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Sample records for accelerator laboratory sal

  1. An Overview of SAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bensalem, Saddek; Ganesh, Vijay; Lakhnech, Yassine; Munoz, Cesar; Owre, Sam; Ruess, Harald; Rushby, John; Rusu, Vlad; Saiedi, Hassen; Shankar, N.

    2000-01-01

    To become practical for assurance, automated formal methods must be made more scalable, automatic, and cost-effective. Such an increase in scope, scale, automation, and utility can be derived from an emphasis on a systematic separation of concerns during verification. SAL (Symbolic Analysis Laboratory) attempts to address these issues. It is a framework for combining different tools to calculate properties of concurrent systems. The heart of SAL is a language, developed in collaboration with Stanford, Berkeley, and Verimag for specifying concurrent systems in a compositional way. Our instantiation of the SAL framework augments PVS with tools for abstraction, invariant generation, program analysis (such as slicing), theorem proving, and model checking to separate concerns as well as calculate properties (i.e., perform, symbolic analysis) of concurrent systems. We. describe the motivation, the language, the tools, their integration in SAL/PAS, and some preliminary experience of their use.

  2. The Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility comprises a 50 MeV traveling wave electron linear accelerator utilizing a high gradient, photo-excited, raidofrequency electron gun as an injector and an experimental area for study of new acceleration methods or advanced radiation sources using free electron lasers. Early operation of the linear accelerator system including calculated and measured beam parameters are presented together with the experimental program for accelerator physics and free electron laser studies.

  3. The Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.

    1992-09-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility comprises a 50 MeV traveling wave electron linear accelerator utilizing a high gradient, photo-excited, raidofrequency electron gun as an injector and an experimental area for study of new acceleration methods or advanced radiation sources using free electron lasers. Early operation of the linear accelerator system including calculated and measured beam parameters are presented together with the experimental program for accelerator physics and free electron laser studies.

  4. Solving the AI Planning Plus Scheduling Problem Using Model Checking via Automatic Translation from the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL) to the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a translator from a new planning language named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL) to the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL) model checker. This translator has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats (SAVH) project sponsored by the Exploration Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for the vehicles and operations centers of Project Constellation.

  5. Vehicle Systems Integration Laboratory Accelerates Powertrain Development

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    ORNL's Vehicle Systems Integration (VSI) Laboratory accelerates the pace of powertrain development by performing prototype research and characterization of advanced systems and hardware components. The VSI Lab is capable of accommodating a range of platforms from advanced light-duty vehicles to hybridized Class 8 powertrains with the goals of improving overall system efficiency and reducing emissions.

  6. Numerical and laboratory simulations of auroral acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Gunell, H.; De Keyser, J.; Mann, I.

    2013-10-15

    The existence of parallel electric fields is an essential ingredient of auroral physics, leading to the acceleration of particles that give rise to the auroral displays. An auroral flux tube is modelled using electrostatic Vlasov simulations, and the results are compared to simulations of a proposed laboratory device that is meant for studies of the plasma physical processes that occur on auroral field lines. The hot magnetospheric plasma is represented by a gas discharge plasma source in the laboratory device, and the cold plasma mimicking the ionospheric plasma is generated by a Q-machine source. In both systems, double layers form with plasma density gradients concentrated on their high potential sides. The systems differ regarding the properties of ion acoustic waves that are heavily damped in the magnetosphere, where the ion population is hot, but weakly damped in the laboratory, where the discharge ions are cold. Ion waves are excited by the ion beam that is created by acceleration in the double layer in both systems. The efficiency of this beam-plasma interaction depends on the acceleration voltage. For voltages where the interaction is less efficient, the laboratory experiment is more space-like.

  7. Observation of particle acceleration in laboratory magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kawazura, Y.; Yoshida, Z.; Nishiura, M.; Saitoh, H.; Yano, Y.; Nogami, T.; Sato, N.; Yamasaki, M.; Kashyap, A.; Mushiake, T.

    2015-11-15

    The self-organization of magnetospheric plasma is brought about by inward diffusion of magnetized particles. Not only creating a density gradient toward the center of a dipole magnetic field, the inward diffusion also accelerates particles and provides a planetary radiation belt with high energy particles. Here, we report the first experimental observation of a “laboratory radiation belt” created in the ring trap 1 device. By spectroscopic measurement, we found an appreciable anisotropy in the ion temperature, proving the betatron acceleration mechanism which heats particles in the perpendicular direction with respect to the magnetic field when particles move inward. The energy balance model, including the heating mechanism, explains the observed ion temperature profile.

  8. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry in Laboratory Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusair, O.; Bauder, W.; Gyürky, G.; Paul, M.; Collon, P.; Fülöp, Zs; Greene, J.; Kinoshita, N.; Palchan, T.; Pardo, R.; Rehm, K. E.; Scott, R.; Vondrasek, R.

    2016-01-01

    The extreme sensitivity and discrimination power of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) allows for the search and the detection of rare nuclides either in natural samples or produced in the laboratory. At Argonne National Laboratory, we are developing an AMS setup aimed in particular at the detection of medium and heavy nuclides, relying on the high ion energy achievable with the ATLAS superconducting linear accelerator and on gas-filled magnet isobaric separation. The setup was recently used for the detection of the 146Sm p-process nuclide and for a new determination of the 146Sm half-life (68.7 My). AMS plays an important role in the measurement of stellar nuclear reaction cross sections by the activation method, extending thus the technique to the study of production of long-lived radionuclides. Preliminary measurements of the 147Sm(γ,n)146Sm are described. A measurement of the 142Nd(α,γ)146Sm and 142Nd(α,n)145Sm reactions is in preparation. A new laser-ablation method for the feeding of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source is described.

  9. SalSA status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Amy; SalSA Collaboration

    2009-06-01

    I review the status of SalSA, a proposed antenna array in a large volume salt formation for detecting ultra-high energy neutrinos. We report on measurements taken in 2007 of attenuation lengths in the 125-900 MHz frequency range at the Cote Blanche salt mine near New Iberia, Louisiana, which is the most precise in situ measurement of attenuation lengths in salt to date. We comment on the impact of these measurements on the feasibility of SalSA.

  10. The target laboratory of the Pelletron Accelerator's facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ueta, Nobuko; Pereira Engel, Wanda Gabriel

    2013-05-06

    A short report on the activities developed in the Target Laboratory, since 1970, will be presented. Basic target laboratory facilities were provided to produce the necessary nuclear targets as well as the ion beam stripper foils. Vacuum evaporation units, a roller, a press and an analytical balance were installed in the Oscar Sala building. A brief historical report will be presented in commemoration of the 40{sup th} year of the Pelletron Accelerator.

  11. Reproduction of natural corrosion by accelerated laboratory testing methods

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, J.S.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Mazer, J.J.; Bates, J.K.

    1996-05-01

    Various laboratory corrosion tests have been developed to study the behavior of glass waste forms under conditions similar to those expected in an engineered repository. The data generated by laboratory experiments are useful for understanding corrosion mechanisms and for developing chemical models to predict the long-term behavior of glass. However, it is challenging to demonstrate that these test methods produce results that can be directly related to projecting the behavior of glass waste forms over time periods of thousands of years. One method to build confidence in the applicability of the test methods is to study the natural processes that have been taking place over very long periods in environments similar to those of the repository. In this paper, we discuss whether accelerated testing methods alter the fundamental mechanisms of glass corrosion by comparing the alteration patterns that occur in naturally altered glasses with those that occur in accelerated laboratory environments. This comparison is done by (1) describing the alteration of glasses reacted in nature over long periods of time and in accelerated laboratory environments and (2) establishing the reaction kinetics of naturally altered glass and laboratory reacted glass waste forms.

  12. Modeling laser-plasma acceleration in the laboratory frame

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    A simulation of laser-plasma acceleration in the laboratory frame. Both the laser and the wakefield buckets must be resolved over the entire domain of the plasma, requiring many cells and many time steps. While researchers often use a simulation window that moves with the pulse, this reduces only the multitude of cells, not the multitude of time steps. For an artistic impression of how to solve the simulation by using the boosted-frame method, watch the video "Modeling laser-plasma acceleration in the wakefield frame."

  13. Absolute gravity acceleration measurement in atomic sensor laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the Florence University (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the measurement of forces with high spatial resolution are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are ( 980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and ( 980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  14. Low Energy Accelerator Laboratory Technical Area 53, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts that would be expected to occur if the Department of Energy (DOE) were to construct and operate a small research and development laboratory building at Technical Area (TA) 53 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico. DOE proposes to construct a small building to be called the Low Energy Accelerator Laboratory (LEAL), at a previously cleared, bladed, and leveled quarter-acre site next to other facilities housing linear accelerator research activities at TA-53. Operations proposed for LEAL would consist of bench-scale research, development, and testing of the initial section of linear particle accelerators. This initial section consists of various components that are collectively called an injector system. The anticipated life span of the proposed development program would be about 15 years.

  15. Post-accelerator issues at the IsoSpin Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Nitschke, J.M.

    1994-05-01

    The workshop on ``Post-Accelerator Issues at the Isospin Laboratory`` was held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory from October 27--29, 1993. It was sponsored by the Center for Beam Physics in the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division and the ISL Studies Group in the Nuclear Science Division. About forty scientists from around the world participated vigorously in this two and a half day workshop, (c.f. Agenda, Appendix D). Following various invited review talks from leading practitioners in the field on the first day, the workshop focussed around two working groups: (1) the Ion Source and Separators working group and (2) the Radio Frequency Quadrupoles and Linacs working group. The workshop closed with the two working groups summarizing and outlining the tasks for the future. This report documents the proceedings of the workshop and includes the invited review talks, the two summary talks from the working groups and individual contributions from the participants. It is a complete assemblage of state-of-the-art thinking on ion sources, low-{beta}, low(q/A) accelerating structures, e.g. linacs and RFQS, isobar separators, phase-space matching, cyclotrons, etc., as relevant to radioactive beam facilities and the IsoSpin Laboratory. We regret to say that while the fascinating topic of superconducting low-velocity accelerator structure was covered by Dr. K. Shepard during the workshop, we can only reproduce the copies of the transparencies of his talk in the Appendix, since no written manuscript was available at the time of publication of this report. The individual report have been catologed separately elsewhere.

  16. Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemmerer, D.; Cowan, T. E.; Gohl, S.; Ilgner, C.; Junghans, A. R.; Reinhardt, T. P.; Rimarzig, B.; Reinicke, S.; Röder, M.; Schmidt, K.; Schwengner, R.; Stöckel, K.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M.; Wagner, A.; Wagner, L.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-01

    Favored by the low background in underground laboratories, low-background accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used for many years with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, proteced from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies than those available at LUNA. Also the study of solar fusion reactions necessitates new data at higher energies. As a result, in the present NuPECC long range plan for nuclear physics in Europe, the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators is strongly recommended. An intercomparison exercise has been carried out using the same HPGe detector in a typical nuclear astrophysics setup at several sites, including the Dresden Felsenkeller underground laboratory. It was found that its rock overburden of 45m rock, together with an active veto against the remaining muon flux, reduces the background to a level that is similar to the deep underground scenario. Based on this finding, a used 5 MV pelletron tandem with 250 μA upcharge current and external sputter ion source has been obtained and transported to Dresden. Work on an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is underway. The project is now fully funded. The installation of the accelerator in the Felsenkeller is expected for the near future. The status of the project and the planned access possibilities for external users will be reported.

  17. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    SciTech Connect

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Nirkko, M.; Weber, M.; Scampoli, P.; Bremen, K. von

    2013-07-18

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University of Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study.

  18. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Nirkko, M.; Scampoli, P.; von Bremen, K.; Weber, M.

    2013-07-01

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University of Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study.

  19. PREFACE: Acceleration and radiation generation in space and laboratory plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, R.; Katsouleas, T.; Dawson, J. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-six leading researchers from ten nations gathered in the Homeric village of Kardamyli, on the southern coast of mainland Greece, from August 29-September 4, 1993 for the International Workshop on Acceleration and Radiation Generation in Space and Laboratory Plasmas. This Special Issue represents a cross-section of the presentations made at and the research stimulated by that meeting. According to the Iliad, King Agamemnon used Kardamyli as a dowry offering in order to draw a sulking Achilles into the Trojan War. 3000 years later, Kardamyli is no less seductive. Its remoteness and tranquility made it an ideal venue for promoting the free exchange of ideas between various disciplines that do not normally interact. Through invited presen tations, informal poster discussions and working group sessions, the Workshop brought together leaders from the laboratory and space/astrophysics communities working on common problems of acceleration and radiation generation in plasmas. It was clear from the presentation and discussion sessions that there is a great deal of common ground between these disciplines which is not at first obvious due to the differing terminologies and types of observations available to each community. All of the papers in this Special Issue highlight the role collective plasma processes play in accelerating particles or generating radiation. Some are state-of-the-art presentations of the latest research in a single discipline, while others investi gate the applicability of known laboratory mechanisms to explain observations in natural plasmas. Notable among the latter are the papers by Marshall et al. on kHz radiation in the magnetosphere ; Barletta et al. on collective acceleration in solar flares; and by Dendy et al. on ion cyclotron emission. The papers in this Issue are organized as follows: In Section 1 are four general papers by Dawson, Galeev, Bingham et al. and Mon which serves as an introduction to the physical mechanisms of acceleration

  20. Laboratory selection for an accelerated mosquito sexual development rate

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Separating males and females at the early adult stage did not ensure the virginity of females of Anopheles arabiensis (Dongola laboratory strain), whereas two years earlier this method had been successful. In most mosquito species, newly emerged males and females are not able to mate successfully. For anopheline species, a period of 24 h post-emergence is generally required for the completion of sexual maturation, which in males includes a 180° rotation of the genitalia. In this study, the possibility of an unusually shortened sexual maturity period in the laboratory-reared colony was investigated. Methods The effect of two different sex-separation methods on the virginity of females was tested: females separated as pupae or less than 16 h post-emergence were mated with males subjected to various doses of radiation. T-tests were performed to compare the two sex-separation methods. The rate of genitalia rotation was compared for laboratory-reared and wild males collected as pupae in Dongola, Sudan, and analysed by Z-tests. Spermatheca dissections were performed on females mated with laboratory-reared males to determine their insemination status. Results When the sex-separation was performed when adults were less than 16 h post-emergence, expected sterility was never reached for females mated with radio-sterilized males. Expected sterility was accomplished only when sexes were separated at the pupal stage. Observation of genitalia rotation showed that some males from the laboratory strain Dongola were able to successfully mate only 11 h after emergence and 42% of the males had already completed rotation. A small proportion of the same age females were inseminated. Wild males showed a much slower genitalia rotation rate. At 17 h post-emergence, 96% of the laboratory-reared males had completed genitalia rotation whereas none of the wild males had. Conclusion This colony has been cultured in the laboratory for over one hundred generations, and now has

  1. Streamlining workflow and automation to accelerate laboratory scale protein production.

    PubMed

    Konczal, Jennifer; Gray, Christopher H

    2017-03-19

    Protein production facilities are often required to produce diverse arrays of proteins for demanding methodologies including crystallography, NMR, ITC and other reagent intensive techniques. It is common for these teams to find themselves a bottleneck in the pipeline of ambitious projects. This pressure to deliver has resulted in the evolution of many novel methods to increase capacity and throughput at all stages in the pipeline for generation of recombinant proteins. This review aims to describe current and emerging options to accelerate the success of protein production in Escherichia coli. We emphasize technologies that have been evaluated and implemented in our laboratory, including innovative molecular biology and expression vectors, small-scale expression screening strategies and the automation of parallel and multidimensional chromatography.

  2. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), conducted September 14 through 25, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual participants for the Survey team are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Fermilab. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at Fermilab, and interviews with site personnel. 110 refs., 26 figs., 41 tabs.

  3. Tiger Team Assessment of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This draft report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) located in Batavia, Illinois. Fermilab is a program-dedicated national laboratory managed by the Universities Research Association, Inc. (URA) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Tiger Team Assessment was conducted from May 11 to June 8, 1992, under the auspices of DOE's Office of Special Projects (OSP) under the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing environmental, safety and health (ES H), and quality assurance (QA) disciplines; site remediation; facilities management; and waste management operations. Compliance with applicable Federal , State of Illinois, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal Fermilab requirements was addressed. In addition, an evaluation of the effectiveness of DOE and Fermilab management of the ES H/QA and self-assessment programs was conducted. The Fermilab Tiger Team Assessment is part a larger, comprehensive DOE Tiger Team Independent Assessment Program planned for DOE facilities. The objective of the initiative is to provide the Secretary of Energy with information on the compliance status of DOE facilities with regard to ES H requirements, root causes for noncompliance, adequacy of DOE and contractor ES H management programs, response actions to address the identified problem areas, and DOE-wide ES H compliance trends and root causes.

  4. Tiger Team Assessment of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This draft report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) located in Batavia, Illinois. Fermilab is a program-dedicated national laboratory managed by the Universities Research Association, Inc. (URA) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Tiger Team Assessment was conducted from May 11 to June 8, 1992, under the auspices of DOE`s Office of Special Projects (OSP) under the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing environmental, safety and health (ES&H), and quality assurance (QA) disciplines; site remediation; facilities management; and waste management operations. Compliance with applicable Federal , State of Illinois, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal Fermilab requirements was addressed. In addition, an evaluation of the effectiveness of DOE and Fermilab management of the ES&H/QA and self-assessment programs was conducted. The Fermilab Tiger Team Assessment is part a larger, comprehensive DOE Tiger Team Independent Assessment Program planned for DOE facilities. The objective of the initiative is to provide the Secretary of Energy with information on the compliance status of DOE facilities with regard to ES&H requirements, root causes for noncompliance, adequacy of DOE and contractor ES&H management programs, response actions to address the identified problem areas, and DOE-wide ES&H compliance trends and root causes.

  5. Laboratory test of Newton's second law for small accelerations.

    PubMed

    Gundlach, J H; Schlamminger, S; Spitzer, C D; Choi, K-Y; Woodahl, B A; Coy, J J; Fischbach, E

    2007-04-13

    We have tested the proportionality of force and acceleration in Newton's second law, F=ma, in the limit of small forces and accelerations. Our tests reach well below the acceleration scales relevant to understanding several current astrophysical puzzles such as the flatness of galactic rotation curves, the Pioneer anomaly, and the Hubble acceleration. We find good agreement with Newton's second law at accelerations as small as 5 x 10(-14) m/s(2).

  6. Laboratory Test of Newton's Second Law for Small Accelerations

    SciTech Connect

    Gundlach, J. H.; Schlamminger, S.; Spitzer, C. D.; Choi, K.-Y.; Woodahl, B. A.; Coy, J. J.; Fischbach, E.

    2007-04-13

    We have tested the proportionality of force and acceleration in Newton's second law, F=ma, in the limit of small forces and accelerations. Our tests reach well below the acceleration scales relevant to understanding several current astrophysical puzzles such as the flatness of galactic rotation curves, the Pioneer anomaly, and the Hubble acceleration. We find good agreement with Newton's second law at accelerations as small as 5x10{sup -14} m/s{sup 2}.

  7. Laboratory Test of Newton's Second Law for Small Accelerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodahl, Brian; Gundlach, Jens; Schlamminger, Stephan; Spitzer, Chris; Choi, Ki; Coy, Jen; Fischbach, Ephraim

    2009-10-01

    We have tested the proportionality of force and acceleration in Newton's second law, F=ma, in the limit of small forces and accelerations. Our tests reach well below the acceleration scales relevant to understanding several current astrophysical puzzles such as the flatness of galactic rotation curves, the Pioneer anomaly, and the Hubble acceleration. We find good agreement with Newton's second law at accelerations as small as 5 x 10-14 m/s^2.

  8. Laboratory Test of Newton's Second Law for Small Accelerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlach, J. H.; Schlamminger, S.; Spitzer, C. D.; Choi, K.-Y.; Woodahl, B. A.; Coy, J. J.; Fischbach, E.

    2007-04-01

    We have tested the proportionality of force and acceleration in Newton’s second law, F=ma, in the limit of small forces and accelerations. Our tests reach well below the acceleration scales relevant to understanding several current astrophysical puzzles such as the flatness of galactic rotation curves, the Pioneer anomaly, and the Hubble acceleration. We find good agreement with Newton’s second law at accelerations as small as 5×10-14m/s2.

  9. Preclinical safety evaluation of intravenously administered SAL200 containing the recombinant phage endolysin SAL-1 as a pharmaceutical ingredient.

    PubMed

    Jun, Soo Youn; Jung, Gi Mo; Yoon, Seong Jun; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Koh, Woo Suk; Moon, Kyoung Sik; Kang, Sang Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    Phage endolysins have received increasing attention as potent antibacterial agents. However, although safety evaluation is a prerequisite for the drug development process, a good laboratory practice (GLP)-compliant safety evaluation has not been reported for phage endolysins. A safety evaluation of intravenously administered SAL200 (containing phage endolysin SAL-1) was conducted according to GLP standards. No animals died in any of the safety evaluation studies. In general toxicity studies, intravenously administered SAL200 showed no sign of toxicity in rodent single- and repeated-dose toxicity studies. In the dog repeated-dose toxicity test, there were no abnormal findings, with the exception of transient abnormal clinical signs that were observed in some dogs when daily injection of SAL200 was continued for more than 1 week. In safety pharmacology studies, there were also no signs of toxicity in the central nervous and respiratory system function tests. In the cardiovascular function test, there were no abnormal findings in all tested dogs after the first and second administrations, but transient abnormalities were observed after the third and fourth administrations (2 or 3 weeks after the initial administration). All abnormal findings observed in these safety evaluation studies were slight to mild, were apparent only transiently after injection, and resolved quickly. The safety evaluation results for SAL200 support the implementation of an exploratory phase I clinical trial and underscore the potential of SAL200 as a new drug. We have designed an appropriate phase I clinical trial based on the results of this study.

  10. Panel discussion on laboratory accelerator programs: present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, B.

    1986-09-01

    The present SLAC accelerator program is summarized briefly, and the future of electron-positron colliders is discussed. Present activities discussed include the PEP storage ring, the SPEAR storage ring, the Linear Accelerator, and the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) project. Future prospects include a larger scale linear collider. The stability requirements on acceleration are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  11. Laboratory Test of Newton's Second Law for Small Accelerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodahl, Brian; Gundlach, Jens; Schlamminger, Stephan; Spitzer, Chris; Choi, Ki; Coy, Jennifer; Fischbach, Ephraim

    2007-05-01

    We have tested the proportionality of force and acceleration in Newton's second law, F=ma, in the limit of small forces and accelerations. Our tests reach well below the acceleration scales relevant to understanding several current astrophysical puzzles such as the flatness of galactic rotation curves, the Pioneer anomaly, and the Hubble acceleration. We find good agreement with Newton's second law at accelerations as small as 5 x 10-14 m/s^2. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.OSS07.P1.15

  12. The Scanning Electron Microscope As An Accelerator For The Undergraduate Advanced Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Randolph S.; Berggren, Karl K.; Mondol, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Few universities or colleges have an accelerator for use with advanced physics laboratories, but many of these institutions have a scanning electron microscope (SEM) on site, often in the biology department. As an accelerator for the undergraduate, advanced physics laboratory, the SEM is an excellent substitute for an ion accelerator. Although there are no nuclear physics experiments that can be performed with a typical 30 kV SEM, there is an opportunity for experimental work on accelerator physics, atomic physics, electron-solid interactions, and the basics of modern e-beam lithography.

  13. Correlation between mechanical and chemical degradation after outdoor and accelerated laboratory aging for multilayer photovoltaic backsheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chiao-Chi; Lyu, Yadong; Yu, Li-Chieh; Gu, Xiaohong

    2016-09-01

    Channel cracking fragmentation testing and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy were utilized to study mechanical and chemical degradation of a multilayered backsheet after outdoor and accelerated laboratory aging. A model sample of commercial PPE backsheet, namely polyethylene terephthalate/polyethylene terephthalate/ethylene vinyl acetate (PET/PET/EVA) was investigated. Outdoor aging was performed in Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA for up to 510 days, and complementary accelerated laboratory aging was conducted on the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) SPHERE (Simulated Photodegradation via High Energy Radiant Exposure). Fracture energy, mode I stress intensity factor and film strength were analyzed using an analytical model based on channel cracking fragmentation testing results. The correlation between mechanical and chemical degradation was discussed for both outdoor and accelerated laboratory aging. The results of this work provide preliminary understanding on failure mechanism of backsheets after weathering, laying the groundwork for linking outdoor and indoor accelerated laboratory testing for multilayer photovoltaic backsheets.

  14. Numerical Investigation and Experimental Reproduction of Fermi Acceleration in Laboratory Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, M.; Zhai, C.

    2015-12-01

    Fermi acceleration is widely accepted as the mechanism to explain power law of cosmic ray spectrum. Now this mechanism has been developed to first order Fermi acceleration and second order Fermi acceleration. In first order Fermi acceleration, also known as diffusive shock acceleration, particles are confined around the shock through scattering and accelerated by repeatedly crossing shock front. In second order Fermi acceleration, particles gain energy through statistical collisions with interstellar clouds. In this proposed work, we plan to carefully study these two kinds of acceleration numerically and experimentally. We first consider a single relativistic particle and investigate how it gains energy in Fermi-Ulam model and shock wave acceleration model respectively. We investigate collective behavior of particles with different kinds of wall-oscillation functions and try to find an optimal one in terms of efficiency of acceleration. Then, we plan to go further and consider a group of particles statistically, during which we borrow the correct generalization of Maxwell's velocity distribution in special relativity and compare the results with those in cases where we simply use Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. To this end, we try to provide a scheme to build an accelerator applying both laser technology and mirror effect in Laboratory to reproduce Fermi acceleration, which might be a promising source to obtain high energy particles and further study the mechanism of cosmic rays acceleration.

  15. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Annual Program Review 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    This book is submitted as a written adjunct to the 1993 Annual DOE High Energy Physics Program Review of Fermilab, scheduled for March 31-April 3. In it are described the functions and activities of the various Laboratory Divisions and Sections plus statements of plans and goals for the coming year. The Review Committee, as this goes to press, consists of·

  16. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Annual Program Review 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, Jeffrey A.; Jovanovic, Drasko; Pordes, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    This book is submitted as a written adjunct to the Annual DOE High Energy Physics Program Review of Fermilab, scheduled this year for April 10-12, 1991. In it are described the functions and activities of the various Laboratory areas plus statements of plans and goals for the coming year.

  17. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Annual Program Review 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-03-01

    This book is submitted as one written part of the 2000 Annual DOE High Energy Physics Program Review of Fermilab, scheduled March 22-24, 2000. In it are Director's Overview, some experimental highlights, discussions of several projects, and descriptions of the functions and activities of the four laboratory divisions. This book should be read in conjunction with the 2000 Fermilab Workbook and the review presentations (both in formal sessions and at the poster session).

  18. Chemical depth profiling of photovoltaic backsheets after accelerated laboratory weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chiao-Chi; Krommenhoek, Peter J.; Watson, Stephanie S.; Gu, Xiaohong

    2014-10-01

    Polymeric multilayer backsheets provide protection for the backside of photovoltaic (PV) module from the damage of moisture and ultraviolet (UV). Due to the nature of multilayer films, certain material property characterization of a backsheet could only be studied by examining its cross-section parallel to the thickness direction of the film. In this study, commercial PPE (polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/PET/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)) backsheet films were aged on the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) SPHERE (Simulated Photodegradation via High Energy Radiant Exposure) with UV irradiance at 170 W/m2 (300 nm to 400 nm) under accelerated weathering conditions of 85°C and two relative humidity (R.H.) levels of 5% (low) and 60% (high). Cryo-microtomy was used to obtain cross-sectional PPE samples with a flat surface parallel to the thickness direction, and chemical depth profiling of multilayers was conducted by Raman microscopic mapping. Atomic force microscopy with peak force tapping mode was used complementarily for cross-sectional imaging. The results revealed that the PPE backsheet films were comprised of five main layers, including pigmented-PET, core PET, inner EVA, pigmented-EVA and outer EVA, along with their interfacial regions and two adhesive layers. UV and moisture degradation on the outer pigmented PET layer was clearly observed; while the damage on the core PET layer was less significance, indicating that the outer pigmented PET layer effectively reduced the damage from UV. In high R.H. exposure, both adhesive layers were severely deteriorated. It was found that the EVA layers were susceptible to moisture at elevated temperature, especially for the pigmented-EVA. Based on the results of accelerated weathering, this depth profiling study brings new understanding to the mechanisms of failure observed in polymeric multilayer backsheets during field exposure.

  19. Observation of Ion Acceleration and Heating during Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection in a Laboratory Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Jongsoo; Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, Hantao; Myers, Clayton E.

    2012-12-10

    The ion dynamics in a collisionless magnetic reconnection layer are studied in a laboratory plasma. The measured in-plane plasma potential profile, which is established by electrons accelerated around the electron diffusion region, shows a saddle-shaped structure that is wider and deeper towards the outflow direction. This potential structure ballistically accelerates ions near the separatrices toward the outflow direction. Ions are heated as they travel into the high pressure downstream region.

  20. AmeriFlux US-IB2 Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory- Batavia (Prairie site)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Matamala, Roser [Argonne National Laboratory

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-IB2 Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory- Batavia (Prairie site). Site Description - Two eddy correlation systems are installed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory: one on a restored prairie (established October 2004) and one on a corn/soybean rotation agricultural field (established in July 2005). The prairie site had been farmed for more than 100 years, but was converted to prairie in 1989. April annual to bi-annual prescribed burns have taken place from 1994 - 2007.

  1. AmeriFlux US-IB1 Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory- Batavia (Agricultural site)

    SciTech Connect

    Matamala, Roser

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-IB1 Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory- Batavia (Agricultural site). Site Description - Two eddy correlation systems are installed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory: one on a restored prairie (established October 2004) and one on a corn/soybean rotation agricultural field (established in July 2005). The prairie site had been farmed for more than 100 years, but was converted to prairie in 1989. The agricultural site has likely been farmed for more than 100 years, but the first documented instance of agricultural activity dates back to a picture taken in 1952.

  2. ACCELERATION OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY TRANSURANIC WASTE DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    O'LEARY, GERALD A.

    2007-01-04

    One of Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) most significant risks is the site's inventory of transuranic waste retrievably stored above and below-ground in Technical Area (TA) 54 Area G, particularly the dispersible high-activity waste stored above-ground in deteriorating facilities. The high activity waste represents approximately 50% (by activity) of the total 292,000 PE-Ci inventory remaining to be disposed. The transuramic waste inventory includes contact-handled and remote-handled waste packaged in drums, boxes, and oversized containers which are retrievably stored both above and below-ground. Although currently managed as transuranic waste, some of the inventory is low-level waste that can be disposed onsite or at approved offsite facilities. Dispositioning the transuranic waste inventory requires retrieval of the containers from above and below-ground storage, examination and repackaging or remediation as necessary, characterization, certification and loading for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad New Mexico, all in accordance with well-defined requirements and controls. Although operations are established to process and characterize the lower-activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers, LAN L does not currently have the capability to repack high activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers (> 56 PE-Ci) or to process oversized containers with activity levels over 0.52 PE-Ci. Operational issues and compliance requirements have resulted in less than optimal processing capabilities for lower activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers, limiting preparation and reducing dependability of shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Since becoming the Los Alamos National Laboratory contract in June 2006, Los Alamos National Security (LANS) L.L.C. has developed a comprehensive, integrated plan to effectively and efficiently disposition the transuranic waste inventory, working in concert with the Department of

  3. Technical Design Report for the FACET-II Project at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-08-26

    The discovery of the Higgs boson, a subatomic particle whose field is responsible for endowing all other particles with mass, is one of the major discoveries of the last decade. To unlock the mysteries of the subatomic world, physicists use the worlds’ most powerful microscopes – particle accelerators. The resolving power of these microscopes is proportional to the energy of the beams they produce. Since their inception nearly 80 years ago, the energy reach of accelerators has grown exponentially due to continued breakthroughs in accelerator physics and engineering. The highest energy beams in the world are currently at the 27km circumference Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Europe. Although it is a monument to human engineering, scientists are approaching a practical limit to the size and cost of such collider facilities. Innovation is essential for continued progress. Electrons can “surf” on waves of plasma – a hot gas of charged particles – gaining very high energies in very short distances. This approach, called plasma wakefield acceleration, has the potential to dramatically shrink the size and cost of particle accelerators. Research at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has demonstrated that plasmas can provide 1,000 times the acceleration in a given distance compared with current technologies. Developing revolutionary and more efficient acceleration techniques that allow for an affordable high-energy collider has been the focus of FACET, a National User Facility at SLAC.

  4. On the ions acceleration via collisionless magnetic reconnection in laboratory plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzola, E.; Curreli, D.; Markidis, S.; Lapenta, G.

    2016-11-01

    This work presents an analysis of the ion outflow from magnetic reconnection throughout fully kinetic simulations with typical laboratory plasma values. A symmetric initial configuration for the density and magnetic field is considered across the current sheet. After analyzing the behavior of a set of nine simulations with a reduced mass ratio and with a permuted value of three initial electron temperatures and magnetic field intensity, the best ion acceleration scenario is further studied with a realistic mass ratio in terms of the ion dynamics and energy budget. Interestingly, a series of shock wave structures are observed in the outflow, resembling the shock discontinuities found in recent magnetohydrodynamic simulations. An analysis of the ion outflow at several distances from the reconnection point is presented, in light of possible laboratory applications. The analysis suggests that magnetic reconnection could be used as a tool for plasma acceleration, with applications ranging from electric propulsion to production of ion thermal beams.

  5. Collisionless shocks and particle acceleration in laser-driven laboratory plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiuza, Frederico

    2012-10-01

    Collisionless shocks are pervasive in space and astrophysical plasmas, from the Earth's bow shock to Gamma Ray Bursters; however, the microphysics underlying shock formation and particle acceleration in these distant sites is not yet fully understood. Mimicking these extreme conditions in laboratory is a grand challenge that would allow for a better understanding of the physical processes involved. Using ab initio multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, shock formation and particle acceleration are investigated for realistic laboratory conditions associated with the interaction of intense lasers with high-energy-density plasmas. Weibel-instability-mediated shocks are shown to be driven by the interaction of an ultraintense laser with overcritical plasmas. In this piston regime, the laser generates a relativistic flow that is Weibel unstable. The strong Weibel magnetic fields deflect the incoming flow, compressing it, and forming a shock. The resulting shock structure is consistent with previous simulations of relativistic astrophysical shocks, demonstrating for the first time the possibility of recreating these structures in laboratory. As the laser intensity is decreased and near-critical density plasmas are used, electron heating dominates over radiation pressure and electrostatic shocks can be formed. The electric field associated with the shock front can reflect ions from the background accelerating them to high energies. It is shown that high quality 200 MeV proton beams, required for tumor therapy, can be generated by using an exponentially decaying plasma profile to control competing accelerating fields. These results pave the way for the experimental exploration of space and astrophysical relevant shocks and particle acceleration with current laser systems.

  6. Doubling Beam Intensity Unlocks Rare Opportunities for Discovery at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Segui, Jennifer A.

    2014-05-01

    Particle accelerators such as the Booster synchrotron at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) produce high-intensity proton beams for particle physics experiments that can ultimately reveal the secrets of the universe. High-intensity proton beams are required by experiments at the “intensity frontier” of particle physics research, where the availability of more particles improves the chances of observing extremely rare physical processes. In addition to their central role in particle physics experiments, particle accelerators have found widespread use in industrial, nuclear, environmental, and medical applications. RF cavities are essential components of particle accelerators that, depending on the design, can perform multiple functions, including bunching, focusing, decelerating, and accelerating a beam of charged particles. Engineers are working to model the RF cavities required for upgrading the 40-year old Booster synchrotron. It is a rather complicated process to refurbish, test, and qualify the upgraded RF cavities to sustain an increased repetition rate of the RF field required to produce proton beams at double the current intensity. Both multiphysics simulation and physical measurements are used to evaluate the RF, thermal, and mechanical properties of the Booster RF cavities.

  7. The Dresden Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics - Status and first physics program

    SciTech Connect

    Ilgner, Ch.

    2015-07-01

    Favored by the low background in underground laboratories, low-background accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used for many years with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, protected from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies than those available at LUNA. Also the study of solar fusion reactions necessitates new data at higher energies. As a result, in the present NuPECC long range plan for nuclear physics in Europe, the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators is strongly recommended. An intercomparison exercise using the same High-Purity Ge detector at several sites has shown that, with a combination of 45 m rock overburden, as can be found in the Felsenkeller underground site in Dresden, and an active veto against the remaining muon flux, in a typical nuclear astrophysics setup a background level can be achieved that is similar to the deep underground scenario as in the Gran- Sasso underground laboratory, for instance. Recently, a muon background study and geodetic measurements were carried out by the REGARD group. It was estimated that the rock overburden at the place of the future ion accelerator is equivalent to 130 m of water. The maximum muon flux measured was 2.5 m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} s{sup -1}, in the direction of the tunnel entrance. Based on this finding, a used 5 MV pelletron tandem accelerator with 250 μA up-charge current and external sputter ion source has been obtained and transported to Dresden. Work on an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is in progress and far advanced. The installation of the accelerator in the Felsenkeller is expected for the near future. The status of the project and the

  8. Preliminary Conceptual Design Report for the FACET-II Project at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Mark

    2016-04-22

    Plasma wakefield acceleration has the potential to dramatically shrink the size and cost of particle accelerators. Research at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has demonstrated that plasmas can provide 1,000 times the acceleration in a given distance compared with current technologies. Developing revolutionary and more efficient acceleration techniques that allow for an affordable high-energy collider is the focus of FACET, a National User Facility at SLAC. The existing FACET National User Facility uses part of SLAC’s two-mile-long linear accelerator to generate high-density beams of electrons and positrons. FACET-II is a new test facility to develop advanced acceleration and coherent radiation techniques with high-energy electron and positron beams. It is the only facility in the world with high energy positron beams. FACET-II provides a major upgrade over current FACET capabilities and the breadth of the potential research program makes it truly unique. It will synergistically pursue accelerator science that is vital to the future of both advanced acceleration techniques for High Energy Physics, ultra-high brightness beams for Basic Energy Science, and novel radiation sources for a wide variety of applications. The design parameters for FACET-II are set by the requirements of the plasma wakefield experimental program. To drive the plasma wakefield requires a high peak current, in excess of 10kA. To reach this peak current, the electron and positron design bunch size is 10μ by 10μ transversely with a bunch length of 10μ. This is more than 200 times better than what has been achieved at the existing FACET. The beam energy is 10 GeV, set by the Linac length available and the repetition rate is up to 30 Hz. The FACET-II project is scheduled to be constructed in three major stages. Components of the project discussed in detail include the following: electron injector, bunch compressors and linac, the positron system, the Sector 20 sailboat and W chicanes

  9. An improved 8 GeV beam transport system for the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M.J.

    1987-06-01

    A new 8 GeV beam transport system between the Booster and Main Ring synchrotrons at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is presented. The system was developed in an effort to improve the transverse phase space area occupied by the proton beam upon injection into the Main Ring accelerator. Problems with the original system are described and general methods of beamline design are formulated. Errors in the transverse properties of a beamline at the injection point of the second synchrotron and their effects on the region in transverse phase space occupied by a beam of particles are discussed. Results from the commissioning phase of the project are presented as well as measurements of the degree of phase space dilution generated by the transfer of 8 GeV protons from the Booster synchrotron to the Main Ring synchrotron.

  10. Wet Lab Accelerator: A Web-Based Application Democratizing Laboratory Automation for Synthetic Biology.

    PubMed

    Bates, Maxwell; Berliner, Aaron J; Lachoff, Joe; Jaschke, Paul R; Groban, Eli S

    2017-01-20

    Wet Lab Accelerator (WLA) is a cloud-based tool that allows a scientist to conduct biology via robotic control without the need for any programming knowledge. A drag and drop interface provides a convenient and user-friendly method of generating biological protocols. Graphically developed protocols are turned into programmatic instruction lists required to conduct experiments at the cloud laboratory Transcriptic. Prior to the development of WLA, biologists were required to write in a programming language called "Autoprotocol" in order to work with Transcriptic. WLA relies on a new abstraction layer we call "Omniprotocol" to convert the graphical experimental description into lower level Autoprotocol language, which then directs robots at Transcriptic. While WLA has only been tested at Transcriptic, the conversion of graphically laid out experimental steps into Autoprotocol is generic, allowing extension of WLA into other cloud laboratories in the future. WLA hopes to democratize biology by bringing automation to general biologists.

  11. MCNP Neutron Simulations: The Effectiveness of the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory Pit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Daniel; Nguyen, Thien An; Hicks, S. F.; Rice, Ben; Vanhoy, J. R.

    2015-10-01

    The design of the Van de Graaff Particle Accelerator complex at the University of Kentucky is marked by the unique addition of a pit in the main neutron scattering room underneath the neutron source and detection shielding assembly. This pit was constructed as a neutron trap in order to decrease the amount of neutron flux within the laboratory. Such a decrease of background neutron flux effectively reduces as much noise as possible in detection of neutrons scattering off of desired samples to be studied. This project uses the Monte-Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) to model the structure of the accelerator complex, gas cell, and the detector's collimator and shielding apparatus to calculate the neutron flux in various sections of the laboratory. Simulations were completed with baseline runs of 107 neutrons of energies 4 MeV and 17 MeV, produced respectively by 3H(p,n)3He and 3H(d,n)4He source reactions. In addition, a comparison model of the complex with simply a floor and no pit was designed, and the respective neutron fluxes of both models were calculated and compared. The results of the simulations seem to affirm the validity of the pit design in significantly reducing the overall neutron flux throughout the accelerator complex, which could be used in future designs to increase the precision and reliability of data. This project was supported in part by the DOE NEUP Grant NU-12-KY-UK-0201-05 and the Donald A. Cowan Physics Institute at the University of Dallas.

  12. The Status of SalSA Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milincic, Radovan

    2007-08-01

    We report on the current status of the Salt dome Shower Array (SalSA) ultra high energy neutrino detector. The astrophysics and particle physics prospects with SalSA detector are discussed as well as result of the calibration measurements of the shower development from ultra high energy particle interaction in rock salt. The 10 km3 water equivalent volume detector provides opportunity to advance measurements from mere detection to actual exploration and characterization of the high energy particles in the energy range above 1017 eV. Our MC simulations show that expected number of GZK neutrino events ranges between 10 and 200 depending on the theoretical models. The angular resolution provides us with the posibility of exploring different scenarios of large extra dimensions. The detector capability to distinguish between different neutrino flavors will result in study of neutrino oscillations in the extreme energy range and with largest L/E ratio.

  13. On the effect of accelerated winds on the wave growth through detailed laboratory measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Branger, Hubert; Osuna, Pedro; Hernández, Aldo

    2013-04-01

    The possible influence of accelerated winds on air-water momentum fluxes is being studied through detailed laboratory measurements in a large wind-wave flume. Wind stress over the water surface, waves and surface drift are measured in the 40m long wind-wave tank at IRPHE, Marseille. While momentum fluxes are estimated directly through the eddy correlation method in a station about the middle of the tank, they provide information corresponding to rather short non-dimensional fetch not previously reported. Wave evolution along the tank is determined through a series of wave gauges, and the wind-induced surface drift is obtained at one of the first measuring stations at the beginning of the tank. At each experimental run very low wind was on (about 1m/s) for a certain period and suddenly it was constantly accelerated to reach about 13 m/s (as well as 8 and 5 m/s during different runs) in about 15 sec to as long as 600 sec. The wind was kept constant at that high speed for 2 to 10 min, and then suddenly and constantly decelerate to 0. Data from the constant high winds provided us with reference equilibrium conditions for at least 3 different wind speed. We, nevertheless, focus in the recordings while wind was being constantly accelerated expecting some contribution to the understanding of gustiness, the implied wind wave growth and the onset of surface drift. Wind-wave growth is observed to lag behind the wind stress signal, and furthermore, a two regime wind stress is noticed, apparently well correlated with a) the incipient growth and appearance of the first waves and b) the arrival of waves from the up-wind section of the tank. Results of non-dimensional wave energy as a function of non-dimensional fetch represent an extension of at least 2 decades shorter non-dimensional fetch to the wave growth curves typically found in the literature. The linear tendency of wave growth compares very well only when wind is reaching its maximum, while during the accelerated wind

  14. Laboratory Measurements of Linear Electron Acceleration by Inertial Alfvén Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, J. W. R.

    2015-11-01

    Alfvén waves occur in conjunction with a significant fraction of auroral electron acceleration. Inertial mode Alfvén waves (vA >vte) in the auroral magnetosphere (2 - 4RE) with perpendicular scales on the order of the electron skin depth (c /ωpe) have a parallel electric field that, according to theory, is capable of nonlinearly accelerating suprathermal electrons to auroral energies. Unfortunately, due to space-time ambiguities of rocket and satellite measurements, it has not yet been possible to fully verify how Alfvén waves contribute to the production of accelerated electrons. To overcome the limitations of in situ spacecraft data, laboratory experiments have been carried out using the Large Plasma Device (LaPD), an NSF/DOE user facility at UCLA. An Electron Cyclotron Absorption (ECA) diagnostic has been developed to record the suprathermal parallel electron distribution function with 0.1% precision. The diagnostic records the electron distribution while inertial Alfvén waves simultaneously propagate through the plasma. Recent measurements have isolated oscillations of suprathermal electrons at the Alfvén wave frequency. Despite complications from boundary effects and the finite size of the experiment, a linear kinetic model has been produced that describes the experimental results. To our knowledge this is the first quantitative agreement between the measured and modeled linear response of suprathermal electrons to an inertial Alfvén wave. This verification of the linear physics is a necessary step before the nonlinear acceleration process can be isolated in future experiments. Presently, nonlinear effects cannot be detected because of limited Alfvén wave amplitudes. Ongoing work is focused on designing a higher-power antenna capable of efficiently launching larger-amplitude Alfvén waves with tunable perpendicular wavenumber and developing a theoretical understanding of the nonlinear acceleration process in LaPD plasma conditions. This material is

  15. Mega-electron-volt ultrafast electron diffraction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Weathersby, S P; Brown, G; Centurion, M; Chase, T F; Coffee, R; Corbett, J; Eichner, J P; Frisch, J C; Fry, A R; Gühr, M; Hartmann, N; Hast, C; Hettel, R; Jobe, R K; Jongewaard, E N; Lewandowski, J R; Li, R K; Lindenberg, A M; Makasyuk, I; May, J E; McCormick, D; Nguyen, M N; Reid, A H; Shen, X; Sokolowski-Tinten, K; Vecchione, T; Vetter, S L; Wu, J; Yang, J; Dürr, H A; Wang, X J

    2015-07-01

    Ultrafast electron probes are powerful tools, complementary to x-ray free-electron lasers, used to study structural dynamics in material, chemical, and biological sciences. High brightness, relativistic electron beams with femtosecond pulse duration can resolve details of the dynamic processes on atomic time and length scales. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory recently launched the Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED) and microscopy Initiative aiming at developing the next generation ultrafast electron scattering instruments. As the first stage of the Initiative, a mega-electron-volt (MeV) UED system has been constructed and commissioned to serve ultrafast science experiments and instrumentation development. The system operates at 120-Hz repetition rate with outstanding performance. In this paper, we report on the SLAC MeV UED system and its performance, including the reciprocal space resolution, temporal resolution, and machine stability.

  16. Annual Site Environmental Report: 2015 (ASER) for the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sabba, Dellilah

    2016-09-01

    This report, prepared by the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), SLAC Site Office (SSO), provides a comprehensive summary of the environmental program activities at SLAC for calendar year 2015. Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) are prepared for all DOE sites with significant environmental activities, and distributed to relevant external regulatory agencies and other interested organizations or individuals. To the best of my knowledge, this report accurately summarizes the results of the 2015 environmental monitoring, compliance, and restoration programs at SLAC. This assurance can be made based on SSO and SLAC review of the ASER, and quality assurance protocols applied to monitoring and data analyses at SLAC.

  17. Mega-electron-volt ultrafast electron diffraction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, S. P.; Brown, G.; Chase, T. F.; Coffee, R.; Corbett, J.; Eichner, J. P.; Frisch, J. C.; Fry, A. R.; Gühr, M.; Hartmann, N.; Hast, C.; Hettel, R.; Jobe, R. K.; Jongewaard, E. N.; Lewandowski, J. R.; Li, R. K. Lindenberg, A. M.; Makasyuk, I.; May, J. E.; McCormick, D.; and others

    2015-07-15

    Ultrafast electron probes are powerful tools, complementary to x-ray free-electron lasers, used to study structural dynamics in material, chemical, and biological sciences. High brightness, relativistic electron beams with femtosecond pulse duration can resolve details of the dynamic processes on atomic time and length scales. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory recently launched the Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED) and microscopy Initiative aiming at developing the next generation ultrafast electron scattering instruments. As the first stage of the Initiative, a mega-electron-volt (MeV) UED system has been constructed and commissioned to serve ultrafast science experiments and instrumentation development. The system operates at 120-Hz repetition rate with outstanding performance. In this paper, we report on the SLAC MeV UED system and its performance, including the reciprocal space resolution, temporal resolution, and machine stability.

  18. Mega-electron-volt ultrafast electron diffraction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, S. P.; Brown, G.; Centurion, M.; Chase, T. F.; Coffee, R.; Corbett, J.; Eichner, J. P.; Frisch, J. C.; Fry, A. R.; Gühr, M.; Hartmann, N.; Hast, C.; Hettel, R.; Jobe, R. K.; Jongewaard, E. N.; Lewandowski, J. R.; Li, R. K.; Lindenberg, A. M.; Makasyuk, I.; May, J. E.; McCormick, D.; Nguyen, M. N.; Reid, A. H.; Shen, X.; Sokolowski-Tinten, K.; Vecchione, T.; Vetter, S. L.; Wu, J.; Yang, J.; Dürr, H. A.; Wang, X. J.

