8. Accelerators (3/5)

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-07

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  9. Ion Induction Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, John J.; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    The description of beams in RF and induction accelerators share many common features. Likewise, there is considerable commonality between electron induction accelerators (see Chap. 7) and ion induction accelerators. However, in contrast to electron induction accelerators, there are fewer ion induction accelerators that have been operated as application-driven user facilities. Ion induction accelerators are envisioned for applications (see Chap. 10) such as Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF), High Energy Density Physics (HEDP), and spallation neutron sources. Most ion induction accelerators constructed to date have been limited scale facilities built for feasibility studies for HIF and HEDP where a large numbers of ions are required on target in short pulses. Because ions are typically non-relativistic or weakly relativistic in much of the machine, space-charge effects can be of crucial importance. This contrasts the situation with electron machines, which are usually strongly relativistic leading to weaker transverse space-charge effects and simplified longitudinal dynamics. Similarly, the bunch structure of ion induction accelerators relative to RF machines results in significant differences in the longitudinal physics.

  10. Particle Acceleration in Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    2005-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma ray burst (GRBs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Fermi acceleration is the mechanism usually assumed for the acceleration of particles in astrophysical environments.

  11. Microscale acceleration history discriminators

    DOEpatents

    Polosky, Marc A.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

  12. KEK digital accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwashita, T.; Adachi, T.; Takayama, K.; Leo, K. W.; Arai, T.; Arakida, Y.; Hashimoto, M.; Kadokura, E.; Kawai, M.; Kawakubo, T.; Kubo, Tomio; Koyama, K.; Nakanishi, H.; Okazaki, K.; Okamura, K.; Someya, H.; Takagi, A.; Tokuchi, A.; Wake, M.

    2011-07-01

    The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA) is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006. The existing 40 MeV drift tube linac and rf cavities have been replaced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source embedded in a 200 kV high-voltage terminal and induction acceleration cells, respectively. A DA is, in principle, capable of accelerating any species of ion in all possible charge states. The KEK-DA is characterized by specific accelerator components such as a permanent magnet X-band ECR ion source, a low-energy transport line, an electrostatic injection kicker, an extraction septum magnet operated in air, combined-function main magnets, and an induction acceleration system. The induction acceleration method, integrating modern pulse power technology and state-of-art digital control, is crucial for the rapid-cycle KEK-DA. The key issues of beam dynamics associated with low-energy injection of heavy ions are beam loss caused by electron capture and stripping as results of the interaction with residual gas molecules and the closed orbit distortion resulting from relatively high remanent fields in the bending magnets. Attractive applications of this accelerator in materials and biological sciences are discussed.

  13. FERMI&Elettra Accelerator Technical Optimization Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cornacchia, M.; Craievich, P.; Di Mitri, S.; Pogorelov, I.; Qiang, J.; Venturini, M.; Zholents, A.; Wang, D.; Warnock, R.; /SLAC

    2007-04-30

    This chapter describes the accelerator physics aspects, the engineering considerations and the choice of parameters that led to the accelerator design of the FERMI Free-Electron-Laser. The accelerator (also called the ''electron beam delivery system'') covers the region from the exit of the injector to the entrance of the first FEL undulator. The considerations that led to the proposed configuration were made on the basis of a study that explored various options and performance limits. This work follows previous studies of x-ray FEL facilities (SLAC LCLS [1], DESY XFEL [2], PAL XFEL [3], MIT [4], BESSY FEL [5], LBNL LUX [6], Daresbury 4GLS [7]) and integrates many of the ideas that were developed there. Several issues specific to harmonic cascade FELs, and that had not yet been comprehensively studied, were also encountered and tackled. A particularly difficult issue was the need to meet the requirement for high peak current and small slice energy spread, as the specification for the ratio of these two parameters (that defines the peak brightness of the electron beam) is almost a factor of two higher than that of the LCLS's SASE FEL. Another challenging aspect was the demand to produce an electron beam with as uniform as possible peak current and energy distributions along the bunch, a condition that was met by introducing novel beam dynamics techniques. Part of the challenge was due to the fact that there were no readily available computational tools to carry out reliable calculations, and these had to be developed. Most of the information reported in this study is available in the form of scientific publications, and is partly reproduced here for the convenience of the reader.

  14. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, J.; Huray, P.G.

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  15. Controllable Laser Ion Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, S.; Kamiyama, D.; Ohtake, Y.; Takano, M.; Barada, D.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Gu, Y. J.; Wang, W. M.; Limpouch, J.; Andreev, A.; Bulanov, S. V.; Sheng, Z. M.; Klimo, O.; Psikal, J.; Ma, Y. Y.; Li, X. F.; Yu, Q. S.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper a future laser ion accelerator is discussed to make the laser-based ion accelerator compact and controllable. Especially a collimation device is focused in this paper. The future laser ion accelerator should have an ion source, ion collimators, ion beam bunchers, and ion post acceleration devices [Laser Therapy 22, 103(2013)]: the ion particle energy and the ion energy spectrum are controlled to meet requirements for a future compact laser ion accelerator for ion cancer therapy or for other purposes. The energy efficiency from the laser to ions is improved by using a solid target with a fine sub-wavelength structure or a near-critical density gas plasma. The ion beam collimation is performed by holes behind the solid target or a multi-layered solid target. The control of the ion energy spectrum and the ion particle energy, and the ion beam bunching would be successfully realized by a multistage laser-target interaction.

  16. Cascaded radiation pressure acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Zhikun; Shen, Baifei E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Zhang, Xiaomei E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Wang, Wenpeng; Zhang, Lingang; Yi, Longqing; Shi, Yin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-07-15

    A cascaded radiation-pressure acceleration scheme is proposed. When an energetic proton beam is injected into an electrostatic field moving at light speed in a foil accelerated by light pressure, protons can be re-accelerated to much higher energy. An initial 3-GeV proton beam can be re-accelerated to 7 GeV while its energy spread is narrowed significantly, indicating a 4-GeV energy gain for one acceleration stage, as shown in one-dimensional simulations and analytical results. The validity of the method is further confirmed by two-dimensional simulations. This scheme provides a way to scale proton energy at the GeV level linearly with laser energy and is promising to obtain proton bunches at tens of gigaelectron-volts.

