Science.gov

Sample records for accelerator physics detector

  1. Proceedings of the 2005 International Linear Collider Physics and Detector Workshop and 2nd ILC Accelerator Workshop (Snowmass 2005)

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2006-06-21

    For two weeks in August of 2005, 668 physicists gathered in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado to study the physics, the detectors and the accelerator of the International Linear Collider. For the first time, a fully international physics and detector workshop was held in conjunction with the ILC Accelerator workshop.

  2. Report of the HEPAP Subpanel on Major Detectors in Non-Accelerator Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-05-01

    The subpanel on Major Detectors in Non-Accelerator Particle Physics was formed in February 1989 as the result of a letter from Robert Hunter, Director, Office of Energy Research, to Francis Low, Chairman of HEPAP. A copy of the letter is included in the Appendix to this report. The letter referred to the previous report of HEPAP Subpanel on High Energy Gamma Ray and Neutrino Astronomy which had found that several groups of scientists were working on promising new ideas and proposals in non-accelerator high energy physics and astrophysics; this report recommended that panel be formed to evaluate large projects in these areas of science when specific proposals were received by the funding agencies. In concurring with the recommendation, the request to establish this new Subpanel included the following specific charge: Within the context of changing world wide high energy physics activities and opportunities, review as necessary and evaluate the following major research proposals which have been submitted to the Department of Energy and/or to the National Science foundation: DUMAND II, GRANDE, and the Fly's Eye Upgrade.

  3. VLHC accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Blaskiewicz et al.

    2001-11-01

    A six-month design study for a future high energy hadron collider was initiated by the Fermilab director in October 2000. The request was to study a staged approach where a large circumference tunnel is built that initially would house a low field ({approx}2 T) collider with center-of-mass energy greater than 30 TeV and a peak (initial) luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The tunnel was to be scoped, however, to support a future upgrade to a center-of-mass energy greater than 150 TeV with a peak luminosity of 2 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} using high field ({approx} 10 T) superconducting magnet technology. In a collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a report of the Design Study was produced by Fermilab in June 2001. 1 The Design Study focused on a Stage 1, 20 x 20 TeV collider using a 2-in-1 transmission line magnet and leads to a Stage 2, 87.5 x 87.5 TeV collider using 10 T Nb{sub 3}Sn magnet technology. The article that follows is a compilation of accelerator physics designs and computational results which contributed to the Design Study. Many of the parameters found in this report evolved during the study, and thus slight differences between this text and the Design Study report can be found. The present text, however, presents the major accelerator physics issues of the Very Large Hadron Collider as examined by the Design Study collaboration and provides a basis for discussion and further studies of VLHC accelerator parameters and design philosophies.

  4. SPEAR3 Accelerator Physics Update

    SciTech Connect

    Safranek, James A.; Corbett, W.Jeff; Gierman, S.; Hettel, R.O.; Huang, X.; Nosochkov, Yuri; Sebek, Jim; Terebilo, Andrei; /SLAC

    2007-11-02

    The SPEAR3 storage ring at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory has been delivering photon beams for three years. We will give an overview of recent and ongoing accelerator physics activities, including 500 mA fills, work toward top-off injection, long-term orbit stability characterization and improvement, fast orbit feedback, new chicane optics, low alpha optics & short bunches, low emittance optics, and MATLAB software. The accelerator physics group has a strong program to characterize and improve SPEAR3 performance

  5. Modern Detectors for Astroparticle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Adriani, Oscar

    2005-10-12

    This paper focus on the necessary requirements for a modern astroparticle physics detector based either on stratospheric balloons, either on satellite. The main technical solutions used to build a reliable detector are described. Finally, the most relevant experiments that have been developed with the INFN contribution and that will be ready in the near future (both for {gamma} and charged cosmic rays detection) are described.

  6. Accelerator physics and modeling: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    1991-12-31

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Physics of high brightness beams; radio frequency beam conditioner for fast-wave free-electron generators of coherent radiation; wake-field and space-charge effects on high brightness beams. Calculations and measured results for BNL-ATF; non-linear orbit theory and accelerator design; general problems of modeling for accelerators; development and application of dispersive soft ferrite models for time-domain simulation; and bunch lengthening in the SLC damping rings.

  7. Accelerator physics and modeling: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Physics of high brightness beams; radio frequency beam conditioner for fast-wave free-electron generators of coherent radiation; wake-field and space-charge effects on high brightness beams. Calculations and measured results for BNL-ATF; non-linear orbit theory and accelerator design; general problems of modeling for accelerators; development and application of dispersive soft ferrite models for time-domain simulation; and bunch lengthening in the SLC damping rings.

  8. Current technology of particle physics detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlam, T.W.

    1986-06-23

    A brief discussion is given of the characteristics required of new accelerator facilities, leading into a discussion of the required detectors, including position sensitive detectors, particle identification, and calorimeters. (LEW)

  9. Accelerator science in medical physics.

    PubMed

    Peach, K; Wilson, P; Jones, B

    2011-12-01

    The use of cyclotrons and synchrotrons to accelerate charged particles in hospital settings for the purpose of cancer therapy is increasing. Consequently, there is a growing demand from medical physicists, radiographers, physicians and oncologists for articles that explain the basic physical concepts of these technologies. There are unique advantages and disadvantages to all methods of acceleration. Several promising alternative methods of accelerating particles also have to be considered since they will become increasingly available with time; however, there are still many technical problems with these that require solving. This article serves as an introduction to this complex area of physics, and will be of benefit to those engaged in cancer therapy, or who intend to acquire such technologies in the future. PMID:22374548

  10. Accelerator science in medical physics

    PubMed Central

    Peach, K; Wilson, P; Jones, B

    2011-01-01

    The use of cyclotrons and synchrotrons to accelerate charged particles in hospital settings for the purpose of cancer therapy is increasing. Consequently, there is a growing demand from medical physicists, radiographers, physicians and oncologists for articles that explain the basic physical concepts of these technologies. There are unique advantages and disadvantages to all methods of acceleration. Several promising alternative methods of accelerating particles also have to be considered since they will become increasingly available with time; however, there are still many technical problems with these that require solving. This article serves as an introduction to this complex area of physics, and will be of benefit to those engaged in cancer therapy, or who intend to acquire such technologies in the future. PMID:22374548

  11. Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2011-10-24

    Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

  12. Accelerator Physics Code Web Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, F.; Basset, R.; Bellodi, G.; Benedetto, E.; Dorda, U.; Giovannozzi, M.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pieloni, T.; Ruggiero, F.; Rumolo, G.; Schmidt, F.; Todesco, E.; Zotter, B.W.; Payet, J.; Bartolini, R.; Farvacque, L.; Sen, T.; Chin, Y.H.; Ohmi, K.; Oide, K.; Furman, M.; /LBL, Berkeley /Oak Ridge /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /SLAC /TRIUMF /Tech-X, Boulder /UC, San Diego /Darmstadt, GSI /Rutherford /Brookhaven

    2006-10-24

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  13. ACCELERATION PHYSICS CODE WEB REPOSITORY.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  14. Non-accelerator particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, R.I.; Lane, C.E.

    1991-09-01

    The goals of this research are the experimental testing of fundamental theories of physics such as grand unification and the exploration of cosmic phenomena through the techniques of particle physics. We are working on the MACRO experiment, which employs a large area underground detector to search for grand unification magnetic monopoles and dark matter candidates and to study cosmic ray muons as well as low and high energy neutrinos: the {nu}IMB project, which seeks to refurbish and upgrade the IMB water Cerenkov detector to perform an improved proton decay search together with a long baseline reactor neutrino oscillation experiment using a kiloton liquid scintillator (the Perry experiment); and development of technology for improved liquid scintillators and for very low background materials in support of the MACRO and Perry experiments and for new solar neutrino experiments. 21 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. TOPICS IN THE PHYSICS OF PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1984-07-01

    High energy physics, perhaps more than any other branch of science, is driven by technology. It is not the development of theory, or consideration of what measurements to make, which are the driving elements in our science. Rather it is the development of new technology which is the pacing item. Thus it is the development of new techniques, new computers, and new materials which allows one to develop new detectors and new particle-handling devices. It is the latter, the accelerators, which are at the heart of the science. Without particle accelerators there would be, essentially, no high energy physics. In fact. the advances in high energy physics can be directly tied to the advances in particle accelerators. Looking terribly briefly, and restricting one's self to recent history, the Bevatron made possible the discovery of the anti-proton and many of the resonances, on the AGS was found the {mu}-neutrino, the J-particle and time reversal non-invariance, on Spear was found the {psi}-particle, and, within the last year the Z{sub 0} and W{sup {+-}} were seen on the CERN SPS p-{bar p} collider. Of course one could, and should, go on in much more detail with this survey, but I think there is no need. It is clear that as better acceleration techniques were developed more and more powerful machines were built which, as a result, allowed high energy physics to advance. What are these techniques? They are very sophisticated and ever-developing. The science is very extensive and many individuals devote their whole lives to accelerator physics. As high energy experimental physicists your professional lives will be dominated by the performance of 'the machine'; i.e. the accelerator. Primarily you will be frustrated by the fact that it doesn't perform better. Why not? In these lectures, six in all, you should receive some appreciation of accelerator physics. We cannot, nor do we attempt, to make you into accelerator physicists, but we do hope to give you some insight into the

  16. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal

    2011-05-01

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  17. Analytical tools in accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-09-01

    This paper is a sub-set of my lectures presented in the Accelerator Physics course (USPAS, Santa Rosa, California, January 14-25, 2008). It is based on my notes I wrote during period from 1976 to 1979 in Novosibirsk. Only few copies (in Russian) were distributed to my colleagues in Novosibirsk Institute of Nuclear Physics. The goal of these notes is a complete description starting from the arbitrary reference orbit, explicit expressions for 4-potential and accelerator Hamiltonian and finishing with parameterization with action and angle variables. To a large degree follow logic developed in Theory of Cyclic Particle Accelerators by A.A.Kolmensky and A.N.Lebedev [Kolomensky], but going beyond the book in a number of directions. One of unusual feature is these notes use of matrix function and Sylvester formula for calculating matrices of arbitrary elements. Teaching the USPAS course motivated me to translate significant part of my notes into the English. I also included some introductory materials following Classical Theory of Fields by L.D. Landau and E.M. Liftsitz [Landau]. A large number of short notes covering various techniques are placed in the Appendices.

  18. Quench detector for superconducting elements of the NICA accelerator complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, E. V.; Svetov, L. A.; Smirnova, Z. I.

    2014-07-01

    A universal quench detector is designed for new superconducting accelerators of the NICA accelerator complex under construction at JINR. The presence of a two-channel digital input permits the detector to be used both for comparing voltage across two nearest magnets by a bridge scheme and for separating a resistive constituent of the voltage across a controlled element.

  19. Major detectors in elementary-particle physics. [Portfolio

    SciTech Connect

    Gidal, G.; Armstrong, B.; Rittenberg, A.

    1983-03-01

    With the 1983 issue of LBL-91 we introduce a supplement - a folio of descriptions of the world's major elementary particle physics detectors. Modern high energy physics usually involves the use of massive, costly, carefully engineered, large solid angle detectors. These detectors require a long lead time for construction, are often integrated with an accelerator, accumulate data over many years, and are in reality a combination of numerous subsystems. As was the case with bubble chambers, many experiments are performed with the same data, or with data taken after relatively minor changes or additions to the detector configuration. These experiments are often reported in journals whose space limitations make repeated full descriptions of the detector impossible. The detailed properties and performance of the detector are usually described in a fragmented series of papers in more specialized, technologically oriented journals. New additions are often not well documented. Several detectors often make similar measurements and physicists want to make quick comparisons of their respective capabilities. Designers of new large detectors and even of smaller experiments need to know what already exists and what performance has been achieved. To aid the physics community, the Particle Data Group has produced this brief folio of the world's major large detectors. This first edition has some notable omissions: in particular, the bubble chambers and any associated spectrometers, and the still somewhat tentative LEP, SLC, and TRISTAN detectors.

  20. Accelerator Physics Working Group Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Uesugi, T.; Wildnerc, E.

    2010-03-01

    The Accelerator Physics Working Group addressed the worldwide R&D activities performed in support of future neutrino facilities. These studies cover R&D activities for Super Beam, Beta Beam and muon-based Neutrino Factory facilities. Beta Beam activities reported the important progress made, together with the research activity planned for the coming years. Discussion sessions were also organized jointly with other working groups in order to define common ground for the optimization of a future neutrino facility. Lessons learned from already operating neutrino facilities provide key information for the design of any future neutrino facility, and were also discussed in this meeting. Radiation damage, remote handling for equipment maintenance and exchange, and primary proton beam stability and monitoring were among the important subjects presented and discussed. Status reports for each of the facility subsystems were presented: proton drivers, targets, capture systems, and muon cooling and acceleration systems. The preferred scenario for each type of possible future facility was presented, together with the challenges and remaining issues. The baseline specification for the muon-based Neutrino Factory was reviewed and updated where required. This report will emphasize new results and ideas and discuss possible changes in the baseline scenarios of the facilities. A list of possible future steps is proposed that should be followed up at NuFact10.

  1. Physics capabilities of the DO upgrade detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, J.

    1994-11-01

    The D0 detector at Fermilab is being upgraded to meet the demands imposed by high luminosity Tevatron running planned to begin in 1998. The central tracking detectors will be replaced with silicon and scintillating fiber tracking systems inside a solenoidal magnetic field and a preshower detector will be added to aid in electron identification. The design and performance of these systems are described and detailed simulations of the physics capabilities of the upgraded detector are presented. In particular the authors focus on the study of electroweak boson properties and top quark physics and briefly describe the b-physics capabilities.

  2. Light detectors for beauty physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSalvo, R.

    1996-12-01

    Cherenkov light is used to identify beauty mesons in high energy interactions in an increasing number of experiments. Speed and pixel dimension requirements are generating a revival of the vacuum light detectors as the active component of Cherenkov light detectors in the new high luminosity and high background experiments. The insensitivity to magnetic fields of the most modern vacuum light detectors also helps making these devices more competitive.

  3. Spin physics with the PHENIX detector system

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, N.; PHENIX Collaboration

    1997-12-31

    The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has extended its scope to cover spin physics using polarized proton beams. The major goals of the spin physics at RHIC are elucidation of the spin structure of the nucleon and precision tests of the symmetries. Sensitivities of the spin physics measurements with the PHENIX detector system are reviewed.

  4. A Components Database Design and Implementation for Accelerators and Detectors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, A.; Meyer, S.

    1997-05-01

    Many accelerator and detector systems being fabricated for the PEP-II Accelerator and BaBar Detector needed configuration control and calibration measurements tracked for their components. Instead of building a database for each distinct system, a Components Database was designed and implemented that can encompass any type of component and any type of measurement. In this paper we describe this database design which is especially suited for the engineering and fabrication processes of the accelerator and detector environments where there are thousands of unique component types. We give examples of information stored in the Components Database, which includes accelerator configuration, calibration measurements, fabrication history, design specifications, inventory, etc. The World Wide Web interface is used to access the data, and templates are available for international collaborations to collect data off-line.

  5. Physics motivations for SSC/LHC detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1993-06-01

    In this talk, I review the some of the physics goals and simulation work done in the SSC and LHC experimental proposal. I select the processes that illustrate the strengths and weaknesses the proposed detectors.

  6. Accelerator physics R and D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisch, A. D.

    1994-08-01

    This report discusses the NEPTUN-A experiment that will study spin effects in violent proton-proton collisions; the Siberian snake tests at IUCF cooler ring; polarized gas jets; and polarized proton acceleration to 1 TeV at Fermilab.

  7. Monopole search using an accelerator detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrenes, L.A.; Aronson, S.H.; Connolly, P.L.; Erickson, T.E.; Gibbard, B.G.; Montag, M.; Murtagh, M.J.; Murtagh, S.J.; Terada, S.; Thorndike, A.M.

    1983-12-20

    A neutrino detector at the Brookhaven AGS has been used to investigate the feasibility of using an already constructed apparatus for GUT monopole searches. A flux limit (90%CL) of 5.2 x 10/sup -12/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/ str/sup -1/ was found. The limitations of such an approach are discussed.

  8. Accelerator physics experiments at Aladdin

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Cornacchia, M.; Jackson, A.; Zisman, M.S.

    1985-07-01

    The Aladdin accelerator is a 1 GeV synchrotron light source located at the University of Wisconsin. The results of experimental studies of the Aladdin accelerator are described. The primary purpose of the experiments reported was to investigate reported anomalies in the behavior of the linear lattice, particularly in the vertical plane. A second goal was to estimate the ring broadband impedance. Experimental observations and interpretation of the linear properties of the Aladdin ring are described, including the beta function and dispersion measurements. Two experiments are described to measure the ring impedance, the first a measurement of the parasitic mode loss, and the second a measurement of the beam transfer function. Measurements of the longitudinal and transverse emittance at 100 and 200 MeV are described and compared with predictions. 10 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs. (LEW)

  9. Physics and Accelerator Applications of RF Superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    H. Padamsee; K. W. Shepard; Ron Sundelin

    1993-12-01

    A key component of any particle accelerator is the device that imparts energy gain to the charged particle. This is usually an electromagnetic cavity resonating at a microwave frequency, chosen between 100 and 3000 MHz. Serious attempts to utilize superconductors for accelerating cavities were initiated more than 25 years ago with the acceleration of electrons in a lead-plated resonator at Stanford University (1). The first full-scale accelerator, the Stanford SCA, was completed in 1978 at the High Energy Physics Laboratory (HEPL) (2). Over the intervening one and a half decades, superconducting cavities have become increasingly important to particle accelerators for nuclear physics and high energy physics. For continuous operation, as is required for many applications, the power dissipation in the walls of a copper structure is quite substantial, for example, 0.1 megawatts per meter of structure operating at an accelerating field of 1 million volts/meter (MV/m). since losses increase as the square of the accelerating field, copper cavities become severely uneconomical as demand for higher fields grows with the higher energies called for by experimenters to probe ever deeper into the structure of matter. Rf superconductivity has become an important technology for particle accelerators. Practical structures with attractive performance levels have been developed for a variety of applications, installed in the targeted accelerators, and operated over significant lengths of time. Substantial progress has been made in understanding field and Q limitations and in inventing cures to advance performance. The technical and economical potential of rf superconductivity makes it an important candidate for future advanced accelerators for free electron lasers, for nuclear physics, and for high energy physics, at the luminosity as well as at the energy frontiers.

  10. New accelerators in high-energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Blewett, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    First, I should like to mention a few new ideas that have appeared during the last few years in the accelerator field. A couple are of importance in the design of injectors, usually linear accelerators, for high-energy machines. Then I shall review some of the somewhat sensational accelerator projects, now in operation, under construction or just being proposed. Finally, I propose to mention a few applications of high-energy accelerators in fields other than high-energy physics. I realize that this is a digression from my title but I hope that you will find it interesting.

  11. Velocity effects on an accelerated Unruh-DeWitt detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolrahimi, Shohreh

    2014-07-01

    We analyze the response of an Unruh-DeWitt detector moving along an unbounded spatial trajectory in a two-dimensional spatial plane with constant independent magnitudes of both the four-acceleration and of a timelike proper time derivative of the four-accelration. In a Fermi-Walker frame moving with the detector, the direction of the acceleration rotates at a constant rate around a great circle. This is the motion of a charge in a uniform electric field when in the frame of the charge there is both an electric and a magnetic field. We compare the response of this detector to a detector moving with constant velocity in a thermal bath of the corresponding temperature for non-relativistic velocities and two regimes: ultraviolet and infrared. In the infrared regime, the detector in the Minkowski space-time moving along the spatially two-dimensional trajectory should move with a higher speed to keep up with the same excitation rate of the inertial detector in a thermal bath. In the ultraviolet regime, the dominant modification in the response of this detector compared with the blackbody spectrum of Unruh radiation is the same as the dominant modification perceived by a detector moving with constant velocity in a thermal bath.

  12. Micro Pattern Gas Detectors for Nuclear Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanvo, Kondo

    2015-10-01

    Gaseous detectors have played a pivotal role as tracking devices in the field of particle physics experiments for the last fifty years. Nowadays, advances in photolithography and micro processing techniques have enabled the transition from the old generation of multi wire gaseous chamber (MWPCs) to a new family commonly refer to as Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs). MPGD technologies combine the basic gas amplification principle with micro-structure printed circuits to provide detectors with excellent spatial and time resolution, high rate capability, low material budget and high radiation tolerance. Several technical breakthroughs over the past decade have allowed the possibility for large area MPGDs, making them cost effective and high performance detector candidates for future nuclear physics (NP) and high energy physics (HEP) experiments. We give in the present talk, an overview of the state of the art of the MPGDs. We will then briefly present the CERN-based RD51 collaboration established in 2008 with the goal of further advancing technological developments and applications of MPGDs and associated electronic-readout systems. Finally we report on the rich and diverse R&D activities on MPGDs to prepare for the detector challenges of the next generation of accelerators and for the frontiers of physics research.

  13. CAS CERN Accelerator School 5th General Accelerator Physics Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, S.

    1994-01-01

    The fifth CERN Accelerator School (CAS) basic course on General Accelerator Physics was given at the University of Jyvaeskylae, Finland, from 7 to 18 September 1992. Its syllabus was based on the previous similar courses held at Gif-sur-Yvette in 1984, Aarhus 1986, Salamanca 1988 and Juelich 1990, and whose proceedings were published as CERN Reports 85-19, 87-10, 89-05 and 91-04, respectively. However, certain topics were treated in a different way, improved or extended, while new subjects were introduced. As far as the proceedings of this school are concerned the opportunity was taken not only to include the lectures presented but also to select and revise the most appropriate chapters from the previous similar schools. In this way the present volumes constitute a rather complete introduction to all aspects of the design and construction of particle accelerators, including optics, emittance, luminosity, longitudinal and transverse beam dynamics, insertions, chromaticity, transfer lines, resonances, accelerating structures, tune shifts, coasting beams, lifetime, synchrotron radiation, radiation damping, beam-beam effects, diagnostics, cooling, ion and positron sources, RF and vacuum systems, injection and extraction, conventional, permanent and superconducting magnets, cyclotrons, RF linear accelerators, microtrons, as well as applications of particle accelerators (including therapy) and the history of accelerators. See hints under the relevant topics.

  14. Computational Accelerator Physics Working Group Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, John R.; Bohn, Courtlandt L.

    2004-08-27

    The working group on computational accelerator physics at the 11th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held a series of meetings during the Workshop. Verification, i.e., showing that a computational application correctly solves the assumed model, and validation, i.e., showing that the model correctly describes the modeled system, were discussed for a number of systems. In particular, the predictions of the massively parallel codes, OSIRIS and VORPAL, used for modeling advanced accelerator concepts, were compared and shown to agree, thereby establishing some verification of both codes. In addition, a number of talks on the status and frontiers of computational accelerator physics were presented, to include the modeling of ultrahigh-brightness electron photoinjectors and the physics of beam halo production. Finally, talks discussing computational needs were presented.

  15. Computational Accelerator Physics Working Group Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, John R.; Bohn, Courtlandt L.

    2004-12-07

    The working group on computational accelerator physics at the 11th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held a series of meetings during the Workshop. Verification, i.e., showing that a computational application correctly solves the assumed model, and validation, i.e., showing that the model correctly describes the modeled system, were discussed for a number of systems. In particular, the predictions of the massively parallel codes, OSIRIS and VORPAL, used for modeling advanced accelerator concepts, were compared and shown to agree, thereby establishing some verification of both codes. In addition, a number of talks on the status and frontiers of computational accelerator physics were presented, to include the modeling of ultrahigh-brightness electron photoinjectors and the physics of beam halo production. Finally, talks discussing computational needs were presented.

  16. Inclined Planes and Motion Detectors: A Study of Acceleration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Dyanne M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students work in cooperative groups and roll balls down inclined planes, collect data with the help of an electronic motion detector, and represent data with a graphing calculator to explore concepts such as mass, gravity, velocity, and acceleration. (Contains 12 references.) (Author/ASK)

  17. The plasma physics of shock acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Frank C.; Ellison, Donald C.

    1991-01-01

    The history and theory of shock acceleration is reviewed, paying particular attention to theories of parallel shocks which include the backreaction of accelerated particles on the shock structure. The work that computer simulations, both plasma and Monte Carlo, are playing in revealing how thermal ions interact with shocks and how particle acceleration appears to be an inevitable and necessary part of the basic plasma physics that governs collisionless shocks is discussed. Some of the outstanding problems that still confront theorists and observers in this field are described.

  18. Laser Wakefield Acceleration and Fundamental Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2011-06-20

    The laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) along with the now available laser technology allows us to look at TeV physics both in leptons and hadrons. Near future proof-of-principle experiments for a collider as well as high energy frontier experiments without a collider paradigm are suggested. The intense laser can also contribute to other fundamental physics explorations such as those of dark matter and dark energy candidates. Finally the combination of intense laser and laser-accelerated particles (electrons, hadrons, gammas) provides a further avenue of fundamental research.

  19. Cryogenic 3-D Detectors for Solar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, R. A.; Martinez-Galarce, D.; Rausch, A.; Shing, L.; Deiker, S.; Boerner, P.; Metcalf, T.; Cabrera, B.; Leman, S. W.; Brink, P.; Irwin, K.; Alexander, D.

    2005-05-01

    Cryogenic microcalorimeters operating in the sub-Kelvin temperature range provide non-dispersive energy resolution at optical through gamma ray energies (e.g, E/Δ E ~ 1500 at 6 keV). Microcalorimeters also have high time resolution (msec or better), and can be made into imaging arrays through SQUID multiplexing of individual pixels or employing position sensitive detector structures. The application of such "3-D" detector technology to solar physics will lead to significant advances in our understanding of magnetic reconnection in the Sun, including X-ray jet phenomena, and active region heating and dynamics. An Explorer-class solar mission within the next 5-10 years, based upon these detectors, is rapidly becoming technically feasible. LMSAL currently has an internally funded laboratory research program to investigate TES (Transition Edge Sensor) microcalorimeters; we recently saw our first X-ray photons using TES detectors supplied by NIST. In addition, we have recently been funded by NASA to begin work with NIST on position-sensitive X-ray strip detectors for solar physics applications. Finally, we are collaborating with with Stanford and NIST on a solar sounding rocket. In this presentation, we will discuss the current status of these programs and their applicability to future Explorer missions and Roadmap missions such as RAM.

  20. Physics with the STAR detector at RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    LeCompte, T. J.

    1998-08-28

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory will collide beams of nuclei (as light as protons and as heavy as gold) at energies of up to 200 GeV per nucleon. At these energies, the probability of detecting a phase transition to a state of matter where quarks and gluons are not confined to nucleons is large. (The nuclear densities are approaching nucleon densities) Additionally, the collision is occurring in a kinematic regime where perturbative QCD is expected to be reliable. I discuss the capabilities of the STAR detector at RHIC and a subset of the physics program the STAR collaboration hopes to undertake with this detector.

  1. Summary of the very large hadron collider physics and detector workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G.; Berger, M.; Brandt, A.; Eno, S.

    1997-10-01

    One of the options for an accelerator beyond the LHC is a hadron collider with higher energy. Work is going on to explore accelerator technologies that would make such a machine feasible. This workshop concentrated on the physics and detector issues associated with a hadron collider with an energy in the center of mass of the order of 100 to 200 TeV.

  2. CLIC CDR - physics and detectors: CLIC conceptual design report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.; Demarteau, M.; Repond, J.; Xia, L.; Weerts, H.

    2012-02-10

    This report forms part of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) of the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC). The CLIC accelerator complex is described in a separate CDR volume. A third document, to appear later, will assess strategic scenarios for building and operating CLIC in successive center-of-mass energy stages. It is anticipated that CLIC will commence with operation at a few hundred GeV, giving access to precision standard-model physics like Higgs and top-quark physics. Then, depending on the physics landscape, CLIC operation would be staged in a few steps ultimately reaching the maximum 3 TeV center-of-mass energy. Such a scenario would maximize the physics potential of CLIC providing new physics discovery potential over a wide range of energies and the ability to make precision measurements of possible new states previously discovered at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The main purpose of this document is to address the physics potential of a future multi-TeV e{sup +}e{sup -} collider based on CLIC technology and to describe the essential features of a detector that are required to deliver the full physics potential of this machine. The experimental conditions at CLIC are significantly more challenging than those at previous electron-positron colliders due to the much higher levels of beam-induced backgrounds and the 0.5 ns bunch-spacing. Consequently, a large part of this report is devoted to understanding the impact of the machine environment on the detector with the aim of demonstrating, with the example of realistic detector concepts, that high precision physics measurements can be made at CLIC. Since the impact of background increases with energy, this document concentrates on the detector requirements and physics measurements at the highest CLIC center-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. One essential output of this report is the clear demonstration that a wide range of high precision physics measurements can be made at CLIC with detectors which are challenging, but

  3. Accelerator Physics: An Undergraduate Course in Experimental Nuclear Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielder, Douglas S.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses a 2-semester-hour experimental physics course utilizing a 0.5 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator. The course requires the completion of six or seven laboratory projects including complete written reports, and theory is emphasized only to the extent needed to understand the projects. (MLH)

  4. The use of nuclear physics and high energy physics detectors in medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Guerra, Alberto; Bisogni, Maria Giuseppina

    2013-06-01

    The development of radiation detectors in the field of nuclear and particle physics has had a terrific impact in medical imaging since this latter discipline took off in late '70 with the invention of the CT scanners. The massive use in Nuclear Physics and High Energy Physics of position sensitive gas detectors, of high Z and high density scintillators coupled to Photomultiplier (PMT) and Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PSPMT), and of solid state detectors has triggered during the last 30 years a series of novel applications in Medical Imaging with ionizing radiation. The accelerated scientific progression in genetics and molecular biology has finally generated what it is now called Molecular Imaging. This field of research presents additional challenges not only in the technology of radiation detector, but more and more in the ASIC electronics, fast digital readout and parallel software. In this paper we will try to present how Nuclear Physics/High Energy Physics and Medical Imaging have both benefited by the cross-fertilization of research activities between the two fields and how much they will take advantage in the future.

  5. Essay: Accelerators, Beams and Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemann, Robert H.

    2008-05-01

    Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

  6. Low Temperature Detectors for Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nucciotti, A.

    2014-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed many exciting breakthroughs in neutrino physics. The detection of neutrino oscillations has proved that neutrinos are massive particles but the assessment of their absolute mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in today particle physics and cosmology. Due to their abundance as big-bang relics, massive neutrinos strongly affect the large-scale structure and dynamics of the universe. In addition, the knowledge of the scale of neutrino masses, together with their hierarchy pattern, is invaluable to clarify the origin of fermion masses beyond the Higgs mechanism. The mass hierarchy is not the only missing piece in the puzzle. Theories of neutrino mass generation call into play Majorana neutrinos and there are experimental observations pointing to the existence of sterile neutrinos in addition to the three ones weakly interacting. Since low temperature detectors were first proposed for neutrino physics experiments in 1984, there have been impressive technical progresses: today this technique offers the high energy resolution and scalability required for leading edges and competitive experiments addressing the still open questions.

  7. Pulsed power accelerator for material physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisman, D. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Stygar, W. A.; Austin, K. N.; Waisman, E. M.; Hickman, R. J.; Davis, J.-P.; Haill, T. A.; Knudson, M. D.; Seagle, C. T.; Brown, J. L.; Goerz, D. A.; Spielman, R. B.; Goldlust, J. A.; Cravey, W. R.

    2015-09-01

    We have developed the design of Thor: a pulsed power accelerator that delivers a precisely shaped current pulse with a peak value as high as 7 MA to a strip-line load. The peak magnetic pressure achieved within a 1-cm-wide load is as high as 100 GPa. Thor is powered by as many as 288 decoupled and transit-time isolated bricks. Each brick consists of a single switch and two capacitors connected electrically in series. The bricks can be individually triggered to achieve a high degree of current pulse tailoring. Because the accelerator is impedance matched throughout, capacitor energy is delivered to the strip-line load with an efficiency as high as 50%. We used an iterative finite element method (FEM), circuit, and magnetohydrodynamic simulations to develop an optimized accelerator design. When powered by 96 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 4.1 MA to a load, and achieves peak magnetic pressures as high as 65 GPa. When powered by 288 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 6.9 MA to a load, and achieves magnetic pressures as high as 170 GPa. We have developed an algebraic calculational procedure that uses the single brick basis function to determine the brick-triggering sequence necessary to generate a highly tailored current pulse time history for shockless loading of samples. Thor will drive a wide variety of magnetically driven shockless ramp compression, shockless flyer plate, shock-ramp, equation of state, material strength, phase transition, and other advanced material physics experiments.

  8. Tevatron accelerator physics and operation highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Valishev, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The performance of the Tevatron collider demonstrated continuous growth over the course of Run II, with the peak luminosity reaching 4 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, and the weekly integration rate exceeding 70 pb{sup -1}. This report presents a review of the most important advances that contributed to this performance improvement, including beam dynamics modeling, precision optics measurements and stability control, implementation of collimation during low-beta squeeze. Algorithms employed for optimization of the luminosity integration are presented and the lessons learned from high-luminosity operation are discussed. Studies of novel accelerator physics concepts at the Tevatron are described, such as the collimation techniques using crystal collimator and hollow electron beam, and compensation of beam-beam effects.

  9. First experience of vectorizing electromagnetic physics models for detector simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Amadio, G.; Apostolakis, J.; Bandieramonte, M.; Bianchini, C.; Bitzes, G.; Brun, R.; Canal, P.; Carminati, F.; Licht, J.de Fine; Duhem, L.; Elvira, D.; Gheata, A.; Jun, S. Y.; Lima, G.; Novak, M.; Presbyterian, M.; Shadura, O.; Seghal, R.; Wenzel, S.

    2015-12-23

    The recent emergence of hardware architectures characterized by many-core or accelerated processors has opened new opportunities for concurrent programming models taking advantage of both SIMD and SIMT architectures. The GeantV vector prototype for detector simulations has been designed to exploit both the vector capability of mainstream CPUs and multi-threading capabilities of coprocessors including NVidia GPUs and Intel Xeon Phi. The characteristics of these architectures are very different in terms of the vectorization depth, parallelization needed to achieve optimal performance or memory access latency and speed. An additional challenge is to avoid the code duplication often inherent to supporting heterogeneous platforms. In this paper we present the first experience of vectorizing electromagnetic physics models developed for the GeantV project.

  10. First experience of vectorizing electromagnetic physics models for detector simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadio, G.; Apostolakis, J.; Bandieramonte, M.; Bianchini, C.; Bitzes, G.; Brun, R.; Canal, P.; Carminati, F.; de Fine Licht, J.; Duhem, L.; Elvira, D.; Gheata, A.; Jun, S. Y.; Lima, G.; Novak, M.; Presbyterian, M.; Shadura, O.; Seghal, R.; Wenzel, S.

    2015-12-01

    The recent emergence of hardware architectures characterized by many-core or accelerated processors has opened new opportunities for concurrent programming models taking advantage of both SIMD and SIMT architectures. The GeantV vector prototype for detector simulations has been designed to exploit both the vector capability of mainstream CPUs and multi-threading capabilities of coprocessors including NVidia GPUs and Intel Xeon Phi. The characteristics of these architectures are very different in terms of the vectorization depth, parallelization needed to achieve optimal performance or memory access latency and speed. An additional challenge is to avoid the code duplication often inherent to supporting heterogeneous platforms. In this paper we present the first experience of vectorizing electromagnetic physics models developed for the GeantV project.

  11. Noble liquid detectors for fundamental physics and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curioni, A.

    2009-12-01

    Noble liquid detectors come in many sizes and configurations and cover a lot of ground as particle and radiation detectors: from calorimeters for colliders to imaging detectors for neutrino physics and proton decay to WIMP Dark Matter detectors. It turns out that noble liquid detectors are a mature technology for imaging and spectroscopy of gamma rays and for neutron detection, a fact that makes them suitable for applications, e.g. cargo scanning and Homeland Security. In this short paper I will focus on liquid xenon and liquid argon, which make excellent detectors for hypothetical WIMP Dark Matter and neutrinos and for much less exotic gamma rays.

  12. Accelerator physics: Surf's up at SLAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, Mike; Zgadzaj, Rafal

    2014-11-01

    A 'plasma afterburner' just 30 centimetres long accelerates electrons hundreds of times faster than giant conventional accelerators. The result may ultimately open up a low-cost technology for particle colliders. See Letter p.92

  13. Nuclear physics detector technology applied to plant biology research

    SciTech Connect

    Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Kross, Brian J.; Lee, Seung Joo; McKisson, John E.; Xi, Wenze; Zorn, Carl J.; Howell, Calvin; Crowell, A.S.; Reid, C.D.; Smith, Mark

    2013-08-01

    The ability to detect the emissions of radioactive isotopes through radioactive decay (e.g. beta particles, x-rays and gamma-rays) has been used for over 80 years as a tracer method for studying natural phenomena. More recently a positron emitting radioisotope of carbon: {sup 11}C has been utilized as a {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer for plant ecophysiology research. Because of its ease of incorporation into the plant via photosynthesis, the {sup 11}CO{sub 2} radiotracer is a powerful tool for use in plant biology research. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to study carbon transport in live plants using {sup 11}CO{sub 2}. Presently there are several groups developing and using new PET instrumentation for plant based studies. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in collaboration with the Duke University Phytotron and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) is involved in PET detector development for plant imaging utilizing technologies developed for nuclear physics research. The latest developments of the use of a LYSO scintillator based PET detector system for {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer studies in plants will be briefly outlined.

  14. Astroparticle Physics: Detectors for Cosmic Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, Humberto; Villasenor, Luis

    2006-09-25

    We describe the work that we have done over the last decade to design and construct instruments to measure properties of cosmic rays in Mexico. We describe the measurement of the muon lifetime and the ratio of positive to negative muons in the natural background of cosmic ray muons at 2000 m.a.s.l. Next we describe the detection of decaying and crossing muons in a water Cherenkov detector as well as a technique to separate isolated particles. We also describe the detection of isolated muons and electrons in a liquid scintillator detector and their separation. Next we describe the detection of extensive air showers (EAS) with a hybrid detector array consisting of water Cherenkov and liquid scintillator detectors, located at the campus of the University of Puebla. Finally we describe work in progress to detect EAS at 4600 m.a.s.l. with a water Cherenkov detector array and a fluorescence telescope at the Sierra Negra mountain.

  15. Guide to accelerator physics program SYNCH: VAX version 1987. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.; Courant, E.

    1987-01-01

    This guide is written to accommodate users of Accelerator Physics Data Base BNLDAG::DUAO:(PARSA1). It describes the contents of the on line Accelerator Physics data base DUAO:(PARSA1.SYNCH). SYNCH is a computer program used for the design and analysis of synchrotrons, storage rings and beamlines.

  16. Advanced Computing Tools and Models for Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, Robert; Ryne, Robert D.

    2008-06-11

    This paper is based on a transcript of my EPAC'08 presentation on advanced computing tools for accelerator physics. Following an introduction I present several examples, provide a history of the development of beam dynamics capabilities, and conclude with thoughts on the future of large scale computing in accelerator physics.

  17. Physical activities to enhance an understanding of acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. A.

    2006-03-01

    On the basis of their everyday experiences, students have developed an understanding of many of the concepts of mechanics by the time they take their first physics course. However, an accurate understanding of acceleration remains elusive. Many students have difficulties distinguishing between velocity and acceleration. In this report, a set of physical activities to highlight the differences between acceleration and velocity are described. These activities involve running and walking on sand (such as an outdoor volleyball court).

  18. Laboratory and accelerator test of the charge particle detectors for a satellite instrument "STEP-F"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnik, O. V.; Goka, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Fujii, M.; Golovash, O. S.; Malykhina, T. V.

    2003-04-01

    The spectrometer-telescope "STEP-F" is aimed for the registration of high-energy charged particle fluxes in the near Earth space. It is planned to install the instrument on board of Russian spacecraft "Coronas-Photon" to study solar cosmic rays and dynamics of the Earth' radiation belts. Its detector system consists of two position-sensitive silicon matrices to determine the direction of the primary particles and two layers of the scintillation detectors that serve for the energy determining of these particles. First laboratory tests of detectors were made with the help of various radioactive sources and imitating signals. Radiophysical characteristics as well as temperature dependence of the energy resolution for silicon matrix element and CsI(Tl) scintillation detector are presented. In order to check the reaction extent of the detectors in high energy range the tests was carried out on the ion cyclotron accelerator of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN, Japan). We have used a-particle and hydrogen ion H2 beams to determine the response level and real energy range of particles registered by each layer of detectors. Simultaneously a computer simulation of deposited energies and stopping ranges for electrons, protons and alpha-particles has been done. The simulation by Monte Carlo method is made using the Cern GEANT4.2 Code under OS LINUX6.2. The experimental data obtained is in well agreement with results of Monte-Carlo simulation. It has been found, both experimentally and by simulation, that the signals coming from neighboring elements of the position-sensitive silicon matrix are not affected by secondary particles. In particular, the number of albedo secondary particles generated in the scintillator is rather small as compared to the primary particles, so that secondaries do not significantly contribute to the total intensity of recorded primary particles.

  19. Physics validation studies for muon collider detector background simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Aaron Owen; /Northern Illinois U.

    2011-07-01

    Within the broad discipline of physics, the study of the fundamental forces of nature and the most basic constituents of the universe belongs to the field of particle physics. While frequently referred to as 'high-energy physics,' or by the acronym 'HEP,' particle physics is not driven just by the quest for ever-greater energies in particle accelerators. Rather, particle physics is seen as having three distinct areas of focus: the cosmic, intensity, and energy frontiers. These three frontiers all provide different, but complementary, views of the basic building blocks of the universe. Currently, the energy frontier is the realm of hadron colliders like the Tevatron at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) or the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. While the LHC is expected to be adequate for explorations up to 14 TeV for the next decade, the long development lead time for modern colliders necessitates research and development efforts in the present for the next generation of colliders. This paper focuses on one such next-generation machine: a muon collider. Specifically, this paper focuses on Monte Carlo simulations of beam-induced backgrounds vis-a-vis detector region contamination. Initial validation studies of a few muon collider physics background processes using G4beamline have been undertaken and results presented. While these investigations have revealed a number of hurdles to getting G4beamline up to the level of more established simulation suites, such as MARS, the close communication between us, as users, and the G4beamline developer, Tom Roberts, has allowed for rapid implementation of user-desired features. The main example of user-desired feature implementation, as it applies to this project, is Bethe-Heitler muon production. Regarding the neutron interaction issues, we continue to study the specifics of how GEANT4 implements nuclear interactions. The GEANT4 collaboration has been contacted regarding the minor discrepancies in the neutron

  20. Atomic Physics with Accelerators: Projectile Electron Spectroscopy (APAPES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madesis, I.; Dimitriou, A.; Laoutaris, A.; Lagoyannis, A.; Axiotis, M.; Mertzimekis, T.; Andrianis, M.; Harissopulos, S.; Benis, E. P.; Sulik, B.; Valastyán, I.; Zouros, T. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The new research initiative APAPES (http://apapes.physics.uoc.gr/) has already established a new experimental station with a beam line dedicated for atomic collisions physics research, at the 5 MV TANDEM accelerator of the National Research Centre "Demokritos" in Athens, Greece. A complete zero-degree Auger projectile spectroscopy (ZAPS) apparatus has been put together to perform high resolution studies of electrons emitted in ion-atom collisions. A single stage hemispherical spectrometer with a 2-dimensional Position Sensitive Detector (PSD) combined with a doubly-differentially pumped gas target will be used to perform a systematic isoelectronic investigation of K-Auger spectra emitted from collisions of preexcited and ground state He-like ions with gas targets using novel techniques. Our intention is to provide a more thorough understanding of cascade feeding of the 1s2s2p 4P metastable states produced by electron capture in collisions of He-like ions with gas targets and further elucidate their role in the non-statistical production of excited three-electron 1s2s2p states by electron capture, recently a field of conflicting interpretations awaiting further resolution. At the moment, the apparatus is being completed and the spectrometer will soon be fully operational. Here we present the project progress and the recent high resolution spectrum obtained in collisions of 12 MeV C4+ on a Neon gas target.

  1. The Influence of Accelerator Science on Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haussecker, Enzo F.; Chao, Alexander W.

    2011-06-01

    We evaluate accelerator science in the context of its contributions to the physics community. We address the problem of quantifying these contributions and present a scheme for a numerical evaluation of them. We show by using a statistical sample of important developments in modern physics that accelerator science has influenced 28% of post-1938 physicists and also 28% of post-1938 physics research. We also examine how the influence of accelerator science has evolved over time, and show that on average it has contributed to a physics Nobel Prize-winning research every 2.9 years.

  2. Monitoring of D-T accelerator neutron output in a PGNAA system using silicon carbide detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulloo, Abdul R.; Ruddy, Frank H.; Seidel, John G.; Petrović, Bojan

    2001-07-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) detectors are being employed to monitor the neutron output of the D-T accelerator in a pulsed Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) system. Detection of the source neutrons relies on energetic neutron reactions in the detector material. Experimental testing has been performed to confirm that the detector response is caused by fast neutrons from the accelerator source. Modeling calculations have also been carried out to provide additional verification. Use of the SiC detectors in the PGNAA system is expected to assist in evaluating system performance as well as ensuring accurate data interpretation and analysis.

  3. Silicon Detectors-Tools for Discovery in Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Krammer, Manfred

    2009-07-07

    Since the first application of Silicon strip detectors in high energy physics in the early 1980ies these detectors have enabled the experiments to perform new challenging measurements. With these devices it became possible to determine the decay lengths of heavy quarks, for example in the fixed target experiment NA11 at CERN. In this experiment Silicon tracking detectors were used for the identification of particles containing a c-quark. Later on, the experiments at the Large Electron Positron collider at CERN used already larger and sophisticated assemblies of Silicon detectors to identify and study particles containing the b-quark. A very important contribution to the discovery of the last of the six quarks, the top quark, has been made by even larger Silicon vertex detectors inside the experiments CDF and D0 at Fermilab. Nowadays a mature detector technology, the use of Silicon detectors is no longer restricted to the vertex regions of collider experiments. The two multipurpose experiments ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN contain large tracking detectors made of Silicon. The largest is the CMS Inner Tracker consisting of 200 m{sup 2} of Silicon sensor area. These detectors will be very important for a possible discovery of the Higgs boson or of Super Symmetric particles. This paper explains the first applications of Silicon sensors in particle physics and describes the continuous development of this technology up to the construction of the state of the art Silicon detector of CMS.

  4. Fifty years of accelerator based physics at Chalk River

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, John W.

    1999-04-26

    The Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. was a major centre for Accelerator based physics for the last fifty years. As early as 1946, nuclear structure studies were started on Cockroft-Walton accelerators. A series of accelerators followed, including the world's first Tandem, and the MP Tandem, Superconducting Cyclotron (TASCC) facility that was opened in 1986. The nuclear physics program was shut down in 1996. This paper will describe some of the highlights of the accelerators and the research of the laboratory.

  5. State-of-the-Art Particle Physics Detector

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 institutes from 16 countries and organized under United States...

  6. Neutrino physics with accelerator driven subcritical reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuffoli, Emilio; Evslin, Jarah; Zhao, Fengyi

    2016-01-01

    Accelerator driven system (ADS) subcritical nuclear reactors are under development around the world. They will be intense sources of free, 30-55 MeV μ + decay at rest {overline{ν}}_{μ } . These ADS reactor neutrinos can provide a robust test of the LSND anomaly and a precise measurement of the leptonic CP-violating phase δ, including sign(cos(δ)). The first phase of many ADS programs includes the construction of a low energy, high intensity proton or deuteron accelerator, which can yield competitive bounds on sterile neutrinos.

  7. Chaotic dynamics in accelerator physics. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, J.R.

    1992-11-30

    Substantial progress was in several areas of accelerator dynamics. For developing understanding of longitudinal adiabatic dynamics, and for creating efficiency enhancements of recirculating free-electron lasers, was substantially completed. A computer code for analyzing the critical KAM tori that bound the dynamic aperture in circular machines was developed. Studies of modes that arise due to the interaction of coating beams with a narrow-spectrum impedance have begun. During this research educational and research ties with the accelerator community at large have been strengthened.

  8. The Physical Principles of Particle Detectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Goronwy Tudor

    1991-01-01

    Describes the use of a particle detector, an instrument that records the passage of particles through it, to determine the mass of a particle by measuring the particles momentum, speed, and kinetic energy. An appendix discusses the limits on the impact parameter. (MDH)

  9. Stringed Planar-detectors for Investigation of Rare Event Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wenzhao; Mei, Dongming; Zhang, Chao; Cubed Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    In the detection of rare event physics with HPGe detectors, conventional P-type Point Contact (PPC) or coaxial detectors have no capability of discriminating electron/nuclear recoils. The CDMS-type bolometers, which possess great electron/nuclear recoils discrimination, must be operated in milli-kelvin temperature range with diffusion refrigerator at high price. Alternatively, a new idea of using great granularity and plasma time difference in pulse shape to discriminate nuclear recoils from electronic recoils with conventional germanium detectors is discussed in this paper. Stringed planar germanium detectors have been designed in a Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation in which radiogenic backgrounds from 60Co, 40K, 238U, 232Th, and (alpha,n) neutrons have been studied. We show the anticipated sensitivity of this new detector array for detecting rare event physics including neutrinoless double-beta decay.

  10. Fluid Physics Under a Stochastic Acceleration Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinals, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    The research summarized in this report has involved a combined theoretical and computational study of fluid flow that results from the random acceleration environment present onboard space orbiters, also known as g-jitter. We have focused on a statistical description of the observed g-jitter, on the flows that such an acceleration field can induce in a number of experimental configurations of interest, and on extending previously developed methodology to boundary layer flows. Narrow band noise has been shown to describe many of the features of acceleration data collected during space missions. The scale of baroclinically induced flows when the driving acceleration is random is not given by the Rayleigh number. Spatially uniform g-jitter induces additional hydrodynamic forces among suspended particles in incompressible fluids. Stochastic modulation of the control parameter shifts the location of the onset of an oscillatory instability. Random vibration of solid boundaries leads to separation of boundary layers. Steady streaming ahead of a modulated solid-melt interface enhances solute transport, and modifies the stability boundaries of a planar front.

  11. Fluid Physics in a Fluctuating Acceleration Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, J. Ross; Drolet, Francois; Vinals, Jorge

    1996-01-01

    We summarize several aspects of an ongoing investigation of the effects that stochastic residual accelerations (g-jitter) onboard spacecraft can have on experiments conducted in a microgravity environment. The residual acceleration field is modeled as a narrow band noise, characterized by three independent parameters: intensity (g(exp 2)), dominant angular frequency Omega, and characteristic correlation time tau. Realistic values for these parameters are obtained from an analysis of acceleration data corresponding to the SL-J mission, as recorded by the SAMS instruments. We then use the model to address the random motion of a solid particle suspended in an incompressible fluid subjected to such random accelerations. As an extension, the effect of jitter on coarsening of a solid-liquid mixture is briefly discussed, and corrections to diffusion controlled coarsening evaluated. We conclude that jitter will not be significant in the experiment 'Coarsening of solid-liquid mixtures' to be conducted in microgravity. Finally, modifications to the location of onset of instability in systems driven by a random force are discussed by extending the standard reduction to the center manifold to the stochastic case. Results pertaining to time-modulated oscillatory convection are briefly discussed.

  12. SYMMETRY, HAMILTONIAN PROBLEMS AND WAVELETS IN ACCELERATOR PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    FEDOROVA,A.; ZEITLIN,M.; PARSA,Z.

    2000-03-31

    In this paper the authors consider applications of methods from wavelet analysis to nonlinear dynamical problems related to accelerator physics. In this approach they take into account underlying algebraical, geometrical and topological structures of corresponding problems.

  13. Accelerating Innovation: How Nuclear Physics Benefits Us All

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    2011-01-01

    Innovation has been accelerated by nuclear physics in the areas of improving our health; making the world safer; electricity, environment, archaeology; better computers; contributions to industry; and training the next generation of innovators.

  14. Summary for astrophysics and non-accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kahana, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the presentations at the astrophysics and non-accelerator physics conference. Discussed in this paper are: supernovae, neutrinos, x-rays, gamma rays, cosmic rays, monopoles and primordial nucleosynthesis. 15 refs. (LSP)

  15. Probing new physics with underground accelerators and radioactive sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izaguirre, Eder; Krnjaic, Gordan; Pospelov, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    New light, weakly coupled particles can be efficiently produced at existing and future high-intensity accelerators and radioactive sources in deep underground laboratories. Once produced, these particles can scatter or decay in large neutrino detectors (e.g. Super-K and Borexino) housed in the same facilities. We discuss the production of weakly coupled scalars ϕ via nuclear de-excitation of an excited element into the ground state in two viable concrete reactions: the decay of the 0+ excited state of 16O populated via a (p , α) reaction on fluorine and from radioactive 144Ce decay where the scalar is produced in the de-excitation of 144Nd*, which occurs along the decay chain. Subsequent scattering on electrons, e (ϕ , γ) e, yields a mono-energetic signal that is observable in neutrino detectors. We show that this proposed experimental setup can cover new territory for masses 250 keV ≤mϕ ≤ 2me and couplings to protons and electrons, 10-11 ≤gegp ≤10-7. This parameter space is motivated by explanations of the 'proton charge radius puzzle', thus this strategy adds a viable new physics component to the neutrino and nuclear astrophysics programs at underground facilities. For the LUNA-type setup, we show that such light particles can be efficiently produced by populating the first excited 6.05 MeV 0+ state of 16O in (p , α) reactions on fluorine. For the SOX-type setup we find similarly powerful sensitivity from the 144Ce-144Pr (νbare) radioactive source, which can produce a scalar with 2.19 or 1.49 MeV energies from the Nd144* de-excitation that occurs along the decay chain. The subsequent detection of a mono-energetic release in a Borexino-type detector with 6.05, 2.19, or 1.49 MeV will be free from substantial environmental backgrounds. The strategy proposed in this Letter is capable of advancing the sensitivity to such states by many orders of magnitude, completely covering the parameter space relevant for the rp puzzle.

  16. Physics of Laser-driven plasma-based acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Esarey, Eric; Schroeder, Carl B.

    2003-06-30

    The physics of plasma-based accelerators driven by short-pulse lasers is reviewed. This includes the laser wake-field accelerator, the plasma beat wave accelerator, the self-modulated laser wake-field accelerator, and plasma waves driven by multiple laser pulses. The properties of linear and nonlinear plasma waves are discussed, as well as electron acceleration in plasma waves. Methods for injecting and trapping plasma electrons in plasma waves are also discussed. Limits to the electron energy gain are summarized, including laser pulse direction, electron dephasing, laser pulse energy depletion, as well as beam loading limitations. The basic physics of laser pulse evolution in underdense plasmas is also reviewed. This includes the propagation, self-focusing, and guiding of laser pulses in uniform plasmas and plasmas with preformed density channels. Instabilities relevant to intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions, such as Raman, self-modulation, and hose instabilities, are discussed. Recent experimental results are summarized.

  17. Cosmic ray physics with the OPERA Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugiere, T.

    2010-04-01

    OPERA is a long-baseline neutrino experiment located in the Hall C of the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory at an average depth of 3.8 km.w.e., corresponding to muon energies at surface higher than 1.5 TeV. In this paper we focus on the potentialities of OPERA used as a cosmic ray detector. We report on the measurement of the atmospheric muon charge ratio, on the analysis of upgoing muons induced by atmospheric neutrinos and on the large cosmics showers inducing coincidences between different experiments in Gran Sasso.

  18. Accelerator physics analysis with an integrated toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, J.A.; Michelotti, L.; Satogata, T.

    1992-08-01

    Work is in progress on an integrated software toolkit for linear and nonlinear accelerator design, analysis, and simulation. As a first application, ``beamline`` and ``MXYZPTLK`` (differential algebra) class libraries, were used with an X Windows graphics library to build an user-friendly, interactive phase space tracker which, additionally, finds periodic orbits. This program was used to analyse a theoretical lattice which contains octupoles and decapoles to find the 20th order, stable and unstable periodic orbits and to explore the local phase space structure.

  19. Backreaction and the Unruh effect: New insights from exact solutions of uniformly accelerated detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.-Y.; Hu, B. L.

    2007-09-15

    Using nonperturbative results obtained recently for a uniformly accelerated Unruh-DeWitt detector, we discover new features in the dynamical evolution of the detector's internal degree of freedom, and identified the Unruh effect derived originally from time-dependent perturbation theory as operative in the ultraweak coupling and ultrahigh acceleration limits. The mutual interaction between the detector and the field engenders entanglement between them, and tracing out the field leads to a mixed state of the detector even for a detector at rest in Minkowski vacuum. Our findings based on this exact solution show clearly the differences from the ordinary result where the quantum field's backreaction is ignored in that the detector no longer behaves like a perfect thermometer. From a calculation of the evolution of the reduced density matrix of the detector, we find that the transition probability from the initial ground state over an infinitely long duration of interaction derived from time-dependent perturbation theory is existent in the exact solution only in transient under special limiting conditions corresponding to the Markovian regime. Furthermore, the detector at late times never sees an exact Boltzmann distribution over the energy eigenstates of the free detector, thus in the non-Markovian regime covering a wider range of parameters the Unruh temperature cannot be identified inside the detector.

  20. Particle Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris

    2011-09-01

    Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; Introduction; 1. Interactions of particles and radiation with matter; 2. Characteristic properties of detectors; 3. Units of radiation measurements and radiation sources; 4. Accelerators; 5. Main physical phenomena used for particle detection and basic counter types; 6. Historical track detectors; 7. Track detectors; 8. Calorimetry; 9. Particle identification; 10. Neutrino detectors; 11. Momentum measurement and muon detection; 12. Ageing and radiation effects; 13. Example of a general-purpose detector: Belle; 14. Electronics; 15. Data analysis; 16. Applications of particle detectors outside particle physics; 17. Glossary; 18. Solutions; 19. Resumé; Appendixes; Index.