    2015-07-01

    Ultrafast electron probes are powerful tools, complementary to x-ray free-electron lasers, used to study structural dynamics in material, chemical, and biological sciences. High brightness, relativistic electron beams with femtosecond pulse duration can resolve details of the dynamic processes on atomic time and length scales. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory recently launched the Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED) and microscopy Initiative aiming at developing the next generation ultrafast electron scattering instruments. As the first stage of the Initiative, a mega-electron-volt (MeV) UED system has been constructed and commissioned to serve ultrafast science experiments and instrumentation development. The system operates at 120-Hz repetition rate with outstanding performance. In this paper, we report on the SLAC MeV UED system and its performance, including the reciprocal space resolution, temporal resolution, and machine stability.

  19. Proposed low-level radioactive waste handling building at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), evaluating the impacts associated with the proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Building at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. As a result of the high energy physics program at Fermilab, small quantities of low-level radioactive wastes are generated. These wastes are collected, sorted and packaged for shipment to an off-site disposal facility in Hanford, Washington. The proposed project includes the construction of a new building to house, all low-level radioactive waste handling operations. The building would provide workspace for five full-time workers. The proposed project would improve the efficiency and safety of the low-level radioactive waste handling at Fermilab by upgrading equipment and consolidating operations into one facility.

  20. Proposed Casey`s Pond Improvement Project, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), evaluating the impacts associated with the proposed Casey`s Pond Improvement Project at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. The improvement project would maximize the efficiency of the Fermilab Industrial Cooling Water (ICW) distribution system, which removes (via evaporation) the thermal load from experimental and other support equipment supporting the high energy physics program at Fermilab. The project would eliminate the risk of overheating during fixed target experiments, ensure that the Illinois Water Quality Standards are consistently achieved and provide needed additional water storage for fire protection. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  1. The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility: CEBAF at the Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Leemann, Chrisoph; Douglas, David R; Krafft, Geoffrey A

    2001-08-01

    The Jefferson Laboratory's superconducting radiofrequency (srf) Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) provides multi-GeV continuous-wave (cw) beams for experiments at the nuclear and particle physics interface. CEBAF comprises two antiparallel linacs linked by nine recirculation beam lines for up to five passes. By the early 1990s, accelerator installation was proceeding in parallel with commissioning. By the mid-1990s, CEBAF was providing simultaneous beams at different but correlated energies up to 4 GeV to three experimental halls. By 2000, with srf development having raised the average cavity gradient up to 7.5 MV/m, energies up to nearly 6 GeV were routine, at 1-150 muA for two halls and 1-100 nA for the other. Also routine are beams of >75% polarization. Physics results have led to new questions about the quark structure of nuclei, and therefore to user demand for a planned 12 GeV upgrade. CEBAF's enabling srf technology is also being applied in other projects.

  2. Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection as an Ion Acceleration Mechanism of Low- β Laboratory Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzola, Emanuele; Curreli, Davide; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    In this work we present the results from a series of fully-kinetic simulations of magnetic reconnection under typical laboratory plasma conditions. The highly-efficient energy conversion obtained from this process is of great interest for applications such as future electric propulsion systems and ion beam accelerators. We analysed initial configurations in low-beta conditions with reduced mass ratio of mi = 512me at magnetic fields between 200G and 5000G and electron temperatures between 0.5 and 10eV. The initial ion density and temperature are kept uniform and equal to 1019 m-3 and 0.0215eV (room temperature) respectively. The analysis has shown that the reconnection process under these conditions can accelerate ions up to velocities as high as a significant fraction of the inflow Alfven speed. The configuration showing the best scenario is further studied with a realistic mass ratio in terms of energetics and outflow ion momentum, with the latter featured by the traditionally used specific impulse. Finally, a more detailed analysis of the reconnection outflow has revealed the formation of different interesting set of shock structures, also recently seen from MHD simulations of relativistic plasmas and certainly subject of future more careful attention. The present work has been possible thanks to the Illinois-KULeuven Faculty/PhD Candidate Exchange Program. Computational resources provided by the PRACE Tier-0 machines.

  3. Modeling and Analysis of Asynchronous Systems Using SAL and Hybrid SAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Ashish; Dutertre, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    We present formal models and results of formal analysis of two different asynchronous systems. We first examine a mid-value select module that merges the signals coming from three different sensors that are each asynchronously sampling the same input signal. We then consider the phase locking protocol proposed by Daly, Hopkins, and McKenna. This protocol is designed to keep a set of non-faulty (asynchronous) clocks phase locked even in the presence of Byzantine-faulty clocks on the network. All models and verifications have been developed using the SAL model checking tools and the Hybrid SAL abstractor.

  4. Advocacy for the Archives and History Office of the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory: Stages and Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Deken, Jean Marie; /SLAC

    2009-06-19

    Advocating for the good of the SLAC Archives and History Office (AHO) has not been a one-time affair, nor has it been a one-method procedure. It has required taking time to ascertain the current and perhaps predict the future climate of the Laboratory, and it has required developing and implementing a portfolio of approaches to the goal of building a stronger archive program by strengthening and appropriately expanding its resources. Among the successful tools in the AHO advocacy portfolio, the Archives Program Review Committee has been the most visible. The Committee and the role it serves as well as other formal and informal advocacy efforts are the focus of this case study My remarks today will begin with a brief introduction to advocacy and outreach as I understand them, and with a description of the Archives and History Office's efforts to understand and work within the corporate culture of the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. I will then share with you some of the tools we have employed to advocate for the Archives and History Office programs and activities; and finally, I will talk about how well - or badly - those tools have served us over the past decade.

  5. A new LabVIEW-based control system for the Naval Research Laboratory Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    DeTurck, T. M.; Treacy, D. J. Jr.; Knies, D. L.; Grabowski, K. S.; Knoll, C.; Kennedy, C. A.; Hubler, G. K.

    1999-06-10

    A new LabVIEW-based control system for the existing tandem accelerator and new AMS components has been implemented at the Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (TEAMS) facility at the Naval Research Laboratory. Through the use of Device Interfaces (DIs) distributed along a fiber optic network, virtually every component of the accelerator system can be controlled from any networked computer terminal as well as remotely via modem or the internet. This paper discusses the LabVIEW-based control software, including remote operation, automatic calculation of ion optical component parameters, beam optimization, and data logging and retrieval.

  6. Improving quality management systems of laboratories in developing countries: an innovative training approach to accelerate laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Katy; McKinney, Barbara; Murphy, Anna; Rotz, Phil; Wafula, Winnie; Sendagire, Hakim; Okui, Scolastica; Nkengasong, John N

    2010-09-01

    The Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) program was developed to promote immediate, measurable improvement in laboratories of developing countries. The laboratory management framework, a tool that prescribes managerial job tasks, forms the basis of the hands-on, activity-based curriculum. SLMTA is implemented through multiple workshops with intervening site visits to support improvement projects. To evaluate the effectiveness of SLMTA, the laboratory accreditation checklist was developed and subsequently adopted by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO). The SLMTA program and the implementation model were validated through a pilot in Uganda. SLMTA yielded observable, measurable results in the laboratories and improved patient flow and turnaround time in a laboratory simulation. The laboratory staff members were empowered to improve their own laboratories by using existing resources, communicate with clinicians and hospital administrators, and advocate for system strengthening. The SLMTA program supports laboratories by improving management and building preparedness for accreditation.

  7. Application of the National Ignition Facility distinguishable-from-background program to accelerator facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Packard, Eric D; Mac Kenzie, Carolyn

    2013-06-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory must control potentially activated materials and equipment in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, which requires DOE approval of the process used to release volumetrically contaminated personal property and establishes a dose constraint of 10 µSv y(-1) (1 mrem y(-1)) for clearance of such property. The National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed a technical basis document and protocol for determining the radiological status of property that is potentially activated from exposure to neutron radiation produced via fusion of tritium and deuterium. The technical basis included assessment of the neutron energy, the type of materials potentially exposed and the likely activation products, and the sensitivity of radiation detectors used to survey the property. This paper evaluates the National Ignition Facility technical basis document for applicability to the release of property from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's various accelerator facilities considering the different types of particles accelerated, radiations produced, and resultant activation products. Extensive process knowledge regarding the accelerators' operations, accompanied by years of routine surveys, provides an excellent characterization of these facilities. Activation studies conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization in Japan corroborate that the long-lived radionuclides produced at accelerator facilities are of the same variety produced at the National Ignition Facility. Consequently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory concludes that the release protocol developed for the National Ignition Facility can be used appropriately at all its accelerator facilities.

  8. Ultra-trace analysis of (41)Ca in urine by accelerator mass spectrometry: an inter-laboratory comparison.

    PubMed

    Jackson, George S; Hillegonds, Darren J; Muzikar, Paul; Goehring, Brent

    2013-10-15

    A (41)Ca interlaboratory comparison between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Purdue Rare Isotope Laboratory (PRIME Lab) has been completed. Analysis of the ratios assayed by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) shows that there is no statistically significant difference in the ratios. Further, Bayesian analysis shows that the uncertainties reported by both facilities are correct with the possibility of a slight under-estimation by one laboratory. Finally, the chemistry procedures used by the two facilities to produce CaF2 for the cesium sputter ion source are robust and don't yield any significant differences in the final result.

  9. Linear induction accelerators at the Los Alamos National Laboratory DARHT facility

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, Subrata

    2010-09-07

    The Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility (DARHT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory consists of two linear induction accelerators at right angles to each other. The First Axis, operating since 1999, produces a nominal 20-MeV, 2-kA single beam-pulse with 60-nsec width. In contrast, the DARHT Second Axis, operating since 2008, produces up to four pulses in a variable pulse format by slicing micro-pulses out of a longer {approx}1.6-microseconds (flat-top) pulse of nominal beam-energy and -current of 17 MeV and 2 kA respectively. Bremsstrahlung x-rays, shining on a hydro-dynamical experimental device, are produced by focusing the electron beam-pulses onto a high-Z target. Variable pulse-formats allow for adjustment of the pulse-to-pulse doses to record a time sequence of x-ray images of the explosively driven imploding mock device. Herein, we present a sampling of the numerous physics and engineering aspects along with the current status of the fully operational dual axes capability. First successful simultaneous use of both the axes for a hydrodynamic experiment was achieved in 2009.

  10. Experimental setup for the laboratory investigation of micrometeoroid ablation using a dust accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Evan; Simolka, Jonas; DeLuca, Michael; Horányi, Mihály; Janches, Diego; Marshall, Robert A.; Munsat, Tobin; Plane, John M. C.; Sternovsky, Zoltan

    2017-03-01

    A facility has been developed to simulate the ablation of micrometeoroids in laboratory conditions. An electrostatic dust accelerator is used to generate iron particles with velocities of 10-70 km/s. The particles are then introduced into a chamber pressurized with a target gas, where the pressure is adjustable between 0.01 and 0.5 Torr, and the particle partially or completely ablates over a short distance. An array of biased electrodes above and below the ablation path is used to collect the generated ions/electrons with a spatial resolution of 2.6 cm along the ablating particles' path, thus allowing the study of the spatiotemporal evolution of the process. For completely ablated particles, the total collected charge directly yields the ionization coefficient of a given dust material-target gas combination. The first results of this facility measured the ionization coefficient of iron atoms with N2, air, CO2, and He target gases for impact velocities >20 km/s, and are reported by Thomas et al. [Geophys. Res. Lett. 43, 3645 (2016)]. The ablation chamber is also equipped with four optical ports that allow for the detection of the light emitted by the ablating particle. A multichannel photomultiplier tube system is used to observe the ablation process with a spatial and temporal resolution of 0.64 cm and 90 ns. The preliminary results indicate that it is possible to calculate the velocity of the ablating particle from the optical observations, and in conjunction with the spatially resolved charge measurements allow for experimental validation of ablation models in future studies.

  11. Actinide Measurements by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Cox, C C; Knezovich, J P; Hamilton, T F

    2003-09-25

    We report on the development of an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system for the measurement of actinides at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This AMS system is centered on a recently completed heavy isotope beam line that was designed particularly for high sensitivity, robust, high-throughput measurements of actinide concentrations and isotopic ratios. A fast isotope switching capability has been incorporated in the system, allowing flexibility in isotope selection and for the quasi-continuous normalization to a reference isotope spike. Initially, our utilization of the heavy isotope system has concentrated on the measurement of Pu isotopes. Under current operating conditions, background levels equivalent to {approx}1 x 10{sup 5} atoms are observed during routine {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu measurements. Measurements of samples containing {approx}10{sup 13} {sup 238}U atoms demonstrate that the system provides a {sup 238}U rejection factor during {sup 239}Pu measurements of {approx}10{sup 7}. Measurements of known materials, combined with results from an externally organized inter-comparison program, indicate that our {sup 239}Pu measurements are accurate and precise down to the {micro}Bq level ({approx}10{sup 6} atoms). Recently, we have investigated the performance of our heavy isotope AMS system in measurements of {sup 237}Np and {sup 236}U. Results of these investigations are discussed. The sensitivity shown by our Pu measurements, combined with the high throughput and interference rejection capabilities of our AMS system, demonstrate that AMS can provide a rapid and cost-effective measurement technique for actinides in a wide variety of studies.

  12. Evaluation of splashzone maintenance coating systems by accelerated laboratory testing and field trials

    SciTech Connect

    Tischuk, J.L.; Brebner, G.

    1983-09-01

    Maintenance painting of platform splashzones is one of the most difficult offshore coating problems. There is a limited and frequently interrupted weather window for working, the temperature is generally low, the relative humidity is usually high and surfaces may be subjected to salt spray or complete immersion within a few hours of coating application. Once a coating is on the steel, it is continually wet and must resist abrasion and impact from the sea and from debris which is in the sea. In order to stand up to these conditions, splashzone coatings must adhere tightly to the steel, they must be tough and resilient and they must be resistant to the spread of local damage. Occidental's Piper and Claymore Platforms were installed in the North Sea in 1976 and 1977 respectively. The original splashzone coatings applied during fabrication were high-build vinyl systems over zinc silicate primers. The same coating systems were used on the platform topsides. By 1978 there was a need for coating repairs because the vinyls had poor abrasion resistance. It has proved impossible to use the original coating system for the repairs because it is intolerant of ambient conditions. Major maintenance painting programmes were planned for both platform splashzones in 1983. Surveys had shown that both splashzones required blasting to bare metal and recoating. Field trials and accelerated laboratory tests were used to select a coating system for the platform splashzones from nine alternative systems. The materials tested were ones presented by major manufacturers as their recommended splashzone systems. The coating systems ranged from coal tar epoxies to a very-high-technology system of primer injected into the grit-blasting nozzle followed by a single coat of high-build, solvent-free epoxy. Detailed descriptions of the coating systems are given in Table 1.

  13. Corrosion Screening of EV31A Magnesium and Other Magnesium Alloys using Laboratory-Based Accelerated Corrosion and Electro-Chemical Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Corrosion Screening of EV31A Magnesium and Other Magnesium Alloys Using Laboratory-Based Accelerated Corrosion and Electro-chemical Methods...originator. Army Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 ARL-TR-6899 July 2014 Corrosion Screening of EV31A...Magnesium and Other Magnesium Alloys Using Laboratory-Based Accelerated Corrosion and Electro-chemical Methods Brian E. Placzankis, Joseph P

  14. LLNL/UC (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)/(University of California) AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) facility and research program

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.C.; Proctor, I.D.; Southon, J.R.; Caffee, M.W.; Heikkinen, D.W.; Roberts, M.L.; Moore, T.L.; Turteltaub, K.W.; Nelson, D.E.; Loyd, D.H.; Vogel, J.S.

    1990-04-18

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California (UC) now have in operation a large AMS spectrometer built as part of a new multiuser laboratory centered on an FN tandem. AMS measurements are expected to use half of the beam time of the accelerator. LLNL use of AMS is in research on consequences of energy usage. Examples include global warming, geophysical site characterization, radiation biology and dosimetry, and study of mutagenic and carcinogenic processes. UC research activities are in clinical applications, archaeology and anthropology, oceanography, and geophysical and geochemical research. Access is also possible for researchers outside the UC system. The technological focus of the laboratory is on achieving high rates of sample through-put, unattended operation, and advances in sample preparation methods. Because of the expected growth in the research programs and the other obligations of the present accelerator, we are designing a follow-on dedicated facility for only AMS and microprobe analysis that will contain at least two accelerators with multiple spectrometers. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Implementation of an electronic laboratory notebook to accelerate data review in bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Shoup, Ronald E; Beato, Brian D; Pisek, April; White, Jessica; Branstrator, Laurel; Bousum, Abby; Roach, Jasmine; Grever, Tim

    2013-07-01

    Electronic laboratory notebooks increase opportunities for collaboration and information exchange when compared with paper records. Depending on the degree of implementation, a laboratory- or enterprise-wide system can unify the collection, review and dissemination of data to improve laboratory efficiency and productivity. The advantages of an electronic laboratory notebook for speeding data review in bioanalysis are discussed, through the use of validated templates and organizational constructs to block errors in real-time and reduce manual audit tasks.

  16. Accelerator Development for the NRL (Naval Research Laboratory) Free Electron Laser Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    34triple point" junction of the vacuum , ceramic insulator , and metal electrode. This leads to the flashover of the insulator , causing an arc which acts as...tungsten wire (25.4 um) into the transport vacuum system. The diode is housed in an Astron ceramic insulator stack. The voltage profile across the diode...accelerator vacuum wall. It is across these insulating breaks that the accelerating voltage is applied to the electron beam and any breakdown in these gaps

  17. Progress Towards a Laboratory Test of Alfvénic Electron Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, J. W. R.; Skiff, F.; Howes, G. G.; Kletzing, C. A.; Carter, T. A.; Vincena, S.; Dorfman, S.

    2016-10-01

    Alfvén waves are thought to be a key mechanism for accelerating auroral electrons. Due to inherent limitations of single point measurements, in situ data has been unable to demonstrate a causal relationship between Alfvén waves and accelerated electrons. Electron acceleration occurs in the inner magnetosphere where the Alfvén speed is greater than the electron thermal speed. In these conditions, Alfvén waves can have an electric field aligned with the background magnetic field B0 if the scale of wave structure across B0 is comparable to the electron skin depth. In the Large Plasma Device (LaPD), Alfvén waves are launched in conditions relevant to the inner magnetosphere. The reduced parallel electron distribution function is measured using a whistler-mode wave absorption diagnostic. The linear electron response has been measured as oscillations of the electron distribution function at the Alfvén wave frequency. These measurements agree with linear theory. Current efforts focus on measuring the nonlinear acceleration of electrons that is relevant to auroral generation. We report on recent progress including experiments with a new higher-power Alfvén wave antenna with the goal of measuring nonlinear electron acceleration. This work was supported by the NSF GRFP and by Grants from NSF, DOE, and NASA. Experiments were performed at the Basic Plasma Science Facility which is funded by DOE and NSF.

  18. Particle heating and acceleration during collisionless reconnection in a laboratory plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jongsoo

    2013-10-01

    Particle heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection is studied in the collisionless plasma of the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX). For ion heating and acceleration, the role of the in-plane (Hall) electric field is emphasized. An in-plane electrostatic potential profile is established by electron acceleration near the X-point. The potential profile shows a well structure along the direction normal to the reconnection current sheet that becomes deeper and wider downstream as its boundary expands along the separatrices where the in-plane electric field is strongest. The Hall electric field ballistically accelerates ions near the separatrices toward the outflow direction. After ions are accelerated, they are heated as they travel into the high-pressure downstream region due to an effect called re-magnetization. Electrons are also significantly heated during reconnection. The electron temperature sharply increases across the separatrices and peaks just outside of the electron diffusion region. Classical Ohmic dissipation based on the perpendicular Spitzer resistivity is too small to compensate for the energy loss by parallel heat conduction, indicating the presence of anomalous electron heating. Finally, a total energy inventory is calculated based on analysis of the Poynting, enthalpy, flow energy, and heat flux in the measured diffusion layer. More than half of the incoming magnetic energy is converted to particle energy during reconnection. The author thanks contributions from M. Yamada, H. Ji, J. Jara-Almonte, and C. E. Myers. This work is supported by DOE and NSF.

  19. Review of underground salt attenuation measurements for SalSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Amy; SalSA Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    We report on the status of the Salt Sensor Array (SalSA), a proposed experiment for detecting ultra-high energy neutrinos through the radio Cherenkov technique with an array of radio-microwave antennas embedded in a large, naturally occurring salt formation. We review the measurements to date aimed at assessing SalSA's feasibility, including a return visit of the Hockley Salt Mine in Hockley, Texas, and discuss the current status of the project.

  20. Do sediment type and test durations affect results of laboratory-based, accelerated testing studies of permeable pavement clogging?

    PubMed

    Nichols, Peter W B; White, Richard; Lucke, Terry

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have attempted to quantify the clogging processes of Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavers (PICPs) using accelerated testing methods. However, the results have been variable. This study investigated the effects that three different sediment types (natural and silica), and different simulated rainfall intensities, and testing durations had on the observed clogging processes (and measured surface infiltration rates) of laboratory-based, accelerated PICP testing studies. Results showed that accelerated simulated laboratory testing results are highly dependent on the type, and size of sediment used in the experiments. For example, when using real stormwater sediment up to 1.18 mm in size, the results showed that neither testing duration, nor stormwater application rate had any significant effect on PICP clogging. However, the study clearly showed that shorter testing durations generally increased clogging and reduced the surface infiltration rates of the models when artificial silica sediment was used. Longer testing durations also generally increased clogging of the models when using fine sediment (<300 μm). Results from this study will help researchers and designers better anticipate when and why PICPs are susceptible to clogging, reduce maintenance and extend the useful life of these increasingly common stormwater best management practices.

  1. The MIT Accelerator Laboratory for Diagnostic Development for OMEGA, Z and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrasso, R.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Armstrong, E.; Orozco, D.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rojas Herrera, J.; Rosenberg, M.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Hahn, K.; Jones, B.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    The MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator generates D-D and D-3He fusion products, which are used for development of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. Fusion reaction rates around 106 s-1 are routinely achieved with this accelerator, and fluence and energy of the fusion products are accurately characterized. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39 based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) CVD-diamond-based bang time detector. The accelerator is also a vital tool in the education of graduate and undergraduate students at MIT. This work was supported in part by SNL, DOE, LLE and LLNL.

  2. Sal-Site: integrating new and existing ambystomatid salamander research and informational resources.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeramiah J; Putta, Srikrishna; Walker, John A; Kump, D Kevin; Samuels, Amy K; Monaghan, James R; Weisrock, David W; Staben, Chuck; Voss, S Randal

    2005-12-16

    Salamanders of the genus Ambystoma are a unique model organism system because they enable natural history and biomedical research in the laboratory or field. We developed Sal-Site to integrate new and existing ambystomatid salamander research resources in support of this model system. Sal-Site hosts six important resources: 1) Salamander Genome Project: an information-based web-site describing progress in genome resource development, 2) Ambystoma EST Database: a database of manually edited and analyzed contigs assembled from ESTs that were collected from A. tigrinum tigrinum and A. mexicanum, 3) Ambystoma Gene Collection: a database containing full-length protein-coding sequences, 4) Ambystoma Map and Marker Collection: an image and database resource that shows the location of mapped markers on linkage groups, provides information about markers, and provides integrating links to Ambystoma EST Database and Ambystoma Gene Collection databases, 5) Ambystoma Genetic Stock Center: a website and collection of databases that describe an NSF funded salamander rearing facility that generates and distributes biological materials to researchers and educators throughout the world, and 6) Ambystoma Research Coordination Network: a web-site detailing current research projects and activities involving an international group of researchers. Sal-Site is accessible at http://www.ambystoma.org.

  3. General Corrosion Resistance Comparisons of Medium- and High-Strength Aluminum Alloys for DOD Systems Using Laboratory-Based Accelerated Corrosion Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    General Corrosion Resistance Comparisons of Medium- and High-Strength Aluminum Alloys for DOD Systems Using Laboratory-Based Accelerated... Aluminum Alloys for DOD Systems Using Laboratory-Based Accelerated Corrosion Methods Brian E. Placzankis Weapons and Materials Research Directorate...March 2006–October 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE General Corrosion Resistance Comparisons of Medium- and High-Strength Aluminum Alloys for DOD

  4. Rapid Acceleration Leads to Rapid Weakening in Earthquake-Like Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, J. C.; Lockner, D. A.; Reches, Z.

    2012-10-01

    After nucleation, a large earthquake propagates as an expanding rupture front along a fault. This front activates countless fault patches that slip by consuming energy stored in Earth’s crust. We simulated the slip of a fault patch by rapidly loading an experimental fault with energy stored in a spinning flywheel. The spontaneous evolution of strength, acceleration, and velocity indicates that our experiments are proxies of fault-patch behavior during earthquakes of moment magnitude (Mw) = 4 to 8. We show that seismically determined earthquake parameters (e.g., displacement, velocity, magnitude, or fracture energy) can be used to estimate the intensity of the energy release during an earthquake. Our experiments further indicate that high acceleration imposed by the earthquake’s rupture front quickens dynamic weakening by intense wear of the fault zone.

  5. Rapid acceleration leads to rapid weakening in earthquake-like laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Chang, J C; Lockner, D A; Reches, Z

    2012-10-05

    After nucleation, a large earthquake propagates as an expanding rupture front along a fault. This front activates countless fault patches that slip by consuming energy stored in Earth's crust. We simulated the slip of a fault patch by rapidly loading an experimental fault with energy stored in a spinning flywheel. The spontaneous evolution of strength, acceleration, and velocity indicates that our experiments are proxies of fault-patch behavior during earthquakes of moment magnitude (M(w)) = 4 to 8. We show that seismically determined earthquake parameters (e.g., displacement, velocity, magnitude, or fracture energy) can be used to estimate the intensity of the energy release during an earthquake. Our experiments further indicate that high acceleration imposed by the earthquake's rupture front quickens dynamic weakening by intense wear of the fault zone.

  6. Rapid acceleration leads to rapid weakening in earthquake-like laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, J. C.; Lockner, D. A.; Reches, Z.

    2012-12-01

    We simulated the slip of a fault-patch during a large earthquake by rapidly loading an experimental, ring-shaped fault with energy stored in a spinning flywheel. The flywheel abruptly delivers a finite amount of energy by spinning the fault-patch that spontaneously dissipates the energy without operator intervention. We conducted 42 experiments on Sierra White granite (SWG) samples, and 24 experiments on Kasota dolomite (KD) samples. Each experiment starts by spinning a 225 kg disk-shaped flywheel to a prescribed angular velocity. We refer to this experiment as an "earthquake-like slip-event" (ELSE). The strength-evolution in ELSE experiments is similar to the strength-evolution proposed for earthquake models and observed in stick-slip experiments. Further, we found that ELSE experiments are similar to earthquakes in at least three ways: (1) slip driven by the release of a finite amount of stored energy; (2) pattern of fault strength evolution; and (3) seismically observed values, such as average slip, peak-velocity and rise-time. By assuming that the measured slip, D, in ELSE experiments is equivalent to the average slip during an earthquake, we found that ELSE experiments (D = 0.003-4.6 m) correspond to earthquakes in moment-magnitude range of Mw = 4-8. In ELSE experiments, the critical-slip-distance, dc, has mean values of 2.7 cm and 1.2 cm for SWG and KD, that are much shorter than the 1-10 m in steady-state classical experiments in rotary shear systems. We attribute these dc values, to ELSE loading in which the fault-patch is abruptly loaded by impact with a spinning flywheel. Under this loading, the friction-velocity relations are strikingly different from those under steady-state loading on the same rock samples with the same shear system (Reches and Lockner, Nature, 2010). We further note that the slip acceleration in ELSE evolves systematically with fault strength and wear-rate, and that the dynamic weakening is restricted to the period of intense

  7. Rapid acceleration leads to rapid weakening in earthquake-like laboratory experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, Jefferson C.; Lockner, David A.; Reches, Z.

    2012-01-01

    After nucleation, a large earthquake propagates as an expanding rupture front along a fault. This front activates countless fault patches that slip by consuming energy stored in Earth’s crust. We simulated the slip of a fault patch by rapidly loading an experimental fault with energy stored in a spinning flywheel. The spontaneous evolution of strength, acceleration, and velocity indicates that our experiments are proxies of fault-patch behavior during earthquakes of moment magnitude (Mw) = 4 to 8. We show that seismically determined earthquake parameters (e.g., displacement, velocity, magnitude, or fracture energy) can be used to estimate the intensity of the energy release during an earthquake. Our experiments further indicate that high acceleration imposed by the earthquake’s rupture front quickens dynamic weakening by intense wear of the fault zone.

  8. Recent Developments on ALICE (Accelerators and Lasers In Combined Experiments) at Daresbury Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Saveliev, Y M; Buckley, R K; Buckley, S R; Clarke, J A; Corlett, P A; Dunning, D J; Goulden, A R; Hill, S F; Jackson, F; Jamison, S P; Jones, J K; Jones, L B; Leonard, S; McIntosh, P A; McKenzie, J W; Middleman, K J; Militsyn, B L; Moss, A J; Muratori, B D; Orrett, J F; Pattalwar, S M; Phillips, P J; Scott, D J; Seddon, E A; Shepherd, B.J.A.; Smith, S L; Thompson, N; Wheelhouse, A E; Williams, P H; Harrison, P; Holder, D J; Holder, G M; Schofield, A L; Weightman, P; Williams, R L; Laundry, D; Powers, T; Priebe, G; Surman, M

    2010-05-01

    Progress made in ALICE (Accelerators and Lasers In Combined Experiments) commissioning and a summary of the latest experimental results are presented in this paper. After an extensive work on beam loading effects in SC RF linac (booster) and linac cavities conditioning, ALICE can now operate in full energy recovery mode at the bunch charge of 40pC, the beam energy of 30MeV and train lengths of up to 100us. This improved operation of the machine resulted in generation of coherently enhanced broadband THz radiation with the energy of several tens of uJ per pulse and in successful demonstration of the Compton Backscattering x-ray source experiment. The next steps in the ALICE scientific programme are commissioning of the IR FEL and start of the research on the first non-scaling FFAG accelerator EMMA. Results from both projects will be also reported.

  9. Experiments assigned to determine the acceleration of 8000kN shear laboratory model elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiul Berghian, A.; Vasiu, T.; Abrudean, C.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper presents an experimental kinetics study by measuring accelerations using a bi-axial accelerometer constructed in the basis of a miniature integrated circuit, included in the class of micro-electrical and mechanical systems - MMA6261Q on the experimental installation reduced to the 1:5 dividing rule by comparison with the shear existent in exploitation, conceived and projected at the Faculty of Engineering in Hunedoara.

  10. Simulation of the laser acceleration experiment at the Fermilab/NICADD photoinjector laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Tikhoplav, R.; Melissinos, A.C.; /Rochester U.

    2005-05-01

    The possibility of using laser beam to accelerate electrons in a waveguide structure with dimension much larger than the laser wavelength was proposed by Pantel and analytically investigated by Xie. In the present paper we present the status of our experimental plan to demonstrate the laser/e{sup -} interaction using an e{sup -} beam with initial energy of 40-50 MeV.

  11. Performance of the accelerator driver of Jefferson Laboratory's Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, C L

    1998-09-01

    The driver for Jefferson Lab's infrared free-electron laser is a superconducting, recirculating accelerator that recovers about 75% of the electron-beam energy and converts it to radiofrequency power. It is designed to lase continuous-wave at 3--6 {mu}m at kW-level power. In achieving first light, the accelerator operated straight ahead to deliver 38 MeV, 1.1 mA cw current through the wiggler for lasing at wavelengths in the vicinity of 5 {mu}m. The waste beam was then sent directly to a dump, bypassing the recirculation loop. Stable operation at power levels up to 311 W cw have thus far been achieved in this mode. The accelerator has recently recirculated up to 0.6 mA cw current with energy recovery. In this mode it has lased pulsed and cw at low-power. It remains to clean up the transport for high-power cw lasing.

  12. Particle optics and accelerator modeling software for industrial and laboratory beamline design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, George H.; Hill, Barrey W.

    1998-04-01

    The expanding variety of accelerator applications in research and industry places increased demands upon scientists and engineers involved in developing new accelerator and beamline designs. Computer codes for particle optics simulation have always played an important role in the design process and enhanced software tools offer the promise of improved productivity for beamline designers. This paper summarizes recent work on the development of advanced graphic user interface (GUI) software components, that can be linked directly to many of the standard particle optics programs used in the accelerator community, and which are aimed at turning that promise of improved productivity into a reality. An object oriented programming (OOP) approach has been adopted and a number of GUI components have been developed that run on several different operating systems. The emphasis is on assisting users in the setup and running of the optics programs without requiring any knowledge of the format, syntax, or similar requirements of the input. The components are being linked with several popular optics programs, including TRANSPORT, TURTLE, TRACE 3-D and PARMILA, to form integrated easy-to-use applications. Several advanced applications linking the GUI components with Lie algebra and other high-order simulation codes, as well as system level and facility modeling codes, are also under development. An overview of the work completed to date is presented, and examples of the new tools running on the Windows 95 operating system are illustrated.

  13. Accelerated nervous system development contributes to behavioral efficiency in the laboratory mouse: a behavioral review and theoretical proposal.

    PubMed

    Whishaw, I Q; Metz, G A; Kolb, B; Pellis, S M

    2001-11-01

    The emergence of the laboratory mouse as a favored species for genetic research has posed a number of problems for scientists interested in the reflection of genetic influences in mouse behavior. It is commonly thought that rat behavior, which has been studied more extensively than mouse behavior, could be easily generalized to mice. In this article, a number of categories of behavior displayed by the mouse (motor, spatial, defensive, social) are reviewed and contrasted with the same categories of behavior displayed by the rat. The comparison suggests that mouse behavior is simpler and more dependent upon elementary actions than the behavior of the rat. We suggest that the behavioral simplification in the mouse adapts it for a different ecological niche than that occupied by the rat. We propose that this simplification may be mediated by accelerated brain maturation during development. We further propose that this developmental acceleration in the mouse renders it less dependent upon complex social behavior and plastic nervous system changes associated with learning than the rat. This difference poses problems for the development of relevant methods of behavioral analysis and interpretation. Since the mouse's biological adaptations will be reflected in laboratory behavior, suggestions are made for behavioral approaches to the study and interpretation of mouse behavior.

  14. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  15. Laboratory Experiments with the Concordia College High-Speed Dust Particle Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, H. L.

    2011-12-01

    During the Apollo Era, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center built a 2MeV high-speed, dust particle accelerator. This facility was used to test and calibrate the LEAM instrument which was flown to the lunar surface by Apollo 17. As the Apollo project wound down, NASA no longer had need of the dust particle accelerator, and in 1975, it was move to Concordia College in Moorhead, MN. Through the years, it has been maintained and some modifications and improvements have been made to it. In the past decade, the facility has been revived and used by several collaborating institutions to study dust detector instrumentation as well as the effects of dust impacts on various materials. We have tested a prototype, space-flight dust particle detector. Also, piezoelectric pins which can be used as dust detectors were studied to learn the pin's response to single particle impacts of different energies and momenta, and then those measured responses were compared with theoretical models. The effects of high speed impacts on ultra-high temperature ceramics, aerogel, and several different thin films have also been studied at our facility. The results of these experiments will be presented.

  16. ACCELERATED SITE TECHNOLOGY DEPLOYMENT COST AND PERFORMANCE REPORT COMPARABILITY OF ISOCS INSTRUMENT IN RADIONUCLIDE CHARACTERICATION AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    KALB,P.; LUCKETT,L.; MILLER,K.; GOGOLAK,C.; MILIAN,L.

    2001-03-01

    This report describes a DOE Accelerated Site Technology Deployment project being conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to deploy innovative, radiological, in situ analytical techniques. The technologies are being deployed in support of efforts to characterize the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) facility, which is currently undergoing decontamination and decommissioning. This report focuses on the deployment of the Canberra Industries In Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) and assesses its data comparability to baseline methods of sampling and laboratory analysis. The battery-operated, field deployable gamma spectrometer provides traditional spectra of counts as a function of gamma energy. The spectra are then converted to radionuclide concentration by applying innovative efficiency calculations using monte carlo statistical methods and pre-defined geometry templates in the analysis software. Measurement of gamma emitting radionuclides has been accomplished during characterization of several BGRR components including the Pile Fan Sump, Above Ground Ducts, contaminated cooling fans, and graphite pile internals. Cs-137 is the predominant gamma-emitting radionuclide identified, with smaller quantities of Co-60 and Am-241 detected. The Project used the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual guidance and the Data Quality Objectives process to provide direction for survey planning and data quality assessment. Analytical results have been used to calculate data quality indicators (DQI) for the ISOCS measurements. Among the DQIs assessed in the report are sensitivity, accuracy, precision, bias, and minimum detectable concentration. The assessment of the in situ data quality using the DQIs demonstrates that the ISOCS data quality can be comparable to definitive level laboratory analysis when the field instrument is supported by an appropriate Quality Assurance Project Plan. A discussion of the results obtained by ISOCS analysis of

  17. Simulation of Tunable Infra-Red Free-Electron Laser Based on Test Linac of Pohang Accelerator Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoung Suk; Hahn, Sang June; Lee, Jae Koo

    1993-07-01

    We have investigated the possibility of tunable Infrared Free-Electron Laser with Test Linac of Pohang Accelerator Laboratory through one dimensional simulation which includes energy spread and space charge effects and 3-D particle simulation that ignores space charge force but takes into account the energy spread and the emittance of the electron beam and the diffraction of the electromagnetic wave. The enhanced current density of the Test Linac makes it feasible to amplify the 4.2 kW signal of 10.6 μm radiation to 200 MW level. Extending the design parameters, electron beam energy (20˜60 MeV), wiggler field strength (around 3 kG), and radiation wavelength (10˜90 μm), we have revealed the requisites for the design of the tunable radiation source and the expected gains in that frequency range. It is shown to generate more than 100 MW in the tunable range.

  18. Optical Tagging of Ion Beams Accelerated by Double Layers in Laboratory Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Timothy; Aguirre, Evan; Thompson, Derek; Scime, Earl

    2016-10-01

    Experiments in helicon sources that investigate plasma expansion into weakly magnetized, low density regions reveal the production of supersonic ion beams attributed to acceleration by spatially localized double layer structures. Current efforts are aimed at mapping the ion velocity flow field utilizing 2D spatially scanning laser induced fluorescence (LIF) probes that yield metastable ion velocity distribution functions (IVDF) for velocities along and perpendicular to the flow. Observation of metastable ion beams by LIF renders plausible a Lagrangian approach to studying the field-ion interaction via optical tagging. We propose a tagging scheme in which metastable state ion populations are modulated by optical pumping upstream of the double layer and the synchronous detection of LIF at the ion beam velocity is recorded downstream. Besides the unambiguous identification of the source of beam ions, this method can provide detailed dynamical information through time of flight analysis. Preliminary results will be presented. Please include this poster in session that includes poster authored by Evan Aguirre et al.

  19. Prediction and accelerated laboratory discovery of previously unknown 18-electron ABX compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, Romain; Zhang, Xiuwen; Hu, Linhua; Yu, Liping; Lin, Yuyuan; Sunde, Tor O. L.; Chon, Danbee; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.; Zunger, Alex

    2015-04-01

    Chemists and material scientists have often focused on the properties of previously reported compounds, but neglect numerous unreported but chemically plausible compounds that could have interesting properties. For example, the 18-valence electron ABX family of compounds features examples of topological insulators, thermoelectrics and piezoelectrics, but only 83 out of 483 of these possible compounds have been made. Using first-principles thermodynamics we examined the theoretical stability of the 400 unreported members and predict that 54 should be stable. Of those previously unreported ‘missing’ materials now predicted to be stable, 15 were grown in this study; X-ray studies agreed with the predicted crystal structure in all 15 cases. Among the predicted and characterized properties of the missing compounds are potential transparent conductors, thermoelectric materials and topological semimetals. This integrated process—prediction of functionality in unreported compounds followed by laboratory synthesis and characterization—could be a route to the systematic discovery of hitherto missing, realizable functional materials.

  20. Cracking and delamination behaviors of photovoltaic backsheet after accelerated laboratory weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chiao-Chi; Lyu, Yadong; Hunston, Donald L.; Kim, Jae Hyun; Wan, Kai-Tak; Stanley, Deborah L.; Gu, Xiaohong

    2015-09-01

    The channel crack and delamination phenomena that occurred during tensile tests were utilized to study surface cracking and delamination properties of a multilayered backsheet. A model sample of commercial PPE (polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/PET/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)) backsheet was studied. Fragmentation testing was performed after accelerated aging with and without ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in two relative humidity (RH) levels (5 % RH and 60 % RH) at elevated temperature (85 °C) conditions for 11 days and 22 days. Results suggest that the embrittled surface layer resulting from the UV photo-degradation is responsible for surface cracking when the strain applied on the sample is far below the yielding strain (2.2 %) of the PPE sample. There was no surface cracking observed on the un-aged sample and samples aged without UV irradiation. According to the fragmentation testing results, the calculated fracture toughness (KIC) values of the embrittled surface layer are as low as 0.027 MPa·m1/2 to 0.104 MPa·m1/2, depending on the humidity levels and aging times. Surface analysis using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared and atomic force microscopy shows the degradation mechanism of the embrittled surface layer is a combination of the photodegradation within a certain degradation depth and the moisture erosion effect depending on the moisture levels. Specifically, UV irradiation provides a chemical degradation effect while moisture plays a synergistic effect on surface erosion, which influences surface roughness after aging. Finally, there was no delamination observed during tensile testing in this study, suggesting the surface cracking problem is more significant than the delamination for the PPE backsheet material and conditions tested here.

  1. The André E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory - The new accelerator mass spectrometry facility at the University of Ottawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieser, W. E.; Zhao, X.-L.; Clark, I. D.; Cornett, R. J.; Litherland, A. E.; Klein, M.; Mous, D. J. W.; Alary, J.-F.

    2015-10-01

    The University of Ottawa, Canada, has installed a multi-element, 3 MV tandem AMS system as the cornerstone of their new Advanced Research Complex and the principal analytical instrument of the André E. Lalonde Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory. Manufactured by High Voltage Engineering Europa B.V., the Netherlands, it is equipped with a 200 sample ion source, a high resolution, 120° injection magnet, a 90° high energy analysis magnet (mass-energy product 350 MeV-AMU), a 65°, 1.7 m radius electric analyzer and a 2 channel gas ionization detector. It is designed to analyze isotopes ranging from tritium to the actinides and to accommodate the use of fluoride target materials. This system is being extended with a second injection line, consisting of selected components from the IsoTrace Laboratory, University of Toronto. This line will contain a pre-commercial version of the Isobar Separator for Anions, manufactured by Isobarex Corp., Bolton, Ontario, Canada. This instrument uses selective ion-gas reactions in a radio-frequency quadrupole cell to attenuate both atomic and molecular isobars. This paper discusses the specifications of the new AMS equipment, reports on the acceptance test results for 10Be, 14C, 26Al and 127I and presents typical spectra for 10Be and actinide analyses.

  2. Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Modeling for Accelerated Design of EV Batteries; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad; Zhang, Chao; Kim, Gi-heon; Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    2015-06-10

    The physical and chemical phenomena occurring in a battery are many and complex and in many different scales. Without a better knowledge of the interplay among the multi-physics occurring across the varied scales, it is very challenging and time consuming to design long-lasting, high-performing, safe, affordable large battery systems, enabling electrification of the vehicles and modernization of the grid. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory, has been developing thermal and electrochemical models for cells and battery packs. Working with software producers, carmakers, and battery developers, computer-aided engineering tools have been developed that can accelerate the electrochemical and thermal design of batteries, reducing time to develop and optimize them and thus reducing the cost of the system. In the past couple of years, we initiated a project to model the mechanical response of batteries to stress, strain, fracture, deformation, puncture, and crush and then link them to electrochemical and thermal models to predict the response of a battery. This modeling is particularly important for understanding the physics and processes that happen in a battery during a crush-inducing vehicle crash. In this paper, we provide an overview of electrochemical-thermal-mechanical models for battery system understanding and designing.

  3. 77 FR 46022 - Manti-La Sal National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... No: 2012-18849] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Manti-La Sal National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Manti-La Sal..., Manti-La Sal National Forest, 599 West Price River Drive, Price, UT 84501. Comments may also be sent...

  4. 76 FR 28416 - Manti-La Sal National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Forest Service Manti-La Sal National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Manti-La Sal National Forest Resource Advisory Committee will..., Utah. Written comments should be sent to Rosann Fillmore, Manti-La Sal National Forest, 599 West...

  5. SalK/SalR, a Two-Component Signal Transduction System, Is Essential for Full Virulence of Highly Invasive Streptococcus suis Serotype 2

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiuzhen; Cheng, Gong; Wang, Jing; Ge, Junchao; Zheng, Feng; Cao, Min; Dong, Yaqing; Liu, Di; Wang, Jufang; Lin, Ying; Du, Hongli; Gao, George F.; Wang, Xiaoning; Hu, Fuquan; Tang, Jiaqi

    2008-01-01

    Background Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2, SS2) has evolved into a highly infectious entity, which caused the two recent large-scale outbreaks of human SS2 epidemic in China, and is characterized by a toxic shock-like syndrome. However, the molecular pathogenesis of this new emerging pathogen is still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings 89K is a newly predicted pathogenicity island (PAI) which is specific to Chinese epidemic strains isolated from these two SS2 outbreaks. Further bioinformatics analysis revealed a unique two-component signal transduction system (TCSTS) located in the candidate 89K PAI, which is orthologous to the SalK/SalR regulatory system of Streptococcus salivarius. Knockout of salKR eliminated the lethality of SS2 in experimental infection of piglets. Functional complementation of salKR into the isogenic mutant ΔsalKR restored its soaring pathogenicity. Colonization experiments showed that the ΔsalKR mutant could not colonize any susceptible tissue of piglets when administered alone. Bactericidal assays demonstrated that resistance of the mutant to polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-mediated killing was greatly decreased. Expression microarray analysis exhibited a transcription profile alteration of 26 various genes down-regulated in the ΔsalKR mutant. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that SalK/SalR is requisite for the full virulence of ethnic Chinese isolates of highly pathogenic SS2, thus providing experimental evidence for the validity of this bioinformatically predicted PAI. PMID:18461172

  6. Representing Value as Digital Object: A Discussion of Transferability and Anonymity; Digital Library Initiatives of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft; CrossRef Turns One; Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Robert E.; Lyons, Patrice A.; Brahms, Ewald; Brand, Amy; van den Bergen, Mieke

    2001-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss the use of digital objects to represent value in a network environment; digital library initiatives at the central public funding organization for academic research in Germany; an application of the Digital Object Identifier System; and the Web site of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. (LRW)

  7. Characterization of SAL605 negative resist at {lambda}=13 nm

    SciTech Connect

    La Fontaine, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Gaines, D.P.; Kania, D.R.

    1996-05-24

    We have characterized the response of the negative resist SAL605 in the extreme ultraviolet ({lambda}=13 nm). The sensitivity was found to be {approx}1 mJ/cm{sup 3} for all conditions studied. We have identified processing conditions leading to high ({gamma}{gt}4) contrast. The resist response was modeled using Prolith/2 and the development parameters were obtained from the exposure curves.

  8. Teaching Is a Fight: An Interview with Sal Castro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Gilda L.

    2011-01-01

    In June, more than 40 years after the Los Angeles Unified School District tried to fire Sal Castro for his leadership of the 1968 Chicana/o Blowouts, it came full circle and named a middle school after him. As a young teacher, Castro was a key organizer of the 1968 student walkouts (called "blowouts" by the youth), when as many as 40,000…

  9. Do you want to build such a machine? : Designing a high energy proton accelerator for Argonne National Laboratory.

    SciTech Connect

    Paris, E.

    2004-04-05

    Argonne National Laboratory's efforts toward researching, proposing and then building a high-energy proton accelerator have been discussed in a handful of studies. In the main, these have concentrated on the intense maneuvering amongst politicians, universities, government agencies, outside corporations, and laboratory officials to obtain (or block) approval and/or funds or to establish who would have control over budgets and research programs. These ''top-down'' studies are very important but they can also serve to divorce such proceedings from the individuals actually involved in the ground-level research which physically served to create theories, designs, machines, and experiments. This can lead to a skewed picture, on the one hand, of a lack of effect that so-called scientific and technological factors exert and, on the other hand, of the apparent separation of the so-called social or political from the concrete practice of doing physics. An exception to this approach can be found in the proceedings of a conference on ''History of the ZGS'' held at Argonne at the time of the Zero Gradient Synchrotron's decommissioning in 1979. These accounts insert the individuals quite literally as they are, for the most part, personal reminiscences of those who took part in these efforts on the ground level. As such, they are invaluable raw material for historical inquiry but generally lack the rigor and perspective expected in a finished historical work. The session on ''Constructing Cold War Physics'' at the 2002 annual History of Science Society Meeting served to highlight new approaches circulating towards history of science and technology in the post-WWII period, especially in the 1950s. There is new attention towards the effects of training large numbers of scientists and engineers as well as the caution not to equate ''national security'' with military preparedness, but rather more broadly--at certain points--with the explicit ''struggle for the hearts and minds of

  10. Salidroside accelerates fracture healing through cell-autonomous and non-autonomous effects on osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao Qin; Qi, Lin; Yang, Jing; Wang, Yue; Wang, Chuan; Li, Zong Min; Li, Ling; Qu, Ye; Wang, Dan; Han, Ze Min

    2017-02-01

    Salidroside (SAL), a major active component of Rhodiola rosea L., exhibits diverse pharmacological effects. However, the direct roles of SAL in fracture healing remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that SAL significantly promotes proliferation by altering the cell-cycle distribution of osteoblastic cells. SAL also greatly stimulates osteoblast differentiation and mineralization by inducing the expression of Runx2 and Osterix. In addition to its osteoblast-autonomous effects, SAL can activate the HIF-1α pathway coupling of angiogenesis and osteogenesis through cell-non-autonomous effects. Our in vitro results suggest that SAL significantly up-regulates HIF-1α expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity of HIF-1α and the HIF-responsive gene VEGF increase following SAL treatment. Our mechanistic study revealed that the regulation of osteoblastic proliferation and HIF-1α expression partly involves MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling. Our in vivo analysis also demonstrated that SAL can promote angiogenesis within the callus and accelerate fracture healing. Thus, SAL promotes skeletal regeneration in cell-autonomous and cell-non-autonomous ways and might be a potential therapy for accelerating fracture healing.