  17. Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2011-10-24

    Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

  18. Accelerator Technology Program. Status report, April-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Jameson, R.A.; Schriber, S.O.

    1986-09-01

    This report presents highlights of major projects in the Accelerator Technology (AT) Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Radio-frequency and microwave technology are dealt with. The p-bar gravity experiment, accelerator theory and simulation activities, the Proton Storage Ring, and the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test accelerator are discussed. Activities on the proposed LAMPF II accelerator, the BEAR (Beam Experiment Aboard Rocket) project, beam dynamics, the National Bureau of Standards racetrack microtron, and the University of Illinois racetrack microtron are covered. Papers published by AT-Division personnel during this reporting period are listed.

  19. Improvement of Space Shuttle Main Engine Low Frequency Acceleration Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stec, Robert C.

    1999-01-01

    The noise floor of low frequency acceleration data acquired on the Space Shuttle Main Engines is higher than desirable. Difficulties of acquiring high quality acceleration data on this engine are discussed. The approach presented in this paper for reducing the acceleration noise floor focuses on a search for an accelerometer more capable of measuring low frequency accelerations. An overview is given of the current measurement system used to acquire engine vibratory data. The severity of vibration, temperature, and moisture environments are considered. Vibratory measurements from both laboratory and rocket engine tests are presented.

  20. Vacuum Insulator Development for the Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J R; Blackfield, D; Caporaso, G J; Chen, Y; Hawkins, S; Kendig, M; Poole, B; Sanders, D M; Krogh, M; Managan, J E

    2008-03-17

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we are developing a new type of accelerator, known as a Dielectric Wall Accelerator, in which compact pulse forming lines directly apply an accelerating field to the beam through an insulating vacuum boundary. The electrical strength of this insulator may define the maximum gradient achievable in these machines. To increase the system gradient, we are using 'High Gradient Insulators' composed of alternating layers of dielectric and metal for the vacuum insulator. In this paper, we present our recent results from experiment and simulation, including the first test of a High Gradient Insulator in a functioning Dielectric Wall Accelerator cell.

  1. Status of the Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, John; Clark, Mike; Endrizzi, Doug; Flanagan, Ken; Milhone, Jason; Peterson, Ethan; Olson, Joseph; Stemo, Aaron; Weisberg, Dave; Egedal, Jan; Forest, Cary

    2015-11-01

    The Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Laboratory (WiPAL) is a facility that now encompasses a collection of novel plasma astrophysics experimental configurations. In the MPDX configuration large, un-magnetized, fast flowing, hot plasma is being used to investigate a variety of flow driven MHD instabilities. The experiment is 3 meters in diameter and utilizes a permanent magnet multicusp plasma confinement. Five 20KW, 2.45 GHz, CW magnetrons produce electron cyclotron heating for plasma generation. Ten lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) stirring rods and molybdenum anodes are inserted into the vessel to produce JxB flows. The chamber has a variety of multiuse ports, and is able to split open to allow experimental apparatus to be inserted. This poster will describe recent improvements to the laboratory. We will also provide an overview of existing and future experimental configurations including: reconnection (TREX); acoustic and Alfven wave propagation in connection with helioseismology; pulsar and stellar wind launching from a rotating dipolar magnetosphere; jet formation and propagation into background plasma; and small-scale, high power helicity injection. Construction was funded by the NSF Major Research Instrumentation program (ARRA), DOE, and CMSO.

  2. Debris and micrometeorite impact measurements in the laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resnick, J.; Grun, J.; Crawford, J.; Burris, R.; Manka, C. K.; Ford, J. L.; Ripin, B. H.

    1992-01-01

    A method was developed to simulate space debris in the laboratory. This method, which is an outgrowth of research in inertial confinement fusion (ICF), uses laser ablation to accelerate material. Using this method, single 60 micron aluminum spheres were accelerated to 15 km/sec and larger 500 micron aluminum spheres were accelerated to 2 km/sec. Also, many small (less than 10 micron diameter) irregularly shaped particles were accelerated to speeds of 100 km/sec.

  3. Chemical Synthesis Accelerated by Paper Spray: The Haloform Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Ryan M.; Pulliam, Christopher J.; Raab, Shannon A.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2016-01-01

    In this laboratory, students perform a synthetic reaction in two ways: (i) by traditional bulk-phase reaction and (ii) in the course of reactive paper spray ionization. Mass spectrometry (MS) is used both as an analytical method and a means of accelerating organic syntheses. The main focus of this laboratory exercise is that the same ionization…

  4. New estimation method of neutron skyshine for a high-energy particle accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Joo-Hee; Jung, Nam-Suk; Lee, Hee-Seock; Ko, Seung-Kook

    2016-09-01

    A skyshine is the dominant component of the prompt radiation at off-site. Several experimental studies have been done to estimate the neutron skyshine at a few accelerator facilities. In this work, the neutron transports from a source place to off-site location were simulated using the Monte Carlo codes, FLUKA and PHITS. The transport paths were classified as skyshine, direct (transport), groundshine and multiple-shine to understand the contribution of each path and to develop a general evaluation method. The effect of each path was estimated in the view of the dose at far locations. The neutron dose was calculated using the neutron energy spectra obtained from each detector placed up to a maximum of 1 km from the accelerator. The highest altitude of the sky region in this simulation was set as 2 km from the floor of the accelerator facility. The initial model of this study was the 10 GeV electron accelerator, PAL-XFEL. Different compositions and densities of air, soil and ordinary concrete were applied in this calculation, and their dependences were reviewed. The estimation method used in this study was compared with the well-known methods suggested by Rindi, Stevenson and Stepleton, and also with the simple code, SHINE3. The results obtained using this method agreed well with those using Rindi's formula.

  5. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Medical Devices Products and Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Laboratory Tests Share Tweet Linkedin ... Approved Home and Lab Tests Find All In Vitro Diagnostic Products and Decision Summaries Since November 2003 ...

  6. Large electrostatic accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators.

  7. Analyzing radial acceleration with a smartphone acceleration sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Patrik; Kuhn, Jochen

    2013-03-01

    This paper continues the sequence of experiments using the acceleration sensor of smartphones (for description of the function and the use of the acceleration sensor, see Ref. 1) within this column, in this case for analyzing the radial acceleration.