  1. Particle acceleration, transport and turbulence in cosmic and heliospheric physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaeus, W.

    1992-01-01

    In this progress report, the long term goals, recent scientific progress, and organizational activities are described. The scientific focus of this annual report is in three areas: first, the physics of particle acceleration and transport, including heliospheric modulation and transport, shock acceleration and galactic propagation and reacceleration of cosmic rays; second, the development of theories of the interaction of turbulence and large scale plasma and magnetic field structures, as in winds and shocks; third, the elucidation of the nature of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence processes and the role such turbulence processes might play in heliospheric, galactic, cosmic ray physics, and other space physics applications.

  2. Fluid Physics in a Fluctuating Acceleration Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drolet, Francois; Vinals, Jorge

    1999-01-01

    Our program of research aims at developing a stochastic description of the residual acceleration field onboard spacecraft (g-jitter) to describe in quantitative detail its effect on fluid motion. Our main premise is that such a statistical description is necessary in those cases in which the characteristic time scales of the process under investigation are long compared with the correlation time of g-jitter. Although a clear separation between time scales makes this approach feasible, there remain several difficulties of practical nature: (i), g-jitter time series are not statistically stationary but rather show definite dependences on factors such as active or rest crew periods; (ii), it is very difficult to extract reliably the low frequency range of the power spectrum of the acceleration field. This range controls the magnitude of diffusive processes; and (iii), models used to date are Gaussian, but there is evidence that large amplitude disturbances occur much more frequently than a Gaussian distribution would predict. The lack of stationarity does not constitute a severe limitation in practice, since the intensity of the stochastic components changes very slowly during space missions (perhaps over times of the order of hours). A separate analysis of large amplitude disturbances has not been undertaken yet, but it does not seem difficult a priori to devise models that may describe this range better than a Gaussian distribution. The effect of low frequency components, on the other hand, is more difficult to ascertain, partly due to the difficulty associated with measuring them, and partly because they may be indistinguishable from slowly changing averages. This latter effect is further complicated by the lack of statistical stationarity of the time series. Recent work has focused on the effect of stochastic modulation on the onset of oscillatory instabilities as an example of resonant interaction between the driving acceleration and normal modes of the system

  3. High Energy Density Physics and Exotic Acceleration Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, T.; Colby, E.; /SLAC

    2005-09-27

    The High Energy Density and Exotic Acceleration working group took as our goal to reach beyond the community of plasma accelerator research with its applications to high energy physics, to promote exchange with other disciplines which are challenged by related and demanding beam physics issues. The scope of the group was to cover particle acceleration and beam transport that, unlike other groups at AAC, are not mediated by plasmas or by electromagnetic structures. At this Workshop, we saw an impressive advancement from years past in the area of Vacuum Acceleration, for example with the LEAP experiment at Stanford. And we saw an influx of exciting new beam physics topics involving particle propagation inside of solid-density plasmas or at extremely high charge density, particularly in the areas of laser acceleration of ions, and extreme beams for fusion energy research, including Heavy-ion Inertial Fusion beam physics. One example of the importance and extreme nature of beam physics in HED research is the requirement in the Fast Ignitor scheme of inertial fusion to heat a compressed DT fusion pellet to keV temperatures by injection of laser-driven electron or ion beams of giga-Amp current. Even in modest experiments presently being performed on the laser-acceleration of ions from solids, mega-amp currents of MeV electrons must be transported through solid foils, requiring almost complete return current neutralization, and giving rise to a wide variety of beam-plasma instabilities. As keynote talks our group promoted Ion Acceleration (plenary talk by A. MacKinnon), which historically has grown out of inertial fusion research, and HIF Accelerator Research (invited talk by A. Friedman), which will require impressive advancements in space-charge-limited ion beam physics and in understanding the generation and transport of neutralized ion beams. A unifying aspect of High Energy Density applications was the physics of particle beams inside of solids, which is proving to

  4. Interesting aspects of the STAR detector and physics program

    SciTech Connect

    Hallman, T.J.; STAR Collaboration

    1996-12-31

    The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) is a large acceptance collider detector scheduled to begin operation at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in the fall of 1999. Simply stated, the physics goals of STAR are, (1) to study the behavior of strongly interacting matter at high energy density; (2) to search for signatures of a deconfined partonic phase of matter; and (3) to study the importance of spin as a fundamental property of QCD interactions and measure the spin-dependent parton distributions (gluon, valence quark, sea quark) of the proton. The detector design and methods of accomplishing the physics goals are addressed in this report.

  5. Beam Physics of Integrable Optics Test Accelerator at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaitsev, S.; Valishev, A.; Danilov, V.V.; Shatilov, D.N.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2012-05-01

    Fermilab's Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is an electron storage ring designed for testing advanced accelerator physics concepts, including implementation of nonlinear integrable beam optics and experiments on optical stochastic cooling. The machine is currently under construction at the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator facility. In this report we present the goals and the current status of the project, and describe the details of machine design. In particular, we concentrate on numerical simulations setting the requirements on the design and supporting the choice of machine parameters.

  6. An introduction to the physics of high energy accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.A.; Syphers, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This book is an outgrowth of a course given by the authors at various universities and particle accelerator schools. It starts from the basic physics principles governing particle motion inside an accelerator, and leads to a full description of the complicated phenomena and analytical tools encountered in the design and operation of a working accelerator. The book covers acceleration and longitudinal beam dynamics, transverse motion and nonlinear perturbations, intensity dependent effects, emittance preservation methods and synchrotron radiation. These subjects encompass the core concerns of a high energy synchrotron. The authors apparently do not assume the reader has much previous knowledge about accelerator physics. Hence, they take great care to introduce the physical phenomena encountered and the concepts used to describe them. The mathematical formulae and derivations are deliberately kept at a level suitable for beginners. After mastering this course, any interested reader will not find it difficult to follow subjects of more current interests. Useful homework problems are provided at the end of each chapter. Many of the problems are based on actual activities associated with the design and operation of existing accelerators.

  7. Applications of the ARGUS code in accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Petillo, J.J.; Mankofsky, A.; Krueger, W.A.; Kostas, C.; Mondelli, A.A.; Drobot, A.T.

    1993-12-31

    ARGUS is a three-dimensional, electromagnetic, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code that is being distributed to U.S. accelerator laboratories in collaboration between SAIC and the Los Alamos Accelerator Code Group. It uses a modular architecture that allows multiple physics modules to share common utilities for grid and structure input., memory management, disk I/O, and diagnostics, Physics modules are in place for electrostatic and electromagnetic field solutions., frequency-domain (eigenvalue) solutions, time- dependent PIC, and steady-state PIC simulations. All of the modules are implemented with a domain-decomposition architecture that allows large problems to be broken up into pieces that fit in core and that facilitates the adaptation of ARGUS for parallel processing ARGUS operates on either Cray or workstation platforms, and MOTIF-based user interface is available for X-windows terminals. Applications of ARGUS in accelerator physics and design are described in this paper.

  8. Liquid xenon detectors for particle physics and astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Aprile, E.; Doke, T.

    2010-07-15

    This article reviews the progress made over the last 20 years in the development and applications of liquid xenon detectors in particle physics, astrophysics, and medical imaging experiments. A summary of the fundamental properties of liquid xenon as radiation detection medium, in light of the most current theoretical and experimental information is first provided. After an introduction of the different type of liquid xenon detectors, a review of past, current, and future experiments using liquid xenon to search for rare processes and to image radiation in space and in medicine is given. Each application is introduced with a survey of the underlying scientific motivation and experimental requirements before reviewing the basic characteristics and expected performance of each experiment. Within this decade it appears likely that large volume liquid xenon detectors operated in different modes will contribute to answering some of the most fundamental questions in particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology, fulfilling the most demanding detection challenges. From detectors based solely on liquid xenon (LXe) scintillation, such as in the MEG experiment for the search of the rare ''{mu}{yields}e{gamma}'' decay, currently the largest liquid xenon detector in operation, and in the XMASS experiment for dark matter detection, to the class of time projection chambers which exploit both scintillation and ionization of LXe, such as in the XENON dark matter search experiment and in the Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay, unrivaled performance and important contributions to physics in the next few years are anticipated.

  9. Helium cooling systems for large superconducting physics detector magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, M. A.

    The large superconducting detector magnets used for high energy physics experiments are virtually all indirectly cooled. In general, these detector magnets are not cryogenically stabilized. Therefore, there are a number of choices for cooling large indirectly cooled detector magnets. These choices include; 1) forced two-phase helium cooling driven by the helium refrigerator J-T circuit, 2) forced two-phase helium cooling driven by a helium pump, and 3) a peculation gravity feed cooling system which uses liquid helium from a large storage dewar. The choices for the cooling of a large detector magnet are illustrated by applying these concepts to a 4.2 meter diameter 0.5 tesla thin superconducting solenoid for an experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

  10. Physics with the collider detectors at RHIC and the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.; Hallman, T.

    1995-07-15

    On January 8, 1995, over 180 participants gathered to hear the QM95 preconference workshop on `Physics with the Collider Detectors at RHIC and the LHC`. The goal was to bring together the experimentalists from a wide community of hadron and heavy ion collider detector collaborations. The speakers were encouraged to present the current status of their detectors, with all the blemishes, and the audience was encouraged to share their successes and failures in approaching similar detector design issues. The presentations were excellent and the discussions were lively and stimulating. The editors hope that the reader will find these proceedings to be equally stimulating. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the energy database from articles in this report.

  11. Superconducting Kinetic Inductance Detectors for astronomy and particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, M.; Goupy, J.; D`Addabbo, A.; Benoit, A.; Bourrion, O.; Catalano, A.; Monfardini, A.

    2016-07-01

    Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID) represent a novel detector technology based on superconducting resonators. Since their first demonstration in 2003, they have been rapidly developed and are today a strong candidate for present and future experiments in the different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. This has been possible thanks to the unique features of such devices: in particular, they couple a very high sensitivity to their intrinsic suitability for frequency domain multiplexed readout, making the fabrication of large arrays of ultrasensitive detectors possible. There are many fields of application that can profit of such detectors. Here, we will briefly review the principle of operation of a KID, and give two sample applications, to mm-wave astronomy and to particle physics.

  12. Proceedings of the workshop on B physics at hadron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, P.; Mishra, C.S.

    1993-12-31

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Measurement of Angle {alpha}; Measurement of Angle {beta}; Measurement of Angle {gamma}; Other B Physics; Theory of Heavy Flavors; Charged Particle Tracking and Vertexing; e and {gamma} Detection; Muon Detection; Hadron ID; Electronics, DAQ, and Computing; and Machine Detector Interface. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion the in Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. Physics and detector simulation facility Type O workstation specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, G.; Cormell, L.R.; Hahn, R.; Jacobson, D.; Johnstad, H.; Leibold, P.; Marquez, M.; Ramsey, B.; Roberts, L.; Scipioni, B.; Yost, G.P.

    1990-11-01

    This document specifies the requirements for the front-end network of workstations of a distributed computing facility. This facility will be needed to perform the physics and detector simulations for the design of Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) detectors, and other computations in support of physics and detector needs. A detailed description of the computer simulation facility is given in the overall system specification document. This document provides revised subsystem specifications for the network of monitor-less Type 0 workstations. The requirements specified in this document supersede the requirements given. In Section 2 a brief functional description of the facility and its use are provided. The list of detailed specifications (vendor requirements) is given in Section 3 and the qualifying requirements (benchmarks) are described in Section 4.

  14. Applications of gaseous particle detectors in physics and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauli, Fabio

    1995-08-01

    The multi-wire proportional chamber, introduced in 1967 by Georges Charpak (recipient of the 1992 Nobel prize for physics) allows to achieve high-rate, fully electronics detection and localization of ionizing radiation. The myriad of devices inspired by this initial work generated a revolution in the conception of detectors for elementary particle physics experiments; examples are the time projection chamber, the drift chamber, the micro-strip gas chamber. After a brief introduction on the basic operating principles of the device, I will describe several examples of application of advanced gas detectors in medicine and biology and analyze the operating characteristics that make the new devices attractive when confronted with classic detectors.

  15. Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.; Abat, E.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; /SUNY, Albany /Alberta U. /Ankara U. /Annecy, LAPP /Argonne /Arizona U. /Texas U., Arlington /Athens U. /Natl. Tech. U., Athens /Baku, Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /Belgrade U. /VINCA Inst. Nucl. Sci., Belgrade /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /Humboldt U., Berlin /Bern U., LHEP /Birmingham U. /Bogazici U. /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U.

    2011-11-28

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN promises a major step forward in the understanding of the fundamental nature of matter. The ATLAS experiment is a general-purpose detector for the LHC, whose design was guided by the need to accommodate the wide spectrum of possible physics signatures. The major remit of the ATLAS experiment is the exploration of the TeV mass scale where groundbreaking discoveries are expected. In the focus are the investigation of the electroweak symmetry breaking and linked to this the search for the Higgs boson as well as the search for Physics beyond the Standard Model. In this report a detailed examination of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector is provided, with a major aim being to investigate the experimental sensitivity to a wide range of measurements and potential observations of new physical processes. An earlier summary of the expected capabilities of ATLAS was compiled in 1999 [1]. A survey of physics capabilities of the CMS detector was published in [2]. The design of the ATLAS detector has now been finalised, and its construction and installation have been completed [3]. An extensive test-beam programme was undertaken. Furthermore, the simulation and reconstruction software code and frameworks have been completely rewritten. Revisions incorporated reflect improved detector modelling as well as major technical changes to the software technology. Greatly improved understanding of calibration and alignment techniques, and their practical impact on performance, is now in place. The studies reported here are based on full simulations of the ATLAS detector response. A variety of event generators were employed. The simulation and reconstruction of these large event samples thus provided an important operational test of the new ATLAS software system. In addition, the processing was distributed world-wide over the ATLAS Grid facilities and hence provided an important test of the ATLAS computing system - this is the origin of

  16. Dark Matter Physics with SUB-keV Germanium Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Henry T.

    2015-03-01

    Germanium detectors with sub-keV sensitivities open a window to study neutrino physics to search for light WIMP dark matter. We summarize the recent results on spin-independent couplings of light WIMPs from the TEXONO experiment at the Kuo-Sheng Reactor Neutrino Laboratory.

  17. Nobel physics prize to Charpak for inventing particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarzschild, B.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the work of Georges Charpak of France leading to his receipt of the 1992 Nobel Prize in Physics. The Nobel Prize was awarded to Charpak [open quotes]for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber.[close quotes] Historical aspects of Charpak's life and research are given.

  18. Test of pixel detectors for laser-driven accelerated particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, S.; Granja, C.; Krejci, F.; Assmann, W.

    2011-12-01

    Laser-driven accelerated (LDA) particle beams have due to the unique acceleration process very special properties. In particular they are created in ultra-short bunches of high intensity exceeding more than 107 \\frac{particles}{cm^{2} \\cdot ns} per bunch. Characterization of these beams is very limited with conventional particle detectors. Non-electronic detectors such as imaging plates or nuclear track detectors are, therefore, conventionally used at present. Moreover, all these detectors give only offline information about the particle pulse position and intensity as they require minutes to hours to be processed, calling for a new highly sensitive online device. Here, we present tests of different pixel detectors for real time detection of LDA ion pulses. Experiments have been performed at the Munich 14MV Tandem accelerator with 8-20 MeV protons in dc and pulsed beam, the latter producing comparable flux as a LDA ion pulse. For detection tests we chose the position-sensitive quantum-counting semiconductor pixel detector Timepix which also provides per-pixel energy- or time-sensitivity. Additionally other types of commercially available pixel detectors are being evaluated such as the RadEye™1, a large area (25 x 50 mm2) CMOS image sensor. All of these devices are able to resolve individual ions with high spatial- and energy-resolution down to the level of μm and tens of keV, respectively. Various beam delivering parameters of the accelerator were thus evaluated and verified. The different readout modes of the Timepix detector which is operated with an integrated USB-based readout interface allow online visualization of single and time-integrated events. Therefore Timepix offers the greatest potential in analyzing the beam parameters.

  19. NASA's Microgravity Fluid Physics Program: Tolerability to Residual Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skarda, J. Raymond

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the NASA microgravity fluid physics program is presented. The necessary quality of a reduced-gravity environment in terms of tolerable residual acceleration or g levels is a concern that is inevitably raised for each new microgravity experiment. Methodologies have been reported in the literature that provide guidance in obtaining reasonable estimates of residual acceleration sensitivity for a broad range of fluid physics phenomena. Furthermore, a relatively large and growing database of microgravity experiments that have successfully been performed in terrestrial reduced gravity facilities and orbiting platforms exists. Similarity of experimental conditions and hardware, in some cases, lead to new experiments adopting prior experiments g-requirements. Rationale applied to other experiments can, in principle, be a valuable guide to assist new Principal Investigators, PIs, in determining the residual acceleration tolerability of their flight experiments. The availability of g-requirements rationale from prior (mu)g experiments is discussed. An example of establishing g tolerability requirements is demonstrated, using a current microgravity fluid physics flight experiment. The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) which is currently manifested on the US Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS) will provide opportunities for fluid physics and combustion experiments throughout the life of the ISS. Although the FCF is not intended to accommodate all fluid physics experiments, it is expected to meet the science requirements of approximately 80% of the new PIs that enter the microgravity fluid physics program. The residual acceleration requirements for the FCF fluid physics experiments are based on a set of fourteen reference fluid physics experiments which are discussed.

  20. Future Accelerator Challenges in Support of High-Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.; Zisman, M.S.

    2008-05-03

    Historically, progress in high-energy physics has largely been determined by development of more capable particle accelerators. This trend continues today with the imminent commissioning of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and the worldwide development effort toward the International Linear Collider. Looking ahead, there are two scientific areas ripe for further exploration--the energy frontier and the precision frontier. To explore the energy frontier, two approaches toward multi-TeV beams are being studied, an electron-positron linear collider based on a novel two-beam powering system (CLIC), and a Muon Collider. Work on the precision frontier involves accelerators with very high intensity, including a Super-BFactory and a muon-based Neutrino Factory. Without question, one of the most promising approaches is the development of muon-beam accelerators. Such machines have very high scientific potential, and would substantially advance the state-of-the-art in accelerator design. The challenges of the new generation of accelerators, and how these can be accommodated in the accelerator design, are described. To reap their scientific benefits, all of these frontier accelerators will require sophisticated instrumentation to characterize the beam and control it with unprecedented precision.

  1. Validation of Phonon Physics in the CDMS Detector Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, K.A.; Leman, S.W.; Anderson, A.J.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P.L.; Cabrera, B.; Cherry, M.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Cushman, P.; Doughty, T.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Kim, P.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Novak, L.; Partridge, R.; Pyle, M.; Reisetter, A.; Resch, R.; Sadoulet, B.; Serfass, B.; Sundqvist, K.M.; /UC, Berkeley /Stanford U.

    2012-06-06

    The SuperCDMS collaboration is a dark matter search effort aimed at detecting the scattering of WIMP dark matter from nuclei in cryogenic germanium targets. The CDMS Detector Monte Carlo (CDMS-DMC) is a simulation tool aimed at achieving a deeper understanding of the performance of the SuperCDMS detectors and aiding the dark matter search analysis. We present results from validation of the phonon physics described in the CDMS-DMC and outline work towards utilizing it in future WIMP search analyses.

  2. Physics of laser-driven plasma-based electron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B.; Leemans, W. P.

    2009-07-15

    Laser-driven plasma-based accelerators, which are capable of supporting fields in excess of 100 GV/m, are reviewed. This includes the laser wakefield accelerator, the plasma beat wave accelerator, the self-modulated laser wakefield accelerator, plasma waves driven by multiple laser pulses, and highly nonlinear regimes. The properties of linear and nonlinear plasma waves are discussed, as well as electron acceleration in plasma waves. Methods for injecting and trapping plasma electrons in plasma waves are also discussed. Limits to the electron energy gain are summarized, including laser pulse diffraction, electron dephasing, laser pulse energy depletion, and beam loading limitations. The basic physics of laser pulse evolution in underdense plasmas is also reviewed. This includes the propagation, self-focusing, and guiding of laser pulses in uniform plasmas and with preformed density channels. Instabilities relevant to intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions, such as Raman, self-modulation, and hose instabilities, are discussed. Experiments demonstrating key physics, such as the production of high-quality electron bunches at energies of 0.1-1 GeV, are summarized.

  3. Better physical activity classification using smartphone acceleration sensor.

    PubMed

    Arif, Muhammad; Bilal, Mohsin; Kattan, Ahmed; Ahamed, S Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is becoming one of the serious problems for the health of worldwide population. Social interactions on mobile phones and computers via internet through social e-networks are one of the major causes of lack of physical activities. For the health specialist, it is important to track the record of physical activities of the obese or overweight patients to supervise weight loss control. In this study, acceleration sensor present in the smartphone is used to monitor the physical activity of the user. Physical activities including Walking, Jogging, Sitting, Standing, Walking upstairs and Walking downstairs are classified. Time domain features are extracted from the acceleration data recorded by smartphone during different physical activities. Time and space complexity of the whole framework is done by optimal feature subset selection and pruning of instances. Classification results of six physical activities are reported in this paper. Using simple time domain features, 99 % classification accuracy is achieved. Furthermore, attributes subset selection is used to remove the redundant features and to minimize the time complexity of the algorithm. A subset of 30 features produced more than 98 % classification accuracy for the six physical activities. PMID:25000988

  4. Application and calibration of a simple position detector for a dust accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Katharina A.; Srama, Ralf; Auer, Siegfried; Bugiel, Sebastian; Grün, Eberhard; Kempf, Sascha; Xie, Jianfeng

    2013-11-01

    A newly developed position sensitive detector was implemented in the beam line of the Heidelberg dust accelerator. By charge induction, the detector enables the position of a dust particle to be determined without affecting its motion. The detector consists of four pairs of parallel plates, connected to a single common charge amplifier. The charge induced on the plates varies as a function of the dust particle trajectory, producing simple, easily interpreted signals. Using a segmented target installed in the beam line for a second independent measure of the trajectory, the position detector has been calibrated, allowing the detector signal to be mapped to a dust particle position. The resulting calibration curve indicates that the detector's position accuracy is approximately 0.14 mm, based on an average SNR of 700 for dust particles passing through the centre of the detector. The minimum dust charge for reliable detection was found to be about 1.1 fC. A detector simulation was used to produce a calibration curve that confirms the experimental results.

  5. The upgraded ATLAS and CMS detectors and their physics capabilities.

    PubMed

    Wells, Pippa S

    2015-01-13

    The update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics from 2013 states that Europe's top priority should be the exploitation of the full potential of the LHC, including the high-luminosity upgrade of the machine and detectors with a view to collecting 10 times more data than in the initial design. The plans for upgrading the ATLAS and CMS detectors so as to maintain their performance and meet the challenges of increasing luminosity are presented here. A cornerstone of the physics programme is to measure the properties of the 125GeV Higgs boson with the highest possible precision, to test its consistency with the Standard Model. The high-luminosity data will allow precise measurements of the dominant production and decay modes, and offer the possibility of observing rare modes including Higgs boson pair production. Direct and indirect searches for additional Higgs bosons beyond the Standard Model will also continue. PMID:26949808

  6. The Physics Role and Potential of future Atmospheric Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, Raj

    2010-03-30

    We discuss the physics capabilities of basic types of future atmospheric detectors being considered at present, with their strengths and limitations, and compare them with those of long-baseline (LBL) experiments. We also argue that recent studies signal the importance of synergistically combining complementary features of both these classes of experiments in order to accrue maximum benefit towards furthering our goal of building a complete picture of neutrino properties and parameters.

  7. High energy X-ray photon counting imaging using linear accelerator and silicon strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y.; Shimazoe, K.; Yan, X.; Ueda, O.; Ishikura, T.; Fujiwara, T.; Uesaka, M.; Ohno, M.; Tomita, H.; Yoshihara, Y.; Takahashi, H.

    2016-09-01

    A photon counting imaging detector system for high energy X-rays is developed for on-site non-destructive testing of thick objects. One-dimensional silicon strip (1 mm pitch) detectors are stacked to form a two-dimensional edge-on module. Each detector is connected to a 48-channel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The threshold-triggered events are recorded by a field programmable gate array based counter in each channel. The detector prototype is tested using 950 kV linear accelerator X-rays. The fast CR shaper (300 ns pulse width) of the ASIC makes it possible to deal with the high instant count rate during the 2 μs beam pulse. The preliminary imaging results of several metal and concrete samples are demonstrated.

  8. Accelerator physics in ERL based polarized electron ion collider

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Yue

    2015-05-03

    This talk will present the current accelerator physics challenges and solutions in designing ERL-based polarized electron-hadron colliders, and illustrate them with examples from eRHIC and LHeC designs. These challenges include multi-pass ERL design, highly HOM-damped SRF linacs, cost effective FFAG arcs, suppression of kink instability due to beam-beam effect, and control of ion accumulation and fast ion instabilities.

  9. Accelerator Physics Challenges for the NSLS-II Project

    SciTech Connect

    Krinsky,S.

    2009-05-04

    The NSLS-II is an ultra-bright synchrotron light source based upon a 3-GeV storage ring with a 30-cell (15 super-period) double-bend-achromat lattice with damping wigglers used to lower the emittance below 1 nm. In this paper, we discuss the accelerator physics challenges for the design including: optimization of dynamic aperture; estimation of Touschek lifetime; achievement of required orbit stability; and analysis of ring impedance and collective effects.

  10. Physics design of linear accelerators for intense ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    Advances in the physics and technology of linear accelerators for intense ion beams are leading to new methods for the design of such machines. The physical effects that limit beam current and brightness are better understood and provide the criteria for choosing the rf frequency and for determining optimum focusing configurations to control longitudinal and transverse emittances. During the past decade, the use of developments such as the radio-frequency quadrupole, multiple beams, funneling, ramped-field linac tanks, and self-matching linac tanks is leading to greater design flexibility and improved performance capabilities. 39 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  11. Future large scale accelerator projects for particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksan, R.

    2013-12-01

    The discovery of a new particle, the properties of which are compatible with the expected Brout-Englert-Higgs scalar field in the Standard Model (SM), is the starting point of an intense program for studying its couplings. With this particle, all the components of the SM have now been unraveled. Yet, the existence of dark matter, baryon asymmetry of the Universe and neutrino mass call for new physics at an energy scale, which is not determined so far. Therefore, new large scale accelerators are needed to investigate these mysteries through ultra-high precision measurements and/or the exploration of higher energy frontiers. In the following, we discuss the various accelerator projects aimed at the achievement of the above objectives. The physics reach of these facilities will be briefly described as well as their main technical features and related challenges, highlighting the importance of accelerator R&D not only for the benefit of particle physics but also for other fields of research, and more generally for the society.

  12. COMPASS, the COMmunity Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation, a broad computational accelerator physics initiative

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Cary; P. Spentzouris; J. Amundson; L. McInnes; M. Borland; B. Mustapha; B. Norris; P. Ostroumov; Y. Wang; W. Fischer; A. Fedotov; I. Ben-Zvi; R. Ryne; E. Esarey; C. Geddes; J. Qiang; E. Ng; S. Li; C. Ng; R. Lee; L. Merminga; H. Wang; D.L. Bruhwiler; D. Dechow; P. Mullowney; P. Messmer; C. Nieter; S. Ovtchinnikov; K. Paul; P. Stoltz; D. Wade-Stein; W.B. Mori; V. Decyk; C.K. Huang; W. Lu; M. Tzoufras; F. Tsung; M. Zhou; G.R. Werner; T. Antonsen; T. Katsouleas

    2007-06-01

    Accelerators are the largest and most costly scientific instruments of the Department of Energy, with uses across a broad range of science, including colliders for particle physics and nuclear science and light sources and neutron sources for materials studies. COMPASS, the Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation, is a broad, four-office (HEP, NP, BES, ASCR) effort to develop computational tools for the prediction and performance enhancement of accelerators. The tools being developed can be used to predict the dynamics of beams in the presence of optical elements and space charge forces, the calculation of electromagnetic modes and wake fields of cavities, the cooling induced by comoving beams, and the acceleration of beams by intense fields in plasmas generated by beams or lasers. In SciDAC-1, the computational tools had multiple successes in predicting the dynamics of beams and beam generation. In SciDAC-2 these tools will be petascale enabled to allow the inclusion of an unprecedented level of physics for detailed prediction.

  13. COMPASS, the COMmunity Petascale Project for Accelerator Science And Simulation, a Broad Computational Accelerator Physics Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, J.R.; Spentzouris, P.; Amundson, J.; McInnes, L.; Borland, M.; Mustapha, B.; Norris, B.; Ostroumov, P.; Wang, Y.; Fischer, W.; Fedotov, A.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Ryne, R.; Esarey, E.; Geddes, C.; Qiang, J.; Ng, E.; Li, S.; Ng, C.; Lee, R.; Merminga, L.; /Jefferson Lab /Tech-X, Boulder /UCLA /Colorado U. /Maryland U. /Southern California U.

    2007-11-09

    Accelerators are the largest and most costly scientific instruments of the Department of Energy, with uses across a broad range of science, including colliders for particle physics and nuclear science and light sources and neutron sources for materials studies. COMPASS, the Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation, is a broad, four-office (HEP, NP, BES, ASCR) effort to develop computational tools for the prediction and performance enhancement of accelerators. The tools being developed can be used to predict the dynamics of beams in the presence of optical elements and space charge forces, the calculation of electromagnetic modes and wake fields of cavities, the cooling induced by comoving beams, and the acceleration of beams by intense fields in plasmas generated by beams or lasers. In SciDAC-1, the computational tools had multiple successes in predicting the dynamics of beams and beam generation. In SciDAC-2 these tools will be petascale enabled to allow the inclusion of an unprecedented level of physics for detailed prediction.

  14. COMPASS, the COMmunity Petascale project for Accelerator Science and Simulation, a board computational accelerator physics initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, J.R.; Spentzouris, P.; Amundson, J.; McInnes, L.; Borland, M.; Mustapha, B.; Ostroumov, P.; Wang, Y.; Fischer, W.; Fedotov, A.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Ryne, R.; Esarey, E.; Geddes, C.; Qiang, J.; Ng, E.; Li, S.; Ng, C.; Lee, R.; Merminga, L.; Wang, H.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Dechow, D.; Mullowney, P.; Messmer, P.; Nieter, C.; Ovtchinnikov, S.; Paul, K.; Stoltz, P.; Wade-Stein, D.; Mori, W.B.; Decyk, V.; Huang, C.K.; Lu, W.; Tzoufras, M.; Tsung, F.; Zhou, M.; Werner, G.R.; Antonsen, T.; Katsouleas, T.; Morris, B.

    2007-07-16

    Accelerators are the largest and most costly scientific instruments of the Department of Energy, with uses across a broad range of science, including colliders for particle physics and nuclear science and light sources and neutron sources for materials studies. COMPASS, the Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation, is a broad, four-office (HEP, NP, BES, ASCR) effort to develop computational tools for the prediction and performance enhancement of accelerators. The tools being developed can be used to predict the dynamics of beams in the presence of optical elements and space charge forces, the calculation of electromagnetic modes and wake fields of cavities, the cooling induced by comoving beams, and the acceleration of beams by intense fields in plasmas generated by beams or lasers. In SciDAC-1, the computational tools had multiple successes in predicting the dynamics of beams and beam generation. In SciDAC-2 these tools will be petascale enabled to allow the inclusion of an unprecedented level of physics for detailed prediction.

  15. COMPASS, the COMmunity petascale project for accelerator science and simulation, a broad computational accelerator physics initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cary, J. R.; Spentzouris, P.; Amundson, J.; McInnes, L.; Borland, M.; Mustapha, B.; Norris, B.; Ostroumov, P.; Wang, Y.; Fischer, W.; Fedotov, A.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Ryne, R.; Esarey, E.; Geddes, C.; Qiang, J.; Ng, E.; Li, S.; Ng, C.; Lee, R.; Merminga, L.; Wang, H.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Dechow, D.; Mullowney, P.; Messmer, P.; Nieter, C.; Ovtchinnikov, S.; Paul, K.; Stoltz, P.; Wade-Stein, D.; Mori, W. B.; Decyk, V.; Huang, C. K.; Lu, W.; Tzoufras, M.; Tsung, F.; Zhou, M.; Werner, G. R.; Antonsen, T.; Katsouleas, T.

    2007-07-01

    Accelerators are the largest and most costly scientific instruments of the Department of Energy, with uses across a broad range of science, including colliders for particle physics and nuclear science and light sources and neutron sources for materials studies. COMPASS, the Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation, is a broad, four-office (HEP, NP, BES, ASCR) effort to develop computational tools for the prediction and performance enhancement of accelerators. The tools being developed can be used to predict the dynamics of beams in the presence of optical elements and space charge forces, the calculation of electromagnetic modes and wake fields of cavities, the cooling induced by comoving beams, and the acceleration of beams by intense fields in plasmas generated by beams or lasers. In SciDAC-1, the computational tools had multiple successes in predicting the dynamics of beams and beam generation. In SciDAC-2 these tools will be petascale enabled to allow the inclusion of an unprecedented level of physics for detailed prediction.

  16. International Linear Collider Accelerator Physics R&D

    SciTech Connect

    George D. Gollin; Michael Davidsaver; Michael J. Haney; Michael Kasten; Jason Chang; Perry Chodash; Will Dluger; Alex Lang; Yehan Liu

    2008-09-03

    ILC work at Illinois has concentrated primarily on technical issues relating to the design of the accelerator. Because many of the problems to be resolved require a working knowledge of classical mechanics and electrodynamics, most of our research projects lend themselves well to the participation of undergraduate research assistants. The undergraduates in the group are scientists, not technicians, and find solutions to problems that, for example, have stumped PhD-level staff elsewhere. The ILC Reference Design Report calls for 6.7 km circumference damping rings (which prepare the beams for focusing) using “conventional” stripline kickers driven by fast HV pulsers. Our primary goal was to determine the suitability of the 16 MeV electron beam in the AØ region at Fermilab for precision kicker studies.We found that the low beam energy and lack of redundancy in the beam position monitor system complicated the analysis of our data. In spite of these issues we concluded that the precision we could obtain was adequate to measure the performance and stability of a production module of an ILC kicker, namely 0.5%. We concluded that the kicker was stable to an accuracy of ~2.0% and that we could measure this precision to an accuracy of ~0.5%. As a result, a low energy beam like that at AØ could be used as a rapid-turnaround facility for testing ILC production kicker modules. The ILC timing precision for arrival of bunches at the collision point is required to be 0.1 picosecond or better. We studied the bunch-to-bunch timing accuracy of a “phase detector” installed in AØ in order to determine its suitability as an ILC bunch timing device. A phase detector is an RF structure excited by the passage of a bunch. Its signal is fed through a 1240 MHz high-Q resonant circuit and then down-mixed with the AØ 1300 MHz accelerator RF. We used a kind of autocorrelation technique to compare the phase detector signal with a reference signal obtained from the phase detector

  17. CERN@school: demonstrating physics with the Timepix detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whyntie, T.; Bithray, H.; Cook, J.; Coupe, A.; Eddy, D.; Fickling, R. L.; McKenna, J.; Parker, B.; Paul, A.; Shearer, N.

    2015-10-01

    This article shows how the Timepix hybrid silicon pixel detector, developed by the Medipix2 Collaboration, can be used by students and teachers alike to demonstrate some key aspects of any well-rounded physics curriculum with CERN@school. After an overview of the programme, the detector's capabilities for measuring and visualising ionising radiation are examined. The classification of clusters - groups of adjacent pixels - is discussed with respect to identifying the different types of particles. Three demonstration experiments - background radiation measurements, radiation profiles and the attenuation of radiation - are described; these can used as part of lessons or as inspiration for independent research projects. Results for exemplar data-sets are presented for reference, as well as details of ongoing research projects inspired by these experiments. Interested readers are encouraged to join the CERN@school Collaboration and so contribute to achieving the programme's aim of inspiring the next generation of scientists and engineers.

  18. Detectors and signal processing for high-energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P.

    1981-01-01

    Basic principles of the particle detection and signal processing for high-energy physics experiments are presented. It is shown that the optimum performance of a properly designed detector system is not limited by incidental imperfections, but solely by more fundamental limitations imposed by the quantum nature and statistical behavior of matter. The noise sources connected with the detection and signal processing are studied. The concepts of optimal filtering and optimal detector/amplifying device matching are introduced. Signal processing for a liquid argon calorimeter is analyzed in some detail. The position detection in gas counters is studied. Resolution in drift chambers for the drift coordinate measurement as well as the second coordinate measurement is discussed.

  19. Physics Detector Simulation Facility Phase II system software description

    SciTech Connect

    Scipioni, B.; Allen, J.; Chang, C.; Huang, J.; Liu, J.; Mestad, S.; Pan, J.; Marquez, M.; Estep, P.

    1993-05-01

    This paper presents the Physics Detector Simulation Facility (PDSF) Phase II system software. A key element in the design of a distributed computing environment for the PDSF has been the separation and distribution of the major functions. The facility has been designed to support batch and interactive processing, and to incorporate the file and tape storage systems. By distributing these functions, it is often possible to provide higher throughput and resource availability. Similarly, the design is intended to exploit event-level parallelism in an open distributed environment.

  20. A neutron track etch detector for electron linear accelerators in radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Vukovic, Branko; Faj, Dario; Poje, Marina; Varga, Maja; Radolic, Vanja; Miklavcic, Igor; Ivkovic, Ana; Planinic, Josip

    2010-01-01

    Background Electron linear accelerators in medical radiotherapy have replaced cobalt and caesium sources of radiation. However, medical accelerators with photon energies over 10 MeV generate undesired fast neutron contamination in a therapeutic X-ray photon beam. Photons with energies above 10 MeV can interact with the atomic nucleus of a high-Z material, of which the target and the head of an accelerator consist, and lead to the neutron ejection. Results and conclusions. Our neutron dosimeter, composed of the LR-115 track etch detector and boron foil BN-1 converter, was calibrated on thermal neutrons generated in the nuclear reactor of the Josef Stefan Institute (Slovenia), and applied to dosimetry of undesirable neutrons in photon radiotherapy by the linear accelerator 15 MV Siemens Mevatron. Having considered a high dependence of a cross-section between neutron and boron on neutron energy, and broad neutron spectrum in a photon beam, as well as outside the entrance door to maze of the Mevatron, we developed a method for determining the effective neutron detector response. A neutron dose rate in the photon beam was measured to be 1.96 Sv/h. Outside the Mevatron room the neutron dose rate was 0.62 μSv/h. PACS: 87.52. Ga; 87.53.St; 29.40.Wk. PMID:22933893

  1. Operational Radiation Protection in High-Energy Physics Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Rokni, S.H.; Fasso, A.; Liu, J.C.; /SLAC

    2012-04-03

    An overview of operational radiation protection (RP) policies and practices at high-energy electron and proton accelerators used for physics research is presented. The different radiation fields and hazards typical of these facilities are described, as well as access control and radiation control systems. The implementation of an operational RP programme is illustrated, covering area and personnel classification and monitoring, radiation surveys, radiological environmental protection, management of induced radioactivity, radiological work planning and control, management of radioactive materials and wastes, facility dismantling and decommissioning, instrumentation and training.

  2. Accelerator-driven molten-salt blankets: Physics issues

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, M.G.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Durkee, J.W.; Perry, R.T.; Poston, D.I.

    1994-10-01

    A number of nuclear physics issues concerning the Los Alamos molten-salt accelerator-driven plutonium converter are discussed. General descriptions of several concepts using internal and external moderation are presented. Burnup and salt processing requirement calculations are presented for four concepts, indicating that both the high power density externally moderated concept and an internally moderated concept achieve total plutonium burnups approaching 90% at salt processing rates of less than 2 m{sup 3} per year. Beginning-of-life reactivity temperature coefficients and system kinetic response are also discussed. Future research should investigate the effect of changing blanket composition on operational and safety characteristics.

  3. Innovative Applications of Genetic Algorithms to Problems in Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hofler, Alicia; Terzic, Balsa; Kramer, Matthew; Zvezdin, Anton; Morozov, Vasiliy; Roblin, Yves; Lin, Fanglei; Jarvis, Colin

    2013-01-01

    The genetic algorithm (GA) is a relatively new technique that implements the principles nature uses in biological evolution in order to optimize a multidimensional nonlinear problem. The GA works especially well for problems with a large number of local extrema, where traditional methods (such as conjugate gradient, steepest descent, and others) fail or, at best, underperform. The field of accelerator physics, among others, abounds with problems which lend themselves to optimization via GAs. In this paper, we report on the successful application of GAs in several problems related to the existing CEBAF facility, the proposed MEIC at Jefferson Lab, and a radio frequency (RF) gun based injector. These encouraging results are a step forward in optimizing accelerator design and provide an impetus for application of GAs to other problems in the field. To that end, we discuss the details of the GAs used, including a newly devised enhancement, which leads to improved convergence to the optimum and make recommendations for future GA developments and accelerator applications.

  4. Assessment of the setup dependence of detector response functions for mega-voltage linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Christopher; Simon, Tom; Simon, Bill; Dempsey, James F.; Kahler, Darren; Palta, Jatinder R.; Liu Chihray; Yan Guanghua

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Accurate modeling of beam profiles is important for precise treatment planning dosimetry. Calculated beam profiles need to precisely replicate profiles measured during machine commissioning. Finite detector size introduces perturbations into the measured profiles, which, in turn, impact the resulting modeled profiles. The authors investigate a method for extracting the unperturbed beam profiles from those measured during linear accelerator commissioning. Methods: In-plane and cross-plane data were collected for an Elekta Synergy linac at 6 MV using ionization chambers of volume 0.01, 0.04, 0.13, and 0.65 cm{sup 3} and a diode of surface area 0.64 mm{sup 2}. The detectors were orientated with the stem perpendicular to the beam and pointing away from the gantry. Profiles were measured for a 10x10 cm{sup 2} field at depths ranging from 0.8 to 25.0 cm and SSDs from 90 to 110 cm. Shaping parameters of a Gaussian response function were obtained relative to the Edge detector. The Gaussian function was deconvolved from the measured ionization chamber data. The Edge detector profile was taken as an approximation to the true profile, to which deconvolved data were compared. Data were also collected with CC13 and Edge detectors for additional fields and energies on an Elekta Synergy, Varian Trilogy, and Siemens Oncor linear accelerator and response functions obtained. Response functions were compared as a function of depth, SSD, and detector scan direction. Variations in the shaping parameter were introduced and the effect on the resulting deconvolution profiles assessed. Results: Up to 10% setup dependence in the Gaussian shaping parameter occurred, for each detector for a particular plane. This translated to less than a {+-}0.7 mm variation in the 80%-20% penumbral width. For large volume ionization chambers such as the FC65 Farmer type, where the cavity length to diameter ratio is far from 1, the scan direction produced up to a 40% difference in the shaping

  5. Small field detector correction factors: effects of the flattening filter for Elekta and Varian linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Madelaine K; Liu, Paul Z Y; Lee, Christopher; McKenzie, David R; Suchowerska, Natalka

    2016-01-01

    Flattening filter-free (FFF) beams are becoming the preferred beam type for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR), as they enable an increase in dose rate and a decrease in treatment time. This work assesses the effects of the flattening filter on small field output factors for 6 MV beams generated by both Elekta and Varian linear accelerators, and determines differences between detector response in flattened (FF) and FFF beams. Relative output factors were measured with a range of detectors (diodes, ionization cham-bers, radiochromic film, and microDiamond) and referenced to the relative output factors measured with an air core fiber optic dosimeter (FOD), a scintillation dosimeter developed at Chris O'Brien Lifehouse, Sydney. Small field correction factors were generated for both FF and FFF beams. Diode measured detector response was compared with a recently published mathematical relation to predict diode response corrections in small fields. The effect of flattening filter removal on detector response was quantified using a ratio of relative detector responses in FFF and FF fields for the same field size. The removal of the flattening filter was found to have a small but measurable effect on ionization chamber response with maximum deviations of less than ± 0.9% across all field sizes measured. Solid-state detectors showed an increased dependence on the flattening filter of up to ± 1.6%. Measured diode response was within ± 1.1% of the published mathematical relation for all fields up to 30 mm, independent of linac type and presence or absence of a flattening filter. For 6 MV beams, detector correction factors between FFF and FF beams are interchangeable for a linac between FF and FFF modes, providing that an additional uncertainty of up to ± 1.6% is accepted. PMID:27167280

  6. Solar neutrino physics with low-threshold dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billard, J.; Strigari, L. E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.

    2015-05-01

    Dark matter detectors will soon be sensitive to Solar neutrinos via two distinct channels: coherent neutrino-nucleus and neutrino-electron elastic scatterings. We establish an analysis method for extracting Solar model properties and neutrino properties from these measurements, including the possible effects of sterile neutrinos which have been hinted at by some reactor experiments and cosmological measurements. Even including sterile neutrinos, through the coherent scattering channel, a 1 ton-year exposure with a low-threshold background free Germanium detector could improve on the current measurement of the normalization of the B 8 Solar neutrino flux down to 3% or less. Combining with the neutrino-electron elastic scattering data will provide constraints on both the high- and low-energy survival probability and will improve on the uncertainty on the active-to-sterile mixing angle by a factor of 2. This sensitivity to active-to-sterile transitions is competitive and complementary to forthcoming dedicated short baseline sterile neutrino searches with nuclear decays. Finally, we show that such solar neutrino physics potentials can be reached as long as the signal-to-noise ratio is better than 0.1.

  7. Resource Letter AFHEP-1: Accelerators for the Future of High-Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, William A.

    2012-02-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to literature concerning the development of accelerators for the future of high-energy physics. Research articles, books, and Internet resources are cited for the following topics: motivation for future accelerators, present accelerators for high-energy physics, possible future machine, and laboratory and collaboration websites.

  8. Multilayer Scintillation Detector for Nuclear Physics Monitoring of Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batischev, A. G.; Aleksandrin, S. Yu.; Gurov, Yu. B.; Koldashov, S. V.; Lapushkin, S. V.; Mayorov, A. G.

    The physical characteristics of the multilayer scintillation spectrometer (MSS) for identification and energy measurement of cosmic electrons, positrons and nuclei are considered in this paper. This spectrometer is made on the basis of several plastic scintillator plates with various thick viewed by photomultipliers. Two upper layers are strips of orthogonal scintillators. The nuclei energy measurement range is 3 - 100 MeV/nucleon. Spectrometer is planning for space weather monitoring and investigation of solar-magnetospheric and geophysics effects on satellite. MSS time resolution is about 1 microsecond and it can measure the time profiles of fast processes in the Earth's magnetosphere. Spectrometer experimental characteristics were estimated by means of computer simulation. The ionization loss fluctuations, ion charge exchange during pass through detector and, especially, scintillation quenching effect (Bircs effect) were taken into account in calculations.

  9. ASP2012: Fundamental Physics and Accelerator Sciences in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darve, Christine

    2012-02-01

    Much remains to be done to improve education and scientific research in Africa. Supported by the international scientific community, our initiative has been to contribute to fostering science in sub-Saharan Africa by establishing a biennial school on fundamental subatomic physics and its applications. The school is based on a close interplay between theoretical, experimental, and applied physics. The lectures are addressed to students or young researchers with at least a background of 4 years of university formation. The aim of the school is to develop capacity, interpret, and capitalize on the results of current and future physics experiments with particle accelerators; thereby spreading education for innovation in related applications and technologies, such as medicine and information science. Following the worldwide success of the first school edition, which gathered 65 students for 3-week in Stellenbosch (South Africa) in August 2010, the second edition will be hosted in Ghana from July 15 to August 4, 2012. The school is a non-profit organization, which provides partial or full financial support to 50 of the selected students, with priority to Sub-Saharan African students.

  10. Using a Tandem Pelletron accelerator to produce a thermal neutron beam for detector testing purposes.

    PubMed

    Irazola, L; Praena, J; Fernández, B; Macías, M; Bedogni, R; Terrón, J A; Sánchez-Nieto, B; Arias de Saavedra, F; Porras, I; Sánchez-Doblado, F

    2016-01-01

    Active thermal neutron detectors are used in a wide range of measuring devices in medicine, industry and research. For many applications, the long-term stability of these devices is crucial, so that very well controlled neutron fields are needed to perform calibrations and repeatability tests. A way to achieve such reference neutron fields, relying on a 3 MV Tandem Pelletron accelerator available at the CNA (Seville, Spain), is reported here. This paper shows thermal neutron field production and reproducibility characteristics over few days. PMID:26595777

  11. Incorporating Ideas from Detector Physics into the Physics Curriculum: from HS to College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, Miso; Boston, Bernard; Carmona, Rodney; Leon, Ely; Sabella, Mel; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo

    2013-03-01

    The goal of this project is to improve student understanding of modern physics in the undergraduate curriculum by building stronger content knowledge, reasoning and laboratory skills. This project is centered on the development of lab modules that help students move beyond theory and develop an appreciation of modern experimental physics. These modules allow students to build knowledge of subatomic particles by experimenting with detectors made of scintillator plastic, phototubes and read-out electronics. These instructional modules we are developing will permeate throughout the undergraduate curriculum forming a coherent conceptual thread. As students progress through the materials the content will become more challenging as the level of scaffolding decreases. As students complete the conceptual thread they will become versed in nuclear physics experimental techniques. In this talk we introduce the project, the detectors and the lab modules. Module one relates the kinetic energy we study in introductory mechanics to the kinetic energy of sub-atomic particles. Module two relates the principles of electromagnetism and charge from the interaction of magnets and coils to that of a sub-atomic particle moving through a detector. This project is supported by the National Science Foundation, grant number DUE-0941034.

  12. Physics with near detectors at a neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jian; Winter, Walter

    2009-09-01

    We discuss the impact of near detectors at a neutrino factory both on standard oscillation and nonstandard interaction measurements. Our systematics treatment includes cross section errors, flux errors, and background uncertainties, and our near detector fluxes include the geometry of the neutrino source and the detector. Instead of a specific detector concept, we introduce qualitatively different classes of near detectors with different characteristics, such as near detectors catching the whole neutrino flux (near detector limit) versus near detectors observing a spectrum similar to that of the far detector (far detector limit). We include the low energy neutrino factory in the discussion. We illustrate for which measurements near detectors are required, discuss how many are needed, and what the role of the flux monitoring is. For instance, we demonstrate that near detectors are mandatory for the leading atmospheric parameter measurements if the neutrino factory has only one baseline, whereas systematical errors partially cancel if the neutrino factory complex includes the magic baseline. Finally, near detectors with {nu}{sub {tau}} detection are shown to be useful for nonstandard interactions.

  13. Detector positioning for the initial subcriticality level determination in accelerator-driven systems

    SciTech Connect

    Uyttenhove, W.; Van Den Eynde, G.; Baeten, P.; Kochetkov, A.; Vittiglio, G.; Wagemans, J.; Lathouwers, D.; Kloosterman, J. L.; Van Der Hagen, T. J. H. H.; Wols, F.; Billebaud, A.; Chabod, S.; Thybault, H. E.

    2012-07-01

    Within the GUINEVERE project (Generation of Uninterrupted Intense Neutrons at the lead Venus Reactor) carried out at SCK-CEN in Mol, the continuous deuteron accelerator GENEPI-3C was coupled to the VENUS-F fast simulated lead-cooled reactor. Today the FREYA project (Fast Reactor Experiments for hYbrid Applications) is ongoing to study the neutronic behavior of this Accelerator Driven System (ADS) during different phases of operation. In particular the set-up of a monitoring system for the subcriticality of an ADS is envisaged to guarantee safe operation of the installation. The methodology for subcriticality monitoring in ADS takes into account the determination of the initial subcriticality level, the monitoring of reactivity variations, and interim cross-checking. At start-up, the Pulsed Neutron Source (PNS) technique is envisaged to determine the initial subcriticality level. Thanks to its reference critical state, the PNS technique can be validated on the VENUS-F core. A detector positioning methodology for the PNS technique is set up in this paper for the subcritical VENUS-F core, based on the reduction of higher harmonics in a static evaluation of the Sjoestrand area method. A first case study is provided on the VENUS-F core. This method can be generalised in order to create general rules for detector positions and types for full-scale ADS. (authors)

  14. ICARUS: An Innovative Large LAR Detector for Neutrino Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Vignoli, C.; Barni, D.; Disdier, J. M.; Rampoldi, D.; Passardi, G.

    2006-04-27

    ICARUS is an international project that foresees the installation of very large LAr detectors inside the Gran Sasso underground laboratory in order to be sensitive to rare phenomena of particle physics. The detection technique is based on the collection of electrons produced by particle interactions in LAr by a matrix of thousands of thin wires. At the moment the project foresees the installation of a 600,000-kg vessel (T600). The total amount of LAr can be expanded in a modular way to masses of the order of 106 kg. The T600 houses two identical 300,000-kg Ar sub-cryostats that are aluminum boxes about 20-m long, 4-m high and 4-m wide. Safety requirements for the underground installation have led to a unique design for the vessels to prevent LAr spillages even in the case of inner cryostat failure. Electrons must drift over meters requiring the development of special gas and liquid Ar purification units to provide an extremely high LAr purity (better then 0.1 ppb). The cooling system has been designed to assure a high thermal uniformity in the detector volume (less than 1-K differential). The cryogenic system associated with the final ICARUS configuration is based on three N2 refrigerators, three 30-m3 tanks and pump driven two-phase N2 forced-flow cooling of the various sub-systems. The T600 was successfully tested in Pavia in 2001 and it is now under installation in Gran Sasso for final operation. The future mass expansion strategy is under investigation.

  15. Experimental Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics with the IMB-3 Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, David William

    1990-01-01

    Description of the universe on the smallest (elementary particle physics) and largest (cosmology) scales has become dependent on the properties of the most weakly interacting fundamental particle known, the neutrino. The IMB experiment, designed to study nucleon decay, is also the world's largest detector of neutrinos. The experiment uses 6800 tons (3300 tons fiducial) of water as both target and detecting medium. Relativistic charges particles traversing the water radiate Cerenkov light. The distinctive ring patterns are imaged by 2048 light collectors (each a photo-multiplier tube coupled with a wavelength-shifting plate) distributed over the surfaces of the tank. This dissertation describes the IMB-3 detector, a four-fold increase in sensitivity over the original apparatus. Neutrino interactions of both atmospheric and extragalactic origin were collected during a 3.4 kiloton-year exposure. A consequence of non-zero neutrino mass could be oscillation of neutrino flavor. The energies and long flight distances of atmospheric neutrinos offer a unique opportunity to explore this possibility. To study the composition of the atmospheric neutrinos, single-ring events are classified as showering or non-showering using the geometry of the Cerenkov pattern. A simulation of neutrino interactions and a model of atmospheric neutrino production are used to predict the composition of the sample. The showering/non-showering character of an event is strongly correlated with the flavor of its neutrino parent. In the lepton momentum range p < 1500 MeV/c, non-showering events comprise 41 +/- 3(stat.) +/- 2(syst.)% of the total. The fraction expected is 51 +/- 5(syst.)%. Although this is evidence for an anomaly in the composition of atmospheric neutrinos, the 2sigma deviation is not sufficient to require neutrino oscillations. Eight interactions recorded over a six second interval on February 23, 1987 are coincident with the discovery of Supernova 1987a. These data, together with

  16. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    In the first chapter, terminology, physical and radiological quantities, and units of measurement used to describe the properties of accelerator radiation fields are reviewed. The general considerations of primary radiation fields pertinent to accelerators are discussed. The primary radiation fields produced by electron beams are described qualitatively and quantitatively. In the same manner the primary radiation fields produced by proton and ion beams are described. Subsequent chapters describe: shielding of electrons and photons at accelerators; shielding of proton and ion accelerators; low energy prompt radiation phenomena; induced radioactivity at accelerators; topics in radiation protection instrumentation at accelerators; and accelerator radiation protection program elements.

  17. Mount Aragats as a stable electron accelerator for atmospheric high-energy physics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, Ashot; Hovsepyan, Gagik; Mnatsakanyan, Eduard

    2016-03-01

    Observation of the numerous thunderstorm ground enhancements (TGEs), i.e., enhanced fluxes of electrons, gamma rays, and neutrons detected by particle detectors located on the Earth's surface and related to the strong thunderstorms above it, helped to establish a new scientific topic—high-energy physics in the atmosphere. Relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) are believed to be a central engine initiating high-energy processes in thunderstorm atmospheres. RREAs observed on Mount Aragats in Armenia during the strongest thunderstorms and simultaneous measurements of TGE electron and gamma-ray energy spectra proved that RREAs are a robust and realistic mechanism for electron acceleration. TGE research facilitates investigations of the long-standing lightning initiation problem. For the last 5 years we were experimenting with the "beams" of "electron accelerators" operating in the thunderclouds above the Aragats research station. Thunderstorms are very frequent above Aragats, peaking in May-June, and almost all of them are accompanied with enhanced particle fluxes. The station is located on a plateau at an altitude 3200 asl near a large lake. Numerous particle detectors and field meters are located in three experimental halls as well as outdoors; the facilities are operated all year round. All relevant information is being gathered, including data on particle fluxes, fields, lightning occurrences, and meteorological conditions. By the example of the huge thunderstorm that took place at Mount Aragats on August 28, 2015, we show that simultaneous detection of all the relevant data allowed us to reveal the temporal pattern of the storm development and to investigate the atmospheric discharges and particle fluxes.

  18. Neutrino Physics with the IceCube Detector

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Kiryluk, Joanna; Kiryluk, Joanna

    2008-06-11

    IceCube is a cubic kilometer neutrino telescope under construction at the South Pole.The primary goal is to discover astrophysical sources of high energy neutrinos.We describe the detector and present results on atmospheric muon neutrinos from2006 data collected with nine detector strings.