  11. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled 5'-O-[N-(Salicyl)sulfamoyl]adenosine (Sal-AMS-d(4)) as an internal standard for quantitation of Sal-AMS.

    PubMed

    Gupte, Amol; Subramanian, Murali; Remmel, Rory P; Aldrich, Courtney C

    2008-02-01

    5'-O-[N-(Salicyl)sulfamoyl]adenosine (Sal-AMS, 1) is a potent inhibitor of the bifunctional enzyme salicyl-AMP ligase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This inhibitor acts by disrupting the biosynthesis of the mycobactin siderophores that are essential for the process of iron acquisition. To aid with in vitro metabolism and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies of Sal-AMS, a stable deuterium-labelled Sal-AMS analog (Sal-AMS-d(4)) was synthesized. This deuterium-labelled analog was used as an internal standard to conduct in vitro plasma and microsomal stability studies. Sal-AMS was found to be stable for 24 h in human plasma and 1 h in human liver microsomes at 37 degrees C.

  12. Insights into an Optimization of Plasmodium vivax Sal-1 In Vitro Culture: The Aotus Primate Model.

    PubMed

    Shaw-Saliba, Kathryn; Thomson-Luque, Richard; Obaldía, Nicanor; Nuñez, Marlon; Dutary, Sahir; Lim, Caeul; Barnes, Samantha; Kocken, Clemens H M; Duraisingh, Manoj T; Adams, John H; Pasini, Erica M

    2016-07-01

    Malaria is one of the most significant tropical diseases, and of the Plasmodium species that cause human malaria, P. vivax is the most geographically widespread. However, P. vivax remains a relatively neglected human parasite since research is typically limited to laboratories with direct access to parasite isolates from endemic field settings or from non-human primate models. This restricted research capacity is in large part due to the lack of a continuous P. vivax in vitro culture system, which has hampered the ability for experimental research needed to gain biological knowledge and develop new therapies. Consequently, efforts to establish a long-term P. vivax culture system are confounded by our poor knowledge of the preferred host cell and essential nutrients needed for in vitro propagation. Reliance on very heterogeneous P. vivax field isolates makes it difficult to benchmark parasite characteristics and further complicates development of a robust and reliable culture method. In an effort to eliminate parasite variability as a complication, we used a well-defined Aotus-adapted P. vivax Sal-1 strain to empirically evaluate different short-term in vitro culture conditions and compare them with previous reported attempts at P. vivax in vitro culture Most importantly, we suggest that reticulocyte enrichment methods affect invasion efficiency and we identify stabilized forms of nutrients that appear beneficial for parasite growth, indicating that P. vivax may be extremely sensitive to waste products. Leuko-depletion methods did not significantly affect parasite development. Formatting changes such as shaking and static cultures did not seem to have a major impact while; in contrast, the starting haematocrit affected both parasite invasion and growth. These results support the continued use of Aotus-adapted Sal-1 for development of P. vivax laboratory methods; however, further experiments are needed to optimize culture conditions to support long-term parasite

  13. Insights into an Optimization of Plasmodium vivax Sal-1 In Vitro Culture: The Aotus Primate Model

    PubMed Central

    Obaldía, Nicanor; Nuñez, Marlon; Dutary, Sahir; Lim, Caeul; Barnes, Samantha; Kocken, Clemens H. M.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.; Adams, John H.; Pasini, Erica M.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most significant tropical diseases, and of the Plasmodium species that cause human malaria, P. vivax is the most geographically widespread. However, P. vivax remains a relatively neglected human parasite since research is typically limited to laboratories with direct access to parasite isolates from endemic field settings or from non-human primate models. This restricted research capacity is in large part due to the lack of a continuous P. vivax in vitro culture system, which has hampered the ability for experimental research needed to gain biological knowledge and develop new therapies. Consequently, efforts to establish a long-term P. vivax culture system are confounded by our poor knowledge of the preferred host cell and essential nutrients needed for in vitro propagation. Reliance on very heterogeneous P. vivax field isolates makes it difficult to benchmark parasite characteristics and further complicates development of a robust and reliable culture method. In an effort to eliminate parasite variability as a complication, we used a well-defined Aotus-adapted P. vivax Sal-1 strain to empirically evaluate different short-term in vitro culture conditions and compare them with previous reported attempts at P. vivax in vitro culture Most importantly, we suggest that reticulocyte enrichment methods affect invasion efficiency and we identify stabilized forms of nutrients that appear beneficial for parasite growth, indicating that P. vivax may be extremely sensitive to waste products. Leuko-depletion methods did not significantly affect parasite development. Formatting changes such as shaking and static cultures did not seem to have a major impact while; in contrast, the starting haematocrit affected both parasite invasion and growth. These results support the continued use of Aotus-adapted Sal-1 for development of P. vivax laboratory methods; however, further experiments are needed to optimize culture conditions to support long-term parasite

  14. Progress on plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.

    1986-05-01

    Several plasma accelerator concepts are reviewed, with emphasis on the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator (PBWA) and the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator (PWFA). Various accelerator physics issues regarding these schemes are discussed, and numerical examples on laboratory scale experiments are given. The efficiency of plasma accelerators is then revealed with suggestions on improvements. Sources that cause emittance growth are discussed briefly.

  15. SalSA: A Teraton UHE Neutrino Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reil, Kevin

    2006-07-01

    The observed spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays virtually guarantees the presence of ultra-high energy neutrinos due to their interaction with the cosmic microwave background. Unlike cosmic rays, each of these neutrinos will point back directly to its source and will arrive at the Earth unattenuated, from sources perhaps as distant as z = 20. The neutrino telescopes currently under construction, should discover a handful of these events, probably too few for detailed study. This paper describes how an array of VHF and UHF antennas embedded in a large salt dome, SalSA (Salt dome Shower Array) promises to yield a teraton detector (> 500 km3 sr) for contained neutrino events with energies above 1017 eV. Our simulations show that such a detector may observe several hundreds of these neutrinos over its lifetime with excellent angular resolution providing source locations.

  16. SAL: a language for developing an agent-based architecture for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Willie Y.; Verzulli, Joe

    1993-05-01

    SAL (the SmartyCat Agent Language) is a language being developed for programming SmartyCat, our mobile robot. SmartyCat's underlying software architecture is agent-based. At the lowest level, the robot sensors and actuators are controlled by agents (viz., the sensing and acting agents, respectively). SAL provides the constructs for organizing these agents into many structures. In particular, SAL supports the subsumption architecture approach. At higher levels of abstraction, SAL can be used for writing programs based on Minsky's Society of Mind paradigm. Structurally, a SAL program is a graph, where the nodes are software modules called agents, and the arcs represent abstract communication links between agents. In SAL, an agent is a CLOS object with input and output ports. Input ports are used for presenting data from the outside world (i.e., other agents) to the agent. Data are presented to the outside world by the agent through its output ports. The main body of the SAL code for the agent specifies the computation or the action performed by the agent. This paper describes how SAL is being used for implementing the agent-based SmartyCat software architecture on a Cybermotion K2A platform.

  17. 75 FR 62364 - Manti-La Sal National Forest Resource Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-25394] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Manti-La Sal National Forest Resource Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Manti-La... Fillmore, Manti- La Sal National Forest, 599 West Price River Drive, Price, UT 84501. Comments may also...

  18. Production and isolation of homologs of flerovium and element 115 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Despotopulos, John D.; Kmak, Kelly N.; Gharibyan, Narek; Brown, Thomas A.; Grant, Patrick M.; Henderson, Roger A.; Moody, Kent J.; Tumey, Scott J.; Shaughnessy, Dawn A.; Sudowe, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    Here, new procedures have been developed to isolate no-carrier-added (NCA) radionuclides of the homologs and pseudo-homologs of flerovium (Hg, Sn) and element 115 (Sb), produced by 12–15 MeV proton irradiation of foil stacks with the tandem Van-de-Graaff accelerator at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) facility. The separation of 113Sn from natIn foil was performed with anion-exchange chromatography from hydrochloric and nitric acid matrices. A cation-exchange chromatography method based on hydrochloric and mixed hydrochloric/hydroiodic acids was used to separate 124Sb from natSn foil. A procedure using Eichrom TEVA resin was developed to separate 197Hg from Au foil. These results demonstrate the suitability of using the CAMS facility to produce NCA radioisotopes for studies of transactinide homologs.

  19. Production and isolation of homologs of flerovium and element 115 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Despotopulos, John D.; Kmak, Kelly N.; Gharibyan, Narek; ...

    2015-10-01

    Here, new procedures have been developed to isolate no-carrier-added (NCA) radionuclides of the homologs and pseudo-homologs of flerovium (Hg, Sn) and element 115 (Sb), produced by 12–15 MeV proton irradiation of foil stacks with the tandem Van-de-Graaff accelerator at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) facility. The separation of 113Sn from natIn foil was performed with anion-exchange chromatography from hydrochloric and nitric acid matrices. A cation-exchange chromatography method based on hydrochloric and mixed hydrochloric/hydroiodic acids was used to separate 124Sb from natSn foil. A procedure using Eichrom TEVA resin was developed to separate 197Hg frommore » Au foil. These results demonstrate the suitability of using the CAMS facility to produce NCA radioisotopes for studies of transactinide homologs.« less

  20. World Pendulum--A Distributed Remotely Controlled Laboratory (RCL) to Measure the Earth's Gravitational Acceleration Depending on Geographical Latitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grober, S.; Vetter, M.; Eckert, B.; Jodl, H.-J.

    2007-01-01

    We suggest that different string pendulums are positioned at different locations on Earth and measure at each place the gravitational acceleration (accuracy [delta]g is approximately equal to 0.01 m s[superscript -2]). Each pendulum can be remotely controlled via the internet by a computer located somewhere on Earth. The theoretical part describes…

  1. Report on Proton and Ion Beam measurements at the Matter in Extreme Condition (MCC) end station at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthier, Maxence

    2016-02-16

    We report on MeV ion beams produced with high-repetition rates of 1 Hz at the MEC end station at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. These data were obtained during the commissioning beam time of the new 30TW laser. After describing the experimental set-up, the laser conditions and the target diagnostics, ion beam spectra measured for different foil thicknesses and laser intensities will be presented and discussed. These results are subsequently compared with results from cryogenic hydrogen jets at MEC in January 2015.

  2. Accelerating Ocean Energy to the Marketplace – Environmental Research at the U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; Cada, G. F.; Roberts, Jesse; Bevelhimer, Mark

    2010-10-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) has mobilized its National Laboratories to address the broad range of environmental effects of ocean and river energy development. The National Laboratories are using a risk-based approach to set priorities among environmental effects, and to direct research activities. Case studies will be constructed to determine the most significant environmental effects of ocean energy harvest for tidal systems in temperate estuaries, for wave energy installations in temperate coastal areas, wave installations in sub-tropical waters, and riverine energy installations in large rivers. In addition, the National Laboratories are investigating the effects of energy removal from waves, tides and river currents using numerical modeling studies. Laboratory and field research is also underway to understand the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), acoustic noise, toxicity from anti-biofouling coatings, effects on benthic habitats, and physical interactions with tidal and wave devices on marine and freshwater organisms and ecosystems. Outreach and interactions with stakeholders allow the National Laboratories to understand and mitigate for use conflicts and to provide useful information for marine spatial planning at the national and regional level.

  3. Statistical correlation of the soil incubation and the accelerated laboratory extraction methods to estimate nitrogen release rates of slow- and controlled-release fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Medina, L Carolina; Sartain, Jerry; Obreza, Thomas; Leary, Emily; Hall, William L; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies have been proposed to characterize the nutrient release patterns of enhanced-efficiency fertilizers (EEFs) during the last few decades. These technologies have been developed mainly by manufacturers and are product-specific based on the regulation and analysis of each EEF product. Despite previous efforts to characterize nutrient release of slow-release fertilizer (SRF) and controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) materials, no official method exists to assess their nutrient release patterns. However, the increased production and distribution of EEFs in specialty and nonspecialty markets requires an appropriate method to verify nutrient claims and material performance. Nonlinear regression was used to establish a correlation between the data generated from a 180-day soil incubation-column leaching procedure and 74 h accelerated lab extraction method, and to develop a model that can predict the 180-day nitrogen (N) release curve for a specific SRF and CRF product based on the data from the accelerated laboratory extraction method. Based on the R2 > 0.90 obtained for most materials, results indicated that the data generated from the 74 h accelerated lab extraction method could be used to predict N release from the selected materials during 180 days, including those fertilizers that require biological activity for N release.

  4. Towards Understanding ER Fluids Using Sals/rheometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, Bryan J.; McLeish, Tom; Block, Harry

    This paper details work in Cranfield and Leeds Universities of making a stock of transparent ER fluids, which could later be utilised in a new optical electro rheometer (OER) to be assembled at Leeds University. Two basic routes were attempted. One was to use glass microspheres and the other was to use polymer spheres. In order to increase the strength of the ER effect, it was necessary to increase the volume loading while still maintaining sufficient transmission (about 75% over 2 mm). It was found to be possible to increase the ER effect quite substantially in some instances, and in others it was possible to get a near perfect refractive index match. It was not possible to combine both requirements in one fluid such that a high static yield stress was apparent in a transparent ER fluid. However one fluid was made which gave acceptable diffraction losses at high volume fractions, remained in suspension for extended periods and provide about 700 Pa yield stress at 4kV/mm and about 30% volume fraction viz: untreated poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) microspheres in Cereclor/bromonaphthalene/polystyrene solution. The OER being assembled at Leeds University is intended to record small angle light scattering (SALS) profiles, electrical and mechanical properties of ER fluids simultaneously. The OER is based around a DSR 500 machine purchased from Rheometric Scientific with quartz tools coated with transparent indium tin oxide(ITO), which is capable of measuring both steady state (DC) and oscillatory (AC) material parameters.

  5. The erosion of the beaches on the coast of Alicante: Study of the mechanisms of weathering by accelerated laboratory tests.

    PubMed

    López, I; López, M; Aragonés, L; García-Barba, J; López, M P; Sánchez, I

    2016-10-01

    One of the main problems that coasts around the world present, is the regression and erosion of beaches. However, the factors involved in these processes are unclear. In this study, the influence of sediment erosion on beach regression has been analysed. In order to do that, a three-step investigation has been carried out. Firstly, coastline variations of four Spanish beaches have been analysed. Secondly, a study on sediment position along the beach profile has been developed. Finally, the process that beach sediments undergo along the surf zone when they are hit by the incident waves has been simulated by an accelerated particle weathering test. Samples of sand and shells were subjected to this accelerated particle weathering test. Results were supplemented with those from carbonate content test, XRD, SEM and granulometric analysis. Results shows a cross-shore classification of sediments along the beach profile in which finer particles move beyond offshore limit. Besides, it was observed that sediment erosion process is divided into three sages: i) particles wear due to crashes ii) dissolution of the carbonate fraction, and iii) breakage and separation of mineral and carbonate parts of particles. All these processes lead to a reduction of particle size. The mechanism responsible of beach erosion would consist of multiples and continuous particle location exchanges along the beach profile as a consequence of grain-size decrease due to erosion.

  6. Biochemical Activities of the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Homology Region 2 Domains of Sarcomere Length Short (SALS) Protein.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Mónika Ágnes; Majoros, Andrea Kinga; Vig, Andrea Teréz; Migh, Ede; Nyitrai, Miklós; Mihály, József; Bugyi, Beáta

    2016-01-08

    Drosophila melanogaster sarcomere length short (SALS) is a recently identified Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein homology 2 (WH2) domain protein involved in skeletal muscle thin filament regulation. SALS was shown to be important for the establishment of the proper length and organization of sarcomeric actin filaments. Here, we present the first detailed characterization of the biochemical activities of the tandem WH2 domains of SALS (SALS-WH2). Our results revealed that SALS-WH2 binds both monomeric and filamentous actin and shifts the monomer-filament equilibrium toward the monomeric actin. In addition, SALS-WH2 can bind to but fails to depolymerize phalloidin- or jasplakinolide-bound actin filaments. These interactions endow SALS-WH2 with the following two major activities in the regulation of actin dynamics: SALS-WH2 sequesters actin monomers into non-polymerizable complexes and enhances actin filament disassembly by severing, which is modulated by tropomyosin. We also show that profilin does not influence the activities of the WH2 domains of SALS in actin dynamics. In conclusion, the tandem WH2 domains of SALS are multifunctional regulators of actin dynamics. Our findings suggest that the activities of the WH2 domains do not reconstitute the presumed biological function of the full-length protein. Consequently, the interactions of the WH2 domains of SALS with actin must be tuned in the cellular context by other modules of the protein and/or sarcomeric components for its proper functioning.

  7. Salvinorin B derivatives, EOM-Sal B and MOM-Sal B, produce stimulus generalization in male Sprague-Dawley rats trained to discriminate salvinorin A.

    PubMed

    Peet, Mary Melissa; Baker, Lisa E

    2011-09-01

    Salvinorin A, the main active component of Salvia divinorum, is a potent and selective κ opioid receptor agonist. Synthetic derivatives of this substance may be useful in the development of medicinal treatments for pain, mood disorders, and drug dependence. Such developments require extensive preclinical screening of these compounds. The drug discrimination assay is a valuable method for exploring potential similarities between novel compounds and known drugs of abuse with respect to their interoceptive stimulus properties, and can be used to investigate the potency of salvinorin A and its derivatives in vivo. This study used drug discrimination methods to compare two synthetic derivatives of salvinorin B, the ethoxymethyl ether (EOM-Sal B) and methoxymethyl ether (MOM-Sal B) with salvinorin A. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 2.0 mg/kg of salvinorin A from its vehicle (75% dimethylsulfoxide/25% water) in a fixed ratio 20 food-reinforced drug discrimination procedure, and were tested for stimulus generalization with EOM-Sal B and MOM-Sal B. For comparison, substitution tests were also conducted with a μ agonist, morphine, a dissociative hallucinogen, ketamine, and two serotonergic hallucinogens, D-lysergic diethylamide (LSD) and 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminopropane. Time-course tests were also conducted with salvinorin A and EOM-Sal B. Both EOM-Sal B and MOM-Sal B substituted fully for salvinorin A and displayed greater potency than salvinorin A. EOM-Sal B was discriminated at longer postinjection intervals than salvinorin A. Morphine and 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminopropane failed to substitute for salvinorin A, although ketamine and LSD produced significant drug-appropriate responding. The current findings are consistent with previous reports that salvinorin A produces detectable stimulus effects that are distinct from those of other drug classes and, for the first time, establish that synthetic derivatives of this

  8. Sensing and signaling of oxidative stress in chloroplasts by inactivation of the SAL1 phosphoadenosine phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Mabbitt, Peter D.; Phua, Su Yin; Mueller, Jonathan W.; Nisar, Nazia; Gigolashvili, Tamara; Stroeher, Elke; Grassl, Julia; Arlt, Wiebke; Estavillo, Gonzalo M.; Jackson, Colin J.; Pogson, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular signaling during oxidative stress is complex, with organelle-to-nucleus retrograde communication pathways ill-defined or incomplete. Here we identify the 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphate (PAP) phosphatase SAL1 as a previously unidentified and conserved oxidative stress sensor in plant chloroplasts. Arabidopsis thaliana SAL1 (AtSAL1) senses changes in photosynthetic redox poise, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide concentrations in chloroplasts via redox regulatory mechanisms. AtSAL1 phosphatase activity is suppressed by dimerization, intramolecular disulfide formation, and glutathionylation, allowing accumulation of its substrate, PAP, a chloroplast stress retrograde signal that regulates expression of plastid redox associated nuclear genes (PRANGs). This redox regulation of SAL1 for activation of chloroplast signaling is conserved in the plant kingdom, and the plant protein has evolved enhanced redox sensitivity compared with its yeast ortholog. Our results indicate that in addition to sulfur metabolism, SAL1 orthologs have evolved secondary functions in oxidative stress sensing in the plant kingdom. PMID:27432987

  9. Characterisation of SalRAB a salicylic acid inducible positively regulated efflux system of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841.

    PubMed

    Tett, Adrian J; Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; Poole, Philip S

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants.

  10. Karst evolution in the Cordillera de la Sal (Atacama, Chili)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Waele, J.; Forti, P.; Picotti, V.; Zini, L.; Cucchi, F.; Brook, G.

    2009-04-01

    Rock salt composed of halite is at least three orders of magnitude more soluble than limestone. Because of this very high solubility rock salt rarely crops out extensively at the surface and is readily dissolved leaving insoluble residue (mainly clays and marls). Rock salt can only survive at the surface where climate is extremely arid and normally displays a large set of typical solution morphologies similar to those developed on limestone. Solution of rock salt also leads to the formation of underground caves several km long. Close to the village of San Pedro de Atacama, North of the Salar de Atacama basin, there is an important NNE-SSW trending elongated anticlinal ridge composed of Oligo-Miocene evaporitic rocks known under the name Cordillera de la Sal. The thick salt beds of this ridge, even in this hyperarid climate (mean annual rainfall is below 20 mm/y and there may be no rain for several years), have been karstified by occasional rains and have a well developed surface karst geomorphology with extremely sharp rillenkarren often isolating salt pinnacles of up to 15 m in height. During the past 10 years interesting salt caves have been discovered in these halite beds and a detailed morphological study has been carried out both at the surface and in the most important caves with the aim of understanding the mechanisms responsible for their formation and evolution. Sixteen wood and bone fragments from the ceilings of caves and from diamictons in passages have been AMS radiocarbon dated, allowing us to determine when the cave systems formed and when the major sediment units were emplaced. In fact, cave formation appears to have been very rapid, with development of huge cave passages in salt (more than 10 m wide and 30 m high) in less than 2,000 years. Moreover, detailed surveys of cave morphology (e.g. meanders, erosion benches) and sediments (diamictons) suggest that the caves were formed by short-lived flash floods, probably produced by single extreme

  11. Synthetic Aperture Ladar (SAL): Fundamental Theory, Design Equations for a Satellite System, and Laboratory Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    RICKARD Radio/IR/Optical Sensors Branch Remote Sensing Division MARK BASHKANSKY Optical Physics Branch Optical Sciences Division JONH REINTJES Optical... Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991). 5. C.V. Jakowatz, D.E. Wahl, P.H. Eichel, D.C. Ghiglia, and P.A. Thompson, Spotlight-Mode Synthetic Aperture Radar...Theory for Coherent Laser Radars,” Ap. Opt. 21(18), 3,398 – 3,407, 1982. 14. J.W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1985

  12. Accelerating the Whiteshell Laboratories Decommissioning Through the Implementation of a Projectized and Delivery-Focused Organization - 13074

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, Brian; Mellor, Russ; Michaluk, Craig

    2013-07-01

    Whiteshell Laboratories (WL) is a nuclear research site in Canada that was commissioned in 1964 by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. It covers a total area of approximately 4,375 hectares (10,800 acres) and includes the main campus site, the Waste Management Area (WMA) and outer areas of land identified as not used for or impacted by nuclear development or operations. The WL site employed up to 1100 staff. Site activities included the successful operation of a 60 MW organic liquid-cooled research reactor from 1965 to 1985, and various research programs including reactor safety research, small reactor development, fuel development, biophysics and radiation applications, as well as work under the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. In 1997, AECL made a business decision to discontinue research programs and operations at WL, and obtained government concurrence in 1998. The Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP) was established in 2006 by the Canadian Government to remediate nuclear legacy liabilities in a safe and cost effective manner, including the WL site. The NLLP is being implemented by AECL under the governance of a Natural Resources Canada (NRCan)/AECL Joint Oversight Committee (JOC). Significant progress has since been made, and the WL site currently holds the only Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) nuclear research site decommissioning license in Canada. The current decommissioning license is in place until the end of 2018. The present schedule planned for main campus decommissioning is 30 years (to 2037), followed by institutional control of the WMA until a National plan is implemented for the long-term management of nuclear waste. There is an impetus to advance work and complete decommissioning sooner. To accomplish this, AECL has added significant resources, reorganized and moved to a projectized environment. This presentation outlines changes made to the organization, the tools implemented to foster projectization, and the benefits

  13. Role of DC Electric Fields and Wave Heating in Cavity Profiles of Depleted Density and Transverse Ion Acceleration in Laboratory and Space Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepke, M. E.; Reynolds, E. W.; Knudsen, D. J.

    2007-05-01

    Laboratory experiments on the WVU Q Machine, test-particle simulations, and Monte Carlo simulations are shown to provide evidence for explaining the inhomogeneity in both the plasma-density profile and the ion- temperature profile associated with cylindrically symmetric lower-hybrid cavities observed by the GEODESIC sounding rocket, the OEDIPUS-C sounding rocket, and the Freja satellite. Two potential contributions to the inhomogeneous profiles are identified. Both mechanisms (one dc and the other ac) rely on finite values of the Larmor radius and can result in nonlocal effects that deplete ion density within the cavity and enhance ion density immediately outside the cavity to form ion-gyroradius-scale shoulders encircling the cavity perimeter. In the absence of waves, a cylindrically symmetric, radial, DC electric field can be responsible for a polarization shift that produces such inhomogeneity in the density profile [1]. In the presence of waves, wave-induced transverse ion acceleration occurring within the cavity can produce such inhomogeneity in the density profile [2]. In combination, the two effects are shown to be comparable, necessitating an interpretation that includes both mechanisms for quantitative agreement. For the lab data, laser-induced fluorescence techniques provide high resolution in coordinate space and velocity space. [1] Reynolds et al., Inhomogeneity scale lengths in a magnetized, low temperature, collisionless, Q-machine plasma column containing perpendicular-velocity shear, Phys. Plasmas 13, 092106 (2006). [2] Knudsen et al., Lower-hybrid cavity density depletions as a result of transverse ion acceleration localized on the gyroradius scale, J. Geophys. Res. 109, A04212 (2004). This research is supported by NSF.

  14. Calculation of Transactinide Homolog Isotope Production Reactions Possible with the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, K J; Shaughnessy, D A; Gostic, J M

    2011-11-29

    The LLNL heavy element group has been investigating the chemical properties of the heaviest elements over the past several years. The properties of the transactinides (elements with Z > 103) are often unknown due to their low production rates and short half-lives, which require lengthy cyclotron irradiations in order to make enough atoms for statistically significant evaluations of their chemistry. In addition, automated chemical methods are often required to perform consistent and rapid chemical separations on the order of minutes for the duration of the experiment, which can last from weeks to months. Separation methods can include extraction chromatography, liquid-liquid extraction, or gas-phase chromatography. Before a lengthy transactinide experiment can be performed at an accelerator, a large amount of preparatory work must be done both to ensure the successful application of the chosen chemical system to the transactinide chemistry problem being addressed, and to evaluate the behavior of the lighter elemental homologs in the same chemical system. Since transactinide chemistry is literally performed on one single atom, its chemical properties cannot be determined from bulk chemical matrices, but instead must be inferred from the behavior of the lighter elements that occur in its chemical group and in those of its neighboring elements. By first studying the lighter group homologs in a particular chemical system, when the same system is applied to the transactinide element under investigation, its decay properties can be directly compared to those of the homologues, thereby allowing an inference of its own chemistry. The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) includes a 1 MV Tandem accelerator, capable of accelerating light ions such as protons to energies of roughly 15 MeV. By using the CAMS beamline, tracers of transactinide homolog elements can be produced both for development of chemical systems and

  15. Accelerator mass spectrometry of 63Ni at the Munich Tandem Laboratory for estimating fast neutron fluences from the Hiroshima atomic bomb.

    PubMed

    Rühm, W; Knie, K; Rugel, G; Marchetti, A A; Faestermann, T; Wallner, C; McAninch, J E; Straume, T; Korschinek, G

    2000-10-01

    After the release of the present dosimetry system DS86 in 1987, measurements have shown that DS86 may substantially underestimate thermal neutron fluences at large distances (>1,000 m) from the hypocenter in Hiroshima. This discrepancy casts doubts on the DS86 neutron source term and, consequently, the survivors' estimated neutron doses. However, the doses were caused mainly by fast neutrons. To determine retrospectively fast neutron fluences in Hiroshima, the reaction 63Cu(n, p)63Ni can be used, if adequate copper samples can be found. Measuring 63Ni (half life 100 y) in Hiroshima samples requires a very sensitive technique, such as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), because of the relatively small amounts of 63Ni expected (approximately 10(5)-10(6) atoms per gram of copper). Experiments performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have demonstrated in 1996 that AMS can be used to measure 63Ni in Hiroshima copper samples. Subsequently, a collaboration was established with the Technical University of Munich in view of its potential to perform more sensitive measurements of 63Ni than the Livermore facility and in the interest of interlaboratory validation. This paper presents the progress made at the Munich facility in the measurement of 63Ni by AMS. The Munich accelerator mass spectrometry facility is a combination of a high energy tandem accelerator and a detection system featuring a gas-filled magnet. It is designed for high sensitivity measurements of long-lived radioisotopes. Optimization of the ion source setup has further improved the sensitivity for 63Ni by reducing the background level of the 63Cu isobar interference by about two orders of magnitude. Current background levels correspond to a ratio of 63Ni/Ni<2x10(-14) and suggest that, with adequate copper samples, the assessment of fast neutron fluences in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is possible for ground distances of up to 1500 m, and--under favorable conditions--even beyond. To demonstrate this

  16. Restriction of a bacteriophage of Streptomyces albus G involving endonuclease SalI.

    PubMed Central

    Chater, K F; Wilde, L C

    1976-01-01

    The bacteriophage Pa16, isolated from soil on Streptomyces albus G, was restricted when transferred from an alternative host back to S. albus G. Extracted unmodified Pa16 deoxyribonucleic acid was cleaved at a single site by a cell-free extract of S. albus G. Fractions cleaving Pal6 deoxyribonucleic acid contained the endonuclease SalI first described by J. Arrand, P. Myers, and R. J. Roberts (unpublished data). A mutant of S. albus G was isolated which was defective in both restriction and modification of Pal6. This mutant lacked SalI activity. It is concluded that SalI is the agent of restriction of Pal6 by S. albus G. Images PMID:977549

  17. Effects of hypothalamic dopamine (DA) on salsolinol (SAL)-induced prolactin (PRL) secretion in male goats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jin; Hara, Sayaka; Sawai, Ken; Fülöp, Ferenc; Nagy, György Miklos; Hashizume, Tsutomu

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the effects of hypothalamic dopamine (DA) on salsolinol (SAL)-induced prolactin (PRL) release in goats. The PRL-releasing response to an intravenous (i.v.) injection of SAL was examined after treatment with augmentation of central DA using carbidopa (carbi) and L-dopa in male goats under 8-h (8 h light, 16 h dark) or 16-h (16 h light, 8 h dark) photoperiod conditions. The carbi and L-dopa treatments reduced basal PRL concentrations in the 16-h photoperiod group (P < 0.05), while a reduction was not observed in the 8-h photoperiod group. The mean basal plasma PRL concentration in the control group for the 8-h photoperiod was lower than that for the 16-h photoperiod (P < 0.05). SAL significantly stimulated the release of PRL promptly after the injection in both the 8- and 16-h photoperiod groups (P < 0.05). PRL-releasing responses for the 16-h photoperiod were greater than those for the 8-h photoperiod (P < 0.05). The carbi and L-dopa treatments blunted SAL-induced PRL release in both the 8- and 16-h photoperiods (P < 0.05). These results indicate that hypothalamic DA blunts the SAL-induced release of PRL in male goats, regardless of the photoperiod, which suggests that both SAL and DA are involved in regulating the secretion of PRL in goats.

  18. Identification of methionine synthase (Sal k 3), as a novel allergen of Salsola kali pollen.

    PubMed

    Assarehzadegan, Mohammad Ali; Sankian, Mojtaba; Jabbari, Farahzad; Tehrani, Mohsen; Falak, Reza; Varasteh, Abdolreza

    2011-01-01

    Salsola kali pollen is a common cause of pollinosis during summer and early fall in desert and semi-desert regions. The aim of this study was the identification and characterization of Sal k 3, a new allergen from S. kali pollen. S. kali pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting using twelve S. kali allergic patients. Protein identification was carried out by the means of mass spectrometry. Using degenerated primers, two DNA fragments encoding N- and C-terminal domain of Sal k 3 were amplified by PCR, then cloned into the PTZ57R/T vector and sequenced. The open reading frame of Sal k 3 fragments were subcloned in the pET-32b(+) vector, expressed in E. coli, and purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The IgE-binding capacity of rSal k 3 fragments was then studied by IgE-immunoblotting, inhibition assays, and skin prick tests. A 45-kDa allergen was identified as a fragment of the cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE) by mass spectrometry and was detected in the sera of 8/12 (66.6%) of S. kali allergic patients. Moreover, inhibition assays demonstrated that the purified rSal k 3 fragments were similar to their counterparts in the crude extract. Sal k 3 represents a new allergen of S. kali pollen and seems to be an important allergenic compound in S. kali pollen.

  19. Investigations of the output energy deviation and other parameters during commissioning of the four-rod radio frequency quadrupole at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J. S.; et al.,

    2014-03-01

    After 30 years of operation, the Cockcroft-Walton based injector at FNAL (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory) has been replaced by a new beam line including a dimpled magnetron 35 keV source in combination with a 750 keV 4-rod Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). The new injector is followed by the existing drift tube linac (DTL). Prior to installation, a test beam line was built which included the magnetron source and the 4-rod RFQ with a number of beam measurement instrumentation. The first beam test with the RFQ showed an output energy deviation greater than 2.5%. Other problems also showed up which led to investigations of the output energy, power consumption and transmission properties using RF simulations which were complemented with additional beam measurements. The sources of this deviation and the mechanical modifications of the RFQ to solve this matter will be presented in this paper. Meanwhile, the nominal output energy of 750 keV has been confirmed and the new injector with the 4-rod RFQ is in full operation.

  20. Optimization and validation of an accelerated laboratory extraction method to estimate nitrogen release patterns of slow- and controlled-release fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Medina, L Carolina; Sartain, Jerry B; Obreza, Thomas A; Hall, William L; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies have been proposed to characterize the nutrient release and availability patterns of enhanced-efficiency fertilizers (EEFs), especially slow-release fertilizers (SRFs) and controlled-release fertilizers (CRFs) during the last few decades. These technologies have been developed mainly by manufacturers and are product-specific based on the regulation and analysis of each EEF product. Despite previous efforts to characterize EEF materials, no validated method exists to assess their nutrient release patterns. However, the increased use of EEFs in specialty and nonspecialty markets requires an appropriate method to verify nutrient claims and material performance. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature, fertilizer test portion size, and extraction time on the performance of a 74 h accelerated laboratory extraction method to measure SRF and CRF nutrient release profiles. Temperature was the only factor that influenced nutrient release rate, with a highly marked effect for phosphorus and to a lesser extent for nitrogen (N) and potassium. Based on the results, the optimal extraction temperature set was: Extraction No. 1-2:00 h at 25 degrees C; Extraction No. 2-2:00 h at 50 degrees C; Extraction No. 3-20:00 h at 55 degrees C; and Extraction No. 4-50:00 h at 60 degrees C. Ruggedness of the method was tested by evaluating the effect of small changes in seven selected factors on method behavior using a fractional multifactorial design. Overall, the method showed ruggedness for measuring N release rates of coated CRFs.

  1. US Particle Accelerators at Age 50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the development of accelerators over the past 50 years. Topics include: types of accelerators, including cyclotrons; sociology of accelerators (motivation, financing, construction, and use); impact of war; national laboratories; funding; applications; future projects; foreign projects; and international collaborations. (JN)

  2. Protection against tauopathy by the drug candidates NAP (davunetide) and D-SAL: biochemical, cellular and behavioral aspects.

    PubMed

    Shiryaev, Natalia; Pikman, Regina; Giladi, Eliezer; Gozes, Illana

    2011-01-01

    Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) is essential for brain formation and partial deficiency in ADNP results in cognitive deficits coupled with tauopathy and neuronal cell death. Our previous results indicated that a peptide snippet from ADNP, NAPVSIPQ (NAP, generic name, davunetide) can restore in part ADNP deficiencies. NAP interacts with tubulin and this interaction is displaced by the NAP related peptide that is derived from activity-dependent neurotrophic factor (ADNF), SALLRSIPA (SAL) and its all D-amino acid peptide derivative (D-SAL, also known as AL-309). Both NAP and D-SAL were shown to protect neurons against amyloid beta toxicity however the mechanism of protection is still under investigation. In addition, NAP protects against tau hyperphosphorylation associated with ADNP deficiency, in vivo. To investigate whether the mechanism of in vitro neuroprotection relates to the in vivo protection against tauopathy and to draw potential additional parallelism between NAP and D-SAL, we asked if: 1]NAP and D-SAL protect against amyloid beta related tau hyperphosphorylation in vitro; and 2] D-SAL protects against haploinsufficiency in ADNP, inhibiting tauopathy in vivo. Assessment of NAP and D-SAL neuroprotection in primary cortical neuro-glial cultures treated with amyloid beta showed that both peptides reduced toxin-related neuronal damage and protected against tau hyperphosphorylation. In vivo, chronic D-SAL administration protected against tau hyperphosphorylation associated with ADNP deficiency (ADNP+/- mice), showing for the first time protection against deficits in odor discrimination and in social recognition. These studies associate neuroprotection in vivo and in vitro and provide a broad base for future drug development based on NAP and D-SAL against multiple neurodegenerative conditions.

  3. Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  4. A modified SUnSAL-TV algorithm for hyperspectral unmixing based on spatial homogeneity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuqian, Wang; Zhenfeng, Shao; Lei, Zhang; Weixun, Zhou

    2014-03-01

    The sparse regression framework has been introduced by many works to solve the linear spectral unmixing problem due to the knowledge that a pixel is usually mixed by less endmembers compared with the endmembers in spectral libraries or the entire hyperspectral data sets. Traditional sparse unmixing techniques focus on analyzing the spectral properties of hyperspectral imagery without incorporating spatial information. But the integration of spatial information would be beneficial to promote the performance of the linear unmixing process. An algorithm called sparse unmixing via variable splitting augmented Lagrangian and total variation (SUnSAL-TV) adds a total variation spatial regularizer besides the sparsity-inducing regularizer to the final unmixing objective function. The total variation spatial regularization is helpful to promote the fractional abundance smoothness. However, the abundance smoothness varies in the image. In this paper, the spatial smoothness is estimated through homogeneity analysis. Then the spatial regularizer is weighted for each pixel by a homogeneity index. The modified algorithm, called homogeneity analysis based SUnSAL-TV (SUnSAL-TVH), integrates the spatial information with finer modelling of spatial smoothness and is supposed insensitive to the noise and more stable. Experiments on synthetic data sets are taken and indicate the validity of our algorithm.

  5. 76 FR 9403 - Finding That the Lebanese Canadian Bank SAL Is a Financial Institution of Primary Money...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... laundering network. Specifically, Ayman Joumaa deposits bulk cash into multiple exchange houses, including... Financial Crimes Enforcement Network Finding That the Lebanese Canadian Bank SAL Is a Financial Institution of Primary Money Laundering Concern AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, Treasury...

  6. D-SAL and NAP: Two Peptides Sharing a SIP Domain.

    PubMed

    Gozes, Illana; Sragovich, Shlomo; Schirer, Yulie; Idan-Feldman, Anat

    2016-06-01

    NAPVSIPQ (NAP) and all D-amino acid SALLRSIPA (D-SAL) are neuroprotective peptides derived from activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) and activity-dependent neurotrophic factor (ADNF), respectively. Both proteins were shown to protect against cognitive impairment, using different animal models and to increase neuronal survival following exposure to neurotoxins. NAP was extensively tested and found to increase microtubule stability, protect axonal transport, and inhibit apoptosis. Here, we aimed to further evaluate and correlate effects at the behavioral level, in a rat model of diabetes. Diabetes is primarily a metabolic disorder which presents secondary neurological manifestations. Diabetes induces peripheral nervous system damage which is translated into impaired sensory perception and is termed diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes-related central nervous system damage causes cognitive decline. The behavioral study aimed to evaluate the effect of NAP and D-SAL on peripheral neuropathy and cognitive decline. Peripheral neuropathy was tested by measuring the response to a thermal stimulus, and cognitive ability was measured by a social memory test and a spatial memory test using long- and short-term dependent tasks and a reference memory task. Results indicated an immediate sensory neuropathy in the diabetic model, which was prevented by both peptides and a later neuropathic phase, prevented only by NAP treatment. Cognitive tests revealed impaired performance in both social and spatial memory tests in the diabetes model. Each of the peptides improved different aspects of cognitive behavior, with NAP being more potent than D-SAL. Mechanistically, both NAP and SAL contain a SIP (SxIP) domain that has been shown to interact with microtubule end-binding proteins (EBs). Specifically, we have previously shown a direct interaction of NAP with EB1 and EB3; we have further shown an interaction of the NAP-derived 4 amino acid SKIP peptide with EB3, stimulating axonal

  7. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    SciTech Connect

    Temkin, Richard

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  8. PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Teng, L.C.

    1960-01-19

    ABS>A combination of two accelerators, a cyclotron and a ring-shaped accelerator which has a portion disposed tangentially to the cyclotron, is described. Means are provided to transfer particles from the cyclotron to the ring accelerator including a magnetic deflector within the cyclotron, a magnetic shield between the ring accelerator and the cyclotron, and a magnetic inflector within the ring accelerator.

  9. Salvianolic acid B accelerated ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux by targeting PPAR-γ and LXRα

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Jianmei; Li, Bo; Jing, Qingping; Guan, Qingbo

    2015-07-03

    Objectives: Cholesterol efflux has been thought to be the main and basic mechanism by which free cholesterol is transferred from extra hepatic cells to the liver or intestine for excretion. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) has been widely used for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic diseases. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of Sal B on the cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages. Methods: After PMA-stimulated THP-1 cells were exposed to 50 mg/L of oxLDL and [{sup 3}H] cholesterol (1.0 μCi/mL) for another 24 h, the effect of Sal B on cholesterol efflux was evaluated in the presence of apoA-1, HDL{sub 2} or HDL{sub 3}. The expression of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ), and liver X receptor-alpha (LXRα) was detected both at protein and mRNA levels in THP-1 cells after the stimulation of Sal B. Meanwhile, specific inhibition of PPAR-γ and LXRα were performed to investigate the mechanism. Results: The results showed that Sal B significantly accelerated apoA-I- and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Meanwhile, Sal B treatment also enhanced the expression of ABCA1 at both mRNA and protein levels. Then the data demonstrated that Sal B increased the expression of PPAR-γ and LXRα. And the application of specific agonists and inhibitors of further confirmed that Sal exert the function through PPAR-γ and LXRα. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that Sal B promotes cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages through ABCA1/PPAR-γ/LXRα pathway. - Highlights: • Sal B promotes the expression of ABCA1. • Sal B promotes cholesterol efflux in macrophages. • Sal B promotes the expression of ABCA1 and cholesterol efflux through PPAR-γ/LXRα signaling pathway.

  10. Acceleration in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.

    1993-12-31

    The origin of cosmic rays and applicable laboratory experiments are discussed. Some of the problems of shock acceleration for the production of cosmic rays are discussed in the context of astrophysical conditions. These are: The presumed unique explanation of the power law spectrum is shown instead to be a universal property of all lossy accelerators; the extraordinary isotropy of cosmic rays and the limited diffusion distances implied by supernova induced shock acceleration requires a more frequent and space-filling source than supernovae; the near perfect adiabaticity of strong hydromagnetic turbulence necessary for reflecting the accelerated particles each doubling in energy roughly 10{sup 5} to {sup 6} scatterings with negligible energy loss seems most unlikely; the evidence for acceleration due to quasi-parallel heliosphere shocks is weak. There is small evidence for the expected strong hydromagnetic turbulence, and instead, only a small number of particles accelerate after only a few shock traversals; the acceleration of electrons in the same collisionless shock that accelerates ions is difficult to reconcile with the theoretical picture of strong hydromagnetic turbulence that reflects the ions. The hydromagnetic turbulence will appear adiabatic to the electrons at their much higher Larmor frequency and so the electrons should not be scattered incoherently as they must be for acceleration. Therefore the electrons must be accelerated by a different mechanism. This is unsatisfactory, because wherever electrons are accelerated these sites, observed in radio emission, may accelerate ions more favorably. The acceleration is coherent provided the reconnection is coherent, in which case the total flux, as for example of collimated radio sources, predicts single charge accelerated energies much greater than observed.

  11. Breakthrough: Fermilab Accelerator Technology

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    There are more than 30,000 particle accelerators in operation around the world. At Fermilab, scientists are collaborating with other laboratories and industry to optimize the manufacturing processes for a new type of powerful accelerator that uses superconducting niobium cavities. Experimenting with unique polishing materials, a Fermilab team has now developed an efficient and environmentally friendly way of creating cavities that can propel particles with more than 30 million volts per meter.

  12. Vacuum Beat Wave Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. I.; Hafizi, B.; Ting, A.; Burris, H. R.; Sprangle, P.; Esarey, E.; Ganguly, A.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    1997-11-01

    The Vacuum Beat Wave Accelerator (VBWA) is a particle acceleration scheme which uses the non-linear ponderomotive beating of two different frequency laser beams to accelerate electrons. A proof-of-principle experiment to demonstrate the VBWA is underway at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). This experiment will use the beating of a 1054 nm and 527 nm laser pulse from the NRL T-cubed laser to generate the beat wave and a 4.5 MeV RF electron gun as the electron source. Simulation results and the experimental design will be presented. The suitability of using axicon or higher order Gaussian laser beams will also be discussed.

  13. Tsunami vulnerability and damage assessment in the coastal area of Rabat and Salé, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atillah, A.; El Hadani, D.; Moudni, H.; Lesne, O.; Renou, C.; Mangin, A.; Rouffi, F.

    2011-12-01

    This study, a companion paper to Renou et al. (2011), focuses on the application of a GIS-based method to assess building vulnerability and damage in the event of a tsunami affecting the coastal area of Rabat and Salé, Morocco. This approach, designed within the framework of the European SCHEMA project (www.schemaproject.org) is based on the combination of hazard results from numerical modelling of the worst case tsunami scenario (inundation depth) based on the historical Lisbon earthquake of 1755 and the Portugal earthquake of 1969, together with vulnerability building types derived from Earth Observation data, field surveys and GIS data. The risk is then evaluated for this highly concentrated population area characterized by the implementation of a vast project of residential and touristic buildings within the flat area of the Bouregreg Valley separating the cities of Rabat and Salé. A GIS tool is used to derive building damage maps by crossing layers of inundation levels and building vulnerability. The inferred damage maps serve as a base for elaborating evacuation plans with appropriate rescue and relief processes and to prepare and consider appropriate measures to prevent the induced tsunami risk.

  14. An Experiment to Study Sporadic Atom Layers in the Earth's Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (SAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Michael C.

    1999-01-01

    The Sudden Atom Layer (SAL) Rocket was successfully launched in February 1998. All instruments worked well except those supplied by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. (A dummy weight was launched for the neutral mass spectrometer and the ion version died shortly after lift-off.) A paper has already been published in GRL concerning the dust layer detected by an on board instrument and compared to ground-based observations made at the Arecibo Observatory by Cornell graduate student S. Collins (lidar) and Q. Zhou (radar). Collins presented a comparison of the sodium lidar data and onboard observations with a theoretical model by Plane and Cox at the Fan AGU Meeting. In addition Gelinas and Kelley presented a review paper dealing with the entire SAL instrument complement at the same meeting. An unexpected new explanation for the outer scale of E region plasma irregularities has come out of the data set. We anticipate at least a total of four papers will be published within a year of launch.

  15. The influence of the SAL and lightning on tropospheric ozone variability over the Northern Tropical Atlantic: Results from Cape Verde during 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Gregory S.; Robjhon, Miliaritiana L.; Smith, Jonathan W.; Clark, Jonathan; Mendes, Luis

    2012-10-01

    We present results for multiple Saharan Air Layer (SAL) events and their relationship to tropospheric ozone mixing ratios that were observed in the Eastern Atlantic during the summer of 2010 using ozonesondes. In particular, 5 SAL events are sampled during 2010 in Cape Verde indicting a reduction of ozone mixing ratios throughout much of the SAL layer, except near the base of the SAL. In this layer of enhanced ozone mixing ratio, we find increases of 20-30 ppb in some cases between non-SAL and SAL conditions. In addition, ozone concentrations are enhanced above the SAL layer, with trajectories suggesting enhancements by lightning from the middle/upper troposphere with outflow from Africa. Additional aircraft measurements are required to examine the chemical and aerosol distributions from the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) through the upper troposphere to determine the heterogeneous chemical processes related to reduced ozone mixing ratio, and further quantify elevated ozone mixing ratios at the base of the SAL and above the SAL.

  16. A Study of Variables That Affect Results in the ASTM D2274 Accelerated Stability Test. Part 1. Laboratory, Operator, and Process Variable Effects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    indicator adsorption GC Gas chromatography HPLC High-pressure liquid chromatography Hz Hertz LCO Light-cycle oils L/hr Liters per hour urm Micrometers mg...Process- Var iah Ii’ F fee-t s P FLD CROUP I- SBGROUP h te IeO StI,1i Ii i t\\ P roe edtore DI) i f viCe *𔄃 AB RACT (Continue on reverSe *f necesSary and...34 APPENDIX A - QUESTIONNAIRE ON THE USE OF THE ASTM TEST FOR OXIDATION STABILITY OF DISTILLATE FUEL OIL (ACCELERATED

  17. An Effective On-line Polymer Characterization Technique by Using SALS Image Processing Software and Wavelet Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xian, Guang-ming; Qu, Jin-ping; Zeng, Bi-qing

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an effective on-line polymer characterization technique by using small-angle light-scattering (SALS) image processing software and wavelet analysis. The phenomenon of small-angle light scattering has been applied to give information about transparent structures on morphology. Real-time visualization of various scattered light image and light intensity matrices is performed by the optical image real-time processing software for SALS. The software can measure the signal intensity of light scattering images, draw the frequency-intensity curves and the amplitude-intensity curves to indicate the variation of the intensity of scattered light in different processing conditions, and estimate the parameters. The current study utilizes a one-dimensional wavelet to delete noise from the original SALS signal and estimate the variation trend of maximum intensity area of the scattered light. So, the system brought the qualitative analysis of the structural information of transparent film success. PMID:19229343

  18. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960`s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore`s Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail.