  8. Teaching and Research with Accelerators at Tarleton State University

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, Daniel K.

    2009-03-10

    Tarleton State University students began performing both research and laboratory experiments using accelerators in 1998 through visitation programs at the University of North Texas, US Army Research Laboratory, and the Naval Surface Warfare Center at Carderock. In 2003, Tarleton outfitted its new science building with a 1 MV pelletron that was donated by the California Institution of Technology. The accelerator has been upgraded and supports a wide range of classes for both the Physics program and the ABET accredited Engineering Physics program as well as supplying undergraduate research opportunities on campus. A discussion of various laboratory activities and research projects performed by Tarleton students will be presented.

  9. 15 Years of R&D on high field accelerator magnets at FNAL

    DOE PAGES

    Barzi, Emanuela; Zlobin, Alexander V.

    2016-07-01

    The High Field Magnet (HFM) Program at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) has been developing Nb3Sn superconducting magnets, materials and technologies for present and future particle accelerators since the late 1990s. This paper summarizes the main results of the Nb3Sn accelerator magnet and superconductor R&D at FNAL and outlines the Program next steps.

  10. Confronting Twin Paradox Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Thomas W.

    2016-05-01

    The resolution to the classic twin paradox in special relativity rests on the asymmetry of acceleration. Yet most students are not exposed to a satisfactory analysis of what exactly happens during the acceleration phase that results in the nonaccelerated observer's more rapid aging. The simple treatment presented here offers both graphical and quantitative solutions to the problem, leading to the correct result that the acceleration-induced age gap is 2Lβ years when the one-way distance L is expressed in light-years and velocity β ≡v/c .

  11. Twisted waveguide accelerating structure.

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y. W.

    2000-08-15

    A hollow waveguide with a uniform cross section may be used for accelerating charged particles if the phase velocity of an accelerating mode is equal to or less than the free space speed of light. Regular straight hollow waveguides have phase velocities of propagating electromagnetic waves greater than the free-space speed of light. if the waveguide is twisted, the phase velocities of the waveguide modes become slower. The twisted waveguide structure has been modeled and computer simulated in 3-D electromagnetic solvers to show the slow-wave properties for the accelerating mode.

  12. Ion beam accelerator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system is described that combines geometrical and electrostatic focusing to provide high ion extraction efficiency and good focusing of an accelerated ion beam. The apparatus includes a pair of curved extraction grids (16, 18) with multiple pairs of aligned holes positioned to direct a group of beamlets (20) along converging paths. The extraction grids are closely spaced and maintained at a moderate potential to efficiently extract beamlets of ions and allow them to combine into a single beam (14). An accelerator electrode device (22) downstream from the extraction grids, is at a much lower potential than the grids to accelerate the combined beam.

  13. Ion beam accelerator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system is described that combines geometrical and electrostatic focusing to provide high ion extraction efficiency and good focusing of an accelerated ion beam. The apparatus includes a pair of curved extraction grids with multiple pairs of aligned holes positioned to direct a group of beamlets along converging paths. The extraction grids are closely spaced and maintained at a moderate potential to efficiently extract beamlets of ions and allow them to combine into a single beam. An accelerator electrode device downstream from the extraction grids is at a much lower potential than the grids to accelerate the combined beam. The application of the system to ion implantation is mentioned.

  14. The principle of phase stability and the accelerator program at Berkeley, 1945--1954

    SciTech Connect

    Lofgren, E.J.

    1994-07-01

    The discovery of the Principle of Phase Stability by Vladimir Veksler and Edwin McMillian and the end of the war released a surge of accelerator activity at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (then The University of California Radiation Laboratory). Six accelerators incorporating the Principle of Phase Stability were built in the period 1945--1954.

  15. Centrifuge Study of Pilot Tolerance to Acceleration and the Effects of Acceleration on Pilot Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creer, Brent Y.; Smedal, Harald A.; Wingrove, Rodney C.

    1960-01-01

    A research program the general objective of which was to measure the effects of various sustained accelerations on the control performance of pilots, was carried out on the Aviation Medical Acceleration Laboratory centrifuge, U.S. Naval Air Development Center, Johnsville, PA. The experimental setup consisted of a flight simulator with the centrifuge in the control loop. The pilot performed his control tasks while being subjected to acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a forward-facing pilot flying an atmosphere entry vehicle. The study was divided into three phases. In one phase of the program, the pilots were subjected to a variety of sustained linear acceleration forces while controlling vehicles with several different sets of longitudinal dynamics. Here, a randomly moving target was displayed to the pilot on a cathode-ray tube. For each combination of acceleration field and vehicle dynamics, pilot tracking accuracy was measured and pilot opinion of the stability and control characteristics was recorded. Thus, information was obtained on the combined effects of complexity of control task and magnitude and direction of acceleration forces on pilot performance. These tests showed that the pilot's tracking performance deteriorated markedly at accelerations greater than about 4g when controlling a lightly damped vehicle. The tentative conclusion was also reached that regardless of the airframe dynamics involved, the pilot feels that in order to have the same level of control over the vehicle, an increase in the vehicle dynamic stability was required with increases in the magnitudes of the acceleration impressed upon the pilot. In another phase, boundaries of human tolerance of acceleration were established for acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a pilot flying an orbital vehicle. A special pilot restraint system was developed to increase human tolerance to longitudinal decelerations. The results of the tests showed that human tolerance

  16. The EMMA Accelerator, a Diagnostic Systems Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, A.; Berg, J.; Bliss, N. Cox, G.; Dufau, M.; Gallagher, A.; Hill, C.; Jones, J.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Muratori, B.; Oates, A.; Shepherd B.; Smith, R.; Hock, K.; Holder, D.; Ibison, M., Kirkman I.; Borrell, R.; Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Wendt, M.

    2011-09-04

    The 'EMMA' Non-Scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (ns-FFAG) international project is currently being commissioned at Daresbury Laboratory, UK. This accelerator has been equipped with a number of diagnostic systems to facilitate this. These systems include a novel time-domain-multiplexing BPM system, moveable screen systems, a time-of-flight instrument, Faraday cups, and injection/extraction tomography sections to analyze the single bunch beams. An upgrade still to implement includes the installation of wall current monitors. This paper gives an overview of these systems and shows some data and results from the diagnostics that have contributed to the successful demonstration of a serpentine acceleration by this novel accelerator.