  19. Physics-based generation of gamma-ray response functions for CDZNTE detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Prettyman, T.H.; Mercer, D.J.; Cooper, C.; Russo, P.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.; Close, D.A.; Luke, P.N.; Amman, M.; Soldner, S.

    1997-09-01

    A physics-based approach to gamma-ray response-function generation is presented in which the response of CdZnTe detectors is modeled from first principles. Computer modeling is used to generate response functions needed for spectrum analysis for general detector configurations (e.g., electrode design, detector materials and geometry, and operating conditions). With computer modeling, requirements for calibration and characterization are significantly reduced. Elements of the physics-based model, including gamma-ray transport, charge drift-diffusion, and circuit response, are presented. Calculated and experimental gamma-ray spectra are compared for a coplanar-grid CdZnTe detector.

  20. Optimization of accelerator target and detector for portal imaging using Monte Carlo simulation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flampouri, S.; Evans, P. M.; Verhaegen, F.; Nahum, A. E.; Spezi, E.; Partridge, M.

    2002-09-01

    Megavoltage portal images suffer from poor quality compared to those produced with kilovoltage x-rays. Several authors have shown that the image quality can be improved by modifying the linear accelerator to generate more low-energy photons. This work addresses the problem of using Monte Carlo simulation and experiment to optimize the beam and detector combination to maximize image quality for a given patient thickness. A simple model of the whole imaging chain was developed for investigation of the effect of the target parameters on the quality of the image. The optimum targets (6 mm thick aluminium and 1.6 mm copper) were installed in an Elekta SL25 accelerator. The first beam will be referred to as Al6 and the second as Cu1.6. A tissue-equivalent contrast phantom was imaged with the 6 MV standard photon beam and the experimental beams with standard radiotherapy and mammography film/screen systems. The arrangement with a thin Al target/mammography system improved the contrast from 1.4 cm bone in 5 cm water to 19% compared with 2% for the standard arrangement of a thick, high-Z target/radiotherapy verification system. The linac/phantom/detector system was simulated with the BEAM/EGS4 Monte Carlo code. Contrast calculated from the predicted images was in good agreement with the experiment (to within 2.5%). The use of MC techniques to predict images accurately, taking into account the whole imaging system, is a powerful new method for portal imaging system design optimization.

  1. Accelerator mass spectrometry: from nuclear physics to dating

    SciTech Connect

    Kutschera, W.

    1983-01-01

    Several applications of accelerator-based mass spectroscopy are reviewed. Among these are the search for unknown species, determination of comogenic radioisotopes in natural materials and measurements of half-lifes, especially those of significance to dating. Accelerator parameters and techniques of importance for these applications are also considered.

  2. Genetic algorithms and their applications in accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hofler, Alicia S.

    2013-12-01

    Multi-objective optimization techniques are widely used in an extremely broad range of fields. Genetic optimization for multi-objective optimization was introduced in the accelerator community in relatively recent times and quickly spread becoming a fundamental tool in multi-dimensional optimization problems. This discussion introduces the basics of the technique and reviews applications in accelerator problems.

  3. Status and future prospects for United States accelerators and accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H

    1994-12-01

    The recent performance and future prospects of accelerators in the United States are reviewed. The next decade promises significant improvements and major new facilities. There is uncertainty beyond that because of the SSC cancellation and the new, enhanced importance of international accelerator projects.

  4. Future Prospects of Accelerator Science for Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2012-06-15

    Future advances in understanding fundamental questions of nature require revolutionary developments in accelerator science to allow several orders of magnitude enhancements in terms of energy, intensity, faster timing, and higher resolution. The challenges of the 21st century (energy, power, environment, resources, cost, and space) also play a significant role in the development of accelerator tools. In this overview article, we consider several recent developments and ideas that may become steps in addressing the challenges and which may find their way into designs of accelerator tools of the future.

  5. Developments of Microresonators Detectors for Neutrino Physics in Milan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faverzani, M.; Day, P.; Nucciotti, A.; Ferri, E.

    2012-06-01

    Superconducting microwave microresonators are low temperature detectors which are compatible with large-scale multiplexed frequency domain readout. We aim to adapt and further advance the technology of microresonator detectors to develop new devices applied to the problem of measuring the neutrino mass. More specifically, we aim to develop detector arrays for calorimetric measurement of the energy spectra of 163Ho EC decay ( Q˜2-3 keV) for a direct measurement of the neutrino mass. In order to achieve these goal, we need to find the best design and materials for the detectors. A recent advance in microwave microresonator technology was the discovery that some metal nitrides, such as TiN, possess properties consistent with very high detector sensitivity. We plan to investigate nitrides of higher-Z materials, for example TaN and HfN, that are appropriate for containing the energy of keV decay events, exploring the properties relevant to our detectors, such as quality factor, penetration depth and recombination time.

  6. Physical properties of a new flat panel detector with cesium-iodide technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Andreas; Penchev, Petar; Fiebich, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Flat panel detectors have become the standard technology in projection radiography. Further progress in detector technology will result in an improvement of MTF and DQE. The new detector (DX-D45C; Agfa; Mortsel/Belgium) is based on cesium-iodine crystals and has a change in the detector material and the readout electronics. The detector has a size of 30 cm x 24 cm and a pixel matrix of 2560 x 2048 with a pixel pitch of 124 μm. The system includes an automatic exposure detector, which enables the use of the detector without a connection to the x-ray generator. The physical properties of the detector were determined following IEC 62220-1-1 in a laboratory setting. The MTF showed an improvement compared to the previous version of cesium-iodine based flat-panel detectors. Thereby the DQE is also improved especially for the higher frequencies. The new detector showed an improvement in the physical properties compared to the previous versions. This enables a potential for further dose reductions in clinical imaging.

  7. Physics design of the DARHT 2nd axis accelerator cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y J; Houck, T L; Reginato, L J; Shang, C C; Yu, S S

    1999-08-19

    The next generation of radiographic machines based on induction accelerators require very high brightness electron beams to realize the desired x-ray spot size and intensity. This high brightness must be maintained throughout the beam transport, from source to x-ray converter target. The accelerator for the second-axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility is being designed to accelerate a 4-kA, 2-{micro}s pulse of electrons to 20 MeV. After acceleration, the 2-{micro}s pulse will be chopped into a train of four 50-ns pulses with variable temporal spacing by rapidly deflecting the beam between a beam stop and the final transport section. The short beam pulses will be focused onto an x-ray converter target generating four radiographic pulses within the 2-{micro}s window. Beam instability due to interaction with the accelerator cells can very adversely effect the beam brightness and radiographic pulse quality. This paper describes the various issues considered in the design of the accelerator cell with emphasis on transverse impedance and minimizing beam instabilities.

  8. Impact of particles on the Planck HFI detectors: Ground-based measurements and physical interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, A.; Ade, P.; Atik, Y.; Benoit, A.; Bréele, E.; Bock, J. J.; Camus, P.; Chabot, M.; Charra, M.; Crill, B. P.; Coron, N.; Coulais, A.; Désert, F.-X.; Fauvet, L.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Guillaudin, O.; Holmes, W.; Jones, W. C.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Macías-Pérez, J.; Martinez, M.; Miniussi, A.; Monfardini, A.; Pajot, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pelissier, A.; Piat, M.; Puget, J.-L.; Renault, C.; Rosset, C.; Santos, D.; Sauvé, A.; Spencer, L. D.; Sudiwala, R.

    2014-09-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) surveyed the sky continuously from August 2009 to January 2012. Its noise and sensitivity performance were excellent (from 11 to 40 aW Hz-1), but the rate of cosmic-ray impacts on the HFI detectors was unexpectedly higher than in other instruments. Furthermore, collisions of cosmic rays with the focal plane produced transient signals in the data (glitches) with a wide range of characteristics and a rate of about one glitch per second. A study of cosmic-ray impacts on the HFI detector modules has been undertaken to categorize and characterize the glitches, to correct the HFI time-ordered data, and understand the residual effects on Planck maps and data products. This paper evaluates the physical origins of glitches observed by the HFI detectors. To better understand the glitches observed by HFI in flight, several ground-based experiments were conducted with flight-spare HFI bolometer modules. The experiments were conducted between 2010 and 2013 with HFI test bolometers in different configurations using varying particles and impact energies. The bolometer modules were exposed to 23 MeV protons from the Orsay IPN Tandem accelerator, and to 241Am and 244Cm α-particle and 55Fe radioactive X-ray sources. The calibration data from the HFI ground-based preflight tests were used to further characterize the glitches and compare glitch rates with statistical expectations under laboratory conditions. Test results provide strong evidence that the dominant family of glitches observed in flight are due to cosmic-ray absorption by the silicon die substrate on which the HFI detectors reside. Glitch energy is propagated to the thermistor by ballistic phonons, while thermal diffusion also contributes. The average ratio between the energy absorbed, per glitch, in the silicon die and thatabsorbed in the bolometer is equal to 650. We discuss the implications of these results for future satellite missions, especially those in the far

  9. Diamond particle detectors systems in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, A.

    2015-04-01

    With the first three years of the LHC running complete, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with more radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond is one such technology. CVD diamond has been used extensively in beam condition monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. The lessons learned in constructing the ATLAS Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM), Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM) and the CMS Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) all of which are based on CVD diamond with the goal of elucidating the issues that should be addressed for future diamond based detector systems. The first beam test results of prototype diamond devices with 3D detector geometry should further enhance the radiation tolerance of this material.

  10. The High-Luminosity upgrade of the LHC: Physics and Technology Challenges for the Accelerator and the Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Burkhard

    2016-04-01

    In the second phase of the LHC physics program, the accelerator will provide an additional integrated luminosity of about 2500/fb over 10 years of operation to the general purpose detectors ATLAS and CMS. This will substantially enlarge the mass reach in the search for new particles and will also greatly extend the potential to study the properties of the Higgs boson discovered at the LHC in 2012. In order to meet the experimental challenges of unprecedented pp luminosity, the experiments will need to address the aging of the present detectors and to improve the ability to isolate and precisely measure the products of the most interesting collisions. The lectures gave an overview of the physics motivation and described the conceptual designs and the expected performance of the upgrades of the four major experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb, along with the plans to develop the appropriate experimental techniques and a brief overview of the accelerator upgrade. Only some key points of the upgrade program of the four major experiments are discussed in this report; more information can be found in the references given at the end.

  11. Formation and Acceleration Physics on Plasma Injector 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Plasma Injector 1 (PI-1) is a two stage coaxial Marshal gun with conical accelerator electrodes, similar in shape to the MARAUDER device, with power input of the same topology as the RACE device. The goal of PI-1 research is to produce a self-confined compact toroid with high-flux (200 mWb), high-density (3x10^16 cm-3) and moderate initial temperature (100 eV) to be used as the target plasma in a MTF reactor. PI-1 is 5 meters long and 1.9 m in diameter at the expansion region where a high aspect ratio (4.4) spheromak is formed with a minimum lambda of 9 m-1. The acceleration stage is 4 m long and tapers to an outer diameter of 40 cm. The capacitor banks store 0.5 MJ for formation and 1.13 MJ for acceleration. Power is delivered via 62 independently controlled switch modules. Several geometries for formation bias field, inner electrodes and target chamber have been tested, and trends in accelerator efficiency and target lifetime have been observed. Thomson scattering and ion Doppler spectroscopy show significant heating (>100 eV) as the CT is compressed in the conical accelerator. B-dot probes show magnetic field structure consistent with Grad-Shafranov models and MHD simulations, and CT axial length depends strongly on the lambda profile.

  12. Linear accelerator for production of tritium: Physics design challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.; Lawrence, G.P.; Bhatia, T.S.; Billen, J.H.; Chan, K.C.D.; Garnett, R.W.; Guy, F.W.; Liska, D.; Nath, S.; Neuschaefer, G.; Shubaly, M.

    1990-01-01

    In the summer of 1989, a collaboration between Los Alamos National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory conducted a study to establish a reference design of a facility for accelerator production of tritium (APT). The APT concept is that of a neutron-spallation source, which is based on the use of high-energy protons to bombard lead nuclei, resulting in the production of large quantities of neutrons. Neutrons from the lead are captured by lithium to produce tritium. This paper describes the design of a 1.6-GeV, 250-mA proton cw linear accelerator for APT.

  13. High Performance Computing Modeling Advances Accelerator Science for High-Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Amundson, James; Macridin, Alexandru; Spentzouris, Panagiotis

    2014-07-28

    The development and optimization of particle accelerators are essential for advancing our understanding of the properties of matter, energy, space, and time. Particle accelerators are complex devices whose behavior involves many physical effects on multiple scales. Therefore, advanced computational tools utilizing high-performance computing are essential for accurately modeling them. In the past decade, the US Department of Energy's SciDAC program has produced accelerator-modeling tools that have been employed to tackle some of the most difficult accelerator science problems. The authors discuss the Synergia framework and its applications to high-intensity particle accelerator physics. Synergia is an accelerator simulation package capable of handling the entire spectrum of beam dynamics simulations. Our authors present Synergia's design principles and its performance on HPC platforms.

  14. High Performance Computing Modeling Advances Accelerator Science for High-Energy Physics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Amundson, James; Macridin, Alexandru; Spentzouris, Panagiotis

    2014-07-28

    The development and optimization of particle accelerators are essential for advancing our understanding of the properties of matter, energy, space, and time. Particle accelerators are complex devices whose behavior involves many physical effects on multiple scales. Therefore, advanced computational tools utilizing high-performance computing are essential for accurately modeling them. In the past decade, the US Department of Energy's SciDAC program has produced accelerator-modeling tools that have been employed to tackle some of the most difficult accelerator science problems. The authors discuss the Synergia framework and its applications to high-intensity particle accelerator physics. Synergia is an accelerator simulation package capable ofmore » handling the entire spectrum of beam dynamics simulations. Our authors present Synergia's design principles and its performance on HPC platforms.« less

  15. Relative Humidity in Limited Streamer Tubes for Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's BaBar Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, M.I.; Convery, M.; Menges, W.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2005-12-15

    The BABAR Detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center studies the decay of B mesons created in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions. The outermost layer of the detector, used to detect muons and neutral hadrons created during this process, is being upgraded from Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) to Limited Streamer Tubes (LSTs). The standard-size LST tube consists of eight cells, where a silver-plated wire runs down the center of each. A large potential difference is placed between the wires and ground. Gas flows through a series of modules connected with tubing, typically four. LSTs must be carefully tested before installation, as it will be extremely difficult to repair any damage once installed in the detector. In the testing process, the count rate in most modules showed was stable and consistent with cosmic ray rate over an approximately 500 V operating range between 5400 to 5900 V. The count in some modules, however, was shown to unexpectedly spike near the operation point. In general, the modules through which the gas first flows did not show this problem, but those further along the gas chain were much more likely to do so. The suggestion was that this spike was due to higher humidity in the modules furthest from the fresh, dry inflowing gas, and that the water molecules in more humid modules were adversely affecting the modules' performance. This project studied the effect of humidity in the modules, using a small capacitive humidity sensor (Honeywell). The sensor provided a humidity-dependent output voltage, as well as a temperature measurement from a thermistor. A full-size hygrometer (Panametrics) was used for testing and calibrating the Honeywell sensors. First the relative humidity of the air was measured. For the full calibration, a special gas-mixing setup was used, where relative humidity of the LST gas mixture could be varied from almost dry to almost fully saturated. With the sensor calibrated, a set of sensors was used to measure humidity vs. time

  16. Solid-state, flat-panel, digital radiography detectors and their physical imaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cowen, A R; Kengyelics, S M; Davies, A G

    2008-05-01

    Solid-state, digital radiography (DR) detectors, designed specifically for standard projection radiography, emerged just before the turn of the millennium. This new generation of digital image detector comprises a thin layer of x-ray absorptive material combined with an electronic active matrix array fabricated in a thin film of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). DR detectors can offer both efficient (low-dose) x-ray image acquisition plus on-line readout of the latent image as electronic data. To date, solid-state, flat-panel, DR detectors have come in two principal designs, the indirect-conversion (x-ray scintillator-based) and the direct-conversion (x-ray photoconductor-based) types. This review describes the underlying principles and enabling technologies exploited by these designs of detector, and evaluates their physical imaging characteristics, comparing performance both against each other and computed radiography (CR). In standard projection radiography indirect conversion DR detectors currently offer superior physical image quality and dose efficiency compared with direct conversion DR and modern point-scan CR. These conclusions have been confirmed in the findings of clinical evaluations of DR detectors. Future trends in solid-state DR detector technologies are also briefly considered. Salient innovations include WiFi-enabled, portable DR detectors, improvements in x-ray absorber layers and developments in alternative electronic media to a-Si:H. PMID:18374710

  17. Acceleration of neutrons in a scheme of a tautochronous mathematical pendulum (physical principles)

    SciTech Connect

    Rivlin, Lev A

    2010-12-09

    We consider the physical principles of neutron acceleration through a multiple synchronous interaction with a gradient rf magnetic field in a scheme of a tautochronous mathematical pendulum. (laser applications and other aspects of quantum electronics)

  18. Physics of beam self-modulation in plasma wakefield accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Lotov, K. V.

    2015-10-15

    The self-modulation instability is a key effect that makes possible the usage of nowadays proton beams as drivers for plasma wakefield acceleration. Development of the instability in uniform plasmas and in plasmas with a small density up-step is numerically studied with the focus at nonlinear stages of beam evolution. The step parameters providing the strongest established wakefield are found, and the mechanism of stable bunch train formation is identified.

  19. Seeing the Nature of the Accelerating Physics: It's a SNAP

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, J.; Aldering, G.; Allam, S.; Althouse, W.; Amanullah, R.; Annis, J.; Astier, P.; Aumeunier, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bebek, C.; Bergstom, L.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Besuner, B.; Bigelow, B.; Blandford, R.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; /Caltech /LBL, Berkeley /Fermilab /SLAC /Stockholm U. /Paris, IN2P3 /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. /Yale U. /Pennsylvania U. /UC, Berkeley /Michigan U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Indiana U. /Caltech, JPL /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /American Astron. Society /Chicago U. /Cambridge U. /Saclay /Lyon, IPN

    2005-08-05

    For true insight into the nature of dark energy, measurements of the precision and accuracy of the Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) are required. Precursor or scaled-down experiments are unavoidably limited, even for distinguishing the cosmological constant. They can pave the way for, but should not delay, SNAP by developing calibration, refinement, and systematics control (and they will also provide important, exciting astrophysics).

  20. Synergia: a modern tool for accelerator physics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Spentzouris, P.; Amundson, J.; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    High precision modeling of space-charge effects, together with accurate treatment of single-particle dynamics, is essential for designing future accelerators as well as optimizing the performance of existing machines. Synergia is a high-fidelity parallel beam dynamics simulation package with fully three dimensional space-charge capabilities and a higher order optics implementation. We describe the computational techniques, the advanced human interface, and the parallel performance obtained using large numbers of macroparticles.

  1. Inflationary Expansions Generated by a Physically Real Kinematic Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savickas, David

    2010-02-01

    A repulsive cosmological acceleration is shown to exist that exhibits a behavior very similar to that found in both inflationary models at the time of origin of the universe, and also in the repulsive acceleration found in present-day cosmological observations. It is able to describe an inflationary model of a radiation universe in considerable numerical detail. It is based on a method that defines the Hubble parameter H, and consequently inertial systems themselves, directly in terms of the positions and velocities of mass particles in a universe. This makes it possible to describe a mass particle's motion relative to other particles in the universe, rather than relative to inertial systems. Because of this, the repulsive acceleration is a real kinematic effect existing in the present-day universe. This definition of H cannot include the use of photon positions or velocities because H determines the velocities of receding inertial systems of galaxies, and the velocity of a photon in a distant inertial system then depends on the definition of H itself. Therefore, at the time of its origin the magnitude of H in a radiation dominated universe would be solely determined by the behavior of the relatively few mass particles that it contained while allowing for a near balance with the gravitation of the Friedmann-Lemaître model. )

  2. The Coronal Physics Investigator (cpi) Experiment For Iss: A New Vision For Understanding Solar Wind Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, John C.; Janzen, P. H.; Kohl, J. L.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Chandran, B. D. G.; Cranmer, S. R.; Forbes, T. G.; Isenberg, P. A.; Panasyuk, A. V.; van Ballegooijen, A. A.

    2011-05-01

    We propose an Explorer Mission of Opportunity program to develop and operate a large-aperture ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer called the Coronal Physics Investigator (CPI) as an attached International Space Station (ISS) payload. The primary goal of this program is to identify and characterize the physical processes that heat and accelerate the primary and secondary components of the fast and slow solar wind. Also, CPI can make key measurements needed to understand CMEs. CPI is dedicated to high spectral resolution measurements of the off-limb extended corona with far better stray light suppression than can be achieved by a conventional instrument. UVCS/SOHO allowed us to identify what additional measurements need to be made to answer the fundamental questions about how solar wind streams are produced, and CPI's next-generation capabilities were designed specifically to make those measurements. Compared to previous instruments, CPI provides unprecedented sensitivity, a wavelength range extending from 25.7 to 126 nm, higher temporal resolution, and the capability to measure line profiles of He II, N V, Ne VII, Ne VIII, Si VIII, S IX, Ar VIII, Ca IX, and Fe X, never before seen in coronal holes above 1.3 solar radii. CPI will constrain the properties and effects of coronal MHD waves by (1) observing many ions over a large range of charge and mass,(2) providing simultaneous measurements of proton and electron temperatures to probe turbulent dissipation mechanisms, and (3) measuring amplitudes of low-frequency compressive fluctuations. CPI is an internally occulted ultraviolet coronagraph that provides the required high sensitivity without the need for a deployable boom, and with all technically mature hardware including an ICCD detector. A highly experienced Explorer and ISS contractor, L-3 Com Integrated Optical Systems and Com Systems East will provide the tracking and pointing system as well as the instrument, and the integration to the ISS.

  3. Laser-based acceleration for nuclear physics experiments at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesileanu, O.; Asavei, Th.; Dancus, I.; Gales, S.; Negoita, F.; Turcu, I. C. E.; Ursescu, D.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2016-05-01

    As part of the Extreme Light pan-European research infrastructure, Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) in Romania will focus on topics in Nuclear Physics, fundamental Physics and applications, based on very intense photon beams. Laser-based acceleration of electrons, protons and heavy ions is a prerequisite for a multitude of laser-driven nuclear physics experiments already proposed by the international research community. A total of six outputs of the dual-amplification chain laser system, two of 100TW, two of 1PW and two of 10PW will be employed in 5 experimental areas, with the possibility to use long and short focal lengths, gas and solid targets, reaching the whole range of laser acceleration processes. We describe the main techniques and expectations regarding the acceleration of electrons, protons and heavy nuclei at ELI-NP, and some physics cases for which these techniques play an important role in the experiments.

  4. Neutrino physics with multi-ton scale liquid xenon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Baudis, L.; Ferella, A.; Kish, A.; Manalaysay, A.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodán; Schumann, M. E-mail: alfredo.ferella@lngs.infn.it E-mail: aaronm@ucdavis.edu E-mail: marc.schumann@lhep.unibe.ch

    2014-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of large-scale xenon detectors to low-energy solar neutrinos, to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering and to neutrinoless double beta decay. As a concrete example, we consider the xenon part of the proposed DARWIN (Dark Matter WIMP Search with Noble Liquids) experiment. We perform detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the expected backgrounds, considering realistic energy resolutions and thresholds in the detector. In a low-energy window of 2–30 keV, where the sensitivity to solar pp and {sup 7}Be-neutrinos is highest, an integrated pp-neutrino rate of 5900 events can be reached in a fiducial mass of 14 tons of natural xenon, after 5 years of data. The pp-neutrino flux could thus be measured with a statistical uncertainty around 1%, reaching the precision of solar model predictions. These low-energy solar neutrinos will be the limiting background to the dark matter search channel for WIMP-nucleon cross sections below ∼ 2 × 10{sup −48} cm{sup 2} and WIMP masses around 50 GeV⋅c{sup −2}, for an assumed 99.5% rejection of electronic recoils due to elastic neutrino-electron scatters. Nuclear recoils from coherent scattering of solar neutrinos will limit the sensitivity to WIMP masses below ∼ 6 GeV⋅c{sup −2} to cross sections above ∼ 4 × 10{sup −45}cm{sup 2}. DARWIN could reach a competitive half-life sensitivity of 5.6 × 10{sup 26} y to the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe after 5 years of data, using 6 tons of natural xenon in the central detector region.

  5. Pixel detectors in 3D technologies for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, G.; Demarteau, M.; Hoff, J.; Lipton, R.; Shenai, A.; Yarema, R.; Zimmerman, T.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    This paper reports on the current status of the development of International Linear Collider vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics. Initial testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second embodiment of the prototype data-pushed readout concept developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the MIT-LL 0.15 {micro}m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  6. Superconducting Cable Development for Future High Energy Physics Detector Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, I. L.

    1995-11-01

    Under the leadership of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ) an international ad hoc collaboration for superconducting cables developed an aluminium stabilised superconducting cable for future detector magnets. With the financial support of the Swiss government, this R&D work was carried out for the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN). In this report the manufacturing process is described and results of the quality control measurements are summarised. These tests showed that the industrial manufacturing of an aluminium stabilised superconducting cable is feasible.

  7. Detectors

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Bounds, John Alan; Allander, Krag

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques through which both alpha and beta emission determinations can be made simultaneously using a simple detector structure. The technique uses a beta detector covered in an electrically conducting material, the electrically conducting material discharging ions generated by alpha emissions, and as a consequence providing a measure of those alpha emissions. The technique also offers improved mountings for alpha detectors and other forms of detectors against vibration and the consequential effects vibration has on measurement accuracy.

  8. ACCELERATOR PHYSICS MODEL OF EXPECTED BEAM LOSS ALONG THE SNS ACCELERATOR FACILITY DURING NORMAL OPERATION.

    SciTech Connect

    CATALAN - LASHERAS,N.; COUSINEAU,S.; GALAMBOS,J.; HOLTKAMP,N.; RAPARIA,D.; SHAFER,R.; STAPLES,J.; STOVALL,J.; TANKE,E.; WANGLER,T.; WEI,J.

    2002-06-03

    The most demanding requirement in the design of the SNS accelerator chain is to keep the accelerator complex under hands-on maintenance. This requirement implies a hard limit for residual radiation below 100 mrem/hr at one feet from the vacuum pipe and four hours after shutdown for hundred days of normal operation. It has been shown by measurements as well as simulation [l] that this limit corresponds to 1-2 Watts/meter average beam losses. This loss level is achievable all around the machine except in specific areas where remote handling will be necessary. These areas have been identified and correspond to collimation sections and dumps where a larger amount of controlled beam loss is foreseen. Even if the average level of loss is kept under 1 W/m, there are circumstances under which transient losses occur in the machine. The prompt radiation or potential damage in the accelerator components can not be deduced from an average beam loss of 1 W/m. At the same time, controlled loss areas require a dedicated study to clarify the magnitude and distribution of the beam loss. From the front end to the target, we have estimated the most probable locations for transient losses and given an estimate of their magnitude and frequency. This information is essential to calculate the necessary shielding or determine the safety procedures during machine operation. Losses in controlled areas, and the cleaning systems are the subject of Section 2. The inefficiency of each system will be taken into account for the discussion on Section 3 where n controlled loss is estimated. Section 4 summarizes our findings and presents a global view of the losses along the accelerator chain.

  9. Germanium detectors with sub-keV sensitivities for neutrino and dark matter physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soma, Arun Kumar; Tsz-King Wong, Henry; TEXONO Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    A detector of O(1 kg) modular mass with O(100 eV) threshold at O(1 kg-1keV-1day-1) background level finds tremendous application in the field of neutrino and dark matter physics. This novel detector demands overcoming several challenges at both hardware and software levels. The collaboration is exploring Germanium detection technology and highlights of the R & D program are presented. The salient features of various detector configuration and the applied analysis methodologies are discussed. In particular the differentiation of surface and bulk events by pulse shape analysis in point contact Germanium detector is described. These advances pave the way for new detector technique to be fully exploited.

  10. Accelerating Innovation: How Nuclear Physics Benefits Us All

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    From fighting cancer to assuring food is safe to protecting our borders, nuclear physics impacts the lives of people around the globe every day. In learning about the nucleus of the atom and the forces that govern it, scientists develop a depth of knowledge, techniques and remarkable research tools that can be used to develop a variety of often unexpected, practical applications. These applications include devices and technologies for medical diagnostics and therapy, energy production and exploration, safety and national security, and for the analysis of materials and environmental contaminants. This brochure by the Office of Nuclear Physics of the USDOE Office of Science discusses nuclear physics and ways in which its applications fuel our economic vitality, and make the world and our lives safer and healthier.

  11. Detectors for Linear Colliders: Physics Requirements and Experimental Conditions (1/4)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    How is the anticipated physics program of a future e+e- collider shaping the R&D; for new detectors in collider particle physics ? This presentation will review the main physics requirements and experimental conditions comparing to LHC and LEP. In particular, I shall discuss how e+e- experimentation is expected to change moving from LEP-2 up to multi-TeV energies.

  12. Physical analysis of the radiation shielding for the medical accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q. F.; Xing, Q. Z.; Kong, C. C.

    2009-02-01

    Radiation safety standards today require comprehensive shielding protection schemes for all particle accelerators. The original shielding system of BJ-20 (BeiJing-20 MeV), the high-energy medical electron linac, was designed only for the 18 MeV level. And the dose caused by the lost electrons in the 270° bending magnet system was neglected. In this paper, the leakage dose of BJ-20 is carefully analyzed. The radiation leakage dose distribution of the photons coming from the accelerator head is obtained for energy levels of 6, 12, 14, and 18 MeV. The dose of the photoneutrons is especially analyzed for the 18 MeV level. The result gives that even neglecting the dose from the 270° bending magnet system, the shielding system is still not enough for the energy levels lower than 18 MeV. The radiation leakage produced by electrons that are lost in the 270° bending magnet system has been particularly studied. Using beam transport theory and Monte Carlo sampling methods, which have been combined in calculations, we have obtained the distribution of the energy, position, and direction of the lost electrons. These data were then further processed by the Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) code as input data. The results show that when the electron loss rate in the 270° bending magnet system is 13.5%, the radiation leakage dose of the photons generated by the lost electrons is 0.1% higher than that at the isocenter, and the corresponding relative leakage dose of the photoneutrons reaches 0.045% around an angle of 170° at 18 MeV level. Both of these parameters exceed radioprotection safety standards for medical accelerators. The original shielding design is therefore not suitable and is also incomplete since the radiation produced by the electrons being lost in the 270° bending magnet system was neglected and the leakage dose for the low-energy levels was not considered in the original design. Our calculations provide a very useful tool for further optimization and design

  13. Achievements in solar neutrino physics with the Borexino detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miramonti, L.; Borexino Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Borexino is an organic liquid scintillator detector located in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory in central Italy. It has been designed for real-time spectroscopy of low energy solar neutrinos. In Phase I of the experiment lasting for three years, between May 2007 and May 2010, the Collaboration performed the first independent measurements of 7Be, 8B, and pep solar neutrino fluxes. After a dedicated purification campaign of the liquid scintillator in 2011, Borexino entered into Phase II which allowed to investigate the seasonal modulation in the 7Be signal. In 2014, Borexino provided the first direct real time measurement of pp neutrinos accomplishing the whole pp-cycle that powers the Sun.

  14. Search for New Physics with AMS-02 Transition Radiation Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chanhoon

    Today the universe consists of 4.6% of ordinary matter, 23.3% of dark matter and 72.1% of dark energy. The dark matter is generally assumed be stable, non-relativistic and only weakly interacting. But we do not know what the dark matter is made of and how it is distributed within our Galaxy. In general, the cosmic antiparticles are expected as secondary products of interactions of the primary cosmic-rays (CRs) with the interstellar medium during propagation. While the measurements of CR positrons have become more precise, the results still do not match with the pure secondary origins. AMS-02 is a large acceptance precision particle spectrometer approved for installation on the International Space Station (ISS). A key feature of AMS-02 is precise particle identification for measurements of primary cosmic ray anti-particle spectra with negligible background up to a momentum of 500 GeV/c to allow indirect searches for dark matter. To efficiently separate positrons/electrons from protons/anti-protons, AMS-02 will be equipped with a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) with 5248 straw tube proportional counters filled with a Xe/CO2 (80/20) mixture. The AMS-02 TRD was fully assembled and integrated into AMS-02 in 2007. In 2008 AMS-02 had recorded cosmic ray particles on ground to demonstrate full functionality of the device. For the AMS-02 TRD it will be shown that the detector response is as expected and the gas tightness will allow operation in space for 20 years with a gas supply of 25 kg.

  15. The physics design of accelerator-driven transmutation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Venneri, F.

    1995-02-01

    Nuclear systems under study in the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology program (ADTT) will allow the destruction of nuclear spent fuel and weapons-return plutonium, as well as the production of nuclear energy from the thorium cycle, without a long-lived radioactive waste stream. The subcritical systems proposed represent a radical departure from traditional nuclear concepts (reactors), yet the actual implementation of ADTT systems is based on modest extrapolations of existing technology. These systems strive to keep the best that the nuclear technology has developed over the years, within a sensible conservative design envelope and eventually manage to offer a safer, less expensive and more environmentally sound approach to nuclear power.

  16. Physical characterization of a high-resolution CCD detector for mammography.

    PubMed

    Elbakri, I A; Tesic, M M; Xiong, Quanren

    2007-04-21

    The physical characteristics of charge-coupled device (CCD) mammography detector with 16-bit dynamic range and 27 microm detector element size were investigated. The detector, with an active area of 1 cm x 20 cm is suitable for slot-scanning systems. We evaluated the detector resolution by measuring the modulation transfer function (MTF) using a tilted edge. We also measured the noise power spectra (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) using tungsten spectra filtered with 3 mm Al. We carried out measurements in two modes of operation: the frame mode where the detector is stationary and the scan mode where the detector operates in a slot-scanning configuration. The specific beam qualities and exposure ranges employed were 30 kVp, HVL 1.4 mm Al, 1.24 microC kg(-1) to 12.44 microC kg(-1), and 40 kVp, HVL 2.1 mm Al and 3.26 microC kg(-1) to 16.64 microC kg(-1). The product of the normalized noise power spectrum and exposure was also computed to evaluate the quantum limited characteristic of the detector. The detector MTF was 12% at 15 lp mm(-1). The product of the noise power spectra and exposure was independent of exposure level, indicating a quantum limited detector. The DQE in the scan and frame modes near zero frequency was 40% and 60%, respectively. Our results show that the slot-scanning configuration was less efficient than the performance capabilities of the detector. This detector is comparable to other digital mammography sensors evaluated in the literature. PMID:17404462

  17. Implementation of an Accelerated Physical Examination Course in a Doctor of Pharmacy Program

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jackie; Lopes, Ingrid C.; Shah, Bijal M.; Ip, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To describe the implementation of a 1-day accelerated physical examination course for a doctor of pharmacy program and to evaluate pharmacy students’ knowledge, attitudes, and confidence in performing physical examination. Design. Using a flipped teaching approach, course coordinators collaborated with a physician faculty member to design and develop the objectives of the course. Knowledge, attitude, and confidence survey questions were administered before and after the practical laboratory. Assessment. Following the practical laboratory, knowledge improved by 8.3% (p<0.0001). Students’ perceived ability and confidence to perform a physical examination significantly improved (p<0.0001). A majority of students responded that reviewing the training video (81.3%) and reading material (67.4%) prior to the practical laboratory was helpful in learning the physical examination. Conclusion. An accelerated physical examination course using a flipped teaching approach was successful in improving students’ knowledge of, attitudes about, and confidence in using physical examination skills in pharmacy practice. PMID:25657369

  18. High energy physics advisory panel`s composite subpanel for the assessment of the status of accelerator physics and technology

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    In November 1994, Dr. Martha Krebs, Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Research (OER), initiated a broad assessment of the current status and promise of the field of accelerator physics and technology with respect to five OER programs -- High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, Basic Energy Sciences, Fusion Energy, and Health and Environmental Research. Dr. Krebs asked the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) to establish a composite subpanel with representation from the five OER advisory committees and with a balance of membership drawn broadly from both the accelerator community and from those scientific disciplines associated with the OER programs. The Subpanel was also charged to provide recommendations and guidance on appropriate future research and development needs, management issues, and funding requirements. The Subpanel finds that accelerator science and technology is a vital and intellectually exciting field. It has provided essential capabilities for the DOE/OER research programs with an enormous impact on the nation`s scientific research, and it has significantly enhanced the nation`s biomedical and industrial capabilities. Further progress in this field promises to open new possibilities for the scientific goals of the OER programs and to further benefit the nation. Sustained support of forefront accelerator research and development by the DOE`s OER programs and the DOE`s predecessor agencies has been responsible for much of this impact on research. This report documents these contributions to the DOE energy research mission and to the nation.

  19. Report of the Subpanel on Accelerator Research and Development of the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Accelerator R and D in the US High Energy Physics (HEP) program is reviewed. As a result of this study, some shift in priority, particularly as regards long-range accelerator R and D, is suggested to best serve the future needs of the US HEP program. Some specific new directions for the US R and D effort are set forth. 18 figures, 5 tables. (RWR)

  20. Accelerator beam data commissioning equipment and procedures: Report of the TG-106 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the AAPM

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Indra J.; Cheng, C.-W.; Watts, Ronald J.; Ahnesjoe, Anders; Gibbons, John; Li, X. Allen; Lowenstein, Jessica; Mitra, Raj K.; Simon, William E.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2008-09-15

    For commissioning a linear accelerator for clinical use, medical physicists are faced with many challenges including the need for precision, a variety of testing methods, data validation, the lack of standards, and time constraints. Since commissioning beam data are treated as a reference and ultimately used by treatment planning systems, it is vitally important that the collected data are of the highest quality to avoid dosimetric and patient treatment errors that may subsequently lead to a poor radiation outcome. Beam data commissioning should be performed with appropriate knowledge and proper tools and should be independent of the person collecting the data. To achieve this goal, Task Group 106 (TG-106) of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine was formed to review the practical aspects as well as the physics of linear accelerator commissioning. The report provides guidelines and recommendations on the proper selection of phantoms and detectors, setting up of a phantom for data acquisition (both scanning and no-scanning data), procedures for acquiring specific photon and electron beam parameters and methods to reduce measurement errors (<1%), beam data processing and detector size convolution for accurate profiles. The TG-106 also provides a brief discussion on the emerging trend in Monte Carlo simulation techniques in photon and electron beam commissioning. The procedures described in this report should assist a qualified medical physicist in either measuring a complete set of beam data, or in verifying a subset of data before initial use or for periodic quality assurance measurements. By combining practical experience with theoretical discussion, this document sets a new standard for beam data commissioning.

  1. Accelerator beam data commissioning equipment and procedures: report of the TG-106 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the AAPM.

    PubMed

    Das, Indra J; Cheng, Chee-Wai; Watts, Ronald J; Ahnesjö, Anders; Gibbons, John; Li, X Allen; Lowenstein, Jessica; Mitra, Raj K; Simon, William E; Zhu, Timothy C

    2008-09-01

    For commissioning a linear accelerator for clinical use, medical physicists are faced with many challenges including the need for precision, a variety of testing methods, data validation, the lack of standards, and time constraints. Since commissioning beam data are treated as a reference and ultimately used by treatment planning systems, it is vitally important that the collected data are of the highest quality to avoid dosimetric and patient treatment errors that may subsequently lead to a poor radiation outcome. Beam data commissioning should be performed with appropriate knowledge and proper tools and should be independent of the person collecting the data. To achieve this goal, Task Group 106 (TG-106) of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine was formed to review the practical aspects as well as the physics of linear accelerator commissioning. The report provides guidelines and recommendations on the proper selection of phantoms and detectors, setting up of a phantom for data acquisition (both scanning and no-scanning data), procedures for acquiring specific photon and electron beam parameters and methods to reduce measurement errors (<1%), beam data processing and detector size convolution for accurate profiles. The TG-106 also provides a brief.discussion on the emerging trend in Monte Carlo simulation techniques in photon and electron beam commissioning. The procedures described in this report should assist a qualified medical physicist in either measuring a complete set of beam data, or in verifying a subset of data before initial use or for periodic quality assurance measurements. By combining practical experience with theoretical discussion, this document sets a new standard for beam data commissioning. PMID:18841871

  2. Low Energy Neutrino and Dark Matter Physics with sub-keV Germanium Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, L.; Singh, V.; Soma, A. K.; Singh, M. K.; Wong, H. T.

    2011-10-06

    A TEXONO collaboration research program on low energy neutrino and dark matter physics is going on at the Kuo-Sheng Neutrino Laboratory (KSNL). Collaboration main goals are to measure the neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering cross section, neutrino magnetic moments, and the searches of WIMP dark matter. To achieve these goals various prototype detectors and their sub-keV background are under study. A threshold of 220 eV was achieved with prototype detectors at the KSNL. New limits were set for WIMPs with mass between 3-6 GeV. Data are being taken with a 500 g Point Contact Germanium detector, where a threshold of {approx}350 eV was demonstrated. A 20 g ULEGe detector is taking data at CJPL in Sichuan, China.

  3. Physical and mechanical metallurgy of high purity Nb accelerator cavities.

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, N. T.; Bieler, T. R.; Pourgoghart , F.; Compton, C.; Hartwig, K. T.; Baars, D.; Zamiri, A.; Chandrasekaran, S.; Darbandi, P.; Jiang, H.; Skoug, E.; Balachandran, S.; Ice, G. E.; Liu, W.; Michigan State Univ.; Texas A & M Univ.; ORNL

    2010-01-01

    In the past decade, high Q values have been achieved in high purity Nb superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Fundamental understanding of the physical metallurgy of Nb that enables these achievements is beginning to reveal what challenges remain to establish reproducible and cost-effective production of high performance SRF cavities. Recent studies of dislocation substructure development and effects of recrystallization arising from welding and heat treatments and their correlations with cavity performance are considered. With better fundamental understanding of the effects of dislocation substructure evolution and recrystallization on electron and phonon conduction, as well as the interior and surface states, it will be possible to design optimal processing paths for cost-effective performance using approaches such as hydroforming, which minimizes or eliminates welds in a cavity.

  4. Probing nonstandard neutrino physics by two identical detectors with different baselines

    SciTech Connect

    Cipriano Ribeiro, Nei; Nunokawa, Hiroshi; Kajita, Takaaki; Nakayama, Shoei; Ko, Pyungwon; Minakata, Hisakazu

    2008-04-01

    The Kamioka-Korea two-detector system is a powerful experimental setup for resolving neutrino parameter degeneracies and probing CP violation in neutrino oscillation. In this paper, we study sensitivities of the same setup to several nonstandard neutrino physics such as quantum decoherence, tiny violation of Lorentz symmetry, and nonstandard interactions of neutrinos with matter. We show that it can achieve significant improvement on the current bounds on nonstandard neutrino physics. In most cases, the Kamioka-Korea two-detector setup is more sensitive than the one-detector setup, either in Kamioka or in Korea, except for the cases when Lorentz symmetry is broken in a CPT-violating manner and the nonstandard neutrino interactions with matter is present.

  5. Deep ocean mineral water accelerates recovery from physical fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Deep oceans have been suggested as a possible site where the origin of life occurred. Along with this theoretical lineage, experiments using components from deep ocean water to recreate life is underway. Here, we propose that if terrestrial organisms indeed evolved from deep oceans, supply of deep ocean mineral water (DOM) to humans, as a land creature, may replenish loss of molecular complexity associated with evolutionary sea-to-land migration. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover human study to evaluate the effect of DOM, taken from a depth of 662 meters off the coast of Hualien, Taiwan, on time of recovery from a fatiguing exercise conducted at 30°C. Results The fatiguing exercise protocol caused a protracted reduction in aerobic power (reduced VO2max) for 48 h. However, DOM supplementation resulted in complete recovery of aerobic power within 4 h (P < 0.05). Muscle power was also elevated above placebo levels within 24 h of recovery (P < 0.05). Increased circulating creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin, indicatives of exercise-induced muscle damage, were completely eliminated by DOM (P < 0.05) in parallel with attenuated oxidative damage (P < 0.05). Conclusion Our results provide compelling evidence that DOM contains soluble elements, which can increase human recovery following an exhaustive physical challenge. PMID:23402436

  6. Monolithic circuits for barium fluoride detectors used in nuclear physics experiments. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Varner, R.L.; Blankenship, J.L.; Beene, J.R.; Todd, R.A.

    1998-02-01

    Custom monolithic electronic circuits have been developed recently for large detector applications in high energy physics where subsystems require tens of thousands of channels of signal processing and data acquisition. In the design and construction of these enormous detectors, it has been found that monolithic circuits offer significant advantages over discrete implementations through increased performance, flexible packaging, lower power and reduced cost per channel. Much of the integrated circuit design for the high energy physics community is directly applicable to intermediate energy heavy-ion and electron physics. This STTR project conducted in collaboration with researchers at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, sought to develop a new integrated circuit chip set for barium fluoride (BaF{sub 2}) detector arrays based upon existing CMOS monolithic circuit designs created for the high energy physics experiments. The work under the STTR Phase 1 demonstrated through the design, simulation, and testing of several prototype chips the feasibility of using custom CMOS integrated circuits for processing signals from BaF{sub 2} detectors. Function blocks including charge-sensitive amplifiers, comparators, one shots, time-to-amplitude converters, analog memory circuits and buffer amplifiers were implemented during Phase 1 effort. Experimental results from bench testing and laboratory testing with sources were documented.

  7. EMPACT: A detector for high-p sub T physics at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Womersley, J.

    1990-01-01

    EMPACT is a high-transverse-momentum physics detector for the SSC. It aims for a precise measurement of electrons, muons, jets, and missing transverse energy using a superior calorimeter surrounded by air-core toroidal magnets forming a precision muon spectrometer. The baseline design of EMPACT is described. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  8. A Comparison of Video-Based and Interaction-Based Affect Detectors in Physics Playground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kai, Shiming; Paquette, Luc; Baker, Ryan S.; Bosch, Nigel; D'Mello, Sidney; Ocumpaugh, Jaclyn; Shute, Valerie; Ventura, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Increased attention to the relationships between affect and learning has led to the development of machine-learned models that are able to identify students' affective states in computerized learning environments. Data for these affect detectors have been collected from multiple modalities including physical sensors, dialogue logs, and logs of…

  9. James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics: The Physics of Magnetic Reconnection and Associated Particle Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, James

    2010-11-01

    Solar and stellar flares, substorms in the Earth's magnetosphere, and disruptions in laboratory fusion experiments are driven by the explosive release of magnetic energy through the process of magnetic reconnection. During reconnection oppositely directed magnetic fields break and cross-connect. The resulting magnetic slingshots convert magnetic energy into high velocity flows, thermal energy and energetic particles. A major scientific challenge has been the multi-scale nature of the problem: a narrow boundary layer, ``the dissipation region,'' breaks field lines and controls the release of energy in a macroscale system. Significant progress has been made on fundamental questions such as how magnetic energy is released so quickly and why the release occurs as an explosion. At the small spatial scales of the dissipation region the motion of electrons and ions decouples, the MHD description breaks down and whistler and kinetic Alfven dynamics drives reconnection. The dispersive property of these waves leads to fast reconnection, insensitive to system size and weakly dependent on dissipation, consistent with observations. The evidence for these waves during reconnection in the magnetosphere and the laboratory is compelling. The role of turbulence within the dissipation region in the form of ``secondary islands'' or as a source of anomalous resistivity continues to be explored. A large fraction of the magnetic energy released during reconnection appears in the form of energetic electrons and protons -- up to 50% or more during solar flares. The mechanism for energetic particle production during magnetic reconnection has remained a mystery. Models based on reconnection at a single large x-line are incapable of producing the large numbers of energetic electrons seen in observations. Scenarios based on particle acceleration in a multi-x-line environment are more promising. In such models a link between the energy gain of electrons and the magnetic energy released, a

  10. Data quality management system (DQMS) for BAC detector in the ZEUS experiment at the HERA accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luszczak, Zbigniew; Jezynski, Tomasz; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Kuthan, Marcin; Bigos, Grzegorz; Gierej, Artur

    2003-10-01

    The paper presents functional structure of database system of data measurement quality for BAC detector in ZEUS experiment. The system collects diagnostic and experimental data. Diagnostic data are: work parameters of the detector and electronics/photonics, tests of electronic/photonic blocks. These data are archived for certain period of time. The quality of current data collection process is estimated using these archived data. The result of such estimation is generated in a form of status map of the detector. Such maps, describing status of the hardware, are fundamental for elementary particle analysis by the calorimeter. The DAQ system, collecting data to the database, estimates data quality on-line during transmission and writing. This mechanism of fast on-line data quality management leads to early discoveries of detector work irregularities and faults.

  11. Neutrino Physics and Dark Matter Physics with Ultra-Low-Energy Germanium Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Shin-Ted, Lin

    2008-10-10

    The status and plans of the TEXONO Collaboration on the development of ultra-low-energy germanium detectors with sub-keV sensitivities are reported. We survey the scientific goals which include the observation of neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering, the studies of neutrino magnetic moments, as well as the searches of WIMP dark matter. In particular, an energy threshold of 220{+-}10 eV at an efficiency of 50% were achieved with a four-channel prototype detectors each of an active mass of 5 g. New limits were set for WIMPs with mass between 3-6 GeV. The prospects of the realization of full-scale experiments are discussed. This detector technique makes the unexplored sub-keV energy window accessible for new neutrino and dark matter experiments.

  12. Physical characterization and performance comparison of active- and passive-pixel CMOS detectors for mammography.

    PubMed

    Elbakri, I A; McIntosh, B J; Rickey, D W

    2009-03-21

    We investigated the physical characteristics of two complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) mammography detectors. The detectors featured 14-bit image acquisition, 50 microm detector element (del) size and an active area of 5 cm x 5 cm. One detector was a passive-pixel sensor (PPS) with signal amplification performed by an array of amplifiers connected to dels via data lines. The other detector was an active-pixel sensor (APS) with signal amplification performed at each del. Passive-pixel designs have higher read noise due to data line capacitance, and the APS represents an attempt to improve the noise performance of this technology. We evaluated the detectors' resolution by measuring the modulation transfer function (MTF) using a tilted edge. We measured the noise power spectra (NPS) and detective quantum efficiencies (DQE) using mammographic beam conditions specified by the IEC 62220-1-2 standard. Our measurements showed the APS to have much higher gain, slightly higher MTF, and higher NPS. The MTF of both sensors approached 10% near the Nyquist limit. DQE values near dc frequency were in the range of 55-67%, with the APS sensor DQE lower than the PPS DQE for all frequencies. Our results show that lower read noise specifications in this case do not translate into gains in the imaging performance of the sensor. We postulate that the lower fill factor of the APS is a possible cause for this result. PMID:19242050

  13. Pyroelectric Crystal Accelerator In The Department Of Physics And Nuclear Engineering At West Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillich, Don; Shannon, Mike; Kovanen, Andrew; Anderson, Tom; Bright, Kevin; Edwards, Ronald; Danon, Yaron; Moretti, Brian; Musk, Jeffrey

    2011-06-01

    The Nuclear Science and Engineering Research Center (NSERC), a Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) office located at the United States Military Academy (USMA), sponsors and manages cadet and faculty research in support of DTRA objectives. The NSERC has created an experimental pyroelectric crystal accelerator program to enhance undergraduate education at USMA in the Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering. This program provides cadets with hands-on experience in designing their own experiments using an inexpensive tabletop accelerator. This device uses pyroelectric crystals to ionize and accelerate gas ions to energies of ˜100 keV. Within the next year, cadets and faculty at USMA will use this device to create neutrons through the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion process, effectively creating a compact, portable neutron generator. The double crystal pyroelectric accelerator will also be used by students to investigate neutron, x-ray, and ion spectroscopy.

  14. Diamond detector in absorbed dose measurements in high-energy linear accelerator photon and electron beams.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Amri, Iqbal; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony

    2016-01-01

    Diamond detectors (DD) are preferred in small field dosimetry of radiation beams because of small dose profile penumbras, better spatial resolution, and tissue-equivalent properties. We investigated a commercially available 'microdiamond' detector in realizing absorbed dose from first principles. A microdiamond detector, type TM 60019 with tandem electrometer is used to measure absorbed doses in water, nylon, and PMMA phantoms. With sensitive volume 0.004 mm3, radius 1.1mm, thickness 1 x10(-3) mm, the nominal response is 1 nC/Gy. It is assumed that the diamond detector could collect total electric charge (nC) developed during irradiation at 0 V bias. We found that dose rate effect is less than 0.7% for changing dose rate by 500 MU/min. The reproducibility in obtaining readings with diamond detector is found to be ± 0.17% (1 SD) (n = 11). The measured absorbed doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photons arrived at using mass energy absorption coefficients and stop-ping power ratios compared well with Nd, water calibrated ion chamber measured absorbed doses within 3% in water, PMMA, and nylon media. The calibration factor obtained for diamond detector confirmed response variation is due to sensitivity due to difference in manufacturing process. For electron beams, we had to apply ratio of electron densities of water to carbon. Our results qualify diamond dosimeter as a transfer standard, based on long-term stability and reproducibility. Based on micro-dimensions, we recommend these detectors for pretreatment dose verifications in small field irradiations like stereotactic treatments with image guidance. PMID:27074452

  15. A Review of Accelerometry-Based Wearable Motion Detectors for Physical Activity Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Che-Chang; Hsu, Yeh-Liang

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of physical activity are indicative of one’s mobility level, latent chronic diseases and aging process. Accelerometers have been widely accepted as useful and practical sensors for wearable devices to measure and assess physical activity. This paper reviews the development of wearable accelerometry-based motion detectors. The principle of accelerometry measurement, sensor properties and sensor placements are first introduced. Various research using accelerometry-based wearable motion detectors for physical activity monitoring and assessment, including posture and movement classification, estimation of energy expenditure, fall detection and balance control evaluation, are also reviewed. Finally this paper reviews and compares existing commercial products to provide a comprehensive outlook of current development status and possible emerging technologies. PMID:22163626

  16. Using a mobile phone acceleration sensor in physics experiments on free and damped harmonic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos Castro-Palacio, Juan; Velázquez-Abad, Luisberis; Giménez, Marcos H.; Monsoriu, Juan A.

    2013-06-01

    We have used a mobile phone acceleration sensor, and the Accelerometer Monitor application for Android, to collect data in physics experiments on free and damped oscillations. Results for the period, frequency, spring constant, and damping constant agree very well with measurements obtained by other methods. These widely available sensors are likely to find increased use in instructional laboratories.

  17. A history of hybrid pixel detectors, from high energy physics to medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpierre, P.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the development of hybrid pixel detectors from the origin to the application on medical imaging. We are going to recall the need for fast 2D detectors in the high energy physics experiments and to follow the different pixel electronic circuits created to satisfy this demand. The adaptation of these circuits for X-rays will be presented as well as their industrialization. Today, a number of applications are open for these cameras, particularly for biomedical imaging applications. Some developments for clinical CT will also be shown.

  18. Neutrino and dark matter physics with sub-KeV Germanium detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hau Bin; (TEXONO collaboration

    2016-05-01

    Germanium detectors with sub-keV sensitivities [1, 2, 3] offer a unique opportunity to study neutrino interactions and properties [4] as well as to search for light WIMP Dark Matter [5, 6]. The TEXONO and CDEX Collaborations have been pursuing this research program at the Kuo-Sheng Neutrino Laboratory in Taiwan and in the China Jinping Underground Laboratory in China. We will present highlights of the detector R&D program which allow us to experimental probe this new energy window. The results, status and plans of our neutrino physics program will be discussed, with focus on the quest on neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering.

  19. Physical Interpretation of the Schott Energy of An Accelerating Point Charge and the Question of Whether a Uniformly Accelerating Charge Radiates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, David R.

    2010-01-01

    A core topic in graduate courses in electrodynamics is the description of radiation from an accelerated charge and the associated radiation reaction. However, contemporary papers still express a diversity of views on the question of whether or not a uniformly accelerating charge radiates suggesting that a complete "physical" understanding of the…

  20. Accelerator physics and technology challenges of very high energy hadron colliders

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shiltsev, Vladimir D.

    2015-08-20

    High energy hadron colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics for more than three decades. At present, international particle physics community considers several options for a 100 TeV proton–proton collider as a possible post-LHC energy frontier facility. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but has slowed down considerably in its progress. This article briefly reviews the accelerator physics and technology challenges of the future very high energy colliders and outlines the areas of required research and development towards their technical and financial feasibility.

  1. Accelerator physics and technology challenges of very high energy hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir D.

    2015-08-01

    High energy hadron colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics for more than three decades. At present, international particle physics community considers several options for a 100 TeV proton-proton collider as a possible post-LHC energy frontier facility. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but has slowed down considerably in its progress. This paper briefly reviews the accelerator physics and technology challenges of the future very high energy colliders and outlines the areas of required research and development towards their technical and financial feasibility.

  2. Real-time particle-detection probabilities in accelerated macroscopic detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastopoulos, Charis; Savvidou, Ntina

    2015-01-01

    We construct the detection rate for particle detectors moving along non-inertial trajectories and interacting with quantum fields. The detectors described here are characterized by the presence of records of observation throughout their history, so that the detection rate corresponds to directly measurable quantities. This is in contrast to past treatments of detectors, which actually refer to probes, i.e., microscopic systems from which we extract information only after their interaction has been completed. Our treatment incorporates the irreversibility due to the creation of macroscopic records of observation. The key result is a real-time description of particle detection and a rigorously defined time-local probability density function (PDF). The PDF depends on the scale of the temporal coarse-graining that is necessary for the formation of a macroscopic record. The evaluation of the PDF for Unruh-DeWitt detectors along different types of trajectory shows that only paths with at least one characteristic time-scale much smaller than lead to appreciable particle detection. Our approach allows for averaging over fast motions and thus predicts a constant detection rate for all fast periodic motions.