  19. Future accelerators (?)

    SciTech Connect

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  20. Biomedical accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Vogel, John S.

    1995-05-01

    Ultrasensitive SIMS with accelerator based spectrometers has recently begun to be applied to biomedical problems. Certain very long-lived radioisotopes of very low natural abundances can be used to trace metabolism at environmental dose levels ( [greater-or-equal, slanted] z mol in mg samples). 14C in particular can be employed to label a myriad of compounds. Competing technologies typically require super environmental doses that can perturb the system under investigation, followed by uncertain extrapolation to the low dose regime. 41Ca and 26Al are also used as elemental tracers. Given the sensitivity of the accelerator method, care must be taken to avoid contamination of the mass spectrometer and the apparatus employed in prior sample handling including chemical separation. This infant field comprises the efforts of a dozen accelerator laboratories. The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has been particularly active. In addition to collaborating with groups further afield, we are researching the kinematics and binding of genotoxins in-house, and we support innovative uses of our capability in the disciplines of chemistry, pharmacology, nutrition and physiology within the University of California. The field can be expected to grow further given the numerous potential applications and the efforts of several groups and companies to integrate more the accelerator technology into biomedical research programs; the development of miniaturized accelerator systems and ion sources capable of interfacing to conventional HPLC and GMC, etc. apparatus for complementary chemical analysis is anticipated for biomedical laboratories.

  1. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) thermal control issues; (2) attitude control sybsystem; (3) configuration constraints; (4) payload; (5) acceleration requirements on Variable Gravity Laboratory (VGL); and (6) VGL configuration highlights.

  2. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    Variable Gravity Laboratory studies are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) conceptual design and engineering analysis; (2) control strategies (fast crawling maneuvers, main perturbations and their effect upon the acceleration level); and (3) technology requirements.

  3. Investigation of the Hosgri Fault, offshore Southern California, Point Sal to Point Conception

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, C.M.; Swanson, O.E.; Schell, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    A high-resolution seismic reflection survey of the inner continental shelf between Point Sal and Point Conception has revealed faults that displace post-Wisconsin strata (less than 17,000-20,000 years). These faults are the Hosgri fault, the Offshore Lompoc fault, and smaller unnamed faults. Faults trending offshore from the adjacent shoreline such as the Pezzoni, Lions Head, Honda, and Pacifico faults, do not show post-Wisconsin activity. The Hosgri fault trends directly toward the coastline between Purisima Point and Point Arguello where it appears to merge with folds and smaller faults in the western Transverse Ranges. This trend of offshore structures toward the Point Arguello-Point Conception area is consistent with a hypothesis that the regional structural fabric of the southern California Coast Ranges and its adjacent offshore area merge with the Transverse Ranges.

  4. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Moore, Breanna; Hong, Mei; Cleveland, Sabrina; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Jung, Gayoung; Do, Seon Gil

    2016-01-01

    Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of "SAL," a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p = 0.004) to 34.6% (p = 0.05) in the APAP and 46.3% (p < 0.001) to 29.9% (p = 0.02) in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400-250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage.

  5. Nonlinear rheology of CTAB/NaSal aqueous solutions: finite extensibility of a network of wormlike micelles.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tadashi; Inoue, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2005-02-15

    The nonlinear rheology of aqueous solutions of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium salicylate (NaSal) was investigated. The concentration of CTAB was fixed at 0.1 mol L(-1), and the concentration of NaSal was varied from 0.07 to 0.4 mol L(-1). For all test solutions, dynamic moduli were described with the Maxwell model having a single relaxation time, tau. Time evolutions of the shear stress, sigma, and the first normal stress difference, N(1), after inception of the steady shear flow were measured. For solutions having low NaSal concentrations, strain-hardening was observed and sigma and N(1) diverged at a certain strain when the shear rate, , exceeded tau(-1). For solutions with high NaSal concentrations, stress overshoot similar to that of ordinary entangled polymer solutions was observed at between tau(-1) and a certain critical rate, (C), while the strain-hardening was observed at > (C). A simple relationship for elastic solids, N(1)/sigma = gamma with gamma being the strain imposed by shear flow, held for all the solutions in the strain-hardening regime. The strain-hardening was attributable to the strain-dependent shear modulus and well described with the network theory considering the finite extensibility of network strands. The segment size of network strands was successfully determined. Thus, the stress-strain relationship obtained after the inception of fast flows is useful for characterizing the network properties.

  6. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis

    PubMed Central

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Moore, Breanna; Hong, Mei; Cleveland, Sabrina; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Jung, Gayoung; Do, Seon Gil

    2016-01-01

    Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of “SAL,” a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p = 0.004) to 34.6% (p = 0.05) in the APAP and 46.3% (p < 0.001) to 29.9% (p = 0.02) in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400–250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage. PMID:27066270

  7. The Application of Simulation-Assisted Learning Statistics (SALS) for Correcting Misconceptions and Improving Understanding of Correlation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, T.-C.; Lin, Y.-C.; Kinshuk

    2010-01-01

    Simulation-based computer assisted learning (CAL) is recommended to help students understand important statistical concepts, although the current systems are still far from ideal. Simulation-Assisted Learning Statistics (SALS) is a simulation-based CAL that is developed with a learning model that is based on cognitive conflict theory to correct…

  8. Impact of LbSapSal Vaccine in Canine Immunological and Parasitological Features before and after Leishmania chagasi-Challenge.

    PubMed

    Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Gama-Ker, Henrique; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis de; Alves, Marina Luiza Rodrigues; Silveira-Lemos, Denise da; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro

    2016-01-01

    Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum). A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the "LbSapSal" vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract) in dogs at baseline (T0), during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd) and after early (T90) and late (T885) times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with "LbSapSal" is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ) cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β), even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after "LbSapSal" immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9%) and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the "LbSapSal" vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection.

  9. Accelerator and electrodynamics capability review

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Kevin W

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.

  10. HIGH GRADIENT INDUCTION ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G J; Sampayan, S; Chen, Y; Blackfield, D; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Krogh, M; Nelson, S; Nunnally, W; Paul, A; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2007-06-21

    A new type of compact induction accelerator is under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that promises to increase the average accelerating gradient by at least an order of magnitude over that of existing induction machines. The machine is based on the use of high gradient vacuum insulators, advanced dielectric materials and switches and is stimulated by the desire for compact flash x-ray radiography sources. Research describing an extreme variant of this technology aimed at proton therapy for cancer will be described. Progress in applying this technology to several applications will be reviewed.

  11. Geo-diversity and geo-materials in the region of Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer: Characterization and Rationalization of Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhaj, Siham; Bahi, Lahcen; Akhssas, Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    The Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer (RSZZ) is distinguished by a rich geology is varied. Outcrops are found in both the Paleozoic basement, especially along the major wadis in the area and a fairly extensive coverage postpaléozoïque and locally very thick. It offers a wide variety of petrographic facies some of which the construction of geomaterials value (GMC), very solicited by the construction sector and public works (BTP). Among the most important GMC furniture and beds of RSZZ: - The sands. They are a fundamental component for the preparation of mortar and hydraulic concrete. They also enter into the composition of adobe and are used for the foundation of shoes. -The Clays. They are mainly used by ceramists (industrial units manufacturing tiles). The red clay of Triassic age are most represented in the Region in deposits whose thickness can reach several tens of meters. -The Calcarenite. : It is the most used local stone in building the cities of Rabat and Salé, where she is well known as the Stone of Salé. The same stone is used in the manufacture of lime through calcination. Geologically, it is a calcareous sandstone, of Pliocene-Quaternary age that is in the form of a dune system that runs parallel to the Atlantic coast. -The Limestones: These massive limestones and more or less metamorphosed dolomitized Devonian. These limestone outcrop along major wadis of the region (Akrech, Ykem, ...) as layers sometimes quite thick and more or less tectonized. According to localities, these limestones show a wide range of colors (white, gray, black pink) and a wide variety of structures (colorful, beaded, veined, textured) - The quartzites. They correspond to Ordovician bars that appear quite often emerged in relation to other surrounding formations because of their high resistance to erosion. The rock is generally brownish gray and shows a very high hardness related to its siliceous. Local and temporary holdings allow blocks extraction for various public works

  12. Rail accelerator research at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, W. R.; Cybyk, B. Z.

    1982-01-01

    A rail accelerator was chosen for study as an electromagnetic space propulsion device because of its simplicity and existing technology base. The results of a mission feasibility study using a large rail accelerator for direct launch of ton-size payloads from the Earth's surface to space, and the results of initial tests with a small, laboratory rail accelerator are presented. The laboratory rail accelerator has a bore of 3 by 3 mm and has accelerated 60 mg projectiles to velocities of 300 to 1000 m/s. Rail materials of Cu, W, and Mo were tested for efficiency and erosion rate.

  13. RNAPro•SAL: a device for rapid and standardized collection of saliva RNA and proteins.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Samantha H; Thomas, Gerald A; Liao, Wei; Grogan, Tristan; Buck, Robert L; Fuentes, Laurel; Yakob, Maha; Laughlin, Mary J; Schafer, Chris; Nazmul-Hossain, Abu; Wei, Fang; Elashoff, David; Slowey, Paul D; Wong, David T W

    2015-02-01

    The stabilization and processing of salivary transcriptome and proteome biomarkers is a critical challenge due to the ubiquitous nature of nucleases and proteases as well as the inherent instability of these biomarkers. Furthermore, extension of salivary transcriptome and proteome analysis to point-of-care and remote sites requires the availability of self-administered ambient temperature collection and storage tools. To address these challenges, a self-contained whole saliva collection and extraction system, RNAPro•SAL, has been developed that provides rapid ambient temperature collection along with concurrent processing and stabilization of extracellular RNA (exRNA) and proteins. The system was compared to the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) standard clinical collection process (standard operating procedure, SOP). Both systems measured total RNA and protein, and exRNA IL-8, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β-actin and ribosomal protein S9 (RPS9) by qPCR. Proteome analysis was measured by EIA analysis of interleukin-8 (IL-8), and β-actin, as well as total protein. Over 97% of viable cells were removed by both methods. The system compared favorably to the labor-intensive clinical SOP, which requires low-temperature collection and isolation, yielding samples with similar protein and exRNA recovery and stability.

  14. Heavy metal contents of paddy fields of Alcácer do Sal, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, J C; Henriques, F S

    1990-01-01

    Recent claims of metal contamination in the lower reaches of the Sado River, in the Alcácer do Sal region, Portugal, a major rice-producing area were investigated by carrying out metal surveys in the area. The elements Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Pb were measured in the soil and in rice plant parts--roots, shoots and grain--as well as in some weeds growing in the Sado banks, near the paddy fields. Results showed that the metal contents of paddy soils were similar to background concentrations, with the exception of Zn and Cu, which were above those concentrations and reached their highest levels at Vale de Guizo, the monitored station located furthest upstream in the Sado River. At some sites, plant roots accumulated relatively large amounts of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu, but the shoot levels of these metals were within the normal range for rice plants. It is possible that varying, but significant, amounts of Fe associated with the roots were in the form of ferric hydroxide plaque covering their surfaces. Copper levels in the shoots of rice were below the normal contents cited for this plant in the literature. Metal levels of river sediments collected near Vale de Guizo seem to corroborate the possibility of some metal contamination in the Sado River, most probably derived from pyrites mining activity in the upper zone of the Sado basin.

  15. Tsunami hazard assessment in the coastal area of Rabat and Salé, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renou, C.; Lesne, O.; Mangin, A.; Rouffi, F.; Atillah, A.; El Hadani, D.; Moudni, H.

    2011-08-01

    In the framework of the three-year SCHEMA European project (www.schemaproject.org), we present a generic methodology developed to produce tsunami building vulnerability and impact maps. We apply this methodology to the Moroccan coast. This study focuses on the Bouregreg Valley which is at the junction between Rabat (administrative capital), and Salé. Both present large populations and new infrastructure development. Using a combination of numerical modelling, field surveys, Earth Observation and GIS data, the risk has been evaluated for this vulnerable area. Two tsunami scenarios were studied to estimate a realistic range of hazards on this coast: a worst-case scenario based on the historical Lisbon earthquake of 1755 and a moderate scenario based on the Horseshoe earthquake of 28 February 1969. For each scenario, numerical models allowed the production of tsunami hazard maps (maximum inundation extent and maximum inundation depths). Moreover, the modelling results of these two scenarios were compared with the historical data available. A companion paper to this article (Atillah et al., 2011) presents the following steps of the methodology, namely the elaboration of building damage maps by crossing layers of building vulnerability and the so-inferred inundation depths.

  16. RNAPro•SAL: A device for rapid and standardized collection of saliva RNA and proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Samantha H.; Thomas, Gerald A.; Liao, Wei; Grogan, Tristan; Buck, Robert L.; Fuentes, Laurel; Yakob, Maha; Laughlin, Mary J.; Schafer, Chris; Nazmul-Hossain, Abu; Wei, Fang; Elashoff, David; Slowey, Paul D.; Wong, David T.W.

    2015-01-01

    The stabilization and processing of salivary transcriptome and proteome biomarkers is a critical challenge due to the ubiquitous nature of nucleases and proteases as well as the inherent instability of these biomarkers. Furthermore, extension of salivary transcriptome and proteome analysis to point-of-care and remote sites requires the availability of self-administered ambient temperature collection and storage tools. To address these challenges, a self-contained whole saliva collection and extraction system, RNAPro•SAL, has been developed that provides rapid ambient temperature collection along with concurrent processing and stabilization of extracellular RNA (exRNA) and proteins. The system was compared to the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) standard clinical collection process (standard operating procedure, SOP). Both systems measured total RNA and protein, and exRNA IL-8, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β-actin and ribosomal protein S9 (RPS9) by qPCR. Proteome analysis was measured by EIA analysis of interleukin-8 (IL-8), and β-actin, as well as total protein. Over 97% of viable cells were removed by both methods. The system compared favorably to the labor-intensive clinical SOP, which requires low-temperature collection and isolation, yielding samples with similar protein and exRNA recovery and stability. PMID:25652029

  17. Accelerator simulation of astrophysical processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tombrello, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    Phenomena that involve accelerated ions in stellar processes that can be simulated with laboratory accelerators are described. Stellar evolutionary phases, such as the CNO cycle, have been partially explored with accelerators, up to the consumption of He by alpha particle radiative capture reactions. Further experimentation is indicated on reactions featuring N-13(p,gamma)O-14, O-15(alpha, gamma)Ne-19, and O-14(alpha,p)F-17. Accelerated beams interacting with thin foils produce reaction products that permit a determination of possible elemental abundances in stellar objects. Additionally, isotopic ratios observed in chondrites can be duplicated with accelerator beam interactions and thus constraints can be set on the conditions producing the meteorites. Data from isotopic fractionation from sputtering, i.e., blasting surface atoms from a material using a low energy ion beam, leads to possible models for processes occurring in supernova explosions. Finally, molecules can be synthesized with accelerators and compared with spectroscopic observations of stellar winds.

  18. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, S.A.

    1958-05-27

    An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.

  19. Study of enhanced red emission from Sm(Sal) 3Phen ternary complexes in Poly Vinyl Alcohol film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Dwivedi, Y.; Rai, S. B.

    2010-09-01

    In the present work, dinuclear complexes of salicylic acid (Sal) and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) were synthesized with different concentrations of Samarium ion (Sm 3+) in Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) polymer films and their structural and spectroscopic properties were investigated. Judd-Ofelt theory has been employed to estimate the several radiative parameters for SmCl 3 and Sm(Sal) 3Phen complex in PVA polymer film which are in fairly agreement between the experimental and the theoretical values supporting the J-O theory. Photoluminescence properties of the complex have been studied on 355 nm and 400 nm excitations in steady state as well as in time domain. On the basis of the UV-Vis absorption, FT-IR absorption, excitation, emission spectra and decay curves, spectroscopic properties of these films were studied and the photophysics involved was explained in terms of energy transfer and the RE encapsulation effect.

  20. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Jr., Joseph P.; Devaney, Howard F.; Hake, Lewis W.

    1982-08-17

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  1. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P. Jr.; Devaney, H.F.; Hake, L.W.

    1979-08-29

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  2. ION ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Bell, J.S.

    1959-09-15

    An arrangement for the drift tubes in a linear accelerator is described whereby each drift tube acts to shield the particles from the influence of the accelerating field and focuses the particles passing through the tube. In one embodiment the drift tube is splii longitudinally into quadrants supported along the axis of the accelerator by webs from a yoke, the quadrants. webs, and yoke being of magnetic material. A magnetic focusing action is produced by energizing a winding on each web to set up a magnetic field between adjacent quadrants. In the other embodiment the quadrants are electrically insulated from each other and have opposite polarity voltages on adjacent quadrants to provide an electric focusing fleld for the particles, with the quadrants spaced sufficienily close enough to shield the particles within the tube from the accelerating electric field.

  3. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  4. Novel acyloxy derivatives of branched mono- and polyol esters of sal fat: multiviscosity grade lubricant base stocks.

    PubMed

    Kamalakar, Kotte; Sai Manoj, Gorantla N V T; Prasad, Rachapudi B N; Karuna, Mallampalli S L

    2014-12-10

    Sal fat, a nontraditional seed oil, was chemically modified to obtain base stocks with a wide range of specifications that can replace mineral oil base stocks. Sal fatty acids were enriched to 72.6% unsaturation using urea adduct method and reacted with branched mono alcohol, 2-ethylhexanol (2-EtH), and polyols namely neopentyl glycol (NPG) and trimethylolpropane (TMP) to obtain corresponding esters. The esters were hydroxylated and then acylated using propionic, butyric, and hexanoic anhydrides to obtain corresponding acylated derivatives. The acylated TMP esters exhibited very high viscosities (427.35-471.93 cSt at 40 °C) similar to those of BS 150 mineral oil base stock range, ISO VG 460, while the acylated NPG esters (268.81-318.84 cSt at 40 °C) and 2-EtH esters viscosities (20.94-24.44 cSt at 40 °C) exhibited viscosities in the range of ISO VG 320 and 22 respectively with good viscosity indices. Acylated NPG esters were found suitable for high temperature and acylated 2-ethylhexyl esters for low viscosity grade industrial applications. It was observed that the thermo-oxidative stabilities of all acylated products were found better compared to other vegetable oil based base stocks. Overall, all the sal fat based lubricant base stocks are promising candidates with a wide range of properties, which can replace most of the mineral oil base stocks with appropriate formulations.

  5. Pharmacology and anti-addiction effects of the novel κ opioid receptor agonist Mesyl Sal B, a potent and long-acting analogue of salvinorin A

    PubMed Central

    Simonson, B; Morani, A S; Ewald, A W M; Walker, L; Kumar, N; Simpson, D; Miller, J H; Prisinzano, T E; Kivell, B M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Acute activation of κ opioid (KOP) receptors results in anticocaine-like effects, but adverse effects, such as dysphoria, aversion, sedation and depression, limit their clinical development. Salvinorin A, isolated from the plant Salvia divinorum, and its semi-synthetic analogues have been shown to have potent KOP receptor agonist activity and may induce a unique response with similar anticocaine addiction effects as the classic KOP receptor agonists, but with a different side effect profile. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We evaluated the duration of effects of Mesyl Sal B in vivo utilizing antinociception assays and screened for cocaine-prime induced cocaine-seeking behaviour in self-administering rats to predict anti-addiction effects. Cellular transporter uptake assays and in vitro voltammetry were used to assess modulation of dopamine transporter (DAT) function and to investigate transporter trafficking and kinase signalling pathways modulated by KOP receptor agonists. KEY RESULTS Mesyl Sal B had a longer duration of action than SalA, had anti-addiction properties and increased DAT function in vitro in a KOP receptor-dependent and Pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. These effects on DAT function required ERK1/2 activation. We identified differences between Mesyl Sal B and SalA, with Mesyl Sal B increasing the Vmax of dopamine uptake without altering cell-surface expression of DAT. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS SalA analogues, such as Mesyl Sal B, have potential for development as anticocaine agents. Further tests are warranted to elucidate the mechanisms by which the novel salvinorin-based neoclerodane diterpene KOP receptor ligands produce both anti-addiction and adverse side effects. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24641310

  6. Marine geophysical data—Point Sal to Refugio State Beach, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen; Beeson, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    This data release includes approximately 1,032 km of marine single-channel seismic-reflection data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey on a research cruise (USGS survey 2014-632-FA) in July and August, 2014, between Point Sal and Refugio State Beach. The dataset includes 168 profiles, most of which were collected on tracklines roughly perpendicular to the coast at 1 km line spacing; additional profiles were collected on coast-parallel tie lines. These data were acquired to support the California Seafloor Mapping Program and USGS Geologic Hazards projects.Seismic-reflection data were collected using a minisparker system that creates an acoustic signal by discharging an electrical pulse between electrodes and a ground that generates a frequency spectrum roughly between 200 and 1,600 Hz. At boat speeds of 4 to 4.5 nm/hour, seismic traces were collected roughly every 1 to 2 meters. Water depths were generally between 50 m and 150 m, but as shallow as 10 meters near the shoreline, and as deep as 480 m for profiles crossing the Santa Barbara basin. Acoustic pulses were generated at 0.5-second intervals on most profiles; a 1-second interval was used on the few profiles collected in deeper water. Standard SEG-Y files were generated using a Triton Subbottom Logger (SBL). Seismic data processing was accomplished using Sioseis, a public-domain software developed at Scripps Institute of Oceanography (part of the University of California at San Diego). The processing of these data consisted of a bandpass filter, mute function, automatic gain control, water bottom detect, swell correction, and scaling/plotting. Both raw data in SEG-Y format and processed data (“Corrected SEG-Y”) are provided in this data release. 

  7. Numerical simulation of VAWT stochastic aerodynamic loads produced by atmospheric turbauence: VAWT-SAL code

    SciTech Connect

    Homicz, G.F.

    1991-09-01

    Blade fatigue life is an important element in determining the economic viability of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). A principal source of blade fatigue is thought to be the stochastic (i.e., random) aerodynamic loads created by atmospheric turbulence. This report describes the theoretical background of the VAWT Stochastic Aerodynamic Loads (VAWT-SAL) computer code, whose purpose is to numerically simulate these random loads, given the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and assumed turbulence properties. A Double-Multiple-Stream Tube (DMST) analysis is employed to model the rotor's aerodynamic response. The analysis includes the effects of Reynolds number variations, different airfoil sections and chord lengths along the blade span, and an empirical model for dynamic stall effects. The mean ambient wind is assumed to have a shear profile which is described by either a power law or a logarithmic variation with height above ground. Superimposed on this is a full 3-D field of turbulence: i.e., in addition to random fluctuations in time, the turbulence is allowed to vary randomly in planes perpendicular to the mean wind. The influence of flow retardation on the convection of turbulence through the turbine is also modeled. Calculations are presented for the VAWT 34-m Test Bed currently in operation at Bushland, Texas. Predicted time histories of the loads, as well as their Fourier spectra, are presented and discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the differences between so-called steady-state'' (mean wind only) predictions, and those produced with turbulence present. Somewhat surprisingly, turbulence is found to be capable of either increasing or decreasing the average output power, depending on the turbine's tip-speed ratio. A heuristic explanation for such behavior is postulated, and a simple formula is derived for predicting the magnitude of this effect without the need for a full stochastic simulation. 41 refs., 32 figs., 1 tab.

  8. A mutant allele of the SUP45 (SAL4) gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows temperature-dependent allosuppressor and omnipotent suppressor phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Stansfield, I; Akhmaloka; Tuite, M F

    1995-04-01

    Using a plasmid-based termination-read-through assay, the sal4-2 conditional-lethal (temperature-sensitive) allele of the SUP45 (SAL4) gene was shown to enhance the efficiency of the weak ochre suppressor tRNA SUQ5 some 10-fold at 30 degrees C. Additionally, this allele increased the suppressor efficiency of SRM2-2, a weak tRNA(Gln) ochre suppressor, indicating that the allosuppressor phenotype is not SUQ5-specific. A sup+ sal4-2 strain also showed a temperature-dependent omnipotent suppressor phenotype, enhancing readthrough of all three termination codons. Combining the sal4-2 allele with an efficient tRNA nonsense suppressor (SUP4) increased the temperature-sensitivity of that strain, indicating that enhanced nonsense suppressor levels contribute to the conditional-lethality conferred by the sal4-2 allele. However, UGA suppression levels in a sup+ sal4-2 strain following a shift to the non-permissive temperature reached a maximum significantly below that exhibited by a non-temperature sensitive SUP4 suppressor strain. Enhanced nonsense suppression may not therefore be the primary cause of the conditional-lethality of this allele. These data indicate a role for Sup45p in translation termination, and possibly in an additional, as yet unidentified, cellular process.

  9. The Response Regulator CroR Modulates Expression of the Secreted Stress-Induced SalB Protein in Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Cécile; Le Breton, Yoann; Morin, Thierry; Benachour, Abdellah; Auffray, Yanick; Rincé, Alain

    2006-01-01

    The Enterococcus faecalis two-component signal transduction system CroRS, also referred as the RR-HK05 pair, is required for intrinsic β-lactam resistance (Y. R. Comenge, R. Quintiliani, Jr., L. Li, L. Dubost, J. P. Brouard, J. E. Hugonnet, and M. Arthur, J. Bacteriol. 185:7184-7192, 2003) and is also suspected to be involved in the expression of salB (previously referred to as sagA), a gene important for resistance to environmental stress and cell morphology (Y. Le Breton, G. Boël, A. Benachour, H. Prévost, Y. Auffray, and A. Rincé, Environ. Microbiol. 5:329-337, 2003). In this report, we provide genetic and biochemical evidence that salB encodes a secreted protein that is expressed from a monocistronic stress-inducible operon. Consistent with CroR being a direct transcriptional activator of the salB expression, CroR was found to bind to the salB promoter region in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Interestingly, we provide evidence that SalB does not play a role in the intrinsic β-lactam resistance associated with CroRS. We also show that the CroRS system is able to regulate its own expression. The sequence of the CroRS binding site in the salB and croR promoter regions was determined using DNase I footprinting assays. PMID:16547051

  10. Salvianolic Acid B (Sal B) Protects Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells from Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death by Activating Glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaobin; Xavier, Christy; Jann, Jamieson; Wu, Hongli

    2016-11-03

    Protein glutathionylation, defined as the formation of protein mixed disulfides (PSSG) between cysteine residues and glutathione (GSH), can lead to cell death. Glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1) is a thiol repair enzyme which catalyzes the reduction of PSSG. Therefore, Grx1 exerts strong anti-apoptotic effects by improving the redox state, especially in times of oxidative stress. However, there is currently no compound that is identified as a Grx1 activator. In this study, we identified and characterized Salvianolic acid B (Sal B), a natural compound, as a Grx1 inducer, which potently protected retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells from oxidative injury. Our results showed that treatment with Sal B protected primary human RPE cells from H₂O₂-induced cell damage. Interestingly, we found Sal B pretreatment upregulated Grx1 expression in RPE cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), the key transcription factor that regulates the expression of Grx1, was activated in Sal B treated RPE cells. Further investigation showed that knockdown of Grx1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly reduced the protective effects of Sal B. We conclude that Sal B protects RPE cells against H₂O₂-induced cell injury through Grx1 induction by activating Nrf2 pathway, thus preventing lethal accumulation of PSSG and reversing oxidative damage.

  11. Salvianolic Acid B (Sal B) Protects Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells from Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death by Activating Glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaobin; Xavier, Christy; Jann, Jamieson; Wu, Hongli

    2016-01-01

    Protein glutathionylation, defined as the formation of protein mixed disulfides (PSSG) between cysteine residues and glutathione (GSH), can lead to cell death. Glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1) is a thiol repair enzyme which catalyzes the reduction of PSSG. Therefore, Grx1 exerts strong anti-apoptotic effects by improving the redox state, especially in times of oxidative stress. However, there is currently no compound that is identified as a Grx1 activator. In this study, we identified and characterized Salvianolic acid B (Sal B), a natural compound, as a Grx1 inducer, which potently protected retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells from oxidative injury. Our results showed that treatment with Sal B protected primary human RPE cells from H2O2-induced cell damage. Interestingly, we found Sal B pretreatment upregulated Grx1 expression in RPE cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), the key transcription factor that regulates the expression of Grx1, was activated in Sal B treated RPE cells. Further investigation showed that knockdown of Grx1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly reduced the protective effects of Sal B. We conclude that Sal B protects RPE cells against H2O2-induced cell injury through Grx1 induction by activating Nrf2 pathway, thus preventing lethal accumulation of PSSG and reversing oxidative damage. PMID:27827892

  12. SPEAR3 Accelerator Physics Update

    SciTech Connect

    Safranek, James A.; Corbett, W.Jeff; Gierman, S.; Hettel, R.O.; Huang, X.; Nosochkov, Yuri; Sebek, Jim; Terebilo, Andrei; /SLAC

    2007-11-02

    The SPEAR3 storage ring at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory has been delivering photon beams for three years. We will give an overview of recent and ongoing accelerator physics activities, including 500 mA fills, work toward top-off injection, long-term orbit stability characterization and improvement, fast orbit feedback, new chicane optics, low alpha optics & short bunches, low emittance optics, and MATLAB software. The accelerator physics group has a strong program to characterize and improve SPEAR3 performance

  13. Acceleration using total internal reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Fernow, R.C.

    1991-06-07

    This report considers the use of a dielectric slab undergoing total internal reflection as an accelerating structure for charged particle beams. We examine the functional dependence of the electromagnetic fields above the surface of the dielectric for polarized incident waves. We present an experimental arrangement for testing the performance of the method, using apparatus under construction for the Grating Acceleration experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Acceleration Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    1993-01-01

    Work to support the NASA MSFC Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP) was performed. Four tasks (analysis development, analysis research, analysis documentation, and acceleration analysis) were addressed by parallel projects. Work concentrated on preparation for and implementation of near real-time SAMS data analysis during the USMP-1 mission. User support documents and case specific software documentation and tutorials were developed. Information and results were presented to microgravity users. ACAP computer facilities need to be fully implemented and networked, data resources must be cataloged and accessible, future microgravity missions must be coordinated, and continued Orbiter characterization is necessary.

  15. Imaging using accelerated heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.T.

    1982-05-01

    Several methods for imaging using accelerated heavy ion beams are being investigated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using the HILAC (Heavy-Ion Linear Accelerator) as an injector, the Bevalac can accelerate fully stripped atomic nuclei from carbon (Z = 6) to krypton (Z = 34), and partly stripped ions up to uranium (Z = 92). Radiographic studies to date have been conducted with helium (from 184-inch cyclotron), carbon, oxygen, and neon beams. Useful ranges in tissue of 40 cm or more are available. To investigate the potential of heavy-ion projection radiography and computed tomography (CT), several methods and instrumentation have been studied.

  16. Science Highlight: Researchers Demonstrate 'Accelerator on a Chip'

    SciTech Connect

    2013-01-01

    In an advance that could dramatically shrink particle accelerators for science and medicine, researchers at DOE's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory used a laser to accelerate electrons at a rate 10 times higher than conventional technology in a nanostructured glass chip smaller than a grain of rice. This technique uses ultrafast lasers to drive the accelerator. (This achievement was reported in Nature, 27 Sept 2013)

  17. Particle acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

  18. Plasma accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui; Barnes, Cris W.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.

  19. Accelerated Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the accelerated associate degree program at Ivy Tech Community College (Indiana) in which low-income students will receive an associate degree in one year. The three-year pilot program is funded by a $2.3 million grant from the Lumina Foundation for Education in Indianapolis and a $270,000 grant from the Indiana Commission…

  20. ACCELERATION INTEGRATOR

    DOEpatents

    Pope, K.E.

    1958-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved acceleration integrator and more particularly to apparatus of this nature which is gyrostabilized. The device may be used to sense the attainment by an airborne vehicle of a predetermined velocitv or distance along a given vector path. In its broad aspects, the acceleration integrator utilizes a magnetized element rotatable driven by a synchronous motor and having a cylin drical flux gap and a restrained eddy- current drag cap deposed to move into the gap. The angular velocity imparted to the rotatable cap shaft is transmitted in a positive manner to the magnetized element through a servo feedback loop. The resultant angular velocity of tae cap is proportional to the acceleration of the housing in this manner and means may be used to measure the velocity and operate switches at a pre-set magnitude. To make the above-described dcvice sensitive to acceleration in only one direction the magnetized element forms the spinning inertia element of a free gyroscope, and the outer housing functions as a gimbal of a gyroscope.

  1. UCLA Neptune Facility for Advanced Accelerator Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tochitsky, Sergei Ya.; Clayton, Christopher E.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Joshi, Chandrashekhar; Rosenzweig, James B.; Pellegrini, Claudio

    2004-12-07

    The Neptune Laboratory at UCLA is being used for exploring concepts useful for advanced accelerators. This facility hosts a TW-class CO2 laser system and a high-brightness photoinjector producing a 14 MeV electron beam. The goal for the laboratory is to carry out experiments on high-gradient acceleration of externally injected electrons in both laser-driven relativistic plasma waves and EM laser field in vacuum. Experiments on plasma beat-wave acceleration using a prebunched electron beam, a high-energy gain 10-{mu}m inverse free electron laser accelerator, longitudinal electron beam shaping and laser based light-sources are planned.

  2. Acceleration Environment of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPherson, Kevin; Kelly, Eric; Keller, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the microgravity acceleration environment on the International Space Station has been accomplished by two accelerometer systems since 2001. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System records the quasi-steady microgravity environment, including the influences of aerodynamic drag, vehicle rotation, and venting effects. Measurement of the vibratory/transient regime, comprised of vehicle, crew, and equipment disturbances, has been accomplished by the Space Acceleration Measurement System-II. Until the arrival of the Columbus Orbital Facility and the Japanese Experiment Module, the location of these sensors, and therefore, the measurement of the microgravity acceleration environment, has been limited to within the United States Laboratory. Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency has developed a vibratory acceleration measurement system called the Microgravity Measurement Apparatus which will be deployed within the Japanese Experiment Module to make distributed measurements of the Japanese Experiment Module's vibratory acceleration environment. Two Space Acceleration Measurement System sensors from the United States Laboratory will be re-deployed to support vibratory acceleration data measurement within the Columbus Orbital Facility. The additional measurement opportunities resulting from the arrival of these new laboratories allows Principal Investigators with facilities located in these International Space Station research laboratories to obtain microgravity acceleration data in support of their sensitive experiments. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project, at NASA Glenn Research Center, in Cleveland, Ohio, has supported acceleration measurement systems and the microgravity scientific community through the processing, characterization, distribution, and archival of the microgravity acceleration data obtained from the International Space Station acceleration measurement systems. This paper summarizes the PIMS capabilities available

  3. Particle Accelerators in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuang; Fang, Shouxian

    As the special machines that can accelerate charged particle beams to high energy by using electromagnetic fields, particle accelerators have been widely applied in scientific research and various areas of society. The development of particle accelerators in China started in the early 1950s. After a brief review of the history of accelerators, this article describes in the following sections: particle colliders, heavy-ion accelerators, high-intensity proton accelerators, accelerator-based light sources, pulsed power accelerators, small scale accelerators, accelerators for applications, accelerator technology development and advanced accelerator concepts. The prospects of particle accelerators in China are also presented.

  4. Compact accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    2007-02-06

    A compact linear accelerator having at least one strip-shaped Blumlein module which guides a propagating wavefront between first and second ends and controls the output pulse at the second end. Each Blumlein module has first, second, and third planar conductor strips, with a first dielectric strip between the first and second conductor strips, and a second dielectric strip between the second and third conductor strips. Additionally, the compact linear accelerator includes a high voltage power supply connected to charge the second conductor strip to a high potential, and a switch for switching the high potential in the second conductor strip to at least one of the first and third conductor strips so as to initiate a propagating reverse polarity wavefront(s) in the corresponding dielectric strip(s).

  5. Laser acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  6. BICEP's acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Contaldi, Carlo R.

    2014-10-01

    The recent Bicep2 [1] detection of, what is claimed to be primordial B-modes, opens up the possibility of constraining not only the energy scale of inflation but also the detailed acceleration history that occurred during inflation. In turn this can be used to determine the shape of the inflaton potential V(φ) for the first time — if a single, scalar inflaton is assumed to be driving the acceleration. We carry out a Monte Carlo exploration of inflationary trajectories given the current data. Using this method we obtain a posterior distribution of possible acceleration profiles ε(N) as a function of e-fold N and derived posterior distributions of the primordial power spectrum P(k) and potential V(φ). We find that the Bicep2 result, in combination with Planck measurements of total intensity Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, induces a significant feature in the scalar primordial spectrum at scales k∼ 10{sup -3} Mpc {sup -1}. This is in agreement with a previous detection of a suppression in the scalar power [2].

  7. The suppressor of AAC2 Lethality SAL1 modulates sensitivity of heterologously expressed artemia ADP/ATP carrier to bongkrekate in yeast.

    PubMed

    Wysocka-Kapcinska, Monika; Torocsik, Beata; Turiak, Lilla; Tsaprailis, George; David, Cynthia L; Hunt, Andrea M; Vekey, Karoly; Adam-Vizi, Vera; Kucharczyk, Roza; Chinopoulos, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The ADP/ATP carrier protein (AAC) expressed in Artemia franciscana is refractory to bongkrekate. We generated two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae where AAC1 and AAC3 were inactivated and the AAC2 isoform was replaced with Artemia AAC containing a hemagglutinin tag (ArAAC-HA). In one of the strains the suppressor of ΔAAC2 lethality, SAL1, was also inactivated but a plasmid coding for yeast AAC2 was included, because the ArAACΔsal1Δ strain was lethal. In both strains ArAAC-HA was expressed and correctly localized to the mitochondria. Peptide sequencing of ArAAC expressed in Artemia and that expressed in the modified yeasts revealed identical amino acid sequences. The isolated mitochondria from both modified strains developed 85% of the membrane potential attained by mitochondria of control strains, and addition of ADP yielded bongkrekate-sensitive depolarizations implying acquired sensitivity of ArAAC-mediated adenine nucleotide exchange to this poison, independent from SAL1. However, growth of ArAAC-expressing yeasts in glycerol-containing media was arrested by bongkrekate only in the presence of SAL1. We conclude that the mitochondrial environment of yeasts relying on respiratory growth conferred sensitivity of ArAAC to bongkrekate in a SAL1-dependent manner.

  8. Sal k 4, a new allergen of Salsola kali, is profilin: a predictive value of conserved conformational regions in cross-reactivity with other plant-derived profilins.

    PubMed

    Assarehzadegan, Mohammad Ali; Amini, Akram; Sankian, Mojtaba; Tehrani, Mohsen; Jabbari, Farahzad; Varasteh, Abdolreza

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a new allergen of Salsola kali, Sal k 4, and to investigate the predictive value of the conserved conformational regions in cross-reactivity with other plant-derived profilins. The Sal k 4-coding sequence was cloned, expressed, and purified by one-step Ni2+ affinity chromatography to recover high-purity target protein. We assessed cross-reactivity and predicted conserved conformational regions among rSal k 4 and other plant-derived profilins. Immunodetection and inhibition assays using 30 individual sera from S. kali allergic patients indicated that purified rSal k 4 might be the same as that in the crude extract. The results of inhibition assays among rSal k 4 and other plant-derived profilins were in accordance with the homology of the predicted conserved conformational regions. Amino acid sequence homology analysis showed that a high degree of IgE cross-reactivity among plant-derived profilins might depend on the predicted conserved conformational regions.

  9. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  10. Characterization of sal(A), a Novel Gene Responsible for Lincosamide and Streptogramin A Resistance in Staphylococcus sciuri

    PubMed Central

    Hot, Chloé; Berthet, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Natural resistance to lincosamides and streptogramins A (LSA), which is a species characteristic of Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis, has never been documented in the Staphylococcus genus. We investigate here the molecular basis of the LSA phenotype exhibited by seven reference strains of Staphylococcus sciuri, including the type strains of the three described subspecies. By whole-genome sequencing of strain ATCC 29059, we identified a candidate gene that encodes an ATP-binding cassette protein similar to the Lsa and VmlR resistance determinants. Isolation and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) expression studies confirmed that Sal(A) can confer a moderate resistance to lincosamides (8 times the MIC of lincomycin) and a high-level resistance to streptogramins A (64 times the MIC of pristinamycin II). The chromosomal location of sal(A) between two housekeeping genes of the staphylococcal core genome supports the gene's ancient origins and thus innate resistance to these antimicrobials within S. sciuri subspecies. PMID:24687494

  11. Luminescence properties of Sm, Tb(Sal)3Phen complex in polyvinyl alcohol: an approach for white-light emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Rai, S. B.

    2011-10-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol polymer films doped with Sm,Tb(Sal)3Phen complexes have been synthesized using solution casting technique. An enhancement in absorption intensity is observed revealing the encapsulation of rare earth ions by salicylic acid (Sal)/1,10 phenanthroline (Phen) complex. Photoluminescence spectra of the co-doped samples were examined by varying the concentration of Tb3+ keeping concentration of Sm3+ ions fixed and vice-versa. It is found that the polymer samples emit a combination of blue, green and orange-red wavelengths tunable to white light when excited with 355 nm radiation. The emission spectra also show a self-quenching effect at higher concentration of Sm3+ ions. An efficient energy transfer was observed from Tb3+ : 5D4 → Sm3+ : 4G9/2. The reason for the enhancement in fluorescence intensities of Sm3+ in the co-doped polymer sample is the intermolecular as well as the intramolecular energy transfer.

  12. Analysis of sterol and other components present in unsaponifiable matters of mahua, sal and mango kernel oil.

    PubMed

    Dhara, Rupali; Bhattacharyya, Dipak K; Ghosh, Mahua

    2010-01-01

    The amount and characterization of phytosterol and other minor components present in three Indian minor seed oils, mahua (Madhuca latifolia), sal (Shorea robusta) and mango kernel (Mangifera indica), have been done. Theses oils have shown commercial importance as cocoa-butter substitutes because of their high symmetrical triglycerides content. The conventional thin layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC) & gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) techniques were used to characterize the components and the high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) technique was used to quantify the each group of components. The experimental data showed that the all the three oils are rich in sterol content and among all the sterols, beta-sitosterol occupies the highest amount. Sal oil contains appreciable amount of cardenolides, gitoxigenin. Tocopherol is present only in mahua oil and oleyl alcohol is present in mango kernel oil. Hydrocarbon, squalene, is present in all the three oils. The characterization of these minor components will help to detect the presence of the particular oil in specific formulations and to assess its stability as well as nutritional quality of the specific oil.

  13. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  14. Impact accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vongierke, H. E.; Brinkley, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The degree to which impact acceleration is an important factor in space flight environments depends primarily upon the technology of capsule landing deceleration and the weight permissible for the associated hardware: parachutes or deceleration rockets, inflatable air bags, or other impact attenuation systems. The problem most specific to space medicine is the potential change of impact tolerance due to reduced bone mass and muscle strength caused by prolonged weightlessness and physical inactivity. Impact hazards, tolerance limits, and human impact tolerance related to space missions are described.

  15. Measurement of Coriolis Acceleration with a Smartphone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaku, Asif; Kraft, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate physics laboratories seldom have experiments that measure the Coriolis acceleration. This has traditionally been the case owing to the inherent complexities of making such measurements. Articles on the experimental determination of the Coriolis acceleration are few and far between in the physics literature. However, because modern…

  16. 25 MV tandem accelerator at Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    A new heavy-ion accelerator facility is under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A brief description of the scope and status of this project is presented with emphasis on the first operational experience with the 25 MV tandem accelerator.

  17. Accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hellborg, Ragnar; Skog, Göran

    2008-01-01

    In this overview the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its use are described. AMS is a highly sensitive method of counting atoms. It is used to detect very low concentrations of natural isotopic abundances (typically in the range between 10(-12) and 10(-16)) of both radionuclides and stable nuclides. The main advantages of AMS compared to conventional radiometric methods are the use of smaller samples (mg and even sub-mg size) and shorter measuring times (less than 1 hr). The equipment used for AMS is almost exclusively based on the electrostatic tandem accelerator, although some of the newest systems are based on a slightly different principle. Dedicated accelerators as well as older "nuclear physics machines" can be found in the 80 or so AMS laboratories in existence today. The most widely used isotope studied with AMS is 14C. Besides radiocarbon dating this isotope is used in climate studies, biomedicine applications and many other fields. More than 100,000 14C samples are measured per year. Other isotopes studied include 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 59Ni, 129I, U, and Pu. Although these measurements are important, the number of samples of these other isotopes measured each year is estimated to be less than 10% of the number of 14C samples.

  18. Introduction about Seismic array Laboratory, IGGCAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Y.; Xu, W.

    2007-12-01

    Seismic Array Laboratory (SAL, IGGCAS) was built up in 2000, whose initiative was to study the earth structures through portable seismic observation and it has been operating for about 7 years till now. Totally, the lab have 272 sets of seismographs, including 152 CMG-3ESP seismometers, 18 CMG-3T seismometers, 2 STS-2 seismometers, 100 domestic seismometers, 172 Reftek recording system and 100 domestic recording system, respectively. The seismographs in IGGCAS are only used for temporary seismic observations and are open to users who aim at seismic observation based research and, in principle, are able to afford instrument rental. For the past seven years, more than 10 scientific research groups have used these seismographs and set up more than 470 portable stations in Chinese mainland. Up to now, IGGCAS has carried out 15 temporary seismic station arrays which are mainly distributed in North and Southwest China. The data collected at these seismic stations are currently managed by the SAL of IGGCAS and some regulations have been set down for data usage. Users who implement seismic observations with the seismographs in IGGCAS have three years priority to use the corresponding seismic data after field operation. Then, those data should be released by the SAL of IGGCAS. Now, parts of the data have been open to public through the website http://www.seislab.cn/data, and currently, only some event data in SAC format are released due to the lack of high-level technicians dealing with data pre- processing and quality control. In the near future, the lab will release more data in multiple formats to facilitate researchers in relative area via internet connection.

  19. VLHC accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Blaskiewicz et al.

    2001-11-01

    A six-month design study for a future high energy hadron collider was initiated by the Fermilab director in October 2000. The request was to study a staged approach where a large circumference tunnel is built that initially would house a low field ({approx}2 T) collider with center-of-mass energy greater than 30 TeV and a peak (initial) luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The tunnel was to be scoped, however, to support a future upgrade to a center-of-mass energy greater than 150 TeV with a peak luminosity of 2 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} using high field ({approx} 10 T) superconducting magnet technology. In a collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a report of the Design Study was produced by Fermilab in June 2001. 1 The Design Study focused on a Stage 1, 20 x 20 TeV collider using a 2-in-1 transmission line magnet and leads to a Stage 2, 87.5 x 87.5 TeV collider using 10 T Nb{sub 3}Sn magnet technology. The article that follows is a compilation of accelerator physics designs and computational results which contributed to the Design Study. Many of the parameters found in this report evolved during the study, and thus slight differences between this text and the Design Study report can be found. The present text, however, presents the major accelerator physics issues of the Very Large Hadron Collider as examined by the Design Study collaboration and provides a basis for discussion and further studies of VLHC accelerator parameters and design philosophies.

  20. Electron Acceleration by Transient Ion Foreshock Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, L. B., III; Turner, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Particle acceleration is a topic of considerable interest in space, laboratory, and astrophysical plasmas as it is a fundamental physical process to all areas of physics. Recent THEMIS [e.g., Turner et al., 2014] and Wind [e.g., Wilson et al., 2013] observations have found evidence for strong particle acceleration at macro- and meso-scale structures and/or pulsations called transient ion foreshock phenomena (TIFP). Ion acceleration has been extensively studied, but electron acceleration has received less attention. Electron acceleration can arise from fundamentally different processes than those affecting ions due to differences in their gyroradii. Electron acceleration is ubiquitous, occurring in the solar corona (e.g., solar flares), magnetic reconnection, at shocks, astrophysical plasmas, etc. We present new results analyzing the dependencies of electron acceleration on the properties of TIFP observed by the THEMIS spacecraft.

  1. Accelerator system and method of accelerating particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirz, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator system and method that utilize dust as the primary mass flux for generating thrust are provided. The accelerator system can include an accelerator capable of operating in a self-neutralizing mode and having a discharge chamber and at least one ionizer capable of charging dust particles. The system can also include a dust particle feeder that is capable of introducing the dust particles into the accelerator. By applying a pulsed positive and negative charge voltage to the accelerator, the charged dust particles can be accelerated thereby generating thrust and neutralizing the accelerator system.

  2. Mass spectrometry with accelerators.

    PubMed

    Litherland, A E; Zhao, X-L; Kieser, W E

    2011-01-01

    As one in a series of articles on Canadian contributions to mass spectrometry, this review begins with an outline of the history of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), noting roles played by researchers at three Canadian AMS laboratories. After a description of the unique features of AMS, three examples, (14)C, (10)Be, and (129)I are given to illustrate the methods. The capabilities of mass spectrometry have been extended by the addition of atomic isobar selection, molecular isobar attenuation, further ion acceleration, followed by ion detection and ion identification at essentially zero dark current or ion flux. This has been accomplished by exploiting the techniques and accelerators of atomic and nuclear physics. In 1939, the first principles of AMS were established using a cyclotron. In 1977 the selection of isobars in the ion source was established when it was shown that the (14)N(-) ion was very unstable, or extremely difficult to create, making a tandem electrostatic accelerator highly suitable for assisting the mass spectrometric measurement of the rare long-lived radioactive isotope (14)C in the environment. This observation, together with the large attenuation of the molecular isobars (13)CH(-) and (12)CH 2(-) during tandem acceleration and the observed very low background contamination from the ion source, was found to facilitate the mass spectrometry of (14)C to at least a level of (14)C/C ~ 6 × 10(-16), the equivalent of a radiocarbon age of 60,000 years. Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, or AMS, has now made possible the accurate radiocarbon dating of milligram-sized carbon samples by ion counting as well as dating and tracing with many other long-lived radioactive isotopes such as (10)Be, (26)Al, (36)Cl, and (129)I. The difficulty of obtaining large anion currents with low electron affinities and the difficulties of isobar separation, especially for the heavier mass ions, has prompted the use of molecular anions and the search for alternative

  3. Technology of magnetically driven accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birx, D. L.; Hawkins, S. A.; Poor, S. E.; Reginato, L. L.; Rogers, D., Jr.; Smith, M. W.