  17. High average power linear induction accelerator development

    SciTech Connect

    Bayless, J.R.; Adler, R.J.

    1987-07-01

    There is increasing interest in linear induction accelerators (LIAs) for applications including free electron lasers, high power microwave generators and other types of radiation sources. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed LIA technology in combination with magnetic pulse compression techniques to achieve very impressive performance levels. In this paper we will briefly discuss the LIA concept and describe our development program. Our goals are to improve the reliability and reduce the cost of LIA systems. An accelerator is presently under construction to demonstrate these improvements at an energy of 1.6 MeV in 2 kA, 65 ns beam pulses at an average beam power of approximately 30 kW. The unique features of this system are a low cost accelerator design and an SCR-switched, magnetically compressed, pulse power system. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Accelerator Facilities for Radiation Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1999-01-01

    HSRP Goals in Accelerator Use and Development are: 1.Need for ground-based heavy ion and proton facility to understand space radiation effects discussed most recently by NAS/NRC Report (1996). 2. Strategic Program Goals in facility usage and development: -(1) operation of AGS for approximately 600 beam hours/year; (2) operation of Loma Linda University (LLU) proton facility for approximately 400 beam hours/year; (3) construction of BAF facility; and (4) collaborative research at HIMAC in Japan and with other existing or potential international facilities. 3. MOA with LLU has been established to provide proton beams with energies of 40-250 important for trapped protons and solar proton events. 4. Limited number of beam hours available at Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

  19. Deuterium accelerator experiments for APT.

    SciTech Connect

    Causey, Rion A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hertz, Kristin L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Cowgill, Donald F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories in California initiated an experimental program to determine whether tritium retention in the tube walls and permeation through the tubes into the surrounding coolant water would be a problem for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT), and to find ways to mitigate the problem, if it existed. Significant holdup in the tube walls would limit the ability of APT to meet its production goals, and high levels of permeation would require a costly cleanup system for the cooling water. To simulate tritium implantation, a 200 keV accelerator was used to implant deuterium into Al 6061-T and SS3 16L samples at temperatures and particle fluxes appropriate for APT, for times varying between one week and five months. The implanted samples were characterized to determine the deuterium retention and Permeation. During the implantation, the D(d,p)T nuclear reaction was used to monitor the build-up of deuterium in the implant region of the samples. These experiments increased in sophistication, from mono-energetic deuteron implants to multi-energetic deuteron and proton implants, to more accurately reproduce the conditions expected in APT. Micron-thick copper, nickel, and anodized aluminum coatings were applied to the front surface of the samples (inside of the APT walls) in an attempt to lower retention and permeation. The reduction in both retention and permeation produced by the nickel coatings, and the ability to apply them to the inside of the APT tubes, indicate that both nickel-coated Al 6061-T6 and nickel-coated SS3 16L tubes would be effective for use in APT. The results of this work were submitted to the Accelerator Production of Tritium project in document number TPO-E29-Z-TNS-X-00050, APT-MP-01-17.

  20. Accelerator on a Chip

    ScienceCinema

    England, Joel

    2016-07-12

    SLAC's Joel England explains how the same fabrication techniques used for silicon computer microchips allowed their team to create the new laser-driven particle accelerator chips. (SLAC Multimedia Communications)

  1. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, R.B.

    1985-09-09

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator is described. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams onto the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  2. Non-accelerator experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, M.

    1986-01-01

    This report discusses several topics which can be investigated without the use of accelerators. Topics covered are: (1) proton decay, (2) atmospheric neutrinos, (3) neutrino detection, (4) muons from Cygnus X-3, and (5) the double-beta decay.

  3. Dielectric assist accelerating structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, D.; Yoshida, M.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2016-01-01

    A higher-order TM02 n mode accelerating structure is proposed based on a novel concept of dielectric loaded rf cavities. This accelerating structure consists of ultralow-loss dielectric cylinders and disks with irises which are periodically arranged in a metallic enclosure. Unlike conventional dielectric loaded accelerating structures, most of the rf power is stored in the vacuum space near the beam axis, leading to a significant reduction of the wall loss, much lower than that of conventional normal-conducting linac structures. This allows us to realize an extremely high quality factor and a very high shunt impedance at room temperature. A simulation of a 5 cell prototype design with an existing alumina ceramic indicates an unloaded quality factor of the accelerating mode over 120 000 and a shunt impedance exceeding 650 M Ω /m at room temperature.

  4. CLASHING BEAM PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Burleigh, R.J.

    1961-04-11

    A charged-particle accelerator of the proton synchrotron class having means for simultaneously accelerating two separate contra-rotating particle beams within a single annular magnet structure is reported. The magnet provides two concentric circular field regions of opposite magnetic polarity with one field region being of slightly less diameter than the other. The accelerator includes a deflector means straddling the two particle orbits and acting to collide the two particle beams after each has been accelerated to a desired energy. The deflector has the further property of returning particles which do not undergo collision to the regular orbits whereby the particles recirculate with the possibility of colliding upon subsequent passages through the deflector.

  5. Rare Isotope Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Guy

    2002-04-01

    The next frontier for low-energy nuclear physics involves experimentation with accelerated beams of short-lived radioactive isotopes. A new facility, the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), is proposed to produce large amount of these rare isotopes and post-accelerate them to energies relevant for studies in nuclear physics, astrophysics and the study of fundamental interactions at low energy. The basic science motivation for this facility will be introduced. The general facility layout, from the 400 kW heavy-ion superconducting linac used for production of the required isotopes to the novel production and extraction schemes and the highly efficient post-accelerator, will be presented. Special emphasis will be put on a number of technical breakthroughs and recent R&D results that enable this new facility.