  3. A new beam loss detector for low-energy proton and heavy-ion accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengzheng; Crisp, Jenna; Russo, Tom; Webber, Robert; Zhang, Yan

    2014-12-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) to be constructed at Michigan State University shall deliver a continuous, 400 kW heavy ion beam to the isotope production target. This beam is capable of inflicting serious damage on accelerator components, e.g. superconducting RF accelerating cavities. A Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System is essential for detecting beam loss with sufficient sensitivity and promptness to inform the machine protection system (MPS) and operations personnel of impending dangerous losses. Radiation transport simulations reveal shortcomings in the use of ionization chambers for the detection of beam losses in low-energy, heavy-ion accelerators. Radiation cross-talk effects due to the folded geometry of the FRIB LINAC pose further complications to locating specific points of beam loss. We propose a newly developed device, named the Loss Monitor Ring (LMR1

  4. Induction-accelerator heavy-ion fusion: Status and beam physics issues

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.

    1996-01-26

    Inertial confinement fusion driven by beams of heavy ions is an attractive route to controlled fusion. In the U.S., induction accelerators are being developed as {open_quotes}drivers{close_quotes} for this process. This paper is divided into two main sections. In the first section, the concept of induction-accelerator driven heavy-ion fusion is briefly reviewed, and the U.S. program of experiments and theoretical investigations is described. In the second, a {open_quotes}taxonomy{close_quotes} of space-charge-dominated beam physics issues is presented, accompanied by a brief discussion of each area.

  5. Physics with gamma-beams and charged particle detectors: I) Nuclear structure II) Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, Moshe

    2015-02-24

    The Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) is proposing to construct large area Silicon Strip Detector (SSD), a gas Time Projection Chamber detector read by an electronic readout system (eTPC) and a Bubble Chamber (BC) containing superheated high purity water to be used in measurements utilizing intense gamma-ray beams from the newly constructed ELI-NP facility at Magurele, Bucharest in Romania. We intend to use the SSD and eTPC detectors to address essential problems in nuclear structure physics, such as clustering and the many alpha-decay of light nuclei such as {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O. All three detectors (SSD, eTPC and BC) will be used to address central problems in nuclear astrophysics such as the astrophysical cross section factor of the {sup 12}C(α,γ) reaction and other processes central to stellar evolution. The CPWG intends to submit to the ELI-NP facility a Technical Design Report (TDR) for the proposed detectors.

  6. Physics with gamma-beams and charged particle detectors: I) Nuclear structure II) Nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Moshe

    2015-02-01

    The Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) is proposing to construct large area Silicon Strip Detector (SSD), a gas Time Projection Chamber detector read by an electronic readout system (eTPC) and a Bubble Chamber (BC) containing superheated high purity water to be used in measurements utilizing intense gamma-ray beams from the newly constructed ELI-NP facility at Magurele, Bucharest in Romania. We intend to use the SSD and eTPC detectors to address essential problems in nuclear structure physics, such as clustering and the many alpha-decay of light nuclei such as 12C and 16O . All three detectors (SSD, eTPC and BC) will be used to address central problems in nuclear astrophysics such as the astrophysical cross section factor of the 12C (α,γ) reaction and other processes central to stellar evolution. The CPWG intends to submit to the ELI-NP facility a Technical Design Report (TDR) for the proposed detectors.

  7. Physical Activities Monitoring Using Wearable Acceleration Sensors Attached to the Body

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring physical activities by using wireless sensors is helpful for identifying postural orientation and movements in the real-life environment. A simple and robust method based on time domain features to identify the physical activities is proposed in this paper; it uses sensors placed on the subjects’ wrist, chest and ankle. A feature set based on time domain characteristics of the acceleration signal recorded by acceleration sensors is proposed for the classification of twelve physical activities. Nine subjects performed twelve different types of physical activities, including sitting, standing, walking, running, cycling, Nordic walking, ascending stairs, descending stairs, vacuum cleaning, ironing clothes and jumping rope, and lying down (resting state). Their ages were 27.2 ± 3.3 years and their body mass index (BMI) is 25.11 ± 2.6 Kg/m2. Classification results demonstrated a high validity showing precision (a positive predictive value) and recall (sensitivity) of more than 95% for all physical activities. The overall classification accuracy for a combined feature set of three sensors is 98%. The proposed framework can be used to monitor the physical activities of a subject that can be very useful for the health professional to assess the physical activity of healthy individuals as well as patients. PMID:26203909

  8. A COMPREHENSIVE NEW DETECTOR FOR DETAILED STUDY OF THE QGP, INITIAL CONDITION AND SPIN PHYSICS AT RHIC II.

    SciTech Connect

    HARRIS, J.W.; BELLWIED, R.; SMIRNOV, N.; STEINBERG, P.; SURROW, B.; ULLRICH, T.

    2004-03-15

    A case is presented for compelling physics at a high luminosity RHIC II collider. A comprehensive new detector system is introduced to address this physics. The experimental focus is on detailed jet tomography of the quark gluon plasma (QGP); measuring gluon saturation in the nucleus, investigating the color glass condensate, measuring effects of the QCD vacuum on particle masses, determining the structure and dynamics within the proton and possible new phenomena. The physics and detector capabilities are introduced.

  9. Using a 400 kV Van de Graaff accelerator to teach physics at West Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marble, D. K.; Bruch, S. E.; Lainis, T.

    1997-02-01

    A small accelerator visitation laboratory is being built at the United States Military Academy using two 400 kV Van de Graaff accelerators. This laboratory will provide quality teaching experiments and increased research opportunities for both faculty and cadets as well as enhancing the department's ability to teach across the curriculum by using nuclear techniques to solve problems in environmental engineering, material science, archeology, art, etc. This training enhances a students ability to enter non-traditional fields that are becoming a large part of the physics job market. Furthermore, a small accelerator visitation laboratory for high school students can stimulate student interest in science and provide an effective means of communicating the scientific method to a general audience. A discussion of the USMA facility, class experiments and student research projects will be presented.

  10. Dark-field imaging of thin specimens with a forescatter electron detector at low accelerating voltage.

    PubMed

    Brodusch, Nicolas; Demers, Hendrix; Gauvin, Raynald

    2013-12-01

    A forescatter electron detector (FSED) was used to acquire dark-field micrographs (DF-FSED) on thin specimens with a scanning electron microscope. The collection angles were adjusted with the detector distance from the beam axis, which is similar to the camera length of the scanning transmission electron microscope annular DF detectors. The DF-FSED imaging resolution was calculated with SMART-J on an aluminum alloy and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) decorated with platinum nanoparticles. The resolution was three to six times worse than with bright-field imaging. Measurements of nanometer-size objects showed a similar feature size in DF-FSED imaging despite a signal-to-noise ratio 12 times smaller. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict the variation of the contrast of a CNT/Fe/Pt system as a function of the collection angles. It was constant for very high collection angles (>450 mrad) and confirmed experimentally. The reverse contrast between carbon black particles and the smallest titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles was predicted by Monte Carlo simulations and observed in the DF-FSED micrograph of a battery electrode coating. However, segmentation of the micrograph was not able to isolate the TiO2 nanoparticle phase because of the close contrast of small TiO2 nanoparticles compared to the C black particles. PMID:23981287

  11. DEVELOPING THE PHYSICS DESIGN FOR NDCX-II, A UNIQUE PULSE-COMPRESSING ION ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Grote, D. P.; Lund, S. M.; Sharp, W. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J-Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Leitner, M. A.; Logan, B. G.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.; Gilson, E.P.; Kaganovich, I.

    2009-07-20

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory(a collaboration of LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL) is using intense ion beams to heat thin foils to the"warm dense matter" regime at<~;; 1 eV, and is developing capabilities for studying target physics relevant to ion-driven inertial fusion energy. The need for rapid target heating led to the development of plasma-neutralized pulse compression, with current amplification factors exceeding 50 now routine on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX). Construction of an improved platform, NDCX-II, has begun at LBNL with planned completion in 2012. Using refurbished induction cells from the Advanced Test Accelerator at LLNL, NDCX-II will compress a ~;;500 ns pulse of Li+ ions to ~;;1 ns while accelerating it to 3-4 MeV over ~;;15 m. Strong space charge forces are incorporated into the machine design at a fundamental level. We are using analysis, an interactive 1D PIC code (ASP) with optimizing capabilities and centroid tracking, and multi-dimensional Warpcode PIC simulations, to develop the NDCX-II accelerator. This paper describes the computational models employed, and the resulting physics design for the accelerator.

  12. Developing The Physics Desing for NDCS-II, A Unique Pulse-Compressing Ion Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Cohen, R H; Grote, D P; Lund, S M; Sharp, W M; Faltens, A; Henestroza, E; Jung, J; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Leitner, M A; Logan, B G; Vay, J -; Waldron, W L; Davidson, R C; Dorf, M; Gilson, E P; Kaganovich, I

    2009-09-24

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (a collaboration of LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL) is using intense ion beams to heat thin foils to the 'warm dense matter' regime at {approx}< 1 eV, and is developing capabilities for studying target physics relevant to ion-driven inertial fusion energy. The need for rapid target heating led to the development of plasma-neutralized pulse compression, with current amplification factors exceeding 50 now routine on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX). Construction of an improved platform, NDCX-II, has begun at LBNL with planned completion in 2012. Using refurbished induction cells from the Advanced Test Accelerator at LLNL, NDCX-II will compress a {approx}500 ns pulse of Li{sup +} ions to {approx} 1 ns while accelerating it to 3-4 MeV over {approx} 15 m. Strong space charge forces are incorporated into the machine design at a fundamental level. We are using analysis, an interactive 1D PIC code (ASP) with optimizing capabilities and centroid tracking, and multi-dimensional Warpcode PIC simulations, to develop the NDCX-II accelerator. This paper describes the computational models employed, and the resulting physics design for the accelerator.

  13. Physical activity recognition based on rotated acceleration data using quaternion in sedentary behavior: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Y E; Choi, W H; Shin, T M

    2014-01-01

    This paper suggests a physical activity assessment method based on quaternion. To reduce user inconvenience, we measured the activity using a mobile device which is not put on fixed position. Recognized results were verified with various machine learning algorithms, such as neural network (multilayer perceptron), decision tree (J48), SVM (support vector machine) and naive bayes classifier. All algorithms have shown over 97% accuracy including decision tree (J48), which recognized the activity with 98.35% accuracy. As a result, physical activity assessment method based on rotated acceleration using quaternion can classify sedentary behavior with more accuracy without considering devices' position and orientation. PMID:25571109

  14. Research on acceleration method of reactor physics based on FPGA platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.; Yu, G.; Wang, K.

    2013-07-01

    The physical designs of the new concept reactors which have complex structure, various materials and neutronic energy spectrum, have greatly improved the requirements to the calculation methods and the corresponding computing hardware. Along with the widely used parallel algorithm, heterogeneous platforms architecture has been introduced into numerical computations in reactor physics. Because of the natural parallel characteristics, the CPU-FPGA architecture is often used to accelerate numerical computation. This paper studies the application and features of this kind of heterogeneous platforms used in numerical calculation of reactor physics through practical examples. After the designed neutron diffusion module based on CPU-FPGA architecture achieves a 11.2 speed up factor, it is proved to be feasible to apply this kind of heterogeneous platform into reactor physics. (authors)

  15. Optical diagnostics for plasma physics and accelerator science: commonalities and differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkov, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    Optical diagnostics are widely used both for experiments of plasma physics and for measurements of parameters of electron/positron beams in accelerators. The approaches applied for these often have the same methodological basis explained by the similarity of the properties of the studied phenomena. Nevertheless, these branches of physics are very specific and require special diagnostics. The possibility of closed contacts and cooperation between scientists solving similar problems in different areas of physics helps to overcome these problems. It is especially typical for BINP SB RAS known by pioneering works on electron-positron colliders and nuclear fusion. This paper describes the diagnostics that are used in plasma physics experiments, especially for plasma heating by a high-current electron beam, and contains a comparison with optical diagnostics which are recognized tools in colliders and storage rings.

  16. Measurements of photo-neutrons from a medical linear accelerator using CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monson, Jonathan Michael

    Photo-neutrons are produced when x-ray energies exceed 7 MeV. Photo-neutron production varies depending on x-ray beam energy. CR-39 PNTDs were used in this study to measure the neutron absorbed dose and dose equivalent produced by a Varian Clinac 23EX for x-ray beams of 6 and 18 MVp and with a Varian Trilogy using an x-ray beam of 10 MVp. Neutron absorbed dose and dose equivalent were measured at 100 cm SSD at 0, 20, and 40 cm off-axis from the primary beam in air. Using a polyethylene phantom the neutron absorbed dose and dose equivalent were measured at 100 cm SSD from the top of the phantom at 0, 5, and 10 cm from the surface, in the beam central axis and off-axis distances of 20 and 40 cm at a depth of 10 cm. The neutron absorbed dose and dose equivalent from medical linear accelerators have been measured from the LET spectrum of recoiled tracks produced in the CR-39 PNTDs for high energy neutrons (1-20 MeV) and the neutron dose equivalent for low energy (< 1 MeV) neutrons were measured using TRNDs. In this study, the experimentally measured absorbed dose and dose equivalent from photo-neutrons produced in a common medical linear accelerator operating at energies 10 and 18 MVp range from 0.2 microGy n/Gyx and 2 microSv n/Gyx to 495 microGy n/Gyx and 5500 microSv n/Gyx respectively. The neutron absorbed dose for the 6 MVp x-ray beam was measured to be 0 microGyn/Gyx. Low energy neutrons accounted for less than 1% of the neutron dose equivalent. Those detectors exposed inside of the phantom measured a higher contribution from high LET (> 100 keV/microm) particles than those detectors exposed in air.

  17. Physical design and Monte Carlo simulations of a space radiation detector onboard the SJ-10 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ya-Qing; Wang, Huan-Yu; Cui, Xing-Zhu; Peng, Wen-Xi; Fan, Rui-Rui; Liang, Xiao-Hua; Gao, Ming; Zhang, Yun-Long; Zhang, Cheng-Mo; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Yang, Jia-Wei; Wang, Jin-Zhou; Zhang, Fei; Dong, Yi-Fan; Guo, Dong-Ya; Zhou, Da-Wei

    2015-01-01

    A radiation gene box (RGB) onboard the SJ-10 satellite is a device carrying mice and drosophila cells to determine the biological effects of space radiation environment. The shielded fluxes of different radioactive sources were calculated and the linear energy transfers of γ-rays, electrons, protons and α-particles in the tissue were acquired using A-150 tissue-equivalent plastic. Then, a conceptual model of a space radiation instrument employing three semiconductor sub-detectors for deriving the charged and uncharged radiation environment of the RGB was designed. The energy depositions in the three sub-detectors were classified into 15 channels (bins) in an algorithm derived from the Monte Carlo method. The physical feasibility of the conceptual instrument was also verified by Monte Carlo simulations.

  18. RADIATION HARDNESS / TOLERANCE OF SI SENSORS / DETECTORS FOR NUCLEAR AND HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    LI,Z.

    2002-09-09

    Silicon sensors, widely used in high energy and nuclear physics experiments, suffer severe radiation damage that leads to degradations in sensor performance. These degradations include significant increases in leakage current, bulk resistivity, and space charge concentration. The increase in space charge concentration is particularly damaging since it can significantly increase the sensor full depletion voltage, causing either breakdown if operated at high biases or charge collection loss if operated at lower biases than full depletion. Several strategies can be used to make Si detectors more radiation had tolerant to particle radiations. In this paper, the main radiation induced degradations in Si detectors will be reviewed. The details and specifics of the new engineering strategies: material/impurity/defect engineering (MIDE); device structure engineering (DSE); and device operational mode engineering (DOME) will be given.

  19. High speed low power FEE for silicon detectors in nuclear physics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Galán, J. A.; López-Ahumada, R.; Sánchez-Rodríguez, T.; Sánchez-Raya, M.; Jiménez, R.; Martel, I.

    2013-06-01

    A high speed, low power and programmable readout front-end system is presented for silicon detectors to be used in nuclear physics applications. The architecture consists of a folded cascode charge sensitive amplifier, a pole-zero cancellation circuit to eliminate undershoots and a shaper circuit with Gm-C topology. All building blocks include a regulated cascode technique based gain enhancement. Experimental results show that the whole front-end system can be programmed for peaking times of 100 ns, 200 ns and 400 ns maintaining the amplitude of the output voltage. Programmability is achieved by switching different resistors for all poles and zeros. The system has been designed in a 130 nm CMOS technology and powered from a 1.2 V supply. The output pulse has peak amplitude of 200 mV for an input energy of 5 MeV from the detector. A power consumption low noise tradeoff will be considered.

  20. Accelerating ring artifact correction for flat-detector CT using the CUDA framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Prell, D.; Kyriakou, Y.,; Kalender, W. A.

    2010-04-01

    Ring artifacts often appear in flat-detector CT because of imperfect or defect detector elements or calibration. In high-spatial resolution CT images reducing such artifacts becomes a necessity. In this paper, we used the post-processing ring correction in polar coordinates (RCP)1 to eliminate the ring artifacts. The median filter is applied to the uncorrected images in polar coordinates and ring artifacts are extracted from the original images. The algorithm has a very high computational cost due to the time-expensive median filtering and coordinate transformation on CPUs. Graphics processing units (GPUs)ca n be seen as parallel co-processors with high computational power. All steps of the RCP algorithm were implemented with CUDA2(Compute Unified Device Architecture, NVIDIA). We introduced a new GPU-based branchless vectorized median (BVM)filter. 3, 4 This algorithm is based on minmax sorting and keeps track of a sorted array from which values are deleted and to which new values are inserted. For comparison purpose a modified pivot median filter5 on GPUs was presented, which compares a pivot element to all other values and recursively finds the median element. We evaluated the performance of the RCP method using 512 slices, each slice consisted of 512×512 pixels. This post-processing method efficiently reduces ring artifacts in the reconstructed images and improves image quality. Our CUDAbased RCP is up to 13.6 times faster than the optimized CPU-based (single core)r outine. Comparing our two GPU-based median filters showed a performance benefit by roughly 60% when switching from Pivot to BVM code. The main reason is that the BVM algorithm is branchless and makes use of data-level parallelism. The BVM method is better suited to the model of modern graphics processing. A multi-GPU solution showed that the performance scaled nearly linearly.

  1. Applications of FLUKA Monte Carlo Code for Nuclear and Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Battistoni, Giuseppe; Broggi, Francesco; Brugger, Markus; Campanella, Mauro; Carboni, Massimo; Empl, Anton; Fasso, Alberto; Gadioli, Ettore; Cerutti, Francesco; Ferrari, Alfredo; Ferrari, Anna; Lantz, Matthias; Mairani, Andrea; Margiotta, M.; Morone, Christina; Muraro, Silvia; Parodi, Katerina; Patera, Vincenzo; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Pinsky, Lawrence; Ranft, Johannes; /Siegen U. /CERN /Seibersdorf, Reaktorzentrum /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /SLAC /INFN, Legnaro /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /CERN /HITS, Heidelberg /CERN /CERN /Frascati /CERN /CERN /CERN /CERN /NASA, Houston

    2012-04-17

    FLUKA is a general purpose Monte Carlo code capable of handling all radiation components from thermal energies (for neutrons) or 1 keV (for all other particles) to cosmic ray energies and can be applied in many different fields. Presently the code is maintained on Linux. The validity of the physical models implemented in FLUKA has been benchmarked against a variety of experimental data over a wide energy range, from accelerator data to cosmic ray showers in the Earth atmosphere. FLUKA is widely used for studies related both to basic research and to applications in particle accelerators, radiation protection and dosimetry, including the specific issue of radiation damage in space missions, radiobiology (including radiotherapy) and cosmic ray calculations. After a short description of the main features that make FLUKA valuable for these topics, the present paper summarizes some of the recent applications of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code in the nuclear as well high energy physics. In particular it addresses such topics as accelerator related applications.

  2. Applications of FLUKA Monte Carlo code for nuclear and accelerator physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistoni, Giuseppe; Broggi, Francesco; Brugger, Markus; Campanella, Mauro; Carboni, Massimo; Empl, Anton; Fassò, Alberto; Gadioli, Ettore; Cerutti, Francesco; Ferrari, Alfredo; Ferrari, Anna; Lantz, Matthias; Mairani, Andrea; Margiotta, M.; Morone, Cristina; Muraro, Silvia; Parodi, Katia; Patera, Vincenzo; Pelliccioni, Mauricio; Pinsky, Larry; Ranft, Johannes; Roesler, Stefan; Rollet, Sofia; Sala, Paola R.; Santana, Mario; Sarchiapone, Lucia; Sioli, Massimiliano; Smirnov, George; Sommerer, Florian; Theis, Christian; Trovati, Stefania; Villari, R.; Vincke, Heinz; Vincke, Helmut; Vlachoudis, Vasilis; Vollaire, Joachim; Zapp, Neil

    2011-12-01

    FLUKA is a general purpose Monte Carlo code capable of handling all radiation components from thermal energies (for neutrons) or 1 keV (for all other particles) to cosmic ray energies and can be applied in many different fields. Presently the code is maintained on Linux. The validity of the physical models implemented in FLUKA has been benchmarked against a variety of experimental data over a wide energy range, from accelerator data to cosmic ray showers in the Earth atmosphere. FLUKA is widely used for studies related both to basic research and to applications in particle accelerators, radiation protection and dosimetry, including the specific issue of radiation damage in space missions, radiobiology (including radiotherapy) and cosmic ray calculations. After a short description of the main features that make FLUKA valuable for these topics, the present paper summarizes some of the recent applications of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code in the nuclear as well high energy physics. In particular it addresses such topics as accelerator related applications.

  3. The social structure of experimental'' strings at Fermilab; a physics and detector driven model

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1990-12-12

    Physicists in HEP have been forced to organize large scientific projects without a well defined organizational or sociological model to guide them. In the absence of such models, what structures do experimentalists use to develop social structures in HEP In this paper, I claim that physicists organize around what they know best, the physics problems they study and the detectors and devices they study them with. After describing the advent of management'' in HEP, I use a case study of 4 Fermilab experiments as the base upon which to propose a physics and detector driven model of social structure for experiments. In addition, I show how this model can be extended to describe strings'' of experiments, where continuities of physics interests, spectrometer design, and a core group of physicists become a definable sociological unit that can exist for over 15 years. A dominate theme that emerges from my analysis is the conscious attempt on the part of experimenters to remove the uncertainties that are part of the practice of HEP.

  4. Prediction of reliability on thermoelectric module through accelerated life test and Physics-of-failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyoung-Seuk; Seo, Won-Seon; Choi, Duck-Kyun

    2011-09-01

    Thermoelectric cooling module (TEM) which is electric device has a mechanical stress because of temperature gradient in itself. It means that structure of TEM is vulnerable in an aspect of reliability but research on reliability of TEM was not performed a lot. Recently, the more the utilization of thermoelectric cooling devices grows, the more the needs for life prediction and improvement are increasing. In this paper, we investigated life distribution, shape parameter of the TEM through accelerated life test (ALT). And we discussed about how to enhance life of TEM through the Physics-of-failure. Experimental results of ALT showed that the thermoelectric cooling module follows the Weibull distribution, shape parameter of which is 3.6. The acceleration model is coffin Coffin-Manson and material constant is 1.8.

  5. GPU/MIC Acceleration of the LHC High Level Trigger to Extend the Physics Reach at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Halyo, Valerie; Tully, Christopher

    2015-04-14

    The quest for rare new physics phenomena leads the PI [3] to propose evaluation of coprocessors based on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and the Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture for integration into the trigger system at LHC. This will require development of a new massively parallel implementation of the well known Combinatorial Track Finder which uses the Kalman Filter to accelerate processing of data from the silicon pixel and microstrip detectors and reconstruct the trajectory of all charged particles down to momentums of 100 MeV. It is expected to run at least one order of magnitude faster than an equivalent algorithm on a quad core CPU for extreme pileup scenarios of 100 interactions per bunch crossing. The new tracking algorithms will be developed and optimized separately on the GPU and Intel MIC and then evaluated against each other for performance and power efficiency. The results will be used to project the cost of the proposed hardware architectures for the HLT server farm, taking into account the long term projections of the main vendors in the market (AMD, Intel, and NVIDIA) over the next 10 years. Extensive experience and familiarity of the PI with the LHC tracker and trigger requirements led to the development of a complementary tracking algorithm that is described in [arxiv: 1305.4855], [arxiv: 1309.6275] and preliminary results accepted to JINST.

  6. Non-Standard Neutrino Physics Probed by Tokai-To Two-Detector Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Nei Cipriano; Kajita, Takaaki; Ko, Pyungwon; Minakata, Hisakazu; Nakayama, Shoei; Nunokawa, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The discovery potentials of non-standard physics (NSP) which might be possessed by neutrinos are examined by taking a concrete setting of Tokai-to-Kamioka-Korea (T2KK) two detector complex which receives neutrino superbeam from J-PARC. We restrict ourselves into νμ and {bar v}μ disappearance measurement. We describe here only the non-standard interactions (NSI) of neutrinos with matter and the quantum decoherence. It is shown in some favorable cases T2KK can significantly improve the current bounds on NSP. For NSI, for example, ɛμτ < 0.03, which is a factor 5 severer than the current one.

  7. Accelerator Measurments of the Askaryan Effect in Rock Salt: A Roadmap Toward Teraton Underground Neutrino Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Gorham, P.

    2004-12-15

    We report on further SLAC measurements of the Askaryan effect: coherent radio emission from charge asymmetry in electromagnetic cascades. We used synthetic rock salt as the dielectric medium, with cascades produced by GeV bremsstrahlung photons at the Final Focus Test Beam. We extend our prior discovery measurements to a wider range of parameter space and explore the effect in a dielectric medium of great potential interest to large scale ultra-high energy neutrino detectors: rock salt (halite), which occurs naturally in high purity formations containing in many cases hundreds of cubic km of water-equivalent mass. We observed strong coherent pulsed radio emission over a frequency band from 0.2-15 GHz. A grid of embedded dual-polarization antennas was used to confirm the high degree of linear polarization and track the change of direction of the electric-field vector with azimuth around the shower. Coherence was observed over 4 orders of magnitude of shower energy. The frequency dependence of the radiation was tested over two orders of magnitude of UHF and microwave frequencies. We have also made the first observations of coherent transition radiation from the Askaryan charge excess, and the result agrees well with theoretical predictions. Based on these results we have performed detailed and conservative simulation of a realistic GZK neutrino telescope array within a salt-dome, and we find it capable of detecting 10 or more contained events per year from even the most conservative GZK neutrino models.

  8. Accelerator measurements of the Askaryan effect in rock salt: A roadmap toward teraton underground neutrino detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Gorham, P.W.; Guillian, E.; Milincic, R.; Miocinovic, P.; Saltzberg, D.; Williams, D.; Field, R.C.; Walz, D.

    2005-07-15

    We report on further SLAC measurements of the Askaryan effect: coherent radio emission from charge asymmetry in electromagnetic cascades. We used synthetic rock salt as the dielectric medium, with cascades produced by GeV bremsstrahlung photons at the Final Focus Test Beam. We extend our prior discovery measurements to a wider range of parameter space and explore the effect in a dielectric medium of great potential interest to large-scale ultra-high-energy neutrino detectors: rock salt (halite), which occurs naturally in high purity formations containing in many cases hundreds of km{sup 3} of water-equivalent mass. We observed strong coherent pulsed radio emission over a frequency band from 0.2-15 GHz. A grid of embedded dual-polarization antennas was used to confirm the high degree of linear polarization and track the change of direction of the electric-field vector with azimuth around the shower. Coherence was observed over 4 orders of magnitude of shower energy. The frequency dependence of the radiation was tested over 2 orders of magnitude of UHF and microwave frequencies. We have also made the first observations of coherent transition radiation from the Askaryan charge excess, and the result agrees well with theoretical predictions. Based on these results we have performed a detailed and conservative simulation of a realistic GZK neutrino telescope array within a salt dome, and we find it capable of detecting 10 or more contained events per year from even the most conservative GZK neutrino models.

  9. Towards Extreme Field Physics: Relativistic Optics and Particle Acceleration in the Transparent-Overdense Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegelich, B. Manuel

    2011-10-01

    A steady increase of on-target laser intensity with also increasing pulse contrast is leading to light-matter interactions of extreme laser fields with matter in new physics regimes which in turn enable a host of applications. A first example is the realization of interactions in the transperent-overdense regime (TOR), which is reached by interacting a highly relativistic (a0 >10), ultra high contrast laser pulse [1] with a solid density target, turning it transparent to the laser by the relativistic mass increase of the electrons. Thus, the interactions becomes volumetric, increasing the energy coupling from laser to plasma, facilitating a range of effects, including relativistic optics and pulse shaping, mono-energetic electron acceleration [3], highly efficient ion acceleration in the break-out afterburner regime [4], and the generation of relativistic and forward directed surface harmonics. Experiments at the LANL 130TW Trident laser facility successfully reached the TOR, and show relativistic pulse shaping beyond the Fourier limit, the acceleration of mono-energetic ~40 MeV electron bunches from solid targets, forward directed coherent relativistic high harmonic generation >1 keV Break-Out Afterburner (BOA) ion acceleration of Carbon to >1 GeV and Protons to >100 MeV. Carbon ions were accelerated with a conversion efficiency of >10% for ions >20 MeV and monoenergetic carbon ions with an energy spread of <20%, have been accelerated at up to ~500 MeV, demonstrating 3 out of 4 for key requirements for ion fast ignition. The shown results now approach or exceed the limits set by many applications from ICF diagnostics over ion fast ignition to medical physics. Furthermore, TOR targets traverse a wide range of HEDP parameter space during the interaction ranging from WDM conditions (e.g. brown dwarfs) to energy densities of ~1011 J/cm3 at peak, then dropping back to the underdense but extremely hot parameter range of gamma-ray bursts. Whereas today this regime can

  10. Timing detectors in the very forward region of IP5: a study on the Physics potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Giani, S.; Turini, N.

    2014-06-01

    The TOTEM-T2 telescope at the LHC detects charged particles produced by the inelastic interactions at very small polar angles (3-10 mrad). It has been used to perform inelastic cross sections and multiplicities measurements, during dedicated LHC fills with a low pile-up probability. The detector performances and the measurement of the charged particle pseudorapidity density, for different categories of inelastic events, will be reported. Tracks reconstruction in the CMS forward region, where T2 is installed, is challenged by a large amount of secondary particles generated by the interaction with the material placed between the IP and T2. Therefore T2 cannot be used at high luminosity, due to the large occupancy and to the impossibility to distinguish multiple vertices. The introduction of a timing detector close to T2 would allow one to reduce the analysis uncertainties at low pile-up and would make possible the association of the correct inelastic vertex reconstructed by CMS or by the TOTEM RP detectors. A study on the Physics potentials of an upgrade programme aiming to provide the timing information in the T2 region will be reported.

  11. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Composition of Accelerator Radiation Fields; Shielding of Electrons and Photons at Accelerators; Shielding of Hadrons at Accelerators; Low Energy Prompt Radiation Phenomena; Induced Radioactivity at Accelerators; Topics in Radiation Protection Instrumentation at Accelerators; and Accelerator Radiation Protection Program Elements.

  12. Physical characteristics of GE Senographe Essential and DS digital mammography detectors.

    PubMed

    Ghetti, Caterina; Borrini, Adriano; Ortenzia, Ornella; Rossi, Raffaella; Ordóñez, Pedro L

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate physical characteristics of two full field digital mammography (FFDM) systems (GE Senographe Essential and DS). Both are indirect conversion (x ray to light) alpha-Si flat panels coupled with a CsI(Tl) scintillator. The examined systems have the same pixel size (100 microm) but a different field of view: a conventional size 23 x 19.2 cm2 and a large field 24 X 30.7 cm2, specifically designed to image large breasts. In the GE Senographe Essential model relevant improvements in flat panel design were implemented and new deposition tools for metal, alpha-Si, and CsI(Tl) were introduced by GE. These changes in detector design are expected to be beneficial for advanced applications such as breast tomosynthesis. The presampling modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were measured for a wide range of exposure (25-240 microGy) with a RQA-M2 technique (28 kVp with a Mo/Mo target/filter combination and 2 mm of additional aluminum filtration). At 1, 2, and at 4 lp/mm MTF is equal to 0.9, 0.76, and 0.46 for the conventional field detector and to 0.85, 0.59, and 0.24 for the large field detector. The latter detector exhibits an improved NNPS due to a lower electronic noise and a better DQE that reaches 60%. In addition a contrast-detail analysis was performed with CDMAM 3.4 phantom and CDCOM software: GE Senographe DS showed statistically significant poorer detection ability in comparison with the GE Senographe Essential. These results could have been expected, at least qualitatively, considering the relative DQE of the two systems. PMID:18383665

  13. Physical characteristics of GE Senographe Essential and DS digital mammography detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ghetti, Caterina; Borrini, Adriano; Ortenzia, Ornella; Rossi, Raffaella; Ordonez, Pedro L.

    2008-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate physical characteristics of two full field digital mammography (FFDM) systems (GE Senographe Essential and DS). Both are indirect conversion (x ray to light) a-Si flat panels coupled with a CsI(Tl) scintillator. The examined systems have the same pixel size (100 {mu}m) but a different field of view: a conventional size 23x19.2 cm{sup 2} and a large field 24x30.7 cm{sup 2}, specifically designed to image large breasts. In the GE Senographe Essential model relevant improvements in flat panel design were implemented and new deposition tools for metal, a-Si, and CsI(Tl) were introduced by GE. These changes in detector design are expected to be beneficial for advanced applications such as breast tomosynthesis. The presampling modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were measured for a wide range of exposure (25-240 {mu}Gy) with a RQA-M2 technique (28 kVp with a Mo/Mo target/filter combination and 2 mm of additional aluminum filtration). At 1, 2, and at 4 lp/mm MTF is equal to 0.9, 0.76, and 0.46 for the conventional field detector and to 0.85, 0.59, and 0.24 for the large field detector. The latter detector exhibits an improved NNPS due to a lower electronic noise and a better DQE that reaches 60%. In addition a contrast-detail analysis was performed with CDMAM 3.4 phantom and CDCOM software: GE Senographe DS showed statistically significant poorer detection ability in comparison with the GE Senographe Essential. These results could have been expected, at least qualitatively, considering the relative DQE of the two systems.

  14. Acceleration mass spectrometer of the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastigeev, S. A.; Frolov, A. R.; Goncharov, A. D.; Klyuev, V. F.; Konstantinov, E. S.; Kutnyakova, L. A.; Parkhomchuk, V. V.; Petrozhitskii, A. V.

    2014-09-01

    An accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) made at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, is installed in the Geochronology of the Cenozoic Era Center for Collective Use for the carbon 14 dating of samples. Distinctive features of the BINP AMS include the use of a middle energy separator of ion beams, magnesium vapor target as a stripping target, and a time-of-flight telescope with thin films for accurate ion selection. Results of experiments measuring the radiocarbon concentration in test samples with radiocarbon labels for biomedical applications are presented.

  15. Testing and Calibration of Novel Detectors for Nuclear and Plasma Physics Diagnostic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Zaheer; Haugh, Mike; Tellinghuisen, Jim; Glebov, Vladimir; Roberts, Sam; Stoeckl, Christian; Sangster, Craig

    2008-10-01

    Calibrated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond diodes, X-ray diodes (XRDs), and PIN diodes are used in nuclear and plasma physics diagnostic experiments, such as those conducted at the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Calibrations of these diodes are conducted at the OMEGA Laser at the Lab for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester, as well as at the Titan Laser in the Jupiter Laser Facility at LLNL. The OMEGA Laser is a 30-kilojoule one-nanosecond system designed for inertial confinement fusion and nuclear physics research. The Titan Laser is a picosecond system designed for plasma and X-ray studies. In addition, National Security Technologies, LLC, (NSTec) has built a new hard X-ray calibration facility (the ``HEX Laboratory''), where X-ray detector systems are also calibrated. In this paper we will present our methods of absolute and relative calibration, results of calibration, and the capabilities of the HEX Laboratory.

  16. FAD: A full-acceptance detector for physics at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1992-09-01

    For high energy pp collisions, the concepts 4{pi}'' and full acceptance'' are distinct. At the SSC, the appropriate variables for describing phase space are the lego variables: pseudorapidity {eta} and azimuthal angle {phi}. While most of 4{pi} is covered by pseudorapidities less than 3 or 4 in magnitude, at the SSC there is very interesting physics out to {eta}'s of 9 to 12. For over a year I have been attempting to encourage an initiative at the SSC to provide a detector which could cover the missing acceptance of the two big detectors, which in particular have no appreciable charged particle tracking with good momentum resolution beyond rapidities of 2.5 or so. The nonnegotiable criteria for an FAD are for me the following: 1. All charged particles are seen and their momenta measured well, provided pt is not too large. 2. All photons are seen and their momenta are measured well. 3. The physics of rapidity-gaps is not compromised. This means angular coverage from 90{degrees} down to tens of microradians. The above criteria cannot be met on day one of SSC commissioning with the amount of funds available. But I believe a staged approach is feasible, with a lot of interesting physics available along the way. The basic philosophy underlying the FAD idea is that it should first and most be a survey instrument, sensitive to almost everything, but optimized for almost nothing. Its strength is in the perception of complex patterns individual events, used as a signature of new and/or interesting physics. Examples of such patterns will be given later.

  17. FAD: A full-acceptance detector for physics at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1992-09-01

    For high energy pp collisions, the concepts ``4{pi}`` and ``full acceptance`` are distinct. At the SSC, the appropriate variables for describing phase space are the lego variables: pseudorapidity {eta} and azimuthal angle {phi}. While most of 4{pi} is covered by pseudorapidities less than 3 or 4 in magnitude, at the SSC there is very interesting physics out to {eta}`s of 9 to 12. For over a year I have been attempting to encourage an initiative at the SSC to provide a detector which could cover the missing acceptance of the two big detectors, which in particular have no appreciable charged particle tracking with good momentum resolution beyond rapidities of 2.5 or so. The nonnegotiable criteria for an FAD are for me the following: 1. All charged particles are seen and their momenta measured well, provided pt is not too large. 2. All photons are seen and their momenta are measured well. 3. The physics of rapidity-gaps is not compromised. This means angular coverage from 90{degrees} down to tens of microradians. The above criteria cannot be met on day one of SSC commissioning with the amount of funds available. But I believe a staged approach is feasible, with a lot of interesting physics available along the way. The basic philosophy underlying the FAD idea is that it should first and most be a survey instrument, sensitive to almost everything, but optimized for almost nothing. Its strength is in the perception of complex patterns individual events, used as a signature of new and/or interesting physics. Examples of such patterns will be given later.

  18. Radiation-hard beam position detector for use in the accelerator dump lines

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel Degtiarenko; Danny Dotson; Arne Freyberger; Vladimir Popov

    2005-06-01

    A new method of beam position measurement suitable for monitoring high energy and high power charged particle beams in the vicinity of high power beam dumps is presented. We have found that a plate made of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Silicon Carbide (SiC) has physical properties that make it suitable for such an application. CVD SiC material is a chemically inert, extremely radiation-hard, thermo-resistive semiconductor capable of withstanding working temperatures over 1500 C. It has good thermal conductivity comparable to that of Aluminum, which makes it possible to use it in high-current particle beams. High electrical resistivity of the material, and its semiconductor properties allow characterization of the position of a particle beam crossing such a plate by measuring the balance of electrical currents at the plate ends. The design of a test device, and first results are presented in the report.

  19. Physics and engineering studies on the MITICA accelerator: comparison among possible design solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Chitarin, G.; Pilan, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.

    2011-09-26

    Consorzio RFX in Padova is currently using a comprehensive set of numerical and analytical codes, for the physics and engineering design of the SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) and MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advancement) experiments, planned to be built at Consorzio RFX. This paper presents a set of studies on different possible geometries for the MITICA accelerator, with the objective to compare different design concepts and choose the most suitable one (or ones) to be further developed and possibly adopted in the experiment. Different design solutions have been discussed and compared, taking into account their advantages and drawbacks by both the physics and engineering points of view.

  20. Development of a wearable motion detector for telemonitoring and real-time identification of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Che-Chang; Hsu, Yeh-Liang

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of physical activity are indicative of one's mobility level, latent chronic diseases, and aging process. Current research has been oriented to provide quantitative assessment of physical activity with ambulatory monitoring approaches. This study presents the design of a portable microprocessor-based accelerometry measuring device to implement real-time physical activity identification. An algorithm was developed to process real-time tri-axial acceleration signals produced by human movement to identify targeted still postures, postural transitions, and dynamic movements. Fall detection was also featured in this algorithm to meet the increasing needs of elderly care in free-living environments. High identification accuracy was obtained in performance evaluation. This device is technically viable for telemonitoring and real-time identification of physical activity, while providing sufficient information to evaluate a person's activity of daily living and her/his status of physical mobility. Limitations regarding real-time processing and implementation of the system for telemonitoring in the home environment were also observed. PMID:19199849

  1. The physics of sub-critical lattices in accelerator driven hybrid systems: The MUSE experiments in the MASURCA facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chauvin, J. P.; Lebrat, J. F.; Soule, R.; Martini, M.; Jacqmin, R.; Imel, G. R.; Salvatores, M.

    1999-06-10

    Since 1991, the CEA has studied the physics of hybrid systems, involving a sub-critical reactor coupled with an accelerator. These studies have provided information on the potential of hybrid systems to transmute actinides and, long lived fission products. The potential of such a system remains to be proven, specifically in terms of the physical understanding of the different phenomena involved and their modelling, as well as in terms of experimental validation of coupled systems, sub-critical environment/accelerator. This validation must be achieved through mock-up studies of the sub-critical environments coupled to a source of external neutrons. The MUSE-4 mock-up experiment is planed at the MASURCA facility and will use an accelerator coupled to a tritium target. The great step between the generator used in the past and the accelerator will allow to increase the knowledge in hybrid physic and to decrease the experimental biases and the measurement uncertainties.

  2. Physical property comparison of 11 soft denture lining materials as a function of accelerated aging.

    PubMed

    Dootz, E R; Koran, A; Craig, R G

    1993-01-01

    Soft denture-lining materials are an important treatment option for patients who have chronic soreness associated with dental prostheses. Three distinctly different types of materials are generally used. These are plasticized polymers or copolymers, silicones, or polyphosphazene fluoroelastomer. The acceptance of these materials by patients and dentists is variable. The objective of this study is to compare the tensile strength, percent elongation, hardness, tear strength, and tear energy of eight plasticized polymers or copolymers, two silicones, and one polyphosphazene fluoroelastomer. Tests were run at 24 hours after specimen preparation and repeated after 900 hours of accelerated aging in a Weather-Ometer device. The data indicated a wide range of physical properties for soft denture-lining materials and showed that accelerated aging dramatically affected the physical and mechanical properties of many of the elastomers. No soft denture liner proved to be superior to all others. The data obtained should provide clinicians with useful information for selecting soft denture lining materials for patients. PMID:8455156

  3. Tsallis entropy and complexity theory in the understanding of physics of precursory accelerating seismicity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallianatos, Filippos; Chatzopoulos, George

    2014-05-01

    Strong observational indications support the hypothesis that many large earthquakes are preceded by accelerating seismic release rates which described by a power law time to failure relation. In the present work, a unified theoretical framework is discussed based on the ideas of non-extensive statistical physics along with fundamental principles of physics such as the energy conservation in a faulted crustal volume undergoing stress loading. We derive the time-to-failure power-law of: a) cumulative number of earthquakes, b) cumulative Benioff strain and c) cumulative energy released in a fault system that obeys a hierarchical distribution law extracted from Tsallis entropy. Considering the analytic conditions near the time of failure, we derive from first principles the time-to-failure power-law and show that a common critical exponent m(q) exists, which is a function of the non-extensive entropic parameter q. We conclude that the cumulative precursory parameters are function of the energy supplied to the system and the size of the precursory volume. In addition the q-exponential distribution which describes the fault system is a crucial factor on the appearance of power-law acceleration in the seismicity. Our results based on Tsallis entropy and the energy conservation gives a new view on the empirical laws derived by other researchers. Examples and applications of this technique to observations of accelerating seismicity will also be presented and discussed. This work was implemented through the project IMPACT-ARC in the framework of action "ARCHIMEDES III-Support of Research Teams at TEI of Crete" (MIS380353) of the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" and is co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national funds

  4. Acceleration-assisted entanglement harvesting and rangefinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salton, Grant; Mann, Robert B.; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2015-03-01

    We study entanglement harvested from a quantum field through local interaction with Unruh-DeWitt detectors undergoing linear acceleration. The interactions allow entanglement to be swapped locally from the field to the detectors. We find an enhancement in the entanglement harvesting by two detectors with anti-parallel acceleration over those with inertial motion. This enhancement is characterized by the presence of entanglement between two detectors that would otherwise maintain a separable state in the absence of relativistic motion (with the same distance of closest approach in both cases). We also find that entanglement harvesting is degraded for two detectors undergoing parallel acceleration in the same way as for two static, comoving detectors in a de Sitter universe. This degradation is known to be different from that of two inertial detectors in a thermal bath. We comment on the physical origin of the harvested entanglement and present three methods for determining distance between two detectors using properties of the harvested entanglement. Information about the separation is stored nonlocally in the joint state of the accelerated detectors after the interaction; a single detector alone contains none. We also find an example of entanglement sudden death exhibited in parameter space.

  5. Understanding of the relationship between vegetation change and physical geographic factors based on geographical detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Jing; Du, Ziqiang; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2015-12-01

    In order to analyze the effect of physical geographic factors on vegetation change in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, assess the relative role of individual physical geographic factors and the interaction between factors on vegetation changes quantitatively, this study takes the Xinjiang area as an example, uses the GIS spatial analysis technology and Geographical Detector model based on the analysis of variance to analysis the influence of physical geographic factors on the vegetation quantitatively. First of all, the spatial-temporal variations of vegetation in Xinjiang area over the last 30 years were analyzed using 1982-2011 GIMMS NDVI3g data as the indicator of vegetation activity. Secondly, the effects of mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, sunshine duration, mean annual wind velocity, DEM, slope and aspect, soil type and vegetation type were selected as potential physical geographic factors. Finally, the influence of physical geographic factors on vegetation change in Xinjiang area was analyzed using the Geographical Detector model. The results show that: (1) the annual coverage of vegetation in Xinjiang area was gradually increasing in 1982-2011 years (linear rate 0.0017/a, P=0.000). (2) the area of vegetation improvement was greater than the area of vegetation degradation. The area of vegetation improvement was mainly distributed in the northern part of the Tianshan Mountains and the Tarim Watershed, the vegetation degradation region was mainly distributed in the southern and Northeast part of Xinjiang. (3) precipitation, soil and vegetation types had the greatest influence on NDVI, followed by temperature, sunshine duration and DEM, and the other factors had little effect. (4) DEM enhanced the effect of soil type on NDVI, and sunshine duration and DEM enhanced all the effect of temperature on NDVI. So, sunshine duration and DEM can be used as the auxiliary indicator in the vegetation growth monitoring. Our results brought new insights on

  6. A 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator as a tool for planetary and impact physics research

    SciTech Connect

    Mocker, Anna; Bugiel, Sebastian; Srama, Ralf; Auer, Siegfried; Baust, Guenter; Matt, Guenter; Otto, Katharina; Colette, Andrew; Drake, Keith; Kempf, Sascha; Munsat, Tobin; Shu, Anthony; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Fiege, Katherina; Postberg, Frank; Gruen, Eberhard; Heckmann, Frieder; Helfert, Stefan; Hillier, Jonathan; Mellert, Tobias; and others

    2011-09-15

    Investigating the dynamical and physical properties of cosmic dust can reveal a great deal of information about both the dust and its many sources. Over recent years, several spacecraft (e.g., Cassini, Stardust, Galileo, and Ulysses) have successfully characterised interstellar, interplanetary, and circumplanetary dust using a variety of techniques, including in situ analyses and sample return. Charge, mass, and velocity measurements of the dust are performed either directly (induced charge signals) or indirectly (mass and velocity from impact ionisation signals or crater morphology) and constrain the dynamical parameters of the dust grains. Dust compositional information may be obtained via either time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the impact plasma or direct sample return. The accurate and reliable interpretation of collected spacecraft data requires a comprehensive programme of terrestrial instrument calibration. This process involves accelerating suitable solar system analogue dust particles to hypervelocity speeds in the laboratory, an activity performed at the Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg, Germany. Here, a 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator electrostatically accelerates charged micron and submicron-sized dust particles to speeds up to 80 km s{sup -1}. Recent advances in dust production and processing have allowed solar system analogue dust particles (silicates and other minerals) to be coated with a thin conductive shell, enabling them to be charged and accelerated. Refinements and upgrades to the beam line instrumentation and electronics now allow for the reliable selection of particles at velocities of 1-80 km s{sup -1} and with diameters of between 0.05 {mu}m and 5 {mu}m. This ability to select particles for subsequent impact studies based on their charges, masses, or velocities is provided by a particle selection unit (PSU). The PSU contains a field programmable gate array, capable of monitoring in real time the particles' speeds and

  7. Technical Challenges and Scientific Payoffs of Muon BeamAccelerators for Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2007-09-25

    Historically, progress in particle physics has largely beendetermined by development of more capable particle accelerators. Thistrend continues today with the recent advent of high-luminosityelectron-positron colliders at KEK and SLAC operating as "B factories,"the imminent commissioning of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and theworldwide development effort toward the International Linear Collider.Looking to the future, one of the most promising approaches is thedevelopment of muon-beam accelerators. Such machines have very highscientific potential, and would substantially advance thestate-of-the-art in accelerator design. A 20-50 GeV muon storage ringcould serve as a copious source of well-characterized electron neutrinosor antineutrinos (a Neutrino Factory), providing beams aimed at detectorslocated 3000-7500 km from the ring. Such long baseline experiments areexpected to be able to observe and characterize the phenomenon ofcharge-conjugation-parity (CP) violation in the lepton sector, and thusprovide an answer to one of the most fundamental questions in science,namely, why the matter-dominated universe in which we reside exists atall. By accelerating muons to even higher energies of several TeV, we canenvision a Muon Collider. In contrast with composite particles likeprotons, muons are point particles. This means that the full collisionenergy is available to create new particles. A Muon Collider has roughlyten times the energy reach of a proton collider at the same collisionenergy, and has a much smaller footprint. Indeed, an energy frontier MuonCollider could fit on the site of an existing laboratory, such asFermilab or BNL. The challenges of muon-beam accelerators are related tothe facts that i) muons are produced as a tertiary beam, with very large6D phase space, and ii) muons are unstable, with a lifetime at rest ofonly 2 microseconds. How these challenges are accommodated in theaccelerator design will be described. Both a Neutrino Factory and a Muon

  8. A 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator as a tool for planetary and impact physics research.

    PubMed

    Mocker, Anna; Bugiel, Sebastian; Auer, Siegfried; Baust, Günter; Colette, Andrew; Drake, Keith; Fiege, Katherina; Grün, Eberhard; Heckmann, Frieder; Helfert, Stefan; Hillier, Jonathan; Kempf, Sascha; Matt, Günter; Mellert, Tobias; Munsat, Tobin; Otto, Katharina; Postberg, Frank; Röser, Hans-Peter; Shu, Anthony; Sternovsky, Zoltán; Srama, Ralf

    2011-09-01

    Investigating the dynamical and physical properties of cosmic dust can reveal a great deal of information about both the dust and its many sources. Over recent years, several spacecraft (e.g., Cassini, Stardust, Galileo, and Ulysses) have successfully characterised interstellar, interplanetary, and circumplanetary dust using a variety of techniques, including in situ analyses and sample return. Charge, mass, and velocity measurements of the dust are performed either directly (induced charge signals) or indirectly (mass and velocity from impact ionisation signals or crater morphology) and constrain the dynamical parameters of the dust grains. Dust compositional information may be obtained via either time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the impact plasma or direct sample return. The accurate and reliable interpretation of collected spacecraft data requires a comprehensive programme of terrestrial instrument calibration. This process involves accelerating suitable solar system analogue dust particles to hypervelocity speeds in the laboratory, an activity performed at the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik in Heidelberg, Germany. Here, a 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator electrostatically accelerates charged micron and submicron-sized dust particles to speeds up to 80 km s(-1). Recent advances in dust production and processing have allowed solar system analogue dust particles (silicates and other minerals) to be coated with a thin conductive shell, enabling them to be charged and accelerated. Refinements and upgrades to the beam line instrumentation and electronics now allow for the reliable selection of particles at velocities of 1-80 km s(-1) and with diameters of between 0.05 μm and 5 μm. This ability to select particles for subsequent impact studies based on their charges, masses, or velocities is provided by a particle selection unit (PSU). The PSU contains a field programmable gate array, capable of monitoring in real time the particles' speeds and charges, and

  9. A 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator as a tool for planetary and impact physics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocker, Anna; Bugiel, Sebastian; Auer, Siegfried; Baust, Günter; Colette, Andrew; Drake, Keith; Fiege, Katherina; Grün, Eberhard; Heckmann, Frieder; Helfert, Stefan; Hillier, Jonathan; Kempf, Sascha; Matt, Günter; Mellert, Tobias; Munsat, Tobin; Otto, Katharina; Postberg, Frank; Röser, Hans-Peter; Shu, Anthony; Sternovsky, Zoltán; Srama, Ralf

    2011-09-01

    Investigating the dynamical and physical properties of cosmic dust can reveal a great deal of information about both the dust and its many sources. Over recent years, several spacecraft (e.g., Cassini, Stardust, Galileo, and Ulysses) have successfully characterised interstellar, interplanetary, and circumplanetary dust using a variety of techniques, including in situ analyses and sample return. Charge, mass, and velocity measurements of the dust are performed either directly (induced charge signals) or indirectly (mass and velocity from impact ionisation signals or crater morphology) and constrain the dynamical parameters of the dust grains. Dust compositional information may be obtained via either time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the impact plasma or direct sample return. The accurate and reliable interpretation of collected spacecraft data requires a comprehensive programme of terrestrial instrument calibration. This process involves accelerating suitable solar system analogue dust particles to hypervelocity speeds in the laboratory, an activity performed at the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik in Heidelberg, Germany. Here, a 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator electrostatically accelerates charged micron and submicron-sized dust particles to speeds up to 80 km s-1. Recent advances in dust production and processing have allowed solar system analogue dust particles (silicates and other minerals) to be coated with a thin conductive shell, enabling them to be charged and accelerated. Refinements and upgrades to the beam line instrumentation and electronics now allow for the reliable selection of particles at velocities of 1-80 km s-1 and with diameters of between 0.05 μm and 5 μm. This ability to select particles for subsequent impact studies based on their charges, masses, or velocities is provided by a particle selection unit (PSU). The PSU contains a field programmable gate array, capable of monitoring in real time the particles' speeds and charges, and is

  10. Physical characterization of a scanning photon counting digital mammography system based on Si-strip detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Aaslund, Magnus; Cederstroem, Bjoern; Lundqvist, Mats; Danielsson, Mats

    2007-06-15

    The physical performance of a scanning multislit full field digital mammography system was determined using basic image quality parameters. The system employs a direct detection detector comprised of linear silicon strip sensors in an edge-on geometry connected to photon counting electronics. The pixel size is 50 {mu}m and the field of view 24x26 cm{sup 2}. The performance was quantified using the presampled modulation transfer function, the normalized noise power spectrum and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Compared to conventional DQE methods, the scanning geometry with its intrinsic scatter rejection poses additional requirements on the measurement setup, which are investigated in this work. The DQE of the photon counting system was found to be independent of the dose level to the detector in the 7.6-206 {mu}Gy range. The peak DQE was 72% and 73% in the scan and slit direction, respectively, measured with a 28 kV W-0.5 mm Al anode-filter combination with an added 2 mm Al filtration.

  11. Physical characterization of a scanning photon counting digital mammography system based on Si-strip detectors.

    PubMed

    Aslund, Magnus; Cederström, Björn; Lundqvist, Mats; Danielsson, Mats

    2007-06-01

    The physical performance of a scanning multislit full field digital mammography system was determined using basic image quality parameters. The system employs a direct detection detector comprised of linear silicon strip sensors in an edge-on geometry connected to photon counting electronics. The pixel size is 50 microm and the field of view 24 x 26 cm2. The performance was quantified using the presampled modulation transfer function, the normalized noise power spectrum and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Compared to conventional DQE methods, the scanning geometry with its intrinsic scatter rejection poses additional requirements on the measurement setup, which are investigated in this work. The DQE of the photon counting system was found to be independent of the dose level to the detector in the 7.6-206 microGy range. The peak DQE was 72% and 73% in the scan and slit direction, respectively, measured with a 28 kV W-0.5 mm Al anode-filter combination with an added 2 mm Al filtration. PMID:17654894

  12. Free-Space optical interconnects for cable-less readout in particle physics detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Chramowicz, John; Kwan, Simon; Moretti, Tony; Sugg, Alan; Prosser, Alan; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Particle physics detectors utilize readout data links requiring a complicated network of copper wires or optical fibers. These links are both massive and costly. Upgrades to such detectors may require additional bandwidth to be provisioned with limited space available to route new cables or fibers. In contrast, free-space optical interconnects will offer cable-less readout, thereby resulting in significant reductions of material and labor. A collaborative effort between Fermilab and Vega Wave Systems is pursuing the development of a unique free-space optical link design that utilizes the transparency of silicon at wavelengths including 1310 nm and multiple wavelengths used in standard telecommunications applications such as coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM). The first step in the pursuit of that design is a proof that the concept may be viable. To that end, experiments have been performed to characterize the bit error rate performance of a prototype link over a free-space optical path and through doped silicon at multi-gigabit rates. These experiments have demonstrated that operation within acceptable bit error rates is possible using single and multiple wavelength transmission arrangements.

  13. Gravitational bar detectors set limits to Planck-scale physics on macroscopic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Bonaldi, Michele; Cerdonio, Massimo; Conti, Livia; Falferi, Paolo; Mezzena, Renato; Ortolan, Antonello; Prodi, Giovanni A.; Taffarello, Luca; Vedovato, Gabriele; Vinante, Andrea; Zendri, Jean-Pierre

    2013-02-01

    Different approaches to quantum gravity, such as string theory and loop quantum gravity, as well as doubly special relativity and gedanken experiments in black-hole physics, all indicate the existence of a minimal measurable length of the order of the Planck length, . This observation has motivated the proposal of generalized uncertainty relations, which imply changes in the energy spectrum of quantum systems. As a consequence, quantum gravitational effects could be revealed by experiments able to test deviations from standard quantum mechanics, such as those recently proposed on macroscopic mechanical oscillators. Here we exploit the sub-millikelvin cooling of the normal modes of the ton-scale gravitational wave detector AURIGA, to place an upper limit for possible Planck-scale modifications on the ground-state energy of an oscillator. Our analysis calls for the development of a satisfactory treatment of multi-particle states in the framework of quantum gravity models.

  14. Monte Carlo Study of the abBA Experiment: Detector Response and Physics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Frlež, E.

    2005-01-01

    The abBA collaboration proposes to conduct a comprehensive program of precise measurements of neutron β-decay coefficients a (the correlation between the neutrino momentum and the decay electron momentum), b (the electron energy spectral distortion term), A (the correlation between the neutron spin and the decay electron momentum), and B (the correlation between the neutron spin and the decay neutrino momentum) at a cold neutron beam facility. We have used a GEANT4-based code to simulate the propagation of decay electrons and protons in the electromagnetic spectrometer and study the energy and timing response of a pair of Silicon detectors. We used these results to examine systematic effects and find the uncertainties with which the physics parameters a, b, A, and B can be extracted from an over-determined experimental data set. PMID:27308164

  15. Emerging terawatt picosecond CO{sub 2} laser technology and possible applications in accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelsky, I.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    1997-07-01

    The first terawatt picosecond (TWps) CO{sub 2} laser is under construction at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). TWps-CO{sub 2} lasers, having the order of magnitude longer wavelength than the well-known table-top terawatt solid state lasers, offer new opportunities for the strong-field physics research. For processes based on electro quiver motion, such as laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA), the advantage of the new class of lasers is due to a gain of two orders of magnitude in the ponderomotive potential for the same peak power. The large average power capability of CO{sub 2} lasers is important for the generation of hard radiation through Compton back-scattering of the laser off energetic electron beams, as well as for other applications. Among them are: LWFA modules of a tentative electron-positron collider, {gamma}-{gamma} (or {gamma}-lepton) collider, a possible table-top source of high-intensity x-rays and gamma rays and the generation of polarized positron beams.

  16. GPU-based acceleration of free energy calculations in solid state physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Januszewski, Michał; Ptok, Andrzej; Crivelli, Dawid; Gardas, Bartłomiej

    2015-07-01

    Obtaining a thermodynamically accurate phase diagram through numerical calculations is a computationally expensive problem that is crucially important to understanding the complex phenomena of solid state physics, such as superconductivity. In this work we show how this type of analysis can be significantly accelerated through the use of modern GPUs. We illustrate this with a concrete example of free energy calculation in multi-band iron-based superconductors, known to exhibit a superconducting state with oscillating order parameter (OP). Our approach can also be used for classical BCS-type superconductors. With a customized algorithm and compiler tuning we are able to achieve a 19×speedup compared to the CPU (119×compared to a single CPU core), reducing calculation time from minutes to mere seconds, enabling the analysis of larger systems and the elimination of finite size effects.

  17. Characterization of wave physics in acoustic metamaterials using a fiber optic point detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganye, Randy; Chen, Yongyao; Liu, Haijun; Bae, Hyungdae; Wen, Zhongshan; Yu, Miao

    2016-06-01

    Due to limitations of conventional acoustic probes, full spatial field mapping (both internal and external wave amplitude and phase measurements) in acoustic metamaterials with deep subwavelength structures has not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, many fundamental wave propagation phenomena in acoustic metamaterials remain experimentally unexplored. In this work, we realized a miniature fiber optic acoustic point detector that is capable of omnidirectional detection of complex spatial acoustic fields in various metamaterial structures over a broadband spectrum. By using this probe, we experimentally characterized the wave-structure interactions in an anisotropic metamaterial waveguide. We further demonstrated that the spatial mapping of both internal and external acoustic fields of metamaterial structures can help obtain important wave propagation properties associated with material dispersion and field confinement, and develop an in-depth understanding of the waveguiding physics in metamaterials. The insights and inspirations gained from our experimental studies are valuable not only for the advancement of fundamental metamaterial wave physics but also for the development of functional metamaterial devices such as acoustic lenses, waveguides, and sensors.

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW The physics of solid-state neutron detector materials and geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, A. N.

    2010-10-01

    Detection of neutrons, at high total efficiency, with greater resolution in kinetic energy, time and/or real-space position, is fundamental to the advance of subfields within nuclear medicine, high-energy physics, non-proliferation of special nuclear materials, astrophysics, structural biology and chemistry, magnetism and nuclear energy. Clever indirect-conversion geometries, interaction/transport calculations and modern processing methods for silicon and gallium arsenide allow for the realization of moderate- to high-efficiency neutron detectors as a result of low defect concentrations, tuned reaction product ranges, enhanced effective omnidirectional cross sections and reduced electron-hole pair recombination from more physically abrupt and electronically engineered interfaces. Conversely, semiconductors with high neutron cross sections and unique transduction mechanisms capable of achieving very high total efficiency are gaining greater recognition despite the relative immaturity of their growth, lithographic processing and electronic structure understanding. This review focuses on advances and challenges in charged-particle-based device geometries, materials and associated mechanisms for direct and indirect transduction of thermal to fast neutrons within the context of application. Calorimetry- and radioluminescence-based intermediate processes in the solid state are not included.

  19. Physics-based modeling of X-ray CT measurements with energy-integrating detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yong; Gao, Hewei; Wu, Mingye; Pack, Jed D.; Xu, Hao; Tao, Kun; Fitzgerald, Paul F.; De Man, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    Computer simulation tools for X-ray CT are important for research efforts in developing reconstructionmethods, designing new CT architectures, and improving X-ray source and detector technologies. In this paper, we propose a physics-based modeling method for X-ray CT measurements with energy-integrating detectors. It accurately accounts for the dependence characteristics on energy, depth and spatial location of the X-ray detection process, which is either ignored or over simplified in most existing CT simulation methods. Compared with methods based on Monte Carlo simulations, it is computationally much more efficient due to the use of a look-up table for optical collection efficiency. To model the CT measurments, the proposed model considers five separate effects: energy- and location-dependent absorption of the incident X-rays, conversion of the absorbed X-rays into the optical photons emitted by the scintillator, location-dependent collection of the emitted optical photons, quantumefficiency of converting fromoptical photons to electrons, and electronic noise. We evaluated the proposed method by comparing the noise levels in the reconstructed images from measured data and simulations of a GE LightSpeed VCT system. Using the results of a 20 cm water phantom and a 35 cm polyethylene (PE) disk at various X-ray tube voltages (kVp) and currents (mA), we demonstrated that the proposed method produces realistic CT simulations. The difference in noise standard deviation between measurements and simulations is approximately 2% for the water phantom and 10% for the PE phantom.

  20. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the ATLAS Forward Physics experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, J.; Cavallaro, E.; Grinstein, S.; López Paz, I.

    2015-03-01

    The ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project plans to install 3D silicon pixel detectors about 210 m away from the interaction point and very close to the beamline (2-3 mm). This implies the need of slim edges of about 100-200 μm width for the sensor side facing the beam to minimise the dead area. Another challenge is an expected non-uniform irradiation of the pixel sensors. It is studied if these requirements can be met using slightly-modified FE-I4 3D pixel sensors from the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer production. AFP-compatible slim edges are obtained with a simple diamond-saw cut. Electrical characterisations and beam tests are carried out and no detrimental impact on the leakage current and hit efficiency is observed. For devices without a 3D guard ring a remaining insensitive edge of less than 15 μm width is found. Moreover, 3D detectors are non-uniformly irradiated up to fluences of several 1015 neq/cm2 with either a focussed 23 GeV proton beam or a 23 MeV proton beam through holes in Al masks. The efficiency in the irradiated region is found to be similar to the one in the non-irradiated region and exceeds 97% in case of favourable chip-parameter settings. Only in a narrow transition area at the edge of the hole in the Al mask, a significantly lower efficiency is seen. A follow-up study of this effect using arrays of small pad diodes for position-resolved dosimetry via the leakage current is carried out.

  1. Physical processes at work in sub-30 fs, PW laser pulse-driven plasma accelerators: Towards GeV electron acceleration experiments at CILEX facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, A.; Kalmykov, S. Y.; Davoine, X.; Lifschitz, A.; Shadwick, B. A.; Malka, V.; Specka, A.

    2014-03-01

    Optimal regimes and physical processes at work are identified for the first round of laser wakefield acceleration experiments proposed at a future CILEX facility. The Apollon-10P CILEX laser, delivering fully compressed, near-PW-power pulses of sub-25 fs duration, is well suited for driving electron density wakes in the blowout regime in cm-length gas targets. Early destruction of the pulse (partly due to energy depletion) prevents electrons from reaching dephasing, limiting the energy gain to about 3 GeV. However, the optimal operating regimes, found with reduced and full three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, show high energy efficiency, with about 10% of incident pulse energy transferred to 3 GeV electron bunches with sub-5% energy spread, half-nC charge, and absolutely no low-energy background. This optimal acceleration occurs in 2 cm length plasmas of electron density below 1018 cm-3. Due to their high charge and low phase space volume, these multi-GeV bunches are tailor-made for staged acceleration planned in the framework of the CILEX project. The hallmarks of the optimal regime are electron self-injection at the early stage of laser pulse propagation, stable self-guiding of the pulse through the entire acceleration process, and no need for an external plasma channel. With the initial focal spot closely matched for the nonlinear self-guiding, the laser pulse stabilizes transversely within two Rayleigh lengths, preventing subsequent evolution of the accelerating bucket. This dynamics prevents continuous self-injection of background electrons, preserving low phase space volume of the bunch through the plasma. Near the end of propagation, an optical shock builds up in the pulse tail. This neither disrupts pulse propagation nor produces any noticeable low-energy background in the electron spectra, which is in striking contrast with most of existing GeV-scale acceleration experiments.

  2. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1992-01-01

    In the area of solar physics, new calculations of the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone was performed. The original theory developed was corrected by including a new frequency factor describing temporal variations of the turbulent energy spectrum. We have modified the original Stein code by including this new frequency factor, and tested the code extensively. Another possible source of the mechanical energy generated in the solar convective zone is the excitation of magnetic flux tube waves which can carry energy along the tubes far away from the region. The problem as to how efficiently those waves are generated in the Sun was recently solved. The propagation of nonlinear magnetic tube waves in the solar atmosphere was calculated, and mode coupling, shock formation, and heating of the local medium was studied. The wave trapping problems and evaluation of critical frequencies for wave reflection in the solar atmosphere was studied. It was shown that the role played by Alfven waves in the wind accelerations and the coronal hole heating is dominant. Presently, we are performing calculations of wave energy fluxes generated in late-type dwarf stars and studying physical processes responsible for the heating of stellar chromospheres and coronae. In the area of physics of waves, a new analytical approach for studying linear Alfven waves in smoothly nonuniform media was recently developed. This approach is presently being extended to study the propagation of linear and nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in stratified, nonisothermal and solar atmosphere. The Lighthill theory of sound generation to nonisothermal media (with a special temperature distribution) was extended. Energy cascade by nonlinear MHD waves and possible chaos driven by these waves are presently considered.

  3. A nuclear physics program at the Rare Isotope Beams Accelerator Facility in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Chang-Bum

    2014-04-15

    This paper outlines the new physics possibilities that fall within the field of nuclear structure and astrophysics based on experiments with radioactive ion beams at the future Rare Isotope Beams Accelerator facility in Korea. This ambitious multi-beam facility has both an Isotope Separation On Line (ISOL) and fragmentation capability to produce rare isotopes beams (RIBs) and will be capable of producing and accelerating beams of wide range mass of nuclides with energies of a few to hundreds MeV per nucleon. The large dynamic range of reaccelerated RIBs will allow the optimization in each nuclear reaction case with respect to cross section and channel opening. The low energy RIBs around Coulomb barrier offer nuclear reactions such as elastic resonance scatterings, one or two particle transfers, Coulomb multiple-excitations, fusion-evaporations, and direct capture reactions for the study of the very neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclides. In contrast, the high energy RIBs produced by in-flight fragmentation with reaccelerated ions from the ISOL enable to explore the study of neutron drip lines in intermediate mass regions. The proposed studies aim at investigating the exotic nuclei near and beyond the nucleon drip lines, and to explore how nuclear many-body systems change in such extreme regions by addressing the following topics: the evolution of shell structure in areas of extreme proton to neutron imbalance; the study of the weak interaction in exotic decay schemes such as beta-delayed two-neutron or two-proton emission; the change of isospin symmetry in isobaric mirror nuclei at the drip lines; two protons or two neutrons radioactivity beyond the drip lines; the role of the continuum states including resonant states above the particle-decay threshold in exotic nuclei; and the effects of nuclear reaction rates triggered by the unbound proton-rich nuclei on nuclear astrophysical processes.

  4. Summary Report of Working Group 3: High Energy Density Physics and Exotic Acceleration Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Shvets, Gennady; Schoessow, Paul

    2006-11-27

    This report summarizes presented results and discussions in the Working Group 3 at the Twelfth Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop in 2006. Presentations on varied topics, such as laser proton acceleration, novel radiation sources, active medium accelerators, and many others, are reviewed, and the status and future directions of research in these areas are summarized.

  5. The physics of proton antiproton collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Shochet, M. )

    1991-12-03

    This paper contains information information on: accelerator and detector; QCD studies; studies of the electroweak force; The search for the top quark; {beta} physics at hadron colliders; and the search for exotic objects and prospects for the future.

  6. Operational Radiation Protection in High-Energy Physics Accelerators: Implementation of ALARA in Design and Operation of Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fasso, A.; Rokni, S.; /SLAC

    2011-06-30

    It used to happen often, to us accelerator radiation protection staff, to be asked by a new radiation worker: ?How much dose am I still allowed?? And we smiled looking at the shocked reaction to our answer: ?You are not allowed any dose?. Nowadays, also thanks to improved training programs, this kind of question has become less frequent, but it is still not always easy to convince workers that staying below the exposure limits is not sufficient. After all, radiation is still the only harmful agent for which this is true: for all other risks in everyday life, from road speed limits to concentration of hazardous chemicals in air and water, compliance to regulations is ensured by keeping below a certain value. It appears that a tendency is starting to develop to extend the radiation approach to other pollutants (1), but it will take some time before the new attitude makes it way into national legislations.

  7. Physics-based simulation of the modulation transfer function in HgCdTe infrared detector arrays.

    PubMed

    Pinkie, Benjamin; Schuster, Jonathan; Bellotti, Enrico

    2013-07-15

    We have developed a numerical technique for performing physics-based simulations of the modulation transfer function (MTF) of infrared detector focal plane arrays. The finite-difference time-domain and finite element methods are employed to determine the electromagnetic and electrical response, respectively. We show how the total MTF can be decomposed to analyze the effect of lateral diffusion of charge carriers and present several methods for mitigation of such effects. We employ our numerical technique to analyze the MTF of a HgCdTe two-color bias-selectable infrared detector array. PMID:23939107

  8. Physics performance and upgrade for Run II of the ATLAS pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miglioranzi, S.

    2015-05-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle trajectories in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. The operation and performance of the pixel detector during the first years of LHC running are described. More than 96% of the detector modules were operational during this period, with an average intrinsic hit efficiency larger than 99%. The alignment of the detector was found to be stable at the few-micron level over long periods of time. Detector material description, tracking performances in Run I and expectations for the upcoming Run II are presented.

  9. Featured Article: Accelerated decline of physical strength in peroxiredoxin-3 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Gang; Wang, Li; Kaifu, Tomonori; Li, Jingmin; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Lianqin

    2016-07-01

    As a member of peroxiredoxin family, peroxiredoxin-3 plays a major role in the control of mitochondrial level of reactive oxygen species. During the breeding of experimental mice, we noticed that the peroxiredoxin-3 knockout mice were listless with aging. In the present study, we compared the swimming exercise performance and oxidative status between peroxiredoxin-3 knockout mice (n = 15) and wild-type littermates (n = 15). At the age of 10 months, the physical strength of peroxiredoxin-3 knockout mice was much lower than the wild-type littermates. Increased oxidative damage and decreased mitochondrial DNA copy number of the animal skeletal muscles were observed in peroxiredoxin-3 knockout mice as compared to that in the wild-type littermates. In addition, we found increased apoptotic cells in the brains of peroxiredoxin-3 knockout mice. Our results suggest that the deficiency of peroxiredoxin-3 induces accelerated oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment, resulting in the decrease of energy supply and cellular activities. Peroxiredoxin-3 might be involved in the inhibition of aging process. PMID:27037278

  10. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents work performed on the generation and physics of acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere. The investigators have incorporated spatial and temporal turbulent energy spectra in a newly corrected version of the Lighthill-Stein theory of acoustic wave generation in order to calculate the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone. The investigators have also revised and improved the treatment of the generation of magnetic flux tube waves, which can carry energy along the tubes far away from the region of their origin, and have calculated the tube energy fluxes for the sun. They also examine the transfer of the wave energy originated in the solar convective zone to the outer atmospheric layers through computation of wave propagation and dissipation in highly nonhomogeneous solar atmosphere. These waves may efficiently heat the solar atmosphere and the heating will be especially significant in the chromospheric network. It is also shown that the role played by Alfven waves in solar wind acceleration and coronal hole heating is dominant. The second part of the project concerned investigation of wave propagation in highly inhomogeneous stellar atmospheres using an approach based on an analytic tool developed by Musielak, Fontenla, and Moore. In addition, a new technique based on Dirac equations has been developed to investigate coupling between different MHD waves propagating in stratified stellar atmospheres.

  11. Overview on Measured Properties of VTT's Edgeless Detectors and their use in High Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalliopuska, Juha; Jakubek, Jan; Tlustos, Lukas

    During the past five years VTT has actively developed fabrication processes for the state-of-the-art edgeless strip and pixel detectors with a negligible dead region at the edges. The article summarizes the measured properties of VTT's edgeless detectors and gives references to the relevant journal papers. The measured properties include leakage current, breakdown voltage and capacitance dependences on the detector thickness and polarity. Earlier X-ray tube and radiation source characterization results are revised and new ones are introduced to reveal a pixel response as a function of bias voltage and pixel location in the detector's pixel matrix. Part of the article concentrates on alpha particle characterization of the detectors, especially to the pixel response properties at the edge regions of the detector. The article shows that the edgeless detectors are not losing charge collections efficiency at the edge and the spectroscopic response is comparable to the inner regions of the detector. In addition, the distortion of the electric field at the edge of the detector is almost independent on the applied reverse bias voltage.

  12. Beam test studies of 3D pixel sensors irradiated non-uniformly for the ATLAS forward physics detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinstein, S.; Baselga, M.; Boscardin, M.; Christophersen, M.; Da Via, C.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Darbo, G.; Fadeyev, V.; Fleta, C.; Gemme, C.; Grenier, P.; Jimenez, A.; Lopez, I.; Micelli, A.; Nelist, C.; Parker, S.; Pellegrini, G.; Phlips, B.; Pohl, D.-L.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sicho, P.; Tsiskaridze, S.

    2013-12-01

    Pixel detectors with cylindrical electrodes that penetrate the silicon substrate (so called 3D detectors) offer advantages over standard planar sensors in terms of radiation hardness, since the electrode distance is decoupled from the bulk thickness. In recent years significant progress has been made in the development of 3D sensors, which culminated in the sensor production for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade carried out at CNM (Barcelona, Spain) and FBK (Trento, Italy). Based on this success, the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) experiment has selected the 3D pixel sensor technology for the tracking detector. The AFP project presents a new challenge due to the need for a reduced dead area with respect to IBL, and the in-homogeneous nature of the radiation dose distribution in the sensor. Electrical characterization of the first AFP prototypes and beam test studies of 3D pixel devices irradiated non-uniformly are presented in this paper.

  13. Evaluation of ‘OpenCL for FPGA’ for Data Acquisition and Acceleration in High Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Srikanth

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the data acquisition and processing needs of High Energy Physics experiments has made it more essential to use FPGAs to meet those needs. However harnessing the capabilities of the FPGAs has been hard for anyone but expert FPGA developers. The arrival of OpenCL with the two major FPGA vendors supporting it, offers an easy software-based approach to taking advantage of FPGAs in applications such as High Energy Physics. OpenCL is a language for using heterogeneous architectures in order to accelerate applications. However, FPGAs are capable of far more than acceleration, hence it is interesting to explore if OpenCL can be used to take advantage of FPGAs for more generic applications. To answer these questions, especially in the context of High Energy Physics, two applications, a DAQ module and an acceleration workload, were tested for implementation with OpenCL on FPGAs2. The challenges on using OpenCL for a DAQ application and their solutions, together with the performance of the OpenCL based acceleration are discussed. Many of the design elements needed to realize a DAQ system in OpenCL already exists, mostly as FPGA vendor extensions, but a small number of elements were found to be missing. For acceleration of OpenCL applications, using FPGAs has become as easy as using GPUs. OpenCL has the potential for a massive gain in productivity and ease of use enabling non FPGA experts to design, debug and maintain the code. Also, FPGA power consumption is much lower than other implementations. This paper describes one of the first attempts to explore the use of OpenCL for applications outside the acceleration workloads.

  14. Phenomenology of a realistic accelerating universe using only planck-scale physics

    PubMed

    Albrecht; Skordis

    2000-03-01

    Modern data are showing increasing evidence that the Universe is accelerating. So far, all attempts to account for the acceleration have required some fundamental dimensionless quantities to be extremely small. We show how a class of scalar field models (which may emerge naturally from superstring theory) can account for acceleration which starts in the present epoch with all the potential parameters O(1) in Planck units. PMID:11017213

  15. Short-Baseline Neutrino Physics using the NOvA Near Detector and the Booster Neutrino Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmapalan, Ranjan

    2016-03-01

    The NOvA Near Detector (ND) is a low Z, nearly-fully active tracking detector, capable of 3D reconstruction of neutrino-induced interactions, situated at Fermilab, about 1 km from the NuMI neutrino beam target. Due to its positioning 14.6 mrad off the beam axis, the detector samples a narrow-band neutrino beam peaked at 2 GeV. NOvA's ND L/E greatly overlaps with the L/E range of the recent MiniBooNE experiment on the Booster neutrino beamline at Fermilab, thus making the NOvA ND an ideal tool to test a sterile neutrino hypothesis in this L/E regime and to study the low-energy excess reported by MiniBooNE. Due to the large off-axis angle (160 mrad) with respect to the Booster neutrino beamline, the NOvA ND will also observe high energy (1.4 GeV) kaon decay-in-flight neutrinos from the Booster neutrino beamline, at about 800 meters from the target. In addition, this unique `two beams in one detector' setup enables a cross-check of the energy calibration and of the measurement of neutrino cross sections at different neutrino energies in the same detector. We discuss physics capabilities and present sensitivity studies within such an experimental setup.

  16. Towards a novel laser-driven method of exotic nuclei extraction-acceleration for fundamental physics and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiuchi, M.; Sakaki, H.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Nishio, K.; Pikuz, T. A.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Orlandi, R.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Sagisaka, A.; Ogura, K.; Kanasaki, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Fukuda, Y.; Koura, H.; Kando, M.; Yamauchi, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kondo, K.; Imai, K.; Nagamiya, S.

    2016-04-01

    A combination of a petawatt laser and nuclear physics techniques can crucially facilitate the measurement of exotic nuclei properties. With numerical simulations and laser-driven experiments we show prospects for the Laser-driven Exotic Nuclei extraction-acceleration method proposed in [M. Nishiuchi et al., Phys, Plasmas 22, 033107 (2015)]: a femtosecond petawatt laser, irradiating a target bombarded by an external ion beam, extracts from the target and accelerates to few GeV highly charged short-lived heavy exotic nuclei created in the target via nuclear reactions.

  17. PEGASYS/Mark II: A program of internal target physics using the Mark II detector at the PEP storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This document is a proposal to SLAC on behalf of the PEGASYS Collaboration for a program of internal target physics at PEP utilizing the Mark A detector. Having completed its tour of duty at SLC in November 1990, we propose that the Mark A detector be returned to the PEP storage ring, where it will be used in conjunction with a long gas target for studies of QCD with nucleon and nuclear targets, as well as tests of QED in lepton pair production, and a search for new neutral bosons. We expect that the detector in its new configuration could be commissioned by late 1991 and begin taking data by 1992. This document presents the physics to be accomplished with the Mark A, and describes the minimal changes to the detector that we will need to make it function for internal target experiments. We also show a possible timeline for the project, and indicate the makeup of the collaboration that will carry out the work.

  18. Physical characterization of a prototype selenium-based full field digital mammography detector.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Robert S; Samei, Ehsan; Jesneck, Jonathan L; Lo, Joseph Y

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure experimentally the physical performance of a prototype mammographic imager based on a direct detection, flat-panel array design employing an amorphous selenium converter with 70 microm pixels. The system was characterized for two different anode types, a molybdenum target with molybdenum filtration (Mo/Mo) and a tungsten target with rhodium filtration (W/Rh), at two different energies, 28 and 35 kVp, with approximately 2 mm added aluminum filtration. To measure the resolution, the presampled modulation transfer function (MTF) was measured using an edge method. The normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) was measured by two-dimensional Fourier analysis of uniformly exposed mammograms. The detective quantum efficiencies (DQEs) were computed from the MTFs, the NNPSs, and theoretical ideal signal to noise ratios. The MTF was found to be close to its ideal limit and reached 0.2 at 11.8 mm(-1) and 0.1 at 14.1 mm(-1) for images acquired at an RQA-M2 technique (Mo/Mo anode, 28 kVp, 2 mm Al). Using a tungsten technique (MW2; W/Rh anode, 28 kVp, 2 mm Al), the MTF went to 0.2 at 11.2 mm(-1) and to 0.1 at 13.3 mm(-1). The DQE reached a maximum value of 54% at 1.35 mm(-1) for the RQA-M2 technique at 1.6 microC/kg and achieved a peak value of 64% at 1.75 mm(-1) for the tungsten technique (MW2) at 1.9 microC/kg. Nevertheless, the DQE showed strong exposure and frequency dependencies. The results indicated that the detector offered high MTFs and DQEs, but structured noise effects may require improved calibration before clinical implementation. PMID:15789606

  19. J-PAS: The Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupke, Renato A.; Benitez, Narciso; Moles, Mariano; Sodre, Laerte; Irwin, Jimmy; J-PAS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey (J-PAS) is a narrow band, very wide field Cosmological Survey to be carried out from the Javalambre Astrophysical Observatory in Spain with a dedicated 2.5m telescope and a 4.7deg^2 camera with 1.2Gpix. Starting in 2016, J-PAS will observe 8600 deg^2 of the Northern Sky and measure 0.003(1+z) precision photometric redshifts for nearly 1E08 LRG and ELG galaxies plus several million QSOs, sampling an effective volume of ~14 Gpc^3 up to z = 1.3. J-PAS will also detect and measure the mass of more than a hundred thousand galaxy clusters, setting constrains on Dark Energy which rival those obtained from BAO measurements.The key to the J-PAS potential is its innovative approach the combination of 54 145°A filters, placed 100°A apart, and a multi-degree field of view (FOV) which makes it a powerful "redshift machine", with the survey speed of a 4000 multiplexing low resolution spectrograph, but many times cheaper and much faster to build. Moreover, since the J-PAS camera is equivalent to a very large, 4.7deg^2 "IFU", it will produce a time-resolved, 3D image of the Northern Sky with a very wide range of Astrophysical applications in Galaxy Evolution, the nearby Universe and the study of resolved stellar populations. J-PAS will have a lasting legacy value in many areas of Astrophysics, serving as a fundamental dataset for future Cosmological projects.Here, we present the overall description, status and scientific potential of the survey.

  20. J-PAS: The Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupke, Renato a.; Benitez, Narciso; Moles, Mariano; Sodre, Laerte; J-PAS Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    The Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey (J-PAS) is a narrow band, very wide field Cosmological Survey to be carried out from the Javalambre Astrophysical Observatory in Spain with a dedicated 2.5m telescope and a 4.7deg^2 camera with 1.2Gpix. Starting in 2016, J-PAS will observe 8600 deg^2 of the Northern Sky and measure 0.003(1+z) precision photometric redshifts for nearly 1E08 LRG and ELG galaxies plus several million QSOs, sampling an effective volume of ~14 Gpc^3 up to z = 1.3. J-PAS will also detect and measure the mass of more than a hundred thousand galaxy clusters, setting constrains on Dark Energy which rival those obtained from BAO measurements.The key to the J-PAS potential is its innovative approach the combination of 54 145°A filters, placed 100°A apart, and a multi-degree field of view (FOV) which makes it a powerful “redshift machine”, with the survey speed of a 4000 multiplexing low resolution spectrograph, but many times cheaper and much faster to build. Moreover, since the J-PAS camera is equivalent to a very large, 4.7deg^2 “IFU”, it will produce a time-resolved, 3D image of the Northern Sky with a very wide range of Astrophysical applications in Galaxy Evolution, the nearby Universe and the study of resolved stellar populations. J-PAS will have a lasting legacy value in many areas of Astrophysics, serving as a fundamental dataset for future Cosmological projects.Here, we present the overall description, status and scientific potential of the survey.

  1. Detector Noise Susceptibility Issues for the Future Generation of High Energy Physics Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Arteche, F.; Esteban, C.; Iglesias, M.; Rivetta, C.; Arcega, F.J.; /Zaragoza U.

    2011-11-22

    The front-end electronics (FEE) noise characterization to electromagnetic interference and the compatibility of the different subsystems are important topics to consider for the LHC calorimeter upgrades. A new power distribution scheme based on switching power converters is under study and will define a noticeable noise source very close to the detector's FEE. Knowledge and experience with both FFE noise and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) issues from previous detectors are important conditions to guarantee the design goals and the good functionality of the upgraded LHC detectors. This paper shows an overview of the noise susceptibility studies performed in different CMS subdetectors. The impact of different FEE topologies in the final sensitivity to electromagnetic interference of the subsystem is analyzed and design recommendations are presented to increase the EMC of the detectors to the future challenging power distribution topologies.

  2. Low-cost bump-bonding processes for high energy physics pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caselle, M.; Blank, T.; Colombo, F.; Dierlamm, A.; Husemann, U.; Kudella, S.; Weber, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the next generation of collider experiments detectors will be challenged by unprecedented particle fluxes. Thus large detector arrays of highly pixelated detectors with minimal dead area will be required at reasonable costs. Bump-bonding of pixel detectors has been shown to be a major cost-driver. KIT is one of five production centers of the CMS barrel pixel detector for the Phase I Upgrade. In this contribution the SnPb bump-bonding process and the production yield is reported. In parallel to the production of the new CMS pixel detector, several alternatives to the expensive photolithography electroplating/electroless metal deposition technologies are developing. Recent progress and challenges faced in the development of bump-bonding technology based on gold-stud bonding by thin (15 μm) gold wire is presented. This technique allows producing metal bumps with diameters down to 30 μm without using photolithography processes, which are typically required to provide suitable under bump metallization. The short setup time for the bumping process makes gold-stud bump-bonding highly attractive (and affordable) for the flip-chipping of single prototype ICs, which is the main limitation of the current photolithography processes.

  3. Avalanche Effect in Si Heavily Irradiated Detectors: Physical Model and Perspectives for Application

    SciTech Connect

    Eremin V.; Li Z.; Verbitskaya, E.; Zabrodskii, A.; Harkonen, J.

    2011-05-07

    The model explaining an enhanced collected charge in detectors irradiated to 10{sup 15}-10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} is developed. This effect was first revealed in heavily irradiated n-on-p detectors operated at high bias voltage ranging from 900 to 1700 V. The model is based on the fundamental effect of carrier avalanche multiplication in the space charge region and in our case is extended with a consideration of p-n junctions with a high concentration of the deep levels. It is shown that the efficient trapping of free carriers from the bulk generation current to the deep levels of radiation induced defects leads to the stabilization of the irradiated detector operation in avalanche multiplication mode due to the reduction of the electric field at the junction. The charge collection efficiency and the detector reverse current dependences on the applied bias have been numerically simulated in this study and they well correlate to the recent experimental results of CERN RD50 collaboration. The developed model of enhanced collected charge predicts a controllable operation of heavily irradiated detectors that is promising for the detector application in the upcoming experiments in a high luminosity collider.

  4. Accelerator System Model (ASM) user manual with physics and engineering model documentation. ASM version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    The Accelerator System Model (ASM) is a computer program developed to model proton radiofrequency accelerators and to carry out system level trade studies. The ASM FORTRAN subroutines are incorporated into an intuitive graphical user interface which provides for the {open_quotes}construction{close_quotes} of the accelerator in a window on the computer screen. The interface is based on the Shell for Particle Accelerator Related Codes (SPARC) software technology written for the Macintosh operating system in the C programming language. This User Manual describes the operation and use of the ASM application within the SPARC interface. The Appendix provides a detailed description of the physics and engineering models used in ASM. ASM Version 1.0 is joint project of G. H. Gillespie Associates, Inc. and the Accelerator Technology (AT) Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Neither the ASM Version 1.0 software nor this ASM Documentation may be reproduced without the expressed written consent of both the Los Alamos National Laboratory and G. H. Gillespie Associates, Inc.

  5. Physical conditions for conducting radiobiological experiments in beams of accelerated particles with high linear energy transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudryashov, Y. I.; Marennyy, A. M.; Popov, V. I.; Aykhorn, K.; Ertsgreber, G.

    1974-01-01

    The design and construction of an accelerator to conduct radiobiological experiments is reported that uses aluminum filters to control the accelerated ion beam while preserving its stability, and a vacuum chamber to conduct the ion beam with the help of a collector through a lavsan exit port to the target. Depth distribution of the absorbed dose from a monodirectional ion beam is practically completely represented by the change in the energy spectrum of the biological object.

  6. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  7. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stygar, W. A.; Awe, T. J.; Bailey, J. E.; Bennett, N. L.; Breden, E. W.; Campbell, E. M.; Clark, R. E.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Ennis, J. B.; Fehl, D. L.; Genoni, T. C.; Gomez, M. R.; Greiser, G. W.; Gruner, F. R.; Herrmann, M. C.; Hutsel, B. T.; Jennings, C. A.; Jobe, D. O.; Jones, B. M.; Jones, M. C.; Jones, P. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Lash, J. S.; LeChien, K. R.; Leckbee, J. J.; Leeper, R. J.; Lewis, S. A.; Long, F. W.; Lucero, D. J.; Madrid, E. A.; Martin, M. R.; Matzen, M. K.; Mazarakis, M. G.; McBride, R. D.; McKee, G. R.; Miller, C. L.; Moore, J. K.; Mostrom, C. B.; Mulville, T. D.; Peterson, K. J.; Porter, J. L.; Reisman, D. B.; Rochau, G. A.; Rochau, G. E.; Rose, D. V.; Rovang, D. C.; Savage, M. E.; Sceiford, M. E.; Schmit, P. F.; Schneider, R. F.; Schwarz, J.; Sefkow, A. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Spielman, R. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Thoma, C.; Vesey, R. A.; Wakeland, P. E.; Welch, D. R.; Wisher, M. L.; Woodworth, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    We have developed conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators: Z 300 and Z 800. The designs are based on an accelerator architecture that is founded on two concepts: single-stage electrical-pulse compression and impedance matching [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 030401 (2007)]. The prime power source of each machine consists of 90 linear-transformer-driver (LTD) modules. Each module comprises LTD cavities connected electrically in series, each of which is powered by 5-GW LTD bricks connected electrically in parallel. (A brick comprises a single switch and two capacitors in series.) Six water-insulated radial-transmission-line impedance transformers transport the power generated by the modules to a six-level vacuum-insulator stack. The stack serves as the accelerator's water-vacuum interface. The stack is connected to six conical outer magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs), which are joined in parallel at a 10-cm radius by a triple-post-hole vacuum convolute. The convolute sums the electrical currents at the outputs of the six outer MITLs, and delivers the combined current to a single short inner MITL. The inner MITL transmits the combined current to the accelerator's physics-package load. Z 300 is 35 m in diameter and stores 48 MJ of electrical energy in its LTD capacitors. The accelerator generates 320 TW of electrical power at the output of the LTD system, and delivers 48 MA in 154 ns to a magnetized-liner inertial-fusion (MagLIF) target [Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF target is 870 TW, which is the highest power throughout the accelerator. Power amplification is accomplished by the centrally located vacuum section, which serves as an intermediate inductive-energy-storage device. The principal goal of Z 300 is to achieve thermonuclear ignition; i.e., a fusion yield that exceeds the energy transmitted by the accelerator to the liner. 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations

  8. [Experimental and theoretical high energy physics program

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, J.; Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.

    1993-04-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics research at Purdue is summarized in a number of reports. Subjects treated include the following: the CLEO experiment for the study of heavy flavor physics; gas microstrip detectors; particle astrophysics; affine Kac{endash}Moody algebra; nonperturbative mass bounds on scalar and fermion systems due to triviality and vacuum stability constraints; resonance neutrino oscillations; e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions at CERN; {bar p}{endash}p collisions at FNAL; accelerator physics at Fermilab; development work for the SDC detector at SSC; TOPAZ; D-zero physics; physics beyond the standard model; and the Collider Detector at Fermilab. (RWR)

  9. First measurement of efficiency and precision of CCD detectors for high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, R.; Damerell, C. J. S.; English, R. L.; Gillman, A. R.; Lintern, A. L.; Watts, S. J.; Wickens, F. J.

    1983-08-01

    It has been known for some time that a 2-dimensional charge-coupled device (CCD) might be used for detecting high energy particles with high precision and excellent 2-track resolution. Such detectors could be used to distinguish between prompt tracks and decay products in events producing short-lived particles (heavy leptons, charm, beauty etc.). We now present results in which (for the first time) a telescope of CCD detectors has been operated in a beam of high energy particles. The main results are that even these early detectors have excellent performance characteristics, namely efficiency for track detection of 98±2% per plane, spatial resolution of 4.3 μm and 6.1 μm in two orthogonal directions and 2-track resolution of 40 μm in space.

  10. Full characterization of laser-accelerated ion beams using Faraday cup, silicon carbide, and single-crystal diamond detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Margarone, D.; Prokupek, J.; Rus, B.; Krasa, J.; Velyhan, A.; Laska, L.; Giuffrida, L.; Torrisi, L.; Picciotto, A.; Nowak, T.; Musumeci, P.; Mocek, T.; Ullschmied, J.

    2011-05-15

    Multi-MeV beams of light ions have been produced using the 300 picosecond, kJ-class iodine laser, operating at the Prague Asterix Laser System facility in Prague. Real-time ion diagnostics have been performed by the use of various time-of-flight (TOF) detectors: ion collectors (ICs) with and without absorber thin films, new prototypes of single-crystal diamond and silicon carbide detectors, and an electrostatic ion mass spectrometer (IEA). In order to suppress the long photopeak induced by soft X-rays and to avoid the overlap with the signal from ultrafast particles, the ICs have been shielded with Al foil filters. The application of large-bandgap semiconductor detectors (>3 eV) ensured cutting of the plasma-emitted visible and soft-UV radiation and enhancing the sensitivity to the very fast proton/ion beams. Employing the IEA spectrometer, various ion species and charge states in the expanding laser-plasma have been determined. Processing of the experimental data based on the TOF technique, including estimation of the plasma fast proton maximum and peak energy, ion beam currents and total charge, total number of fast protons, as well as deconvolution processes, ion stopping power, and ion/photon transmission calculations for the different metallic filters used, are reported.

  11. Optical Wireless Communication system for particle detectors in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, W.; Corsini, R.; Ciaramella, E.; Dell`Orso, R.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.

    2016-07-01

    Optical Wireless Communication (OWC) system for particles detector can be a viable solution for reducing the complexity of the optical fibre network used to extract the data from the detector. In this work we present the initial study of the tolerance to misalignment for the OWC system under investigation. We observed that using collimators of beam waist from 0.35 mm to 3.5 mm we can obtain tolerance in range from ± 0.25 mm to ± 0.8 mm. We also observed using ray trace simulation that both transmitting power and tolerance can be improved by using optimized lens at the receiver having VCSEL as transmitting source.

  12. Conceptual design project: Accelerator complex for nuclear physics studies and boron neutron capture therapy application at the Yerevan Physics Institute (YerPhI) Yerevan, Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avagyan, R. H.; Kerobyan, I. A.

    2015-07-01

    The final goal of the proposed project is the creation of a Complex of Accelerator Facilities at the Yerevan Physics Institute (CAF YerPhI) for nuclear physics basic researches, as well as for applied programs including boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The CAF will include the following facilities: Cyclotron C70, heavy material (uranium) target/ion source, mass-separator, LINAC1 (0.15-1.5 MeV/u) and LINAC2 (1.5-10 MeV/u). The delivered by C70 proton beams with energy 70 MeV will be used for investigations in the field of basic nuclear physics and with energy 30 MeV for use in applications.

  13. A Treasure Trove of Physics from a Common Source-Automobile Acceleration Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graney, Christopher M.

    2005-11-01

    What is better than interesting, challenging physics with good data free for the taking to which everyone can relate? That's what is available to anyone who digs into the reams of automobile performance tests that have been available in popular magazines since the 1950s. Opportunities to do and teach interesting physics abound, as evidenced by the frequent appearance of "physics of cars" articles in The Physics Teacher.1-6

  14. Accelerator searches for new physics in the context of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowette, Steven

    2016-05-01

    A review is given of the current status of searches for dark matter at accelerators. Particular emphasis is put on generic searches for direct production of dark matter at the LHC during its first run, and on the recent developments for the interpretation of the results, where the models using an effective field theory approach are now being complemented with more generic interpretations in the context of simplified models. Furthermore, results are reported briefly for searches for dark matter at the LHC in the context of supersymmetry, as well as for non-LHC accelerator searches.

  15. Chaotic dynamics in accelerator physics. [Dept. of Astrophysical, Planetary, and Atmospheric Sciences, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, J.R.

    1992-11-30

    Substantial progress was in several areas of accelerator dynamics. For developing understanding of longitudinal adiabatic dynamics, and for creating efficiency enhancements of recirculating free-electron lasers, was substantially completed. A computer code for analyzing the critical KAM tori that bound the dynamic aperture in circular machines was developed. Studies of modes that arise due to the interaction of coating beams with a narrow-spectrum impedance have begun. During this research educational and research ties with the accelerator community at large have been strengthened.

  16. Astroparticle physics with a customized low-background broad energy Germanium detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalseth, C. E.; Amman, M.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, H. O.; Barabash, A. S.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Bugg, W.; Burritt, T. H.; Busch, M.; Capps, G.; Chan, Y.-D.; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, R. J.; Creswick, R.; Detwiler, J. A.; Diaz, J.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Ely, J.; Esterline, J.; Farach, H.; Fast, J. E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fujikawa, B.; Fuller, E.; Gehman, V. M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Harper, G. C.; Hazama, R.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Hoppe, E. W.; Hossbach, T. W.; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Keillor, M.; Keller, C.; Kephart, J. D.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P. N.; Macmullin, S.; Marino, M. G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, D.-M.; Miley, H. S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, L.; Meyers, A. W.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; Peterson, D.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Qian, J.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rodriguez, L.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Salazar, H.; Schubert, A. G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Steele, D.; Strain, J.; Swift, G.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; van Wechel, T. D.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, K.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Xiang, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, H.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhang, C.; Zimmerman, S.; M Ajorana Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is building the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, a 60 kg array of high purity germanium detectors housed in an ultra-low background shield at the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge while demonstrating the feasibility of a tonne-scale experiment. It may also carry out a dark matter search in the 1-10 GeV/ c2 mass range. We have found that customized Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors produced by Canberra have several desirable features for a neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment, including low electronic noise, excellent pulse shape analysis capabilities, and simple fabrication. We have deployed a customized BEGe, the MAJORANA Low-Background BEGe at Kimballton (MALBEK), in a low-background cryostat and shield at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility in Virginia. This paper will focus on the detector characteristics and measurements that can be performed with such a radiation detector in a low-background environment.

  17. The future of tau physics and tau-charm detector and factory design

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, M.L.

    1991-02-01

    Future research on the tau lepton requires large statistics, thorough investigation of systematic errors, and direct experimental knowledge of backgrounds. Only a tau-charm factory with a specially designed detector can provide all the experimental conditions to meet these requirements. This paper is a summary of three lectures delivered at the 1991 Lake Louise Winter Institute.

  18. Externally-Modulated Electro-Optically Coupled Detector Architecture for Nuclear Physics Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Wenze; McKisson, John E.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Zhang, Shukui; Zorn, Carl J.

    2014-06-01

    A new laser-based externally-modulated electro-optically coupled detector (EOCD) architecture is being developed to enable high-density readout for radiation detectors with accurate analog radiation pulse shape and timing preservation. Unlike digital conversion before electro-optical modulation, the EOCD implements complete analog optical signal modulation and multiplexing in its detector front-end. The result is a compact, high performance detector readout that can be both radiation tolerant and immune to magnetic fields. In this work, the feasibility of EOCD was explored by constructing a two-wavelength laser-based externally-modulated EOCD, and testing analog pulse shape preservation and wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) crosstalk. Comparisons were first made between the corresponding initial pulses and the electro-optically coupled analog pulses. This confirmed an excellent analog pulse preservation over $ sim {hbox {29}}% $ of the modulator’s switching voltage range. Optical spectrum analysis revealed less than $-{hbox {14}}~hbox{dB}$ crosstalk with 1.2 nm WDM wavelength bandgap, and provided insight on experimental conditions that could lead to increased inter-wavelength crosstalk. Further discussions and previous research on the radiation tolerance and magnetic field immunity of the candidate materials were also given, and quantitative device testing is proposed in the future.

  19. Astroparticle physics with a customized low-background broad energy Germanium detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Amman, M.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Bugg, William; Burritt, Tom H.; Busch, Matthew; Capps, Greg L.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, R. J.; Creswick, R.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Diaz, J.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Ely, James H.; Esterline, James H.; Farach, H. A.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fujikawa, Brian; Fuller, Erin S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Harper, Gregory; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Miley, Harry S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Myers, Allan W.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Peterson, David; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Qian, J.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rodriguez, Larry; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof P.; Salazar, Harold; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Swift, Gary; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Xiang, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.; Zimmerman, S.

    2011-10-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is building the Majorana Demonstrator, a 60 kg array of high purity germanium detectors housed in an ultra-low background shield at the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The Majorana Demonstrator will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge while demonstrating the feasibility of a tonne-scale experiment. It may also carry out a dark matter search in the 1-10 GeV/c² mass range. We have found that customized Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors produced by Canberra have several desirable features for a neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment, including low electronic noise, excellent pulse shape analysis capabilities, and simple fabrication. We have deployed a customized BEGe, the Majorana Low-Background BEGe at Kimballton (MALBEK), in a low-background cryostat and shield at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility in Virginia. This paper will focus on the detector characteristics and measurements that can be performed with such a radiation detector in a low-background environment.

  20. Argonne National Laboratory, High Energy Physics Division, semiannual report of research activities, July 1, 1989--December 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at the Argonne National Laboratory in the following areas: Experimental High Energy Physics; Theoretical High Energy Physics; Experimental Facilities Research; Accelerator Research and Development; and SSC Detector Research and Development.

  1. Physics of Phase Space Matching for Staging Plasma and Traditional Accelerator Components Using Longitudinally Tailored Plasma Profiles.

    PubMed

    Xu, X L; Hua, J F; Wu, Y P; Zhang, C J; Li, F; Wan, Y; Pai, C-H; Lu, W; An, W; Yu, P; Hogan, M J; Joshi, C; Mori, W B

    2016-03-25

    Phase space matching between two plasma-based accelerator (PBA) stages and between a PBA and a traditional accelerator component is a critical issue for emittance preservation. The drastic differences of the transverse focusing strengths as the beam propagates between stages and components may lead to a catastrophic emittance growth even when there is a small energy spread. We propose using the linear focusing forces from nonlinear wakes in longitudinally tailored plasma density profiles to control phase space matching between sections with negligible emittance growth. Several profiles are considered and theoretical analysis and particle-in-cell simulations show how these structures may work in four different scenarios. Good agreement between theory and simulation is obtained, and it is found that the adiabatic approximation misses important physics even for long profiles. PMID:27058082

  2. Physics of Phase Space Matching for Staging Plasma and Traditional Accelerator Components Using Longitudinally Tailored Plasma Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. L.; Hua, J. F.; Wu, Y. P.; Zhang, C. J.; Li, F.; Wan, Y.; Pai, C.-H.; Lu, W.; An, W.; Yu, P.; Hogan, M. J.; Joshi, C.; Mori, W. B.

    2016-03-01

    Phase space matching between two plasma-based accelerator (PBA) stages and between a PBA and a traditional accelerator component is a critical issue for emittance preservation. The drastic differences of the transverse focusing strengths as the beam propagates between stages and components may lead to a catastrophic emittance growth even when there is a small energy spread. We propose using the linear focusing forces from nonlinear wakes in longitudinally tailored plasma density profiles to control phase space matching between sections with negligible emittance growth. Several profiles are considered and theoretical analysis and particle-in-cell simulations show how these structures may work in four different scenarios. Good agreement between theory and simulation is obtained, and it is found that the adiabatic approximation misses important physics even for long profiles.

  3. Gaseous Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Maxim

    Since long time, the compelling scientific goals of future high-energy physics experiments were a driving factor in the development of advanced detector technologies. A true innovation in detector instrumentation concepts came in 1968, with the development of a fully parallel readout for a large array of sensing elements - the Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC), which earned Georges Charpak a Nobel prize in physics in 1992. Since that time radiation detection and imaging with fast gaseous detectors, capable of economically covering large detection volumes with low mass budget, have been playing an important role in many fields of physics. Advances in photolithography and microprocessing techniques in the chip industry during the past decade triggered a major transition in the field of gas detectors from wire structures to Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) concepts, revolutionizing cell-size limitations for many gas detector applications. The high radiation resistance and excellent spatial and time resolution make them an invaluable tool to confront future detector challenges at the next generation of colliders. The design of the new micro-pattern devices appears suitable for industrial production. Novel structures where MPGDs are directly coupled to the CMOS pixel readout represent an exciting field allowing timing and charge measurements as well as precise spatial information in 3D. Originally developed for the high-energy physics, MPGD applications have expanded to nuclear physics, photon detection, astroparticle and neutrino physics, neutron detection, and medical imaging.

  4. Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF): Data from B Hadrons Research

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a Tevatron experiment at Fermilab. The Tevatron, a powerful particle accelerator, accelerates protons and antiprotons close to the speed of light, and then makes them collide head-on inside the CDF detector. The CDF detector is used to study the products of such collisions. The CDF Physics Group is organized into six working groups, each with a specific focus. The Bottom group studies the production and decay of B hadrons. Their public web page makes data and numerous figures available from both CDF Runs I and II.

  5. Oblique incidence effects in direct x-ray detectors: A first-order approximation using a physics-based analytical model

    SciTech Connect

    Badano, Aldo; Freed, Melanie; Fang Yuan

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: The authors describe the modifications to a previously developed analytical model of indirect CsI:Tl-based detector response required for studying oblique x-ray incidence effects in direct semiconductor-based detectors. This first-order approximation analysis allows the authors to describe the associated degradation in resolution in direct detectors and compare the predictions to the published data for indirect detectors. Methods: The proposed model is based on a physics-based analytical description developed by Freed et al. [''A fast, angle-dependent, analytical model of CsI detector response for optimization of 3D x-ray breast imaging systems,'' Med. Phys. 37(6), 2593-2605 (2010)] that describes detector response functions for indirect detectors and oblique incident x rays. The model, modified in this work to address direct detector response, describes the dependence of the response with x-ray energy, thickness of the transducer layer, and the depth-dependent blur and collection efficiency. Results: The authors report the detector response functions for indirect and direct detector models for typical thicknesses utilized in clinical systems for full-field digital mammography (150 {mu}m for indirect CsI:Tl and 200 {mu}m for a-Se direct detectors). The results suggest that the oblique incidence effect in a semiconductor detector differs from that in indirect detectors in two ways: The direct detector model produces a sharper overall PRF compared to the response corresponding to the indirect detector model for normal x-ray incidence and a larger relative increase in blur along the x-ray incidence direction compared to that found in indirect detectors with respect to the response at normal incidence angles. Conclusions: Compared to the effect seen in indirect detectors, the direct detector model exhibits a sharper response at normal x-ray incidence and a larger relative increase in blur along the x-ray incidence direction with respect to the blur in the

  6. Conceptual design of a 1013 -W pulsed-power accelerator for megajoule-class dynamic-material-physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stygar, W. A.; Reisman, D. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Austin, K. N.; Ao, T.; Benage, J. F.; Breden, E. W.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Davis, J.-P.; Ennis, J. B.; Gard, P. D.; Greiser, G. W.; Gruner, F. R.; Haill, T. A.; Hutsel, B. T.; Jones, P. A.; LeChien, K. R.; Leckbee, J. J.; Lewis, S. A.; Lucero, D. J.; McKee, G. R.; Moore, J. K.; Mulville, T. D.; Muron, D. J.; Root, S.; Savage, M. E.; Sceiford, M. E.; Spielman, R. B.; Waisman, E. M.; Wisher, M. L.

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a conceptual design of a next-generation pulsed-power accelerator that is optimized for megajoule-class dynamic-material-physics experiments. Sufficient electrical energy is delivered by the accelerator to a physics load to achieve—within centimeter-scale samples—material pressures as high as 1 TPa. The accelerator design is based on an architecture that is founded on three concepts: single-stage electrical-pulse compression, impedance matching, and transit-time-isolated drive circuits. The prime power source of the accelerator consists of 600 independent impedance-matched Marx generators. Each Marx comprises eight 5.8-GW bricks connected electrically in series, and generates a 100-ns 46-GW electrical-power pulse. A 450-ns-long water-insulated coaxial-transmission-line impedance transformer transports the power generated by each Marx to a system of twelve 2.5-m-radius water-insulated conical transmission lines. The conical lines are connected electrically in parallel at a 66-cm radius by a water-insulated 45-post sextuple-post-hole convolute. The convolute sums the electrical currents at the outputs of the conical lines, and delivers the combined current to a single solid-dielectric-insulated radial transmission line. The radial line in turn transmits the combined current to the load. Since much of the accelerator is water insulated, we refer to it as Neptune. Neptune is 40 m in diameter, stores 4.8 MJ of electrical energy in its Marx capacitors, and generates 28 TW of peak electrical power. Since the Marxes are transit-time isolated from each other for 900 ns, they can be triggered at different times to construct-over an interval as long as 1 μ s -the specific load-current time history required for a given experiment. Neptune delivers 1 MJ and 20 MA in a 380-ns current pulse to an 18 -m Ω load; hence Neptune is a megajoule-class 20-MA arbitrary waveform generator. Neptune will allow the international scientific community to conduct dynamic

  7. Optical Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabbert, Bernd; Goushcha, Alexander

    Optical detectors are applied in all fields of human activities from basic research to commercial applications in communication, automotive, medical imaging, homeland security, and other fields. The processes of light interaction with matter described in other chapters of this handbook form the basis for understanding the optical detectors physics and device properties.

  8. An Experimental High Energy Physics Program: Task D

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, V.E.; Carmony, D.D.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Gutay, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses: The CDF for {bar p}-p Collisions at FNAL; The L3 Detector for e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} Collisions at CERN; The SCD Detector for pp Collisions at the SSCL (calorimeters); The SDC Detector for pp Collisions at the SSCL (muon detector); The CO experiment for {bar p}-p Collisions at FNAL; and Accelerator Physics at Fermilab.

  9. The precise energy spectra measurement of laser-accelerated MeV/n-class high-Z ions and protons using CR-39 detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanasaki, M.; Jinno, S.; Sakaki, H.; Kondo, K.; Oda, K.; Yamauchi, T.; Fukuda, Y.

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis method, using a combination of a permanent magnet and CR-39 track detectors, has been developed to separately measure the energy spectrum of the laser-accelerated MeV/n-class high-Z ions and that of MeV protons. The main role of magnet is separating between high-Z ions and protons, not for the usual energy spectrometer, while ion energy was precisely determined from careful analysis of the etch pit shapes and the etch pit growth behaviors in the CR-39. The method was applied to laser-driven ion acceleration experiments using CO2 clusters embedded in a background H2 gas. Ion energy spectra with uncertainty ΔE  =  0.1 MeV n‑1 for protons and carbon/oxygen ions were simultaneously obtained separately. The maximum energies of carbon/oxygen ions and protons were determined as 1.1  ±  0.1 MeV and 1.6  ±  0.1 MeV n‑1, respectively. The sharp decrease around 1 MeV n‑1 observed in the energy spectrum of carbon/oxygen ions could be due to a trace of the ambipolar hydrodynamic expansion of CO2 clusters. Thanks to the combination of the magnet and the CR-39, the method is robust against electromagnetic pulse (EMP).

  10. Effect of physical training in cool and hot environments on +Gz acceleration tolerance in women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, P. J.; Sciaraffa, D.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Acceleration tolerance, plasma volume, and maximal oxygen uptake were measured in 15 healthy women before and after submaximal isotonic exercise training periods in cool and hot environments. The women were divided on the basis of age, maximal oxygen uptake, and +Gz tolerance into three groups: a group that exercised in heat (40.6 C), a group that exercised at a lower temperature (18.7 C), and a sedentary control group that functioned in the cool environment. There was no significant change in the +Gz tolerance in any group after training, and terminal heart rates were similar within each group. It is concluded that induction of moderate acclimation responses without increases in sweat rate or resting plasma volume has no influence on +Gz acceleration tolerance in women.

  11. Physical characteristics of photon beam from a CLINAC-DBX single energy accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umbarkar, Rahul; Supe, Sanjay; Pandey, Manoy; Ashok, Jayanty

    2011-01-01

    Commissioning beam data are treated as a reference and ultimately used by treatment planning systems, therefore, it is vitally important that the collected data are of the highest quality, in order to avoid dosimetric and patient treatment errors that may subsequently lead to a poor radiation outcome. High-energy photon and electron beams from different accelerators of the same nominal energy may have different dosimetric characteristics due to differences in target and flattening filter materials, accelerator guide and collimator designs. In the present study, clinically pertinent data for the available photon energy were investigated. For making measurements in water, first time in India, a three dimensional radiation field analyzer RFA (CRS- Scan -O-Plan) was used. For absolute dosimetry and other measurements like relative output factors, wedge factors etc., a DOSE1 electrometer (Scanditronix Wellhofer) in a white polystyrene was employed. All the measured data were utilized as an input to the ECLIPSE treatment planning system for further clinical use.

  12. Can Low-Energy Electrons Affect High-Energy Physics Accelerators?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimino, R.; Collins, I. R.; Furman, M. A.; Pivi, M.; Ruggiero, F.; Rumolo, G.; Zimmermann, F.

    2004-06-01

    Present and future accelerators' performances may be limited by the electron cloud (EC) effect. The EC formation and evolution are determined by the wall-surface properties of the accelerator vacuum chamber. We present measurements of the total secondary electron yield (SEY) and the related energy distribution curves of the secondary electrons as a function of incident-electron energy. Particular attention has been paid to the emission process due to very low-energy primary electrons (<20 eV). It is shown that the SEY approaches unity and the reflected electron component is predominant in the limit of zero primary incident electron energy. Motivated by these measurements, we have used state-of-the-art EC simulation codes to predict how these results may impact the production of the electron cloud in the Large Hadron Collider, under construction at CERN, and the related surface heat load.

  13. Plasma physics. Stochastic electron acceleration during spontaneous turbulent reconnection in a strong shock wave.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Y; Amano, T; Kato, T N; Hoshino, M

    2015-02-27

    Explosive phenomena such as supernova remnant shocks and solar flares have demonstrated evidence for the production of relativistic particles. Interest has therefore been renewed in collisionless shock waves and magnetic reconnection as a means to achieve such energies. Although ions can be energized during such phenomena, the relativistic energy of the electrons remains a puzzle for theory. We present supercomputer simulations showing that efficient electron energization can occur during turbulent magnetic reconnection arising from a strong collisionless shock. Upstream electrons undergo first-order Fermi acceleration by colliding with reconnection jets and magnetic islands, giving rise to a nonthermal relativistic population downstream. These results shed new light on magnetic reconnection as an agent of energy dissipation and particle acceleration in strong shock waves. PMID:25722406

  14. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Stygar, W. A.; Awe, T. J.; Bennett, N L; Breden, E. W.; Campbell, E. M.; Clark, R. E.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Ennis, J. B.; Fehl, D. L.; Genoni, T. C.; Gomez, M. R.; Greiser, G. W.; Gruner, F. R.; Herrmann, M. C.; Hutsel, B. T.; Jennings, C. A.; Jobe, D. O.; Jones, B. M.; Jones, M. C.; Jones, P. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Lash, J. S.; LeChien, K. R.; Leckbee, J. J.; Leeper, R. J.; Lewis, S. A.; Long, F. W.; Lucero, D. J.; Madrid, E. A.; Martin, M. R.; Matzen, M. K.; Mazarakis, M. G.; McBride, R. D.; McKee, G. R.; Miller, C. L.; Moore, J. K.; Mostrom, C. B.; Mulville, T. D.; Peterson, K. J.; Porter, J. L.; Reisman, D. B.; Rochau, G. A.; Rochau, G. E.; Rose, D. V.; Savage, M. E.; Sceiford, M. E.; Schmit, P. F.; Schneider, R. F.; Schwarz, J.; Sefkow, A. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Spielman, R. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Thoma, C.; Vesey, R. A.; Wakeland, P. E.; Welch, D. R.; Wisher, M. L.; Woodworth, J. R.; Bailey, J. E.; Rovang, D. C.

    2015-11-30

    Here, we have developed conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators: Z 300 and Z 800. The designs are based on an accelerator architecture that is founded on two concepts: single-stage electrical-pulse compression and impedance matching [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 030401 (2007)]. The prime power source of each machine consists of 90 linear-transformer-driver (LTD) modules. Each module comprises LTD cavities connected electrically in series, each of which is powered by 5-GW LTD bricks connected electrically in parallel. (A brick comprises a single switch and two capacitors in series.) Six water-insulated radial-transmission-line impedance transformers transport the power generated by the modules to a six-level vacuum-insulator stack. The stack serves as the accelerator’s water-vacuum interface. The stack is connected to six conical outer magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs), which are joined in parallel at a 10-cm radius by a triple-post-hole vacuum convolute. The convolute sums the electrical currents at the outputs of the six outer MITLs, and delivers the combined current to a single short inner MITL. The inner MITL transmits the combined current to the accelerator’s physics-package load. Z 300 is 35 m in diameter and stores 48 MJ of electrical energy in its LTD capacitors. The accelerator generates 320 TW of electrical power at the output of the LTD system, and delivers 48 MA in 154 ns to a magnetized-liner inertial-fusion (MagLIF) target [Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF target is 870 TW, which is the highest power throughout the accelerator. Power amplification is accomplished by the centrally located vacuum section, which serves as an intermediate inductive-energy-storage device. The principal goal of Z 300 is to achieve thermonuclear ignition; i.e., a fusion yield that exceeds the energy transmitted by the accelerator to the liner. 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD

  15. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stygar, W. A.; Awe, T. J.; Bennett, N L; Breden, E. W.; Campbell, E. M.; Clark, R. E.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Ennis, J. B.; Fehl, D. L.; et al

    2015-11-30

    Here, we have developed conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators: Z 300 and Z 800. The designs are based on an accelerator architecture that is founded on two concepts: single-stage electrical-pulse compression and impedance matching [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 030401 (2007)]. The prime power source of each machine consists of 90 linear-transformer-driver (LTD) modules. Each module comprises LTD cavities connected electrically in series, each of which is powered by 5-GW LTD bricks connected electrically in parallel. (A brick comprises a single switch and two capacitors in series.) Six water-insulated radial-transmission-line impedance transformers transport the power generated bymore » the modules to a six-level vacuum-insulator stack. The stack serves as the accelerator’s water-vacuum interface. The stack is connected to six conical outer magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs), which are joined in parallel at a 10-cm radius by a triple-post-hole vacuum convolute. The convolute sums the electrical currents at the outputs of the six outer MITLs, and delivers the combined current to a single short inner MITL. The inner MITL transmits the combined current to the accelerator’s physics-package load. Z 300 is 35 m in diameter and stores 48 MJ of electrical energy in its LTD capacitors. The accelerator generates 320 TW of electrical power at the output of the LTD system, and delivers 48 MA in 154 ns to a magnetized-liner inertial-fusion (MagLIF) target [Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF target is 870 TW, which is the highest power throughout the accelerator. Power amplification is accomplished by the centrally located vacuum section, which serves as an intermediate inductive-energy-storage device. The principal goal of Z 300 is to achieve thermonuclear ignition; i.e., a fusion yield that exceeds the energy transmitted by the accelerator to the liner. 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD

  16. Web-based, GPU-accelerated, Monte Carlo simulation and visualization of indirect radiation imaging detector performance

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Han; Sharma, Diksha; Badano, Aldo

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: Monte Carlo simulations play a vital role in the understanding of the fundamental limitations, design, and optimization of existing and emerging medical imaging systems. Efforts in this area have resulted in the development of a wide variety of open-source software packages. One such package, hybridMANTIS, uses a novel hybrid concept to model indirect scintillator detectors by balancing the computational load using dual CPU and graphics processing unit (GPU) processors, obtaining computational efficiency with reasonable accuracy. In this work, the authors describe two open-source visualization interfaces, webMANTIS and visualMANTIS to facilitate the setup of computational experiments via hybridMANTIS. Methods: The visualization tools visualMANTIS and webMANTIS enable the user to control simulation properties through a user interface. In the case of webMANTIS, control via a web browser allows access through mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets. webMANTIS acts as a server back-end and communicates with an NVIDIA GPU computing cluster that can support multiuser environments where users can execute different experiments in parallel. Results: The output consists of point response and pulse-height spectrum, and optical transport statistics generated by hybridMANTIS. The users can download the output images and statistics through a zip file for future reference. In addition, webMANTIS provides a visualization window that displays a few selected optical photon path as they get transported through the detector columns and allows the user to trace the history of the optical photons. Conclusions: The visualization tools visualMANTIS and webMANTIS provide features such as on the fly generation of pulse-height spectra and response functions for microcolumnar x-ray imagers while allowing users to save simulation parameters and results from prior experiments. The graphical interfaces simplify the simulation setup and allow the user to go directly from specifying

  17. Hadron Physics at the Charm and Bottom Thresholds and Other Novel QCD Physics Topics at the NICA Accelerator Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2012-06-20

    The NICA collider project at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna will have the capability of colliding protons, polarized deuterons, and nuclei at an effective nucleon-nucleon center-of mass energy in the range {radical}s{sub NN} = 4 to 11 GeV. I briefly survey a number of novel hadron physics processes which can be investigated at the NICA collider. The topics include the formation of exotic heavy quark resonances near the charm and bottom thresholds, intrinsic strangeness, charm, and bottom phenomena, hidden-color degrees of freedom in nuclei, color transparency, single-spin asymmetries, the RHIC baryon anomaly, and non-universal antishadowing.

  18. The status of detectors at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanski, R.

    1990-09-01

    The announcement of the location of the SSC at the site near Waxahachie, Texas was made in January, 1989. Since then a great many important steps have been taken toward the start of the new Laboratory. Some 900 people have been brought to the site as the starting nucleus of the staff that will ultimate number about 2200. A design baseline has been completed that includes a conceptual design for the accelerator, and the detectors. Also, the process has begun to determine the configuration of detectors that will be built for the SSC. This process has several steps, and now the first of these has been taken: The detector collaborations have submitted the Expression of Interest to the Laboratory. These were reviewed by Laboratory management and the Physics Advisory Committee in July, 1990 and recommendations were made to the collaborations. Decisions were deferred for all of the detectors. But perhaps the most significant recommendation was the request to reduce the size and cost of the general purpose detectors. The detector collaborations are now reviewing their initial designs to prepare for the Letters of Intent, the next step in the detector planning process. This is clearly a difficult and crucial step in that the redesign of the detectors must be done with minimal reduction in detector quality. It is an interesting time in the development of the new laboratory, and a crucial time for the ultimate physics that will be done at the SSC.

  19. Unconventional XAS applications in Physical Science using Pixel Array X-ray Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyanagi, Hiroyuki

    2007-03-01

    Fluorescence x-ray yield is a conventional technique which increases sensitivity of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Combining high brilliance x-ray sources and state-of-the-art pixel array detector (PAD) opened up unconventional application channels in condensed matter science. PAD is a segmented detector fabricated onto a mono domain single crystal by lithography. Our Ge PAD consists of 10×10 segments with almost 100% packing ratio. The local structure of photo-induced phase transition of Fe(II) spin-crossover complex under visible light irradiation was studied. We find that the coordination symmetry is retained upon the diamagnetic (S=0)↔paramagnetic (S=2) transformation. In the application to high-temperature superconducting (La,Sr)2CuO4 thin film single crystals, the EXAFS results show that the local structure (CuO6 octahedron) is tetragonally deformed in accordance with the epitaxial strain. High-quality data without the effect of substrates were obtained by real-time monitoring segmented fluorescence signals.

  20. Forward and central preshower detectors for the D0 upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    D0 collaboration

    1998-11-01

    Within the upgraded D0 detector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, forward and central preshower detectors will be used for fast level 1 triggering of electrons. These detectors consist of approximately 25000 channels of extruded scintillator strips with embedded wave length shifter fiber readout. Readout is via clear fiber lightguide to Visible Light Photon Counters. An overview of each system will be presented. Results of prototype detectors to cosmic rays will be presented. Scintillator/fiber manufacture and assembly will be discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design, an effective modern software development method for development of computing systems for a large physics detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlowski, T.; Carey, T.A.; Maguire, C.F.

    1995-10-01

    After evaluation of several modern object-oriented methods for development of the computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC, we selected the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented Analysis and Recursive Design method as the most appropriate for the needs and development environment of a large nuclear or high energy physics detector. This paper discusses our specific needs and environment, our method selection criteria, and major features and components of the Shlaer-Mellor method.

  2. Development of the Physical Structure of a Multi-Channel GNSS Signal Detector for Autonomous Coordination and Time Support of Artificial Earth Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkol'nyi, V. N.; Suntsov, S. B.; Karaban, V. M.; Dmitriev, V. D.; Sheerman, F. I.

    2015-11-01

    Physical structure of a multi-channel detector of signals of global navigation satellite systems for autonomous coordination and time support of spacecrafts independent from the terrestrial infrastructure is analyzed. The parameters of multi-channel detector components are determined by mathematical modeling to achieve worldclass tactical and technical specifications. Technologies based on domestic 0.15 μm GaAs pHEMT (Closed JSC "Mikran," Tomsk) and 0.18 μm SiGe BiCMOS (JSC Research Institute of Molecular Electronics and "Mikron" Plant, Zelenograd) are taken for subsequent practical implementation in monolithic chip components of a navigation detector.

  3. Dosimetric Characteristics of 6 MV Modified Beams by Physical Wedges of a Siemens Linear Accelerator.

    PubMed

    Zabihzadeh, Mansour; Birgani, Mohammad Javad Tahmasebi; Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi, Mojtaba; Arvandi, Sholeh; Hoseini, Seyed Mohammad; Fadaei, Mahbube

    2016-01-01

    Physical wedges still can be used as missing tissue compensators or filters to alter the shape of isodose curves in a target volume to reach an optimal radiotherapy plan without creating a hotspot. The aim of this study was to investigate the dosimetric properties of physical wedges filters such as off-axis photon fluence, photon spectrum, output factor and half value layer. The photon beam quality of a 6 MV Primus Siemens modified by 150 and 450 physical wedges was studied with BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) code. The calculated present depth dose and dose profile curves for open and wedged photon beam were in good agreement with the measurements. Increase of wedge angle increased the beam hardening and this effect was more pronounced at the heal region. Using such an accurate MC model to determine of wedge factors and implementation of it as a calculation algorithm in the future treatment planning systems is recommended. PMID:27221838

  4. Introduction to high-energy physics and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Clearwater, S.

    1983-03-01

    The type of research done at SLAC is called High Energy Physics, or Particle Physics. This is basic research in the study of fundamental particles and their interactions. Basic research is research for the sake of learning something. Any practical application cannot be predicted, the understanding is the end in itself. Interactions are how particles behave toward one another, for example some particles attract one another while others repel and still others ignore each other. Interactions of elementary particles are studied to reveal the underlying structure of the universe.

  5. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay with CUORE-0: Physics Results and Detector Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canonica, L.

    2016-08-01

    The CUORE-0 experiment searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in ^{130}Te. It consists of an array of 52 tellurium dioxide crystals, operated as bolometers at a temperature of 10 mK, with a total mass of about 39 kg of TeO_2. CUORE-0 has been built to test the performance of the upcoming CUORE experiment and represents the largest ^{130}Te bolometric setup currently in operation. This experiment has been running in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy, since March 2013. We report the results of a search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 9.8 kg years ^{130}Te exposure, which allowed us to set the most stringent limit to date on this half-life. The performance of the detector in terms of background rate and energy resolution are also reported.

  6. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay with CUORE-0: Physics Results and Detector Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canonica, L.

    2016-01-01

    The CUORE-0 experiment searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in ^{130} Te. It consists of an array of 52 tellurium dioxide crystals, operated as bolometers at a temperature of 10 mK, with a total mass of about 39 kg of TeO_2 . CUORE-0 has been built to test the performance of the upcoming CUORE experiment and represents the largest ^{130} Te bolometric setup currently in operation. This experiment has been running in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy, since March 2013. We report the results of a search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 9.8 kg years ^{130} Te exposure, which allowed us to set the most stringent limit to date on this half-life. The performance of the detector in terms of background rate and energy resolution are also reported.

  7. Black hole physics. Black hole lightning due to particle acceleration at subhorizon scales.

    PubMed

    Aleksić, J; Ansoldi, S; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; Barrio, J A; Becerra González, J; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biasuzzi, B; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; de Oña Wilhelmi, E; Delgado Mendez, C; Dominis Prester, D; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; Galindo, D; García López, R J; Garczarczyk, M; Garrido Terrats, D; Gaug, M; Godinović, N; González Muñoz, A; Gozzini, S R; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Persic, M; Poutanen, J; Prada Moroni, P G; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rodriguez Garcia, J; Rügamer, S; Saito, T; Saito, K; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Strzys, M; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Zanin, R; Kadler, M; Schulz, R; Ros, E; Bach, U; Krauß, F; Wilms, J

    2014-11-28

    Supermassive black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses are commonly found in the centers of galaxies. Astronomers seek to image jet formation using radio interferometry but still suffer from insufficient angular resolution. An alternative method to resolve small structures is to measure the time variability of their emission. Here we report on gamma-ray observations of the radio galaxy IC 310 obtained with the MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov) telescopes, revealing variability with doubling time scales faster than 4.8 min. Causality constrains the size of the emission region to be smaller than 20% of the gravitational radius of its central black hole. We suggest that the emission is associated with pulsar-like particle acceleration by the electric field across a magnetospheric gap at the base of the radio jet. PMID:25378461

  8. Accelerated Integrated Science Sequence (AISS): An Introductory Biology, Chemistry, and Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis-Roberts, Kathleen L.; Edwalds-Gilbert, Gretchen; Landsberg, Adam S.; Copp, Newton; Ulsh, Lisa; Drew, David E.

    2009-01-01

    A new interdisciplinary, introductory science course was offered for the first time during the 2007-2008 school year. The purpose of the course is to introduce students to the idea of working at the intersections of biology, chemistry, and physics and to recognize interconnections between the disciplines. Interdisciplinary laboratories are a key…

  9. Reactor physics studies for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Reactor-Accelerator Coupling Experiments (RACE) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankovskiy, Evgeny Yuryevich

    In the recently completed RACE Project of the AFCI, accelerator-driven subcritical systems (ADS) experiments were conducted to develop technology of coupling accelerators to nuclear reactors. In these experiments electron accelerators induced photon-neutron reactions in heavy-metal targets to initiate fission reactions in ADS. Although the Idaho State University (ISU) RACE ADS was constructed only to develop measurement techniques for advanced experiments, many reactor kinetics experiments were conducted there. In the research reported in this dissertation, a method was developed to calculate kinetics parameters for measurement and calculation of the reactivity of ADS, a safety parameter that is necessary for control and monitoring of power production. Reactivity is measured in units of fraction of delayed versus prompt neutron from fission, a quantity that cannot be directly measured in far-subcritical reactors such as the ISU RACE configuration. A new technique is reported herein to calculate it accurately and to predict kinetic behavior of a far-subcritical ADS. Experiments conducted at ISU are first described and experimental data are presented before development of the kinetic theory used in the new computational method. Because of the complexity of the ISU ADS, the Monte-Carlo method as applied in the MCNP code is most suitable for modeling reactor kinetics. However, the standard method of calculating the delayed neutron fraction produces inaccurate values. A new method was developed and used herein to evaluate actual experiments. An advantage of this method is that its efficiency is independent of the fission yield of delayed neutrons, which makes it suitable for fuel with a minor actinide component (e.g. transmutation fuels). The implementation of this method is based on a correlated sampling technique which allows the accurate evaluation of delayed and prompt neutrons. The validity of the obtained results is indicated by good agreement between experimental

  10. Particle Detectors Subatomic Bomb Squad

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-29

    The manner in which particle physicists investigate collisions in particle accelerators is a puzzling process. Using vaguely-defined “detectors,” scientists are able to somehow reconstruct the collisions and convert that information into physics measurements. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln sheds light on this mysterious technique. In a surprising analogy, he draws a parallel between experimental particle physics and bomb squad investigators and uses an explosive example to illustrate his points. Be sure to watch this video… it’s totally the bomb.

  11. Theory of elementary particles and accelerator theory: Task C: Experimental high energy physics. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Brau, J.E.

    1992-12-31

    The experimental high energy physics group at the University of Oregon broadened its effort during the past year. The SLD effort extends from maintaining and operating the SLD luminosity monitor which was built at Oregon, to significant responsibility in physics analysis, such as event selection and background analysis for the left-right asymmetry measurement. The OPAL work focussed on the luminosity monitor upgrade to a silicon-tungsten calorimeter. Building on the work done at Oregon for SLD, the tungsten for this upgrade was machined by the Oregon shops and shipped to CERN for assembly. The Oregon GEM effort now concentrates on tracking, specifically silicon tracking. Oregon also has developed a silicon strip preradiator prototype, and tested it in a Brookhaven beam.

  12. Theory of elementary particles and accelerator theory: Task C: Experimental high energy physics. [Univ. of Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Brau, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental high energy physics group at the University of Oregon broadened its effort during the past year. The SLD effort extends from maintaining and operating the SLD luminosity monitor which was built at Oregon, to significant responsibility in physics analysis, such as event selection and background analysis for the left-right asymmetry measurement. The OPAL work focussed on the luminosity monitor upgrade to a silicon-tungsten calorimeter. Building on the work done at Oregon for SLD, the tungsten for this upgrade was machined by the Oregon shops and shipped to CERN for assembly. The Oregon GEM effort now concentrates on tracking, specifically silicon tracking. Oregon also has developed a silicon strip preradiator prototype, and tested it in a Brookhaven beam.

  13. Neutronic and Physical Characteristics of an Accelerator Driven System with a Lead-208 Coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Khorasanov, Georgy L.; Ivonov, Anatoly P.; Blokhin, Anatoly I.

    2006-07-01

    In the paper a possibility of using a lead isotope, pure Pb-208, as a coolant for a subcritical core of 80 MW thermal capacity of the PDS-XADS type facility is considered. Calculations of neutronic characteristics were performed using Monte Carlo technique. The following initial data were chosen: an annular core with a target, as a neutron source, at its centre; the core coolant -- Pb-208 (100%); a fuel -- a mix of mono nitrides of depleted uranium and power plutonium with a small share of neptunium and americium; the target coolant -- a modified lead and bismuth eutectic, Pb-208(80%)-Bi(20%); proton beam energy -- 600 MeV; effective multiplication factor of the core under operation -- K{sub eff} = 0.97; thermal capacity of the core -- N = 80 MW. From calculations performed it follows that in using Pb-208 as the core coolant the necessary intensity of the external source of neutrons to deliver 80 MW thermal capacity is equal to S = 2.29-10{sup 17} n/s that corresponds to proton beam current I{sub p} = 2.8 mA and beam capacity P{sub p} 1.68 MW. In using natural lead instead of Pb-208 as the core coolant, effective multiplication factor of the core in normal operating regime falls down to the value equal to K{sub eff} = 0.95. In these conditions multiplication of external neutrons in the core and thermal capacity of the subcritical core are below nominal by 1.55 times. For achievement the rated core power N=80 MW it is required on {approx}20-30% to increase the fuel loading and volume of the core, or by 1.55 times to increase intensity of the external source of neutrons. In the last case, the required parameters of the neutron source and of the corresponding proton beam are following: intensity of the neutron source S = 3.55 10{sup 17} n/s., beam current I{sub p} = 4.32 mA, beam capacity P{sub p} 2.59 MW. To exploit the accelerator with the reduced proton beam current it will be required about 56 tons of Pb-208, as a minimum, for the core coolant. Charges for its

  14. Progress on plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.

    1986-05-01

    Several plasma accelerator concepts are reviewed, with emphasis on the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator (PBWA) and the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator (PWFA). Various accelerator physics issues regarding these schemes are discussed, and numerical examples on laboratory scale experiments are given. The efficiency of plasma accelerators is then revealed with suggestions on improvements. Sources that cause emittance growth are discussed briefly.

  15. Particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1994-05-01

    This report discusses the following topics: The standard model -- synthesis and overview; accelerators and other facilities; mapping the SM constituents onto the detectors; a model pp/{bar p}p collider detector; and other experimental techniques.

  16. Accelerating Translation of Physical Activity and Cancer Survivorship Research into Practice: Recommendations for a More Integrated and Collaborative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Siobhan M.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Perna, Frank M.; Glasgow, Russell E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has been deemed safe and effective in reducing many negative side effects of treatment for cancer survivors and promoting better overall health. However, most of this research has focused on highly controlled randomized trials and little of this research has been translated into care or policy for survivors. The purpose of the present paper is to present a research agenda for the field to accelerate the dissemination and implementation of empirically-supported physical activity interventions into care. We provide rationale for the role of basic, behavioral, clinical implementation and population scientists in moving this science forward and call for a more coordinated effort across different phases of research. In addition, we provide key strategies and examples for ongoing and future studies using the RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy/Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance) framework and pose recommendations for collaborations between researchers and stakeholders to enhance the integration of this research into policy and practice. Overall, we recommend that physical activity and cancer survivorship research employ additional study designs, include relevant stakeholders and be more collaborative, integrated, contextual, and representative in terms of both setting and participants. PMID:24599577

  17. Prospects of heavy quark physics in run II with the D-Zero detector

    SciTech Connect

    Gounder, K.

    1998-09-01

    After a successful Run I, D0 is poised for an encore performance in Run II. This article summarizes the essential features of the D0 upgrade that involve a central magnetic field, a new tracking system, upgraded muon detection, and enhancements to muon, calorimeter and the data acquisition electronics. The goals for top quark physics for Run II are outlined along with issues affecting the precision measurement of top quark mass and single top quark production. The prospects and issues determining the B physics capabilities of D0 in Run II are addressed briefly and a study of the CP sensitivity in the mode B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}K{sub s}{sup 0} is also presented.

  18. Determination of acetanilide herbicides in cereal crops using accelerated solvent extraction, solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-electron capture detector.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaping; Yang, Jun; Shi, Ronghua; Su, Qingde; Yao, Li; Li, Panpan

    2011-07-01

    A method was developed to determine eight acetanilide herbicides from cereal crops based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) analysis. During the ASE process, the effect of four parameters (temperature, static time, static cycles and solvent) on the extraction efficiency was considered and compared with shake-flask extraction method. After extraction with ASE, four SPE tubes (graphitic carbon black/primary secondary amine (GCB/PSA), GCB, Florisil and alumina-N) were assayed for comparison to obtain the best clean-up efficiency. The results show that GCB/PSA cartridge gave the best recoveries and cleanest chromatograms. The analytical process was validated by the analysis of spiked blank samples. Performance characteristics such as linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), precision and recovery were studied. At 0.05 mg/kg spiked level, recoveries and precision values for rice, wheat and maize were 82.3-115.8 and 1.1-13.6%, respectively. For all the herbicides, LOD and LOQ ranged from 0.8 to 1.7 μg/kg and from 2.4 to 5.3 μg/kg, respectively. The proposed analytical methodology was applied for the analysis of the targets in samples; only three herbicides, propyzamid, metolachlor and diflufenican, were detected in two samples. PMID:21656677

  19. The Type Ia Supernova Pipeline for the Javalambre Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey (J-PAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siffert, B. B.; Reis, R. R. R.; Calvão, M. O.

    2014-10-01

    The Javalambre Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey (J-PAS) is an astronomical facility being built in Sierra de Javalambre, Spain. The main goal is to study the expansion of the Universe through different cosmological observables such as baryonic acoustic oscillations, type Ia supernovae and galaxy clusters. The main instrument will be a 2.5 m telescope equipped with a system of 56 narrow band filters in the optical. Here we present a sketch of the pipeline we are developing to detect type Ia supernovae with J-PAS. First we describe each individual step of the pipeline, such as image subtraction and source selection. Then we show some results we obtained when applying our pipeline to images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the ALHAMBRA survey, which had a set of narrow band filters similar to the ones that will be used by J-PAS.

  20. THE RHIC INJECTOR ACCELERATORS CONFIGURATIONS, AND PERFORMANCE FOR THE RHIC 2003 AU - D PHYSICS RUN.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, L; Benjamin, J; Blaskiewicz, M; Brennan, J M; Brown, K A; Carlson, K A; Delong, J; D' Ottavio, T; Frak, B; Gardner, C J; Glenn, J W; Harvey, M; Hayes, T; Hseuh, H- C; Ingrassia, P; Lowenstein, D; Mackay, W; Marr, G; Morris, J; Roser, T; Satogata, T; Smith, G; Smith, K S; Steski, D; Tsoupas, N; Thieberger, P; Zeno, K

    2003-05-12

    The RHIC 2003 Physics Run [1] required collisions between gold ions and deuterons. The injector necessarily had to deliver adequate quality (transverse and longitudinal emittance) and quantity of both species. For gold this was a continuing evolution from past work [2]. For deuterons it was new territory. For the filling of the RHIC the injector not only had to deliver quality beams but also had to switch between these species quickly. This paper details the collider requirements and our success in meeting these. Some details of the configurations employed are given.

  1. Vacuum photodiode detectors for broadband vacuum ultraviolet detection in the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, C. V. S.; Shankara Joisa, Y.; Hansalia, C. J.; Hui, Amit K.; Paul, Ratan; Ranjan, Prabhat

    1997-02-01

    We report on the application of the vacuum photodiode to detect vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation emitted from the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP) Tokamak. It is simple to fabricate and provides broadband spectral response in the VUV and ultrasoft x ray (10 eV-1 keV). In our design, a stainless steel photocathode is used, which has a response identical to tungsten in the wavelength range 100-1200 Å. Its surface is passivated, to minimize contamination and monolayer deposition, by electropolishing it. Some representative experimental results illustrating the range of applicability are presented with special emphasis on its performance in disruptive shots.

  2. Physical distribution of Ni, Pb and Zn in reclaimed mine soils observed by FE-SEM with an EDS detector.

    PubMed

    Asensio, V; Covelo, E F

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to physically demonstrate the associations between Ni, Pb and Zn and the different soil components. To achieve this, several soil samples were observed by field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) detector. The samples came from mine sites vegetated and/or amended with wastes (sewage sludges and paper mill residues). The concentrations of metals in the different soil fractions were quantified by a chemical sequential extraction in a previous study. The sorption capacity of the soils was evaluated with sorption experiments using the batch method. We corroborated the results obtained by the sequential extraction of metals as well as the sorption experiments with the observations from the FE-SEM with the EDS. We physically observed the associations between Ni, Pb and Zn and oxides, organic matter and clays. We also observed PbCaCO3 crystals in one of the soils, presumably formed during the sorption experiment. As it is not possible to know with complete certainty how Pb was retained by calcium in this soil by only using chemical methods, the use of microscopic techniques is crucial to ascertain how metals are associated with the different soil fractions. PMID:25940484

  3. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1994-01-01

    New calculations of the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone have been performed. The treatment of convective turbulence in the sun and solar-like stars, in particular, the precise nature of the turbulent power spectrum has been recognized as one of the most important issues in the wave generation problem. Several different functional forms for spatial and temporal spectra have been considered in the literature and differences between the energy fluxes obtained for different forms often exceed two orders of magnitude. The basic criterion for choosing the appropriate spectrum was the maximal efficiency of the wave generation. We have used a different approach based on physical and empirical arguments as well as on some results from numerical simulation of turbulent convection.

  4. Physical and mechanical metallurgy of high purity Nb for accelerator cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Bieler, T. R.; Wright, N. T.; Pourboghrat, F.; Compton, C.; Hartwig, K. T.; Baars, D.; Zamiri, A.; Chandrasekaran, S.; Darbandi, P.; Jiang, H.; Skoug, E.; Balachandran, S.; Ice, Gene E; Liu, W.

    2010-01-01

    In the past decade, high Q values have been achieved in high purity Nb superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Fundamental understanding of the physical metallurgy of Nb that enables these achievements is beginning to reveal what challenges remain to establish reproducible and cost-effective production of high performance SRF cavities. Recent studies of dislocation substructure development and effects of recrystallization arising from welding and heat treatments and their correlations with cavity performance are considered. With better fundamental understanding of the effects of dislocation substructure evolution and recrystallization on electron and phonon conduction, as well as the interior and surface states, it will be possible to design optimal processing paths for cost-effective performance using approaches such as hydroforming, which minimizes or eliminates welds in a cavity.

  5. High energy physics division semiannual report of research activities

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Moonier, P.; Talaga, R.; Wagner, R. )

    1991-08-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of January 1, 1991--June 30, 1991. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  6. Physics potential of neutrino oscillation experiment with a far detector in Oki Island along the T2K baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Kaoru; Kiwanami, Takayuki; Okamura, Naotoshi; Senda, Ken-ichi

    2013-06-01

    Oki Island is located between Japan and Korea along the Tokai-To-Kamioka (T2K) baseline. The distance from J-PARC to Oki Island is about 653km, which is twice that of the T2K experiment ( L = 295km). When the off-axis angle of the neutrino beam from J-PARC is 3 .0° (2 .0°) at Super-Kamiokande (SK), the off-axis beam (OAB) with 1 .4° (0 .6°) reaches at Oki Island. We examine physics case of placing a far detector in Oki Island during the T2K experimental period. We estimate the matter density profile along the Tokai-to-Oki baseline by using recent seismological measurements. For a detector of 100 kton fiducial volume and 2 .5 × 1021 POT (protons on target) exposure for both ν μ and {{overline{ν}}_{μ }} beams, we find that the mass hierarchy pattern can be distinguished at 3 σ level if sin2 2 θ RCT ≡ 4| U e3|2(1 - | U e3 |2) ≳ 0 .09, by observing the electron-like CCQE (Charged-Current Quasi Elastic) events. The CP phase in the Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata lepton flavor mixing matrix, δ MNS, can be constrained with ±20°. As a reference, we repeat the same analysis by placing the same detector in Korea at L = 1000 km and OAB=0 .5° (T2KK) and also by placing it at the SK site (T2K122). The Tokai-to-Kamioka-OKI (T2KO) sensitivity to the mass hierarchy is about 1 /3 (in \\varDelta χ_{min}^2 ) of T2KK, while the sensitivity to the phase δ MNS is similar between T2KO and T2KK. The T2K122 option has almost no sensitivity to the mass hierarchy, and cannot measure the CP phase except when δ MNS -90° (90°) for the normal (inverted) hierarchy.

  7. Multi-processor developments in the United States for future high energy physics experiments and accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, I.

    1988-03-01

    The use of multi-processors for analysis and high-level triggering in High Energy Physics experiments, pioneered by the early emulator systems, has reached maturity, in particular with the multiple microprocessor systems in use at Fermilab. It is widely acknowledged that such systems will fulfill the major portion of the computing needs of future large experiments. Recent developments at Fermilab's Advanced Computer Program will make such systems even more powerful, cost-effective, and easier to use than they are at present. The next generation of microprocessors, already available, will provide CPU power of about one VAX 780 equivalent/$300, while supporting most VMS FORTRAN extensions and large (>8MB) amounts of memory. Low cost high density mass storage devices (based on video tape cartridge technology) will allow parallel I/O to remove potential I/O bottlenecks in systems of over 1000 VAX equipment processors. New interconnection schemes and system software will allow more flexible topologies and extremely high data bandwidth, especially for on-line systems. This talk will summarize the work at the Advanced Computer Program and the rest of the US in this field. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Hybrid parallel code acceleration methods in full-core reactor physics calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Courau, T.; Plagne, L.; Ponicot, A.; Sjoden, G.

    2012-07-01

    When dealing with nuclear reactor calculation schemes, the need for three dimensional (3D) transport-based reference solutions is essential for both validation and optimization purposes. Considering a benchmark problem, this work investigates the potential of discrete ordinates (Sn) transport methods applied to 3D pressurized water reactor (PWR) full-core calculations. First, the benchmark problem is described. It involves a pin-by-pin description of a 3D PWR first core, and uses a 8-group cross-section library prepared with the DRAGON cell code. Then, a convergence analysis is performed using the PENTRAN parallel Sn Cartesian code. It discusses the spatial refinement and the associated angular quadrature required to properly describe the problem physics. It also shows that initializing the Sn solution with the EDF SPN solver COCAGNE reduces the number of iterations required to converge by nearly a factor of 6. Using a best estimate model, PENTRAN results are then compared to multigroup Monte Carlo results obtained with the MCNP5 code. Good consistency is observed between the two methods (Sn and Monte Carlo), with discrepancies that are less than 25 pcm for the k{sub eff}, and less than 2.1% and 1.6% for the flux at the pin-cell level and for the pin-power distribution, respectively. (authors)

  9. J-PAS: The Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerated Universe Astrophysical Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benítez, N.; Dupke, R.; Moles, M.; Sodré, L.; Cenarro, A. J.; Marín Franch, A.; Taylor, K.; Cristóbal, D.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Cepa-Nogué, J.; Abramo, L. R.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Overzier, R.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Alfaro, E. J.; Kanaan, A.; Carvano, M.; Reis, R. R. R.; J-PAS Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    J-PAS is a Spanish-Brazilian 8500 deg^2 Cosmological Survey which will be carried out from the Javalambre Observatory with a purpose-built, dedicated 2.5 m telescope and a 4.7 deg^2 camera with 1.2 Gpix. Starting in 2015, J-PAS will use 59 filters to measure high precision 0.003(1+z) photometric redshifts for 90M galaxies plus several million QSOs, about 50 times more than the largest current spectroscopic survey, sampling an effective volume of ˜ 14 Gpc^3 up to z=1.3. J-PAS will not only be first radial BAO experiment to reach Stage IV; it will also detect and measure the mass of 7× 10^5 galaxy clusters and groups, setting constrains on Dark Energy which rival those obtained from BAO measurements. The combination of a set of 145 Å NB filters, placed 100 Å apart, and a multi-degree field of view is a powerful ``redshift machine'', equivalent to a 4000 multiplexing spectrograph, but many times cheaper to build. The J-PAS camera is equivalent to a very large, 4.7 deg^2 ``IFU'', which will produce a time-resolved, 3D image of the Northern Sky with a very wide range of scientific applications in Galaxy Evolution, Stellar Physics and the Solar System.

  10. An Experimental High Energy Physics Program: Task D. Progress report, period ending 15 May 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, V.E.; Carmony, D.D.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Gutay, L.J.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses: The CDF for {bar p}-p Collisions at FNAL; The L3 Detector for e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} Collisions at CERN; The SCD Detector for pp Collisions at the SSCL (calorimeters); The SDC Detector for pp Collisions at the SSCL (muon detector); The CO experiment for {bar p}-p Collisions at FNAL; and Accelerator Physics at Fermilab.

  11. Canted-Cosine-Theta Superconducting Accelerator Magnets for High Energy Physics and Ion Beam Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, Lucas Nathan

    Advances in superconducting magnet technology have historically enabled the construction of new, higher energy hadron colliders. Looking forward to the needs of a potential future collider, a significant increase in magnet field and performance is required. Such a task requires an open mind to the investigation of new design concepts for high field magnets. Part I of this thesis will present an investigation of the Canted-Cosine-Theta (CCT) design for high field Nb3Sn magnets. New analytic and finite element methods for analysis of CCT magnets will be given, along with a discussion on optimization of the design for high field. The design, fabrication, and successful test of the 2.5 T NbTi dipole CCT1 will be presented as a proof-of-principle step towards a high field Nb3Sn magnet. Finally, the design and initial steps in the fabrication of the 16 T Nb3Sn dipole CCT2 will be described. Part II of this thesis will investigate the CCT concept extended to a curved magnet for use in an ion beam therapy gantry. The introduction of superconducting technology in this field shows promise to reduce the weight and cost of gantries, as well as open the door to new beam optics solutions with high energy acceptance. An analytic approach developed for modeling curved CCT magnets will be presented, followed by a design study of a superconducting magnet for a proton therapy gantry. Finally, a new magnet concept called the "Alternating Gradient CCT" (AG-CCT) will be introduced. This concept will be shown to be a practical magnet solution for achieving the alternating quadrupole fields desired for an achromatic gantry, allowing for the consideration of treatment with minimal field changes in the superconducting magnets. The primary motivation of this thesis is to share new developments for Canted-Cosine-Theta superconducting magnets, with the hope this design will improve technology for high energy physics and ion beam cancer therapy.

  12. Is age-related decline in lean mass and physical function accelerated by Obstructive Lung Disease or smoking?

    PubMed Central

    van den Borst, Bram; Koster, Annemarie; Yu, Binbing; Gosker, Harry R.; Meibohm, Bernd; Bauer, Douglas C.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Liu, Yongmei; Newman, Anne B.; Harris, Tamara B.; Schols, Annemie M.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Cross-sectional studies suggest that Obstructive Lung Disease (OLD) and smoking affect lean mass and mobility. We aimed to investigate whether OLD and smoking accelerate aging-related decline in lean mass and physical functioning. Methods 260 persons with OLD (FEV1 63±18 %predicted), 157 smoking controls (FEV1 95±16 %predicted), 866 formerly smoking controls (FEV1 100±16 %predicted) and 891 never-smoking controls (FEV1 104±17 %predicted) participating in the Health, Aging and Body Composition (ABC) Study were studied. At baseline, the mean age was 74±3 y and participants reported no functional limitations. Baseline and seven-year longitudinal data were investigated of body composition (by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), muscle strength (by hand and leg dynamometry) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Results Compared to never-smoking controls, OLD persons and smoking controls had a significantly lower weight, fat mass, lean mass and bone mineral content (BMC) at baseline (p<0.05). While the loss of weight, fat mass, lean mass and strength was comparable between OLD persons and never-smoking controls, the SPPB declined 0.12 points/yr faster in OLD men (p=0.01) and BMC 4 g/yr faster in OLD women (p=0.02). In smoking controls, only lean mass declined 0.1 kg/yr faster in women (p=0.03) and BMC 8 g/yr faster in men (p=0.02) compared to never-smoking controls. Conclusions Initially well-functioning older adults with mild-to-moderate OLD and smokers without OLD have a comparable compromised baseline profile of body composition and physical functioning, while seven-year longitudinal trajectories are to a large extent comparable to those observed in never-smokers without OLD. This suggests a common insult earlier in life related to smoking. 3 PMID:21724748

  13. A Portable Classroom Cosmic Ray Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matis, Howard

    2012-03-01

    Normally, one has to work at an accelerator to demonstrate the principles of particle physics. We have developed a portable cosmic ray detector, the Berkeley Lab Detector, that can bring high energy physics experimentation into the classroom. The detector, which is powered by either batteries or AC power, consists of two scintillator paddles with a printed circuit board. The printed circuit board takes the analog signals from the paddles, compares them, and determines whether the pulses arrived at the same time. It has a visual display and a computer output. The output is compatible with commonly found probes in high schools and colleges. A bright high school student can assemble it. Teachers and students have used a working detector on six of the world's continents. These activities have included cross country trips, science projects, and classroom demonstrations. A complete description can be found at the web site: cosmic.lbl.gov. Besides, basic particle physics, the detector can be used to teach statistics and also to provide an opportunity where students have to determine how much data are taken. In this presentation, we will demonstrate the detector and describe some of the projects that teachers and students have completed with it.

  14. Invited review article: physics and Monte Carlo techniques as relevant to cryogenic, phonon, and ionization readout of Cryogenic Dark Matter Search radiation detectors.

    PubMed

    Leman, Steven W

    2012-09-01

    This review discusses detector physics and Monte Carlo techniques for cryogenic, radiation detectors that utilize combined phonon and ionization readout. A general review of cryogenic phonon and charge transport is provided along with specific details of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search detector instrumentation. In particular, this review covers quasidiffusive phonon transport, which includes phonon focusing, anharmonic decay, and isotope scattering. The interaction of phonons in the detector surface is discussed along with the downconversion of phonons in superconducting films. The charge transport physics include a mass tensor which results from the crystal band structure and is modeled with a Herring-Vogt transformation. Charge scattering processes involve the creation of Neganov-Luke phonons. Transition-edge-sensor (TES) simulations include a full electric circuit description and all thermal processes including Joule heating, cooling to the substrate, and thermal diffusion within the TES, the latter of which is necessary to model normal-superconducting phase separation. Relevant numerical constants are provided for these physical processes in germanium, silicon, aluminum, and tungsten. Random number sampling methods including inverse cumulative distribution function (CDF) and rejection techniques are reviewed. To improve the efficiency of charge transport modeling, an additional second order inverse CDF method is developed here along with an efficient barycentric coordinate sampling method of electric fields. Results are provided in a manner that is convenient for use in Monte Carlo and references are provided for validation of these models. PMID:23020355

  15. Invited Review Article: Physics and Monte Carlo techniques as relevant to cryogenic, phonon, and ionization readout of Cryogenic Dark Matter Search radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Leman, Steven W.

    2012-09-15

    This review discusses detector physics and Monte Carlo techniques for cryogenic, radiation detectors that utilize combined phonon and ionization readout. A general review of cryogenic phonon and charge transport is provided along with specific details of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search detector instrumentation. In particular, this review covers quasidiffusive phonon transport, which includes phonon focusing, anharmonic decay, and isotope scattering. The interaction of phonons in the detector surface is discussed along with the downconversion of phonons in superconducting films. The charge transport physics include a mass tensor which results from the crystal band structure and is modeled with a Herring-Vogt transformation. Charge scattering processes involve the creation of Neganov-Luke phonons. Transition-edge-sensor (TES) simulations include a full electric circuit description and all thermal processes including Joule heating, cooling to the substrate, and thermal diffusion within the TES, the latter of which is necessary to model normal-superconducting phase separation. Relevant numerical constants are provided for these physical processes in germanium, silicon, aluminum, and tungsten. Random number sampling methods including inverse cumulative distribution function (CDF) and rejection techniques are reviewed. To improve the efficiency of charge transport modeling, an additional second order inverse CDF method is developed here along with an efficient barycentric coordinate sampling method of electric fields. Results are provided in a manner that is convenient for use in Monte Carlo and references are provided for validation of these models.

  16. Invited Review Article: Physics and Monte Carlo techniques as relevant to cryogenic, phonon, and ionization readout of Cryogenic Dark Matter Search radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leman, Steven W.

    2012-09-01

    This review discusses detector physics and Monte Carlo techniques for cryogenic, radiation detectors that utilize combined phonon and ionization readout. A general review of cryogenic phonon and charge transport is provided along with specific details of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search detector instrumentation. In particular, this review covers quasidiffusive phonon transport, which includes phonon focusing, anharmonic decay, and isotope scattering. The interaction of phonons in the detector surface is discussed along with the downconversion of phonons in superconducting films. The charge transport physics include a mass tensor which results from the crystal band structure and is modeled with a Herring-Vogt transformation. Charge scattering processes involve the creation of Neganov-Luke phonons. Transition-edge-sensor (TES) simulations include a full electric circuit description and all thermal processes including Joule heating, cooling to the substrate, and thermal diffusion within the TES, the latter of which is necessary to model normal-superconducting phase separation. Relevant numerical constants are provided for these physical processes in germanium, silicon, aluminum, and tungsten. Random number sampling methods including inverse cumulative distribution function (CDF) and rejection techniques are reviewed. To improve the efficiency of charge transport modeling, an additional second order inverse CDF method is developed here along with an efficient barycentric coordinate sampling method of electric fields. Results are provided in a manner that is convenient for use in Monte Carlo and references are provided for validation of these models.

  17. A fast, ultra-low and frequency-scalable power consumption, 10-bit SAR ADC for particle physics detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Kulis, S.; Moron, J.; Swientek, K.

    2015-11-01

    The design and measurements results of a fast 10-bit SAR ADC with ultra-low and scalable with frequency power consumption, developed for readout systems for detectors at future particle physics colliders (ILC, CLIC, LHC Upgrade), are described. A prototype ASIC was designed and fabricated in 130 nm CMOS technology and a wide spectrum of static (INLlesssim0.5 LSB, DNLlesssim0.5 LSB) and dynamic (SINAD ~58 dB, ENOB~9.3) measurements was performed to study and quantify the ADC performance. The ADC works in wide 10 kS/s - 40 MS/s sampling frequency range, covering more than three orders of magnitude. In most of the range the power consumption scales linearly with sampling rate with a factor of about 22 μW/MS/s. A dynamic and asynchronous internal logic makes the ADC very well suited not only for commonly used synchronous sampling but also for applications with asynchronous sampling and/or the ones requiring power cycling, like the experiments at future linear collider (ILC/CLIC). The ADC layout is drawn with a small pitch of 146 μm to facilitate multi-channel integration. The obtained figure of Merit is in range 32-37 fJ/conversion for sampling frequencies 10-40 MS/s, placing the ADC among the best State of the Art designs with similar technology and specifications.

  18. Recent developments in PET detector technology

    PubMed Central

    Lewellen, Tom K

    2010-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a tool for metabolic imaging that has been utilized since the earliest days of nuclear medicine. A key component of such imaging systems is the detector modules—an area of research and development with a long, rich history. Development of detectors for PET has often seen the migration of technologies, originally developed for high energy physics experiments, into prototype PET detectors. Of the many areas explored, some detector designs go on to be incorporated into prototype scanner systems and a few of these may go on to be seen in commercial scanners. There has been a steady, often very diverse development of prototype detectors, and the pace has accelerated with the increased use of PET in clinical studies (currently driven by PET/CT scanners) and the rapid proliferation of pre-clinical PET scanners for academic and commercial research applications. Most of these efforts are focused on scintillator-based detectors, although various alternatives continue to be considered. For example, wire chambers have been investigated many times over the years and more recently various solid-state devices have appeared in PET detector designs for very high spatial resolution applications. But even with scintillators, there have been a wide variety of designs and solutions investigated as developers search for solutions that offer very high spatial resolution, fast timing, high sensitivity and are yet cost effective. In this review, we will explore some of the recent developments in the quest for better PET detector technology. PMID:18695301

  19. Argonne National Laboratory High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, January 1, 1989--June 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuss the following areas on High Energy Physics at Argonne National Laboratory: experimental program; theory program; experimental facilities research; accelerator research and development; and SSC detector research and development.

  20. Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF): Data from the Top Group's Top Quark Research

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a Tevatron experiment at Fermilab. The Tevatron, a powerful particle accelerator, accelerates protons and antiprotons close to the speed of light, and then makes them collide head-on inside the CDF detector. The CDF detector is used to study the products of such collisions. The CDF Physics Group at Fermilab is organized into six working groups, each with a specific focus. The Top group studies the properties of the top quark, the heaviest known fundamental particle. Their public web page makes data and numerous figures available from both CDF Runs I and II.

  1. Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF): Data from Supersymmetry, New Phenomena Research of the CDF Exotics Group

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a Tevatron experiment at Fermilab. The Tevatron, a powerful particle accelerator, accelerates protons and antiprotons close to the speed of light, and then makes them collide head-on inside the CDF detector. The CDF detector is used to study the products of such collisions. The CDF Physics Group at Fermilab is organized into six working groups, each with a specific focus. The Exotics group searches for Supersymmetry and other New Phenomena. Their public web page makes data and numerous figures available from both CDF Runs I and II.

  2. Silicon diode detectors used in radiological physics measurements. Part II: Measurement of dosimetry data for high-energy photons.

    PubMed

    Wright, A E; Gager, L D

    1977-01-01

    Initial calibration of a linear accelerator requires physics instruments to measure accurately central axis depth-dose and off-axis data, both in and out of the beam. These data for an 8- MeV unit were first measured using film, a Farmer 0.6-cm3 ion chamber, a 0.3-cm3 ion chamber, and a 0.1-cm3 silicon diode. Both small probes and film gave a high response compared to the Farmer probe, which has a uniform energy response. Measurements with the diode interfaced to an X-Y recorder required only a fraction of the time required with the chambers, minimizing error due to change in machine output, and permitted resolution of isodose lines in the penumbra. However, corrections required at points in depth due to nonuniform energy response of the unshielded diode were laborious. Construction of a partially shielded diode which duplicates the response of the Farmer probe eliminated the necessity for corrections, permitting rapid accumulation of a wide range of depth-dose and off-axis data. PMID:927387

  3. Analysis of physical parameters and determination of inflection point for Flattening Filter Free beams in medical linear accelerator

    PubMed Central

    Pichandi, A.; Ganesh, Kadirampatti Mani; Jerin, Amalraj; Balaji, Karunakaran; Kilara, Gurunath

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical Linear accelerators manufactured without flattening filters are increasing popular in recent days. The removal of flattening filter results in increased dose rate, reduced mean energy, reduction in head leakage and lateral scattering, which have shown advantageous when used for special treatment procedures. Aim This study aims to analyze physical parameters of FFF beams and to determine the inflection point for standardizing the beam flatness and penumbra. Materials and methods The beam profiles and depth dose patterns were measured using Radiation Field Analyzer (RFA) with 0.13 cc cylindrical ion chamber. The beam energy characteristics, head scatter factor (Sc) were obtained for 6FFF and 10FFF beams and compared with 6 MV and 10 MV photons, respectively. The symmetry and stability of unflattened regions were also analyzed. In addition, the study proposes a simple physical concept for obtaining inflection point for FFF beams and results were compared using the Akima spline interpolation method. The inflection point was used to determine the field size and penumbra of FFF beams. Results The Sc varied from 0.922 to 1.044 for 6FFF and from 0.913 to 1.044 for 10FFF with field sizes from 3 cm × 3 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm which is much less than FF beams. The obtained value of field size and penumbra for both simple physical concept and Akima spline interpolation methods is within the ±1.0 mm for the field size and ±2 mm penumbra. The results indicate that FFF beams reduce Sc compared with FF beams due to the absence of a flattening filter. Conclusion The proposed simple method to find field size and penumbra using inflection point can be accepted as it is closely approximated to mathematical results. Stability of these parameters was ascertained by repeated measurements and the study indicates good stability for FFF beam similar to that of FF beams. PMID:25184057

  4. Neutrino physics at muon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    King, B.J.

    1998-03-01

    An overview is given of the neutrino physics potential of future muon storage rings that use muon collider technology to produce, accelerate and store large currents of muons. After a general characterization of the neutrino beam and its interactions, some crude quantitative estimates are given for the physics performance of a muon ring neutrino experiment (MURINE) consisting of a high rate, high performance neutrino detector at a 250 GeV muon collider storage ring.

  5. Physical evaluation of a high-frame-rate extended dynamic range flat panel detector for real-time cone beam computed tomography applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, Sarah J.; Chawla, Amarpreet; Samei, Ehsan

    2005-04-01

    The use of flat panel detectors in computed tomography (CT) systems can improve resolution, reduce system cost, and add operational flexibility by combining fluoroscopy and radiography applications within CT systems. However, some prior studies have suggested that flat panel detectors would not perform well in CT applications due to their lack of high dynamic range, lag artifacts, and inadequate frame rate. The purpose of this study was to perform a physical evaluation of a prototype flat panel detector capable of high frame rates and extended dynamic range. The flat panel detector used had a pixel size of 194 microns and a matrix size of 2048x1536. The detector could be configured for several combinations of frame rate and matrix size up to 750 frames per second for a 512x16 matrix size with 4x4 binning. The evaluation was performed in terms of the MTF and DQE as a function of frame rate and exposure at the IEC RQA5 (~75 kVp, 21 mm Al) beam quality. The image lag was evaluated in terms of temporal-frequency dependent transfer function. Offset shift were also evaluated. Preliminary results indicate 0.1 MTF at 0.92 cycles/mm and DQE(0) of approximately 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, and 0.22 at 0.144, 0.065, 0.035, and 0.008 mR per frame exposures. The temporal MTF exhibited a low-frequency drop and a value of 0.5 at the Nyquist frequency. Offset shift was negligible. Considering high frame rate capabilities of the new detector, the results suggest that the detector has potential for use in real-time CT applications including CT angiography.

  6. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-30

    This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics research. We have a broad program of participation in both non-accelerator and accelerator-based efforts. High energy research at Boston University has a special focus on the physics program of the Superconducting Supercollider. We are active in research and development for detector subsystems, in the design of experiments, and in study of the phenomenology of the very high energy interactions to be observed at the SSC. The particular areas discussed in this paper are: colliding beams physics; accelerator design physics; MACRO project; proton decay project; theoretical particle physics; muon G-2 project; fast liquid scintillators; SSCINTCAL project; TRD project; massively parallel processing for the SSC; and physics analysis and vertex detector upgrade at L3.

  7. Core-shell diodes for particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Guobin; Plentz, Jonathan; Höger, Ingmar; Dellith, Jan; Dellith, Andrea; Falk, Fritz

    2016-02-01

    High performance particle detectors are needed for fundamental research in high energy physics in the exploration of the Higgs boson, dark matter, anti-matter, gravitational waves and proof of the standard model, which will extend the understanding of our Universe. Future particle detectors should have ultrahigh radiation hardness, low power consumption, high spatial resolution and fast signal response. Unfortunately, some of these properties are counter-influencing for the conventional silicon drift detectors (SDDs), so that they cannot be optimized simultaneously. In this paper, the main issues of conventional SDDs have been analyzed, and a novel core-shell detector design based on micro- and nano-structures etched into Si-wafers is proposed. It is expected to simultaneously reach ultrahigh radiation hardness, low power consumption, fast signal response and high spatial resolution down to the sub-micrometer range, which will probably meet the requirements for the most powerful particle accelerators in the near future. A prototype core-shell detector was fabricated using modern silicon nanotechnology and the functionality was tested using electron-beam-induced current measurements. Such a high performance detector will open many new applications in extreme radiation environments such as high energy physics, astrophysics, high resolution (bio-) imaging and crystallography, which will push these fields beyond their current boundaries.

  8. Cardiac acceleration at the onset of exercise: a potential parameter for monitoring progress during physical training in sports and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Hettinga, Florentina J; Monden, Paul G; van Meeteren, Nico L U; Daanen, Hein A M

    2014-05-01

    There is a need for easy-to-use methods to assess training progress in sports and rehabilitation research. The present review investigated whether cardiac acceleration at the onset of physical exercise (HRonset) can be used as a monitoring variable. The digital databases of Scopus and PubMed were searched to retrieve studies investigating HRonset. In total 652 studies were retrieved. These articles were then classified as having emphasis on HRonset in a sports or rehabilitation setting, which resulted in 8 of 112 studies with a sports application and 6 of 68 studies with a rehabilitation application that met inclusion criteria. Two co-existing mechanisms underlie HRonset: feedforward (central command) and feedback (mechanoreflex, metaboreflex, baroreflex) control. A number of studies investigated HRonset during the first few seconds of exercise (HRonsetshort), in which central command and the mechanoreflex determine vagal withdrawal, the major mechanism by which heart rate (HR) increases. In subsequent sports and rehabilitation studies, interest focused on HRonset during dynamic exercise over a longer period of time (HRonsetlong). Central command, mechanoreflexes, baroreflexes, and possibly metaboreflexes contribute to HRonset during the first seconds and minutes of exercise, which in turn leads to further vagal withdrawal and an increase in sympathetic activity. HRonset has been described as the increase in HR compared with resting state (delta HR) or by exponential modeling, with measurement intervals ranging from 0-4 s up to 2 min. Delta HR was used to evaluate HRonsetshort over the first 4 s of exercise, as well as for analyzing HRonsetlong. In exponential modeling, the HR response to dynamic exercise is biphasic, consisting of fast (parasympathetic, 0-10 s) and slow (sympathetic, 1-4 min) components. Although available studies differed largely in measurement protocols, cross-sectional and longitudinal training studies showed that studies analyzing HRonset

  9. The relation between tilt table and acceleration-tolerance and their dependence on stature and physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, K. E.; Backhausen, F.; Bruner, H.; Eichhorn, J.; Jovy, D.; Schotte, J.; Vogt, L.; Wegman, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    A group of 12 highly trained athletes and a group of 12untrained students were subjected to passive changes of position on a tilt table and positive accelerations in a centrifuge. During a 20 min tilt, including two additional respiratory maneuvers, the number of faints and average cardiovascular responses did not differ significantly between the groups. During linear increase of acceleration, the average blackout level was almost identical in both groups. Statistically significant coefficients of product-moment correlation for various relations were obtained. The coefficient of multiple determination computed for the dependence of acceleration tolerance on heart-eye distance and systolic blood pressure at rest allows the explanation of almost 50% of the variation of acceleration tolerance. The maximum oxygen uptake showed the expected significant correlation to the heart rate at rest, but not the acceleration tolerance, or to the cardiovascular responses to tilting.

  10. A standing location detector enabling people with developmental disabilities to control environmental stimulation through simple physical activities with Nintendo Wii Balance Boards.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform simple physical activities by controlling their favorite environmental stimulation using Nintendo Wii Balance Boards with a newly developed standing location detection program (SLDP, i.e., a new software program turning a Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a standing location detector). This study was carried out using to an ABAB design. The data showed that both participants significantly increased their simple physical activity (target response) to activate the control system to produce environmental stimulation during the B (intervention) phases. The practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21159488

  11. The Role of Computing in High-Energy Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Examines present and future applications of computers in high-energy physics. Areas considered include high-energy physics laboratories, accelerators, detectors, networking, off-line analysis, software guidelines, event sizes and volumes, graphics applications, event simulation, theoretical studies, and future trends. (JN)

  12. International Workshop on New Photon-detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The third edition of the « International Workshop on New Photon-Detectors (PhotoDet 2012) » will be held at the Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), Orsay, France, from 13th to 15th of June, 2012. The workshop is devoted to recent developments in photo-sensors and their applications in different fields like high energy physics,nuclear physics, cosmic-ray physics, astronomy, cosmology and medical sciences. The Geiger-mode multi-pixel photon detectors and their related front-end and read-out electronics represent the main targets of the workshop. Topics related to Hybrid-PMT, APD, MCP-PMT and other new photon sensors are also covered.

  13. High Energy Physics Advisory Panel. A report of the 1980 Subpanel on review and planning for the US High Energy Physics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    The status of high energy physics in the US is examined, and some recommendations for future activities in this field are made: utilization of the forefront accelerator facilities should be intensified, the new superconducting projects should proceed with all deliberate speed, and increasing support should be devoted to detector and accelerator R and D. (RWR)

  14. LHC detector upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Green

    2003-09-15

    The LHC detectors are well into their construction phase. The LHC schedule shows first beam to ATLAS and CMS in 2007. Because the LHC accelerator has begun to plan for a ten fold increase in LHC design luminosity (the SLHC or super LHC) it is none too soon to begin to think about the upgrades which will be required of the present LHC detectors. In particular, the tracking systems of ATLAS and CMS will need to be completely rebuilt. Given the time needed to do the R & D, make prototypes, and construct the new detectors and given the accelerator schedule for the SLHC, work needs to begin rather soon.

  15. The upgraded DØ detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S. N.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J. T.; Anderson, S.; Andrieu, B.; Angstadt, R.; Anosov, V.; Arnoud, Y.; Arov, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Assis Jesus, A. C. S.; Atramentov, O.; Autermann, C.; Avila, C.; Babukhadia, L.; Bacon, T. C.; Badaud, F.; Baden, A.; Baffioni, S.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Balm, P. W.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Bardon, O.; Barg, W.; Bargassa, P.; Baringer, P.; Barnes, C.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Baturitsky, M. A.; Bauer, D.; Bean, A.; Baumbaugh, B.; Beauceron, S.; Begalli, M.; Beaudette, F.; Begel, M.; Bellavance, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Besson, A.; Beuselinck, R.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Binder, M.; Biscarat, C.; Bishoff, A.; Black, K. M.; Blackler, I.; Blazey, G.; Blekman, F.; Blessing, S.; Bloch, D.; Blumenschein, U.; Bockenthien, E.; Bodyagin, V.; Boehnlein, A.; Boeriu, O.; Bolton, T. A.; Bonamy, P.; Bonifas, D.; Borcherding, F.; Borissov, G.; Bos, K.; Bose, T.; Boswell, C.; Bowden, M.; Brandt, A.; Briskin, G.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burdin, S.; Burke, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Busato, E.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, D.; Butler, J. M.; Cammin, J.; Caron, S.; Bystricky, J.; Canal, L.; Canelli, F.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, B. C. K.; Casey, D.; Cason, N. M.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapin, D.; Charles, F.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chi, E.; Chiche, R.; Cho, D. K.; Choate, R.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Chopra, S.; Christenson, J. H.; Christiansen, T.; Christofek, L.; Churin, I.; Cisko, G.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Clément, B.; Clément, C.; Coadou, Y.; Colling, D. J.; Coney, L.; Connolly, B.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Coppage, D.; Corcoran, M.; Coss, J.; Cothenet, A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cristetiu, M.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Cutts, D.; da Motta, H.; Das, M.; Davies, B.; Davies, G.; Davis, G. A.; Davis, W.; De, K.; de Jong, P.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; De La Taille, C.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Dean, S.; Degenhardt, J. D.; Déliot, F.; Delsart, P. A.; Del Signore, K.; DeMaat, R.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Demine, P.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Doets, M.; Doidge, M.; Dong, H.; Doulas, S.; Dudko, L. V.; Duflot, L.; Dugad, S. R.; Duperrin, A.; Dvornikov, O.; Dyer, J.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Edwards, T.; Ellison, J.; Elmsheuser, J.; Eltzroth, J. T.; Elvira, V. D.; Eno, S.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Estrada, J.; Evans, D.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fagan, J.; Fast, J.; Fatakia, S. N.; Fein, D.; Feligioni, L.; Ferapontov, A. V.; Ferbel, T.; Ferreira, M. J.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fleck, I.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Flattum, E.; Fleuret, F.; Flores, R.; Foglesong, J.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Franklin, C.; Freeman, W.; Fu, S.; Fuess, S.; Gadfort, T.; Galea, C. F.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, E.; Gao, M.; Garcia, C.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gardner, J.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, A.; Gay, P.; Gelé, D.; Gelhaus, R.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gillberg, D.; Geurkov, G.; Ginther, G.; Gobbi, B.; Goldmann, K.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N.; Golovtsov, V.; Gómez, B.; Gomez, G.; Gomez, R.; Goodwin, R.; Gornushkin, Y.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graham, D.; Graham, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Gray, K.; Greder, S.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Green, J. A.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Groer, L.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Gu, W.; Guglielmo, J.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggard, E.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hall, I.; Hall, R. E.; Han, C.; Han, L.; Hance, R.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harrington, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hauser, R.; Hays, C.; Hays, J.; Hazen, E.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebert, C.; Hedin, D.; Heinmiller, J. M.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hong, S. J.; Hooper, R.; Hou, S.; Houben, P.; Hu, Y.; Huang, J.; Huang, Y.; Hynek, V.; Huffman, D.; Iashvili, I.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jacquier, Y.; Jaffré, M.; Jain, S.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jayanti, R.; Jenkins, A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, Y.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnson, P.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Jöstlein, H.; Jouravlev, N.; Juarez, M.; Juste, A.; Kaan, A. P.; Kado, M. M.; Käfer, D.; Kahl, W.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.

    2006-09-01

    The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to DØ.

  16. Theoretical investigation of the dependence of double beta decay tracks in a Ge detector on particle and nuclear physics parameters and separation from gamma ray events

    SciTech Connect

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.; Krivosheina, I.V.; Titkova, I.V.

    2006-01-01

    The sizes of tracks of events of neutrinoless double-beta decay in a Germanium detector depend on particle physics and nuclear physics parameters such as neutrino mass, right-handed current parameters, etc., and nuclear matrix elements. In this paper for the first time Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino-accompanied (2{nu}{beta}{beta}) and neutrinoless double-beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) events, and of various kinds of background processes such as multiple and other {gamma} interactions are reported for a Ge detector. The time history of the evolution of the individual events is followed and the sizes of the events (partial volumes in the detector inside which the energy of the event is released) are investigated. Effects of the angular correlations of the two electrons in {beta}{beta} decay, which again depend on the above nuclear and (for 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay) on particle physics parameters, are taken into account and have been calculated for this purpose for the first time on basis of the experimental half-life of {sup 76}Ge and of realistic nuclear matrix elements. The sizes determine, together with the location of the events in the detector, the pulse shapes to be observed. It is shown for {beta}{beta} decay of {sup 76}Ge, that {beta}{beta} events should be selectable with high efficiency by rejecting large size (high multiplicity) {gamma} events. Double-escape peaks of similar energy of {gamma} lines show concerning their sizes similar behavior as 0{nu}{beta}{beta} events, and in that sense can be of some use for corresponding 'calibration' of pulse shapes of the detector. The possibility to distinguish {beta}{beta} events from {gamma} events is found to be essentially independent of the particle physics parameters of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} process. A brief outlook is given on the potential of future experiments with respect to determination of the particle physics parameters ,<{lambda}>,<{eta}>.

  17. W.K.H. Panofsky Prize in Experimental Particle Physics: The design, construction and performance of the B Factory accelerator facilities, PEP-II and KEKB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfan, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    The discovery and elucidation of CP violation in the B-meson system presented daunting challenges for the accelerator and detector facilities. This talk discusses how these challenges were met and overcome in the electron-positron colliding-beam accelerator facilities PEP-II (at SLAC) and KEKB (at KEK). The key challenge was to produce unprecedentedly large numbers of B-mesons in a geometry that provided high-statistics, low-background samples of decays to CP eigenstates. This was realized with asymmetric collisions at the Γ(4S) at peak luminosities in excess of 3 ×1033 /sq. cm/sec. Specialized optics were developed to generate efficient, low background, multi-bunch collisions in an energy-asymmetric collision geometry. Novel technologies for the RF, vacuum and feedback systems permitted the storage of multi-amp, multi-bunch beams of electrons and positrons, thereby generating high peak luminosities. Accelerator uptimes greater than 95 percent, combined with high-intensity injection systems, ensured large integrated luminosity. Both facilities rapidly attained their design specifications and ultimately far exceeded the projected performance expectations for both peak and integrated luminosity.

  18. High Energy Physics division semiannual report of research activities, January 1, 1998--June 30, 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, D. S.; Berger, E. L.; Blair, R.; Bodwin, G. T.; Drake, G.; Goodman, M. C.; Guarino, V.; Klasen, M.; Lagae, J.-F.; Magill, S.; May, E. N.; Nodulman, L.; Norem, J.; Petrelli, A.; Proudfoot, J.; Repond, J.; Schoessow, P. V.; Sinclair, D. K.; Spinka, H. M.; Stanek, R.; Underwood, D.; Wagner, R.; White, A. R.; Yokosawa, A.; Zachos, C.

    1999-03-09

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of January 1, 1998 through June 30, 1998. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of Division publications and colloquia are included.

  19. High Energy Physics Division. Semiannual report of research activities, January 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, R.; Schoessow, P.; Talaga, R.

    1995-12-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of January 1, 1995-July 31, 1995. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  20. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, July 1, 1992--December 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Moonier, P.; Talaga, R.; Wagner, R.

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of July 1, 1992--December 30, 1992. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  1. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, January 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.; Rezmer, R.; Wagner, R.

    1997-07-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of January 1 - June 30, 1996. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. List of Division publications and colloquia are included.

  2. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, January 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of January 1, 1994-June 30, 1994. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  3. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, January 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Moonier, P.; Talaga, R.; Wagner, R.

    1992-11-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of January 1, 1992--June 30, 1992. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  4. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, July 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, R.; Schoessow, P.; Talaga, R.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of July 1, 1994--December 31, 1994. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  5. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, January 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Moonier, P.; Talaga, R.; Wagner, R.

    1993-12-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of January 1, 1993--June 30, 1993. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  6. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, July 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, R.; Moonier, P.; Schoessow, P.; Talaga, R.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of July 1, 1993--December 31, 1993. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  7. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities July 1, 1997 - December 31, 1997.

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.; Rezmer, R.; Schuur, C.; Wagner, R.

    1998-08-11

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period July 1, 1997--December 31, 1997. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of Division publications and colloquia are included.

  8. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, July 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Moonier, P.; Talaga, R.; Wagner, R.

    1992-04-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of July 1, 1991--December 31, 1991. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  9. Particle acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

  10. Detectors for Particle Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinknecht, Konrad

    1999-01-01

    This textbook provides a clear, concise and comprehensive review of the physical principles behind the devices used to detect charged particles and gamma rays, and the construction and performance of these many different types of detectors. Detectors for high-energy particles and radiation are used in many areas of science, especially particle physics and nuclear physics experiments, nuclear medicine, cosmic ray measurements, space sciences and geological exploration. This second edition includes all the latest developments in detector technology, including several new chapters covering micro-strip gas chambers, silicion strip detectors and CCDs, scintillating fibers, shower detectors using noble liquid gases, and compensating calorimeters for hadronic showers. This well-illustrated textbook contains examples from the many areas in science in which these detectors are used. It provides both a coursebook for students in physics, and a useful introduction for researchers in other fields.

  11. Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: I. Physical characteristics and theoretical consideration.

    PubMed

    Beddar, A S; Mackie, T R; Attix, F H

    1992-10-01

    A minimally perturbing plastic scintillation detector has been developed for the dosimetry of high-energy beams in radiotherapy. The detector system consists of two identical parallel sets of radiation-resistant optical fibre bundles, each connected to independent photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). One fibre bundle is connected to a miniature water equivalent plastic scintillator and so scintillation as well as Cerenkov light generated in the fibres is detected at its PMT. The other 'background' bundle is not connected to the scintillator and so only Cerenkov light is detected by its PMT. The background signal is subtracted to yield only the signal from the scintillator. The water-equivalence of plastic scintillation detectors is studied for photon and electron beams in the radiotherapy range. Application of Burlin cavity theory shows that the energy dependence of such detectors is expected to be better than the commonly used systems (ionization chambers, LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters, film and Si diodes). It is also shown that they are not affected by temperature variations and exhibit much less radiation damage than either photon or electron diode detectors. PMID:1438554

  12. Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF): Data from Standard Model and Supersymmetric Higgs Bosons Research of the Higgs Group

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a Tevatron experiment at Fermilab. The Tevatron, a powerful particle accelerator, accelerates protons and antiprotons close to the speed of light, and then makes them collide head-on inside the CDF detector. The CDF detector is used to study the products of such collisions. The CDF Physics Group at Fermilab is organized into six working groups, each with a specific focus. The Higgs group searches for Standard Model and Supersymmetric Higgs bosons. Their public web page makes data and numerous figures available from both CDF Runs I and II.

  13. Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF): Data from the QCD Group's Research into Properties of the Strong Interaction

    DOE Data Explorer

    ,

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a Tevatron experiment at Fermilab. The Tevatron, a powerful particle accelerator, accelerates protons and antiprotons close to the speed of light, and then makes them collide head-on inside the CDF detector. The CDF detector is used to study the products of such collisions. The CDF Physics Group at Fermilab is organized into six working groups, each with a specific focus. The QCD group studies the properties of the strong interaction. Their public web page makes data and numerous figures available from both CDF Runs I and II.

  14. Particle and nuclear physics parameters—how do they affect the tracks of double beta events in a germanium detector, and their separation from gamma events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.; Krivosheina, I. V.; Titkova, I. V.

    2006-01-01

    The sizes of tracks of events of neutrinoless double beta decay in a germanium detector depend on particle physics and nuclear physics parameters such as neutrino mass, right-handed current parameters, etc., and nuclear matrix elements. The knowledge of this dependence is of importance, since the key to probe the existence of 0 νββ decay beyond observation of a signal at the Q value of the process, Qββ, is the discrimination of ββ events from background γ events (or other events), in almost any double beta decay experiment (see [H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, I.V. Krivosheina, A. Dietz, et al., Phys. Lett. B 586 (2004) 198; H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, A. Dietz, I.V. Krivosheina, et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 522 (2004) 371]). In this Letter for the first time Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino-accompanied (2 νββ) and neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ) events, and of various kinds of background processes such as multiple and other γ interactions are reported for a Ge detector. The time history of the evolution of the individual events is followed and a systematic study has been performed of the sizes of the events (volumes in the detector inside which the energy of the event is released which determine the observed signals). Effects of the angular correlations of the two electrons in ββ decay, which again depend on the above nuclear and (for 0 νββ decay) particle physics parameters, are taken into account and have been calculated for this purpose for 76Ge for the first time on basis of the experimental half-life and of realistic nuclear matrix elements. A brief outlook is given on the potential of future experiments with respect to determination of the particle physics parameters , < λ >, < η >.

  15. 2 {times} 2 TeV {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} collider: Lattice and accelerator-detector interface study

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfand, N.M.; Mokhov, N.V.

    1995-05-01

    The design for a high-luminosity {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} superconducting storage ring is presented based on first-pass calculations. Special attention is paid to two Iowa interaction regions (IR) whose optics are literally interlaced with the collider detectors. Various sources of backgrounds in IR are explored via realistic Monte Carlo simulations. An improved design of the collider lattice in the neighborhood of the interaction points (EP) is determined by the need to reduce significantly background levels in the detectors.

  16. Recent US target-physics-related research in heavy-ion inertial fusion: target gains and constraints on accelerator design

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1982-03-09

    Inertial-fusion targets were designed for use with heavy-ion accelerators as drivers in fusion energy power plants. In the interest of providing inputs for understanding the trade-offs among accelerator designs, an initial survey was carried out regarding target gain versus parameters of relevance. This was done in two stages, firstly target gain was related to the beam energy, power, focal radius, and ion range. Secondly, a more comprehensive discussion was made by posing target gain constraints on the beam-occupied phase-space volume of the linacs. This latter discussion had included some rather simplified models of accelerator final focus and beam transport in near-vacuum fusion reaction chambers. Some further analyses of the basic assumptions of this summary are also described.

  17. Small fields output factors measurements and correction factors determination for several detectors for a CyberKnife{sup Registered-Sign} and linear accelerators equipped with microMLC and circular cones

    SciTech Connect

    Bassinet, C.; Huet, C.; Derreumaux, S.; Baumann, M.; Trompier, F.; Roch, P.; Clairand, I.; Brunet, G.; Gaudaire-Josset, S.; Chea, M.; Boisserie, G.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: The use of small photon fields is now an established practice in stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy. However, due to a lack of lateral electron equilibrium and high dose gradients, it is difficult to accurately measure the dosimetric quantities required for the commissioning of such systems. Moreover, there is still no metrological dosimetric reference for this kind of beam today. In this context, the first objective of this work was to determine and to compare small fields output factors (OF) measured with different types of active detectors and passive dosimeters for three types of facilities: a CyberKnife{sup Registered-Sign} system, a dedicated medical linear accelerator (Novalis) equipped with m3 microMLC and circular cones, and an adaptive medical linear accelerator (Clinac 2100) equipped with an additional m3 microMLC. The second one was to determine the k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factors introduced in a recently proposed small field dosimetry formalism for different active detectors.Methods: Small field sizes were defined either by microMLC down to 6 Multiplication-Sign 6 mm{sup 2} or by circular cones down to 4 mm in diameter. OF measurements were performed with several commercially available active detectors dedicated to measurements in small fields (high resolution diodes: IBA SFD, Sun Nuclear EDGE, PTW 60016, PTW 60017; ionizing chambers: PTW 31014 PinPoint chamber, PTW 31018 microLion liquid chamber, and PTW 60003 natural diamond). Two types of passive dosimeters were used: LiF microcubes and EBT2 radiochromic films.Results: Significant differences between the results obtained by several dosimetric systems were observed, particularly for the smallest field size for which the difference in the measured OF reaches more than 20%. For passive dosimeters, an excellent agreement was observed (better than 2%) between EBT2 and LiF microcubes

  18. Detector simulation needs for detector designers

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.G.

    1987-11-01

    Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers.

  19. Intelligent Detector Design

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, N.A.; /SLAC

    2012-06-11

    As the complexity and resolution of imaging detectors increases, the need for detailed simulation of the experimental setup also becomes more important. Designing the detectors requires efficient tools to simulate the detector response and reconstruct the events. We have developed efficient and flexible tools for detailed physics and detector response simulation as well as event reconstruction and analysis. The primary goal has been to develop a software toolkit and computing infrastructure to allow physicists from universities and labs to quickly and easily conduct physics analyses and contribute to detector research and development. The application harnesses the full power of the Geant4 toolkit without requiring the end user to have any experience with either Geant4 or C++, thereby allowing the user to concentrate on the physics of the detector system.

  20. Neutrino Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Feilitzsch, Franz; Lanfranchi, Jean-Côme; Wurm, Michael

    The neutrino was postulated by Wolfgang Pauli in the early 1930s, but could only be detected for the first time in the 1950s. Ever since scientists all around the world have worked on the detection and understanding of this particle which so scarcely interacts with matter. Depending on the origin and nature of the neutrino, various types of experiments have been developed and operated. In this entry, we will review neutrino detectors in terms of neutrino energy and associated detection technique as well as the scientific outcome of some selected examples. After a brief historical introduction, the detection of low-energy neutrinos originating from nuclear reactors or from the Earth is used to illustrate the principles and difficulties which are encountered in detecting neutrinos. In the context of solar neutrino spectroscopy, where the neutrino is used as a probe for astrophysics, three different types of neutrino detectors are presented - water Čerenkov, radiochemical, and liquid-scintillator detectors. Moving to higher neutrino energies, we discuss neutrinos produced by astrophysical sources and from accelerators. The entry concludes with an overview of a selection of future neutrino experiments and their scientific goals.

  1. Registration procedure for spatial correlation of physical energy deposition of particle irradiation and cellular response utilizing cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niklas, M.; Zimmermann, F.; Schlegel, J.; Schwager, C.; Debus, J.; Jäkel, O.; Abdollahi, A.; Greilich, S.

    2016-09-01

    The hybrid technology cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detector (Cell-Fit-HD) enables the investigation of radiation-related cellular events along single ion tracks on the subcellular scale in clinical ion beams. The Cell-Fit-HD comprises a fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD, the physical compartment), a device for individual particle detection and a substrate for viable cell-coating, i.e. the biological compartment. To date both compartments have been imaged sequentially in situ by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). This is yet in conflict with a functional read-out of the Cell-Fit-HD utilizing a fast live-cell imaging of the biological compartment with low phototoxicity on greater time scales. The read-out of the biological from the physical compartment was uncoupled. A read-out procedure was developed to image the cell layer by conventional widefield microscopy whereas the FNTD was imaged by CLSM. Point mapping registration of the confocal and widefield imaging data was performed. Non-fluorescent crystal defects (spinels) visible in both read-outs were used as control point pairs. The accuracy achieved was on the sub-µm scale. The read-out procedure by widefield microscopy does not impair the unique ability of spatial correlation by the Cell-Fit-HD. The uncoupling will enlarge the application potential of the hybrid technology significantly. The registration allows for an ultimate correlation of microscopic physical beam parameters and cell kinetics on greater time scales. The method reported herein will be instrumental for the introduction of a novel generation of compact detectors facilitating biodosimetric research towards high-throughput analysis.

  2. Registration procedure for spatial correlation of physical energy deposition of particle irradiation and cellular response utilizing cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detectors.

    PubMed

    Niklas, M; Zimmermann, F; Schlegel, J; Schwager, C; Debus, J; Jäkel, O; Abdollahi, A; Greilich, S

    2016-09-01

    The hybrid technology cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detector (Cell-Fit-HD) enables the investigation of radiation-related cellular events along single ion tracks on the subcellular scale in clinical ion beams. The Cell-Fit-HD comprises a fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD, the physical compartment), a device for individual particle detection and a substrate for viable cell-coating, i.e. the biological compartment. To date both compartments have been imaged sequentially in situ by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). This is yet in conflict with a functional read-out of the Cell-Fit-HD utilizing a fast live-cell imaging of the biological compartment with low phototoxicity on greater time scales. The read-out of the biological from the physical compartment was uncoupled. A read-out procedure was developed to image the cell layer by conventional widefield microscopy whereas the FNTD was imaged by CLSM. Point mapping registration of the confocal and widefield imaging data was performed. Non-fluorescent crystal defects (spinels) visible in both read-outs were used as control point pairs. The accuracy achieved was on the sub-µm scale. The read-out procedure by widefield microscopy does not impair the unique ability of spatial correlation by the Cell-Fit-HD. The uncoupling will enlarge the application potential of the hybrid technology significantly. The registration allows for an ultimate correlation of microscopic physical beam parameters and cell kinetics on greater time scales. The method reported herein will be instrumental for the introduction of a novel generation of compact detectors facilitating biodosimetric research towards high-throughput analysis. PMID:27499388

  3. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: 1987 summary of activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    An overview of the design and the initial studies for the Advanced Light Source is given. The research efforts for the Center for X-Ray Optics include x-ray imaging, multilayer mirror technology, x-ray sources and detectors, spectroscopy and scattering, and synchrotron radiation projects. The Accelerator Operations highlights include the research by users in nuclear physics, biology and medicine. The upgrade of the Bevalac is also discussed. The High Energy Physics Technology review includes the development of superconducting magnets and superconducting cables. A review of the Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research is also presented. The Magnetic Fusion Energy research included the development of ion sources, accelerators for negative ions, diagnostics, and theoretical plasma physics. (WRF)

  4. The direction of acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Thomas; Burde, Jan-Philipp; Lück, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration is a physical quantity that is difficult to understand and hence its complexity is often erroneously simplified. Many students think of acceleration as equivalent to velocity, a ˜ v. For others, acceleration is a scalar quantity, which describes the change in speed Δ|v| or Δ|v|/Δt (as opposed to the change in velocity). The main difficulty with the concept of acceleration therefore lies in developing a correct understanding of its direction. The free iOS app AccelVisu supports students in acquiring a correct conception of acceleration by showing acceleration arrows directly at moving objects.

  5. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities. Semi-annual progress report, July 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.; Bajt, D.; Rezmer, R.; Wagner, R.

    1996-10-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period July 1, 1995 - December 31, 1995. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  6. Future particle detector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Allan G.

    2000-09-01

    Starting with a short summary of the major new experimental physics programs, we attempt to motivate the reasons why existing general-purpose detectors at Hadron Colliders are what they are, why they are being upgraded, and why new facilities are being constructed. The CDF and ATLAS detectors are used to illustrate these motivations. Selected physics results from the CDF experiment provide evidence for limitations on the detector performance, and new physics opportunities motivate both machine and detector upgrades. This is discussed with emphasis on the improved physics reach of the CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron (√s =2 TeV). From 2005, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will become operational at a collision energy of √s =14 TeV, seven times larger than at the Tevatron Collider. To exploit the physics capability of the LHC, several large detectors are being constructed. The detectors are significantly more complex than those at the Tevatron Collider because of physics and operational constraints. The detector design and technology of the aspects of the large general-purpose detector ATLAS is described.

  7. High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group: Progress report, March 1, 1988--February 28, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This report discusses work carried out by the High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group at the University of Maryland. Particular topics discussed are: OPAL experiment at LEP; deep inelastic muon interactions; B physics with the CLEO detector at CESR; further results from JADE; and search for ''small'' violation of the Pauli principle. (LSP)

  8. Accelerating into the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Cherry

    2009-05-01

    Accelerator science has traditionally been associated with high-energy physics and nuclear physics. But the use of accelerators in other areas of science, as well as in medicine and industry, is steadily growing. Accelerators are now, for example, used to treat cancer using proton therapy, which can deposit radiation onto a tumour while causing much less damage to surrounding healthy tissue than with other treatment techniques.

  9. Hall B superconducting magnets for the CLAS12 detector at JLAB

    SciTech Connect

    L. Quettier, V. Burkert, L. Elouadrhiri, D. Kashy, E. Leung, W. Schneider

    2011-02-01

    Hadron physics has been an essential part of the physics program with the CLAS detector in experimental hall B at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). With the 12 GeV upgrade of the CEBAF machine, hadron physics in Hall B will be extended to a new domain of higher mass resonances and the range of higher transferred momentum using up to 11 GeV electron beams and the upgraded CLAS12 detector. In this paper, status of the hall B superconducting magnets for the 12 GeV upgrade is presented.

  10. Effects of Turbulent Magnetic Fields on the Transport and Acceleration of Energetic Charged Particles: Numerical Simulations with Application to Heliospheric Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fan

    2012-11-01

    Turbulent magnetic fields are ubiquitous in space physics and astrophysics. The influence of magnetic turbulence on the motions of charged particles contains the essential physics of the transport and acceleration of energetic charged particles in the heliosphere, which is to be explored in this thesis. After a brief introduction on the energetic charged particles and magnetic fields in the heliosphere, the rest of this dissertation focuses on three specific topics: 1. the transport of energetic charged particles in the inner heliosphere, 2. the acceleration of ions at collisionless shocks, and 3. the acceleration of electrons at collisionless shocks. We utilize various numerical techniques to study these topics. In Chapter 2 we study the propagation of charged particles in turbulent magnetic fields similar to the propagation of solar energetic particles in the inner heliosphere. The trajectories of energetic charged particles in the turbulent magnetic field are numerically integrated. The turbulence model includes a Kolmogorov-like magnetic field power spectrum containing a broad range of scales from those that lead to large-scale field-line random walk to small scales leading to resonant pitch-angle scattering of energetic particles. We show that small-scale variations in particle intensities (the so-called "dropouts") and velocity dispersions observed by spacecraft can be reproduced using this method. Our study gives a new constraint on the error of "onset analysis", which is a technique commonly used to infer information about the initial release of energetic particles. We also find that the dropouts are rarely produced in the simulations using the so-called "two-component" magnetic turbulence model (Matthaeus et al., 1990). The result questions the validity of this model in studying particle transport. In the first part of Chapter 3 we study the acceleration of ions in the existence of turbulent magnetic fields. We use 3-D self-consistent hybrid simulations

  11. Smartphones as Experimental Tools: Different Methods to Determine the Gravitational Acceleration in Classroom Physics by Using Everyday Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Jochen; Vogt, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    New media technology becomes more and more important for our daily life as well as for teaching physics. Within the scope of our N.E.T. research project we develop experiments using New Media Experimental Tools (N.E.T.) in physics education and study their influence on students learning abilities. We want to present the possibilities e.g. of…

  12. Rare Kaon Decays, KEK experiment E391 and E14 at the Japan Physics and Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC)

    SciTech Connect

    Wah, Yau Wai

    2012-12-06

    The goal of the J-PARC neutral kaon experiment (E14/KOTO) is to discover and measure the rate of the kaon rare decay to pi-zero and two neutrinos. This flavor changing neutral current decay proceeds through second-order weak interactions. Other, as yet undiscovered particles, which can mediate the decay could provide an enhancement (or depletion) to the branching ratio which in the Standard Model is accurately predicted within a few percent to be 2.8x10-11. The experiment is designed to observe more than 100 events at the Standard Model branching. It is a follow-up of the KEK E391a experiment and has stage-2 approval by J-PARC PAC in 2007. E14/KOTO has collaborators from Japan (Kyoto, Osaka, Yamagata, Saga), US (Arizona State, Chicago, Michigan Ann Arbor), Taiwan (National Taiwan), Korea, and Russia (Dubna). The experiment exploits the 300kW 30-50 GeV proton delivery of the J-PARC accelerator with a hermetic high acceptance detector with a fine grained Cesium Iodide (CsI) crystal calorimeter, and state of the art electronic front end and data acquisition system. With the recovery of the tsunami disaster on March 11th 2011, E14 is scheduled to start collecting data in December 2012. During the detector construction phase, Chicago focuses on the front end electronics readout of the entire detector system, particularly the CsI calorimeter. The CsI crystals together with its photomultipliers were previously used at the Fermilab KTeV experiment (E832/E799), and were loaned to E14 via this Chicago DOE support. The new readout electronics includes an innovative 10-pole pulse-shaping technique coupled with high speed digitization (14-bit 125MHz and 12-bit 500MHz). This new instrument enables us to measure both energy and timing, particularly with timing resolution better than 100 psec. Besides the cost saving by elimination of the standard time to digital converters, it is now possible to measure the momenta of the final state photons for additional background suppression

  13. B physics at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    J. Cranshaw

    2002-09-30

    A vibrant B physics program is being pursued at the Tevatron for Run II using the upgraded accelerator complex and the upgraded CDF and D0 detectors with the goal of collecting 2 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. This will provide measurements of various CP parameters which both complement and extend the programs at the B factories. There are also a variety of spectroscopy measurements currently available only at the Tevatron. The detectors are now largely commissioned and data acquisition is underway.

  14. Small-Scale Readout System Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Szelezniak, Michal; Anderssen, Eric; Greiner, Leo; Matis, Howard; Ritter, Hans Georg; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, James; Vu, Chinh; Wieman, Howard

    2008-10-10

    Development and prototyping efforts directed towards construction of a new vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL are presented. This new detector will extend the physics range of STAR by allowing for precision measurements of yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. The innermost central part of the new detector is a high resolution pixel-type detector (PIXEL). PIXEL requirements are discussed as well as a conceptual mechanical design, a sensor development path, and a detector readout architecture. Selected progress with sensor prototypes dedicated to the PIXEL detector is summarized and the approach chosen for the readout system architecture validated in tests of hardware prototypes is discussed.

  15. Research in particle physics. [Dept. of Physics, Boston Univ

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, Scott J.

    1992-09-01

    Research accomplishments and current activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics are presented. Principal areas of activity include the following: detectors for studies of electron[endash]positron annihilation in colliding beams; advanced accelerator component design, including the superconducting beam inflector, electrostatic quadrupoles, and the electrostatic muon kicker''; the detector for the MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment; neutrino astrophysics and the search for proton decay; theoretical particle physics (electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking, hadron collider phenomenology, cosmology and astrophysics, new field-theoretic models, nonperturbative investigations of quantum field theories, electroweak interactions); measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; calorimetry for the GEM experiment; and muon detectors for the GEM experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider.

  16. Neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Stephan, Andrew C.; Jardret; Vincent D.

    2011-04-05

    A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

  17. Improved gaseous leak detector

    DOEpatents

    Juravic, F.E. Jr.

    1983-10-06

    In a short path length mass-spectrometer type of helium leak detector wherein the helium trace gas is ionized, accelerated and deflected onto a particle counter, an arrangement is provided for converting the detector to neon leak detection. The magnetic field of the deflection system is lowered so as to bring the nonlinear fringe area of the magnetic field across the ion path, thereby increasing the amount of deflection of the heavier neon ions.

  18. Gaseous leak detector

    DOEpatents

    Juravic, Jr., Frank E.

    1988-01-01

    In a short path length mass-spectrometer type of helium leak detector wherein the helium trace gas is ionized, accelerated and deflected onto a particle counter, an arrangement is provided for converting the detector to neon leak detection. The magnetic field of the deflection system is lowered so as to bring the non linear fringe area of the magnetic field across the ion path, thereby increasing the amount of deflection of the heavier neon ions.

  19. Liquid Hydrogen: Target, Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.T.; Harigel, G.G.

    2004-06-23

    In 1952 D. Glaser demonstrated that a radioactive source's radiation could boil 135 deg. C superheated-diethyl ether in a 3-mm O glass vessel and recorded bubble track growth on high-speed film in a 2-cm3 chamber. This Bubble Chamber (BC) promised improved particle track time and spatial resolution and cycling rate. Hildebrand and Nagle, U of Chicago, reported Liquid Hydrogen minimum ionizing particle boiling in August 1953. John Wood created the 3.7-cm O Liquid Hydrogen BC at LBL in January 1954. By 1959 the Lawrence Berkley Laboratory (LBL) Alvarez group's '72-inch' BC had tracks in liquid hydrogen. Within 10 years bubble chamber volumes increased by a factor of a million and spread to every laboratory with a substantial high-energy physics program. The BC, particle accelerators and special separated particle beams created a new era of High Energy Physics (HEP) experimentation. The BC became the largest most complex cryogenic installation at the world's HEP laboratories for decades. The invention and worldwide development, deployment and characteristics of these cryogenic dynamic target/detectors and related hydrogen targets are described.

  20. LHCb GPU acceleration project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badalov, A.; Cámpora, D.; Neufeld, N.; Vilasís-Cardona, X.

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb detector is due to be upgraded for processing high-luminosity collisions, which will increase data bandwidth to the event filter farm from 100 GB/s to 4 TB/s, encouraging us to look for new ways of accelerating Online reconstruction. The Coprocessor Manager is a new framework for integrating LHCb's existing computation pipelines with massively parallel algorithms running on GPUs and other accelerators. This paper describes the system and analyzes its performance.

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW: Recent developments in PET detector technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewellen, Tom K.

    2008-09-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a tool for metabolic imaging that has been utilized since the earliest days of nuclear medicine. A key component of such imaging systems is the detector modules—an area of research and development with a long, rich history. Development of detectors for PET has often seen the migration of technologies, originally developed for high energy physics experiments, into prototype PET detectors. Of the many areas explored, some detector designs go on to be incorporated into prototype scanner systems and a few of these may go on to be seen in commercial scanners. There has been a steady, often very diverse development of prototype detectors, and the pace has accelerated with the increased use of PET in clinical studies (currently driven by PET/CT scanners) and the rapid proliferation of pre-clinical PET scanners for academic and commercial research applications. Most of these efforts are focused on scintillator-based detectors, although various alternatives continue to be considered. For example, wire chambers have been investigated many times over the years and more recently various solid-state devices have appeared in PET detector designs for very high spatial resolution applications. But even with scintillators, there have been a wide variety of designs and solutions investigated as developers search for solutions that offer very high spatial resolution, fast timing, high sensitivity and are yet cost effective. In this review, we will explore some of the recent developments in the quest for better PET detector technology.

  2. Physics design of a 100 keV acceleration grid system for the diagnostic neutral beam for international tokamak experimental reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. J.; De Esch, H. P. L.

    2010-01-15

    This paper describes the physics design of a 100 keV, 60 A H{sup -} accelerator for the diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) for international tokamak experimental reactor (ITER). The accelerator is a three grid system comprising of 1280 apertures, grouped in 16 groups with 80 apertures per beam group. Several computer codes have been used to optimize the design which follows the same philosophy as the ITER Design Description Document (DDD) 5.3 and the 1 MeV heating and current drive beam line [R. Hemsworth, H. Decamps, J. Graceffa, B. Schunke, M. Tanaka, M. Dremel, A. Tanga, H. P. L. De Esch, F. Geli, J. Milnes, T. Inoue, D. Marcuzzi, P. Sonato, and P. Zaccaria, Nucl. Fusion 49, 045006 (2009)]. The aperture shapes, intergrid distances, and the extractor voltage have been optimized to minimize the beamlet divergence. To suppress the acceleration of coextracted electrons, permanent magnets have been incorporated in the extraction grid, downstream of the cooling water channels. The electron power loads on the extractor and the grounded grids have been calculated assuming 1 coextracted electron per ion. The beamlet divergence is calculated to be 4 mrad. At present the design for the filter field of the RF based ion sources for ITER is not fixed, therefore a few configurations of the same have been considered. Their effect on the transmission of the electrons and beams through the accelerator has been studied. The OPERA-3D code has been used to estimate the aperture offset steering constant of the grounded grid and the extraction grid, the space charge interaction between the beamlets and the kerb design required to compensate for this interaction. All beamlets in the DNB must be focused to a single point in the duct, 20.665 m from the grounded grid, and the required geometrical aimings and aperture offsets have been calculated.

  3. Physics design of a 100 keV acceleration grid system for the diagnostic neutral beam for international tokamak experimental reactor.

    PubMed

    Singh, M J; De Esch, H P L

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the physics design of a 100 keV, 60 A H(-) accelerator for the diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) for international tokamak experimental reactor (ITER). The accelerator is a three grid system comprising of 1280 apertures, grouped in 16 groups with 80 apertures per beam group. Several computer codes have been used to optimize the design which follows the same philosophy as the ITER Design Description Document (DDD) 5.3 and the 1 MeV heating and current drive beam line [R. Hemsworth, H. Decamps, J. Graceffa, B. Schunke, M. Tanaka, M. Dremel, A. Tanga, H. P. L. De Esch, F. Geli, J. Milnes, T. Inoue, D. Marcuzzi, P. Sonato, and P. Zaccaria, Nucl. Fusion 49, 045006 (2009)]. The aperture shapes, intergrid distances, and the extractor voltage have been optimized to minimize the beamlet divergence. To suppress the acceleration of coextracted electrons, permanent magnets have been incorporated in the extraction grid, downstream of the cooling water channels. The electron power loads on the extractor and the grounded grids have been calculated assuming 1 coextracted electron per ion. The beamlet divergence is calculated to be 4 mrad. At present the design for the filter field of the RF based ion sources for ITER is not fixed, therefore a few configurations of the same have been considered. Their effect on the transmission of the electrons and beams through the accelerator has been studied. The OPERA-3D code has been used to estimate the aperture offset steering constant of the grounded grid and the extraction grid, the space charge interaction between the beamlets and the kerb design required to compensate for this interaction. All beamlets in the DNB must be focused to a single point in the duct, 20.665 m from the grounded grid, and the required geometrical aimings and aperture offsets have been calculated. PMID:20113091

  4. Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF): Data from W, Z bosons and Drell Yan lepton pairs research of the CDF Electroweak Group

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a Tevatron experiment at Fermilab. The Tevatron, a powerful particle accelerator, accelerates protons and antiprotons close to the speed of light, and then makes them collide head-on inside the CDF detector. The CDF detector is used to study the products of such collisions. The CDF Physics Group at Fermilab is organized into six working groups, each with a specific focus. The Electroweak group studies production and properties of W, Z bosons and Drell Yan lepton pairs. Their public web page makes data and numerous figures available from both CDF Runs I and II.

  5. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Carl B.

    1999-12-01

    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas.

  6. Liquid Scintillation Detectors for High Energy Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Stefanie N.; Learned, John G.

    2010-03-30

    Large open volume (not segmented) liquid scintillation detectors have been generally dedicated to low energy neutrino measurements, in the MeV energy region. We describe the potential employment of large detectors (>1 kiloton) for studies of higher energy neutrino interactions, such as cosmic rays and long-baseline experiments. When considering the physics potential of new large instruments the possibility of doing useful measurements with higher energy neutrino interactions has been overlooked. Here we take into account Fermat's principle, which states that the first light to reach each PMT will follow the shortest path between that PMT and the point of origin. We describe the geometry of this process, and the resulting wavefront, which we are calling the 'Fermat surface', and discuss methods of using this surface to extract directional track information and particle identification. This capability may be demonstrated in the new long-baseline neutrino beam from Jaeri accelerator to the KamLAND detector in Japan. Other exciting applications include the use of Hanohano as a movable long-baseline detector in this same beam, and LENA in Europe for future long-baseline neutrino beams from CERN. Also, this methodology opens up the question as to whether a large liquid scintillator detector should be given consideration for use in a future long-baseline experiment from Fermilab to the DUSEL underground laboratory at Homestake.

  7. The GA PEAcH: A Portable Electrostatic Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClanahan, Patrick; Burch, Ashlyn; Bivins, Quintorious; Garrett, Megan; Jordan, Zachary; Roberts, Rhett; Thomas, Benjamin; Careccia, Sharon; Johnson, Rommie; France, Ralph, III; McGill, K. C., Jr.; Spraker, Mark

    2014-03-01

    In collaboration with the University of North Georgia, we are constructing a portable electrostatic ion accelerator at Georgia College. It will use a model 2JA066280 R.F. ion source from National Electrostatics Corporation to produce ions from gaseous elements and a model AU-100N1 100 kV power supply to produce the accelerating voltage. The linear accelerator will be less than 2 meters in length. The beam energy will be roughly determined by the acceleration voltage. Low energy proton-induced fusion reactions are envisioned for both pure and applied physics research. One potential application is to use the 17 MeV γ-ray from the 7 Li (p , γ)8 Be reaction to help calibrate γ-ray detectors at the Hi γs facility. Supported by the Georgia College Faculty Research Grant Program.

  8. Heavy Ion Physics at Low, Intermediate and Relativistic Energies Using 4PI Detectors - Proceedings of the International Research Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovici, M.; Sandulescu, A.; Pelte, D.; Stöcker, H.; Randrup, J.

    1997-10-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * Neutronless Fragmentation in the Spontaneous Fission of 252Cf * Cnoidal Waves as Solutions of the Nonlinear Liquid Drop Model * Thermalization Time-Scale of the Giant Quadrupole Resonance * Application of Lindblad Theory to Problems of Nuclear Dissipation * Microcanonical Approach for Investigating the Decay of Highly Excited Nuclei * Particle Stable Semiclassical Simulation of a Nucleus for High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions * Decay Study of Hot Nuclei Below the Multifragmentation Threshold with the FOBOS Detector at Dubna * 4π Experiments with MEDEA * Thermodynamical Properties and Deexcitation of Sources Involved in Collisions Between Light Nuclei Around 100 AMeV Incident Energy * Dynamics of Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions Up to 100 MeV/u and the Caloric Curve * Multifragmentation and the Search for the Liquid-Gas Phase Transition in Nuclear Matter * Multifragmentation Studies at Intermediate Energies with the New 4π Detector CHIMERA * Nuclear Matter Flow Studies at GANIL using NAUTILUS * Transverse and Radial Flow in Intermediate Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions * Fragment Flow in Au+Au Collisions * Limits of Energy Equilibration in Central Au on Au Collisions in the Projectile Energy Range from 150 AMeV to 1050 AMeV * System Dependence of Event Shapes, Radial Flow and Fragment Production in Central Collision of Ni+Ni, Xe+CsI and Au+Au at 250 AMeV * Out-of-Plane Emission of Nuclear Matter in Heavy Ion Collisions Between 150 and 800 AMeV * Flow and Spectra for Light Fragments from Au+Au Collisions in the EOS TPC * Transition from In-Plane to Out-of-Plane Emission in Heavy Ion Collisions * Collective Expansion of Hot and Compressed Nuclear Matter * Collective Flow in Central Au+Au Collisions at E~1 AGeV * Proton-Proton Correlations in Central Collisions of Ni+Ni at 1.93 AGeV and the Space-Time Extent of the Emission Source * Compression and Expansion in Central Collisions * Pion Production at SIS

  9. The design and construction of a double-sided Silicon Microvertex Detector for the L3 experiment at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, A.; Ahlen, S.; Marin, A.; Zhou, B.; Ambrosi, G.; Babucci, E.; Bertucci, B.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G.M.; Caria, M.; Checcucci, B.; Easo, S.; Fiandrini, E.; Krastev, V.R.; Massetti, R.; Pauluzzi, M.; Santocchia, A.; Servoli, L. |; Bencze, G.Y.L.; Kornis, J.; Toth, J.; Brooks, M.L.; Coan, T.E.; Kapustinsky, J.S.; Kinnison, W.W.; Lee, D.M.; Mills, G.B.; Thompson, T.C.; Busenitz, J.; DiBitonto, D.; Camps, C.; Commichau, V.; Hangartner, K.; Schmitz, P.; Castellini, G.; Hauviller, C.; Herve, A.; Josa, I.; Landi, G.; Lecomte, P.; Viertel, G.M.; Waldmeier, S.; Leiste, R. |; Lejeune, E.; Weill, R.; Lohmann, W.; Nowak, H.; Sachwitz, M.; Schoeniech, B.; Tonisch, F.; Trowitzsch, G.; Vogt, H.; Passaleva, G.

    1993-12-01

    A Silicon Microvertex Detector (SMD) has been commissioned for the L3 experiment at the Large Electron-Positron colliding-beam accelerator (LEP) at the European Center for Nuclear Physics, (CERN). The SMD is a 72,672 channel, two layer barrel tracker that is comprised of 96 ac-coupled, double-sided silicon detectors. Details of the design and construction are presented.

  10. AN INTEGRAL REACTOR PHYSICS EXPERIMENT TO INFER ACTINIDE CAPTURE CROSS-SECTIONS FROM THORIUM TO CALIFORNIUM WITH ACCELERATOR MASS SPECTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    G. Youinou; M. Salvatores; M. Paul; R. Pardo; G. Palmiotti; F. Kondev; G. Imel

    2010-04-01

    The principle of the proposed experiment is to irradiate very pure actinide samples in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INL and, after a given time, determine the amount of the different transmutation products. The determination of the nuclide densities before and after neutron irradiation will allow inference of effective neutron capture cross-sections. This approach has been used in the past and the novelty of this experiment is that the atom densities of the different transmutation products will be determined using the Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS) technique at the ATLAS facility located at ANL. It is currently planned to irradiate the following isotopes: 232Th, 235U, 236U, 238U, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu, 241Am, 243Am and 248Cm.

  11. Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  12. Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-05

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  13. Physics design for the ATA (Advanced Test Accelerator) tapered wiggler 10. 6. mu. FEL (Free-Electron Laser) amplifier experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, W.M.

    1985-05-09

    The design and construction of a high-gain, tapered wiggler 10.6 ..mu.. Free Electron Laser (FEL) amplifier to operate with the 50 MeV e-beam is underway. This report discussed the FEL simulation and the physics motivations behind the tapered wiggler design and initial experimental diagnostics.

  14. Physical mapping in large genomes: accelerating anchoring of BAC contigs to genetic maps through in silico analysis.

    PubMed

    Paux, Etienne; Legeai, Fabrice; Guilhot, Nicolas; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Françoise; Alaux, Michaël; Salse, Jérôme; Sourdille, Pierre; Leroy, Philippe; Feuillet, Catherine

    2008-02-01

    Anchored physical maps represent essential frameworks for map-based cloning, comparative genomics studies, and genome sequencing projects. High throughput anchoring can be achieved by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library pools with molecular markers. However, for large genomes such as wheat, the development of high dimension pools and the number of reactions that need to be performed can be extremely large making the screening laborious and costly. To improve the cost efficiency of anchoring in such large genomes, we have developed a new software named Elephant (electronic physical map anchoring tool) that combines BAC contig information generated by FingerPrinted Contig with results of BAC library pools screening to identify BAC addresses with a minimal amount of PCR reactions. Elephant was evaluated during the construction of a physical map of chromosome 3B of hexaploid wheat. Results show that a one dimensional pool screening can be sufficient to anchor a BAC contig while reducing the number of PCR by 384-fold thereby demonstrating that Elephant is an efficient and cost-effective tool to support physical mapping in large genomes. PMID:18038165

  15. Research in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This proposal presents the research accomplishments and ongoing activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics. Some changes have been made in the structure of the program from the previous arrangement of tasks. Task B, Accelerator Design Physics, is being submitted as a separate proposal for an independent grant; this will be consistent with the nature of the research and the source of funding. We are active in seven principal areas which will be discussed in this report: Colliding Beams - physics of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {bar p}p collisions; MACRO Experiment - search for magnetic monopoles and study of cosmic rays; Proton Decay - search for nucleon instability and study of neutrino interactions; Particle Theory - theoretical high energy particle physics, including two Outstanding Junior Investigator awards; Muon G-2 - measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; SSCintcal - calorimetry for the GEM Experiment; and Muon detectors for the GEM Experiment.

  16. Research in particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    This proposal presents the research accomplishments and ongoing activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics. Some changes have been made in the structure of the program from the previous arrangement of tasks. Task B, Accelerator Design Physics, is being submitted as a separate proposal for an independent grant; this will be consistent with the nature of the research and the source of funding. We are active in seven principal areas which will be discussed in this report: Colliding Beams - physics of e(sup +)e(sup (minus)) and (bar p)p collisions; MACRO Experiment - search for magnetic monopoles and study of cosmic rays; Proton Decay - search for nucleon instability and study of neutrino interactions; Particle Theory - theoretical high energy particle physics, including two Outstanding Junior Investigator awards; Muon G-2 - measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; SSCintcal - calorimetry for the GEM Experiment; and Muon detectors for the GEM Experiment.

  17. Electroweak, top and bottom physics at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Ukegawa, Fumihiko; /Tsukuba U.

    2004-10-01

    The Tevatron Run-II program has been in progress since 2001, and the CDF and D0 experiments have been operational with upgraded detectors. Coupled with recent improvements in the Tevatron accelerator performance, the experiments have started producing important physics results and measurements. They report these measurements as well as prospects in the near future.

  18. The CDFII Silicon Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Julia Thom

    2004-07-23

    The CDFII silicon detector consists of 8 layers of double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors totaling 722,432 readout channels, making it one of the largest silicon detectors in present use by an HEP experiment. After two years of data taking, we report on our experience operating the complex device. The performance of the CDFII silicon detector is presented and its impact on physics analyses is discussed. We have already observed measurable effects from radiation damage. These results and their impact on the expected lifetime of the detector are briefly reviewed.

  19. University of Washington, Nuclear Physics Laboratory annual report, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington supports a broad program of experimental physics research. The current program includes in-house research using the local tandem Van de Graff and superconducting linac accelerators and non-accelerator research in double beta decay and gravitation as well as user-mode research at large accelerator and reactor facilities around the world. This book is divided into the following areas: nuclear astrophysics; neutrino physics; nucleus-nucleus reactions; fundamental symmetries and weak interactions; accelerator mass spectrometry; atomic and molecular clusters; ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions; external users; electronics, computing, and detector infrastructure; Van de Graff, superconducting booster and ion sources; nuclear physics laboratory personnel; degrees granted for 1994--1995; and list of publications from 1994--1995.

  20. GPU Acceleration of the Locally Selfconsistent Multiple Scattering Code for First Principles Calculation of the Ground State and Statistical Physics of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenbach, Markus; Larkin, Jeff; Lutjens, Justin; Rennich, Steven; Rogers, James H

    2016-01-01

    The Locally Self-consistent Multiple Scattering (LSMS) code solves the first principles Density Functional theory Kohn-Sham equation for a wide range of materials with a special focus on metals, alloys and metallic nano-structures. It has traditionally exhibited near perfect scalability on massively parallel high performance computer architectures. We present our efforts to exploit GPUs to accelerate the LSMS code to enable first principles calculations of O(100,000) atoms and statistical physics sampling of finite temperature properties. Using the Cray XK7 system Titan at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility we achieve a sustained performance of 14.5PFlop/s and a speedup of 8.6 compared to the CPU only code.

  1. Electro-magnetic physics studies at RHIC: Neutral pion production, direct photon HBT, photon elliptic flow in gold-gold collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV and the Muon Telescope Detector simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guoji

    Electro-magnetic (E&M) probes such as direct photons and muons (mu) are important tools to study the properties of the extremely hot and dense matter created in heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). In this thesis, several topics of E&M physics will be addressed, including neutral pion (pi0) production, direct photon HBT, and photon elliptic flow (v2) in Au+Au collisions at sNN = 200 GeV. A discussion on the simulation study of the new Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) will also be presented. The pi0 production is a fundamental measurement of hadron production and prerequisite for the background study of direct photons. Neutral pions are reconstructed using the photons detected by the STAR Barrel Electro-magnetic Calorimeter (BEMC) and the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). Spectra of pi 0 are measured at transverse momentum 1 < pT < 12 GeV/c near mid-rapidity (0 < eta < 0.8) in 200 GeV Au+Au collisions. The spectra and nuclear modification factors RCP and RAA are compared to earlier pi+/- and pi0 results. Direct photon Hanbury-Brown and Twiss (HBT) correlations can reveal information of the system size throughout the whole collision. A first attempt of direct photon HBT study at RHIC in 200 GeV Au+Au collisions is done using photons detected by the STAR BEMC and TPC. All unknown correlation at small Qinv is observed, whose magnitude is much larger than the expected HBT signal, and possible causes of the correlation will be discussed. Direct photon elliptic flow (v2) at intermediate to high pT is sensitive to the source of direct photon production. Results of inclusive photon v2 in 200 GeV Au+Au collisions are presented. The v2 of pi0 decay photons is calculated from the previously published pi results. The comparison between inclusive and decay photon v 2 indicates that direct photon v2 is small. A new large-area Muon Telescope Detector at mid-rapidity at RHIC is proposed and under investigation, using the Long-strip Multi-Gap Resistive Plate

  2. Design Concepts for Muon-Based Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, R. D.; Berg, J. S.; Kirk, H. G.; Palmer, R. B.; Stratkis, D.; Alexahin, Y.; Bross, A.; Gollwitzer, K.; Mokhov, N. V.; Neuffer, D.; Palmer, M. A.; Yonehara, K.; Snopok, P.; Bogacz, A.; Roberts, T. J.; Delahaye, J. -P.

    2015-05-01

    Muon-based accelerators have the potential to enable facilities at both the Intensity and the Energy Frontiers. Muon storage rings can serve as high precision neutrino sources, and a muon collider is an ideal technology for a TeV or multi-TeV collider. Progress in muon accelerator designs has advanced steadily in recent years. In regard to 6D muon cooling, detailed and realistic designs now exist that provide more than 5 order-of-magnitude emittance reduction. Furthermore, detector performance studies indicate that with suitable pixelation and timing resolution, backgrounds in the collider detectors can be significantly reduced, thus enabling high-quality physics results. Thanks to these and other advances in design & simulation of muon systems, technology development, and systems demonstrations, muon storage-ring-based neutrino sources and a muon collider appear more feasible than ever before. A muon collider is now arguably among the most compelling approaches to a multi-TeV lepton collider. This paper summarizes the current status of design concepts for muon-based accelerators for neutrino factories and a muon collider.

  3. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    SciTech Connect

    Lach, Joseph

    2010-07-01

    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?

  4. The Upgraded D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco de Quito U. /Clermont-Ferrand U. /LPSC, Grenoble /Marseille, CPPM /Orsay, LAL /Paris U., VI-VII /DAPNIA, Saclay /Strasbourg, IReS

    2005-07-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  5. PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Teng, L.C.

    1960-01-19

    ABS>A combination of two accelerators, a cyclotron and a ring-shaped accelerator which has a portion disposed tangentially to the cyclotron, is described. Means are provided to transfer particles from the cyclotron to the ring accelerator including a magnetic deflector within the cyclotron, a magnetic shield between the ring accelerator and the cyclotron, and a magnetic inflector within the ring accelerator.

  6. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  7. Particle accelerator development: Selected examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jie

    2016-03-01

    About 30 years ago, I was among several students mentored by Professor Yang at Stony Brook to enter the field of particle accelerator physics. Since then, I have been fortunate to work on several major accelerator projects in USA and in China, guided and at times directly supported by Professor Yang. The field of accelerator physics is flourishing worldwide both providing indispensable tools for fundamental physics research and covering an increasingly wide spectrum of applications beneficial to our society.

  8. Particle Accelerator Development: Selected Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jie

    About 30 years ago, I was among several students mentored by Professor Yang at Stony Brook to enter the field of particle accelerator physics. Since then, I have been fortunate to work on several major accelerator projects in USA and in China, guided and at times directly supported by Professor Yang. The field of accelerator physics is flourishing worldwide both providing indispensable tools for fundamental physics research and covering an increasingly wide spectrum of applications beneficial to our society.

  9. CEBAF accelerator achievements

    SciTech Connect

    Y.C. Chao, M. Drury, C. Hovater, A. Hutton, G.A. Krafft, M. Poelker, C. Reece, M. Tiefenback

    2011-06-01

    In the past decade, nuclear physics users of Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) have benefited from accelerator physics advances and machine improvements. As of early 2011, CEBAF operates routinely at 6 GeV, with a 12 GeV upgrade underway. This article reports highlights of CEBAF's scientific and technological evolution in the areas of cryomodule refurbishment, RF control, polarized source development, beam transport for parity experiments, magnets and hysteresis handling, beam breakup, and helium refrigerator operational optimization.

  10. The MESA accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Aulenbacher, Kurt

    2013-11-07

    The MESA accelerator will operate for particle and nuclear physics experiments in two different modes. A first option is conventional c.w. acceleration yielding 150-200MeV spin-polarized external beam. Second, MESA will be operated as a superconducting multi-turn energy recovery linac (ERL), opening the opportunity to perform experiments with a windowless target with beam current of up to 10 mA. The perspectives for innovative experiments with such a machine are discussed together with a sketch of the accelerator physics issues that have to be solved.

  11. A ring imaging Cherenkov detector for CLAS12

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, Rachel A.

    2013-12-01

    The energy increase of Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) to 12 GeV promises to greatly extend the physics reach of its experiments. This will include an upgrade of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) to CLAS12, offering unique possibilities to study internal nucleon dynamics. For this excellent hadron identification over the full kinematical range of 3–8 GeV/c is essential. This will be achieved by the installation of a Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector. A novel hybrid imaging design incorporating mirrors, aerogel radiators and Hamamatsu H8500 multianode photomultiplier tubes is proposed. Depending on the incident particle track angle, Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly or after two reflections and passes through the aerogel. The detector design is described, along with preliminary results on individual detector components tests and from recent testbeam studies.

  12. European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics, organized by the High Energy and Particle Physics Division of the European Physical Society, is a major international conference that reviews biennially since 1971 the state of our knowledge of the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. The latest conferences in this series were held in Stockholm, Grenoble, Krakow, Manchester, Lisbon, and Aachen. Jointly organized by the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the University of Vienna, the Vienna University of Technology, and the Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the 23rd edition of this conference took place in Vienna, Austria. Among the topics covered were Accelerators, Astroparticle Physics, Cosmology and Gravitation, Detector R&D and Data Handling, Education and Outreach, Flavour Physics and Fundamental Symmetries, Heavy Ion Physics, Higgs and New Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Perturbative Field Theory and String Theory, QCD and Hadronic Physics, as well as Top and Electroweak Physics.

  13. Particle physics---Experimental

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J.J.; Boynton, P.E.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1991-08-21

    We are continuing a research program in particle astrophysics and high energy experimental particle physics. We have joined the DUMAND Collaboration, which is constructing a deep undersea astrophysical neutrino detector near Hawaii. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions using emulsion chamber techniques were also continued, using balloon flight exposures to ultra-high cosmic ray nuclei (JACEE) and accelerator beams. As members of the DUMAND Collaboration, we have responsibility for development a construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility. We have designed and developed the acoustical positioning system required to permit reconstruction of muon tracks with sufficient precision to meet the astrophysical goals of the experiment. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the database and triggering system to be used. Work has been continuing in other aspects of the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators, using balloon-borne emulsion chambers. On one of the flights we found two nuclear interactions of multiplicity over 1000 -- one with a multiplicity of over 2000 and pseudorapidity density {approximately} 800 in the central region. At the statistical level of the JACEE experiment, the frequency of occurrence of such events is orders of magnitude too large. We have continued our ongoing program to study hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams.

  14. Advanced far infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > {lambda} > 50 {mu}m are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide.

  15. Direct Particle Acceleration in Astroplasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, M.

    2002-10-01

    The high energy particle acceleration mechanisms are discussed by focusing on the direct acceleration in the astrophysical context. We specifically argue that the relativistic magnetic reconnection and the shock surfing/surfatron processes can efficiently accelerate charged particles to a relativistic energy, and that those mechanisms may produce a non-thermal, power-law energy spectrum. [copyright] 2002 American Institute of Physics

  16. The LHC Compact Muon Solenoid experiment Detector Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, G.; Beccati, B.; Behrens, U.; Biery, K.; Bouffet, O.; Branson, J.; Bukowiec, S.; Cano, E.; Cheung, H.; Ciganek, M.; Cittolin, S.; Coarasa, J. A.; Deldicque, C.; Dupont, A.; Erhan, S.; Gigi, D.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino, R.; Hatton, D.; Holzner, A.; Hwong, Y. L.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Meschi, E.; Mommsen, R. K.; Moser, R.; O'Dell, V.; Orsini, L.; Paus, C.; Petrucci, A.; Pieri, M.; Racz, A.; Raginel, O.; Sakulin, H.; Sani, M.; Schieferdecker, P.; Schwick, C.; Shpakov, D.; Simon, M.; Sumorok, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN is a multi-purpose experiment designed to exploit the physics of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider collision energy (14TeV at centre of mass) over the full range of expected luminosities (up to 1034cm-2s-1). The CMS detector control system (DCS) ensures a safe, correct and efficient operation of the detector so that high quality physics data can be recorded. The system is also required to operate the detector with a small crew of experts who can take care of the maintenance of its software and hardware infrastructure. The subsystems size sum up to more than a million parameters that need to be supervised by the DCS. A cluster of roughly 100 servers is used to provide the required processing resources. A scalable approach has been chosen factorizing the DCS system as much as possible. CMS DCS has made clear a division between its computing resources and functionality by creating a computing framework allowing plugging in of functional components. DCS components are developed by the subsystems expert groups while the computing infrastructure is developed centrally. To ensure the correct operation of the detector, DCS organizes the communication between the accelerator and the experiment systems making sure that the detector is in a safe state during hazardous situations and is fully operational when stable conditions are present. This paper describes the current status of the CMS DCS focusing on operational aspects and the role of DCS in this communication.

  17. Plasma inverse transition acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Ming

    2001-06-18

    It can be proved fundamentally from the reciprocity theorem with which the electromagnetism is endowed that corresponding to each spontaneous process of radiation by a charged particle there is an inverse process which defines a unique acceleration mechanism, from Cherenkov radiation to inverse Cherenkov acceleration (ICA) [1], from Smith-Purcell radiation to inverse Smith-Purcell acceleration (ISPA) [2], and from undulator radiation to inverse undulator acceleration (IUA) [3]. There is no exception. Yet, for nearly 30 years after each of the aforementioned inverse processes has been clarified for laser acceleration, inverse transition acceleration (ITA), despite speculation [4], has remained the least understood, and above all, no practical implementation of ITA has been found, until now. Unlike all its counterparts in which phase synchronism is established one way or the other such that a particle can continuously gain energy from an acceleration wave, the ITA to be discussed here, termed plasma inverse transition acceleration (PITA), operates under fundamentally different principle. As a result, the discovery of PITA has been delayed for decades, waiting for a conceptual breakthrough in accelerator physics: the principle of alternating gradient acceleration [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]. In fact, PITA was invented [7, 8] as one of several realizations of the new principle.

  18. Current and future uses of accelerators in particle astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzik, T. G.

    1990-01-01

    Beams of artificially accelerated heavy ions, protons, antiprotons, electrons, and positrons currently available at (and planned for) numerous facilities around the world are a valuable resource to the Cosmic Ray community. Such beams have been used to test detector concepts, calibrate balloon-borne and space flight experiments and to measure fundamental nuclear physics parameter necessary for the interpretation of Cosmic Ray data. As new experiments are flown the quality and extent of Cosmic Ray measurements will continue to improve. It will be necessary to increase activity at ground based accelerators in order to test/calibrate these new instruments and to maintain (or possibly improve) the ability to interpret these data. In this area, the newly formed Transport Collaboration, supported by NASA, will be providing new nuclear interaction cross section measurements for beams with Z less than or = 58 and supporting new instrument calibrations at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac accelerator.

  19. Physical evaluation of CT scan methods for radiation therapy planning: comparison of fast, slow and gating scan using the 256-detector row CT scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Shinichiro; Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Mizuno, Hideyuki; Sunaoka, Masayoshi; Endo, Masahiro

    2006-02-01

    Although slow-rotation CT scanning (slow-scan CT: SSCT) has been used for radiation therapy planning, based on the rationale that the average duration of the human respiratory cycle is 4 s, a number of physical and quantitative questions require answering before it can be adopted for clinical use. This study was performed to evaluate SSCT physically in comparison with other scan methods, including respiratory-gated CT (RGCT), and to develop procedures to improve treatment accuracy. Evaluation items were geometrical accuracy, volume accuracy, water equivalent length and dose distribution using the 256-detector row CT with three scan methods. Fast-scan CT (FSCT) was defined as obtaining all respiratory phases in cine scan mode at 1.0 s per rotation. FSCT-ave was the averaged FSCT images in all respiratory phases, obtained by reconstructing short time intervals. SSCT has been defined as scanning with slow gantry rotation to capture the whole respiratory cycle in one rotation. RGCT was scanned at the most stable point in the respiratory cycle, which provides the same image as that by FSCT at the most stable point. Results showed that all evaluation items were dependent on motion characteristics. The findings of this study indicate that 3D planning based solely on SSCT under free breathing may result in underdosing of the target volume and increase toxicity to surrounding normal tissues. Of the three methods, RGCT showed the best ability to significantly increase the accuracy of dose distribution, and provided more information to minimize the margins. FSCT-ave is a satisfactory radiotherapy planning alternative if RGCT is not available.

  20. Measurement Of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detector Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seongtae; Baldelomar, Edwin; Park, Kwangjune; Sosebee, Mark; White, Andy; Yu, Jaehoon

    2011-06-01

    The High Energy Physics group of the University of Texas at Arlington has been developing gas electron multiplier detectors to use them as sensitive gap detectors in digital hadron calorimeters for the International Linear Collider, a future high energy particle accelerator. For this purpose, we constructed numerous GEM detectors that employ double GEM layers. In this study, two kinds of prototype GEM detectors were tested; one with 28×28 cm2 active area double GEM structure with a 3 mm drift gap, a 1 mm transfer gap and a 1 mm induction gap and the other with two 3×3 cm2 GEM foils in the amplifier stage with a 5 mm drift gap, a 2 mm transfer gap and a 1 mm induction gap. The detectors' characteristics from exposure to high-energy charged particles and other radiations were measured using cosmic rays and 55Fe radioactive source. From the 55Fe tests, we observed two well separated characteristic X-ray emission peaks and confirmed the detectors' functionality. We also measured chamber gains to be over 6000 at a high voltage of 395 V across each GEM electrode. The responses to cosmic rays show the spectra that fit well to Landau distributions as expected from minimum ionizing particles.

  1. Measurement Of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detector Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Seongtae; Baldelomar, Edwin; Sosebee, Mark; White, Andy; Yu, Jaehoon; Park, Kwangjune

    2011-06-01

    The High Energy Physics group of the University of Texas at Arlington has been developing gas electron multiplier detectors to use them as sensitive gap detectors in digital hadron calorimeters for the International Linear Collider, a future high energy particle accelerator. For this purpose, we constructed numerous GEM detectors that employ double GEM layers. In this study, two kinds of prototype GEM detectors were tested; one with 28x28 cm{sup 2} active area double GEM structure with a 3 mm drift gap, a 1 mm transfer gap and a 1 mm induction gap and the other with two 3x3 cm{sup 2} GEM foils in the amplifier stage with a 5 mm drift gap, a 2 mm transfer gap and a 1 mm induction gap. The detectors' characteristics from exposure to high-energy charged particles and other radiations were measured using cosmic rays and {sup 55}Fe radioactive source. From the {sup 55}Fe tests, we observed two well separated characteristic X-ray emission peaks and confirmed the detectors' functionality. We also measured chamber gains to be over 6000 at a high voltage of 395 V across each GEM electrode. The responses to cosmic rays show the spectra that fit well to Landau distributions as expected from minimum ionizing particles.

  2. Characterization of segmented Silicon detectors for neutron beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, Americo; McGaughey, Patrick

    2012-03-01

    The ``Nab'', and ``UCNB'' collaborations will measure the correlation parameters ``a'', ``b'', and ``B'' that are found in the triple differential rate equation from neutron β-decay ( n ->p + e + νe). These parameters that offer an atractive platform for searches of signals of new physics beyond standard model will be measured using unpolarized cold neutrons (Nab) at SNS, ORNL,and polarized ultracold neutrons (UCNB) at LANL. Following a neutron β-decay the electron and proton, will be accelerated in a 4π-field spectrometer, and detected by a novel detector design consisting of two opposite large area and thick silicon detectors segmented in 127 pixels per detector, and operated at ˜ 100 Kelvin. We have successfully completed the first phase of detector characterization, operating 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mm thick Silicon detectors of 11 cm in diameter for neutron β-decay experiments at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and detected ˜ 300 Hz protons from 15 to 35 keV at NCSU with a FWHM resolution of ˜ 3.2 keV with a potential of another factor of two improvement. Custom amplifiers based on FETs mounted directly on the detector reduced the noise and made possible the proton detection.

  3. RADIATION DETECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, H.N.; Glass, F.M.

    1960-05-10

    A radiation detector of the type is described wherein a condenser is directly connected to the electrodes for the purpose of performing the dual function of a guard ring and to provide capacitance coupling for resetting the detector system.

  4. Overview of accelerators in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Lennox, A.J. |

    1993-06-01

    Accelerators used for medicine include synchrotrons, cyclotrons, betatrons, microtrons, and electron, proton, and light ion linacs. Some accelerators which were formerly found only at physics laboratories are now being considered for use in hospital-based treatment and diagnostic facilities. This paper presents typical operating parameters for medical accelerators and gives specific examples of clinical applications for each type of accelerator, with emphasis on recent developments in the field.

  5. Plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, R.D.; Chen, P.

    1986-03-01

    In this paper we discuss plasma accelerators which might provide high gradient accelerating fields suitable for TeV linear colliders. In particular we discuss two types of plasma accelerators which have been proposed, the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator and the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator. We show that the electric fields in the plasma for both schemes are very similar, and thus the dynamics of the driven beams are very similar. The differences appear in the parameters associated with the driving beams. In particular to obtain a given accelerating gradient, the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator has a higher efficiency and a lower total energy for the driving beam. Finally, we show for the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator that one can accelerate high quality low emittance beams and, in principle, obtain efficiencies and energy spreads comparable to those obtained with conventional techniques.

  6. Introductory Physics Experiments Using the Wiimote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somers, William; Rooney, Frank; Ochoa, Romulo

    2009-03-01

    The Wii, a video game console, is a very popular device with millions of units sold worldwide over the past two years. Although computationally it is not a powerful machine, to a physics educator its most important components can be its controllers. The Wiimote (or remote) controller contains three accelerometers, an infrared detector, and Bluetooth connectivity at a relatively low price. Thanks to available open source code, any PC with Bluetooth capability can detect the information sent out by the Wiimote. We have designed several experiments for introductory physics courses that make use of the accelerometers and Bluetooth connectivity. We have adapted the Wiimote to measure the: variable acceleration in simple harmonic motion, centripetal and tangential accelerations in circular motion, and the accelerations generated when students lift weights. We present the results of our experiments and compare them with those obtained when using motion and/or force sensors.

  7. Vertex Detector Cable Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, William E.; /Fermilab

    2009-02-01

    Vertex detector cable requirements are considered within the context of the SiD concept. Cable material should be limited so that the number of radiation lengths represented is consistent with the material budget. In order to take advantage of the proposed accelerator beam structure and allow cooling by flow of dry gas, 'pulsed power' is assumed. Potential approaches to power distribution, cable paths, and cable design for operation in a 5 T magnetic field are described.

  8. Application of Accelerators in research and Industry: Proceedings of the fourteenth International Conference. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, J.L.; Morgan, I.

    1997-08-01

    The fourteenth International Conference on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry was held in November, 1996 in Texas, USA. The United States Department of Energy was one of the sponsors of this conference. The conference was widely attended by accelerator scientists throughout the world. The topics discussed included a wide range of applications spanning the fields from Art History to Zoology. An overview of the Design Project for the National spallation Neutron Source was presented in one of the plenary sessions, as was a summary of Accelerated Beams of Radioactive Ions. Accelerator based Atomic Physics had the most sessions. The subject of accelerator Technology covered topics such as new accelerators, beam handling systems, ion sources, detector, spectrometers, and magnets etc. Radioactive Beams and Nuclear Physics were also topics of several sessions. New Research Opportunities for Nuclear structure, Nuclear Astrophysics, Material Science, and the future facilities and applications of Accelerated Beams of Radioactive ions were discussed. These proceedings represent the papers presented at this exciting conference which summarized the State of the Art technology of Accelerator applications in research and Industry. These proceedings contain 341 papers, out of which, 99 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  9. Rare Isotope Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Guy

    2002-04-01

    The next frontier for low-energy nuclear physics involves experimentation with accelerated beams of short-lived radioactive isotopes. A new facility, the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), is proposed to produce large amount of these rare isotopes and post-accelerate them to energies relevant for studies in nuclear physics, astrophysics and the study of fundamental interactions at low energy. The basic science motivation for this facility will be introduced. The general facility layout, from the 400 kW heavy-ion superconducting linac used for production of the required isotopes to the novel production and extraction schemes and the highly efficient post-accelerator, will be presented. Special emphasis will be put on a number of technical breakthroughs and recent R&D results that enable this new facility.

  10. Experimental studies of radiation damage of silicon detectors. Internal report

    SciTech Connect

    Angelescu, T.; Ghete, V.M.; Ghiordanescu, N.; Lazanu, I.; Mihul, A.; Golutvin, I.; Lazanu, S.; Savin, I.; Vasilescu, A.; Biggeri, U.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M. |; Li, Z.; Kraner, H.W.

    1994-02-01

    New particle physics experiments are correlated with high luminosity and/or high energy. The new generation of colliding beam machines which will be constructed will make an extrapolation of a factor of 100 in the center of mass energy and of 1000 in luminosity beyond present accelerators. The scientific community hopes that very exciting physics results could be achieved this way, from the solution to the problem of electroweak symmetry breaking to the possible discovery of new, unpredicted phenomena. The particles which compose the radiation field are: electrons, pions, neutrons, protons and photons. It has become evident that the problem of the radiation resistance of detectors in this severe environment is a crucial one. This situation is complicated more by the fact that detectors must work all the run time of the machine, and better all the time of the experiment, without replacement (part or whole). So, studies related to the investigation of the radiation hardness of all detector parts, are developing. The studies are in part material and device characterization after irradiation, and in part technological developments, made in order to find harder, cheaper technologies, for larger surfaces. Semiconductor detectors have proven to be a good choice for vertex and calorimeter. Both fixed target machines and colliders had utilized in the past silicon junction detectors as the whole or part of the detection system. Precision beam hodoscopes and sophisticated trigger devices with silicon are equally used. The associated electronics in located near the detectors, and is subjected to the same radiation fields. Studies of material and device radiation hardness are developing in parallel. Here the authors present results on the radiation hardness of silicon, both as a bulk material and as detectors, to neutron irradiation at high fluences.

  11. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, January 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.; Rezmer, R.; Wagner, R.

    1997-12-01

    This report is divided into: the experimental research program; theoretical physics program; accelerator research and development; and divisional computing activities. The experimental research program covers: experiments with data; experiments in planning or construction; and detector development. Work done for this period is summarized for each area.

  12. A guide to experimental elementary particle physics literature, 1985--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Alekhin, S.I.; Bazeeva, V.V.; Ezhela, V.V.; Filimonov, B.B.; Lugovsky, S.B.; Nikolaev, A.S.; Petrova, N.L.; Slabospitsky, S.R.; Striganov, S.I.; Stroganov, Y.G.; Shelkovenko, A.N.; Yuschenko, O.P. . Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij); Yost, G.P.; Rittenberg, A.; Armstrong, F.E.; Barnett, R.M.; Simpson, K.H.; Trippe, T.G.; Wagman, G.S.; W

    1990-11-01

    We present an indexed guide to experimental high energy physics literature for the years 1985--1989. No actual data are given, but approximately 3500 papers are indexed by Beam/Target/Momentum, Reaction/Momentum (including the final stare), Final State Particle, and Accelerator/Experiment/ Detector.

  13. Determination of the detection threshold for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Nuclear Track Detector (NTD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, R.; Dey, S.; Ghosh, Sanjay K.; Maulik, A.; Raha, Sibaji; Syam, D.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we investigated the detection threshold of the polymer material Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) intended to be used as Nuclear Track Detector (NTD) in the search for rare events (e.g. strangelets) in cosmic rays. 11 MeV 12C and 2 MeV proton beams from the accelerator at the Institute of Physics (IOP), Bhubaneswar were utilized for this study. The results show that the PET detector has a much higher detection threshold (Z / β ∼ 140) compared to many other commercially available and widely used detector materials like CR-39 (Z / β ∼ 6-20) or Makrofol (Z / β ∼ 57). This makes PET a particularly suitable detector material for testing certain phenomenological models which predict the presence of strangelets as low energy, heavily ionizing particles in cosmic radiation at high mountain altitudes.

  14. STAR Vertex Detector Upgrade Development

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, Leo C.; Matis, Howard S.; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Vu,Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard; Szelezniak, Michal; Sun, Xiangming

    2008-01-28

    We report on the development and prototyping efforts undertaken with the goal of producing a micro-vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL. We present the basic detector requirements and show a sensor development path, conceptual mechanical design candidates and readout architecture. Prototyping and beam test results with current generation MimoSTAR-2 sensors and a readout system featuring FPGA based on-the-fly hit finding and data sparsification are also presented.

  15. Photon detectors with gaseous amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Va`vra, J.

    1996-08-01

    Gaseous photon detectors, including very large 4{pi}-devices such as those incorporated in SLD and DELPHI, are finally delivering physics after many years of hard work. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photoelectrons. Among detector builders, there is hardly anybody who did not make mistakes in this area, and who does not have a healthy respect for the problems involved. This point is stressed in this paper, and it is suggested that only a very small operating phase space is available for running gaseous photon detectors in a very large system with good efficiency and few problems. In this paper the authors discuss what was done correctly or incorrectly in first generation photon detectors, and what would be their recommendations for second generation detectors. 56 refs., 11 figs.

  16. The HERMES recoil detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airapetian, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Belostotski, S.; Borisenko, A.; Bowles, J.; Brodski, I.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capitani, G. P.; Carassiti, V.; Ciullo, G.; Clarkson, A.; Contalbrigo, M.; De Leo, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; Di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Guler, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Hartig, M.; Hill, G.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hristova, I.; Jo, H. S.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Kisselev, A.; Krause, B.; Krauss, B.; Lagamba, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lu, S.; Lu, X.-G.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nowak, W.-D.; Naryshkin, Y.; Osborne, A.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Petrov, A.; Pickert, N.; Prahl, V.; Protopopescu, D.; Reinecke, M.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rubacek, L.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Schnell, G.; Seitz, B.; Shearer, C.; Shutov, V.; Statera, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Van Haarlem, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vilardi, I.; Vikhrov, V.; Vogel, C.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, Z.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.

    2013-05-01

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with a field strength of 1T. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  17. Next Generation Beta Decay Studies: Refinements in Detector System Calibration and Response Function Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutz, Kenneth

    2013-10-01

    High precision β-decay studies provide constraints on extensions to the standard model of particle physics. In order to continue to provide competitive limits with LHC measurements for new tensor and scalar interactions, the uncertainties in neutron and nuclear β-decay studies must be pushed to the 0.1% level and below. In order to control the systematic errors in particle detection at these levels, new detector systems (highly-segmented, large area, thick Si detectors) are being implemented. In order to realize gains in detector response, new capabilities must be developed to calibrate the detectors and characterize their response function. As an alternative to conventional sources mounted on thin foils, an electron beam provides a regular grid of calibration and detector response measurements which are essentially unperturbed by scattering effects. We have developed a 1 MeV electron accelerator that will deliver electrons in a tunable range covering the energy spectrum of neutron β-decay. We present our efforts to implement this accelerator as well as our development of thin backing foils and detector systems in this poster.

  18. Verifying accelerated physical modeling of reactive solute transport: the long term development of pore water solute profiles in a thick clay till.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timms, W.; Hendry, J.

    2003-04-01

    Accelerated physical modeling, using a geotechnical centrifuge, is yet to be verified for reactive solute transport in very low permeability geologic materials. Whilst scaling relationships between the centrifuge model and corresponding prototype are established for physical parameters, scaling of chemical reactions requires special consideration. Centrifuge modeling was carried out on duplicate core samples of unoxidised clay rich till obtained from a research site in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. At this site, naturally occurring solutes, principally comprised of Na and SO4, concentrated at ˜70,000 mg/L TDS in the oxidized zone, have diffused downwards over the past 2-10 k years to background concentrations of 3,200 mg/L TDS. Data from new (N=9) and existing piezometers (N>7) were used to identify solute fronts between 12-22 m depth, revealing the K, Sr, Mg and Na were slightly retarded relative to Cl, δ2H and δ18O. Despite the very low hydraulic conductivity of the samples (1.2 ×10-11 m/s), approximately ˜20 k years of solute transport were simulated within 3 months of centrifuge modeling at ˜330×g. Stresses at the base of the samples were less than in situ preconsolidation pressure (550 kPa), yet centrifuge speed was sufficiently high that the Peclet number, based on measured flow rate and porosity, indicated advective and diffusive transport components. Over 4 pore volumes of NaCl, with a concentration equivalent to that at the top of the unoxidised zone (I=0.5) permeated the cores. Breakthrough of Na was significantly retarded and characterized by a lengthy tail below C0. The loss of Na from solution was accounted for by an increase of Ca and Mg due to cation exchange. The scaled prototype indicated retardation of Na by ion exchange over a period of thousands of years, similar to that observed at the field site. To account for minor scale differences, additional centrifuge models and PHREEQC geochemical models of 1D reactive solute transport are in

  19. Fishing for New Physics with Massive Neutral Dibosons: Measurements of ZZ Production Cross Section and the Search for Invisible Higgs Boson Decays Beyond the Standard Model with the CMS Detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasco, Matthew Ervin

    The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory describing the fundamental interactions and properties of subatomic particles. A key feature is its ability to explain particle mass through the Higgs mechanism, and a by-product of this mechanism is the Higgs boson. The discovery of the Higgs boson, in 2012 at CERN, completed the Standard Model particle zoo, but observed phenomena, like dark matter, remain unexplained. The analyses presented explore proton-proton collison events resulting in a Z boson plus missing transverse energy (MET). The motivation for this is to investigate two processes: Standard Model (SM) ZZ production, and beyond Standard Model (BSM) ZH production, in particular the ZZ to 2l2nu and ZH to 2l + H(inv) channels. The place-holder H(inv) is for all Higgs boson decay modes resulting in undetected "invisible" particles, which may branch to new physics, like dark matter particles. The data used are from Run 1 (2011--2012) of CMS, where proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV and 8 TeV were delivered by the LHC. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general-purpose detector located along the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is a particle accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. To extract these signals containing real MET from background containing fake mismeasured MET, a new "reduced MET" variable is constructed and optimized. This assists in the measurement of the ZZ production cross section. The results of the exclusive ZZ to 2l2nu cross section measurement are 201+82/-69 fb and 264+81/-64 fb from the 7 and 8 TeV portions of Run 1 data, respectively. Bayesian unfolding is used to measure a cross section of 224+68/-70 fb from the 8 TeV data. These results both agree with next-to-leading order predictions from the Standard Model. The differential cross section as a function of transverse momentum of the Z boson is also measured from unfolding, for the purpose of providing a way to compare data to new theories. To distinguish ZH to 2l + H(inv) from

  20. Fundamental study of impact ionization plasma detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, H.; Muranaga, K.; Sasaki, S.; Nogami, K.; Shibata, H.

    Impact ionization plasma detectors are commonly used for cosmic dust research on board spacecraft. There seems to be no scientific background on their shape, area, and applied high voltage; they are determined empirically. To design a dust detector having large aperture and lightweight to collect dust effectively for the future mission, we are to study fundamental physics of dust impact ionization phenomena. To determine parameters of impact ionization, a simple detector is designed; metal target, two grids, with/without sidewall. Distance from target to grid, grid to grid, applied voltages are variable. Each electrode is connected to charge sensitive preamplifiers, signals are observed with a digital oscilloscope. Experiments using micro-particle accelerators are made at HIT, Univ. Tokyo in Japan, and at MPI-K in Germany. Time difference of two grid signals (plasma expansion velocity), and target signal rise time are determined from observed signals. Preliminary study shows, plasma expansion velocity is dependent on applied high voltage, not dependent on dust velocity. There is a clear correlation between dust particle velocity and target signal rise time. Sidewall effect is to be studied in the near future experiment.

  1. Construction of low current 30 keV proton accelerator for detection efficiency studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas Bacci, Americo; Baessler, Stefan; Ross, Aaron; Roane, Nicholas; Whitaker, C. J.

    2013-10-01

    We have constructed a small ion source and proton accelerator at UVA. This accelerator is needed for the characterization of the detection efficiency of a large area, thick, 127-hexagonal segmented Silicon detector for the neutron beta decay ``Nab'' experiment that will be carried out at SNS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory in search of physics beyond the standard model. We will present the design, simulations, operation, and detection of 30 keV H+ and H2+, as well as our efforts to stabilize and correlate both ion currents.

  2. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960`s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore`s Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail.

  3. Accelerator Technology Division annual report, FY 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses: accelerator physics and special projects; experiments and injectors; magnetic optics and beam diagnostics; accelerator design and engineering; radio-frequency technology; accelerator theory and simulation; free-electron laser technology; accelerator controls and automation; and high power microwave sources and effects.

  4. Smoke Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the photo, Fire Chief Jay Stout of Safety Harbor, Florida, is explaining to young Richard Davis the workings of the Honeywell smoke and fire detector which probably saved Richard's life and that of his teen-age brother. Alerted by the detector's warning, the pair were able to escape their burning home. The detector in the Davis home was one of 1,500 installed in Safety Harbor residences in a cooperative program conducted by the city and Honeywell Inc.

  5. Neutrino Detectors Review

    SciTech Connect

    D'Ambrosio, Nicola

    2005-10-12

    The neutrino physics is one of the most important research field and there are several experiments made and under construction focused on it. This paper will present a review on some detectors used for Solar Neutrinos detection, Atmospheric Neutrinos detection and in Long Baseline Experiments.

  6. Current trends in non-accelerator particle physics: 1, Neutrino mass and oscillation. 2, High energy neutrino astrophysics. 3, Detection of dark matter. 4, Search for strange quark matter. 5, Magnetic monopole searches

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yudong |

    1995-07-01

    This report is a compilation of papers reflecting current trends in non-accelerator particle physics, corresponding to talks that its author was invited to present at the Workshop on Tibet Cosmic Ray Experiment and Related Physics Topics held in Beijing, China, April 4--13, 1995. The papers are entitled `Neutrino Mass and Oscillation`, `High Energy Neutrino Astrophysics`, `Detection of Dark Matter`, `Search for Strange Quark Matter`, and `Magnetic Monopole Searches`. The report is introduced by a survey of the field and a brief description of each of the author`s papers.

  7. LCDD: A complete detector description package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman; McCormick, Jeremy

    2015-07-01

    LCDD has been developed to provide a complete detector description package for physics detector simulations using Geant4. All aspects of the experimental setup, such as the physical geometry, magnetic fields, and sensitive detector readouts, as well as control of the physics simulations, such as physics processes, interaction models and kinematic limits, are defined at runtime. Users are therefore able to concentrate on the design of the detector system without having to master the intricacies of C++ programming or being proficient in setting up their own Geant4 application. We describe both the XML-based file format and the processors which communicate this information to the underlying Geant4 simulation toolkit.

  8. Laser Plasma Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malka, Victor

    The continuing development of powerful laser systems has permitted to extend the interaction of laser beams with matter far into the relativistic domain, and to demonstrate new approaches for producing energetic particle beams. The extremely large electric fields, with amplitudes exceeding the TV/m level, that are produced in plasma medium are of relevance particle acceleration. Since the value of this longitudinal electric field, 10,000 times larger than those produced in conventional radio-frequency cavities, plasma accelerators appear to be very promising for the development of compact accelerators. The incredible progresses in the understanding of laser plasma interaction physic, allows an excellent control of electron injection and acceleration. Thanks to these recent achievements, laser plasma accelerators deliver today high quality beams of energetic radiation and particles. These beams have a number of interesting properties such as shortness, brightness and spatial quality, and could lend themselves to applications in many fields, including medicine, radio-biology, chemistry, physics and material science,security (material inspection), and of course in accelerator science.

  9. Fire Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An early warning fire detection sensor developed for NASA's Space Shuttle Orbiter is being evaluated as a possible hazard prevention system for mining operations. The incipient Fire Detector represents an advancement over commercially available smoke detectors in that it senses and signals the presence of a fire condition before the appearance of flame and smoke, offering an extra margin of safety.

  10. Metal Detectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1992-01-01

    Schools that count on metal detectors to stem the flow of weapons into the schools create a false sense of security. Recommendations include investing in personnel rather than hardware, cultivating the confidence of law-abiding students, and enforcing discipline. Metal detectors can be quite effective at afterschool events. (MLF)

  11. The BABAR detector: Upgrades, operation and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Garra Tico, J.; Lopez, L.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, G. P.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Clark, A. R.; Day, C. T.; Furman, M.; Gill, M. S.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J. A.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kral, J. F.; Kukartsev, G.; LeClerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lynch, G.; Merchant, A. M.; Mir, L. M.; Oddone, P. J.; Orimoto, T. J.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Suzuki, A.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Wenzel, W. A.; Zisman, M.; Barrett, M.; Bright-Thomas, P. G.; Ford, K. E.; Harrison, T. J.; Hart, A. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Knowles, D. J.; Morgan, S. E.; O'Neale, S. W.; Penny, R. C.; Smith, D.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Goetzen, K.; Held, T.; Koch, H.; Kunze, M.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Schroeder, T.; Steinke, M.; Fella, A.; Antonioli, E.; Boyd, J. T.; Chevalier, N.; Cottingham, W. N.; Foster, B.; Mackay, C.; Walker, D.; Abe, K.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Knecht, N. S.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; McKemey, A. K.; Randle-Conde, A.; Saleem, M.; Sherwood, D. J.; Teodorescu, L.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Korol, A. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Telnov, V. I.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Best, D. S.; Bondioli, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Chao, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; McMahon, S.; Mommsen, R. K.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Atmacan, H.; Foulkes, S. D.; Gary, J. W.; Layter, J.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Shen, B. C.; Vitug, G. M.; Wang, K.; Yasin, Z.; Zhang, L.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, S.; Schwanke, U.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Cunha, A.; Dahmes, B.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Kuznetsova, N.; Levy, S. L.; Lu, A.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T. W.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grothe, M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Nesom, G.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Spradlin, P.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, L.; Wilder, M.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Winstrom, L. O.; Chen, E.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Dorsten, M. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Echenard, B.; Erwin, R. J.; Fang, F.; Flood, K.; Hitlin, D. G.; Metzler, S.; Narsky, I.; Oyang, J.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Yang, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Devmal, S.; Geld, T. L.; Jayatilleke, S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Abe, T.; Antillon, E. A.; Barillari, T.; Becker, J.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P. C.; Chen, S.; Clifton, Z. C.; Derrington, I. M.; Destree, J.; Dima, M. O.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Gilman, J. D.; Hachtel, J.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Johnson, D. R.; Kreisel, A.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Ruddick, W. O.; Smith, J. G.; Ulmer, K. A.; van Hoek, W. C.; Wagner, S. R.; West, C. G.; Zhang, J.; Ayad, R.; Blouw, J.; Chen, A.; Eckhart, E. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hu, T.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Winklmeier, F.; Zeng, Q. L.; Altenburg, D.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Colberg, T.; Dahlinger, G.; Dickopp, M.; Eckstein, P.; Futterschneider, H.; Kaiser, S.; Kobel, M. J.; Krause, R.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Mader, W. F.; Maly, E.; Nogowski, R.; Otto, S.; Schubert, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Sundermann, J. E.; Volk, A.; Wilden, L.; Bernard, D.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Dohou, F.; Ferrag, S.; Latour, E.; Mathieu, A.; Renard, C.; Schrenk, S.; T'Jampens, S.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Anjomshoaa, A.; Bernet, R.; Clark, P. J.; Lavin, D. R.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Robertson, A. I.; Swain, J. E.; Watson, J. E.; Xie, Y.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Carassiti, V.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Evangelisti, F.; Fioravanti, E.; Franchini, P.; Garzia, I.; Landi, L.; Luppi, E.; Malaguti, R.; Negrini, M.; Padoan, C.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Sarti, A.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; de Sangro, R.; Santoni, M.; Zallo, A.; Bagnasco, S.; Buzzo, A.; Capra, R.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M. M.; Minutoli, S.; Monge, M. R.; Musico, P.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F. C.; Patrignani, C.; Pia, M. G.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Bailey, S.; Brandenburg, G.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Lee, C. L.; Morii, M.; Won, E.; Wu, J.; Adametz, A.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Aspinwall, M. L.; Bhimji, W.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Flack, R. L.; Gaillard, J. R.; Gunawardane, N. J. W.; Morton, G. W.; Nash, J. A.; Nikolich, M. B.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Sanders, P.; Smith, D.; Taylor, G. P.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Grenier, G. J.; Hamilton, R.; Lee, S.-J.; Mallik, U.; Meyer, N. T.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Eyges, V.; Fischer, P.-A.; Lamsa, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Lae, C. K.; Schott, G.; Albert, J. N.; Arnaud, N.; Beigbeder, C.; Breton, D.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Dû, S.; Firmino da Costa, J.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Laplace, S.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Nief, J. Y.; Petersen, T. C.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Tocut, V.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Wang, L. L.; Wormser, G.; Bionta, R. M.; Brigljević, V.; Lange, D. J.; Simani, M. C.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Coleman, J. P.; Forster, I. J.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; George, M.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Kay, M.; Parry, R. J.; Payne, D. J.; Schofield, K. C.; Sloane, R. J.; Touramanis, C.; Azzopardi, D. E.; Bellodi, G.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; Cormack, C. M.; Di Lodovico, F.; Dixon, P.; George, K. A.; Menges, W.; Potter, R. J. L.; Sacco, R.; Shorthouse, H. W.; Sigamani, M.; Strother, P.; Vidal, P. B.; Brown, C. L.; Cowan, G.; Flaecher, H. U.; George, S.; Green, M. G.; Hopkins, D. A.; Jackson, P. S.; Kurup, A.; Marker, C. E.; McGrath, P.; McMahon, T. R.; Paramesvaran, S.; Salvatore, F.; Vaitsas, G.; Winter, M. A.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Prencipe, E.; Allison, J.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D. S.; Barlow, N. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Chia, Y. M.; Edgar, C. L.; Forti, A. C.; Fullwood, J.; Hart, P. A.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Jackson, F.; Jackson, G.; Kelly, M. P.; Kolya, S. D.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lyon, A. J.; Naisbit, M. T.; Savvas, N.; Weatherall, J. H.; West, T. J.; Williams, J. C.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Farbin, A.; Hulsbergen, W. D.; Jawahery, A.; Lillard, V.; Roberts, D. A.; Schieck, J. R.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Kofler, R.; Koptchev, V. B.; Li, X.; Moore, T. B.; Salvati, E.; Saremi, S.; Staengle, H.; Willocq, S. Y.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Henderson, S. W.; Koeneke, K.; Lang, M. I.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yi, M.; Zhao, M.; Zheng, Y.; Klemetti, M.; Lindemann, D.; Mangeol, D. J. J.; Mclachlin, S. E.; Milek, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Biassoni, P.; Cerizza, G.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Pellegrini, R.; Stracka, S.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Kroeger, R.; Reidy, J.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Godang, R.; Brunet, S.; Cote, D.; Nguyen, X.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Viaud, B.; Nicholson, H.; Cavallo, N.; De Nardo, G.; Fabozzi, F.; Gatto, C.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Paolucci, P.; Piccolo, D.; Sciacca, C.; Baak, M. A.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; LoSecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Allmendinger, T.; Benelli, G.; Brau, B.; Corwin, L. A.; Gan, K. K.; Honscheid, K.; Hufnagel, D.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Smith, D. S.; Ter-Antonyan, R.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Iwasaki, M.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Potter, C. T.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Borsato, E.; Castelli, G.; Colecchia, F.; Crescente, A.; Dal Corso, F.; Dorigo, A.; Fanin, C.; Furano, F.; Gagliardi, N.; Galeazzi, F.; Margoni, M.; Marzolla, M.; Michelon, G.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Solagna, P.; Stevanato, E.; Stroili, R.; Tiozzo, G.; Voci, C.; Akar, S.; Bailly, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bonneaud, G.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; John, M. J. J.; Lebbolo, H.; Leruste, Ph.; Malclès, J.; Marchiori, G.; Martin, L.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Pivk, M.; Prendki, J.; Roos, L.; Sitt, S.; Stark, J.; Thérin, G.; Vallereau, A.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Manoni, E.; Pennazzi, S.; Pioppi, M.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Bucci, F.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Morganti, M.; Morsani, F.; Paoloni, E.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sandrelli, F.; Triggiani, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Haire, M.; Judd, D.; Biesiada, J.; Danielson, N.; Elmer, P.; Fernholz, R. E.; Lau, Y. P.; Lu, C.; Miftakov, V.; Olsen, J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Sands, W. R.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Tumanov, A.; Varnes, E. W.; Baracchini, E.; Bellini, F.; Bulfon, C.; Buccheri, E.; Cavoto, G.; D'Orazio, A.; Di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Lamanna, E.; Leonardi, E.; Li Gioi, L.; Lunadei, R.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Polci, F.; del Re, D.; Renga, F.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Serra, M.; Voena, C.; Bünger, C.; Christ, S.; Hartmann, T.; Leddig, T.; Schröder, H.; Wagner, G.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Bly, M.; Brew, C.; Condurache, C.; De Groot, N.; Franek, B.; Geddes, N. I.; Gopal, G. P.; Olaiya, E. O.; Ricciardi, S.; Roethel, W.; Wilson, F. F.; Xella, S. M.; Aleksan, R.; Bourgeois, P.; Emery, S.; Escalier, M.; Esteve, L.; Gaidot, A.; Ganzhur, S. F.; Giraud, P.-F.; Georgette, Z.; Graziani, G.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Kozanecki, W.; Langer, M.; Legendre, M.; London, G. W.; Mayer, B.; Micout, P.; Serfass, B.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Allen, M. T.; Akre, R.; Aston, D.; Azemoon, T.; Bard, D. J.; Bartelt, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Bechtle, P.; Becla, J.; Benitez, J. F.; Berger, N.; Bertsche, K.; Boeheim, C. T.; Bouldin, K.; Boyarski, A. M.; Boyce, R. F.; Browne, M.; Buchmueller, O. L.; Burgess, W.; Cai, Y.; Cartaro, C.; Ceseracciu, A.; Claus, R.; Convery, M. R.; Coupal, D. P.; Craddock, W. W.; Crane, G.; Cristinziani, M.; DeBarger, S.; Decker, F. J.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Donald, M.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Ecklund, S.; Erickson, R.; Fan, S.; Field, R. C.; Fisher, A.; Fox, J.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Gaponenko, I.; Glanzman, T.; Gowdy, S. J.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hadig, T.; Halyo, V.; Haller, G.; Hamilton, J.; Hanushevsky, A.; Hasan, A.; Hast, C.; Hee, C.; Himel, T.; Hryn'ova, T.; Huffer, M. E.; Hung, T.; Innes, W. R.; Iverson, R.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kharakh, D.; Kocian, M. L.; Krasnykh, A.; Krebs, J.; Kroeger, W.; Kulikov, A.; Kurita, N.; Langenegger, U.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lewis, P.; Li, S.; Libby, J.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Lüth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; McCulloch, M.; McDonald, J.; Melen, R.; Menke, S.; Metcalfe, S.; Messner, R.; Moss, L. J.; Mount, R.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, D.; Nelson, S.; Nordby, M.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; O'Grady, C. P.; O'Neill, F. G.; Ofte, I.; Ozcan, V. E.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Petrak, S.; Piemontese, M.; Pierson, S.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Ratkovsky, S.; Reif, R.; Rivetta, C.; Rodriguez, R.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schietinger, T.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwarz, H.; Schwiening, J.; Seeman, J.; Smith, D.; Snyder, A.; Soha, A.; Stanek, M.; Stelzer, J.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Teytelman, D.; Thompson, J. M.; Tinslay, J. S.; Trunov, A.; Turner, J.; van Bakel, N.; van Winkle, D.; Va'vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Weaver, M.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Weber, T.; West, C. A.; Wienands, U.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wittmer, W.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Yan, Y.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yi, K.; Yocky, G.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; Singh, H.; Weidemann, A. W.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Yumiceva, F. X.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Majewski, S. A.; Meyer, T. I.; Miyashita, T. S.; Petersen, B. A.; Roat, C.; Ahmed, M.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Bula, R.; Ernst, J. A.; Jain, V.; Liu, J.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Wappler, F. R.; Zain, S. B.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D.; Soffer, A.; De Silva, A.; Lund, P.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Ragghianti, G.; Spanier, S. M.; Wogsland, B. J.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Satpathy, A.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Drummond, B. W.; Izen, J. M.; Kitayama, I.; Lou, X. C.; Ye, S.; Bianchi, F.; Bona, M.; Gallo, F.; Gamba, D.; Pelliccioni, M.; Bomben, M.; Borean, C.; Bosisio, L.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Dittongo, S.; Grancagnolo, S.; Lanceri, L.; Poropat, P.; Rashevskaya, I.; Vitale, L.; Vuagnin, G.; Manfredi, P. F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V.; Frank, E. D.; Gladney, L.; Guo, Q. H.; Panetta, J.; Azzolini, V.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D. A.; Oyanguren, A.; Agarwal, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Brown, C. M.; Choi, H. H. F.; Fortin, D.; Fransham, K. B.; Hamano, K.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Back, J. J.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Ilic, J.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Puccio, E.; Band, H. R.; Chen, X.; Cheng, B.; Dasu, S.; Datta, M.; Eichenbaum, A. M.; Hollar, J. J.; Hu, H.; Johnson, J. R.; Kutter, P. E.; Li, H.; Liu, R.; Mellado, B.; Mihalyi, A.; Mohapatra, A. K.; Pan, Y.; Pierini, M.; Prepost, R.; Scott, I. J.; Tan, P.; Vuosalo, C. O.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wu, S. L.; Yu, Z.; Greene, M. G.; Kordich, T. M. B.

    2013-11-01

    The BABAR detector operated successfully at the PEP-II asymmetric e+e- collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory from 1999 to 2008. This report covers upgrades, operation, and performance of the collider and the detector systems, as well as the trigger, online and offline computing, and aspects of event reconstruction since the beginning of data taking.

  12. Detector Background at Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

  13. Symposium report on frontier applications of accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    1993-09-28

    This report contains viewgraph material on the following topics: Electron-Positron Linear Colliders; Unconventional Colliders; Prospects for UVFEL; Accelerator Based Intense Spallation; Neutron Sources; and B Physics at Hadron Accelerators with RHIC as an Example.

  14. The CLIC Vertex Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannheim, D.

    2015-03-01

    The precision physics needs at TeV-scale linear electron-positron colliders (ILC and CLIC) require a vertex-detector system with excellent flavour-tagging capabilities through a measurement of displaced vertices. This is essential, for example, for an explicit measurement of the Higgs decays to pairs of b-quarks, c-quarks and gluons. Efficient identification of top quarks in the decay t → Wb will give access to the ttH-coupling measurement. In addition to those requirements driven by physics arguments, the CLIC bunch structure calls for hit timing at the few-ns level. As a result, the CLIC vertex-detector system needs to have excellent spatial resolution, full geometrical coverage extending to low polar angles, extremely low material budget, low occupancy facilitated by time-tagging, and sufficient heat removal from sensors and readout. These considerations challenge current technological limits. A detector concept based on hybrid pixel-detector technology is under development for the CLIC vertex detector. It comprises fast, low-power and small-pitch readout ASICs implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology (CLICpix) coupled to ultra-thin planar or active HV-CMOS sensors via low-mass interconnects. The power dissipation of the readout chips is reduced by means of power pulsing, allowing for a cooling system based on forced gas flow. This contribution reviews the requirements and design optimisation for the CLIC vertex detector and gives an overview of recent R&D achievements in the domains of sensors, readout and detector integration.

  15. Accelerator mass spectrometry for measurement of long-lived radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, D.; Phillips, F.M.

    1987-05-01

    Particle accelerators, such as those built for research in nuclear physics, can also be used together with magnetic and electrostatic mass analyzers to measure rare isotopes at very low abundance ratios. All molecular ions can be eliminated when accelerated to energies of millions of electron volts. Some atomic isobars can be eliminated with the use of negative ions; others can be separated at high energies by measuring their rate of energy loss in a detector. The long-lived radioisotopes /sup 10/Be, /sup 14/C, /sup 26/Al, /sup 36/Cl, and /sup 129/I can now be measured in small natural samples having isotopic abundances in the range 10/sup -12/ to 10/sup -15/ and as few as 10/sup 5/ atoms. In the past few years, research applications of accelerator mass spectrometry have been concentrated in the earth sciences (climatology, cosmochemistry, environmental chemistry, geochronology, glaciology, hydrology, igneous petrogenesis, minerals exploration, sedimentology, and volcanology), in anthropology and archaeology (radiocarbon dating), and in physics (searches for exotic particles and measurement of half-lives). In addition, accelerator mass spectrometry may become an important tool for the materials and biological sciences. 98 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Plasma Wakefield Acceleration and FACET - Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test Beams at SLAC

    ScienceCinema

    Andrei Seryi

    2010-01-08

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is one of the most promising approaches to advancing accelerator technology. This approach offers a potential 1,000-fold or more increase in acceleration over a given distance, compared to existing accelerators.  FACET, enabled by the Recovery Act funds, will study plasma acceleration, using short, intense pulses of electrons and positrons. In this lecture, the physics of plasma acceleration and features of FACET will be presented.  

  17. Plasma Wakefield Acceleration and FACET - Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test Beams at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Andrei Seryi

    2009-09-09

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is one of the most promising approaches to advancing accelerator technology. This approach offers a potential 1,000-fold or more increase in acceleration over a given distance, compared to existing accelerators.  FACET, enabled by the Recovery Act funds, will study plasma acceleration, using short, intense pulses of electrons and positrons. In this lecture, the physics of plasma acceleration and features of FACET will be presented.  

  18. Microwave inverse Cerenkov accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, T.B.; Marshall, T.C.; LaPointe, M.A.; Hirshfield, J.L.

    1997-03-01

    A Microwave Inverse Cerenkov Accelerator (MICA) is currently under construction at the Yale Beam Physics Laboratory. The accelerating structure in MICA consists of an axisymmetric dielectrically lined waveguide. For the injection of 6 MeV microbunches from a 2.856 GHz RF gun, and subsequent acceleration by the TM{sub 01} fields, particle simulation studies predict that an acceleration gradient of 6.3 MV/m can be achieved with a traveling-wave power of 15 MW applied to the structure. Synchronous injection into a narrow phase window is shown to allow trapping of all injected particles. The RF fields of the accelerating structure are shown to provide radial focusing, so that longitudinal and transverse emittance growth during acceleration is small, and that no external magnetic fields are required for focusing. For 0.16 nC, 5 psec microbunches, the normalized emittance of the accelerated beam is predicted to be less than 5{pi}mm-mrad. Experiments on sample alumina tubes have been conducted that verify the theoretical dispersion relation for the TM{sub 01} mode over a two-to-one range in frequency. No excitation of axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric competing waveguide modes was observed. High power tests showed that tangential electric fields at the inner surface of an uncoated sample of alumina pipe could be sustained up to at least 8.4 MV/m without breakdown. These considerations suggest that a MICA test accelerator can be built to examine these predictions using an available RF power source, 6 MeV RF gun and associated beam line. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. The CDF SVX II detector upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Skarha, J.E.

    1993-10-01

    The proposed CDF SVX II detector upgrade for secondary vertex detection during the Fermilab Tevatron Run II collider run is described. The general design and important features of this silicon vertex detector are presented. The CDF physics goals which are addressed by this detector are also given.

  20. The KEDR detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anashin, V. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Baldin, E. M.; Barladyan, A. K.; Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Barnyakov, M. Yu.; Baru, S. E.; Basok, I. Yu.; Bedny, I. V.; Beloborodova, O. L.; Blinov, A. E.; Blinov, V. E.; Bobrov, A. V.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bondar, A. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Vorobiov, A. I.; Gulevich, V. V.; Dneprovsky, L. V.; Zhilich, V. N.; Zhulanov, V. V.; Karpov, G. V.; Karpov, S. V.; Kononov, S. A.; Kotov, K. Yu.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, V. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Kulikov, V. F.; Kuper, E. A.; Levichev, E. B.; Maksimov, D. A.; Malyshev, V. M.; Maslennikov, A. L.; Medvedko, A. S.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Nikitin, S. A.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Oreshkin, S. B.; Orlov, I. O.; Osipov, A. A.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Pivovarov, S. G.; Poluektov, A. O.; Pospelov, G. E.; Prisekin, V. G.; Rodyakin, V. A.; Ruban, A. A.; Savinov, G. A.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Skrinsky, A. N.; Smalyuk, V. V.; Snopkov, R. G.; Sokolov, A. V.; Sukharev, A. M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tayursky, V. A.; Telnov, V. I.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Usov, Yu. V.; Kharlamova, T. A.; Shamov, A. G.; Shwartz, B. A.; Shekhtman, L. I.; Shusharo, A. I.; Yushkov, A. N.

    2013-07-01

    The KEDR detector is a universal magnetic detector designed for studying the c- and b-quarks and two-photon physics, and is employed at the VEPP-4M e + e - collider. A specific feature of the experiment is the measurement of absolute beam energy using two methods: the resonant depolarization and the faster but less precise Compton backscattering of laser photons. This allowed a large series of measurements to be performed, in which the accuracy of determination of such fundamental parameters of particles as mass and total and leptonic widths was improved.