    1985-03-01

    The marriage of Induction Linac technology with Nonlinar Magnetic Modulators has produced some unique capabilities. It appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, at gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, and with power efficiencies approaching 50%. A 2 MeV, 5 kA electron accelerator has been constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to demonstrate these concepts and to provide a test facility for high brightness sources. The pulse drive for the accelerator is based on magnetic pulse compressors with very high peak power capability, repetition rates exceeding a kilohertz and excellent reliability.

  4. Technology of magnetically driven accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Brix, D.L.; Hawkins, S.A.; Poor, S.E.; Reginato, L.L.; Smith, M.W.

    1985-10-01

    The marriage of Induction Linac technology with Nonlinear Magnetic Modulators has produced some unique capabilities. It appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, at gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, and with power efficiencies approaching 50%. A 2 MeV, 5 kA electron accelerator has been constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to demonstrate these concepts and to provide a test facility for high brightness sources. The pulse drive for the accelerator is based on state-of-the-art magnetic pulse compressors with very high peak power capability, repetition rates exceeding a kilohertz and excellent reliability.

  5. Technology of magnetically driven accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Birx, D.L.; Hawkins, S.A.; Poor, S.E.; Reginato, L.L.; Rogers, D. Jr.; Smith, M.W.

    1985-03-26

    The marriage of Induction Linac technology with Nonlinear Magnetic Modulators has produced some unique capabilities. It appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, at gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, and with power efficiencies approaching 50%. A 2 MeV, 5 kA electron accelerator has been constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to demonstrate these concepts and to provide a test facility for high brightness sources. The pulse drive for the accelerator is based on state-of-the-art magnetic pulse compressors with very high peak power capability, repetition rates exceeding a kilohertz and excellent reliability. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. The Periplasmic Chaperone Network of Campylobacter jejuni: Evidence that SalC (Cj1289) and PpiD (Cj0694) Are Involved in Maintaining Outer Membrane Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Aidan J.; Zakai, Shadi A. I.; Kelly, David J.

    2017-01-01

    The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria is a key structure in host–pathogen interactions that contains a plethora of proteins, performing a range of functions including adhesion, nutrient uptake, export of effectors and interaction with innate and adaptive components of the immune system. In addition, the OM can exclude drugs and thus contribute to antimicrobial resistance. The OM of the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni contains porins, adhesins and other virulence factors that must be specifically localized to this membrane, but the protein sorting mechanisms involved are only partially understood. In particular, chaperones are required to ferry OM proteins across the periplasm after they emerge from the Sec translocation system. The SurA-related chaperone PEB4 (Cj0596) is the only protein with a proven role in OM biogenesis and integrity in C. jejuni. In this work, we have constructed a set of isogenic deletion mutants in genes encoding both known and predicted chaperones (cj0596, cj0694, cj1069, cj1228c, and cj1289) using NCTC 11168H as the parental strain. These mutants were characterized using a range of assays to determine effects on growth, agglutination, biofilm formation, membrane permeability and hydrophobicity. We focused on Cj1289 and Cj0694, which our previous work suggested possessed both chaperone and peptidyl-proyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) domains. Mutants in either cj1289 or cj0694 showed growth defects, increased motility, agglutination and biofilm formation and severe OM permeability defects as measured by a lysozyme accessibility assay, that were comparable to those exhibited by the isogenic peb4 mutant. 2D-gel comparisons showed a general decrease in OM proteins in these mutants. We heterologously overproduced and purified Cj0694 and obtained evidence that this protein was an active PPIase, as judged by its acceleration of the refolding rate of reduced and alkylated ribonuclease T1 and that it also possessed

  7. STATUS OF THE DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G J; Chen, Y; Sampayan, S; Akana, G; Anaya, R; Blackfield, D; Carroll, J; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Guethlein, G; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Hickman, B; Holmes, C; Horner, A; Nelson, S; Paul, A; Pearson, D; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J; Weir, J

    2009-04-22

    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) system being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses fast switched high voltage transmission lines to generate pulsed electric fields on the inside of a high gradient insulating (HGI) acceleration tube. High electric field gradients are achieved by the use of alternating insulators and conductors and short pulse times. The system is capable of accelerating any charge to mass ratio particle. Applications of high gradient proton and electron versions of this accelerator will be discussed. The status of the developmental new technologies that make the compact system possible will be reviewed. These include, high gradient vacuum insulators, solid dielectric materials, photoconductive switches and compact proton sources.

  8. Acceleration modules in linear induction accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shao-Heng; Deng, Jian-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA) is a unique type of accelerator that is capable of accelerating kilo-Ampere charged particle current to tens of MeV energy. The present development of LIA in MHz bursting mode and the successful application into a synchrotron have broadened LIA's usage scope. Although the transformer model is widely used to explain the acceleration mechanism of LIAs, it is not appropriate to consider the induction electric field as the field which accelerates charged particles for many modern LIAs. We have examined the transition of the magnetic cores' functions during the LIA acceleration modules' evolution, distinguished transformer type and transmission line type LIA acceleration modules, and re-considered several related issues based on transmission line type LIA acceleration module. This clarified understanding should help in the further development and design of LIA acceleration modules.

  9. Acceleration schedules for a recirculating heavy-ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W.M.; Grote, D.P.

    2002-05-01

    Recent advances in solid-state switches have made it feasible to design programmable, high-repetition-rate pulsers for induction accelerators. These switches could lower the cost of recirculating induction accelerators, such as the ''small recirculator'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), by substantially reducing the number of induction modules. Numerical work is reported here to determine what effects the use of fewer pulsers at higher voltage would have on the beam quality of the LLNL small recirculator. Lattices with different numbers of pulsers are examined using the fluid/envelope code CIRCE, and several schedules for acceleration and compression are compared for each configuration. For selected schedules, the phase-space dynamics is also studied using the particle-in-cell code WARP3d.

  10. Space Radiation Effects Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The SREL User's Handbook is designed to provide information needed by those who plan experiments involving the accelerators at this laboratory. Thus the Handbook will contain information on the properties of the machines, the beam parameters, the facilities and services provided for experimenters, etc. This information will be brought up to date as new equipment is added and modifications accomplished. This Handbook is influenced by the many excellent models prepared at other accelerator laboratories. In particular, the CERN Synchrocyclotron User's Handbook (November 1967) is closely followed in some sections, since the SREL Synchrocyclotron is a duplicate of the CERN machine. We wish to thank Dr. E. G. Michaelis for permission to draw so heavily on his work, particularly in Section II of this Handbook. We hope that the Handbook will prove useful, and will welcome suggestions and criticism.

  11. APT accelerator. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.; Rusthoi, D.

    1995-03-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, sponsored by Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE/DP), involves the preconceptual design of an accelerator system to produce tritium for the nation`s stockpile of nuclear weapons. Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen used in nuclear weapons, and must be replenished because of radioactive decay (its half-life is approximately 12 years). Because the annual production requirements for tritium has greatly decreased since the end of the Cold War, an alternative approach to reactors for tritium production, based on a linear accelerator, is now being seriously considered. The annual tritium requirement at the time this study was undertaken (1992-1993) was 3/8 that of the 1988 goal, usually stated as 3/8-Goal. Continued reduction in the number of weapons in the stockpile has led to a revised (lower) production requirement today (March, 1995). The production requirement needed to maintain the reduced stockpile, as stated in the recent Nuclear Posture Review (summer 1994) is approximately 3/16-Goal, half the previous level. The Nuclear Posture Review also requires that the production plant be designed to accomodate a production increase (surge) to 3/8-Goal capability within five years, to allow recovery from a possible extended outage of the tritium plant. A multi-laboratory team, collaborating with several industrial partners, has developed a preconceptual APT design for the 3/8-Goal, operating at 75% capacity. The team has presented APT as a promising alternative to the reactor concepts proposed for Complex-21. Given the requirements of a reduced weapons stockpile, APT offers both significant safety, environmental, and production-fexibility advantages in comparison with reactor systems, and the prospect of successful development in time to meet the US defense requirements of the 21st Century.

  12. EDITORIAL: Laser and plasma accelerators Laser and plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Robert

    2009-02-01

    This special issue on laser and plasma accelerators illustrates the rapid advancement and diverse applications of laser and plasma accelerators. Plasma is an attractive medium for particle acceleration because of the high electric field it can sustain, with studies of acceleration processes remaining one of the most important areas of research in both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. The rapid advance in laser and accelerator technology has led to the development of terawatt and petawatt laser systems with ultra-high intensities and short sub-picosecond pulses, which are used to generate wakefields in plasma. Recent successes include the demonstration by several groups in 2004 of quasi-monoenergetic electron beams by wakefields in the bubble regime with the GeV energy barrier being reached in 2006, and the energy doubling of the SLAC high-energy electron beam from 42 to 85 GeV. The electron beams generated by the laser plasma driven wakefields have good spatial quality with energies ranging from MeV to GeV. A unique feature is that they are ultra-short bunches with simulations showing that they can be as short as a few femtoseconds with low-energy spread, making these beams ideal for a variety of applications ranging from novel high-brightness radiation sources for medicine, material science and ultrafast time-resolved radiobiology or chemistry. Laser driven ion acceleration experiments have also made significant advances over the last few years with applications in laser fusion, nuclear physics and medicine. Attention is focused on the possibility of producing quasi-mono-energetic ions with energies ranging from hundreds of MeV to GeV per nucleon. New acceleration mechanisms are being studied, including ion acceleration from ultra-thin foils and direct laser acceleration. The application of wakefields or beat waves in other areas of science such as astrophysics and particle physics is beginning to take off, such as the study of cosmic accelerators considered

  13. The Gran Sasso Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votano, L.

    2012-09-01

    The Gran Sasso underground laboratory is one of the four national laboratories run by the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). It is located under the Gran Sasso massif, in central Italy, between the cities of L'Aquila and Teramo, 120 km far from Rome. It is the largest underground laboratory for astroparticle physics in the world and the most advanced in terms of complexity and completeness of its infrastructures. The scientific program at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories (Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, LNGS)is mainly focused on astroparticle, particle and nuclear physics. The laboratory presently hosts many experiments as well as R&D activities, including world-leading research in the fields of solar neutrinos, accelerator neutrinos (CNGS neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso), dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay and nuclear cross-section of astrophysical interest. Associate sciences like earth physics, biology and fundamental physics complement the activities. The laboratory is operated as an international science facility and hosts experiments whose scientific merit is assessed by an international advisory Scientific Committee. A review of the main experiments carried out at LNGS will be given, together with the most recent and relevant scientific results achieved.

  14. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of trinuclear chromium(III) basic carboxylate assembly: [Cr3O(salH)7(H2O)2] (salH2=salicylic acid), a new member of [Cr3O] family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jinlong; Liu, Bin; Yang, Binsheng

    2016-07-01

    Synthesizing a novel trinuclear chromium(III) basic carboxylate complex could give rise to new materials with interesting properties. Complex [Cr3O(salH)7(H2O)2] is formed in a one-pot, self-assembly reaction when the inert reaction mixture is exposed to dioxygen. The structural property of the complex has been acquired by single-crystal X-ray crystallography and further characterized by elemental analysis (EA), infrared (IR), UV-Visible (UV-Vis), fluorescence spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). X-ray structural analysis shows a slightly distorted equilateral of the Cr triangle. The most important feature of the title complex is the unusual framework of the [Cr3O] family due to a terminal Ph(OH)CO2- ion of Cr(2) center, which is unique among the structurally characterized (μ3-oxo)-trichromium(III) complexes. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility studies indicate that the total spin value of the ground state is 1/2.

  15. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  16. Preliminary investigation of the elemental variation and diagenesis of a tabular uranium deposit, La Sal Mine, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Robert A.; Campbell, John A.

    1976-01-01

    Ore in the La Sal mine, San Juan County, Utah, occurs as a typical tabular-type uranium deposit of the-Colorado Plateau. Uranium-vanadium occurs in the Salt Wash Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation. Chemical and petrographic analyses were used to determine elemental variation and diagenetic aspects across the orebody. Vanadium is concentrated in the dark clay matrix, which constitutes visible ore. Uranium content is greater above the vanadium zone. Calcium, carbonate carbon, and lead show greater than fifty-fold increase across the ore zone, whereas copper and organic carbon show only a several-fold increase. Large molybdenum concentrations are present in and above the tabular layer, and large selenium concentrations occur below the uranium zone within the richest vanadium zone. Iron is enriched in the vanadium horizon. Chromium is depleted from above the ore and strongly enriched below. Elements that vary directly with the vanadium content include magnesium, iron, selenium, zirconium, strontium, titanium, lead, boron, yttrium, and scandium. The diagenetic sequence is as follows: (1) formation of secondary quartz overgrowths as cement; (2) infilling and lining of remaining pores with amber opaline material; (3) formation of vanadium-rich clay matrix, which has replaced overgrowths as well as quartz grains; (4) replacement of overgrowths and detrital grains by calcite; (5) infilling of pores with barite and the introduction of pyrite and marcasite.

  17. Future accelerator technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1986-05-01

    A general discussion is presented of the acceleration of particles. Upon this foundation is built a categorization scheme into which all accelerators can be placed. Special attention is devoted to accelerators which employ a wake-field mechanism and a restricting theorem is examined. It is shown how the theorem may be circumvented. Comments are made on various acceleration schemes.

  18. ACCELERATION AND THE GIFTED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GIBSON, ARTHUR R.; STEPHANS, THOMAS M.

    ACCELERATION OF PUPILS AND SUBJECTS IS CONSIDERED A MEANS OF EDUCATING THE ACADEMICALLY GIFTED STUDENT. FIVE INTRODUCTORY ARTICLES PROVIDE A FRAMEWORK FOR THINKING ABOUT ACCELERATION. FIVE PROJECT REPORTS OF ACCELERATED PROGRAMS IN OHIO ARE INCLUDED. ACCELERATION IS NOW BEING REGARDED MORE FAVORABLY THAN FORMERLY, BECAUSE METHODS HAVE BEEN…

  19. Laser driven ion accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2005-06-14

    A system and method of accelerating ions in an accelerator to optimize the energy produced by a light source. Several parameters may be controlled in constructing a target used in the accelerator system to adjust performance of the accelerator system. These parameters include the material, thickness, geometry and surface of the target.

  20. Laser driven ion accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2006-04-18

    A system and method of accelerating ions in an accelerator to optimize the energy produced by a light source. Several parameters may be controlled in constructing a target used in the accelerator system to adjust performance of the accelerator system. These parameters include the material, thickness, geometry and surface of the target.

  1. Oak Ridge 25-MV tandem accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, N.F.; Richardson, E.G.; Mann, J.E.; Juras, R.C.; Jones, C.M.; Biggerstaff, J.A.; Benjamin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    A new heavy-ion accelerator facility is nearing completion at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper presents a brief description of the scope and status of this project and a discussion of some aspects of the first operational experience with the 25 MV tandem accelerator which is being provided by the National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC) as a major component of the first phase of the facility.

  2. Accelerated/abbreviated test methods for predicting life of solar cell encapsulants to Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology for the encapsulation task of the low-cost solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolyer, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    An important principle is that encapsulants should be tested in a total array system allowing realistic interaction of components. Therefore, micromodule test specimens were fabricated with a variety of encapsulants, substrates, and types of circuitry. One common failure mode was corrosion of circuitry and solar cell metallization due to moisture penetration. Another was darkening and/or opacification of encapsulant. A test program plan was proposed. It includes multicondition accelerated exposure. Another method was hyperaccelerated photochemical exposure using a solar concentrator. It simulates 20 year of sunlight exposure in a short period of one to two weeks. The study was beneficial in identifying some cost effective encapsulants and array designs.

  3. The simultaneous electrochemical detection of catechol and hydroquinone with [Cu(Sal-β-Ala)(3,5-DMPz)2]/SWCNTs/GCE.

    PubMed

    Alshahrani, Lina Abdullah; Li, Xi; Luo, Hui; Yang, Linlin; Wang, Mengmeng; Yan, Songling; Liu, Peng; Yang, Yuqin; Li, Quanhua

    2014-11-25

    A glassy carbon electrode was modified with a copper(II) complex [Cu(Sal-β-Ala) (3,5-DMPz)2] (Sal = salicylaldehyde, β-Ala = β-alanine, 3,5-DMPz = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The modified electrode was used to detect catechol (CT) and hydroquinone (HQ) and exhibited good electrocatalytic activities toward the oxidation of CT and HQ. The peak currents were linear with the CT and HQ concentrations over the range of 5-215 μmol·L(-1) and 5-370 μmol·L(-1) with corresponding detection limits of 3.5 μmol·L(-1) and 1.46 μmol·L(-1) (S/N = 3) respectively. Moreover, the modified electrode exhibited good sensitivity, stability and reproducibility for the determination of CT and HQ, indicating the promising applications of the modified electrode in real sample analysis.

  4. The Simultaneous Electrochemical Detection of Catechol and Hydroquinone with [Cu(Sal-β-Ala)(3,5-DMPz)2]/SWCNTs/GCE

    PubMed Central

    Alshahrani, Lina Abdullah; Li, Xi; Luo, Hui; Yang, Linlin; Wang, Mengmeng; Yan, Songling; Liu, Peng; Yang, Yuqin; Li, Quanhua

    2014-01-01

    A glassy carbon electrode was modified with a copper(II) complex [Cu(Sal-β-Ala) (3,5-DMPz)2] (Sal = salicylaldehyde, β-Ala = β-alanine, 3,5-DMPz = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The modified electrode was used to detect catechol (CT) and hydroquinone (HQ) and exhibited good electrocatalytic activities toward the oxidation of CT and HQ. The peak currents were linear with the CT and HQ concentrations over the range of 5–215 μmol·L−1 and 5–370 μmol·L−1 with corresponding detection limits of 3.5 μmol·L−1 and 1.46 μmol·L−1 (S/N = 3) respectively. Moreover, the modified electrode exhibited good sensitivity, stability and reproducibility for the determination of CT and HQ, indicating the promising applications of the modified electrode in real sample analysis. PMID:25429411

  5. The Spallation Neutron Source accelerator system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Abraham, W.; Aleksandrov, A.; Allen, C.; Alonso, J.; Anderson, D.; Arenius, D.; Arthur, T.; Assadi, S.; Ayers, J.; Bach, P.; Badea, V.; Battle, R.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Bergmann, B.; Bernardin, J.; Bhatia, T.; Billen, J.; Birke, T.; Bjorklund, E.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Blind, B.; Blokland, W.; Bookwalter, V.; Borovina, D.; Bowling, S.; Bradley, J.; Brantley, C.; Brennan, J.; Brodowski, J.; Brown, S.; Brown, R.; Bruce, D.; Bultman, N.; Cameron, P.; Campisi, I.; Casagrande, F.; Catalan-Lasheras, N.; Champion, M.; Champion, M.; Chen, Z.; Cheng, D.; Cho, Y.; Christensen, K.; Chu, C.; Cleaves, J.; Connolly, R.; Cote, T.; Cousineau, S.; Crandall, K.; Creel, J.; Crofford, M.; Cull, P.; Cutler, R.; Dabney, R.; Dalesio, L.; Daly, E.; Damm, R.; Danilov, V.; Davino, D.; Davis, K.; Dawson, C.; Day, L.; Deibele, C.; Delayen, J.; DeLong, J.; Demello, A.; DeVan, W.; Digennaro, R.; Dixon, K.; Dodson, G.; Doleans, M.; Doolittle, L.; Doss, J.; Drury, M.; Elliot, T.; Ellis, S.; Error, J.; Fazekas, J.; Fedotov, A.; Feng, P.; Fischer, J.; Fox, W.; Fuja, R.; Funk, W.; Galambos, J.; Ganni, V.; Garnett, R.; Geng, X.; Gentzlinger, R.; Giannella, M.; Gibson, P.; Gillis, R.; Gioia, J.; Gordon, J.; Gough, R.; Greer, J.; Gregory, W.; Gribble, R.; Grice, W.; Gurd, D.; Gurd, P.; Guthrie, A.; Hahn, H.; Hardek, T.; Hardekopf, R.; Harrison, J.; Hatfield, D.; He, P.; Hechler, M.; Heistermann, F.; Helus, S.; Hiatt, T.; Hicks, S.; Hill, J.; Hill, J.; Hoff, L.; Hoff, M.; Hogan, J.; Holding, M.; Holik, P.; Holmes, J.; Holtkamp, N.; Hovater, C.; Howell, M.; Hseuh, H.; Huhn, A.; Hunter, T.; Ilg, T.; Jackson, J.; Jain, A.; Jason, A.; Jeon, D.; Johnson, G.; Jones, A.; Joseph, S.; Justice, A.; Kang, Y.; Kasemir, K.; Keller, R.; Kersevan, R.; Kerstiens, D.; Kesselman, M.; Kim, S.; Kneisel, P.; Kravchuk, L.; Kuneli, T.; Kurennoy, S.; Kustom, R.; Kwon, S.; Ladd, P.; Lambiase, R.; Lee, Y. Y.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.-N.; Lewis, S.; Liaw, C.; Lionberger, C.; Lo, C. C.; Long, C.; Ludewig, H.; Ludvig, J.; Luft, P.; Lynch, M.; Ma, H.; MacGill, R.; Macha, K.; Madre, B.; Mahler, G.; Mahoney, K.; Maines, J.; Mammosser, J.; Mann, T.; Marneris, I.; Marroquin, P.; Martineau, R.; Matsumoto, K.; McCarthy, M.; McChesney, C.; McGahern, W.; McGehee, P.; Meng, W.; Merz, B.; Meyer, R.; Meyer, R.; Miller, B.; Mitchell, R.; Mize, J.; Monroy, M.; Munro, J.; Murdoch, G.; Musson, J.; Nath, S.; Nelson, R.; Nelson, R.; O`Hara, J.; Olsen, D.; Oren, W.; Oshatz, D.; Owens, T.; Pai, C.; Papaphilippou, I.; Patterson, N.; Patterson, J.; Pearson, C.; Pelaia, T.; Pieck, M.; Piller, C.; Plawski, T.; Plum, M.; Pogge, J.; Power, J.; Powers, T.; Preble, J.; Prokop, M.; Pruyn, J.; Purcell, D.; Rank, J.; Raparia, D.; Ratti, A.; Reass, W.; Reece, K.; Rees, D.; Regan, A.; Regis, M.; Reijonen, J.; Rej, D.; Richards, D.; Richied, D.; Rode, C.; Rodriguez, W.; Rodriguez, M.; Rohlev, A.; Rose, C.; Roseberry, T.; Rowton, L.; Roybal, W.; Rust, K.; Salazer, G.; Sandberg, J.; Saunders, J.; Schenkel, T.; Schneider, W.; Schrage, D.; Schubert, J.; Severino, F.; Shafer, R.; Shea, T.; Shishlo, A.; Shoaee, H.; Sibley, C.; Sims, J.; Smee, S.; Smith, J.; Smith, K.; Spitz, R.; Staples, J.; Stein, P.; Stettler, M.; Stirbet, M.; Stockli, M.; Stone, W.; Stout, D.; Stovall, J.; Strelo, W.; Strong, H.; Sundelin, R.; Syversrud, D.; Szajbler, M.; Takeda, H.; Tallerico, P.; Tang, J.; Tanke, E.; Tepikian, S.; Thomae, R.; Thompson, D.; Thomson, D.; Thuot, M.; Treml, C.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Tuzel, W.; Vassioutchenko, A.; Virostek, S.; Wallig, J.; Wanderer, P.; Wang, Y.; Wang, J. G.; Wangler, T.; Warren, D.; Wei, J.; Weiss, D.; Welton, R.; Weng, J.; Weng, W.-T.; Wezensky, M.; White, M.; Whitlatch, T.; Williams, D.; Williams, E.; Wilson, K.; Wiseman, M.; Wood, R.; Wright, P.; Wu, A.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Young, K.; Young, L.; Yourd, R.; Zachoszcz, A.; Zaltsman, A.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhukov, A.

    2014-11-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) was designed and constructed by a collaboration of six U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories. The SNS accelerator system consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator and an accumulator ring providing 1.4 MW of proton beam power in microsecond-long beam pulses to a liquid mercury target for neutron production. The accelerator complex consists of a front-end negative hydrogen-ion injector system, an 87 MeV drift tube linear accelerator, a 186 MeV side-coupled linear accelerator, a 1 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, a 248-m circumference accumulator ring and associated beam transport lines. The accelerator complex is supported by ~100 high-power RF power systems, a 2 K cryogenic plant, ~400 DC and pulsed power supply systems, ~400 beam diagnostic devices and a distributed control system handling ~100,000 I/O signals. The beam dynamics design of the SNS accelerator is presented, as is the engineering design of the major accelerator subsystems.

  6. Substrate Specificity of the Bacillus subtilis BY-Kinase PtkA Is Controlled by Alternative Activators: TkmA and SalA

    PubMed Central

    Derouiche, Abderahmane; Shi, Lei; Kalantari, Aida; Mijakovic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial protein-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases) are known to regulate different aspects of bacterial physiology, by phosphorylating cellular protein substrates. Physiological cues that trigger BY-kinases activity are largely unexplored. In Proteobacteria, BY-kinases contain a cytosol-exposed catalytic domain and a transmembrane activator domain in a single polypeptide chain. In Firmicutes, the BY-kinase catalytic domain and the transmembrane activator domain exist as separate polypeptides. We have previously speculated that this architecture might enable the Firmicutes BY-kinases to interact with alternative activators, and thus account for the observed ability of these kinases to phosphorylate several distinct classes of protein substrates. Here, we present experimental evidence that supports this hypothesis. We focus on the model Firmicute-type BY-kinase PtkA from Bacillus subtilis, known to phosphorylate several different protein substrates. We demonstrate that the transcriptional regulator SalA, hitherto known as a substrate of PtkA, can also act as a PtkA activator. In doing so, SalA competes with the canonical PtkA activator, TkmA. Our results suggest that the respective interactions of SalA and TkmA with PtkA favor phosphorylation of different protein substrates in vivo and in vitro. This observation may contribute to explaining how specificity is established in the seemingly promiscuous interactions of BY-kinases with their cellular substrates. PMID:27725816

  7. Fifty years of accelerator based physics at Chalk River

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, John W.

    1999-04-26

    The Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. was a major centre for Accelerator based physics for the last fifty years. As early as 1946, nuclear structure studies were started on Cockroft-Walton accelerators. A series of accelerators followed, including the world's first Tandem, and the MP Tandem, Superconducting Cyclotron (TASCC) facility that was opened in 1986. The nuclear physics program was shut down in 1996. This paper will describe some of the highlights of the accelerators and the research of the laboratory.

  8. ATLAS with CARIBU: A laboratory portrait

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, Richard C.; Savard, Guy; Janssens, Robert V. F.

    2016-03-21

    The Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) is the world's first superconducting accelerator for projectiles heavier than the electron. This unique system is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national user research facility open to scientists from all over the world. Here, it is located within the Physics Division at Argonne National Laboratory and is one of five large scientific user facilities located at the laboratory.

  9. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Grames, Joseph; Higinbotham, Douglas; Montgomery, Hugh

    2010-09-08

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in Newport News, Virginia, USA, is one of ten national laboratories under the aegis of the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). It is managed and operated by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC. The primary facility at Jefferson Lab is the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) as shown in an aerial photograph in Figure 1. Jefferson Lab was created in 1984 as CEBAF and started operations for physics in 1995. The accelerator uses superconducting radio-frequency (srf) techniques to generate high-quality beams of electrons with high-intensity, well-controlled polarization. The technology has enabled ancillary facilities to be created. The CEBAF facility is used by an international user community of more than 1200 physicists for a program of exploration and study of nuclear, hadronic matter, the strong interaction and quantum chromodynamics. Additionally, the exceptional quality of the beams facilitates studies of the fundamental symmetries of nature, which complement those of atomic physics on the one hand and of high-energy particle physics on the other. The facility is in the midst of a project to double the energy of the facility and to enhance and expand its experimental facilities. Studies are also pursued with a Free-Electron Laser produced by an energy-recovering linear accelerator.

  10. A portable accelerator control toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.A. III

    1997-06-01

    In recent years, the expense of creating good control software has led to a number of collaborative efforts among laboratories to share this cost. The EPICS collaboration is a particularly successful example of this trend. More recently another collaborative effort has addressed the need for sophisticated high level software, including model driven accelerator controls. This work builds upon the CDEV (Common DEVice) software framework, which provides a generic abstraction of a control system, and maps that abstraction onto a number of site-specific control systems including EPICS, the SLAC control system, CERN/PS and others. In principle, it is now possible to create portable accelerator control applications which have no knowledge of the underlying and site-specific control system. Applications based on CDEV now provide a growing suite of tools for accelerator operations, including general purpose displays, an on-line accelerator model, beamline steering, machine status displays incorporating both hardware and model information (such as beam positions overlaid with beta functions) and more. A survey of CDEV compatible portable applications will be presented, as well as plans for future development.

  11. MicroRNA-181b inhibits cellular proliferation and invasion of glioma cells via targeting Sal-like protein 4.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Peng, Yong; Liu, Min; Jiang, Yugang

    2016-11-17

    MicroRNAs (miRs), a class of 18-25 nucleotides in length non-coding RNAs, are able to suppress gene expression by targeting complementary regions of mRNAs and inhibiting protein translation Recently, miR-181b was found to playa suppressive role in glioma, but the regulatory mechanism of miR-181b in the malignant phenotypes of glioma cells remains largely unclear. Here we found that miR-181b was significantly downregulated in glioma tissues when compared with normal brain tissues, and decreased miR-181b levels were significantly associated with high pathology grade and poor prognosis of patients with glioma. Moreover, miR-181b was also downregulated in glioma cell lines (U87, SHG44, U373, and U251) compared to normal astrocytes. Overexpression of miR-181b significantly decreased the proliferation, migration, and invasion of glioma U251 cells. Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4) was identified as a novel target gene of miR-181b in U251 cells. The expression of SALL4 was significantly upregulated in glioma tissues and cell lines, and an inverse correlation was observed between the miR-181b and SALL4 expression levels in glioma. Further investigation showed that the protein expression of SALL4 was negatively regulated by miR-181b in U251 cells. Knockdown of SALL4 significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of U251 cells, while overexpression of SALL4 effectively reversed the suppressive effects of miR-181b on these malignant phenotypes of U251 cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that miR-181b has suppressive effects on the malignant phenotypes of glioma cells, partly at least, via directly targeting SALL4. Therefore, the miR-181b/SALL4 axis may become a potential therapeutic target for glioma.

  12. Incidence of ochratoxin A in rice and dried fruits from Rabat and Salé area, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Zinedine, A; Soriano, J M; Juan, C; Mojemmi, B; Moltó, J C; Bouklouze, A; Cherrah, Y; Idrissi, L; El Aouad, R; Mañes, J

    2007-03-01

    One hundred samples of dried fruits (20 dried raisins, 20 walnuts, 20 peanuts, 20 dried figs and 20 pistachios) and 20 samples of rice purchased from retail shops in the Rabat and Salé area in Morocco were analysed for ochratoxin A (OTA) by immunoaffinity clean-up (IAC) and liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection. The limit of quantification (LOQ) (S/N = 10:1) of OTA was 0.02 ng g(-1) in rice, 0.03 ng g(-1) in pistachio, peanut and walnut, and 0.03 ng g(-1) in dried raisins and dried figs. The incidences of occurrence of OTA in dried raisins, walnuts, peanuts, dried figs and rice were 30, 35, 25, 65 and 90%, respectively. Analytical results showed that pistachio samples contained no detectable OTA, but concentrations ranged from 0.02 +/- 0.01 to 32.4 +/- 2.10 ng g(-1) in rice, from 0.10 +/- 0.05 to 2.36 +/- 0.75 in peanut, from 0.03 +/- 0.01 to 1.42 +/- 0.45 in dried figs, from 0.05 +/- 0.02 to 4.95 +/- 0.02 in dried raisins, and from 0.04 +/- 0.01 to 0.23 +/- 0.05 in walnuts. The results also showed that 15% of the total number of rice samples analysed exceeded the 2002 regulatory limit set by European Union regulations for cereals. This is the first report on the occurrence of OTA in dried fruits and rice available in Morocco.

  13. Effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) at environmentally relevant carbon concentrations on atrazine degradation by Chelatobacter heintzii SalB.

    PubMed

    Cheyns, Karlien; Calcoen, Jasper; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Bru, David; Smolders, Erik; Springael, Dirk

    2012-09-01

    The dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the term used for organic components of natural origin present in the soil solution and is probably the most available C-source that primes microbial activity in subsoils. Contrasting effects of organic C components on pesticide degradation have been reported; however, most studies have used model organic compounds with compositions and concentrations which differ substantially from those found in the environment. Degradation of atrazine (AT) by Chelatobacter heintzii SalB was monitored in liquid batch assays in the absence or presence of well-defined model C compounds (glucose, gluconate and citrate) as model DOM (mDOM) or complex, less-defined, environmental DOM solutions (eDOM: isolated humic substances, soil and plant residue extracts) at environmentally relevant concentrations. Glucose significantly increased AT degradation rate by more than a factor of 8 at and above 2.5 mg C L( - 1). Optical density measurements showed that this stimulation is related to microbial growth. Gluconate and citrate had no effects unless at non-relevant concentrations (1,000 mg DOC L( - 1)) at which stimulations (gluconate) or inhibitions (citrate) were found. The effects of eDOM added at 10 mg DOC L( - 1) on AT degradation were generally small. The AT degradation time was reduced by factors 1.4-1.9 in the presence of humic acids and eDOM from soils amended with plant residues; however, no effects were found for fulvic acids or eDOM from a soil leachate solution or extracted from unamended peat or forest soil. In conclusion, DOM supplied as both mDOM and eDOM did not inhibit AT degradation at environmentally relevant concentrations, and stimulation can be found for selected DOM samples and this is partly related to its effect on growth.

  14. Laboratory Building

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  15. Archimedes: Accelerator Reveals Ancient Text

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, Uwe

    2004-02-24

    Archimedes (287-212 BC), who is famous for shouting 'Eureka' (I found it) is considered one of the most brilliant thinkers of all times. The 10th-century parchment document known as the 'Archimedes Palimpsest' is the unique source for two of the great Greek's treatises. Some of the writings, hidden under gold forgeries, have recently been revealed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC. An intense x-ray beam produced in a particle accelerator causes the iron in original ink, which has been partly erased and covered, to send out a fluorescence glow. A detector records the signal and a digital image showing the ancient writings is produced. Please join us in this fascinating journey of a 1,000-year-old parchment from its origin in the Mediterranean city of Constantinople to a particle accelerator in Menlo Park.

  16. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E.J.; Marino, S.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) is based on a 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which is used to generate a variety of well-characterized radiation beams for research in radiobiology, radiological physics, and radiation chemistry. It is part of the Center for Radiological Research (CRR) - formerly the Radiological Research Laboratory of Columbia University, and its operation is supported as a National Facility by the US Department of Energy (DOE). As such, RARAF is available to all potential users on an equal basis and scientists outside the CRR are encouraged to submit proposals for experiments at RARAF. The operation of the Van de Graaff is supported by the DOE, but the research projects themselves must be supported separately. This report provides a listing and brief description of experiments performed at RARAF during the May 1, 1992 through April 30, 1993.

  17. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) is based on a 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which is used to generate a variety of well-characterized radiation beams for research in radiobiology, radiological physics, and radiation chemistry. It is part of the Center for Radiological Research (CRR) -- formerly the Radiological Research Laboratory (RRL) -- of Columbia University, and its operation is supported as a National Facility by the US Department of Energy (DOE). As such, RARAF is available to all potential users on an equal basis, and scientists outside the CRR are encouraged to submit proposals for experiments at RARAF. The operation of the Van de Graaff is supported by the DOE, but the research projects themselves must be supported separately. Experiments performed from May 1991--April 1992 are described.

  18. The effect of acceleration on turbulent entrainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breidenthal, Robert E.

    2008-12-01

    A new class of self-similar turbulent flows is proposed, which exhibits dramatically reduced entrainment rates. Under strong acceleration, the rotation period of the large-scale vortices is forced to decrease linearly in time. In ordinary unforced turbulence, the rotation period always increases linearly with time, at least in the mean. However, by imposing an exponential acceleration on the flow, the vortex rotation period is forced to become the e-folding timescale of the acceleration. If the e-folding timescale itself decreases linearly in time, the forcing is 'super-exponential', characterized by an acceleration parameter α. Based on dimensional and heuristic arguments, a model suggests that the dissipation rate is an exponential function of α and the dimensions of the conserved quantity of the flow. Acceleration decreases the dissipation and entrainment rates in all canonical laboratory flows except for Rayleigh-Taylor. Experiments of exponential jets and super-exponential transverse jets are in accord with the model. As noted by Johari, acceleration is the only known means of affecting the entrainment rate of the far-field jet. Numerical simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor flow by Cook and Greenough are also consistent. In the limit of large acceleration, vortices do not move far before their rotation period changes substantially. In this sense, extreme acceleration corresponds to stationary vortices.

  19. Vacuum systems of linear accelerators of the NICA injection complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosachev, V. V.; Bazanov, A. M.; Butenko, A. V.; Galimov, A. R.; Nesterov, A. V.; Pivin, R. V.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    The NICA project, which includes several accelerators of charged particles, is under construction in the Laboratory of High Energy Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna. Obtaining the required vacuum conditions is one of the key points in implementing the project, because reaching the required ion lifetime at all stages of particle acceleration is what determines the effective luminosity of the experiments in the long run. Currently, modernization of the vacuum system of the injection complex of the LU-20 linear accelerator of light ions, one of oldest accelerators in the JINR, is being carried out and the new HILAC linear accelerator for the acceleration of gold ions in the collider mode of the NICA complex is being installed. At the end parts of the linear accelerators, the residual gas pressure must be approximately 10-5 Pa, which is determined by the maximum amplitude of the RF electric field used for the acceleration of ions.

  20. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

    ScienceCinema

    Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

    2016-07-12

    Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

  1. Peak acceleration limiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P.

    1972-01-01

    Device is described that limits accelerations by shutting off shaker table power very rapidly in acceleration tests. Absolute value of accelerometer signal is used to trigger electronic switch which terminates test and sounds alarm.

  2. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... equipment? How is safety ensured? What is this equipment used for? A linear accelerator (LINAC) is the ... Therapy (SBRT) . top of page How does the equipment work? The linear accelerator uses microwave technology (similar ...

  3. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

    2014-11-05

    Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

  4. Improved plasma accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  5. Accelerator Technology Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-04-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1991, the Accelerator Technology (AT) division continued fulfilling its mission to pursue accelerator science and technology and to develop new accelerator concepts for application to research, defense, energy, industry, and other areas of national interest. This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; (Phi) Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  6. Pulsars and Acceleration Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for the studying particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields and relativity. But even forty years after their discovery, we still do not understand their pulsed emission at any wavelength. I will review both the basic physics of pulsars as well as the latest developments in understanding their high-energy emission. Special and general relativistic effects play important roles in pulsar emission, from inertial frame-dragging near the stellar surface to aberration, time-of-flight and retardation of the magnetic field near the light cylinder. Understanding how these effects determine what we observe at different wavelengths is critical to unraveling the emission physics. Fortunately the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), with launch in May 2008 will detect many new gamma-ray pulsars and test the predictions of these models with unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution for gamma-rays in the range of 30 MeV to 300 GeV.

  7. Accelerators, Colliders, and Snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courant, Ernest D.

    2003-12-01

    The author traces his involvement in the evolution of particle accelerators over the past 50 years. He participated in building the first billion-volt accelerator, the Brookhaven Cosmotron, which led to the introduction of the "strong-focusing" method that has in turn led to the very large accelerators and colliders of the present day. The problems of acceleration of spin-polarized protons are also addressed, with discussions of depolarizing resonances and "Siberian snakes" as a technique for mitigating these resonances.

  8. Acceleration: It's Elementary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Acceleration is one tool for providing high-ability students the opportunity to learn something new every day. Some people talk about acceleration as taking a student out of step. In actuality, what one is doing is putting a student in step with the right curriculum. Whole-grade acceleration, also called grade-skipping, usually happens between…

  9. Angular Acceleration without Torque?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

  10. Accelerated test design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, P. P.

    1980-01-01

    The design of an accelerated life test program for electric batteries is discussed. A number of observations and suggestions on the procedures and objectives for conducting an accelerated life test program are presented. Equations based on nonlinear regression analysis for predicting the accelerated life test parameters are discussed.

  11. The charged particle accelerators subsystems modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averyanov, G. P.; Kobylyatskiy, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Presented web-based resource for information support the engineering, science and education in Electrophysics, containing web-based tools for simulation subsystems charged particle accelerators. Formulated the development motivation of Web-Environment for Virtual Electrophysical Laboratories. Analyzes the trends of designs the dynamic web-environments for supporting of scientific research and E-learning, within the framework of Open Education concept.

  12. Biological assessments for the low energy demonstration accelerator, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, S.

    1997-03-01

    This report discusses the biological impact to the area around the Los Alamos National Laboratory of the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator. In particular the impact to the soils, water quality, vegetation, and wildlife are discussed.

  13. Don't Use Airtracks to Measure Gravity Acceleration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluk, Edward; Lopez, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Presents one way, using simple materials available in hardware stores, to obtain accurate measurements of gravity acceleration in student laboratories. Analyzes a time-of-flight measuring scheme and discusses the experimental arrangements to make the measurements. (MDH)

  14. Industrialization of Superconducting RF Accelerator Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiniger, Michael; Pekeler, Michael; Vogel, Hanspeter

    2012-01-01

    Superconducting RF (SRF) accelerator technology has basically existed for 50 years. It took about 20 years to conduct basic R&D and prototyping at universities and international institutes before the first superconducting accelerators were built, with industry supplying complete accelerator cavities. In parallel, the design of large scale accelerators using SRF was done worldwide. In order to build those accelerators, industry has been involved for 30 years in building the required cavities and/or accelerator modules in time and budget. To enable industry to supply these high tech components, technology transfer was made from the laboratories in the following three regions: the Americas, Asia and Europe. As will be shown, the manufacture of the SRF cavities is normally accomplished in industry whereas the cavity testing and module assembly are not performed in industry in most cases, yet. The story of industrialization is so far a story of customized projects. Therefore a real SRF accelerator product is not yet available in this market. License agreements and technology transfer between leading SRF laboratories and industry is a powerful tool for enabling industry to manufacture SRF components or turnkey superconducting accelerator modules for other laboratories and users with few or no capabilities in SRF technology. Despite all this, the SRF accelerator market today is still a small market. The manufacture and preparation of the components require a range of specialized knowledge, as well as complex and expensive manufacturing installations like for high precision machining, electron beam welding, chemical surface preparation and class ISO4 clean room assembly. Today, the involved industry in the US and Europe comprises medium-sized companies. In Japan, some big enterprises are involved. So far, roughly 2500 SRF cavities have been built by or ordered from industry worldwide. Another substantial step might come from the International Linear Collider (ILC) project

  15. The LLNL multi-user tandem laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. C.

    1989-04-01

    An FN tandem laboratory, cofunded by several Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Divisions, Sandia Livermore, and the University of California Regents, is now operational at Livermore. The accelerator, formerly the University of Washington injector, has been upgraded with SF 6, Dowlish tubes, and a NEC pelletron charging system. A conventional duoplasmatron, a tritium source, and two Cs sputtering sources will be fielded on the accelerator. Pulsed beams will be available from two source positions. The laboratory has been designed to accommodate up to 19 experimental positions with excellent optics and working vacuum. The facility is unshielded with both accelerator and radiological systems under the control of a distributed microprocessor system. Research activities at the tandem include nuclear physics and astrophysics, materials science and characterization programs, and accelerator mass spectrometry for archaeology, biomedical, environmental and geoscience investigators.

  16. Large-scale carbonate platform development of Cay Sal Bank, Bahamas, and implications for associated reef geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purkis, Sam; Kerr, Jeremy; Dempsey, Alexandra; Calhoun, Andrew; Metsamaa, Liisa; Riegl, Bernhard; Kourafalou, Villy; Bruckner, Andrew; Renaud, Philip

    2014-10-01

    The Bahama Archipelago consists of an arcuate chain of carbonate platforms. Average water depths on the platform-tops, such as the Great Bahama Bank (GBB), are typically 10 m or less, with coral reef-rimmed margins, thick sediment accumulations, and the frequent occurrence of islands. There are, however, exceptions. For example, Cay Sal Bank (CSB), a little studied detached Bahamian carbonate platform with depths ranging from 30 to 7 m, is only slightly deeper than the GBB, but devoid of islands, lacks platform-margin coral reefs and holds little sediment on the platform-top; the platform is incipiently drowned. CSB is interesting as it is conspicuously larger (6000 sq. km) than other incipiently drowned platforms in the region, such as Serranilla Bank (1100 sq. km) and the Cat Island platform (1500 sq. km). Field and remote sensing data are assembled to provide insight into the sedimentology and geomorphology of the CSB. The influence of ocean climate, regional hydrodynamics, and Holocene flooding history are investigated to understand why platform-margin coral reef growth on CSB has been unable to keep pace with Holocene sea-level rise. A decade of regional sea-surface temperature data for the Bahamas report CSB to be situated in the same ocean climate regime as GBB. Temperature cannot explain the platform's different morphologies. The Florida Current has been evoked as a possible reason for the immature development of platform-top processes on the CSB, but numeric modeling suggests its influence to be restricted to the deep flanks of the bank. Further, sediment distribution on CSB, including infill patterns of karst depressions, suggest trade winds (easterlies) to drive platform-top hydrodynamics. By assembling a satellite-derived bathymetry map, it can be shown that CSB flooded earlier and at relatively higher rates of Holocene sea-level rise than its neighboring platforms. Flooding history is identified as the most feasible explanation for the atypical

  17. Fiber Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, Andrew P.; /Reed Coll. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    One of the options for future particle accelerators are photonic band gap (PBG) fiber accelerators. PBG fibers are specially designed optical fibers that use lasers to excite an electric field that is used to accelerate electrons. To improve PBG accelerators, the basic parameters of the fiber were tested to maximize defect size and acceleration. Using the program CUDOS, several accelerating modes were found that maximized these parameters for several wavelengths. The design of multiple defects, similar to having closely bound fibers, was studied to find possible coupling or the change of modes. The amount of coupling was found to be dependent on distance separated. For certain distances accelerating coupled modes were found and examined. In addition, several non-periodic fiber structures were examined using CUDOS. The non-periodic fibers produced several interesting results and promised more modes given time to study them in more detail.

  18. High brightness electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, Richard L.; Carlsten, Bruce E.; Young, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of acclerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electons as the electrons enter the first cavity.

  19. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: Summary of activities, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-15

    This report contains a summary of activities at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division for the year 1986. Topics and facilities investigated in individual papers are: 1-2 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source, the Center for X-Ray Optics, Accelerator Operations, High-Energy Physics Technology, Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research and Magnetic Fusion Energy. Six individual papers have been indexed separately. (LSP)

  20. Multipactor Physics, Acceleration, and Breakdown in Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Richard P.; Gold, Steven H.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this 3-year program is to study the physics issues associated with rf acceleration in dielectric-loaded accelerating (DLA) structures, with a focus on the key issue of multipactor loading, which has been found to cause very significant rf power loss in DLA structures whenever the rf pulsewidth exceeds the multipactor risetime (~10 ns). The experiments are carried out in the X-band magnicon laboratory at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Euclid Techlabs LLC, who develop the test structures with support from the DoE SBIR program. There are two main elements in the research program: (1) high-power tests of DLA structures using the magnicon output (20 MW @11.4 GHz), and (2) tests of electron acceleration in DLA structures using relativistic electrons from a compact X-band accelerator. The work during this period has focused on a study of the use of an axial magnetic field to suppress multipactor in DLA structures, with several new high power tests carried out at NRL, and on preparation of the accelerator for the electron acceleration experiments.

  1. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, J.; Huray, P.G.

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  2. Measurement of Coriolis Acceleration with a Smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakur, Asif; Kraft, Jakob

    2016-05-01

    Undergraduate physics laboratories seldom have experiments that measure the Coriolis acceleration. This has traditionally been the case owing to the inherent complexities of making such measurements. Articles on the experimental determination of the Coriolis acceleration are few and far between in the physics literature. However, because modern smartphones come with a raft of built-in sensors, we have a unique opportunity to experimentally determine the Coriolis acceleration conveniently in a pedagogically enlightening environment at modest cost by using student-owned smartphones. Here we employ the gyroscope and accelerometer in a smartphone to verify the dependence of Coriolis acceleration on the angular velocity of a rotatingtrack and the speed of the sliding smartphone.

  3. Pulsed power accelerators for particle beam fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.H.; Barr, G.W.; VanDevender, J.P.; White, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is completing the construction phase of the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator-I (PBFA-I). Testing of the 36 module, 30 TW, 1 MJ output accelerator is in the initial stages. The 4 MJ, PBFA Marx generator has provided 3.6 MA into water-copper sulfate load resistors with a spread from first to last Marx firing between 15 to 25 ns and an output power of 5.7 TW. This accelerator is a modular, lower voltage, pulsed power device that is capable of scaling to power levels exceeding 100 TW. The elements of the PBFA technology and their integration into an accelerator system for particle beam fusion will be discussed.

  4. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division 1989 summary of activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses the research being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. The main topics covered are: heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; high-energy physics technology; and bevalac operations.

  5. Laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Bradway, D E; Siegelman, F L

    1994-09-01

    An investigation of alleged data fraud at a pesticide analytical laboratory led EPA to take a closer look at the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) inspection program. There was special focus on changes which might be made in the program to enhance the chances of detecting fraud in regulated studies. To this end, the Assistant Administrator of the Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) requested EPA's Office of Inspector General (OIG) to examine the GLP program. Several reports were issued by the OIG, including the recommendation that a laboratory accreditation program be adopted. EPA has been examining ways to implement the OIG's recommendations, including (1) laboratory accreditation consisting of three components: document submission and assessment, site visit and assessment, and proficiency assessment; and (2) mandatory registration of all facilities participating in GLP-regulated studies, based on document submission and assessment. These two alternatives are compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed.