  6. Accelerator on a Chip

    SciTech Connect

    England, Joel

    2014-06-30

    SLAC's Joel England explains how the same fabrication techniques used for silicon computer microchips allowed their team to create the new laser-driven particle accelerator chips. (SLAC Multimedia Communications)

  7. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  8. Wake field acceleration experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Where and how will wake field acceleration devices find use for other than, possibly, accelerators for high energy physics. I don't know that this can be responsibly answered at this time. What I can do is describe some recent results from an ongoing experimental program at Argonne which support the idea that wake field techniques and devices are potentially important for future accelerators. Perhaps this will spawn expanded interest and even new ideas for the use of this new technology. The Argonne program, and in particular the Advanced Accelerator Test Facility (AATF), has been reported in several fairly recent papers and reports. But because this is a substantially new audience for the subject, I will include a brief review of the program and the facility before describing experiments. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Vibration control in accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Montag, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the vast majority of accelerator applications, ground vibration amplitudes are well below tolerable magnet jitter amplitudes. In these cases, it is necessary and sufficient to design a rigid magnet support structure that does not amplify ground vibration. Since accelerator beam lines are typically installed at an elevation of 1-2m above ground level, special care has to be taken in order to avoid designing a support structure that acts like an inverted pendulum with a low resonance frequency, resulting in untolerable lateral vibration amplitudes of the accelerator components when excited by either ambient ground motion or vibration sources within the accelerator itself, such as cooling water pumps or helium flow in superconducting magnets. In cases where ground motion amplitudes already exceed the required jiter tolerances, for instance in future linear colliders, passive vibration damping or active stabilization may be considered.

  10. Collective field accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Luce, John S.

    1978-01-01

    A collective field accelerator which operates with a vacuum diode and utilizes a grooved cathode and a dielectric anode that operates with a relativistic electron beam with a .nu./.gamma. of .about. 1, and a plurality of dielectric lenses having an axial magnetic field thereabout to focus the collectively accelerated electrons and ions which are ejected from the anode. The anode and lenses operate as unoptimized r-f cavities which modulate and focus the beam.

  11. Rolamite acceleration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Briner, Clifton F.; Martin, Samuel B.

    1993-01-01

    A rolamite acceleration sensor which has a failsafe feature including a housing, a pair of rollers, a tension band wrapped in an S shaped fashion around the rollers, wherein the band has a force-generation cut out and a failsafe cut out or weak portion. The failsafe cut out or weak portion breaks when the sensor is subjected to an excessive acceleration so that the sensor fails in an open circuit (non-conducting) state permanently.

  12. Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, William

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) is an ongoing study of the small forces (vibrations and accelerations) on the ISS that result from the operation of hardware, crew activities, as well as dockings and maneuvering. Results will be used to generalize the types of vibrations affecting vibration-sensitive experiments. Investigators seek to better understand the vibration environment on the space station to enable future research.

  13. Rolamite acceleration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P.; Briner, C.F.; Martin, S.B.

    1993-12-21

    A rolamite acceleration sensor is described which has a failsafe feature including a housing, a pair of rollers, a tension band wrapped in an S shaped fashion around the rollers, wherein the band has a force-generation cut out and a failsafe cut out or weak portion. The failsafe cut out or weak portion breaks when the sensor is subjected to an excessive acceleration so that the sensor fails in an open circuit (non-conducting) state permanently. 6 figures.

  14. Amps particle accelerator definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The Particle Accelerator System of the AMPS (Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas in Space) payload is a series of charged particle accelerators to be flown with the Space Transportation System Shuttle on Spacelab missions. In the configuration presented, the total particle accelerator system consists of an energetic electron beam, an energetic ion accelerator, and both low voltage and high voltage plasma acceleration devices. The Orbiter is illustrated with such a particle accelerator system.

  15. Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators: SEPAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L.; Roberts, W. T.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Kawashima, N.; Marshall, J. A.; Moses, S. L.; Neubert, T.; Mende, S. B.; Choueiri, E. Y.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC), which flew on the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) 1 mission, used new techniques to study natural phenomena in the Earth's upper atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere by introducing energetic perturbations into the system from a high power electron beam with known characteristics. Properties of auroras were studied by directing the electron beam into the upper atmosphere while making measurements of optical emissions. Studies were also performed of the critical ionization velocity phenomenon.

  16. BNL ACCELERATOR TEST FACILITY CONTROL SYSTEM UPGRADE.

    SciTech Connect

    MALONE,R.; BEN-ZVI,I.; WANG,X.; YAKIMENKO,V.

    2001-06-18

    Brookhaven National Laboratory's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) has embarked on a complete upgrade of its decade old computer system. The planned improvements affect every major component: processors (Intel Pentium replaces VAXes), operating system (Linux/Real-Time Linux supplants OpenVMS), and data acquisition equipment (fast Ethernet equipment replaces CAMAC serial highway.) This paper summarizes the strategies and progress of the upgrade along with plans for future expansion.

  17. Laser Plasma Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malka, Victor

    The continuing development of powerful laser systems has permitted to extend the interaction of laser beams with matter far into the relativistic domain, and to demonstrate new approaches for producing energetic particle beams. The extremely large electric fields, with amplitudes exceeding the TV/m level, that are produced in plasma medium are of relevance particle acceleration. Since the value of this longitudinal electric field, 10,000 times larger than those produced in conventional radio-frequency cavities, plasma accelerators appear to be very promising for the development of compact accelerators. The incredible progresses in the understanding of laser plasma interaction physic, allows an excellent control of electron injection and acceleration. Thanks to these recent achievements, laser plasma accelerators deliver today high quality beams of energetic radiation and particles. These beams have a number of interesting properties such as shortness, brightness and spatial quality, and could lend themselves to applications in many fields, including medicine, radio-biology, chemistry, physics and material science,security (material inspection), and of course in accelerator science.

  18. Accelerators for America's Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Mei

    2016-03-01

    Particle accelerator, a powerful tool to energize beams of charged particles to a desired speed and energy, has been the working horse for investigating the fundamental structure of matter and fundermental laws of nature. Most known examples are the 2-mile long Stanford Linear Accelerator at SLAC, the high energy proton and anti-proton collider Tevatron at FermiLab, and Large Hadron Collider that is currently under operation at CERN. During the less than a century development of accelerator science and technology that led to a dazzling list of discoveries, particle accelerators have also found various applications beyond particle and nuclear physics research, and become an indispensible part of the economy. Today, one can find a particle accelerator at almost every corner of our lives, ranging from the x-ray machine at the airport security to radiation diagnostic and therapy in hospitals. This presentation will give a brief introduction of the applications of this powerful tool in fundermental research as well as in industry. Challenges in accelerator science and technology will also be briefly presented

  19. Laboratory directed research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-15

    The purposes of Argonne's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program are to encourage the development of novel concepts, enhance the Laboratory's R D capabilities, and further the development of its strategic initiatives. Among the aims of the projects supported by the Program are establishment of engineering proof-of-principle''; development of an instrumental prototype, method, or system; or discovery in fundamental science. Several of these project are closely associated with major strategic thrusts of the Laboratory as described in Argonne's Five Year Institutional Plan, although the scientific implications of the achieved results extend well beyond Laboratory plans and objectives. The projects supported by the Program are distributed across the major programmatic areas at Argonne. Areas of emphasis are (1) advanced accelerator and detector technology, (2) x-ray techniques in biological and physical sciences, (3) advanced reactor technology, (4) materials science, computational science, biological sciences and environmental sciences. Individual reports summarizing the purpose, approach, and results of projects are presented.

  20. Acceleration of 100 mA of H{sup {minus}} in a single channel electrostatic quadrupole accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, J.W.; Ackerman, G.D.; Chan, C.F.; Cooper, W.S.; de Vries, G.J.; Steele, W.F.; Stuart, M.E.; Vella, M.C.; Wells, R.P.; Inoue, T.; Okumura, Y.; Mizuno, M.

    1995-07-01

    Neutral beams for the next generation tokamaks will be based on multiampere negative ion beams with a beam energy of about 1.0 MeV and pulse lengths of a thousand seconds. High intensity dc beams at these levels of beam energy will require extensive development in electrostatic accelerators. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, a two-module electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator was built to accelerate ions to 200 keV. In this experiment, up to 100 mA of H{sup {minus}} beam current was obtained from a Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute cesiated volume source using a multiaperture preaccelerator which merged 19 beamlets into a single circular beam at the entrance to the ESQ accelerator. The H{sup {minus}} beam was accelerated by the ESQ to accelerate 200 keV without any significant beam loss or emittance growth. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  1. Diffusive Shock Acceleration and Reconnection Acceleration Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zank, G. P.; Hunana, P.; Mostafavi, P.; Le Roux, J. A.; Li, Gang; Webb, G. M.; Khabarova, O.; Cummings, A.; Stone, E.; Decker, R.

    2015-12-01

    Shock waves, as shown by simulations and observations, can generate high levels of downstream vortical turbulence, including magnetic islands. We consider a combination of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) and downstream magnetic-island-reconnection-related processes as an energization mechanism for charged particles. Observations of electron and ion distributions downstream of interplanetary shocks and the heliospheric termination shock (HTS) are frequently inconsistent with the predictions of classical DSA. We utilize a recently developed transport theory for charged particles propagating diffusively in a turbulent region filled with contracting and reconnecting plasmoids and small-scale current sheets. Particle energization associated with the anti-reconnection electric field, a consequence of magnetic island merging, and magnetic island contraction, are considered. For the former only, we find that (i) the spectrum is a hard power law in particle speed, and (ii) the downstream solution is constant. For downstream plasmoid contraction only, (i) the accelerated spectrum is a hard power law in particle speed; (ii) the particle intensity for a given energy peaks downstream of the shock, and the distance to the peak location increases with increasing particle energy, and (iii) the particle intensity amplification for a particular particle energy, f(x,c/{c}0)/f(0,c/{c}0), is not 1, as predicted by DSA, but increases with increasing particle energy. The general solution combines both the reconnection-induced electric field and plasmoid contraction. The observed energetic particle intensity profile observed by Voyager 2 downstream of the HTS appears to support a particle acceleration mechanism that combines both DSA and magnetic-island-reconnection-related processes.

  2. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  3. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) multi-user Tandem Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.C.

    1988-09-01

    An FN tandem laboratory, cofounded by several Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Divisions, Sandia Livermore, and the University of California Regents, is now operational at Livermore. The accelerator, formerly the University of Washington injector, has been upgraded with SF/sub 6/, Dowlish tubes, and a NEC pelletron charging system. A conventional duoplasmatron, a tritium source, and two Cs sputtering sources will be fielded on the accelerator. Pulsed beams will be available from two source positions. The laboratory has been designed to accommodate up to 19 experimental positions with excellent optics and working vacuum. The facility is unshielded with both accelerator and radiological systems under the control of a distributed microprocessor system. Research activities at the tandem include nuclear physics and astrophysics, materials science and characterization programs, and accelerator mass spectrometry for archaeology, biomedical, environmental and geoscience investigators. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Computational studies and optimization of wakefield accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Tsung, Frank S.; Bruhwiler, David L.; Cary, John R.; Esarey, Eric H.; Mori, Warren B.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Martins, Samuel F.; Katsouleas, Tom; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Fawley, William M.; Huang, Chengkun; Wang, Xiadong; Cowan, Ben; Decyk, Victor K.; Fonseca, Ricardo A.; Lu, Wei; Messmer, Peter; Mullowney, Paul; Nakamura, Kei; Paul, Kevin; Plateau, Guillaume R.; Schroeder, Carl B.; Silva, Luis O.; Toth, Csaba; Geddes, C.G.R.; Tzoufras, Michael; Antonsen, Tom; Vieira, Jorge; Leemans, Wim P.

    2008-06-16

    Laser- and particle beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerators produce accelerating fields thousands of times higher than radio-frequency accelerators, offering compactness and ultrafast bunches to extend the frontiers of high energy physics and to enable laboratory-scale radiation sources. Large-scale kinetic simulations provide essential understanding of accelerator physics to advance beam performance and stability and show and predict the physics behind recent demonstration of narrow energy spread bunches. Benchmarking between codes is establishing validity of the models used and, by testing new reduced models, is extending the reach of simulations to cover upcoming meter-scale multi-GeV experiments. This includes new models that exploit Lorentz boosted simulation frames to speed calculations. Simulations of experiments showed that recently demonstrated plasma gradient injection of electrons can be used as an injector to increase beam quality by orders of magnitude. Simulations are now also modeling accelerator stages of tens of GeV, staging of modules, and new positron sources to design next-generation experiments and to use in applications in high energy physics and light sources.

  5. L'Anti-Atlas occidental du Maroc: étude sédimentologique et reconstitutions paléogéographiques au Cambrien inférieur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benssaou, M.; Hamoumi, N.