  6. Physics and Accelerator Applications of RF Superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    H. Padamsee; K. W. Shepard; Ron Sundelin

    1993-12-01

    A key component of any particle accelerator is the device that imparts energy gain to the charged particle. This is usually an electromagnetic cavity resonating at a microwave frequency, chosen between 100 and 3000 MHz. Serious attempts to utilize superconductors for accelerating cavities were initiated more than 25 years ago with the acceleration of electrons in a lead-plated resonator at Stanford University (1). The first full-scale accelerator, the Stanford SCA, was completed in 1978 at the High Energy Physics Laboratory (HEPL) (2). Over the intervening one and a half decades, superconducting cavities have become increasingly important to particle accelerators for nuclear physics and high energy physics. For continuous operation, as is required for many applications, the power dissipation in the walls of a copper structure is quite substantial, for example, 0.1 megawatts per meter of structure operating at an accelerating field of 1 million volts/meter (MV/m). since losses increase as the square of the accelerating field, copper cavities become severely uneconomical as demand for higher fields grows with the higher energies called for by experimenters to probe ever deeper into the structure of matter. Rf superconductivity has become an important technology for particle accelerators. Practical structures with attractive performance levels have been developed for a variety of applications, installed in the targeted accelerators, and operated over significant lengths of time. Substantial progress has been made in understanding field and Q limitations and in inventing cures to advance performance. The technical and economical potential of rf superconductivity makes it an important candidate for future advanced accelerators for free electron lasers, for nuclear physics, and for high energy physics, at the luminosity as well as at the energy frontiers.

  7. The defective seed5 (des5) mutant: effects on barley seed development and HvDek1, HvCr4, and HvSal1 gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Lene T; Divon, Hege H; Al, Ronald; Fosnes, Kjetil; Lid, Stein Erik; Opsahl-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn

    2008-01-01

    Barley, one of the major small grain crops, is especially important in climatically demanding agricultural areas of the world, with multiple uses within food, feed, and beverage. The barley endosperm is further of special scientific interest due to its three aleurone cell layers, with the potential of bringing forward the molecular understanding of seed development and cell specification from Arabidopsis and maize. Work done in Arabidopsis and maize indicate the presence of conserved seed developmental pathways where Crinkly4 (Cr4), Defective kernel1 (Dek1), and Supernumerary aleurone layer1 (Sal1) are key players. With the use of microscopy, a comprehensive phenotypic characterization of the barley defective seed5 (des5) mutant is presented here. The analysis further extends to molecular quantification of gene expression changes in the des5 mutant by qRT-PCR. Moreover, full-length genomic sequences of the barley orthologues were generated and these were annotated as HvDek1, HvCr4, and HvSal1. The most striking results in this study are the patchy reduction in number of aleurone cells, rudimentary anticlinal aleurone cell walls, and the specific change of HvCr4 expression compared to HvDek1 and HvSal1. The data presented support the involvement of Hvdes5 in establishing aleurone cells. Finally, how these results might affect the current model of aleurone and epidermal cell identity and development is discussed with a speculation regarding a possible role of Des5 in regulating cell division/ secondary cell wall building.

  8. Effectiveness of sal deoiled seed cake as an inducer for protease production from Aeromonas sp. S1 for its application in kitchen wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Saini, Vandana; Bhattacharya, Amrik; Gupta, Anshu

    2013-08-01

    The present study is an attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of sal (Shorea robusta) deoiled cake--a forest-based industrial by-product--as a cheaper media supplement for augmented protease production from Aeromonas sp. S1 and application of protease in the treatment of kitchen wastewater. Under optimized conditions, protease production could successfully be enhanced to 5.13-fold (527.5 U mL(-1)) on using sal deoiled seed cake extract (SDOCE), as medium additive, compared to an initial production of 102.7 U mL(-1) in its absence. The culture parameters for optimum production of protease were determined to be incubation time (48 h), pH (7.0), SDOCE concentration (3 % (v/v)), inoculum size (0.3-0.6 % (v/v)), and agitation rate (100 rpm). The enzyme was found to have an optimum pH and temperature of 8.0 and 60 °C, respectively. The protease preparation was tested for treatment of organic-laden kitchen wastewater. After 96 h of wastewater treatment under static condition, enzyme preparation was able to reduce 74 % biological oxygen demand, 37 % total suspended solids, and 41 % oil and grease. The higher and improved level of protease obtained using sal deoiled seed cake-based media hence offers a new approach for value addition to this underutilized biomass through industrial enzyme production. The protease produced using this biomass could also be used as pretreatment tool for remediation of organic-rich food wastewater.

  9. Accelerators for Inertial Fusion Energy Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangerter, R. O.; Faltens, A.; Seidl, P. A.

    2014-02-01

    Since the 1970s, high energy heavy ion accelerators have been one of the leading options for imploding and igniting targets for inertial fusion energy production. Following the energy crisis of the early 1970s, a number of people in the international accelerator community enthusiastically began working on accelerators for this application. In the last decade, there has also been significant interest in using accelerators to study high energy density physics (HEDP). Nevertheless, research on heavy ion accelerators for fusion has proceeded slowly pending demonstration of target ignition using the National Ignition Facility (NIF), a laser-based facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A recent report of the National Research Council recommends expansion of accelerator research in the US if and when the NIF achieves ignition. Fusion target physics and the economics of commercial energy production place constraints on the design of accelerators for fusion applications. From a scientific standpoint, phase space and space charge considerations lead to the most stringent constraints. Meeting these constraints almost certainly requires the use of multiple beams of heavy ions with kinetic energies > 1 GeV. These constraints also favor the use of singly charged ions. This article discusses the constraints for both fusion and HEDP, and explains how they lead to the requirements on beam parameters. RF and induction linacs are currently the leading contenders for fusion applications. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both options. We also discuss the principal issues that must yet be resolved.

  10. Chromosomal aberrations induced by the restriction endonucleases EcoR I, Pst I, Sal I and Bam HI in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S Z; Dong, W F

    1987-09-01

    4 widely used cohesive end-producing restriction endonucleases (REs), EcoR I, Pst I, Sal I and Bam HI were tested in CHO cells for their aberration-inducing effects. It was demonstrated that all these REs significantly increased the frequencies of aberrant cells, the aberration frequencies per cell and the aberration frequencies per chromosome. The effects of REs on chromosomal aberrations are similar to ionizing radiation, but more minutes and interchange figures are observed. Polyploid cells are more susceptible to RE treatment, an interesting finding which may be explained by the mechanisms leading to the formation of polyploid cells.

  11. Cryogenic Technology for Superconducting Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoyama, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Superconducting devices such as magnets and cavities are key components in the accelerator field for increasing the beam energy and intensity, and at the same time making the system compact and saving on power consumption in operation. An effective cryogenic system is required to cool and keep the superconducting devices in the superconducting state stably and economically. The helium refrigeration system for application to accelerators will be discussed in this review article. The concept of two cooling modes -- the liquefier and refrigerator modes -- will be discussed in detail because of its importance for realizing efficient cooling and stable operation of the system. As an example of the practical cryogenic system, the TRISTAN cryogenic system of KEK Laboratory will be treated in detail and the main components of the cryogenic system, including the high-performance multichannel transfer line and liquid nitrogen circulation system at 80K, will also be discussed. In addition, we will discuss the operation of the cryogenic system, including the quench control and safety of the system. The satellite refrigeration system will be discussed because of its potential for wide application in medium-size accelerators and in industry.

  12. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal

    2011-05-01

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  13. Self-accelerating warped braneworlds

    SciTech Connect

    Carena, Marcela; Lykken, Joseph; Santiago, Jose; Park, Minjoon

    2007-01-15

    Braneworld models with induced gravity have the potential to replace dark energy as the explanation for the current accelerating expansion of the Universe. The original model of Dvali, Gabadadze, and Porrati (DGP) demonstrated the existence of a 'self-accelerating' branch of background solutions, but suffered from the presence of ghosts. We present a new large class of braneworld models which generalize the DGP model. Our models have negative curvature in the bulk, allow a second brane, and have general brane tensions and localized curvature terms. We exhibit three different kinds of ghosts, associated to the graviton zero mode, the radion, and the longitudinal components of massive graviton modes. The latter two species occur in the DGP model, for negative and positive brane tension, respectively. In our models, we find that the two kinds of DGP ghosts are tightly correlated with each other, but are not always linked to the feature of self-acceleration. Our models are a promising laboratory for understanding the origins and physical meaning of braneworld ghosts, and perhaps for eliminating them altogether.

  14. Self-accelerating Warped Braneworlds

    SciTech Connect

    Carena, Marcela; Lykken, Joseph; Park, Minjoon; Santiago, Jose; /Fermilab

    2006-11-01

    Braneworld models with induced gravity have the potential to replace dark energy as the explanation for the current accelerating expansion of the Universe. The original model of Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati (DGP) demonstrated the existence of a ''self-accelerating'' branch of background solutions, but suffered from the presence of ghosts. We present a new large class of braneworld models which generalize the DGP model. Our models have negative curvature in the bulk, allow a second brane, and have general brane tensions and localized curvature terms. We exhibit three different kinds of ghosts, associated to the graviton zero mode, the radion, and the longitudinal components of massive graviton modes. The latter two species occur in the DGP model, for negative and positive brane tension respectively. In our models, we find that the two kinds of DGP ghosts are tightly correlated with each other, but are not always linked to the feature of self-acceleration. Our models are a promising laboratory for understanding the origins and physical meaning of braneworld ghosts, and perhaps for eliminating them altogether.

  15. An introduction to acceleration mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    This paper discusses the acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic fields, i.e., by fields that are produced by the motion of other charged particles driven by some power source. The mechanisms that are discussed include: Ponderamotive Forces, Acceleration, Plasma Beat Wave Acceleration, Inverse Free Electron Laser Acceleration, Inverse Cerenkov Acceleration, Gravity Acceleration, 2D Linac Acceleration and Conventional Iris Loaded Linac Structure Acceleration. (LSP)

  16. Debris and micrometeorite impact measurements in the laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resnick, J.; Grun, J.; Crawford, J.; Burris, R.; Manka, C. K.; Ford, J. L.; Ripin, B. H.

    1992-01-01

    A method was developed to simulate space debris in the laboratory. This method, which is an outgrowth of research in inertial confinement fusion (ICF), uses laser ablation to accelerate material. Using this method, single 60 micron aluminum spheres were accelerated to 15 km/sec and larger 500 micron aluminum spheres were accelerated to 2 km/sec. Also, many small (less than 10 micron diameter) irregularly shaped particles were accelerated to speeds of 100 km/sec.

  17. Accelerated cleanup risk reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.B.; Aines, R.M.; Blake, R.G.; Copeland, A.B.; Newmark, R.L.; Tompson, A.F.B.

    1998-02-01

    There is no proven technology for remediating contaminant plume source regions in a heterogeneous subsurface. This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop the requisite new technologies so that will be rapidly accepted by the remediation community. Our technology focus is hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO) which is a novel in situ thermal technique. We have expanded this core technology to leverage the action of steam injection and place an in situ microbial filter downstream to intercept and destroy the accelerated movement of contaminated groundwater. Most contaminant plume source regions, including the chlorinated solvent plume at LLNL, are in subsurface media characterized by a wide range in hydraulic conductivity. At LLNL, the main conduits for contaminant transport are buried stream channels composed of gravels and sands; these have a hydraulic conductivity in the range of 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -2} cm/s. Clay and silt units with a hydraulic conductivity of 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -6} cm/s bound these buried channels; these are barriers to groundwater movement and contain the highest contaminant concentrations in the source region. New remediation technologies are required because the current ones preferentially access the high conductivity units. HPO is an innovative process for the in situ destruction of contaminants in the entire subsurface. It operates by the injection of steam. We have demonstrated in laboratory experiments that many contaminants rapidly oxidize to harmless compounds at temperatures easily achieved by injecting steam, provided sufficient dissolved oxygen is present. One important challenge in a heterogeneous source region is getting heat, contaminants, and an oxidizing agent in the same place at the same time. We have used the NUFT computer program to simulate the cyclic injection of steam into a contaminated aquifer for design of a field demonstration. We used an 8 hour, steam/oxygen injection cycle followed by a 56 hour relaxation

  18. Schooling in Times of Acceleration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddeberg, Magdalena; Hornberg, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Modern societies are characterised by forms of acceleration, which influence social processes. Sociologist Hartmut Rosa has systematised temporal structures by focusing on three categories of social acceleration: technical acceleration, acceleration of social change, and acceleration of the pace of life. All three processes of acceleration are…

  19. Operation of the accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.C.; Batzka, B.; Billquist, P.J.

    1995-08-01

    Fiscal Year 1994 was the first year of seven-day operation since ATLAS became a national user facility in 1985. ATLAS made the most of the opportunity this year by providing 5200 hours of beam on-target to the research program. A record number of 60 experiments were completed and the {open_quotes}facility reliability{close_quotes} remained near the 90% level. Seven-day operation was made possible with the addition to the staff of two operator positions providing single-operator coverage during the weekend period. The normally scheduled coverage was augmented by an on-call list of system experts who respond to emergencies with phone-in advice and return to the Laboratory when necessary. This staffing approach continues but we rearranged our staffing patterns so that we now have one cryogenics engineer working a shift pattern which includes 8-hour daily coverage during the weekend. ATLAS provided a beam mix to users consisting of 26 different isotopic species, 23% of which were for A>100 in FY 1994. Approximately 60% of the beam time was provided by the Positive Ion Injector, slightly less than the usage rate of FY 1993. Experiments using uranium or lead beams accounted for 16.4% of the total beam time. The ECR ion source and high-voltage platform functioned well throughout the year. A new technique for solid material production in the source was developed which uses a sputtering process wherein the sample of material placed near the plasma chamber wall is biased negatively. Plasma ions are accelerated into the sample and material is sputtered from the surface into the plasma. This technique is now used routinely for many elements. Runs of calcium, germanium, nickel, lead, tellurium, and uranium were carried out with this technique.

  20. Uniformly accelerated black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letelier, Patricio S.; Oliveira, Samuel R.

    2001-09-01

    The static and stationary C metric are examined in a generic framework and their interpretations studied in some detail, especially those with two event horizons, one for the black hole and another for the acceleration. We find that (i) the spacetime of an accelerated static black hole is plagued by either conical singularities or a lack of smoothness and compactness of the black hole horizon, (ii) by using standard black hole thermodynamics we show that accelerated black holes have a higher Hawking temperature than Unruh temperature of the accelerated frame, and (iii) the usual upper bound on the product of the mass and acceleration parameters (<1/27) is just a coordinate artifact. The main results are extended to accelerated rotating black holes with no significant changes.

  1. The Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Sampayan, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    The Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), a class of induction accelerators, employs a novel insulating beam tube to impress a longitudinal electric field on a bunch of charged particles. The surface flashover characteristics of this tube may permit the attainment of accelerating gradients on the order of 100 MV/m for accelerating pulses on the order of a nanosecond in duration. A virtual traveling wave of excitation along the tube is produced at any desired speed by controlling the timing of pulse generating modules that supply a tangential electric field to the tube wall. Because of the ability to control the speed of this virtual wave, the accelerator is capable of handling any charge to mass ratio particle; hence it can be used for electrons, protons and any ion. The accelerator architectures, key technologies and development challenges will be described.

  2. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Fraser, J.S.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1985-05-20

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radiofrequency-powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  3. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Fraser, John S.; Sheffield, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radio frequency powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  4. ACCELERATION RESPONSIVE SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Chabrek, A.F.; Maxwell, R.L.

    1963-07-01

    An acceleration-responsive device with dual channel capabilities whereby a first circuit is actuated upon attainment of a predetermined maximum acceleration level and when the acceleration drops to a predetermined minimum acceleriltion level another circuit is actuated is described. A fluid-damped sensing mass slidably mounted in a relatively frictionless manner on a shaft through the intermediation of a ball bushing and biased by an adjustable compression spring provides inertially operated means for actuating the circuits. (AEC)

  5. The foxhole accelerating structure

    SciTech Connect

    Fernow, R.C.; Claus, J.

    1992-07-17

    This report examines some properties of a new type of open accelerating structure. It consists of a series of rectangular cavities, which we call foxholes, joined by a beam channel. The power for accelerating the particles comes from an external radiation source and enters the cavities through their open upper surfaces. Analytic and computer calculations are presented showing that the foxhole is a suitable structure for accelerating relativistic electrons.

  6. Particle acceleration in flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, Arnold O.; Kosugi, Takeo; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Benka, Steve G.; Chupp, Edward L.; Enome, Shinzo; Garcia, Howard; Holman, Gordon D.; Kurt, Victoria G.; Sakao, Taro

    1994-01-01

    Particle acceleration is intrinsic to the primary energy release in the impulsive phase of solar flares, and we cannot understand flares without understanding acceleration. New observations in soft and hard X-rays, gamma-rays and coherent radio emissions are presented, suggesting flare fragmentation in time and space. X-ray and radio measurements exhibit at least five different time scales in flares. In addition, some new observations of delayed acceleration signatures are also presented. The theory of acceleration by parallel electric fields is used to model the spectral shape and evolution of hard X-rays. The possibility of the appearance of double layers is further investigated.

  7. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Robert B.

    1986-01-01

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams into the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  8. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Robert B.

    1986-09-02

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams into the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  9. Accelerator-based BNCT.

    PubMed

    Kreiner, A J; Baldo, M; Bergueiro, J R; Cartelli, D; Castell, W; Thatar Vento, V; Gomez Asoia, J; Mercuri, D; Padulo, J; Suarez Sandin, J C; Erhardt, J; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Igarzabal, M; Minsky, D M; Herrera, M S; Capoulat, M E; Gonzalez, S J; del Grosso, M F; Gagetti, L; Suarez Anzorena, M; Gun, M; Carranza, O

    2014-06-01

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the (9)Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases.

  10. FFAGS for rapid acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Carol J. Johnstone and Shane Koscielniak

    2002-09-30

    When large transverse and longitudinal emittances are to be transported through a circular machine, extremely rapid acceleration holds the advantage that the beam becomes immune to nonlinear resonances because there is insufficient time for amplitudes to build up. Uncooled muon beams exhibit large emittances and require fast acceleration to avoid decay losses and would benefit from this style of acceleration. The approach here employs a fixed-field alternating gradient or FFAG magnet structure and a fixed frequency acceleration system. Acceptance is enhanced by the use only of linear lattice elements, and fixed-frequency rf enables the use of cavities with large shunt resistance and quality factor.

  11. Acceleration of polarized protons in circular accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.

    1980-09-12

    The theory of depolarization in circular accelerators is presented. The spin equation is first expressed in terms of the particle orbit and then converted to the equivalent spinor equation. The spinor equation is then solved for three different situations: (1) a beam on a flat top near a resonance, (2) uniform acceleration through an isolated resonance, and (3) a model of a fast resonance jump. Finally, the depolarization coefficient, epsilon, is calculated in terms of properties of the particle orbit and the results are applied to a calculation of depolarization in the AGS.

  12. Pulsed power for particle beam accelerators in military applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, I.D.

    1980-06-20

    Techniques useful for generating and conditioning power for high energy pulsed accelerators with potential weapon applications are described. Pulsed electron accelerators are exemplified by ETA and ATA at Lawrence Livermore Laboratories and RADLAC at Sandia Laboratories Albuquerque. Pulse-power techniques used in other applications are briefly mentioned, including some that may be useful for collective ion accelerators. The limitations of pulse-power and the general directions of desirable development are illustrated. The main needs are to increase repetition rate and to decrease size.

  13. Laboratory directed research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-15

    The purposes of Argonne's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program are to encourage the development of novel concepts, enhance the Laboratory's R D capabilities, and further the development of its strategic initiatives. Among the aims of the projects supported by the Program are establishment of engineering proof-of-principle''; development of an instrumental prototype, method, or system; or discovery in fundamental science. Several of these project are closely associated with major strategic thrusts of the Laboratory as described in Argonne's Five Year Institutional Plan, although the scientific implications of the achieved results extend well beyond Laboratory plans and objectives. The projects supported by the Program are distributed across the major programmatic areas at Argonne. Areas of emphasis are (1) advanced accelerator and detector technology, (2) x-ray techniques in biological and physical sciences, (3) advanced reactor technology, (4) materials science, computational science, biological sciences and environmental sciences. Individual reports summarizing the purpose, approach, and results of projects are presented.

  14. The Naples University 3 MV tandem accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Campajola, L.; Brondi, A.

    2013-07-18

    The 3 MV tandem accelerator of the Naples University is used for research activities and applications in many fields. At the beginning of operation (1977) the main utilization was in the field of nuclear physics. Later, the realization of new beam lines allowed the development of applied activities as radiocarbon dating, ion beam analysis, biophysics, ion implantation etc. At present, the availability of different ion sources and many improvements on the accelerator allow to run experiments in a wide range of subjects. An overview of the characteristics and major activities of the laboratory is presented.

  15. Technology development for high power induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Birx, D.L.; Reginato, L.L.

    1985-06-11

    The marriage of Induction Linac technology with Nonlinear Magnetic Modulators has produced some unique capabilities. It appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, at gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, and with power efficiencies approaching 50%. A 2 MeV, 5 kA electron accelerator has been constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to demonstrate these concepts and to provide a test facility for high brightness sources. The pulse drive for the accelerator is based on state-of-the-art magnetic pulse compressors with very high peak power capability, repetition rates exceeding a kilohertz and excellent reliability.

  16. COMPACT ACCELERATOR CONCEPT FOR PROTON THERAPY

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G; Sampayan, S; Chen, Y; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Krogh, M; Nelson, S; Nunnally, W; Paul, A; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2006-08-18

    A new type of compact induction accelerator is under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that promises to increase the average accelerating gradient by at least an order of magnitude over that of existing induction machines. The machine is based on the use of high gradient vacuum insulators, advanced dielectric materials and switches and is being developed as a compact flash x-ray radiography source. Research describing an extreme variant of this technology aimed at proton therapy for cancer will be presented.

  17. Laboratory diagnosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the first major goals of the microbiology laboratory is to isolate or detect clinically significant microorganisms from an affected site and, if more than one type of microorganism is present, to isolate them in approximately the same ratio as occurs in vivo. Whether an isolate is “clinically...

  18. Scaling FFAG accelerator for muon acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Lagrange, JB.; Planche, T.; Mori, Y.

    2011-10-06

    Recent developments in scaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerators have opened new ways for lattice design, with straight sections, and insertions like dispersion suppressors. Such principles and matching issues are detailed in this paper. An application of these new concepts is presented to overcome problems in the PRISM project.

  19. Scaling FFAG accelerator for muon acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagrange, JB.; Planche, T.; Mori, Y.

    2011-10-01

    Recent developments in scaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerators have opened new ways for lattice design, with straight sections, and insertions like dispersion suppressors. Such principles and matching issues are detailed in this paper. An application of these new concepts is presented to overcome problems in the PRISM project.

  20. Angular velocities, angular accelerations, and coriolis accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.

    1975-01-01

    Weightlessness, rotating environment, and mathematical analysis of Coriolis acceleration is described for man's biological effective force environments. Effects on the vestibular system are summarized, including the end organs, functional neurology, and input-output relations. Ground-based studies in preparation for space missions are examined, including functional tests, provocative tests, adaptive capacity tests, simulation studies, and antimotion sickness.

  1. Chemical Synthesis Accelerated by Paper Spray: The Haloform Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Ryan M.; Pulliam, Christopher J.; Raab, Shannon A.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2016-01-01

    In this laboratory, students perform a synthetic reaction in two ways: (i) by traditional bulk-phase reaction and (ii) in the course of reactive paper spray ionization. Mass spectrometry (MS) is used both as an analytical method and a means of accelerating organic syntheses. The main focus of this laboratory exercise is that the same ionization…

  2. Improvement of Space Shuttle Main Engine Low Frequency Acceleration Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stec, Robert C.

    1999-01-01

    The noise floor of low frequency acceleration data acquired on the Space Shuttle Main Engines is higher than desirable. Difficulties of acquiring high quality acceleration data on this engine are discussed. The approach presented in this paper for reducing the acceleration noise floor focuses on a search for an accelerometer more capable of measuring low frequency accelerations. An overview is given of the current measurement system used to acquire engine vibratory data. The severity of vibration, temperature, and moisture environments are considered. Vibratory measurements from both laboratory and rocket engine tests are presented.

  3. Vacuum Insulator Development for the Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J R; Blackfield, D; Caporaso, G J; Chen, Y; Hawkins, S; Kendig, M; Poole, B; Sanders, D M; Krogh, M; Managan, J E

    2008-03-17

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we are developing a new type of accelerator, known as a Dielectric Wall Accelerator, in which compact pulse forming lines directly apply an accelerating field to the beam through an insulating vacuum boundary. The electrical strength of this insulator may define the maximum gradient achievable in these machines. To increase the system gradient, we are using 'High Gradient Insulators' composed of alternating layers of dielectric and metal for the vacuum insulator. In this paper, we present our recent results from experiment and simulation, including the first test of a High Gradient Insulator in a functioning Dielectric Wall Accelerator cell.

  4. Induction linear accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birx, Daniel

    1992-03-01

    Among the family of particle accelerators, the Induction Linear Accelerator is the best suited for the acceleration of high current electron beams. Because the electromagnetic radiation used to accelerate the electron beam is not stored in the cavities but is supplied by transmission lines during the beam pulse it is possible to utilize very low Q (typically<10) structures and very large beam pipes. This combination increases the beam breakup limited maximum currents to of order kiloamperes. The micropulse lengths of these machines are measured in 10's of nanoseconds and duty factors as high as 10-4 have been achieved. Until recently the major problem with these machines has been associated with the pulse power drive. Beam currents of kiloamperes and accelerating potentials of megavolts require peak power drives of gigawatts since no energy is stored in the structure. The marriage of liner accelerator technology and nonlinear magnetic compressors has produced some unique capabilities. It now appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, peak currents in kiloamperes and gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, with power efficiencies approaching 50%. The nonlinear magnetic compression technology has replaced the spark gap drivers used on earlier accelerators with state-of-the-art all-solid-state SCR commutated compression chains. The reliability of these machines is now approaching 1010 shot MTBF. In the following paper we will briefly review the historical development of induction linear accelerators and then discuss the design considerations.

  5. Accelerator Science: Why RF?

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-12-21

    Particle accelerators can fire beams of subatomic particles at near the speed of light. The accelerating force is generated using radio frequency technology and a whole lot of interesting features. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it all works.

  6. Particle Acceleration in Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    2005-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma ray burst (GRBs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Fermi acceleration is the mechanism usually assumed for the acceleration of particles in astrophysical environments.

  7. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    SciTech Connect

    Lach, Joseph; /Fermilab

    2010-07-01

    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?

  8. Accelerators (3/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  9. Accelerators (4/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  10. Measuring Model Rocket Acceleration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Randy A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an experiment that measures the acceleration and velocity of a model rocket. Lift-off information is transmitted to a computer that creates a graph of the velocity. Discusses the analysis of the computer-generated data and differences between calculated and experimental velocity and acceleration of several rocket types. (MDH)

  11. Microscale acceleration history discriminators

    DOEpatents

    Polosky, Marc A.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

  12. Accelerators (5/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  13. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    SciTech Connect

    Lach, Joseph

    2010-07-29

    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?.

  14. ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION COMBINED WITH ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A research project was initiated to address a recurring problem of elevated detection limits above required risk-based concentrations for the determination of semivolatile organic compounds in high moisture content solid samples. This project was initiated, in cooperation with the EPA Region 1 Laboratory, under the Regional Methods Program administered through the ORD Office of Science Policy. The aim of the project was to develop an approach for the rapid removal of water in high moisture content solids (e.g., wetland sediments) in preparation for analysis via Method 8270. Alternative methods for water removal have been investigated to enhance compound solid concentrations and improve extraction efficiency, with the use of pressure filtration providing a high-throughput alternative for removal of the majority of free water in sediments and sludges. In order to eliminate problems with phase separation during extraction of solids using Accelerated Solvent Extraction, a variation of a water-isopropanol extraction method developed at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, CO is being employed. The concentrations of target compounds in water-isopropanol extraction fluids are subsequently analyzed using an automated Solid Phase Extraction (SPE)-GC/MS method developed in our laboratory. The coupled approaches for dewatering, extraction, and target compound identification-quantitation provide a useful alternative to enhance sample throughput for Me

  15. A worldly approach to a new accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Taubes, G.

    1993-02-19

    Particle physicists are learning to their discomfiture that for one country to plan a multibillion-dollar accelerator, then ask other countries to help build it, is a recipe for frustration. That's the lesson emerging from the struggles to build the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), the mammoth accelerator that is now in limbo as officials wait to see whether Japan and other nations will pitch in. But a group of laboratory directors who are already planning the next-generation accelerator - a large linear collider that will address physics the SSC can't probe - is taking steps to ensure that it will be an international collaboration from day one. The machine would be a linear accelerator tens of kilometers long with an energy limit of 1 TeV, and would collide electrons and positrons. Two international collaborations are studying designs for radiofreqency cavities that would generate powerful accelerating gradients. A third international group is working on learning how to focus electron and positron beams down to 60 nm in diameter. The proposed accelerator would likely cost $2 to $3 billion, and one possible location is the big island of Hawaii.

  16. Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2011-10-24

    Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

  17. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) multi-user Tandem Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.C.

    1988-09-01

    An FN tandem laboratory, cofounded by several Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Divisions, Sandia Livermore, and the University of California Regents, is now operational at Livermore. The accelerator, formerly the University of Washington injector, has been upgraded with SF/sub 6/, Dowlish tubes, and a NEC pelletron charging system. A conventional duoplasmatron, a tritium source, and two Cs sputtering sources will be fielded on the accelerator. Pulsed beams will be available from two source positions. The laboratory has been designed to accommodate up to 19 experimental positions with excellent optics and working vacuum. The facility is unshielded with both accelerator and radiological systems under the control of a distributed microprocessor system. Research activities at the tandem include nuclear physics and astrophysics, materials science and characterization programs, and accelerator mass spectrometry for archaeology, biomedical, environmental and geoscience investigators. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Teaching and Research with Accelerators at Tarleton State University

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, Daniel K.

    2009-03-10

    Tarleton State University students began performing both research and laboratory experiments using accelerators in 1998 through visitation programs at the University of North Texas, US Army Research Laboratory, and the Naval Surface Warfare Center at Carderock. In 2003, Tarleton outfitted its new science building with a 1 MV pelletron that was donated by the California Institution of Technology. The accelerator has been upgraded and supports a wide range of classes for both the Physics program and the ABET accredited Engineering Physics program as well as supplying undergraduate research opportunities on campus. A discussion of various laboratory activities and research projects performed by Tarleton students will be presented.

  19. 15 Years of R&D on high field accelerator magnets at FNAL

    DOE PAGES

    Barzi, Emanuela; Zlobin, Alexander V.

    2016-07-01

    The High Field Magnet (HFM) Program at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) has been developing Nb3Sn superconducting magnets, materials and technologies for present and future particle accelerators since the late 1990s. This paper summarizes the main results of the Nb3Sn accelerator magnet and superconductor R&D at FNAL and outlines the Program next steps.

  20. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  1. Laboratory accreditation

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, R.B.

    1998-08-01

    Accreditation can offer many benefits to a testing or calibration laboratory, including increased marketability of services, reduced number of outside assessments, and improved quality of services. Compared to ISO 9000 registration, the accreditation process includes a review of the entire quality system, but in addition a review of testing or calibration procedures by a technical expert and participation in proficiency testing in the areas of accreditation. Within the DOE, several facilities have recently become accredited in the area of calibration, including Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, AlliedSignal FM and T; Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., and Pacific Northwest National Lab. At the national level, a new non-profit organization was recently formed called the National Cooperation for Laboratory Accreditation (NACLA). The goal of NACLA is to develop procedures, following national and international requirements, for the recognition of competent accreditation bodies in the US. NACLA is a voluntary partnership between the public and private sectors with the goal of a test or calibration performed once and accepted world wide. The NACLA accreditation body recognition process is based on the requirements of ISO Guide 25 and Guide 58. A membership drive will begin some time this fall to solicit organizational members and an election of a permanent NACLA Board of Directors will follow later this year or early 1999.

  2. Large electrostatic accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators.

  3. Centrifuge Study of Pilot Tolerance to Acceleration and the Effects of Acceleration on Pilot Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creer, Brent Y.; Smedal, Harald A.; Wingrove, Rodney C.

    1960-01-01

    A research program the general objective of which was to measure the effects of various sustained accelerations on the control performance of pilots, was carried out on the Aviation Medical Acceleration Laboratory centrifuge, U.S. Naval Air Development Center, Johnsville, PA. The experimental setup consisted of a flight simulator with the centrifuge in the control loop. The pilot performed his control tasks while being subjected to acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a forward-facing pilot flying an atmosphere entry vehicle. The study was divided into three phases. In one phase of the program, the pilots were subjected to a variety of sustained linear acceleration forces while controlling vehicles with several different sets of longitudinal dynamics. Here, a randomly moving target was displayed to the pilot on a cathode-ray tube. For each combination of acceleration field and vehicle dynamics, pilot tracking accuracy was measured and pilot opinion of the stability and control characteristics was recorded. Thus, information was obtained on the combined effects of complexity of control task and magnitude and direction of acceleration forces on pilot performance. These tests showed that the pilot's tracking performance deteriorated markedly at accelerations greater than about 4g when controlling a lightly damped vehicle. The tentative conclusion was also reached that regardless of the airframe dynamics involved, the pilot feels that in order to have the same level of control over the vehicle, an increase in the vehicle dynamic stability was required with increases in the magnitudes of the acceleration impressed upon the pilot. In another phase, boundaries of human tolerance of acceleration were established for acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a pilot flying an orbital vehicle. A special pilot restraint system was developed to increase human tolerance to longitudinal decelerations. The results of the tests showed that human tolerance

  4. The EMMA Accelerator, a Diagnostic Systems Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, A.; Berg, J.; Bliss, N. Cox, G.; Dufau, M.; Gallagher, A.; Hill, C.; Jones, J.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Muratori, B.; Oates, A.; Shepherd B.; Smith, R.; Hock, K.; Holder, D.; Ibison, M., Kirkman I.; Borrell, R.; Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Wendt, M.

    2011-09-04

    The 'EMMA' Non-Scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (ns-FFAG) international project is currently being commissioned at Daresbury Laboratory, UK. This accelerator has been equipped with a number of diagnostic systems to facilitate this. These systems include a novel time-domain-multiplexing BPM system, moveable screen systems, a time-of-flight instrument, Faraday cups, and injection/extraction tomography sections to analyze the single bunch beams. An upgrade still to implement includes the installation of wall current monitors. This paper gives an overview of these systems and shows some data and results from the diagnostics that have contributed to the successful demonstration of a serpentine acceleration by this novel accelerator.

  5. Clinical requirements and accelerator concepts for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, B.A.; Bleuel, D.L.; Chu, W.T.; Donahue, R.J.; Kwan, J.; Leung, K.N.; Reginato, L.L.; Wells, R.P.

    1997-05-01

    Accelerator-based neutron sources are an attractive alternative to nuclear reactors for providing epithermal neutron beams for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. Based on clinical requirements and neutronics modeling the use of proton and deuteron induced reactions in {sup 7}Li and {sup 9}Be targets has been compared. Excellent epithermal neutron beams can be produced via the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction at proton energies of {approximately}2.5 MeV. An electrostatic quadrupole accelerator and a lithium target, which can deliver and handle 2.5 MeV protons at beam currents up to 50 mA, are under development for an accelerator-based BNCT facility at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  6. Accelerated stress testing of terrestrial solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathrop, J. W.; Hawkins, D. C.; Prince, J. L.; Walker, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The development of an accelerated test schedule for terrestrial solar cells is described. This schedule, based on anticipated failure modes deduced from a consideration of IC failure mechanisms, involves bias-temperature testing, humidity testing (including both 85-85 and pressure cooker stress), and thermal-cycle thermal-shock testing. Results are described for 12 different unencapsulated cell types. Both gradual electrical degradation and sudden catastrophic mechanical change were observed. These effects can be used to discriminate between cell types and technologies relative to their reliability attributes. Consideration is given to identifying laboratory failure modes which might lead to severe degradation in the field through second quadrant operation. Test results indicate that the ability of most cell types to withstand accelerated stress testing depends more on the manufacturer's design, processing, and worksmanship than on the particular metallization system. Preliminary tests comparing accelerated test results on encapsulated and unencapsulated cells are described.

  7. High average power linear induction accelerator development

    SciTech Connect

    Bayless, J.R.; Adler, R.J.

    1987-07-01

    There is increasing interest in linear induction accelerators (LIAs) for applications including free electron lasers, high power microwave generators and other types of radiation sources. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed LIA technology in combination with magnetic pulse compression techniques to achieve very impressive performance levels. In this paper we will briefly discuss the LIA concept and describe our development program. Our goals are to improve the reliability and reduce the cost of LIA systems. An accelerator is presently under construction to demonstrate these improvements at an energy of 1.6 MeV in 2 kA, 65 ns beam pulses at an average beam power of approximately 30 kW. The unique features of this system are a low cost accelerator design and an SCR-switched, magnetically compressed, pulse power system. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Neutrino mixing in accelerated proton decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Dharam Vir; Labun, Lance; Torrieri, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    We discuss the inverse β-decay of accelerated protons in the context of neutrino flavor superpositions (mixings) in mass eigenstates. The process p→ n ℓ+ ν_{ℓ} is kinematically allowed because the accelerating field provides the rest energy difference between initial and final states. The rate of p→ n conversions can be evaluated in either the laboratory frame (where the proton is accelerating) or the co-moving frame (where the proton is at rest and interacts with an effective thermal bath of ℓ and ν_{ℓ} due to the Unruh effect). By explicit calculation, we show that the rates in the two frames disagree when taking into account neutrino mixings, because the weak interaction couples to charge eigenstates whereas gravity couples to neutrino mass eigenstates (D.V. Ahluwalia et al., arXiv:1505.04082 [hep-ph]). The contradiction could be resolved experimentally, potentially yielding new information on the origins of neutrino masses.

  9. Proceedings of: 2005 Particle Acceleration Confence

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    The 21st Particle Accelerator Conference, PAC05, took place at the Knoxville Convention Center (KCC) from Monday through Friday, May 16-20, 2005. Sponsored by the American Physical Society (APS), the Institute of Electrics and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) with its subdivision of Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society (NPSS), the conference was hosted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Project and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). The conference was chaired by Norbert Holtkamp, and the Local Organizing Committee was made up of staff from the ORNL SNS Project under the chairmanship of Stuart Henderson. The conference welcomed over 1400 delegates from the United States, Europe, Asia, the Middle East, South America and from as far away as Australia. Almost 1400 papers where processed during the conference and will be published on the Joint Accelerator Conferences Website (JACoW) page.

  10. Ion beam accelerator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system is described that combines geometrical and electrostatic focusing to provide high ion extraction efficiency and good focusing of an accelerated ion beam. The apparatus includes a pair of curved extraction grids (16, 18) with multiple pairs of aligned holes positioned to direct a group of beamlets (20) along converging paths. The extraction grids are closely spaced and maintained at a moderate potential to efficiently extract beamlets of ions and allow them to combine into a single beam (14). An accelerator electrode device (22) downstream from the extraction grids, is at a much lower potential than the grids to accelerate the combined beam.

  11. Ion beam accelerator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system is described that combines geometrical and electrostatic focusing to provide high ion extraction efficiency and good focusing of an accelerated ion beam. The apparatus includes a pair of curved extraction grids with multiple pairs of aligned holes positioned to direct a group of beamlets along converging paths. The extraction grids are closely spaced and maintained at a moderate potential to efficiently extract beamlets of ions and allow them to combine into a single beam. An accelerator electrode device downstream from the extraction grids is at a much lower potential than the grids to accelerate the combined beam. The application of the system to ion implantation is mentioned.

  12. Motion Inference During +Gz Acceleration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    AFRL-HW-WP-TP-2006-0091 Motion Inference During +Gz Acceleration Lloyd D . Tripp Jr. Richard A. McKinley Robert L. Esken Air Force Research Laboratory...5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62202F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Lloyd D . Tripp Jr 7184 Richard A. McKinley 5e. TASK NUMBER Robert L. Esken 03 5f...CD A Cj CL.C2 C 0~ 0. D 0 0~G)C00.E)’ca)4-100 ( 0 Eo12 E a 0 0L0mm 0a0 " C0 U) U) LUr o CLI.,a @ .- . : ) 0 " 0 C CL.. 70 E- 0 M 0.0 toE-C .- 0)c .2 0UL

  13. Accelerator Facilities for Radiation Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1999-01-01

    HSRP Goals in Accelerator Use and Development are: 1.Need for ground-based heavy ion and proton facility to understand space radiation effects discussed most recently by NAS/NRC Report (1996). 2. Strategic Program Goals in facility usage and development: -(1) operation of AGS for approximately 600 beam hours/year; (2) operation of Loma Linda University (LLU) proton facility for approximately 400 beam hours/year; (3) construction of BAF facility; and (4) collaborative research at HIMAC in Japan and with other existing or potential international facilities. 3. MOA with LLU has been established to provide proton beams with energies of 40-250 important for trapped protons and solar proton events. 4. Limited number of beam hours available at Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

  14. Deuterium accelerator experiments for APT.

    SciTech Connect

    Causey, Rion A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hertz, Kristin L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Cowgill, Donald F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories in California initiated an experimental program to determine whether tritium retention in the tube walls and permeation through the tubes into the surrounding coolant water would be a problem for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT), and to find ways to mitigate the problem, if it existed. Significant holdup in the tube walls would limit the ability of APT to meet its production goals, and high levels of permeation would require a costly cleanup system for the cooling water. To simulate tritium implantation, a 200 keV accelerator was used to implant deuterium into Al 6061-T and SS3 16L samples at temperatures and particle fluxes appropriate for APT, for times varying between one week and five months. The implanted samples were characterized to determine the deuterium retention and Permeation. During the implantation, the D(d,p)T nuclear reaction was used to monitor the build-up of deuterium in the implant region of the samples. These experiments increased in sophistication, from mono-energetic deuteron implants to multi-energetic deuteron and proton implants, to more accurately reproduce the conditions expected in APT. Micron-thick copper, nickel, and anodized aluminum coatings were applied to the front surface of the samples (inside of the APT walls) in an attempt to lower retention and permeation. The reduction in both retention and permeation produced by the nickel coatings, and the ability to apply them to the inside of the APT tubes, indicate that both nickel-coated Al 6061-T6 and nickel-coated SS3 16L tubes would be effective for use in APT. The results of this work were submitted to the Accelerator Production of Tritium project in document number TPO-E29-Z-TNS-X-00050, APT-MP-01-17.

  15. Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators: SEPAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L.; Roberts, W. T.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Kawashima, N.; Marshall, J. A.; Moses, S. L.; Neubert, T.; Mende, S. B.; Choueiri, E. Y.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC), which flew on the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) 1 mission, used new techniques to study natural phenomena in the Earth's upper atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere by introducing energetic perturbations into the system from a high power electron beam with known characteristics. Properties of auroras were studied by directing the electron beam into the upper atmosphere while making measurements of optical emissions. Studies were also performed of the critical ionization velocity phenomenon.

  16. CLASHING BEAM PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Burleigh, R.J.

    1961-04-11

    A charged-particle accelerator of the proton synchrotron class having means for simultaneously accelerating two separate contra-rotating particle beams within a single annular magnet structure is reported. The magnet provides two concentric circular field regions of opposite magnetic polarity with one field region being of slightly less diameter than the other. The accelerator includes a deflector means straddling the two particle orbits and acting to collide the two particle beams after each has been accelerated to a desired energy. The deflector has the further property of returning particles which do not undergo collision to the regular orbits whereby the particles recirculate with the possibility of colliding upon subsequent passages through the deflector.

  17. Vibration control in accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Montag, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the vast majority of accelerator applications, ground vibration amplitudes are well below tolerable magnet jitter amplitudes. In these cases, it is necessary and sufficient to design a rigid magnet support structure that does not amplify ground vibration. Since accelerator beam lines are typically installed at an elevation of 1-2m above ground level, special care has to be taken in order to avoid designing a support structure that acts like an inverted pendulum with a low resonance frequency, resulting in untolerable lateral vibration amplitudes of the accelerator components when excited by either ambient ground motion or vibration sources within the accelerator itself, such as cooling water pumps or helium flow in superconducting magnets. In cases where ground motion amplitudes already exceed the required jiter tolerances, for instance in future linear colliders, passive vibration damping or active stabilization may be considered.

  18. Dielectric assist accelerating structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, D.; Yoshida, M.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2016-01-01

    A higher-order TM02 n mode accelerating structure is proposed based on a novel concept of dielectric loaded rf cavities. This accelerating structure consists of ultralow-loss dielectric cylinders and disks with irises which are periodically arranged in a metallic enclosure. Unlike conventional dielectric loaded accelerating structures, most of the rf power is stored in the vacuum space near the beam axis, leading to a significant reduction of the wall loss, much lower than that of conventional normal-conducting linac structures. This allows us to realize an extremely high quality factor and a very high shunt impedance at room temperature. A simulation of a 5 cell prototype design with an existing alumina ceramic indicates an unloaded quality factor of the accelerating mode over 120 000 and a shunt impedance exceeding 650 M Ω /m at room temperature.

  19. Wake field acceleration experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Where and how will wake field acceleration devices find use for other than, possibly, accelerators for high energy physics. I don't know that this can be responsibly answered at this time. What I can do is describe some recent results from an ongoing experimental program at Argonne which support the idea that wake field techniques and devices are potentially important for future accelerators. Perhaps this will spawn expanded interest and even new ideas for the use of this new technology. The Argonne program, and in particular the Advanced Accelerator Test Facility (AATF), has been reported in several fairly recent papers and reports. But because this is a substantially new audience for the subject, I will include a brief review of the program and the facility before describing experiments. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Accelerator on a Chip

    SciTech Connect

    England, Joel

    2014-06-30

    SLAC's Joel England explains how the same fabrication techniques used for silicon computer microchips allowed their team to create the new laser-driven particle accelerator chips. (SLAC Multimedia Communications)

  1. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, R.B.

    1985-09-09

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator is described. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams onto the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  2. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  3. Principles of Induction Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs*, Richard J.

    The basic concepts involved in induction accelerators are introduced in this chapter. The objective is to provide a foundation for the more detailed coverage of key technology elements and specific applications in the following chapters. A wide variety of induction accelerators are discussed in the following chapters, from the high current linear electron accelerator configurations that have been the main focus of the original developments, to circular configurations like the ion synchrotrons that are the subject of more recent research. The main focus in the present chapter is on the induction module containing the magnetic core that plays the role of a transformer in coupling the pulsed power from the modulator to the charged particle beam. This is the essential common element in all these induction accelerators, and an understanding of the basic processes involved in its operation is the main objective of this chapter. (See [1] for a useful and complementary presentation of the basic principles in induction linacs.)

  4. Accelerator on a Chip

    ScienceCinema

    England, Joel

    2016-07-12

    SLAC's Joel England explains how the same fabrication techniques used for silicon computer microchips allowed their team to create the new laser-driven particle accelerator chips. (SLAC Multimedia Communications)

  5. DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G; Chen, Y; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2007-10-18

    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) is a compact pulsed power device where the pulse forming lines, switching, and vacuum wall are integrated into a single compact geometry. For this effort, we initiated a extensive compact pulsed power development program and have pursued the study of switching (gas, oil, laser induced surface flashover and photoconductive), dielectrics (ceramics and nanoparticle composites), pulse forming line topologies (asymmetric and symmetric Blumleins and zero integral pulse forming lines), and multilayered vacuum insulator (HGI) technology. Finally, we fabricated an accelerator cell for test on ETAII (a 5.5 MeV, 2 kA, 70 ns pulsewidth electron beam accelerator). We review our past results and report on the progress of accelerator cell testing.

  6. Acceleration Disturbances onboard of Geodetic Precision Space Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterseim, Nadja; Jakob, Flury; Schlicht, Anja

    Bartlomiej Oszczak, b@dgps.pl University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland, Olsztyn, Poland Olga Maciejczyk, omaciejczyk@gmail.com Poland In this paper there is presented the study on the parameters of the ASG-EUPOS real-time RTK service NAWGEO such as: accuracy, availability, integrity and continuity. Author's model is used for tests. These parameters enable determination of the quality of received information and practical applications of the service. Paper includes also the subject related to the NAWGEO service and algorithms used in determination of mentioned parameters. The results of accuracy and precision analyses and study on availability demonstrated that NAWGEO service enables a user a position determination with a few centimeters accuracy with high probability in any moment of time.

  7. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Annual Program Review 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    This book is submitted as one written part of the 1999 Annual DOE High Energy Physics Program Review of Fermilab, scheduled May 5-7,1999. This book should be read in conjunction with the 1999 Fermilab Workbook and the review presentations.

  8. Accelerated Laboratory Research Experience in Psychology through Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatfield, Douglas C.; Cruse, Bradley H.

    1986-01-01

    Describes implementation of computer simulation to aid in training psychology students in research methodology. Four skills required in research are reviewed; the simulation's context and the software used are described; and student activities, including submission of articles to online class journals and students' responses to the method, are…

  9. Amps particle accelerator definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The Particle Accelerator System of the AMPS (Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas in Space) payload is a series of charged particle accelerators to be flown with the Space Transportation System Shuttle on Spacelab missions. In the configuration presented, the total particle accelerator system consists of an energetic electron beam, an energetic ion accelerator, and both low voltage and high voltage plasma acceleration devices. The Orbiter is illustrated with such a particle accelerator system.

  10. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  11. Designing reliability into accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, A.

    1992-07-01

    Future accelerators will have to provide a high degree of reliability. Quality must be designed in right from the beginning and must remain a central theme throughout the project. The problem is similar to the problems facing US industry today, and examples of the successful application of quality engineering will be given. Different aspects of an accelerator project will be addressed: Concept, Design, Motivation, Management Techniques, and Fault Diagnosis. The importance of creating and maintaining a coherent team will be stressed.

  12. Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, William

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) is an ongoing study of the small forces (vibrations and accelerations) on the ISS that result from the operation of hardware, crew activities, as well as dockings and maneuvering. Results will be used to generalize the types of vibrations affecting vibration-sensitive experiments. Investigators seek to better understand the vibration environment on the space station to enable future research.