    2001-04-01

    L'étude lithostratigraphique en sédimentologique des formations du Cambrien inférieur de l'Anti-Atlas occidental (Maroc) a permis de mettre en évidence la diversité extrême des faciès allant des faciès continentaux jusqu'au faciès franchement marins. La répartition verticale de ces faciès ainsi que leurs associations ont permis de (i) proposer un nouveau découpage de la succession en formations lithostratigraphiques, (ii) reconstituer les milieux de dépôt (système fluviatile, lacs, fan-deltas, milieu littoral, plate-forme dominée par des constructions stromatolitiques et récifales et plate-forme dominée par les tempêtes) et (iii) établir des modèles paléogéographiques retraçant les différentes étapes d'évolution de ce bassin qui fait partie de la plate-forme nord-gondwanienne au Cambrien inférieur. Lithostratigraphical and sedimentological studies of the Early Cambrian formations in the western Anti-Atlas (Morocco) evidence their large diversity of facies ranging from continental to clearly marine. Vertical distribution and associations of facies afford opportunities to (i) suggest a new classification of the sedimentary sequence in terms of lithostratigraphic formations, (ii) restore the depositional environments (fluvial system, lake, delta fan, coast, stromatolite and reef-dominated platform, tempest-dominated platform), and (iii) establish palæogeographic models displaying the different evolutionary stages of this basin that constituted a part of the Lower Cambrian north-Gondwanian platform.

  6. FERMI&Elettra Accelerator Technical Optimization FinalReport

    SciTech Connect

    Cornacchia, M.; Craievich, P.; Di Mitri, S.; Pogorelov, I.; Qiang, J.; Venturini, M.; Zholents, A.; Wang, D.; Warnock, R.

    2006-07-01

    This report describes the accelerator physics aspects, theengineering considerations and the choice of parameters that led to theaccelerator design of the FERMI Free-Electron-Laser. The accelerator(also called the "electron beam delivery system") covers the region fromthe exit of the injector to the entrance of the first FEL undulator. Theconsiderations that led to the proposed configuration were made on thebasis of a study that explored various options and performance limits.This work follows previous studies of x-ray FEL facilities (SLAC LCLS[1], DESY XFEL [2], PAL XFEL [3], MIT [4], BESSY FEL[5], LBNL LUX [6],Daresbury 4GLS [7]) and integrates many of the ideas that were developedthere. Several issues specific to harmonic cascade FELs, and that had notyet been comprehensively studied, were also encountered and tackled. Aparticularly difficult issue was the need to meet the requirement forhigh peak current and small slice energy spread, as the specification forthe ratio of these two parameters (that defines the peak brightness ofthe electron beam) is almost a factor of two higher than that of theLCLS's SASE FEL. Another challenging aspect was the demand to produce anelectron beam with as uniform as possible peak current and energydistributions along the bunch, a condition that was met by introducingnovel beam dynamics techniques. Part of the challenge was due to the factthat there were no readily available computational tools to carry outreliable calculations, and these had to be developed. Most of theinformation reported in this study is available in the form of scientificpublications, and is partly reproduced here for the convenience of thereader.

  7. Acceleration Disturbances onboard of Geodetic Precision Space Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterseim, Nadja; Jakob, Flury; Schlicht, Anja

    Bartlomiej Oszczak, b@dgps.pl University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland, Olsztyn, Poland Olga Maciejczyk, omaciejczyk@gmail.com Poland In this paper there is presented the study on the parameters of the ASG-EUPOS real-time RTK service NAWGEO such as: accuracy, availability, integrity and continuity. Author's model is used for tests. These parameters enable determination of the quality of received information and practical applications of the service. Paper includes also the subject related to the NAWGEO service and algorithms used in determination of mentioned parameters. The results of accuracy and precision analyses and study on availability demonstrated that NAWGEO service enables a user a position determination with a few centimeters accuracy with high probability in any moment of time.

  8. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Annual Program Review 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    This book is submitted as one written part of the 1999 Annual DOE High Energy Physics Program Review of Fermilab, scheduled May 5-7,1999. This book should be read in conjunction with the 1999 Fermilab Workbook and the review presentations.

  9. Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Aston, Graeme

    1989-01-01

    The Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) is a thruster concept which promises specific impulse levels between low power arcjets and those of the ion engine while retaining the relative simplicity of the arcjet. The EPA thruster produces thrust through the electrostatic acceleration of a moderately dense plasma. No accelerating electrodes are used and the specific impulse is a direct function of the applied discharge voltage and the propellant atomic mass. The goal of the present program is to demonstrate feasibility of the EPA thruster concept through experimental and theoretical investigations of the EPA acceleration mechanism and discharge chamber performance. Experimental investigations will include operating the test bed ion (TBI) engine as an EPA thruster and parametrically varying the thruster geometry and operating conditions to quantify the electrostatic plasma acceleration effect. The theoretical investigations will include the development of a discharge chamber model which describes the relationships between the engine size, plasma properties, and overall performance. For the EPA thruster to be a viable propulsion concept, overall thruster efficiencies approaching 30% with specific impulses approaching 1000 s must be achieved.

  10. Advanced accelerator theory development

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, S.E.; Houck, T.L.; Poole, B.; Tishchenko, N.; Vitello, P.A.; Wang, I.

    1998-02-09

    A new accelerator technology, the dielectric wall accelerator (DWA), is potentially an ultra compact accelerator/pulsed power driver. This new accelerator relies on three new components: the ultra-high gradient insulator, the asymmetric Blumlein and low jitter switches. In this report, we focused our attention on the first two components of the DWA system the insulators and the asymmetric Blumlein. First, we sought to develop the necessary design tools to model and scale the behavior of the high gradient insulator. To perform this task we concentrated on modeling the discharge processes (i.e., initiation and creation of the surface discharge). In addition, because these high gradient structures exhibit favorable microwave properties in certain accelerator configurations, we performed experiments and calculations to determine the relevant electromagnetic properties. Second, we performed circuit modeling to understand energy coupling to dynamic loads by the asymmetric Blumlein. Further, we have experimentally observed a non-linear coupling effect in certain asymmetric Blumlein configurations. That is, as these structures are stacked into a complete module, the output voltage does not sum linearly and a lower than expected output voltage results. Although we solved this effect experimentally, we performed calculations to understand this effect more fully to allow better optimization of this DWA pulse-forming line system.