  13. CEBAF Accelerator Achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Y. C.; Drury, M.; Hovater, C.; Hutton, A.; Krafft, G. A.; Poelker, M.; Reece, C.; Tiefenback, M.

    2011-05-01

    In the past decade, nuclear physics users of Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) have benefited from accelerator physics advances and machine improvements. As of early 2011, CEBAF operates routinely at 6 GeV, with a 12 GeV upgrade underway. This article reports highlights of CEBAF's scientific and technological evolution in the areas of cryomodule refurbishment, RF control, polarized source development, beam transport for parity experiments, magnets and hysteresis handling, beam breakup, and helium refrigerator operational optimization.

  14. Rolamite acceleration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Briner, Clifton F.; Martin, Samuel B.

    1993-01-01

    A rolamite acceleration sensor which has a failsafe feature including a housing, a pair of rollers, a tension band wrapped in an S shaped fashion around the rollers, wherein the band has a force-generation cut out and a failsafe cut out or weak portion. The failsafe cut out or weak portion breaks when the sensor is subjected to an excessive acceleration so that the sensor fails in an open circuit (non-conducting) state permanently.

  15. Rolamite acceleration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P.; Briner, C.F.; Martin, S.B.

    1993-12-21

    A rolamite acceleration sensor is described which has a failsafe feature including a housing, a pair of rollers, a tension band wrapped in an S shaped fashion around the rollers, wherein the band has a force-generation cut out and a failsafe cut out or weak portion. The failsafe cut out or weak portion breaks when the sensor is subjected to an excessive acceleration so that the sensor fails in an open circuit (non-conducting) state permanently. 6 figures.

  16. Collective field accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Luce, John S.

    1978-01-01

    A collective field accelerator which operates with a vacuum diode and utilizes a grooved cathode and a dielectric anode that operates with a relativistic electron beam with a .nu./.gamma. of .about. 1, and a plurality of dielectric lenses having an axial magnetic field thereabout to focus the collectively accelerated electrons and ions which are ejected from the anode. The anode and lenses operate as unoptimized r-f cavities which modulate and focus the beam.

  17. Accelerators for America's Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Mei

    2016-03-01

    Particle accelerator, a powerful tool to energize beams of charged particles to a desired speed and energy, has been the working horse for investigating the fundamental structure of matter and fundermental laws of nature. Most known examples are the 2-mile long Stanford Linear Accelerator at SLAC, the high energy proton and anti-proton collider Tevatron at FermiLab, and Large Hadron Collider that is currently under operation at CERN. During the less than a century development of accelerator science and technology that led to a dazzling list of discoveries, particle accelerators have also found various applications beyond particle and nuclear physics research, and become an indispensible part of the economy. Today, one can find a particle accelerator at almost every corner of our lives, ranging from the x-ray machine at the airport security to radiation diagnostic and therapy in hospitals. This presentation will give a brief introduction of the applications of this powerful tool in fundermental research as well as in industry. Challenges in accelerator science and technology will also be briefly presented

  18. Virtual Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, P.

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations playa central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simulated dialogues between code developers, thus sharing not only the code, but also the motivations behind the code.

  19. Kr II Laser-Induced Fluorescence for Measuring Plasma Acceleration (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    krypton as a diagnostic technique for quantifying the electrostatic acceleration within the discharge of a laboratory cross-field plasma accelerator...velocity as the krypton ions are accelerated from near rest to approximately 21 km/s (190 eV). Ion temperature and the ion velocity distributions...present the application of laser-induced fluorescence of singly ionized krypton as a diagnostic technique for quantifying the electrostatic acceleration

  20. Computational studies and optimization of wakefield accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Tsung, Frank S.; Bruhwiler, David L.; Cary, John R.; Esarey, Eric H.; Mori, Warren B.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Martins, Samuel F.; Katsouleas, Tom; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Fawley, William M.; Huang, Chengkun; Wang, Xiadong; Cowan, Ben; Decyk, Victor K.; Fonseca, Ricardo A.; Lu, Wei; Messmer, Peter; Mullowney, Paul; Nakamura, Kei; Paul, Kevin; Plateau, Guillaume R.; Schroeder, Carl B.; Silva, Luis O.; Toth, Csaba; Geddes, C.G.R.; Tzoufras, Michael; Antonsen, Tom; Vieira, Jorge; Leemans, Wim P.

    2008-06-16

    Laser- and particle beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerators produce accelerating fields thousands of times higher than radio-frequency accelerators, offering compactness and ultrafast bunches to extend the frontiers of high energy physics and to enable laboratory-scale radiation sources. Large-scale kinetic simulations provide essential understanding of accelerator physics to advance beam performance and stability and show and predict the physics behind recent demonstration of narrow energy spread bunches. Benchmarking between codes is establishing validity of the models used and, by testing new reduced models, is extending the reach of simulations to cover upcoming meter-scale multi-GeV experiments. This includes new models that exploit Lorentz boosted simulation frames to speed calculations. Simulations of experiments showed that recently demonstrated plasma gradient injection of electrons can be used as an injector to increase beam quality by orders of magnitude. Simulations are now also modeling accelerator stages of tens of GeV, staging of modules, and new positron sources to design next-generation experiments and to use in applications in high energy physics and light sources.

  1. Introductory labs on the vector nature of force and acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanim, Stephen E.; Subero, Keron

    2010-05-01

    We discuss the use of long-exposure digital photography in introductory mechanics laboratories. Students at New Mexico State University use inexpensive digital cameras to record the motion of objects with attached blinking light emitting diodes. These photographs are used to make inferences about the velocity and acceleration of the moving object. We use the analysis of these photographs to promote student understanding of the vector nature of kinematics quantities. In subsequent laboratories we build on this understanding to help students relate the acceleration vector for a moving object to the net force vector for that object. We give details about the equipment we use and describe the sequence of activities that we have developed for a two-dimensional motion laboratory and for a laboratory on Newton's second law. Finally we present some pre- and post-test data on questions related to the concepts underlying these laboratories.

  2. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1990-01-01

    The scope of the study is to investigate ways of controlling the microgravity environment of the International Space Station by means of a tethered system. Four main study tasks were performed. First, researchers analyzed the utilization of the tether systems to improve the lowest possible steady gravity level on the Space Station and the tether capability to actively control the center of gravity position in order to compensate for activities that would upset the mass distribution of the Station. The purpose of the second task was to evaluate the whole of the experiments performable in a variable gravity environment and the related beneficial residual accelerations, both for pure and applied research in the fields of fluid, materials, and life science, so as to assess the relevance of a variable g-level laboratory. The third task involves the Tethered Variable Gravity Laboratory. The use of the facility that would crawl along a deployed tether and expose experiments to varying intensities of reduced gravity is discussed. Last, a study performed on the Attitude Tether Stabilizer concept is discussed. The stabilization effect of ballast masses tethered to the Space Station was investigated as a means of assisting the attitude control system of the Station.

  3. Investigating Sea-Level Acceleration Along the East Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    A number of researchers have reported on accelerated sea level along the east coast of North America, particularly in the northeast. We have previously modeled sea-level rates and accelerations from the last half of the 20th and early 21st centuries inferred from tide gauges in this region using steric sea-level changes, gravitationally self-consistent sea-level changes that includes self-attraction and loading (SAL), and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). We have found that, whereas the spatial variability of sea-level rates is dominated by GIA, the observed accelerations are not explained by these processes. In this talk, we first further investigate the observed accelerations, which we took to be constant during the study period. We have found, however, some evidence that the accelerations began in the timeframe 1990-2000. For example, the figure below shows the root-mean-square (rms) residual after removing a best-fit model wherein the acceleration was zero before the indicated year, for the Boston tide gauge, having one of the longest tide-gauge records. The minimimum rms residual occurs in the year 2000. A Monte Carlo simulation (red curve) shows that no time-dependence is expected from white noise. Evaluation of the statistical significance of these results has been difficult, since the postfit residuals are dominated by interannual variability. We will utilize time-dependent models for dynamic sea-level changes (including steric changes), GIA. For the Greenland ice mass, we will combine estimates of Greenland ice-mass variability obtained from recent analyses of GRACE data with long-term climate models for Greenland (from, e.g., RACMO) to calculate long-term sea-level impact. Comparing these models with tide-gauge data will yield insights into the nature and timing of accelerated sea level in this region. We will also discuss the implciations of these models for long-term global sea-level change.

  4. Laboratory investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Ray W.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory studies related to cometary grains and the nuclei of comets can be broken down into three areas which relate to understanding the spectral properties, the formation mechanisms, and the evolution of grains and nuclei: (1) Spectral studies to be used in the interpretation of cometary spectra; (2) Sample preparation experiments which may shed light on the physical nature and history of cometary grains and nuclei by exploring the effects on grain emissivities resulting from the ways in which the samples are created; and (3) Grain processing experiments which should provide insight on the interaction of cometary grains with the environment in the immediate vicinity of the cometary nucleus as the comet travels from the Oort cloud through perihelion, and perhaps even suggestions regarding the relationship between interstellar grains and cometary matter. A summary is presented with a different view of lab experiments than is found in the literature, concentrating on measurement techniques and sample preparations especially relevant to cometary dust.

  5. Laser Ion Acceleration Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Shigeo; Nagashima, T.; Izumiyama, T.; Sato, D.; Takano, M.; Barada, D.; Ma, Y. Y.; Gu, Y. J.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Wang, W. M.

    2013-10-01

    An intense femtosecond pulsed laser is employed to accelerate ions. The issues in the laser ion accelerator include the energy efficiency from the laser to the ions, the ion beam collimation, the ion energy spectrum control, the ion beam bunching, the ion particle energy control, etc. In the study particle computer simulations were performed to solve the issues, and each component was designed to control the ion beam quality. When an intense laser illuminates a target, electrons in the target are accelerated and leave from the target; temporarily a strong electric field is formed between the high-energy electrons and the target ions, and the target ions are accelerated. The energy efficiency from the laser to ions was improved by using a solid target with a fine sub-wavelength structure or by a near critical density gas plasma. The ion beam collimation was realized by holes behind the solid target. The control of the ion energy spectrum and the ion particle energy, and the ion beam bunching were successfully realized by a multi-stage laser-target interaction. The present study proposed a novel concept for a future compact laser ion accelerator, based on each component study required to control the ion beam quality and parameters. Partly supported by JSPS, MEXT, CORE, Japan/US Cooperation program, ASHULA and ILE/Osaka University.

  6. Dielectric laser accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, R. Joel; Noble, Robert J.; Bane, Karl; Dowell, David H.; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Spencer, James E.; Tantawi, Sami; Wu, Ziran; Byer, Robert L.; Peralta, Edgar; Soong, Ken; Chang, Chia-Ming; Montazeri, Behnam; Wolf, Stephen J.; Cowan, Benjamin; Dawson, Jay; Gai, Wei; Hommelhoff, Peter; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Jing, Chunguang; McGuinness, Christopher; Palmer, Robert B.; Naranjo, Brian; Rosenzweig, James; Travish, Gil; Mizrahi, Amit; Schachter, Levi; Sears, Christopher; Werner, Gregory R.; Yoder, Rodney B.

    2014-10-01

    The use of infrared lasers to power optical-scale lithographically fabricated particle accelerators is a developing area of research that has garnered increasing interest in recent years. The physics and technology of this approach is reviewed, which is referred to as dielectric laser acceleration (DLA). In the DLA scheme operating at typical laser pulse lengths of 0.1 to 1 ps, the laser damage fluences for robust dielectric materials correspond to peak surface electric fields in the GV /m regime. The corresponding accelerating field enhancement represents a potential reduction in active length of the accelerator between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude. Power sources for DLA-based accelerators (lasers) are less costly than microwave sources (klystrons) for equivalent average power levels due to wider availability and private sector investment. Because of the high laser-to-particle coupling efficiency, required pulse energies are consistent with tabletop microJoule class lasers. Combined with the very high (MHz) repetition rates these lasers can provide, the DLA approach appears promising for a variety of applications, including future high-energy physics colliders, compact light sources, and portable medical scanners and radiative therapy machines.

  7. Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Aston, Graeme

    1989-01-01

    The Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) is a thruster concept which promises specific impulse levels between low power arcjets and those of the ion engine while retaining the relative simplicity of the arcjet. The EPA thruster produces thrust through the electrostatic acceleration of a moderately dense plasma. No accelerating electrodes are used and the specific impulse is a direct function of the applied discharge voltage and the propellant atomic mass. The goal of the present program is to demonstrate feasibility of the EPA thruster concept through experimental and theoretical investigations of the EPA acceleration mechanism and discharge chamber performance. Experimental investigations will include operating the test bed ion (TBI) engine as an EPA thruster and parametrically varying the thruster geometry and operating conditions to quantify the electrostatic plasma acceleration effect. The theoretical investigations will include the development of a discharge chamber model which describes the relationships between the engine size, plasma properties, and overall performance. For the EPA thruster to be a viable propulsion concept, overall thruster efficiencies approaching 30% with specific impulses approaching 1000 s must be achieved.

  8. Advanced accelerator theory development

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, S.E.; Houck, T.L.; Poole, B.; Tishchenko, N.; Vitello, P.A.; Wang, I.

    1998-02-09

    A new accelerator technology, the dielectric wall accelerator (DWA), is potentially an ultra compact accelerator/pulsed power driver. This new accelerator relies on three new components: the ultra-high gradient insulator, the asymmetric Blumlein and low jitter switches. In this report, we focused our attention on the first two components of the DWA system the insulators and the asymmetric Blumlein. First, we sought to develop the necessary design tools to model and scale the behavior of the high gradient insulator. To perform this task we concentrated on modeling the discharge processes (i.e., initiation and creation of the surface discharge). In addition, because these high gradient structures exhibit favorable microwave properties in certain accelerator configurations, we performed experiments and calculations to determine the relevant electromagnetic properties. Second, we performed circuit modeling to understand energy coupling to dynamic loads by the asymmetric Blumlein. Further, we have experimentally observed a non-linear coupling effect in certain asymmetric Blumlein configurations. That is, as these structures are stacked into a complete module, the output voltage does not sum linearly and a lower than expected output voltage results. Although we solved this effect experimentally, we performed calculations to understand this effect more fully to allow better optimization of this DWA pulse-forming line system.

  9. Summary report of working group 4: Beam-driven acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litos, M.; Jing, C.

    2017-03-01

    Despite the urgent need for a TeV-class linear collider in High-Energy Physics (HEP), a clear path to buildable and affordable accelerator technologies has yet to be realized. Clearly, the identification and advancement of next generation accelerator technologies for a linear collider have been one of the main charges since the inception of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) workshop. The fundamental requirements of linear colliders for accelerator technologies are to demonstrate high wall-plug efficiency, high beam quality preservation, high effective gradient, scalability, etc. Within the AAC community, beam-driven wakefield acceleration schemes (the central subject of Working Group 4) are always promising and attractive approaches. Since the last AAC workshop, a few high profile experiments related to beam-driven plasma wakefield acceleration have been conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory's FACET facility. These experiments have successfully answered questions related to obtaining high beam energy transfer efficiency, demonstrating high gradient positron acceleration, and demonstrating high quality witness beam acceleration. Research on beam-driven structure-based wakefield acceleration has also demonstrated significant results for high gradient acceleration, including longitudinal bunch shaping for high efficiency and beam breakup control. As an important application or a stepping-stone facility, beam-driven plasma or structure-based wakefield accelerators for 5th generation FEL light sources have attracted broad attention. Studies have been undertaken on various aspects, ranging from the overall parameterizations to detailed beam generation and control technologies. Other related applications, such as high power RF and THz generation, beam modulation and energy chirp compensation, are also within the scope of our Working Group. In summary, WG4 examined the advancement of beam-driven wakefield accelerators (plasma and structure-based) in

  10. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Carl B.

    1999-12-01

    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas.

  11. HF Accelerated Electron Fluxes, Spectra, and Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Herbert C.; Jensen, Joseph B.

    2015-10-01

    Wave particle interactions, an essential aspect of laboratory, terrestrial, and astrophysical plasmas, have been studied for decades by transmitting high power HF radio waves into Earth's weakly ionized space plasma, to use it as a laboratory without walls. Application to HF electron acceleration remains an active area of research (Gurevich in Usp Fizicheskikh Nauk 177(11):1145-1177, 2007) today. HF electron acceleration studies began when plasma line observations proved (Carlson et al. in J Atmos Terr Phys 44:1089-1100, 1982) that high power HF radio wave-excited processes accelerated electrons not to ~eV, but instead to -100 times thermal energy (10 s of eV), as a consequence of inelastic collision effects on electron transport. Gurevich et al (J Atmos Terr Phys 47:1057-1070, 1985) quantified the theory of this transport effect. Merging experiment with theory in plasma physics and aeronomy, enabled prediction (Carlson in Adv Space Res 13:1015-1024, 1993) of creating artificial ionospheres once ~GW HF effective radiated power could be achieved. Eventual confirmation of this prediction (Pedersen et al. in Geophys Res Lett 36:L18107, 2009; Pedersen et al. in Geophys Res Lett 37:L02106, 2010; Blagoveshchenskaya et al. in Ann Geophys 27:131-145, 2009) sparked renewed interest in optical inversion to estimate electron spectra in terrestrial (Hysell et al. in J Geophys Res Space Phys 119:2038-2045, 2014) and planetary (Simon et al. in Ann Geophys 29:187-195, 2011) atmospheres. Here we present our unpublished optical data, which combined with our modeling, lead to conclusions that should meaningfully improve future estimates of the spectrum of HF accelerated electron fluxes. Photometric imaging data can significantly improve detection of emissions near ionization threshold, and confirm depth of penetration of accelerated electrons many km below the excitation altitude. Comparing observed to modeled emission altitude shows future experiments need electron density profiles

  12. Perturbations for transient acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Cristofher Zuñiga; Zimdahl, Winfried; Hipólito-Ricaldi, Wiliam S. E-mail: hipolito@ceunes.ufes.br

    2012-04-01

    According to the standard ΛCDM model, the accelerated expansion of the Universe will go on forever. Motivated by recent observational results, we explore the possibility of a finite phase of acceleration which asymptotically approaches another period of decelerated expansion. Extending an earlier study on a corresponding homogeneous and isotropic dynamics, in which interactions between dark matter and dark energy are crucial, the present paper also investigates the dynamics of the matter perturbations both on the Newtonian and General Relativistic (GR) levels and quantifies the potential relevance of perturbations of the dark-energy component. In the background, the model is tested against the Supernova type Ia (SNIa) data of the Constitution set and on the perturbative level against growth rate data, among them those of the WiggleZ survey, and the data of the 2dFGRS project. Our results indicate that a transient phase of accelerated expansion is not excluded by current observations.

  13. Uniform acceleration in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Yaakov; Scarr, Tzvi

    2015-10-01

    We extend de la Fuente and Romero's (Gen Relativ Gravit 47:33, 2015) defining equation for uniform acceleration in a general curved spacetime from linear acceleration to the full Lorentz covariant uniform acceleration. In a flat spacetime background, we have explicit solutions. We use generalized Fermi-Walker transport to parallel transport the Frenet basis along the trajectory. In flat spacetime, we obtain velocity and acceleration transformations from a uniformly accelerated system to an inertial system. We obtain the time dilation between accelerated clocks. We apply our acceleration transformations to the motion of a charged particle in a constant electromagnetic field and recover the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation.

  14. Galactic Cosmic Ray Simulator at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Rusek, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The external Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) spectrum is significantly modified when it passes through spacecraft shielding and astronauts. One approach for simulating the GCR space radiation environment is to attempt to reproduce the unmodified, external GCR spectrum at a ground based accelerator. A possibly better approach would use the modified, shielded tissue spectrum, to select accelerator beams impinging on biological targets. NASA plans for implementation of a GCR simulator at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory will be discussed.

  15. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Robb M.; Shul, Randy J.; Polosky, Marc A.; Hoke, Darren A.; Vernon, George E.

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  16. Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baring, Matthew

    2003-04-01

    The process of diffusive acceleration of charged particles in shocked plasmas is widely invoked in astrophysics to account for the ubiquitous presence of signatures of non-thermal relativistic electrons and ions in the universe. This statistical energization mechanism, manifested in turbulent media, was first posited by Enrico Fermi in 1949 to explain the observed cosmic ray population, which exhibits an almost power-law distribution in rigidity. The absence of a momentum scale is a key characteristic of diffusive shock acceleration, and astrophysical systems generally only impose scales at the injection (low energy) and loss (high energy) ends of the particle spectrum. The existence of structure in the cosmic ray spectrum (the "knee") at around 3000 TeV has promoted contentions that there are at least two origins for cosmic rays, a galactic one supplying those up to the knee, and perhaps an extragalactic one that can explain even the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) seen at 1-300 EeV. Accounting for the UHECRs with familiar astrophysical sites of acceleration has historically proven difficult due to the need to assume high magnetic fields in order to reduce the shortest diffusive acceleration timescale, the ion gyroperiod, to meaningful values. Yet active galaxies and gamma-ray bursts remain strong and interesting candidate sources for UHECRs, turning the theoretical focus to relativistic shocks. This review summarizes properties of diffusive shock acceleration that are salient to the issue of UHECR generation. These include spectral indices, anisotropies, acceleration efficencies and timescales, as functions of the shock speed and mean field orientation, and also the degree of field turbulence. Astrophysical sites for UHECR production are also critiqued.

  17. 'Light Sail' Acceleration Reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Macchi, Andrea; Veghini, Silvia; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2009-08-21

    The dynamics of the acceleration of ultrathin foil targets by the radiation pressure of superintense, circularly polarized laser pulses is investigated by analytical modeling and particle-in-cell simulations. By addressing self-induced transparency and charge separation effects, it is shown that for 'optimal' values of the foil thickness only a thin layer at the rear side is accelerated by radiation pressure. The simple 'light sail' model gives a good estimate of the energy per nucleon, but overestimates the conversion efficiency of laser energy into monoenergetic ions.

  18. "Light sail" acceleration reexamined.

    PubMed

    Macchi, Andrea; Veghini, Silvia; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2009-08-21

    The dynamics of the acceleration of ultrathin foil targets by the radiation pressure of superintense, circularly polarized laser pulses is investigated by analytical modeling and particle-in-cell simulations. By addressing self-induced transparency and charge separation effects, it is shown that for "optimal" values of the foil thickness only a thin layer at the rear side is accelerated by radiation pressure. The simple "light sail" model gives a good estimate of the energy per nucleon, but overestimates the conversion efficiency of laser energy into monoenergetic ions.

  19. High intensity hadron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-05-01

    This rapporteur report consists mainly of two parts. Part I is an abridged review of the status of all High Intensity Hadron Accelerator projects in the world in semi-tabulated form for quick reference and comparison. Part II is a brief discussion of the salient features of the different technologies involved. The discussion is based mainly on my personal experiences and opinions, tempered, I hope, by the discussions I participated in in the various parallel sessions of the workshop. In addition, appended at the end is my evaluation and expression of the merits of high intensity hadron accelerators as research facilities for nuclear and particle physics.

  20. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory catalog of research projects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Research from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is briefly presented. Topics include: (1) Applied Science; (2) Chemical Sciences; (3) Earth Sciences; (4) Materials Sciences; (5) Accelerator and Fusion Research; (6) Nuclear Science; (7) Physics; (8) Cell and Molecular Biology; (9) Chemical Biodynamics; (10) Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics; (11) Engineering; (12) Environmental Protection, Health and Safety; and (13) Information and Computing Sciences. (WET)

  1. Laboratory source of synchrotron radiation: TROLL-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anevsky, S. I.; Vernyi, A. E.; Panasjuk, V. S.; Khromchenko, V. B.

    1987-11-01

    A laboratory synchrotron radiation (SR) source TROLL-2 is described. Its main parameters are as follows: the energy of the accelerated particles = 24 MeV; the orbit radius = 20 mm; the SR pulse half-width = 2 ms, the maximum spectral radiant power (at λ = 350 nm) = 1.2×10 6 W/m.

  2. Collaboration tools for the global accelerator network: Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Deborah; Olson, Gary; Olson, Judy

    2002-09-15

    The concept of a ''Global Accelerator Network'' (GAN) has been put forward as a means for inter-regional collaboration in the operation of internationally constructed and operated frontier accelerator facilities. A workshop was held to allow representatives of the accelerator community and of the collaboratory development community to meet and discuss collaboration tools for the GAN environment. This workshop, called the Collaboration Tools for the Global Accelerator Network (GAN) Workshop, was held on August 26, 2002 at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The goal was to provide input about collaboration tools in general and to provide a strawman for the GAN collaborative tools environment. The participants at the workshop represented accelerator physicists, high-energy physicists, operations, technology tool developers, and social scientists that study scientific collaboration.

  3. Effect of gasoline octane quality on vehicle acceleration performance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    A study was conducted under the auspices of the Coordinating Research Council, Inc. (CRC) to assess the potential effects of gasoline octane quality on vehicle acceleration performance. Twelve participating laboratories, representing both the oil and the automotive industries, tested a total of 182 vehicles as part of the 1989 CRC Octane Number Requirement Survey. The vehicles consisted of 78 with electronic knock control systems and 104 without. All testing was performed using the 1989/1990 CRC FBRU fuel series. The results showed that acceleration performance of vehicles with knock sensors was significantly affected by gasoline octane quality. Octane effects on acceleration performance were most pronounced at maximum-throttle (detent) conditions and at octane levels below the vehicles' octane requirements; however, some knock-sensor vehicles did show improved acceleration performance with fuels at octane levels above the octane number requirement. Acceleration performance in non-knock sensor vehicles was unaffected by octane quality.

  4. High transformer ratio drive beams for wakefield accelerator studies

    SciTech Connect

    England, R. J.; Ng, C.-K.; Frederico, J.; Hogan, M. J.; Litos, M.; Muggli, P.; Joshi, C.; An, W.; Andonian, G.; Mori, W.; Lu, W.

    2012-12-21

    For wakefield based acceleration schemes, use of an asymmetric (or linearly ramped) drive bunch current profile has been predicted to enhance the transformer ratio and generate large accelerating wakes. We discuss plans and initial results for producing such bunches using the 20 to 23 GeV electron beam at the FACET facility at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and sending them through plasmas and dielectric tubes to generate transformer ratios greater than 2 (the limit for symmetric bunches). The scheme proposed utilizes the final FACET chicane compressor and transverse collimation to shape the longitudinal phase space of the beam.

  5. Miniature penetrator (MinPen) acceleration recorder development test

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, R.J.; Platzbecker, M.R.

    1998-08-01

    The Telemetry Technology Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories actively develops and tests acceleration recorders for penetrating weapons. This new acceleration recorder (MinPen) utilizes a microprocessor-based architecture for operational flexibility while maintaining electronics and packaging techniques developed over years of penetrator testing. MinPen has been demonstrated to function in shock environments up to 20,000 Gs. The MinPen instrumentation development has resulted in a rugged, versatile, miniature acceleration recorder and is a valuable tool for penetrator testing in a wide range of applications.

  6. Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, Juan; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    Fusion materials research is a worldwide endeavor as old as the parallel one working toward the long term stable confinement of ignited plasma. In a fusion reactor, the preservation of the required minimum thermomechanical properties of the in-vessel components exposed to the severe irradiation and heat flux conditions is an indispensable factor for safe operation; it is also an essential goal for the economic viability of fusion. Energy from fusion power will be extracted from the 14 MeV neutron freed as a product of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions; thus, this kinetic energy must be absorbed and efficiently evacuated and electricity eventually generated by the conventional methods of a thermal power plant. Worldwide technological efforts to understand the degradation of materials exposed to 14 MeV neutron fluxes >1018 m-2s-1, as expected in future fusion power plants, have been intense over the last four decades. Existing neutron sources can reach suitable dpa (“displacement-per-atom”, the figure of merit to assess materials degradation from being exposed to neutron irradiation), but the differences in the neutron spectrum of fission reactors and spallation sources do not allow one to unravel the physics and to anticipate the degradation of materials exposed to fusion neutrons. Fusion irradiation conditions can be achieved through Li (d, xn) nuclear reactions with suitable deuteron beam current and energy, and an adequate flowing lithium screen. This idea triggered in the late 1970s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) a campaign working toward the feasibility of continuous wave (CW) high current linacs framed by the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project. These efforts continued with the Low Energy Demonstrating Accelerator (LEDA) (a validating prototype of the canceled Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project), which was proposed in 2002 to the fusion community as a 6.7MeV, 100mA CW beam injector for a Li (d, xn) source to bridge

  7. Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, Juan; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    Fusion materials research is a worldwide endeavor as old as the parallel one working toward the long term stable confinement of ignited plasma. In a fusion reactor, the preservation of the required minimum thermomechanical properties of the in-vessel components exposed to the severe irradiation and heat flux conditions is an indispensable factor for safe operation; it is also an essential goal for the economic viability of fusion. Energy from fusion power will be extracted from the 14 MeV neutron freed as a product of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions; thus, this kinetic energy must be absorbed and efficiently evacuated and electricity eventually generated by the conventional methods of a thermal power plant. Worldwide technological efforts to understand the degradation of materials exposed to 14 MeV neutron fluxes > 1018 m-2s-1, as expected in future fusion power plants, have been intense over the last four decades. Existing neutron sources can reach suitable dpa ("displacement-per-atom", the figure of merit to assess materials degradation from being exposed to neutron irradiation), but the differences in the neutron spectrum of fission reactors and spallation sources do not allow one to unravel the physics and to anticipate the degradation of materials exposed to fusion neutrons. Fusion irradiation conditions can be achieved through Li (d, xn) nuclear reactions with suitable deuteron beam current and energy, and an adequate flowing lithium screen. This idea triggered in the late 1970s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) a campaign working toward the feasibility of continuous wave (CW) high current linacs framed by the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project. These efforts continued with the Low Energy Demonstrating Accelerator (LEDA) (a validating prototype of the canceled Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project), which was proposed in 2002 to the fusion community as a 6.7MeV, 100mA CW beam injector for a Li (d, xn) source to bridge

  8. Timescale Correlation between Marine Atmospheric Exposure and Accelerated Corrosion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran, Jerone C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of metal-based structures has long relied on atmospheric exposure test sites to determine corrosion resistance in marine environments. Traditional accelerated corrosion testing relies on mimicking the exposure conditions, often incorporating salt spray and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and exposing the metal to continuous or cyclic conditions of the corrosive environment. Their success for correlation to atmospheric exposure is often a concern when determining the timescale to which the accelerated tests can be related. Accelerated laboratory testing, which often focuses on the electrochemical reactions that occur during corrosion conditions, has yet to be universally accepted as a useful tool in predicting the long term service life of a metal despite its ability to rapidly induce corrosion. Although visual and mass loss methods of evaluating corrosion are the standard and their use is imperative, a method that correlates timescales from atmospheric exposure to accelerated testing would be very valuable. This work uses surface chemistry to interpret the chemical changes occurring on low carbon steel during atmospheric and accelerated corrosion conditions with the objective of finding a correlation between its accelerated and long-term corrosion performance. The current results of correlating data from marine atmospheric exposure conditions at the Kennedy Space Center beachside corrosion test site, alternating seawater spray, and immersion in typical electrochemical laboratory conditions, will be presented. Key words: atmospheric exposure, accelerated corrosion testing, alternating seawater spray, marine, correlation, seawater, carbon steel, long-term corrosion performance prediction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  9. Accelerator technology program. Progress report, January-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, E.A.; Jameson, R.A.

    1982-05-01

    This report covers the activities of Los Alamos National Laboratory's Accelerator Technology Division during the first 6 months of calendar 1981. We discuss the Division's major projects, which reflect a variety of applications and sponsors. The varied technologies concerned with the Proton Storage ring are concerned with the Proton Storage Ring are continuing and are discussed in detail. For the racetrack microtron (RTM) project, the major effort has been the design and construction of the demonstration RTM. Our development of the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator continues to stimulate interest for many possible applications. Frequent contacts from other laboratories have revealed a wide acceptance of the RFQ principle in solving low-velocity acceleration problems. In recent work on heavy ion fusion we have developed ideas for funneling beams from RFQ linacs; the funneling process is explained. To test as many aspects as possible of a fully integrated low-energy portion of a Pion generator for Medical Irradiation (PIGMI) Accelerator, a prototype accelerator was designed to take advantage of several pieces of existing accelerator hardware. The important principles to be tested in this prototype accelerator are detailed. Our prototype gyrocon has been extensively tested and modified; we discuss results from our investigations. Our work with the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility is reviewed in this report.

  10. Radioisotope Dating with Accelerators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Richard A.

    1979-01-01

    Explains a new method of detecting radioactive isotopes by counting their accelerated ions rather than the atoms that decay during the counting period. This method increases the sensitivity by several orders of magnitude, and allows one to find the ages of much older and smaller samples. (GA)

  11. Accelerated Management Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn, Kenn

    1974-01-01

    Western Electric's accelerated management development program for hand picked college graduate students consists of a high risk training project in which the management candidate accomplishes his task or is terminated. The success of such projects puts candidates in third level management in seven years or half the normal time. (DS)

  12. FPGA Verification Accelerator (FVAX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, Jane; Burke, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Is Verification Acceleration Possible? - Increasing the visibility of the internal nodes of the FPGA results in much faster debug time - Forcing internal signals directly allows a problem condition to be setup very quickly center dot Is this all? - No, this is part of a comprehensive effort to improve the JPL FPGA design and V&V process.

  13. Combined generating-accelerating buncher for compact linear accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, E. A.; Matsievskiy, S. V.; Sobenin, N. P.; Sokolov, I. D.; Zavadtsev, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    Described in the previous article [1] method of the power extraction from the modulated electron beam has been applied to the compact standing wave electron linear accelerator feeding system, which doesnt require any connection waveguides between the power source and the accelerator itself [2]. Generating and accelerating bunches meet in the hybrid accelerating cell operating at TM020 mode, thus the accelerating module is placed on the axis of the generating module, which consists from the pulsed high voltage electron sources and electrons dumps. This combination makes the accelerator very compact in size which is very valuable for the modern applications such as portable inspection sources. Simulations and geometry cold tests are presented.

  14. Negative hydrogen ion sources for accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Moehs, D.P.; Peters, J.; Sherman, J.; /Los Alamos

    2005-08-01

    A variety of H{sup -} ion sources are in use at accelerator laboratories around the world. A list of these ion sources includes surface plasma sources with magnetron, Penning and surface converter geometries as well as magnetic-multipole volume sources with and without cesium. Just as varied is the means of igniting and maintaining magnetically confined plasmas. Hot and cold cathodes, radio frequency, and microwave power are all in use, as well as electron tandem source ignition. The extraction systems of accelerator H{sup -} ion sources are highly specialized utilizing magnetic and electric fields in their low energy beam transport systems to produce direct current, as well as pulsed and/or chopped beams with a variety of time structures. Within this paper, specific ion sources utilized at accelerator laboratories shall be reviewed along with the physics of surface and volume H{sup -} production in regard to source emittance. Current research trends including aperture modeling, thermal modeling, surface conditioning, and laser diagnostics will also be discussed.

  15. Report on accelerated corrosion studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Mowry, Curtis Dale; Glass, Sarah Jill; Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2011-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted accelerated atmospheric corrosion testing for the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to help further the understanding of the development of corrosion products on conductor materials in household electrical components exposed to environmental conditions representative of homes constructed with problem drywall. The conditions of the accelerated testing were chosen to produce corrosion product growth that would be consistent with long-term exposure to environments containing humidity and parts per billion (ppb) levels of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) that are thought to have been the source of corrosion in electrical components from affected homes. This report documents the test set-up, monitoring of electrical performance of powered electrical components during the exposure, and the materials characterization conducted on wires, screws, and contact plates from selected electrical components. No degradation in electrical performance (measured via voltage drop) was measured during the course of the 8-week exposure, which was approximately equivalent to 40 years of exposure in a light industrial environment. Analyses show that corrosion products consisting of various phases of copper sulfide, copper sulfate, and copper oxide are found on exposed surfaces of the conductor materials including wires, screws, and contact plates. The morphology and the thickness of the corrosion products showed a range of character. In some of the copper wires that were observed, corrosion product had flaked or spalled off the surface, exposing fresh metal to the reaction with the contaminant gasses; however, there was no significant change in the wire cross-sectional area.

  16. Stirling laboratory research engine survey report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. W.; Hoehn, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    As one step in expanding the knowledge relative to and accelerating the development of Stirling engines, NASA, through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is sponsoring a program which will lead to a versatile Stirling Laboratory Research Engine (SLRE). An objective of this program is to lay the groundwork for a commercial version of this engine. It is important to consider, at an early stage in the engine's development, the needs of the potential users so that the SLRE can support the requirements of educators and researchers in academic, industrial, and government laboratories. For this reason, a survey was performed, the results of which are described.

  17. Neurodegeneration in accelerated aging.

    PubMed

    Scheibye-Knudsen, Moren

    2016-11-01

    The growing proportion of elderly people represents an increasing economic burden, not least because of age-associated diseases that pose a significant cost to the health service. Finding possible interventions to age-associated disorders therefore have wide ranging implications. A number of genetically defined accelerated aging diseases have been characterized that can aid in our understanding of aging. Interestingly, all these diseases are associated with defects in the maintenance of our genome. A subset of these disorders, Cockayne syndrome, Xeroderma pigmentosum group A and ataxia-telangiectasia, show neurological involvement reminiscent of what is seen in primary human mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondria are the power plants of the cells converting energy stored in oxygen, sugar, fat, and protein into ATP, the energetic currency of our body. Emerging evidence has linked this organelle to aging and finding mitochondrial dysfunction in accelerated aging disorders thereby strengthens the mitochondrial theory of aging. This theory states that an accumulation of damage to the mitochondria may underlie the process of aging. Indeed, it appears that some accelerated aging disorders that show neurodegeneration also have mitochondrial dysfunction. The mitochondrial alterations may be secondary to defects in nuclear DNA repair. Indeed, nuclear DNA damage may lead to increased energy consumption, alterations in mitochondrial ATP production and defects in mitochondrial recycling, a term called mitophagy. These changes may be caused by activation of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1 (PARP1), an enzyme that responds to DNA damage. Upon activation PARP1 utilizes key metabolites that attenuate pathways that are normally protective for the cell. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 or reconstitution of the metabolites rescues the changes caused by PARP1 hyperactivation and in many cases reverse the phenotypes associated with accelerated aging. This implies that modulation

  18. Menopause accelerates biological aging

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Morgan E.; Lu, Ake T.; Chen, Brian H.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bandinelli, Stefania; Salfati, Elias; Manson, JoAnn E.; Quach, Austin; Kusters, Cynthia D. J.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Teschendorff, Andrew E.; Widschwendter, Martin; Ritz, Beate R.; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Horvath, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Although epigenetic processes have been linked to aging and disease in other systems, it is not yet known whether they relate to reproductive aging. Recently, we developed a highly accurate epigenetic biomarker of age (known as the “epigenetic clock”), which is based on DNA methylation levels. Here we carry out an epigenetic clock analysis of blood, saliva, and buccal epithelium using data from four large studies: the Women's Health Initiative (n = 1,864); Invecchiare nel Chianti (n = 200); Parkinson's disease, Environment, and Genes (n = 256); and the United Kingdom Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (n = 790). We find that increased epigenetic age acceleration in blood is significantly associated with earlier menopause (P = 0.00091), bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0018), and a longer time since menopause (P = 0.017). Conversely, epigenetic age acceleration in buccal epithelium and saliva do not relate to age at menopause; however, a higher epigenetic age in saliva is exhibited in women who undergo bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0079), while a lower epigenetic age in buccal epithelium was found for women who underwent menopausal hormone therapy (P = 0.00078). Using genetic data, we find evidence of coheritability between age at menopause and epigenetic age acceleration in blood. Using Mendelian randomization analysis, we find that two SNPs that are highly associated with age at menopause exhibit a significant association with epigenetic age acceleration. Overall, our Mendelian randomization approach and other lines of evidence suggest that menopause accelerates epigenetic aging of blood, but mechanistic studies will be needed to dissect cause-and-effect relationships further. PMID:27457926

  19. Good laboratory practice and laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J; McQuaker, N

    1993-12-01

    Principles of good laboratory practice (GLP) and laboratory accreditation programs, particularly as they pertain to the environmental sector, are reviewed. The multitude of programs is proving costly for many laboratories and there is mounting pressure to develop reciprocity agreements between programs and to consolidate nationally and internationally. Inclusion of GLP and laboratory accreditation requirements in government regulations is resulting in a significantly increased number of laboratories participating in these programs.

  20. Stacked insulator induction accelerator gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, T.I.; Westenskow, G.A.; Kim, J.S.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.S.; Vanecek, D.

    1997-05-01

    Stacked insulators, with alternating layers of insulating material and conducting film, have been shown to support high surface electrical field stresses. We have investigated the application of the stacked insulator technology to the design of induction accelerator modules for the Relativistic-Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator program. The rf properties of the accelerating gaps using stacked insulators, particularly the impedance at frequencies above the beam pipe cutoff frequency, are investigated. Low impedance is critical for Relativistic-Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator applications where a high current, bunched beam is trsnsported through many accelerating gaps. An induction accelerator module designs using a stacked insulator is presented.

  1. Advanced Accelerator Concepts: Seventh Workshop. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, S.; McCullough, J.; Dahl, P.

    1997-09-01

    These proceedings are based on the Seventh Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts held in October, 1996 at Lake Tahoe, California. This workshop was sponsored by the US Department of Energy(High Energy Physics Division, Advanced Technology Branch) and by the center for Beam Physics at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory of the University of California. A wide range of applications was covered at the workshop, from high energy colliders to synchrotron radiation sources. This scope included topics such as new methods of particle acceleration, production of ultrahigh gradient electromagnetic fields, diagnostics and control of particle/photon beams in ultrashort dimensions and ultrafast time scales, and various energy and beam sources. There were 87 papers presented at the workshop and out of these, 65 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  2. Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obayashi, Tatsuzo

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) on the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) mission, is to carry out active and interactive experiments on and in the earth's ionosphere, atmosphere, and magnetosphere. The instruments to be used are an electron beam accelerator (EBA), plasma contactor, and associated instruments the purpose of which is to perform diagnostic, monitoring, and general data taking functions. Four major classes of investigations are to be performed by SEPAC. They are: beam plasma physics, beam-atmosphere interactions, the use of modulated electron beams as transmitting antennas, and the use of electron beams for remote sensing of electric and magnetic fields. The first class consists mainly of onboard plasma physics experiments to measure the effects of phenomena in the vicinity of the shuttle. The last three are concerned with remote effects and are supported by other ATLAS 1 investigations as well as by ground-based observations.

  3. Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Lin, C.; Sokollik, T.; Smith, A.; Rodgers, D.; Donahue, R.; Bryne, W.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-06-01

    The electron energy dependence of a scintillating screen (Lanex Fast) was studied with sub-nanosecond electron beams ranging from 106 MeV to 1522 MeV at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron booster accelerator. The sensitivity of the Lanex Fast decreased by 1percent per 100 MeV increase of the energy. The linear response of the screen against the charge was verified with charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm2 and 0.4 pC/ps/mm2, respectively. For electron beams from the laser plasma accelerator, a comprehensive study of charge diagnostics has been performed using a Lanex screen, an integrating current transformer, and an activation based measurement. The charge measured by each diagnostic was found to be within +/-10 percent.

  4. Review of ion accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.

    1990-06-01

    The field of ion acceleration to higher energies has grown rapidly in the last years. Many new facilities as well as substantial upgrades of existing facilities have extended the mass and energy range of available beams. Perhaps more significant for the long-term development of the field has been the expansion in the applications of these beams, and the building of facilities dedicated to areas outside of nuclear physics. This review will cover many of these new developments. Emphasis will be placed on accelerators with final energies above 50 MeV/amu. Facilities such as superconducting cyclotrons and storage rings are adequately covered in other review papers, and so will not be covered here.

  5. Accelerator research studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the first year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams, TASK B, Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams; TASK C, Study of a Gyroklystron High-power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders. In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks.

  6. Commissioning the GTA accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sander, O.R.; Atkins, W.H.; Bolme, G.O.; Bowling, S.; Brown, S.; Cole, R.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Garnett, R.; Guy, F.W.; Ingalls, W.B.; Johnson, K.F.; Kerstiens, D.; Little, C.; Lohsen, R.A.; Lloyd, S.; Lysenko, W.P.; Mottershead, C.T.; Neuschaefer, G.; Power, J.; Rusthoi, D.P.; Sandoval, D.P. Stevens, R.R. Jr.; Vaughn, G.; Wadlinger, E.A.; Yuan, V.; Connolly, R.; Weiss, R.; Saadatmand, K.

    1992-09-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) is supported by the Strategic Defense command as part of their Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program. Neutral particles have the advantage that in space they are unaffected by the earth`s magnetic field and travel in straight lines unless they enter the earth`s atmosphere and become charged by stripping. Heavy particles are difficult to stop and can probe the interior of space vehicles; hence, NPB can function as a discriminator between warheads and decoys. We are using GTA to resolve the physics and engineering issues related to accelerating, focusing, and steering a high-brightness, high-current H{sup -} beam and then neutralizing it. Our immediate goal is to produce a 24-MeV, 50mA device with a 2% duty factor.

  7. Commissioning the GTA accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sander, O.R.; Atkins, W.H.; Bolme, G.O.; Bowling, S.; Brown, S.; Cole, R.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Garnett, R.; Guy, F.W.; Ingalls, W.B.; Johnson, K.F.; Kerstiens, D.; Little, C.; Lohsen, R.A.; Lloyd, S.; Lysenko, W.P.; Mottershead, C.T.; Neuschaefer, G.; Power, J.; Rusthoi, D.P.; Sandoval, D.P. Stevens, R.R. Jr.; Vaughn, G.; Wadlinger, E.A.; Yuan, V. ); Connolly, R.; Weiss, R. (Gr

    1992-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) is supported by the Strategic Defense command as part of their Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program. Neutral particles have the advantage that in space they are unaffected by the earth's magnetic field and travel in straight lines unless they enter the earth's atmosphere and become charged by stripping. Heavy particles are difficult to stop and can probe the interior of space vehicles; hence, NPB can function as a discriminator between warheads and decoys. We are using GTA to resolve the physics and engineering issues related to accelerating, focusing, and steering a high-brightness, high-current H{sup -} beam and then neutralizing it. Our immediate goal is to produce a 24-MeV, 50mA device with a 2% duty factor.

  8. Auroral ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalimov, S. L.

    From the altitude of 500 km to 15 R sub E everywhere conic like distributions of H+, O+, He+ ions are moving upwards from the ionosphere along the geomagnetic field lines in the auroral zone. The distributed ions suggest the existence of ion transverse acceleration mechanisms (ITAM) acting below the observation point. The more plausible mechanisms are connected with the resonance of the type wave particle between ions and the observed EIC and LH waves and are also due to the existence of the local transverse electric fields in the ionoshere and the magnetosphere. The known ion transverse acceleration mechanisms were complemented by new results. The conical distributions of ionospheric ions at different altitudes in the auroral zone are pointed out.

  9. Review of accelerator instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrin, J.L.

    1980-05-01

    Some of the problems associated with the monitoring of accelerator beams, particularly storage rings' beams, are reviewed along with their most common solutions. The various electrode structures used for the measurement of beam current, beam position, and the detection of the bunches' transverse oscillations, yield pulses with sub-nanosecond widths. The electronics for the processing of these short pulses involves wide band techniques and circuits usually not readily available from industry or the integrated circuit market: passive or active, successive integrations, linear gating, sample-and-hold circuits with nanosecond acquisition time, etc. This report also presents the work performed recently for monitoring the ultrashort beams of colliding linear accelerators or single-pass colliders. To minimize the beam emittance, the beam position must be measured with a high resolution, and digitized on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Experimental results obtained with the Stanford two-mile Linac single bunches are included.

  10. Hardware Accelerated Simulated Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Laney, D; Callahan, S; Max, N; Silva, C; Langer, S; Frank, R

    2005-04-12

    We present the application of hardware accelerated volume rendering algorithms to the simulation of radiographs as an aid to scientists designing experiments, validating simulation codes, and understanding experimental data. The techniques presented take advantage of 32 bit floating point texture capabilities to obtain validated solutions to the radiative transport equation for X-rays. An unsorted hexahedron projection algorithm is presented for curvilinear hexahedra that produces simulated radiographs in the absorption-only regime. A sorted tetrahedral projection algorithm is presented that simulates radiographs of emissive materials. We apply the tetrahedral projection algorithm to the simulation of experimental diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion experiments on a laser at the University of Rochester. We show that the hardware accelerated solution is faster than the current technique used by scientists.

  11. Adaptive control for accelerators

    DOEpatents

    Eaton, Lawrie E.; Jachim, Stephen P.; Natter, Eckard F.

    1991-01-01

    An adaptive feedforward control loop is provided to stabilize accelerator beam loading of the radio frequency field in an accelerator cavity during successive pulses of the beam into the cavity. A digital signal processor enables an adaptive algorithm to generate a feedforward error correcting signal functionally determined by the feedback error obtained by a beam pulse loading the cavity after the previous correcting signal was applied to the cavity. Each cavity feedforward correcting signal is successively stored in the digital processor and modified by the feedback error resulting from its application to generate the next feedforward error correcting signal. A feedforward error correcting signal is generated by the digital processor in advance of the beam pulse to enable a composite correcting signal and the beam pulse to arrive concurrently at the cavity.

  12. Pulsed electromagnetic gas acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, R. G.; Vonjaskowsky, W. F.; Clark, K. E.

    1971-01-01

    Experimental data were combined with one-dimensional conservation relations to yield information on the energy deposition ratio in a parallel-plate accelerator, where the downstream flow was confined to a constant area channel. Approximately 70% of the total input power was detected in the exhaust flow, of which only about 20% appeared as directed kinetic energy, thus implying that a downstream expansion to convert chamber enthalpy into kinetic energy must be an important aspect of conventional high power MPD arcs. Spectroscopic experiments on a quasi-steady MPD argon accelerator verified the presence of A(III) and the absence of A(I), and indicated an azimuthal structure in the jet related to the mass injection locations. Measurements of pressure in the arc chamber and impact pressure in the exhaust jet using a piezocrystal backed by a Plexiglas rod were in good agreement with the electromagnetic thrust model.

  13. Pulsed Drift Tube Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Faltens, A.

    2004-10-25

    The pulsed drift-tube accelerator (DTA) concept was revived by Joe Kwan and John Staples and is being considered for the HEDP/WDM application. It could be used to reach the full energy or as an intermediate accelerator between the diode and a high gradient accelerator such as multi-beam r.f. In the earliest LBNL HIF proposals and conceptual drivers it was used as an extended injector to reach energies where an induction linac with magnetic quadrupoles is the best choice. For HEDP, because of the very short pulse duration, the DTA could provide an acceleration rate of about 1MV/m. This note is divided into two parts: the first, a design based on existing experience; the second, an optimistic extrapolation. The first accelerates 16 parallel K{sup +} beams at a constant line charge density of 0.25{micro} C/m per beam to 10 MeV; the second uses a stripper and charge selector at around 4MeV followed by further acceleration to reach 40 MeV. Both benefit from more compact sources than the present 2MV injector source, although that beam is the basis of the first design and is a viable option. A pulsed drift-tube accelerator was the first major HIF experiment at LBNL. It was designed to produce a 2{micro}s rectangular 1 Ampere C{sub s}{sup +} beam at 2MeV. It ran comfortably at 1.6MeV for several years, then at lower voltages and currents for other experiments, and remnants of that experiment are in use in present experiments, still running 25 years later. The 1A current, completely equivalent to 1.8A K{sup +}, was chosen to be intermediate between the beamlets appropriate for a multi-beam accelerator, and a single beam of, say, 10A, at injection energies. The original driver scenarios using one large beam on each side of the reactor rapidly fell out of favor because of the very high transverse and longitudinal fields from the beam space charge, circa 1MV/cm and 250 kV/cm respectively, near the chamber and because of aberrations in focusing a large diameter beam down to a 1

  14. SUPERDIFFUSIVE SHOCK ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Perri, S.; Zimbardo, G.

    2012-05-10

    The theory of diffusive shock acceleration is extended to the case of superdiffusive transport, i.e., when the mean square deviation grows proportionally to t{sup {alpha}}, with {alpha} > 1. Superdiffusion can be described by a statistical process called Levy random walk, in which the propagator is not a Gaussian but it exhibits power-law tails. By using the propagator appropriate for Levy random walk, it is found that the indices of energy spectra of particles are harder than those obtained where a normal diffusion is envisaged, with the spectral index decreasing with the increase of {alpha}. A new scaling for the acceleration time is also found, allowing substantially shorter times than in the case of normal diffusion. Within this framework we can explain a number of observations of flat spectra in various astrophysical and heliospheric contexts, for instance, for the Crab Nebula and the termination shock of the solar wind.

  15. Accelerators for Cancer Therapy

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lennox, Arlene J.

    2000-05-30

    The vast majority of radiation treatments for cancerous tumors are given using electron linacs that provide both electrons and photons at several energies. Design and construction of these linacs are based on mature technology that is rapidly becoming more and more standardized and sophisticated. The use of hadrons such as neutrons, protons, alphas, or carbon, oxygen and neon ions is relatively new. Accelerators for hadron therapy are far from standardized, but the use of hadron therapy as an alternative to conventional radiation has led to significant improvements and refinements in conventional treatment techniques. This paper presents the rationale for radiation therapy, describes the accelerators used in conventional and hadron therapy, and outlines the issues that must still be resolved in the emerging field of hadron therapy.

  16. Accelerators for heavy-charged-particle radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Coutrakon, George B

    2007-08-01

    This paper focuses on current and future designs of medical hadron accelerators for treating cancers and other diseases. Presently, five vendors and several national laboratories have produced heavy-particle medical accelerators for accelerating nuclei from hydrogen (protons) up through carbon and oxygen. Particle energies are varied to control the beam penetration depth in the patient. As of the end of 2006, four hospitals and one clinic in the United States offer proton treatments; there are five more such facilities in Japan. In most cases, these facilities use accelerators designed explicitly for cancer treatments. The accelerator types are a combination of synchrotrons, cyclotrons, and linear accelerators; some carry advanced features such as respiration gating, intensity modulation, and rapid energy changes, which contribute to better dose conformity on the tumor when using heavy charged particles. Recent interest in carbon nuclei for cancer treatment has led some vendors to offer carbon-ion and proton capability in their accelerator systems, so that either ion can be used. These features are now being incorporated for medical accelerators in new facilities.

  17. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  18. Linear induction accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.

    1988-06-21

    A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

  19. Compact pulsed accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, M.J.; Schneider, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    The formation of fast pulses from a current charged transmission line and opening switch is described. By employing a plasma focus as an opening switch and diode in the prototype device, a proton beam of peak energy 250 keV is produced. The time integrated energy spectrum of the beam is constructed from a Thomson spectrograph. Applications of this device as an inexpensive and portable charged particle accelerator are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. ION ACCELERATION SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.; Martin, J.A.

    1960-02-23

    Well focused, intense ion beams are obtained by providing a multi- apertured source grid in front of an ion source chamber and an accelerating multi- apertured grid closely spaced from and in alignment with the source grid. The longest dimensions of the elongated apertures in the grids are normal to the direction of the magnetic field used with the device. Large ion currents may be withdrawn from the source, since they do not pass through any small focal region between the grids.

  1. Frontiers of accelerator instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.

    1992-08-01

    New technology has permitted significant performance improvements of established instrumentation techniques including beam position and profile monitoring. Fundamentally new profile monitor strategies are required for the next generation of accelerators, especially linear colliders (LC). Beams in these machines may be three orders of magnitude smaller than typical beams in present colliders. In this paper we review both the present performance levels achieved by conventional systems and present some new ideas for future colliders.

  2. Accelerator simulation using computers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.; Zambre, Y.; Corbett, W.

    1992-01-01

    Every accelerator or storage ring system consists of a charged particle beam propagating through a beam line. Although a number of computer programs exits that simulate the propagation of a beam in a given beam line, only a few provide the capabilities for designing, commissioning and operating the beam line. This paper shows how a multi-track'' simulation and analysis code can be used for these applications.

  3. Accelerator simulation using computers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.; Zambre, Y.; Corbett, W.

    1992-01-01

    Every accelerator or storage ring system consists of a charged particle beam propagating through a beam line. Although a number of computer programs exits that simulate the propagation of a beam in a given beam line, only a few provide the capabilities for designing, commissioning and operating the beam line. This paper shows how a ``multi-track`` simulation and analysis code can be used for these applications.

  4. A Comparison of Entomopathogenic Nematode Longevity in Soil under Laboratory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Stuart, Robin J; McCoy, Clayton W

    2006-03-01

    We compared the longevity of 29 strains representing 11 entomopathogenic nematode species in soil over 42 to 56 d. A series of five laboratory experiments were conducted with six to eight nematode strains in each and one or more nematode strains in common, so that qualitative comparisons could be made across experiments. Nematodes included Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (four strains), H. indica (Homl), H. marelatus (Point Reyes), H megidis (UK211), H. mexicana (MX4), Steinernema carpocapsae (eight strains), S. diaprepesi, S. feltiae (SN), S. glaseri (NJ43), S. rarum (17C&E), and S. riobrave (nine strains). Substantial within-species variation in longevity was observed in S. carpocapsae, with the Sal strain exhibiting the greatest survival. The Sal strain was used as a standard in all inter-species comparisons. In contrast, little intra-species variation was observed in S. riobrave. Overall, we estimated S. carpocapsae (Sal) and S. diaprepesi to have the highest survival capability. A second level of longevity was observed in H. bacteriophora (Lewiston), H. megidis, S. feltiae, and S. riobrave (3-3 and 355). Lower levels of survivability were observed in other H. bacteriophora strains (Hb, HP88, and Oswego), as well as S. glaseri and S. rarum. Relative to S. glaseri and S. rarum, a lower tier of longevity was observed in H. indica and H. marelatus, and in H. mexicana, respectively. Although nematode persistence can vary under differing soil biotic and abiotic conditions, baseline data on longevity such as those reported herein may be helpful when choosing the best match for a particular target pest.

  5. Accelerated Profile HMM Searches.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Sean R

    2011-10-01

    Profile hidden Markov models (profile HMMs) and probabilistic inference methods have made important contributions to the theory of sequence database homology search. However, practical use of profile HMM methods has been hindered by the computational expense of existing software implementations. Here I describe an acceleration heuristic for profile HMMs, the "multiple segment Viterbi" (MSV) algorithm. The MSV algorithm computes an optimal sum of multiple ungapped local alignment segments using a striped vector-parallel approach previously described for fast Smith/Waterman alignment. MSV scores follow the same statistical distribution as gapped optimal local alignment scores, allowing rapid evaluation of significance of an MSV score and thus facilitating its use as a heuristic filter. I also describe a 20-fold acceleration of the standard profile HMM Forward/Backward algorithms using a method I call "sparse rescaling". These methods are assembled in a pipeline in which high-scoring MSV hits are passed on for reanalysis with the full HMM Forward/Backward algorithm. This accelerated pipeline is implemented in the freely available HMMER3 software package. Performance benchmarks show that the use of the heuristic MSV filter sacrifices negligible sensitivity compared to unaccelerated profile HMM searches. HMMER3 is substantially more sensitive and 100- to 1000-fold faster than HMMER2. HMMER3 is now about as fast as BLAST for protein searches.

  6. Acceleration during magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Beresnyak, Andrey; Li, Hui

    2015-07-16

    The presentation begins with colorful depictions of solar x-ray flares and references to pulsar phenomena. Plasma reconnection is complex, could be x-point dominated or turbulent, field lines could break due to either resistivity or non-ideal effects, such as electron pressure anisotropy. Electron acceleration is sometimes observed, and sometimes not. One way to study this complex problem is to have many examples of the process (reconnection) and compare them; the other way is to simplify and come to something robust. Ideal MHD (E=0) turbulence driven by magnetic energy is assumed, and the first-order acceleration is sought. It is found that dissipation in big (length >100 ion skin depths) current sheets is universal and independent on microscopic resistivity and the mean imposed field; particles are regularly accelerated while experiencing curvature drift in flows driven by magnetic tension. One example of such flow is spontaneous reconnection. This explains hot electrons with a power-law tail in solar flares, as well as ultrashort time variability in some astrophysical sources.

  7. Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Aston, Graeme

    1995-01-01

    The application of electric propulsion to communications satellites, however, has been limited to the use of hydrazine thrusters with electric heaters for thrust and specific impulse augmentation. These electrothermal thrusters operate at specific impulse levels of approximately 300 s with heater powers of about 500 W. Low power arcjets (1-3 kW) are currently being investigated as a way to increase specific impulse levels to approximately 500 s. Ion propulsion systems can easily produce specific impulses of 3000 s or greater, but have yet to be applied to communications satellites. The reasons most often given for not using ion propulsion systems are their high level of overall complexity, low thrust with long burn times, and the difficulty of integrating the propulsion system into existing commercial spacecraft busses. The Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) is a thruster concept which promises specific impulse levels between low power arcjets and those of the ion engine while retaining the relative simplicity of the arcjet. The EPA thruster produces thrust through the electrostatic acceleration of a moderately dense plasma. No accelerating electrodes are used and the specific impulse is a direct function of the applied discharge voltage and the propellant atomic mass.

  8. Berkeley Proton Linear Accelerator

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Alvarez, L. W.; Bradner, H.; Franck, J.; Gordon, H.; Gow, J. D.; Marshall, L. C.; Oppenheimer, F. F.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; Richman, C.; Woodyard, J. R.

    1953-10-13

    A linear accelerator, which increases the energy of protons from a 4 Mev Van de Graaff injector, to a final energy of 31.5 Mev, has been constructed. The accelerator consists of a cavity 40 feet long and 39 inches in diameter, excited at resonance in a longitudinal electric mode with a radio-frequency power of about 2.2 x 10{sup 6} watts peak at 202.5 mc. Acceleration is made possible by the introduction of 46 axial "drift tubes" into the cavity, which is designed such that the particles traverse the distance between the centers of successive tubes in one cycle of the r.f. power. The protons are longitudinally stable as in the synchrotron, and are stabilized transversely by the action of converging fields produced by focusing grids. The electrical cavity is constructed like an inverted airplane fuselage and is supported in a vacuum tank. Power is supplied by 9 high powered oscillators fed from a pulse generator of the artificial transmission line type.

  9. ACCELERATION INTEGRATING MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Wilkes, D.F.

    1961-08-29

    An acceleration responsive device is described. A housing has at one end normally open electrical contacts and contains a piston system with a first part of non-magnetic material having metering orifices in the side walls for forming an air bearing between it and the walls of the housing; this first piston part is normally held against the other end of the housing from the noted contacts by a second piston or reset part. The reset part is of partly magnetic material, is separable from the flrst piston part, and is positioned within the housing intermediate the contacts and the first piston part. A magnet carried by the housing imposes a retaining force upon the reset part, along with a helical compression spring that is between the reset part and the end with the contacts. When a predetermined acceleration level is attained, the reset part overcomes the bias or retaining force provided by the magnet and the spring'' snaps'' into a depression in the housing adjacent the contacts. The first piston part is then free to move toward the contacts with its movement responsive tc acceleration forces and the metering orifices. (AEC)

  10. French nuclear physics accelerator opens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2016-12-01

    A new €140m particle accelerator for nuclear physics located at the French Large Heavy Ion National Accelerator (GANIL) in Caen was inaugurated last month in a ceremony attended by French president François Hollande.

  11. Accelerated Leach Testing of GLASS: ALTGLASS Version 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Trivelpiece, Cory L.; Jantzen, Carol M.; Crawford, Charles L.

    2016-12-31

    The Accelerated Leach Testing of GLASS (ALTGLASS) database is a collection of data from short- and long-term product consistency tests (PCT, ASTM C1285 A and B) on high level waste (HLW) as well as low activity waste (LAW) glasses. The database provides both U.S. and international researchers with an archive of experimental data for the purpose of studying, modeling, or validating existing models of nuclear waste glass corrosion. The ALTGLASS database is maintained and updated by researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This newest version, ALTGLASS Version 3.0, has been updated with an additional 503 rows of data representing PCT results from corrosion experiments conducted in the United States by the Savannah River National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and the Vitreous State Laboratory (SRNL, PNNL, ANL, VSL, respectively) as well as the National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) in the United Kingdom.

  12. Plasma accelerator experiments in Yugoslavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purić, J.; Astashynski, V. M.; Kuraica, M. M.; Dojčinovié, I. P.

    2002-12-01

    An overview is given of the results obtained in the Plasma Accelerator Experiments in Belgrade, using quasi-stationary high current plasma accelerators constructed within the framework of the Yugoslavia-Belarus Joint Project. So far, the following plasma accelerators have been realized: Magnetoplasma Compressor type (MPC); MPC Yu type; one stage Erosive Plasma Dynamic System (EPDS) and, in final stage of construction two stage Quasi-Stationary High Current Plasma Accelerator (QHPA).

  13. Science and Technology of Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valerio Lizarraga, Cristhian; Castilla Loaeza, Alejandro; Guillermo Cantón, Gerardo; Duarte, Carlos; Chavez Valenzuela, Daniel; Hernández Chahín, Karim; Cuna, Humberto Maury; Medina Medrano, Luis; Reyes Herrera, Juan; Sosa Güitrón, Salvador; Valdivia García, Alan; Rendón, Bruce Yee

    2016-10-01

    The Mexican Particle Accelerator Community (CMAP) was created in 2015 and currently its members participate in different experiments around the world. Using their expertise, they are working in the development of the particle accelerators area in Mexico. This paper provides a summary of the research done by its members and presents the preliminary design of an electron linear particle accelerator (eLINAC). This proposal will be the first accelerator designed and created in Mexico.

  14. Laboratory tests for single-event effects

    SciTech Connect

    Buchner, S.; McMorrow, D.; Melinger, J.; Campbell, A.B.

    1996-04-01

    Integrated circuits are currently tested at accelerators for their susceptibility to single-event effects (SEE`s). However, because of the cost and limited accessibility associated with accelerator testing, there is considerable interest in developing alternate testing methods. Two laboratory techniques for measuring SEE, one involving a pulsed laser and the other {sup 252}Cf, are described in detail in this paper. The pulsed laser provides information on the spatial and temporal dependence of SEE, information that has proven invaluable in understanding and mitigating SEE in spite of the differences in the physical mechanisms responsible for SEE induced by light and by ions. Considerable effort has been expended on developing {sup 252}Cf as a laboratory test for SEE, but the technique has not found wide use because it is severely limited by the low energy and short range of the emitted ions that are unable to reach junctions either covered with dielectric layers or deep below the surface. In fact, there are documented cases where single-event latchup (SEL) testing with {sub 252}Cf gave significantly different results from accelerator testing. A detailed comparison of laboratory and accelerator SEE data is presented in this review in order to establish the limits of each technique.

  15. Nighttime Clouds in Martian Arctic (Accelerated Movie)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    An angry looking sky is captured in a movie clip consisting of 10 frames taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    The clip accelerates the motion. The images were take around 3 a.m. local solar time at the Phoenix site during Sol 95 (Aug. 30), the 95th Martian day since landing.

    The swirling clouds may be moving generally in a westward direction over the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Virtual reality visualization of accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, M.; Papka, M.; DeFanti, T.; Levine, D.; Turner, L.; Kettunen, L.

    1995-05-01

    The authors describe the use of the CAVE virtual reality visualization environment as an aid to the design of accelerator magnets. They have modeled an elliptical multipole wiggler magnet being designed for use at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The CAVE environment allows the authors to explore and interact with the 3-D visualization of the magnet. Capabilities include changing the number of periods the magnet displayed, changing the icons used for displaying the magnetic field, and changing the current in the electromagnet and observing the effect on the magnetic field and particle beam trajectory through the field.

  17. Accelerator simulation activities at the SSCL

    SciTech Connect

    Bourianoff, G.

    1992-11-01

    This paper will attempt to summarize the activities related to accelerator simulation at the SSC laboratory during the recent past. Operational simulations including injection, extraction, and correction, performance prediction of a specified lattice design, in particular, the effect of higher-order multipoles on linear aperture and the effect of power supply ripple on emittance growth in the collider, and lastly, the development and application of advanced techniques to particle tracking, e.g., parallel processing and mapping techniques will be discussed in this paper.

  18. Accelerator and transport line survey and alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    This paper summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are introduced and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations. Various approaches to smoothing used at major laboratories are discussed. 47 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Accelerator Science: Proton vs. Electron

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-10-19

    Particle accelerators are one of the most powerful ways to study the fundamental laws that govern the universe. However, there are many design considerations that go into selecting and building a particular accelerator. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the pros and cons of building an accelerator that collides pairs of protons to one that collides electrons.

  20. Accelerator Science: Circular vs. Linear

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-12-14

    Particle accelerator are scientific instruments that allow scientists to collide particles together at incredible energies to study the secrets of the universe. However, there are many manners in which particle accelerators can be constructed. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the pros and cons of circular and linear accelerators.

  1. Accelerator Science: Circular vs. Linear

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-11-10

    Particle accelerator are scientific instruments that allow scientists to collide particles together at incredible energies to study the secrets of the universe. However, there are many manners in which particle accelerators can be constructed. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the pros and cons of circular and linear accelerators.

  2. Accelerator Science: Proton vs. Electron

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-10-11

    Particle accelerators are one of the most powerful ways to study the fundamental laws that govern the universe. However, there are many design considerations that go into selecting and building a particular accelerator. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the pros and cons of building an accelerator that collides pairs of protons to one that collides electrons.

  3. Magnetically accelerated foils for shock wave experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, S.; Ford, J.; Wright, S.; Martinez, D.; Plechaty, C.; Presura, R.

    2009-08-01

    Many astrophysical phenomena involve the interaction of a shock wave with an inhomogeneous background medium. Using scaled experiments with inhomogeneous foam targets makes it possible to study relevant physics in the laboratory to better understand the mechanisms of shock compression and to benchmark astrophysical simulation codes. First experiments on Zebra at the Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF) have demonstrated flyer acceleration to sufficiently high velocities (up to 5 km/s) and that laser shadowgraphy can image sound fronts in transparent targets. Based on this, we designed an optimized setup to improve the flyer parameters (higher speed and mass) to create shock waves in transparent media. Once x-ray backlighting with the Leopard laser at NTF is operational, we will switch to foam targets with parameters relevant for laboratory astrophysics.

  4. Considerations of the low-velocity stage of a radioactive beams accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Talbert, W.L.

    1992-12-01

    Studies of the low-velocity stages of a radioactive beams accelerator are summarized, highlighting the limitations of existing RFQ technology when applied to the specifications of the IsoSpin Laboratory.

  5. Undulator-Based Laser Wakefield Accelerator Electron Beam Energy Spread and Emittance Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Bakeman, M.S.; Van Tilborg, J.; Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A.; Osterhoff, J.; Sokollik, T.; Lin, C.; Robinson, K.E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Toth, Cs.; Weingartner, R.; Gruner, F.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.

    2010-06-01

    The design and current status of experiments to couple the Tapered Hybrid Undulator (THUNDER) to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) laser plasma accelerator (LPA) to measure electron beam energy spread and emittance are presented.

  6. Recent Advances in Plasma Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Mark

    2007-03-19

    The costs and the time scales of colliders intended to reach the energy frontier are such that it is important to explore new methods of accelerating particles to high energies. Plasma-based accelerators are particularly attractive because they are capable of producing accelerating fields that are orders of magnitude larger than those used in conventional colliders. In these accelerators a drive beam, either laser or particle, produces a plasma wave (wakefield) that accelerates charged particles. The ultimate utility of plasma accelerators will depend on sustaining ultra-high accelerating fields over a substantial length to achieve a significant energy gain. More than 42 GeV energy gain was achieved in an 85 cm long plasma wakefield accelerator driven by a 42 GeV electron drive beam in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) Facility at SLAC. Most of the beam electrons lose energy to the plasma wave, but some electrons in the back of the same beam pulse are accelerated with a field of {approx}52 GV/m. This effectively doubles their energy, producing the energy gain of the 3 km long SLAC accelerator in less than a meter for a small fraction of the electrons in the injected bunch. Prospects for a drive-witness bunch configuration and high-gradient positron acceleration experiments planned for the SABER facility will be discussed.

  7. Accelerating Gallstone Dissolution

    PubMed Central

    Tao, J. C.; Cussler, E. L.; Evans, D. F.

    1974-01-01

    The dissolution rates of cholesterol in model bile salt solutions are controlled by diffusion in slowly flowing bile and by interfacial kinetics in rapidly flowing bile. At low flow, dissolution varies with the square root of bile flow and can be predicted, a priori, from existing correlations of mass transfer. At high bile flow, dissolution is independent of bile flow and is probably dominated by the rate of micelle adsorption. These results show that cholesterol gallstone dissolution, a potential nonsurgical therapy for cholelithiasis, can be accelerated little in slow bile, but more significantly in rapidly flowing bile. PMID:4530271

  8. Accelerating Commercial Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Visiting Investigator Program (VIP) at Stennis Space Center, Community Coffee was able to use satellites to forecast coffee crops in Guatemala. Using satellite imagery, the company can produce detailed maps that separate coffee cropland from wild vegetation and show information on the health of specific crops. The data can control coffee prices and eventually may be used to optimize application of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation. This would result in maximal crop yields, minimal pollution and lower production costs. VIP is a mechanism involving NASA funding designed to accelerate the growth of commercial remote sensing by promoting general awareness and basic training in the technology.

  9. Accelerated Innovation Pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Opportunities: I. Engage NASA team (examples) a) Research and technology calls . provide suggestions to AES, HRP, OCT. b) Use NASA@Work to solicit other ideas; (possibly before R+D calls). II. Stimulate collaboration (examples) a) NHHPC. b) Wharton Mack Center for Technological Innovation (Feb 2013). c) International ] DLR ] :envihab (July 2013). d) Accelerated research models . NSF, Myelin Repair Foundation. III. Engage public Prizes (open platform: InnoCentive, yet2.com, NTL; Rice Business Plan, etc.) IV. Use same methods to engage STEM.

  10. The Accelerating Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Brian P.

    2012-05-01

    In 1998 two teams traced back the expansion of the universe over billions of years and discovered that it was accelerating, a startling discovery that suggests that more than 70% of the cosmos is contained in a previously unknown form of matter, called Dark Energy. The 2011 Nobel Laureate for Physics, Brian Schmidt, leader of the High-Redshift Supernova Search Team, will describe this discovery and explain how astronomers have used observations to trace our universe's history back more than 13 billion years, leading them to ponder the ultimate fate of the cosmos.

  11. Transient electromagnetic modeling of the ZR accelerator water convolute and stack.

    SciTech Connect

    Lehr, Jane Marie; Elizondo-Decanini, Juan Manuel; Turner, C. David; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Bohnhoff, William J.; Pointon, Timothy David; Pasik, Michael Francis; Johnson, William Arthur; Savage, Mark Edward

    2005-06-01

    The ZR accelerator is a refurbishment of Sandia National Laboratories Z accelerator [1]. The ZR accelerator components were designed using electrostatic and circuit modeling tools. Transient electromagnetic modeling has played a complementary role in the analysis of ZR components [2]. In this paper we describe a 3D transient electromagnetic analysis of the ZR water convolute and stack using edge-based finite element techniques.

  12. 15 Years of R&D on high field accelerator magnets at FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Barzi, Emanuela; Zlobin, Alexander V.

    2016-07-01

    The High Field Magnet (HFM) Program at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) has been developing Nb3Sn superconducting magnets, materials and technologies for present and future particle accelerators since the late 1990s. This paper summarizes the main results of the Nb3Sn accelerator magnet and superconductor R&D at FNAL and outlines the Program next steps.

  13. Dust Accelerators And Their Applications In High-Temperature Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ticos, Catalin M.; Wang Zhehui

    2011-06-01

    The perennial presence of dust in high-temperature plasma and fusion devices has been firmly established. Dust inventory must be controlled, in particular in the next-generation steady-state fusion machines like ITER, as it can pose significant safety hazards and potentially interfere with fusion energy production. Although much effort has been devoted to getting rid of the dust nuisance, there are instances where a controlled use of dust can be beneficial. We have recognized a number of dust-accelerators applications in magnetic fusion, including in plasma diagnostics, in studying dust-plasma interactions, and more recently in edge localized mode (ELM)'s pacing. With the applications in mind, we will compare various acceleration methods, including electrostatic, gas-drag, and plasma-drag acceleration. We will also describe laboratory experiments and results on dust acceleration.

  14. Dust accelerators and their applications in high-temperature plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui; Ticos, Catakin M

    2010-01-01

    The perennial presence of dust in high-temperature plasma and fusion devices has been firmly established. Dust inventory must be controlled, in particular in the next-generation steady-state fusion machines like ITER, as it can pose significant safety hazards and potentially interfere with fusion energy production. Much effort has been devoted to gening rid of the dust nuisance. We have recognized a number of dust-accelerators applications in magnetic fusion, including in plasma diagnostics, in studying dust-plasma interactions, and more recently in edge localized mode (ELM)'s pacing. With the applications in mind, we will compare various acceleration methods, including electrostatic, gas-drag, and plasma-drag acceleration. We will also describe laboratory experiments and results on dust acceleration.

  15. Accelerator R&D: Research for Science - Science for Society

    SciTech Connect

    The HEP Accelerator R&D Task Force: N.R. Holtkamp,S. Biedron, S.V. Milton, L. Boeh, J.E. Clayton, G. Zdasiuk, S.A. Gourlay, M.S. Zisman,R.W. Hamm, S. Henderson, G.H. Hoffstaetter, L. Merminga, S. Ozaki, F.C. Pilat, M. White

    2012-07-01

    In September 2011 the US Senate Appropriations Committee requested a ten-year strategic plan from the Department of Energy (DOE) that would describe how accelerator R&D today could advance applications directly relevant to society. Based on the 2009 workshop 'Accelerators for America's Future' an assessment was made on how accelerator technology developed by the nation's laboratories and universities could directly translate into a competitive strength for industrial partners and a variety of government agencies in the research, defense and national security sectors. The Office of High Energy Physics, traditionally the steward for advanced accelerator R&D within DOE, commissioned a task force under its auspices to generate and compile ideas on how best to implement strategies that would help fulfill the needs of industry and other agencies, while maintaining focus on its core mission of fundamental science investigation.

  16. Solvent-free cleaning using a centrifugal cryogenic pellet accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, J.R.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.

    1995-06-01

    An advanced centrifuge that accelerates frozen CO{sub 2} pellets to high speeds for surface cleaning and paint removal is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The centrifuge-based accelerator was designed, fabricated, and tested under a program sponsored by the Warner Robins Air Logistics Center, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia. In comparison to the more conventional compressed air ``sandblast`` pellet accelerators, the centrifugal accelerator system can achieve higher pellet speeds, has precise speed control, and is more than ten times as energy efficient. Furthermore, the use of frozen CO{sub 2} pellets instead of conventional metal, plastic, sand, or other abrasive materials that remain solid at room temperature, minimizes the waste stream. This apparatus has been used to demonstrate cleaning of various surfaces, including removal of paint, oxide coatings, metal coatings, organic coatings, and oil and grease coatings from a variety of surfaces. The design and operation of the apparatus is discussed.

  17. Preliminary description of the ground test accelerator cryogenic cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Edeskuty, F.J.; Stewart, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) under construction at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is part of the Neutral Particle Beam Program supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office. The GTA is a full-sized test facility to evaluate the feasibility of using a negative ion accelerator to produce a neutral particle beam (NPB). The NPB would ultimately be used outside the earth's atmosphere as a target discriminator or as a directed energy weapon. The operation of the GTA at cryogenic temperature is advantageous for two reasons: first, the decrease of temperature caused a corresponding decrease in the rf heating of the copper in the various units of the accelerator, and second, at the lower temperature the decrease in the thermal expansion coefficient also provides greater thermal stability and consequently, better operating stability for the accelerator. This paper discusses the cryogenic cooling system needed to achieve these advantages. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. SETUP AND PERFORMANCE OF THE RHIC INJECTOR ACCELERATORS FOR THE 2005 RUN WITH COPPER IONS.

    SciTech Connect

    AHRENS, L.; ALESSI, J.; GARDNER, C.J.

    2005-05-16

    Copper ions for the 2005 run [1] of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are accelerated in the Tandem, Booster and AGS prior to injection into RHIC. The setup and performance of these accelerators with copper are reviewed in this paper.

  19. Mobilization of arsenic and other trace elements of health concern in groundwater from the Salí River Basin, Tucumán Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Nicolli, Hugo B; García, Jorge W; Falcón, Carlos M; Smedley, Pauline L

    2012-04-01

    The Salí River Basin in north-west Argentina (7,000 km(2)) is composed of a sequence of Tertiary and Quaternary loess deposits, which have been substantially reworked by fluvial and aeolian processes. As with other areas of the Chaco-Pampean Plain, groundwater in the basin suffers a range of chemical quality problems, including arsenic (concentrations in the range of 12.2-1,660 μg L(-1)), fluoride (50-8,740 μg L(-1)), boron (34.0-9,550 μg L(-1)), vanadium (30.7-300 μg L(-1)) and uranium (0.03-125 μg L(-1)). Shallow groundwater (depths up to 15 m) has particularly high concentrations of these elements. Exceedances above WHO (2011) guideline values are 100% for As, 35% for B, 21% for U and 17% for F. Concentrations in deep (>200 m) and artesian groundwater in the basin are also often high, though less extreme than at shallow depths. The waters are oxidizing, with often high bicarbonate concentrations (50.0-1,260 mg L(-1)) and pH (6.28-9.24). The ultimate sources of these trace elements are the volcanic components of the loess deposits, although sorption reactions involving secondary Al and Fe oxides also regulate the distribution and mobility of trace elements in the aquifers. In addition, concentrations of chromium lie in range of 79.4-232 μg L(-1) in shallow groundwater, 129-250 μg L(-1) in deep groundwater and 110-218 μg L(-1) in artesian groundwater. All exceed the WHO guideline value of 50 μg L(-1). Their origin is likely to be predominantly geogenic, present as chromate in the ambient oxic and alkaline aquifer conditions.

  20. [Theme: Using Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Jack; Braker, Clifton

    1982-01-01

    Pritchard discusses the opportunities for applied learning afforded by laboratories. Braker describes the evaluation of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills in the agricultural mechanics laboratory. (SK)

  1. Effects of Horizontal Acceleration on Human Visual Acuity and Stereopsis

    PubMed Central

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Tsai, Ming-Ling; Chang, Wei-Kang; Yang, Tzu-Hung; Yauan, Chien-Han; Wang, Chih-Hung; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Wu, Yi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of horizontal acceleration on human visual acuity and stereopsis is demonstrated in this study. Twenty participants (mean age 22.6 years) were enrolled in the experiment. Acceleration from two different directions was performed at the Taiwan High-Speed Rail Laboratory. Gx and Gy (< and >0.1 g) were produced on an accelerating platform where the subjects stood. The visual acuity and stereopsis of the right eye were measured before and during the acceleration. Acceleration <0.1 g in the X- or Y-axis did not affect dynamic vision and stereopsis. Vision decreased (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.25 logMAR) and stereopsis declined significantly (mean from 40 s to 60.2 s of arc) when Gx > 0.1 g. Visual acuity worsened (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.19 logMAR) and poor stereopsis was noted (mean from 40 s to 50.2 s of arc) when Gy > 0.1 g. The effect of acceleration from the X-axis on the visual system was higher than that from the Y-axis. During acceleration, most subjects complained of ocular strain when reading. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the exact levels of visual function loss during Gx and Gy. PMID:25607601

  2. Effects of horizontal acceleration on human visual acuity and stereopsis.

    PubMed

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Tsai, Ming-Ling; Chang, Wei-Kang; Yang, Tzu-Hung; Yauan, Chien-Han; Wang, Chih-Hung; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Wu, Yi-Chang

    2015-01-19

    The effect of horizontal acceleration on human visual acuity and stereopsis is demonstrated in this study. Twenty participants (mean age 22.6 years) were enrolled in the experiment. Acceleration from two different directions was performed at the Taiwan High-Speed Rail Laboratory. Gx and Gy (< and >0.1 g) were produced on an accelerating platform where the subjects stood. The visual acuity and stereopsis of the right eye were measured before and during the acceleration. Acceleration <0.1 g in the X- or Y-axis did not affect dynamic vision and stereopsis. Vision decreased (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.25 logMAR) and stereopsis declined significantly (mean from 40 s to 60.2 s of arc) when Gx > 0.1 g. Visual acuity worsened (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.19 logMAR) and poor stereopsis was noted (mean from 40 s to 50.2 s of arc) when Gy > 0.1 g. The effect of acceleration from the X-axis on the visual system was higher than that from the Y-axis. During acceleration, most subjects complained of ocular strain when reading. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the exact levels of visual function loss during Gx and Gy.

  3. Acceleration in Linear and Circular Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellington, S. H.; Docherty, W.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction of a simple accelerometer and explains its use in demonstrating acceleration, deceleration, constant speed, measurement of acceleration, acceleration and the inclined plane and angular and radial acceleration. (GS)

  4. Developing acceleration schedules for NDCX-II

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W.M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.A.; Waldron, W.L.

    2008-08-01

    The Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy-Ion Fusion Science is developing a physics design for NDCX-II, an experiment to study warm dense matter heated by ions near the Bragg-peak energy. Present plans call for using about thirty induction cells to accelerate 30 nC of Li+ ions to more than 3 MeV, followed by neutralized drift-compression. To heat targets to useful temperatures, the beam must be compressed to a millimeter-scale radius and a duration of about 1 ns. An interactive 1-D particle-in-cell simulation with an electrostatic field solver, acceleration-gap fringe fields, and a library of realizable analytic waveforms has been used for developing NDCX-II acceleration schedules. Axisymmetric simulations with WARP have validated this 1-D model and have been used both to design transverse focusing and to compensate for injection non-uniformities and radial variation of the fields. Highlights of this work are presented here.

  5. Accelerators for Discovery Science and Security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, A. M. M.; Bluem, H. P.; Jarvis, J. D.; Park, J. H.; Rathke, J. W.; Schultheiss, T. J.

    2015-05-01

    Several Advanced Energy Systems (AES) accelerator projects that span applications in Discovery Science and Security are described. The design and performance of the IR and THz free electron laser (FEL) at the Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft in Berlin that is now an operating user facility for physical chemistry research in molecular and cluster spectroscopy as well as surface science, is highlighted. The device was designed to meet challenging specifications, including a final energy adjustable in the range of 15-50 MeV, low longitudinal emittance (<50 keV-psec) and transverse emittance (<20 π mm-mrad), at more than 200 pC bunch charge with a micropulse repetition rate of 1 GHz and a macropulse length of up to 15 μs. Secondly, we will describe an ongoing effort to develop an ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) source that is scheduled for completion in 2015 with prototype testing taking place at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). This tabletop X-band system will find application in time-resolved chemical imaging and as a resource for drug-cell interaction analysis. A third active area at AES is accelerators for security applications where we will cover some top-level aspects of THz and X-ray systems that are under development and in testing for stand-off and portal detection.

  6. Magnetically accelerated foils for shock wave experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, Stephan; Ford, Jessica; Martinez, David; Plechaty, Christopher; Wright, Sandra; Presura, Radu

    2008-04-01

    The interaction of shock waves with inhomogeneous media is important in many astrophysical problems, e.g. the role of shock compression in star formation. Using scaled experiments with inhomogeneous foam targets makes it possible to study relevant physics in the laboratory, to better understand the mechanisms of shock compression and to benchmark astrophysical simulation codes. Experiments with flyer-generated shock waves have been performed on the Z machine in Sandia. The Zebra accelerator at the Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF) allows for complementary experiments with high repetition rate. First experiments on Zebra demonstrated flyer acceleration to sufficiently high velocities (around 2 km/s) and that laser shadowgraphy can image sound fronts in transparent targets. Based on this, we designed an optimized setup to improve the flyer parameters (higher speed and mass) to create shock waves in transparent media. Once x-ray backlighting with the Leopard laser at NTF is operational, we will switch to foam targets with parameters relevant for laboratory astrophysics.

  7. Hurricane Isabel gives accelerators a severe test

    SciTech Connect

    Swapan Chattopadhyay

    2004-01-01

    Hurricane Isabel was at category five--the most violent on the Saffir-Simpson scale of hurricane strength--when it began threatening the central Atlantic seaboard of the US. Over the course of several days, precautions against the extreme weather conditions were taken across the Jefferson Lab site in south-east Virginia. On 18 September 2003, when Isabel struck North Carolina's Outer Banks and moved northward, directly across the region around the laboratory, the storm was still quite destructive, albeit considerably reduced in strength. The flood surge and trees felled by wind substantially damaged or even devastated buildings and homes, including many belonging to Jefferson Lab staff members. For the laboratory itself, Isabel delivered an unplanned and severe challenge in another form: a power outage that lasted nearly three-and-a-half days, and which severely tested the robustness of Jefferson Lab's two superconducting machines, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and the superconducting radiofrequency ''driver'' accelerator of the laboratory's free-electron laser. Robustness matters greatly for science at a time when microwave superconducting linear accelerators (linacs) are not only being considered, but in some cases already being built for projects such as neutron sources, rare-isotope accelerators, innovative light sources and TeV-scale electron-positron linear colliders. Hurricane Isabel interrupted a several-week-long maintenance shutdown of CEBAF, which serves nuclear and particle physics and represents the world's pioneering large-scale implementation of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) technology. The racetrack-shaped machine is actually a pair of 500-600 MeV SRF linacs interconnected by recirculation arc beamlines. CEBAF delivers simultaneous beams at up to 6 GeV to three experimental halls. An imminent upgrade will double the energy to 12 GeV and add an extra hall for ''quark confinement'' studies. On a smaller scale

  8. Ion Accelerator With Negatively Biased Decelerator Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.

    1994-01-01

    Three-grid ion accelerator in which accelerator grid is biased at negative potential and decelerator grid downstream of accelerator grid biased at smaller negative potential. This grid and bias arrangement reduces frequency of impacts, upon accelerator grid, of charge-exchange ions produced downstream in collisions between accelerated ions and atoms and molecules of background gas. Sputter erosion of accelerator grid reduced.

  9. Acceleration tests of a 3 GHz proton linear accelerator (LIBO) for hadrontherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Martinis, C.; Giove, D.; Amaldi, U.; Berra, P.; Crandall, K.; Mauri, M.; Weiss, M.; Zennaro, R.; Rosso, E.; Szeless, B.; Vretenar, M.; Masullo, M. R.; Vaccaro, V.; Calabretta, L.; Rovelli, A.

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the acceleration tests performed at the Catania LNS Laboratory on a 3 GHz linac module of the side coupled type, which boosts the proton energy of a beam extracted from a cyclotron from 62 to 72 MeV. The output proton energy was measured with two devices: a NaI(Tl) crystal and a bending magnet. The experimental spectra are in good agreement with the calculated ones. From their shape it is obtained that (18±3.0)% of the transmitted protons fall in a ±2 MeV interval centered around 72 MeV. This result is in good agreement with the 20% value derived from the simulation of the acceleration process. The measured energy of the accelerated protons was used to check that the shunt impedance of the structure is equal to the computed one within 3%. This was the first time that a 3 GHz structure has been used to accelerate protons, and the results of the tests have demonstrated that a high frequency linac can be used as a cyclotron booster.

  10. Advanced Accelerators for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Koyama, Kazuyoshi

    We review advanced accelerators for medical applications with respect to the following key technologies: (i) higher RF electron linear accelerator (hereafter “linac”); (ii) optimization of alignment for the proton linac, cyclotron and synchrotron; (iii) superconducting magnet; (iv) laser technology. Advanced accelerators for medical applications are categorized into two groups. The first group consists of compact medical linacs with high RF, cyclotrons and synchrotrons downsized by optimization of alignment and superconducting magnets. The second group comprises laser-based acceleration systems aimed of medical applications in the future. Laser plasma electron/ion accelerating systems for cancer therapy and laser dielectric accelerating systems for radiation biology are mentioned. Since the second group has important potential for a compact system, the current status of the established energy and intensity and of the required stability are given.

  11. Laser acceleration and its future

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2010-01-01

    Laser acceleration is based on the concept to marshal collective fields that may be induced by laser. In order to exceed the material breakdown field by a large factor, we employ the broken-down matter of plasma. While the generated wakefields resemble with the fields in conventional accelerators in their structure (at least qualitatively), it is their extreme accelerating fields that distinguish the laser wakefield from others, amounting to tiny emittance and compact accelerator. The current research largely falls on how to master the control of acceleration process in spatial and temporal scales several orders of magnitude smaller than the conventional method. The efforts over the last several years have come to a fruition of generating good beam properties with GeV energies on a table top, leading to many applications, such as ultrafast radiolysis, intraoperative radiation therapy, injection to X-ray free electron laser, and a candidate for future high energy accelerators. PMID:20228616

  12. Accelerating Spectrum Sharing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Juan D. Deaton; Lynda L. Brighton; Rangam Subramanian; Hussein Moradi; Jose Loera

    2013-09-01

    Spectrum sharing potentially holds the promise of solving the emerging spectrum crisis. However, technology innovators face the conundrum of developing spectrum sharing technologies without the ability to experiment and test with real incumbent systems. Interference with operational incumbents can prevent critical services, and the cost of deploying and operating an incumbent system can be prohibitive. Thus, the lack of incumbent systems and frequency authorization for technology incubation and demonstration has stymied spectrum sharing research. To this end, industry, academia, and regulators all require a test facility for validating hypotheses and demonstrating functionality without affecting operational incumbent systems. This article proposes a four-phase program supported by our spectrum accountability architecture. We propose that our comprehensive experimentation and testing approach for technology incubation and demonstration will accelerate the development of spectrum sharing technologies.

  13. Accelerated Decay of Radioisotopes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    00-01 -2013 Technical June20 l l-June 2012 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER DTRA MIPR 11-2362M Accelerated Decay of Radioisotopes Sb...268 x E +2 4.788 026 x E -2 6.894 757 4.535 924 x E -1 4.214 011 x E -2 1.601 846 x E +1 1.000 000 x E -2 2.579 760 x E - 4 1.000 000 x E -8...c a y o f R a d i o i s o t o p e s " P r o p o s a l # B R C A L L 0 7 - N - 2 - 0 0 4 7 I l l u s t r a t i o n o f \\ P F R P a s p o

  14. Understanding projectile acceleration.

    PubMed

    Hecht, H; Bertamini, M

    2000-04-01

    Throwing and catching balls or other objects is a generally highly practiced skill; however, conceptual as well as perceptual understanding of the mechanics that underlie this skill is surprisingly poor. In 5 experiments, we investigated conceptual and perceptual understanding of simple ballistic motion. Paper-and-pencil tests revealed that up to half of all participants mistakenly believed that a ball would continue to accelerate after it left the thrower's hand. Observers also showed a remarkable tolerance for anomalous trajectory shapes. Perceptual judgments based on graphics animations replicated these erroneous beliefs for shallow release angles. Observers' tolerance for anomalies tended to decrease with their distance from the actor. The findings are at odds with claims of the naive physics literature that liken intuitive understanding to Aristotelian or medieval physics theories. Instead, observers seem to project their intentions to the ball itself (externalization) or even feel that they have power over the ball when it is still close.

  15. Pulsed Plasma Accelerator Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, M.; Kazeminezhad, F.; Owens, T.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the main results of the modeling task of the PPA project. The objective of this task is to make major progress towards developing a new computational tool with new capabilities for simulating cylindrically symmetric 2.5 dimensional (2.5 D) PPA's. This tool may be used for designing, optimizing, and understanding the operation of PPA s and other pulsed power devices. The foundation for this task is the 2-D, cylindrically symmetric, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code PCAPPS (Princeton Code for Advanced Plasma Propulsion Simulation). PCAPPS was originally developed by Sankaran (2001, 2005) to model Lithium Lorentz Force Accelerators (LLFA's), which are electrode based devices, and are typically operated in continuous magnetic field to the model, and implementing a first principles, self-consistent algorithm to couple the plasma and power circuit that drives the plasma dynamics.

  16. Pulsed electromagnetic acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, R. G.; Vonjaskowsky, W. F.; Clark, K. E.

    1973-01-01

    Direct measurements of the power deposited in the anode of a multimegawatt MPD accelerator using thermocouples attached to a thin shell anode reveal a dramatic decrease in the fractional anode power from 50% at 200 KW input power to less than 10% at 20 MW power. The corresponding local power flux peak at a value of 10,000 W/sq cm at the lip of the anode exhaust orifice, a distribution traced to a corresponding peak in the local current density at the anode. A comparison of voltage-current characteristics and spectral photographs of the MPD discharge using quartz, boron nitride and plexiglas insulators with various mass injection configurations led to the identification of different voltage modes and regions of ablation free operation. The technique of piezoelectric impact pressure measurement in the MPD exhaust flow was refined to account for the effects due to probe yaw angle.

  17. Linac-accelerator-radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Sturm, V; Schlegel, W; Pastyr, O; Treuer, H; Voges, J; Müller, R P; Lorenz, W J

    1993-01-01

    A survey is given of the actual possibilities and limitations of the use of linear accelerators (Linac radiosurgery systems) for intra = cranial radiosurgery. Depending on the collimator size, spherical fields from 5-54 mm in diameter can be irradiated with dose gradients from 10% (large fields) to 20% (small fields) per millimeter distance between surface and treatment volume. This is comparable to the possibilities of Gamma-Knife and Proton-irradiation. Optimal mechanical adjustment of gantry and linac table are necessary for the required stability of the isocenter. Mechanical inaccuracy should be smaller than 0.8 mm. Advanced computerized 3D-treatment planning systems are indispensable prerequisites for accurate treatment and use of the flexibility of the linac system. Future developments are outlined.

  18. Network acceleration techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Patricia (Inventor); Awrach, James Michael (Inventor); Maccabe, Arthur Barney (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Splintered offloading techniques with receive batch processing are described for network acceleration. Such techniques offload specific functionality to a NIC while maintaining the bulk of the protocol processing in the host operating system ("OS"). The resulting protocol implementation allows the application to bypass the protocol processing of the received data. Such can be accomplished this by moving data from the NIC directly to the application through direct memory access ("DMA") and batch processing the receive headers in the host OS when the host OS is interrupted to perform other work. Batch processing receive headers allows the data path to be separated from the control path. Unlike operating system bypass, however, the operating system still fully manages the network resource and has relevant feedback about traffic and flows. Embodiments of the present disclosure can therefore address the challenges of networks with extreme bandwidth delay products (BWDP).

  19. Paraelectric gas flow accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, Daniel M. (Inventor); Wilkinson, Stephen P. (Inventor); Roth, J. Reece (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A substrate is configured with first and second sets of electrodes, where the second set of electrodes is positioned asymmetrically between the first set of electrodes. When a RF voltage is applied to the electrodes sufficient to generate a discharge plasma (e.g., a one-atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma) in the gas adjacent to the substrate, the asymmetry in the electrode configuration results in force being applied to the active species in the plasma and in turn to the neutral background gas. Depending on the relative orientation of the electrodes to the gas, the present invention can be used to accelerate or decelerate the gas. The present invention has many potential applications, including increasing or decreasing aerodynamic drag or turbulence, and controlling the flow of active and/or neutral species for such uses as flow separation, altering heat flow, plasma cleaning, sterilization, deposition, etching, or alteration in wettability, printability, and/or adhesion.

  20. Lectures in accelerator theory

    SciTech Connect

    Month, M

    1980-01-01

    Lecture I deals with the behavior of particles in the nonlinear field arising from the electromagnetic interaction of colliding beams. The case treated, that of counter-rotating proton beams crossing each other at a non-zero angle, has the simple feature that the force between the beam is one dimensional. In lecture II, an analysis of the development of traveling waves on particle beams is presented. The situation studied is that of a uniform beam current in a circular accelerator and the excitation for the coherent motion is induced by the resistivity of the vacuum chamber wall. Finally, in lecture III, a description of the current accumulation process used at the proton storage rings at CERN (The ISR) is given. Particle pulses of rather low average current are injected and stored along the length and width of the vacuum chamber. The efficiency is very high and large currents (over 40 amperes) have been achieved.