  11. Introductory labs on the vector nature of force and acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanim, Stephen E.; Subero, Keron

    2010-05-01

    We discuss the use of long-exposure digital photography in introductory mechanics laboratories. Students at New Mexico State University use inexpensive digital cameras to record the motion of objects with attached blinking light emitting diodes. These photographs are used to make inferences about the velocity and acceleration of the moving object. We use the analysis of these photographs to promote student understanding of the vector nature of kinematics quantities. In subsequent laboratories we build on this understanding to help students relate the acceleration vector for a moving object to the net force vector for that object. We give details about the equipment we use and describe the sequence of activities that we have developed for a two-dimensional motion laboratory and for a laboratory on Newton's second law. Finally we present some pre- and post-test data on questions related to the concepts underlying these laboratories.

  12. The Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forest, C. B.; Flanagan, K.; Brookhart, M.; Clark, M.; Cooper, C. M.; Désangles, V.; Egedal, J.; Endrizzi, D.; Khalzov, I. V.; Li, H.; Miesch, M.; Milhone, J.; Nornberg, M.; Olson, J.; Peterson, E.; Roesler, F.; Schekochihin, A.; Schmitz, O.; Siller, R.; Spitkovsky, A.; Stemo, A.; Wallace, J.; Weisberg, D.; Zweibel, E.

    2015-10-01

    > provide an ideal testbed for a range of astrophysical experiments, including self-exciting dynamos, collisionless magnetic reconnection, jet stability, stellar winds and more. This article describes the capabilities of WiPAL, along with several experiments, in both operating and planning stages, that illustrate the range of possibilities for future users.

  13. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Carl B.

    1999-12-01

    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas.

  14. DIANA - An Underground Accelerator Facility for Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, Arthur

    2011-10-01

    Measuring nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest at stellar energies is usually a daunting task because the cross sections are very small and background rates can be comparatively large. Often, cosmic-ray interactions set the limit on experimental sensitivity, but can be reduced to an insignificant level by placing an accelerator underground -- as has been demonstrated by the LUNA accelerators in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory. The Dual Ion Accelerator facility for Nuclear Astrophysics (DIANA) is a proposed next-generation underground accelerator facility, which would be constructed at the 4850 ft level of the Homestake Mine in Lead, SD. This talk will describe DIANA and the questions in nuclear astrophysics that can be explored at such a laboratory.

  15. Beamlets from stochastic acceleration.

    PubMed

    Perri, Silvia; Carbone, Vincenzo

    2008-09-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a realization of the stochastic Fermi acceleration mechanism. The model consists of test particles moving between two oscillating magnetic clouds and differs from the usual Fermi-Ulam model in two ways. (i) Particles can penetrate inside clouds before being reflected. (ii) Particles can radiate a fraction of their energy during the process. Since the Fermi mechanism is at work, particles are stochastically accelerated, even in the presence of the radiated energy. Furthermore, due to a kind of resonance between particles and oscillating clouds, the probability density function of particles is strongly modified, thus generating beams of accelerated particles rather than a translation of the whole distribution function to higher energy. This simple mechanism could account for the presence of beamlets in some space plasma physics situations.

  16. Perturbations for transient acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Cristofher Zuñiga; Zimdahl, Winfried; Hipólito-Ricaldi, Wiliam S. E-mail: hipolito@ceunes.ufes.br

    2012-04-01

    According to the standard ΛCDM model, the accelerated expansion of the Universe will go on forever. Motivated by recent observational results, we explore the possibility of a finite phase of acceleration which asymptotically approaches another period of decelerated expansion. Extending an earlier study on a corresponding homogeneous and isotropic dynamics, in which interactions between dark matter and dark energy are crucial, the present paper also investigates the dynamics of the matter perturbations both on the Newtonian and General Relativistic (GR) levels and quantifies the potential relevance of perturbations of the dark-energy component. In the background, the model is tested against the Supernova type Ia (SNIa) data of the Constitution set and on the perturbative level against growth rate data, among them those of the WiggleZ survey, and the data of the 2dFGRS project. Our results indicate that a transient phase of accelerated expansion is not excluded by current observations.

  17. Acceleration radioisotope production simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, L.S.; Wilson, W.B.

    1996-12-31

    We have identified 96 radionuclides now being used or under consideration for use in medical applications. Previously, we calculated the production of {sup 99}Mo from enriched and depleted uranium targets at the 800-MeV energy used in the LAMPF accelerator at Los Alamos. We now consider the production of isotopes using lower energy beams, which may become available as a result of new high-intensity spallation target accelerators now being planned. The production of four radionuclides ({sup 7}Be, {sup 67}Cu, {sup 99}Mo, and {sup 195m}Pt) in a simplified proton accelerator target design is being examined. The LAHET, MCNP, and CINDER90 codes were used to model the target, transport a beam of protons and secondary produced particles through the system, and compute the nuclide production from spallation and low-energy neutron interactions. Beam energies of 200 and 400 MeV were used, and several targets were considered for each nuclide.

  18. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  19. Laser acceleration with open waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Ming

    1999-03-01

    A unified framework based on solid-state open waveguides is developed to overcome all three major limitations on acceleration distance and hence on the feasibility of two classes of laser acceleration. The three limitations are due to laser diffraction, acceleration phase slippage, and damage of waveguide structure by high power laser. The two classes of laser acceleration are direct-field acceleration and ponderomotive-driven acceleration. Thus the solutions provided here encompass all mainstream approaches for laser acceleration, either in vacuum, gases or plasmas.

  20. Uniform acceleration in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Yaakov; Scarr, Tzvi

    2015-10-01

    We extend de la Fuente and Romero's (Gen Relativ Gravit 47:33, 2015) defining equation for uniform acceleration in a general curved spacetime from linear acceleration to the full Lorentz covariant uniform acceleration. In a flat spacetime background, we have explicit solutions. We use generalized Fermi-Walker transport to parallel transport the Frenet basis along the trajectory. In flat spacetime, we obtain velocity and acceleration transformations from a uniformly accelerated system to an inertial system. We obtain the time dilation between accelerated clocks. We apply our acceleration transformations to the motion of a charged particle in a constant electromagnetic field and recover the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation.