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Sample records for accelerator radiocarbon dating

  1. A new small accelerator for radiocarbon dating

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, M.; Huber, R.; Jacob, S. A. W.; Synal, H.-A.; Schroeder, J. B.

    1999-06-10

    A new small and compact radiocarbon dating facility based on a 500 kV Pelletron accelerator has been built. The novel feature is that it operates with 1{sup +} ions. The interfering molecules are destroyed by collisions in the gas stripper. The results of first test measurements demonstrate that stability, background and transmission are equal to the performance of conventional AMS systems based on larger accelerators.

  2. Radiocarbon Dating

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B A

    2007-12-20

    Radiocarbon dating can be used to determine the age of objects that contain components that were once alive. In the case of human remains, a radiocarbon date can distinguish between a crime scene and an archeological site. Documents, museum artifacts and art objects can be dated to determine if their age is correct for the historical context. A radiocarbon date does not confirm authenticity, but it can help identify a forgery.

  3. Radiocarbon Dating.

    PubMed

    Van Strydonck, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Although most historians and art historians consider the radiocarbon dating technique not to be very precise by their criteria, the method has gained much importance over the last decades. Radiocarbon dating is increasingly used in the field of textile research and old polychrome statues, but also objects made of ivory, stucco, paper, and parchment are dated with the technique. Especially after the introduction of the AMS technique, a boom of this type of research has been noticed.

  4. Accelerator radiocarbon dating of evidence for prehistoric horticulture in Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conard, N.; Asch, D.L.; Asch, N.B.; Elmore, D.; Gove, H.; Rubin, M.; Brown, J.A.; Wiant, M.D.; Farnsworth, K.B.; Cook, T.G.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of direct detection radiocarbon dating, which uses an accelerator as part of a highly selective mass spectrometer, it is now possible to determine the age of milligram samples of organic materials1-5. One application of accelerator dating is in evaluating scanty, sometimes controversial evidence for early horticulture throughout the world. We have now used the technique to date small samples of carbonized, cultivated plant remains from archaeological sites in Illinois. The results, reported here, establish (1) that squash was introduced by 7,000 yr ago, 2,500 yr before eastern North American records previously reported; (2) that horticulture involving indigenous plants had begun by 4,000 BP in eastern North America with domestication of Iva annua, a small-seeded annual; (3) that anomalous discoveries of Archaic period maize represent contaminants; and (4) that introduction of maize by initial Middle Woodland times (~2,000 BP) is questionable.

  5. Using accelerator mass spectrometry for radiocarbon dating of textiles

    SciTech Connect

    Jull, A.J.T.

    1997-12-01

    Since 1981 we have operated an NSF Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) Facility at the University of Arizona. The AMS method allows us to use very small samples of carbon, <1 mg for radiocarbon dating in contrast to earlier counting techniques. This has opened a vast array of applications of radiocarbon dating that was difficult to do before AMS because of sample size limitations of decay counting. Some of the many applications of AMS include paleoclimatic studies, archaeological research and the age of first settlement of North America by man, dating of art works and artifacts, fall times and terrestrial residence ages of meteorites, production of {sup 14}C in lunar samples by galactic and solar cosmic rays, studies of in situ {sup 14}C produced by cosmic ray spallation in rocks and ice, and studies of {sup 14}C in groundwater dissolved inorganic carbon and dissolved organic carbon. At our laboratory, we have also successfully applied AMS {sup 14}C to dating of many types of textiles, including silks and linens, art works, documents and artifacts fabricated from wood, parchment, ivory, and bone. The results for many of these samples are often important in questions of the authenticity of these works of art and artifacts. Our studies have encompassed a wide range of art works ranging from the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Shroud of Turin, and the Chinese silk trade to the works of Raphael, Rembrandt, and Picasso. Recently, we also dated the Vinland Map, a controversial document that shows the eastern coast of North America apparently using information from Viking voyages.

  6. Cation-ratio and accelerator radiocarbon dating of rock varnish on Mojave artifacts and landforms

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, R.I.; Bamforth, D.B.; Cahill, T.A.; Dohrenwend, J.C.; Turrin, B.D.; Donahue, D.J.; Jull, A.J.T.; Long, A.; Macko, M.E.; Weil, E.B.; Whitley, D.S.

    1986-02-21

    The first accelerator radiocarbon dates of rock varnishes are reported along with potassium/argon ages of lava flows and conventional radiocarbon dates of pluvial lake shorelines, in an empirical calibration of rock varnish K/sup +/ + Ca/sup 2 +//Ti/sup 4 +/ ratios with age in the Mojave Desert, eastern California. This calibration was used to determine the cation-ratio dates of 167 artifacts. Although cation-ratio dating is an experimental method, some dates suggest human occupation of the Mojave Desert in the late Pleistocene. 25 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Cation-ratio and accelerator radiocarbon dating of rock varnish on Mojave artifacts and landforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorn, R.I.; Bamforth, D.B.; Cahill, T.A.; Dohrenwend, J.C.; Turrin, B.D.; Donahue, D.J.; Jull, A.J.T.; Long, A.; Macko, M.E.; Weil, E.B.; Whitley, D.S.; Zabel, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    The first accelerator radiocarbon dates of rock varnishes are reported along with potassium/argon ages of lava flows and conventional radiocarbon dates of pluvial lake shorelines, in an empirical calibration of rock varnish K + + Ca2+/Ti4+ ratios with age in the Mojave Desert, eastern California. This calibration was used to determine the cation-ratio dates of 167 artifacts. Although cation-ratio dating is an experimental method, some dates suggest human occupation of the Mojave Desert in the late Pleistocene.

  8. Accelerator-mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon dating of Pleistocene lake sediments in the Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, R.S.; Toolin, L.J.; Forester, R.M.; Spencer, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Pleistocene lake sediments in the Great Basin typically contain little organic carbon, and thus are difficult to date reliably by conventional radioccarbon methods. Paleoenvironmental data are abundant in these sediments, but are of limited value without adequate age controls. With the advent of accelerator-mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon dating, it is now possible to date these paleolacustrine sediments. AMS dates were obtained on sediment cores from the Bonneville, Franklin, and Lahontan Basins. In the Bonneville Basin, the AMS-based chronology compares well with other chronologies constructed from dated shore-zone features. In the Bonneville and Franklin basins, AMS dates delimit unconformities not apparent by other means. We found that dispersed organic carbon from sediments deposited during relatively freshwater intervals provided apparently reliable AMS radiocarbon dates. Carbonate microfossils from the Lahontan Basin also produced results that appear reasonable, while bulk carbonate yielded erroneous results. ?? 1990.

  9. Radiocarbon Dating the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaput, M. A.; Gajewski, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Anthropocene has no agreed start date since current suggestions for its beginning range from Pre-Industrial times to the Industrial Revolution, and from the mid-twentieth century to the future. To set the boundary of the Anthropocene in geological time, we must first understand when, how and to what extent humans began altering the Earth system. One aspect of this involves reconstructing the effects of prehistoric human activity on the physical landscape. However, for global reconstructions of land use and land cover change to be more accurately interpreted in the context of human interaction with the landscape, large-scale spatio-temporal demographic changes in prehistoric populations must be known. Estimates of the relative number of prehistoric humans in different regions of the world and at different moments in time are needed. To this end, we analyze a dataset of radiocarbon dates from the Canadian Archaeological Radiocarbon Database (CARD), the Palaeolithic Database of Europe and the AustArch Database of Australia, as well as published dates from South America. This is the first time such a large quantity of dates (approximately 60,000) has been mapped and studied at a global scale. Initial results from the analysis of temporal frequency distributions of calibrated radiocarbon dates, assumed to be proportional to population density, will be discussed. The utility of radiocarbon dates in studies of the Anthropocene will be evaluated and potential links between population density and changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, climate, migration patterning and fire frequency coincidence will be considered.

  10. Radiocarbon Dating: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortine, Suellen

    This selective annotated bibliography covers various sources of information on the radiocarbon dating method, including journal articles, conference proceedings, and reports, reflecting the most important and useful sources of the last 25 years. The bibliography is divided into five parts--general background on radiocarbon, radiocarbon dating,…

  11. Vulcanism and Radiocarbon Dates

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Libby, L. M.; Libby, W. F.

    1972-10-01

    We consider whether the long term perturbation of radiocarbon dates, which is known to be approximately a sin function of period about 8000 years and amplitude of about 8% peak-to-peak, could have been caused in any major part by vulcanism. We conclude that this is not the case. On the contrary, present day volcanoes are a far less important source of inert CO{sub 2} (about 100 fold less) than is man's burning of fossil fuels which has caused the Suess dilution of about 2%. (auth)

  12. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron; Küffner, Markus; Scherrer, Nadim C.; Ferreira, Ester S. B.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. 14C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the 14C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated.

  13. Radiocarbon Dating, Memories, and Hopes

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Libby, W. F.

    1972-10-01

    The history of radiocarbon dating from 1939 to the present is reviewed. The basic principles of radiocarbon dating are that cosmic rays make living things radioactive with {sup 14}C to a certain level fixed by the environment and that at death the intake of food stops so no replenishment of the {sup 14}C steadily lost by the immutable decay occurs. Therefore measurement of the degree of decay gives the time lapse since death, i.e., the radiocarbon age. The equipment developed and experiments performed to measure the specific activity of specimens to be dated are described. The results obtained by world-wide experimenters are discussed. These showed that on simultaneity radiocarbon dating is apparently reliable but that absolute dates may be incorrect by as much as 600 to 700 y. The value of radiocarbon dating to archaeologists, geologists, climatologists, and historians is stressed. (LCL)

  14. Progress in radiocarbon dating with the Chalk River MP tandem accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, H.R.; Ball, G.C.; Brown, R.M.; Davies, W.G.; Imahori, Y.; Milton, J.C.D.

    1980-01-01

    The evolution of a tandem accelerator /sup 14/C dating system at Chalk River is recounted. Background problems and sources of instability are discussed and solutions are described. Details of sample chemistry and source preparation are presented.

  15. Comparison of sampling methods for radiocarbon dating of carbonyls in air samples via accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Matthias; Kretschmer, Wolfgang; Scharf, Andreas; Tschekalinskij, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Three new methods to sample and prepare various carbonyl compounds for radiocarbon measurements were developed and tested. Two of these procedures utilized the Strecker synthetic method to form amino acids from carbonyl compounds with either sodium cyanide or trimethylsilyl cyanide. The third procedure used semicarbazide to form crystalline carbazones with the carbonyl compounds. The resulting amino acids and semicarbazones were then separated and purified using thin layer chromatography. The separated compounds were then combusted to CO2 and reduced to graphite to determine 14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). All of these methods were also compared with the standard carbonyl compound sampling method wherein a compound is derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and then separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  16. Low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The author built and tested a low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating similar to a conventional mass spectrometer. These tests clearly show that with the addition of a conventional ion source, the low energy cyclotron can perform the extremely high sensitivity /sup 14/C measurements that are now done at accelerator facilities. The author found that no significant background is present when the cyclotron is tuned to accelerate /sup 14/C negative ions and the transmission efficiency is adequate to perform radiocarbon dating on milligram samples of carbon. The internal ion source used did not produce sufficient current to detect /sup 14/C directly at modern concentrations. The author shows how a conventional carbon negative ion source located outside the cyclotron magnet, would produce sufficient beam and provide for quick sample changing to make radiocarbon dating milligram samples with a modest laboratory instrument feasible.

  17. Radiocarbon dating accuracy improved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scientists have extended the accuracy of carbon-14 (14C) dating by correlating dates older than 8,000 years with uranium-thorium dates that span from 8,000 to 30,000 years before present (ybp, present = 1950). Edouard Bard, Bruno Hamelin, Richard Fairbanks and Alan Zindler, working at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, dated corals from reefs off Barbados using both 14C and uranium-234/thorium-230 by thermal ionization mass spectrometry techniques. They found that the two age data sets deviated in a regular way, allowing the scientists to correlate the two sets of ages. The 14C dates were consistently younger than those determined by uranium-thorium, and the discrepancy increased to about 3,500 years at 20,000 ybp.

  18. Radiocarbon dating of terrestrial carbonates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Rink, W. Jack; Thompson, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial carbonates encompass a wide range of materials that potentially could be used for radiocarbon (14C) dating. Biogenic carbonates, including shells and tests of terrestrial and aquatic gastropods, bivalves, ostracodes, and foraminifera, are preserved in a variety of late Quaternary deposits and may be suitable for 14C dating. Primary calcareous deposits (marls, tufa, speleothems) and secondary carbonates (rhizoliths, fracture fill, soil carbonate) may also be targeted for dating when conditions are favorable. This chapter discusses issues that are commonly encountered in 14C dating of terrestrial carbonates, including isotopic disequilibrium and open-system behavior, as well as methods used to determine the reliability of ages derived from these materials. Recent methodological advancements that may improve the accuracy and precision of 14C ages of terrestrial carbonates are also highlighted.

  19. Low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J.J.

    1984-12-01

    The measurement of naturally occurring radioisotopes whose half lives are less than a few hundred million years but more than a few years provides information about the temporal behavior of geologic and climatic processes, the temporal history of meteoritic bodies as well as the production mechanisms of these radioisotopes. A new extremely sensitive technique for measuring these radioisotopes at tandem Van de Graaff and cyclotron facilities has been very successful though the high cost and limited availability have been discouraging. We have built and tested a low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating similar in size to a conventional mass spectrometer. These tests clearly show that with the addition of a conventional ion source, the low energy cyclotron can perform the extremely high sensitivity /sup 14/C measurements that are now done at accelerator facilities. We found that no significant background is present when the cyclotron is tuned to accelerate /sup 14/C negative ions and the transmission efficiency is adequate to perform radiocarbon dating on milligram samples of carbon. The internal ion source used did not produce sufficient current to detect /sup 14/C directly at modern concentrations. We show how a conventional carbon negative ion source, located outside the cyclotron magnet, would produce sufficient beam and provide for quick sampling to make radiocarbon dating milligram samples with a modest laboratory instrument feasible.

  20. Radiocarbon dating of a very large African baobab.

    PubMed

    Patrut, Adrian; von Reden, Karl F; Lowy, Daniel A; Alberts, Andries H; Pohlman, John W; Wittmann, Rudolf; Gerlach, Dana; Xu, Li; Mitchell, Clark S

    2007-11-01

    In late 2004, Grootboom, probably the largest known African baobab (Adansonia digitata L.), collapsed unexpectedly in northeastern Namibia. Ten wood samples collected from different areas of the trunk were processed and investigated by accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating. The radiocarbon dates of three samples were greater than 1000 years BP (radiocarbon years before present, i.e., before AD 1950). The corresponding calibrated calendar age of the oldest sample was 1275 +/- 50 years, making Grootboom the oldest known angiosperm tree with reliable dating results. Variations in radiocarbon dates among the wood samples indicated that, morphologically, Grootboom was a quintuple tree, whereas genetically, it was a single individual. Ages of extreme lateral samples revealed that, over the past 500-600 years, Grootbooom had almost ceased growing, providing information about climate changes in central southern Africa. The sudden demise of Grootboom coincided with the spread of the poorly studied baobab disease, which has become epidemic in Namibia.

  1. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Marvin W

    2009-03-01

    A technique based on cold argon and oxygen plasmas permits radiocarbon dates to be obtained on paintings that contain inorganic pigments. (To listen to a podcast about this feature, please go to the Analytical Chemistry website at http://pubs.acs.org/journal/ancham.).

  2. Radiocarbon dating of biogenetic opal.

    PubMed

    Wilding, L P

    1967-04-07

    Approximately 75 grams of biogenetic opal were isolated from 45 kilograms of soil by employing gross particle-size and sink-float specific gravity fractionation procedures. After pretreatment of the sample to remove extraneous organic and inorganic carbon contaminants, the carbon occluded within opal phytoliths was dated at 13,300 +/- 450 years before the present. Therefore, biogenetic opal is stable for relatively long periods.

  3. Radiocarbon dating in groundwater systems: Chapter 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L.N.; Glynn, P.D.

    2013-01-01

    The radioactive isotope of carbon, radiocarbon (14C), was first produced artificially in 1940 by Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben, who bombarded graphite in a cyclotron at the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley, CA, in an attempt to produce a radioactive isotope of carbon that could be used as a tracer in biological systems (Kamen (1963) [101]; Ruben and Kamen (1941) [102]). Carbon-14 of cosmogenic origin was discovered in atmospheric CO2 in 1946 by Willard F. Libby, who determined a half-life of 5568 a. Libby and his co-workers (Anderson et al. (1947) [103]; Libby et al. (1949) [104]) developed radiocarbon dating of organic carbon of biological origin, which revolutionized research in a number of fields, including archaeology and quaternary geology/climatology, by establishing ages and chronologies of events that have occurred over the past approximately 45 ka.

  4. New radiocarbon dates on the cereals from Wadi Kubbaniya

    SciTech Connect

    Wendorf, F.; Schild, R.; Close, A.E.; Donahue, D.J.; Jull, A.J.T.; Zabel, T.H.; Wieckowska, H.; Kobusiewicz, M.; Issawi, B.; el Hadidi, N.

    1984-01-01

    In 1978, three carbonized grains of barley and a carbonized grain of einkorn wheat were found in a buried hearth at a Late Paleolithic site at Wadi Kubbaniya in Egypt. In 1981, two large clusters of barley seeds, which were identified as six-row barley and thus domestic, were found at a nearby site of comparable age. Numerous grinding stones, presumed to have been used for processing the cereals, were found in these and other sites, often deeply buried, and 30 radiocarbon dates placed the occupations between 18,500 and 17,000 radiocarbon years ago. These finds led us to suggest an early origin of food production, with implications for the initial development of complex societies. Several barley seeds were analyzed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy to determine the maximal temperature to which they had been subjected before burial. Six barley seeds and three small pieces of wood charcoal were dated directly by using a tandem accelerator mass spectrometer.

  5. Radiocarbon dating of diatom-bound organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatte, C.; Hodgins, G.; Jull, T.; Cruz, R.; Lange, T.; Biddulph, D.

    2006-12-01

    We present a new method for obtaining radiocarbon dates for the proteins intrinsic to diatom frustules (sillafin). By asserting age models for sediment cores that lack calcium carbonate, this method will improve interpretations of diatom-based paleoproxies either marine or lacustrine. In preparation for radiocarbon dating by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, diatoms were first concentrated out of the sediment. Through chemical and physical treatments that will be discussed and compared here, diatoms frustules are then freed of any surface-bound organic matter. Compounds intrinsic to diatoms frustules are then released from their opal matrix by HF dissolution. Since we have eliminated any of potentially contaminating organic matter, this method differs from approaches based on specific compounds extraction from a complex organic mixture by preparative chromatography such as proposed by Ingalls et al. (2004, Mar. Chem). The advantage of our method is that it does not require heavy cost investment. The method was applied to samples from a marine core collected in the Southern Ocean, that spans the last climatic cycle. Diatoms rich sediments from a Holocene lacustrine/palustrine record from Texas were also investigated. We report on the radiocarbon dating results obtained on organic matter at each step of the chemical treatment, from bulk to sillafin and their interpretation.

  6. Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damon, P. E.; Donahue, D. J.; Gore, B. H.; Hatheway, A. L.; Jull, A. J. T.; Linick, T. W.; Sercel, P. J.; Toolin, L. J.; Bronk, C. R.; Hall, E. T.; Hedges, R. E. M.; Housley, R.; Law, I. A.; Perry, C.; Bonani, G.; Trumbore, S.; Woelfli, W.; Ambers, J. C.; Bowman, S. G. E.; Leese, M. N.; Tite, M. S.

    1989-02-01

    Very small samples from the Shroud of Turin have been dated by accelerator mass spectrometry in laboratories at Arizona, Oxford and Zurich. As controls, three samples whose ages had been determined independently were also dated. The results provide conclusive evidence that the linen of the Shroud of Turin is mediaeval.

  7. Year of birth determination using radiocarbon dating of dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, B A; Spalding, K L

    2010-05-01

    Radiocarbon dating is typically an archaeological tool rather than a forensic one. Recently however, we have shown that the amount of radiocarbon present in tooth enamel, as a result of nuclear bomb testing during the cold war, is a remarkably accurate indicator of when a person is born. Enamel isolated from human teeth is processed to form graphite and carbon-14 ((14)C) levels are measured using accelerator mass spectrometry. Since there is no turnover of enamel after it is formed, (14)C levels in the enamel represent (14)C levels in the atmosphere at the time of its formation. In this paper we describe the strategy used to determine the date of birth of an individual based on radiocarbon levels in tooth enamel, focusing on the methodology of this strategy. Year of birth information can significantly assist police investigators when the identity of a deceased individual is unknown. In such cases police will try to match particulars of the unidentified individual (which is often only gender and/or an estimate of age), with particulars from missing persons lists.

  8. Year of Birth Determination Using Radiocarbon Dating of Dental Enamel

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B A; Spalding, K L

    2009-03-10

    Radiocarbon dating is typically an archaeological tool rather than a forensic one. Recently however, we have shown that the amount of radiocarbon present in tooth enamel, as a result of nuclear bomb testing during the cold war, is a remarkably accurate indicator of when a person is born. Enamel isolated from human teeth is processed to form graphite and carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) levels are measured using accelerator mass spectrometry. Since there is no turnover of enamel after it is formed, {sup 14}C levels in the enamel represent {sup 14}C levels in the atmosphere at the time of its formation. In this paper we describe the strategy used to determine the date of birth of an individual based on radiocarbon levels in tooth enamel, focusing on the methodology of this strategy. Year of birth information can significantly assist police investigators when the identity of a deceased individual is unknown. In such cases police will try to match particulars of the unidentified individual (which is often only gender and/or an estimate of age), with particulars from missing persons lists.

  9. Air pollutants targeted by radiocarbon dating

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    Chemists at the Commerce Department's National Bureau of Standards (NBS) are answering questions about where certain atmospheric contaminants originate by refining a method best known for determining the age of archeological objects. Called radiocarbon dating, the method allows NBS scientists to examine air samples and determine whether contaminants come from naturally occurring or manmade sources-or a combination of the two. Making these distinctions is important to federal and state environmental agencies, which identify industrial sources of pollution for regulatory action. An overbalance of atmospheric carbon can cause a number of environmental problems. In methane's case, high levels are of concern to environmental agencies because of greenhouse properties. Methane also has been implicated as a possible contributor to changes in the ozone layer that protects the Earth from excessive ultraviolet light. Levels of methane have been increasing at an annual rate of about one percent over the last decade. This has caused concern in the environmental community, which hopes to determine just where the elevated levels are coming from. The NBS research is aimed at definitively pinpointing sources of methane and other atmospheric contaminants.

  10. Radiocarbon dating of open systems with bomb effect

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, C.P.; Long, A.; Friedmann, E.I.

    1986-03-10

    The application of radiocarbon dating is extended to include systems that are slowly exchanging carbon with the atmosphere. Simple formulae are derived that relate the true age and the exchange rate of carbon to the apparent radiocarbon age. A radiocarbon age determination does not give a unique true age and exchange rate but determines a locus of values bounded by a minimum age and a minimum exchange rate. It is found that for radiocarbon ages as large as 10,000 years it is necessary to correct for the anthropogenic radiocarbon produced in the atmosphere by nuclear weapons testing. A one-term exponential approximation, with an e-folding time of 14.43 years, is used to model this effect and is shown to be accurate to within 3% for exchange time constants of 100 years and greater. The approach developed here is not specific to radiocarbon and can be applied to other radioisotopes in open systems.

  11. Radiocarbon dating of open systems with bomb effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, C. P.; Long, A.; Friedmann, E. I.

    1986-01-01

    The application of radiocarbon dating is extended to include systems that are slowly exchanging carbon with the atmosphere. Simple formulae are derived that relate the true age and the exchange rate of carbon to the apparent radiocarbon age. A radiocarbon age determination does not give a unique true age and exchange rate but determines a locus of values bounded by a minimum age and a minimum exchange rate. It is found that for radiocarbon ages as large as 10,000 years it is necessary to correct for the anthropogenic radiocarbon produced in the atmosphere by nuclear weapons testing. A one-term exponential approximation, with an e-folding time of 14.43 years, is used to model this effect and is shown to be accurate to within 3 percent for exchange time constants of 100 years and greater. The approach developed here is not specific to radiocarbon and can be applied to other radioisotopes in open systems.

  12. Assessing screening criteria for the radiocarbon dating of bone mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Ricardo; Hüls, Matthias; Nadeau, Marie-Josée; Grootes, Pieter M.; Garbe-Schönberg, C.-Dieter; Hollund, Hege I.; Lotnyk, Andriy; Kienle, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating of bone mineral (carbonate in the apatite lattice) has been the target of sporadic research for the last 40 years. Results obtained by different decontamination protocols have, however, failed to provide a consistent agreement with reference ages. In particular, quality criteria to assess bone mineral radiocarbon dating reliability are still lacking. Systematic research was undertaken to identify optimal preservation criteria for bone mineral in archeological bones. Six human long bones, originating from a single site, were radiocarbon-dated both for collagen and apatite, with the level of agreement between the dates providing an indication of exogenous carbon contamination. Several techniques (Histology, FTIR, TEM, LA-ICP-MS) were employed to determine the preservation status of each sample. Research results highlight the importance of a micro-scale approach in establishing bone preservation, in particular the use of trace element concentration profiles demonstrated its potential use as a viable sample selection criterion for bone carbonate radiocarbon dating.

  13. [Radiocarbon dating of pollen and spores in wedge ice from Iamal and Kolyma].

    PubMed

    Vasil'chuk, A K

    2004-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating of pollen concentrate from late Pleistocene syngenetic wedge ice was carried out using acceleration mass spectrometry (AMS) in Seyakha and Bizon sections. Comparison of the obtained dating with palynological analysis and AMS radiocarbon dating previously obtained for other organic fractions of the same samples allowed us to evaluate accuracy of dating of different fractions. Quantitative tests for data evaluation were considered in terms of possible autochthonous or allochthonous accumulation of the material on the basis of pre-Pleistocene pollen content in these samples. Paleoecological information content of pollen spectra from late Pleistocene syngenetic wedge ice was evaluated.

  14. Radiocarbon dates from the Casa Grande. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    This report suggests a very early Civano construction date for Casa Grande, Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, Arizona on the basis of C14 dates from fragments of two primary roof beams. The radiocarbon dates presented are seen as a positive contribution to an understanding of the history of Casa Grande.

  15. Radiocarbon dates on bones of extinct birds from Hawaii.

    PubMed Central

    James, H F; Stafford, T W; Steadman, D W; Olson, S L; Martin, P S; Jull, A J; McCoy, P C

    1987-01-01

    Bones from a stratified sedimentary deposit in the Puu Naio Cave site on Maui, Hawaiian Islands, reveal the late Holocene extinction of 19 species of birds. The age of the sediment and associated fauna was determined by direct radiocarbon dating (tandem particle accelerator-mass spectrometer; TAMS) of amino acids extracted from bones weighing as little as 450 mg. The 14C dates indicate that sediment has been accumulating in the lava tube for at least the last 7750 years, a suitable time frame for testing the hypothesis that Holocene extinction on islands began after human colonization. Despite growing evidence that a worldwide wave of extinctions coincided with human colonization of oceanic islands, little radiometric data have been available to date the extinction of most small fossil vertebrates on islands. The TAMS technique of dating purified collagen from the bones of small vertebrates could lead to vastly improved chronologies of extinction for oceanic islands where catastrophic mid- to late-Holocene extinction is expected or known to have occurred. Chronologies derived from nonarcheological sites that show continuous sedimentation, such as the Puu Naio Cave deposit, may also yield key evidence on the timing of earliest human settlement of Oceania. Images PMID:3470800

  16. Radiocarbon dating of extinct fauna in the Americas recovered from tar pits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jull, A. J. T.; Iturralde-Vinent, M.; O'Malley, J. M.; MacPhee, R. D. E.; McDonald, H. G.; Martin, P. S.; Moody, J.; Rincón, A.

    2004-08-01

    We have obtained radiocarbon dates by accelerator mass spectrometry on bones of extinct large mammals from tar pits. Results on some samples of Glyptodon and Holmesina (extinct large mammals similar to armadillos) yielded ages of >25 and >21 ka, respectively. We also studied the radiocarbon ages of three different samples of bones from the extinct Cuban ground sloth, Parocnus bownii, which yielded dates ranging from 4960 ± 280 to 11 880 ± 420 yr BP. In order to remove the tar component pretreat the samples sufficiently to obtain reliable dates, we cleaned the samples by Soxhlet extraction in benzene. Resulting samples of collagenous material were often small.

  17. Radiocarbon dating of twentieth century works of art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, F.; Caforio, L.; Fedi, M.; Mandò, P. A.; Peccenini, E.; Pellicori, V.; Rylands, P.; Schwartzbaum, P.; Taccetti, F.

    2016-11-01

    The atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons caused a sudden increase in the radiocarbon concentration in the atmosphere from 1955, reaching its maximum value in 1963-1965. Once the nuclear tests in the atmosphere were halted, the 14C concentration started to decrease. This behavior of the radiocarbon concentration is called the "Bomb Peak", and it has successfully been used as a tool for high-precision radiocarbon measurements, in forensic sciences and biology. In the art field, the possibility of dating canvas, wood and paper, widely used as supports for paintings, may be an invaluable tool in modern art studies.

  18. Radiocarbon dating of marine material: mollusc versus foraminifera ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callard, L.; Long, A. J.; Plets, R. M.; Cooper, A.; Belknap, D. F.; Edwards, R.; Jackson, D.; Kelley, J. T.; Long, D.; Milne, G. A.; Monteys, X.; Quinn, R.

    2013-12-01

    A key challenge in reconstructing Quaternary environmental change from marine archives is developing a robust chronology. During the last ~50k a-1, radiocarbon dating is the mainstay for many studies. Often investigators are restricted in the material that is available for dating, with studies relying on AMS dating of either mono-specific or mixed assemblages of foraminifera. In some instances, marine molluscs (broken or whole, articulated or disarticulated) may also be present and can provide an alternative or complementary dating target. Previous radiocarbon dating of paired foraminiferal and marine molluscan samples from the Kattegat (Denmark) revealed significant age offsets between these materials, inferred to reflect greater reworking of foraminifera compared to the marine molluscs (Heier-Nielsen et al., 1995). Here we present the results of a comparable study from the Irish Sea Basin, which forms part of a wider investigation into the evidence for the Late Glacial sea-level minima at offshore sites from around Britain and Ireland. We have collected and AMS 14C-dated twelve paired samples of foraminifera and marine shells. The results shows a systematic age offset with the monospecific foraminifera samples consistently giving older ages than their shell counterparts. This offset increases with sample age, reaching a maximum offset of 3000 years in the oldest sample (~ 13 ka cal a BP). These results are consistent with the observations of Heier-Nielsen et al. (1995), and we hypothesize that foraminifera may be more susceptible to reworking from older deposits because of their lower effective density than the shell samples. However, foraminifera size and shape may also be contributing factors. These findings are potentially significant for studies that develop chronologies based on radiocarbon dating of foraminifera alone, since the resulting dates may over-estimate sample age by several thousand years. We conclude by outlining an experimental design that seeks

  19. Radiocarbon dating of plant macrofossils from tidal-marsh sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kemp, A.C.; Nelson, Alan R.; Horton, B.P.

    2013-01-01

    Tidal-marsh sediment is an archive of Holocene environmental changes, including movements of sea and land levels, and extreme events such as hurricanes, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Accurate and precise radiocarbon dating of environmental changes is necessary to estimate rates of change and the recurrence interval (frequency) of events. Plant macrofossils preserved in growth position (or deposited soon after death) in tidal-marsh sediment are ideal samples for dating such changes. In this chapter, we focus on the selection of plant macrofossils for radiocarbon dating and the application of ages from different types of macrofossils to varied research projects, and make recommendations for selection and preparation of tidal-marsh samples for dating.

  20. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    SciTech Connect

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W.; Southon, J.

    1995-06-20

    This report presents progress made on a technique for {sup 14}C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions.

  1. Radiocarbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broecker, W. S.

    2003-12-01

    Willard Libby's invention of the radiocarbon dating method revolutionized the fields of archeology and Quaternary geology because it brought into being a means to correlate events that occurred during the past 3.5×104 years on a planet-wide scale (Libby et al., 1949). This contribution was recognized with the award of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. In addition, radiocarbon measurements have been a boon to the quantification of many processes taking place in the environment, to name a few: the rate of "ventilation" of the deep ocean, the turnover time of humus in soils, the rate of growth of cave deposits, the source of carbon-bearing atmospheric particulates, the rates of gas exchange between the atmosphere and water bodies, the replacement time of carbon atoms in human tissue, and depths of bioturbation in marine sediment. Some of these applications have been greatly aided by the creation of excess 14C atoms as the result of nuclear tests conducted in the atmosphere. Since the 1960s, this so-called bomb radiocarbon has made its way into all of the Earth's active carbon reservoirs. To date, tens of thousands of radiocarbon measurements have been made in laboratories throughout the world.

  2. Single amino acid radiocarbon dating of Upper Paleolithic modern humans.

    PubMed

    Marom, Anat; McCullagh, James S O; Higham, Thomas F G; Sinitsyn, Andrey A; Hedges, Robert E M

    2012-05-01

    Archaeological bones are usually dated by radiocarbon measurement of extracted collagen. However, low collagen content, contamination from the burial environment, or museum conservation work, such as addition of glues, preservatives, and fumigants to "protect" archaeological materials, have previously led to inaccurate dates. These inaccuracies in turn frustrate the development of archaeological chronologies and, in the Paleolithic, blur the dating of such key events as the dispersal of anatomically modern humans. Here we describe a method to date hydroxyproline found in collagen (~10% of collagen carbon) as a bone-specific biomarker that removes impurities, thereby improving dating accuracy and confidence. This method is applied to two important sites in Russia and allows us to report the earliest direct ages for the presence of anatomically modern humans on the Russian Plain. These dates contribute considerably to our understanding of the emergence of the Mid-Upper Paleolithic and the complex suite of burial behaviors that begin to appear during this period.

  3. Recent documents dating: an approach using radiocarbon techniques.

    PubMed

    Zavattaro, D; Quarta, G; D'Elia, M; Calcagnile, L

    2007-04-11

    The possibility to develop an absolute technique, independent from the paper conservation conditions, to date recent paper documents (i.e. less than 50 years old) for forensics purposes is discussed. We suggest the possibility to use the curve representing the strong increase in the atmospheric radiocarbon concentration induced in the last 50 years by nuclear weapons tests as reference to date paper documents, with a resolution down to a few months. The results obtained in the analysis of two known age documents are presented together with a first order mathematical model developed in order to take into account the contributions of the different tree rings employed in the paper production.

  4. Radiocarbon dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C. H.; Lee, J. H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Yun, M. H.; Kim, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of the dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea. The age of the tree was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of years, however, the tree had been broken by a strong wind in March 2010 and now only the stump of the tree is left. At the time of sampling in 2014, there were several decayed parts in the stump, so using the usual dendrochronological method (i.e. ring counting) for dating was difficult. However, we found a small wood sample with tree rings near the center of the stump that could be used for radiocarbon wiggle-match dating. Radiocarbon dates were determined using Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The IntCal13 curve was used to calibrate the radiocarbon dates, and the wiggle matching technique was used to reduce the error of the calibrated ages. Based on the dating results, we suggest that the pine tree is approximately 300 years or older.

  5. Radiocarbon dating of interstratified Neanderthal and early modern human occupations at the Chatelperronian type-site.

    PubMed

    Gravina, Brad; Mellars, Paul; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk

    2005-11-03

    The question of the coexistence and potential interaction between the last Neanderthal and the earliest intrusive populations of anatomically modern humans in Europe has recently emerged as a topic of lively debate in the archaeological and anthropological literature. Here we report the results of radiocarbon accelerator dating for what has been reported as an interstratified sequence of late Neanderthal and early anatomically modern occupations at the French type-site of the Chatelperronian, the Grotte des Fées de Châtelperron, in east-central France. The radiocarbon measurements seem to provide the earliest secure dates for the presence of Aurignacian technology--and from this, we infer the presence of anatomically modern human populations--in France.

  6. Determination and Radiocarbon Dating of Marine Mollusc Fossils in Ancient Sea Shelf of Central Java Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisyah, S.; Pringgenies, D.; Hartoko, A.; Sumantyo, J. T. S.; Matsuzaki, H.

    2017-02-01

    Mollusc phylum is one of the most adaptive animal groups on Earth. They occupy and thrive in incredibly diverse habitats. Their distribution in the fossil record is equally diverse. Indonesia is one of the country with marine mollusc fossil variety, such as in the archaeological site of Sangiran, Patiayam (Ancient Muria Strait) and Grobogan – Central Java. Radiocarbon Dating is the method for dating analysis using 14C. By measuring 14C content, we can estimate how long ago the fossils died. Radiocarbon dating is an extremely useful technique for determining the ages of geological materials (that have some organic-derived carbon in them). Field sampling had found variety of marine mollusc fossils such us 1) Sangiran: Dosinia sp., Telescopium telescopium, Anadara sp., and Dosinia insularum; 2) Patiayam (Ancient Muria Strait): Pseudodon vondenbuschianus, Elongaria orientalis, Conus (Pionoconus) sp., Ampullina bandongensis, Anadara pilula and Filopaludina javanica; 3) Grobogan: Antigona chemnitzii, Cultelus dilatatus, Plotia scabra and Tibia modesta. Mollusc fossils sample was analysed using Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon system. It is a good method for dating specific samples. The result showed that Sangiran as an ancient deepsea has fossils age 38710 – 31947 years, then Patiayam (Ancient Muria Strait) with fossils age 26248 – 11994. Mollusc fossils from Grobogan was the youngest area has fossils age 25692 – 6479 years.

  7. AMS radiocarbon dating of very large Grandidier's baobabs (Adansonia grandidieri)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrut, Adrian; von Reden, Karl F.; Danthu, Pascal; Leong Pock-Tsy, Jean-Michel; Rakosy, Laszlo; Patrut, Roxana T.; Lowy, Daniel A.; Margineanu, Dragos

    2015-10-01

    The article reports the AMS radiocarbon investigation of the two largest known Adansonia grandidieri specimens. The two baobabs, which are named Tsitakakoike and Pregnant baobab, are located in Southwestern Madagascar, near Andombiro. A third specimen from this area, the House baobab, was also investigated. According to measurements, Tsitakakoike is the biggest individual above ground level of all Adansonia species. The House baobab was selected for its exposed structure, which is identical to the closed ring-shaped structure with false cavities identified by us in large and old Adansonia digitata specimens. According to our research, Tsitakakoike and the Pregnant baobab have multi-stemmed cylindrical trunks which are mainly hollow; the two very large baobabs also possess a ring-shaped structure. The radiocarbon dates of the oldest wood samples collected from the large trunks were 1274 ± 20 BP for Tsitakakoike and 930 ± 20 BP for the Pregnant baobab. According to their original positions and to the architectures of the two A. grandidieri, the ages of Tsitakakoike and Pregnant baobab would be between 1300 and 1500 years. Therefore, A. grandidieri becomes the third Adansonia species with individuals that can live over 1000 years, according to accurate dating results.

  8. Single amino acid radiocarbon dating of Upper Paleolithic modern humans

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Anat; McCullagh, James S. O.; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Sinitsyn, Andrey A.; Hedges, Robert E. M.

    2012-01-01

    Archaeological bones are usually dated by radiocarbon measurement of extracted collagen. However, low collagen content, contamination from the burial environment, or museum conservation work, such as addition of glues, preservatives, and fumigants to “protect” archaeological materials, have previously led to inaccurate dates. These inaccuracies in turn frustrate the development of archaeological chronologies and, in the Paleolithic, blur the dating of such key events as the dispersal of anatomically modern humans. Here we describe a method to date hydroxyproline found in collagen (∼10% of collagen carbon) as a bone-specific biomarker that removes impurities, thereby improving dating accuracy and confidence. This method is applied to two important sites in Russia and allows us to report the earliest direct ages for the presence of anatomically modern humans on the Russian Plain. These dates contribute considerably to our understanding of the emergence of the Mid-Upper Paleolithic and the complex suite of burial behaviors that begin to appear during this period. PMID:22517758

  9. AMS Radiocarbon Dating of Large Za Baobabs (Adansonia za) of Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Patrut, Adrian; Patrut, Roxana T.; Danthu, Pascal; Leong Pock-Tsy, Jean-Michel; Rakosy, Laszlo; Lowy, Daniel A.; von Reden, Karl F.

    2016-01-01

    The article reports the radiocarbon investigation of Anzapalivoro, the largest za baobab (Adansonia za) specimen of Madagascar and of another za, namely the Big cistern baobab. Several wood samples collected from the large inner cavity and from the outer part/exterior of the tree were investigated by AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating. For samples collected from the cavity walls, the age values increase with the distance into the wood up to a point of maximum age, after which the values decrease toward the outer part. This anomaly of age sequences indicates that the inner cavity of Anzapalivoro is a false cavity, practically an empty space between several fused stems disposed in a ring-shaped structure. The radiocarbon date of the oldest sample was 780 ± 30 bp, which corresponds to a calibrated age of around 735 yr. Dating results indicate that Anzapalivoro has a closed ring-shaped structure, which consists of 5 fused stems that close a false cavity. The oldest part of the biggest za baobab has a calculated age of 900 years. We also disclose results of the investigation of a second za baobab, the Big cistern baobab, which was hollowed out for water storage. This specimen, which consists of 4 fused stems, was found to be around 260 years old. PMID:26760300

  10. AMS Radiocarbon Dating of Large Za Baobabs (Adansonia za) of Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Patrut, Adrian; Patrut, Roxana T; Danthu, Pascal; Leong Pock-Tsy, Jean-Michel; Rakosy, Laszlo; Lowy, Daniel A; von Reden, Karl F

    2016-01-01

    The article reports the radiocarbon investigation of Anzapalivoro, the largest za baobab (Adansonia za) specimen of Madagascar and of another za, namely the Big cistern baobab. Several wood samples collected from the large inner cavity and from the outer part/exterior of the tree were investigated by AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating. For samples collected from the cavity walls, the age values increase with the distance into the wood up to a point of maximum age, after which the values decrease toward the outer part. This anomaly of age sequences indicates that the inner cavity of Anzapalivoro is a false cavity, practically an empty space between several fused stems disposed in a ring-shaped structure. The radiocarbon date of the oldest sample was 780 ± 30 bp, which corresponds to a calibrated age of around 735 yr. Dating results indicate that Anzapalivoro has a closed ring-shaped structure, which consists of 5 fused stems that close a false cavity. The oldest part of the biggest za baobab has a calculated age of 900 years. We also disclose results of the investigation of a second za baobab, the Big cistern baobab, which was hollowed out for water storage. This specimen, which consists of 4 fused stems, was found to be around 260 years old.

  11. Preparation of bone samples in the Gliwice Radiocarbon Laboratory for AMS radiocarbon dating.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, N; Goslar, T

    2002-12-01

    In the Gliwice Radiocarbon Laboratory, a system for preparation of samples for AMS dating has been built. At first it was used to produce graphite targets from plant macrofossils and sediments. In this study we extended its capabilities with the preparation of bones. We dealt with 3 methods; the first was the classical Longin method of collagen extraction, the second one included additional treatment of powdered bone in alkali solution, while in the third one carboxyl carbon was separated from amino acids obtained after hydrolysis of protein. The suitability of the methods was tested on 2 bone samples. Most of our samples gave ages > 40 kyr BP, suggesting good performance of the adapted methods, except for one sample prepared with simple Longin method. For routine preparation of bones we chose the Longin method with additional alkali treatment.

  12. Radiocarbon dating of VIRI bone samples using ultrafiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Masayo; Yamazaki, Kana; Omori, Takayuki; Nakamura, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Ultrafiltration can effectively remove low-molecular-weight (LMW) contaminants from bone gelatin to extract high-molecular-weight (HMW) proteins that are derived from original bone collagen, though it cannot remove HMW collagen crosslinked with humic acids. Therefore, ultrafiltration is often used to obtain more accurate 14C dates of bones. However, ultrafiltration may introduce new contaminants to bone gelatins, mainly from ultrafilters used. To study the effects of ultrafiltration on 14C age, we analyzed the C/N ratio, δ13CPDB and δ15NAIR values, and 14C ages of acid-soluble bone collagen obtained by decalcification, gelatin extracted from acid-insoluble bone collagen, and the HMW gelatin and LMW fractions produced during ultrafiltration of the extracted gelatin. Bone samples from the Fifth International Radiocarbon Intercomparison (VIRI) were used: VIRI-E (mammoth), -F (horse), -G (human), and -I (whale). In this study, carbon and nitrogen content and gelatin yields were used to evaluate collagen preservation in the VIRI bone samples. Radiocarbon ages, δ13CPDB and δ15NAIR values of unfiltered and HMW gelatins were obtained and compared with the published consensus values. The LMW fraction was found to exhibit different values from those of the other fractions, indicating the possible presence of extraneous contamination. The Vivaspin™ 6 ultrafilters used in this study were analyzed and radiocarbon dated both before and after cleaning. We present evidence to suggest that LMW fraction contaminants could be derived from the ultrafilters rather than humic substances. Excessively long ultrafiltration time was suspected to have contaminated the bone samples with material from the ultrafilter, because those samples exhibited older 14C ages than did those filtered for shorter durations. The results in this study indicate that 14C ages of unfiltered gelatin extracted from well-preserved bones can be sufficiently accurate, and that care should be taken not to

  13. Radiocarbon dating of glacier ice: overview, optimisation, validation and potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Zapf, Alexander; Jenk, Theo Manuel; Sigl, Michael; Szidat, Sönke; Salazar, Gary; Schwikowski, Margit

    2016-12-01

    High-altitude glaciers and ice caps from midlatitudes and tropical regions contain valuable signals of past climatic and environmental conditions as well as human activities, but for a meaningful interpretation this information needs to be placed in a precise chronological context. For dating the upper part of ice cores from such sites, several relatively precise methods exist, but they fail in the older and deeper parts, where plastic deformation of the ice results in strong annual layer thinning and a non-linear age-depth relationship. If sufficient organic matter such as plant, wood or insect fragments were found, radiocarbon (14C) analysis would have thus been the only option for a direct and absolute dating of deeper ice core sections. However such fragments are rarely found and, even then, they would not be very likely to occur at the desired depth and resolution. About 10 years ago, a new, complementary dating tool was therefore introduced by our group. It is based on extracting the µg-amounts of the water-insoluble organic carbon (WIOC) fraction of carbonaceous aerosols embedded in the ice matrix for subsequent 14C dating. Since then this new approach has been improved considerably by reducing the measurement time and improving the overall precision. Samples with ˜ 10 µg WIOC mass can now be dated with reasonable uncertainty of around 10-20 % (variable depending on sample age). This requires about 300 to 800 g of ice for WIOC concentrations typically found in midlatitude and low-latitude glacier ice. Dating polar ice with satisfactory age precision is still not possible since WIOC concentrations are around 1 order of magnitude lower. The accuracy of the WIOC 14C method was validated by applying it to independently dated ice. With this method, the deepest parts of the ice cores from Colle Gnifetti and the Mt Ortles glacier in the European Alps, Illimani glacier in the Bolivian Andes, Tsambagarav ice cap in the Mongolian Altai, and Belukha glacier

  14. The Remarkable Metrological History of Radiocarbon Dating [II].

    PubMed

    Currie, Lloyd A

    2004-01-01

    This article traces the metrological history of radiocarbon, from the initial breakthrough devised by Libby, to minor (evolutionary) and major (revolutionary) advances that have brought (14)C measurement from a crude, bulk [8 g carbon] dating tool, to a refined probe for dating tiny amounts of precious artifacts, and for "molecular dating" at the 10 µg to 100 µg level. The metrological advances led to opportunities and surprises, such as the non-monotonic dendrochronological calibration curve and the "bomb effect," that gave rise to new multidisciplinary areas of application, ranging from archaeology and anthropology to cosmic ray physics to oceanography to apportionment of anthropogenic pollutants to the reconstruction of environmental history. Beyond the specific topic of natural (14)C, it is hoped that this account may serve as a metaphor for young scientists, illustrating that just when a scientific discipline may appear to be approaching maturity, unanticipated metrological advances in their own chosen fields, and unanticipated anthropogenic or natural chemical events in the environment, can spawn new areas of research having exciting theoretical and practical implications.

  15. A reevaluation of the Pallett Creek earthquake chronology based on new AMS radiocarbon dates, San Andreas fault, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharer, Katherine M.; Biasi, Glenn P.; Weldon, Ray J., II

    2011-12-01

    The Pallett Creek paleoseismic record occupies a keystone position in most attempts to develop rupture histories for the southern San Andreas fault. Previous estimates of earthquake ages at Pallett Creek were determined by decay counting radiocarbon methods. That method requires large samples which can lead to unaccounted sources of uncertainty in radiocarbon ages because of the heterogeneous composition of organic layers. In contrast, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates may be obtained from small samples that have known carbon sources and also allow for a more complete sampling of the section. We present 65 new AMS radiocarbon dates that span nine ground-rupturing earthquakes at Pallett Creek. Overall, the AMS dates are similar to and reveal no dramatic bias in the conventional dates. For many layers, however, individual charcoal samples were younger than the conventional dates, leading to earthquake ages that are overall slightly younger than previously reported. New earthquake ages are determined by Bayesian refinement of the layer ages based on stratigraphic ordering and sedimentological constraints. The new chronology is more regular than previously published records in large part due to new samples constraining the age of event R. The closed interval from event C to 1857 has a mean recurrence of 135 years (σ = 83.2 years) and a quasiperiodic coefficient of variation (COV) of 0.61. We show that the new dates and resultant earthquake chronology have a stronger effect on COV than the specific membership of this long series and dating precision improvements from sedimentation rates.

  16. The Remarkable Metrological History of Radiocarbon Dating [II

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Lloyd A.

    2004-01-01

    This article traces the metrological history of radiocarbon, from the initial breakthrough devised by Libby, to minor (evolutionary) and major (revolutionary) advances that have brought 14C measurement from a crude, bulk [8 g carbon] dating tool, to a refined probe for dating tiny amounts of precious artifacts, and for “molecular dating” at the 10 µg to 100 µg level. The metrological advances led to opportunities and surprises, such as the non-monotonic dendrochronological calibration curve and the “bomb effect,” that gave rise to new multidisciplinary areas of application, ranging from archaeology and anthropology to cosmic ray physics to oceanography to apportionment of anthropogenic pollutants to the reconstruction of environmental history. Beyond the specific topic of natural 14C, it is hoped that this account may serve as a metaphor for young scientists, illustrating that just when a scientific discipline may appear to be approaching maturity, unanticipated metrological advances in their own chosen fields, and unanticipated anthropogenic or natural chemical events in the environment, can spawn new areas of research having exciting theoretical and practical implications. PMID:27366605

  17. Radiocarbon dating and compositional analysis of pre-Columbian human bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, E.; Solís, C.; Canto, C. E.; de Lucio, O. G.; Chavez, E.; Rocha, M. F.; Villanueva, O.; Torreblanca, C. A.

    2014-08-01

    Analysis of ancient human bones found in "El Cóporo", an archaeological site in Guanajuato, Mexico; were performed using a multi techniques scheme: 14C radiocarbon dating, IBA (Ion Beam Analysis), SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy). We measured the elemental composition of the bones, especially some with a superficial black pigmentation. Soil samples collected from the burial place were also analyzed. The 14C dating was performed with a new High Voltage Europe 1 MV Tandentron Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) recently installed in the IFUNAM (Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México). The radiocarbon dating allowed us to determine the date of death of the individual in a period between the year 890 and 975 AD, which is consistent with the late period of the Cóporo civilization. The element sample analysis of bones with the surface black pigmentation show higher levels of Fe, Mn and Ba compared when bone's black surface was mechanically removed. These three elements were found in soil samples from the skeleton burial place. These results indicate more likely that the bone black coloration is due to a postmortem alteration occurring in the burial environment.

  18. Dating the time of birth: A radiocarbon calibration curve for human eye-lens crystallines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjeldsen, Henrik; Heinemeier, Jan; Heegaard, Steffen; Jacobsen, Christina; Lynnerup, Niels

    2010-04-01

    Radiocarbon bomb-pulse dating has been used to measure the formation age of human eye-lens crystallines. Lens crystallines are special proteins in the eye-lens that consist of virtually inert tissue. The experimental data show that the radiocarbon ages to a large extent reflect the time of birth, in accordance with expectations. Moreover, it has been possible to develop an age model for the formation of the eye-lens crystallines. From this model a radiocarbon calibration curve for lens crystallines has been calculated. As a consequence, the time of birth of humans can be determined with an accuracy of a few years by radiocarbon dating.

  19. AMS radiocarbon dating of Middle and Upper Palaeolithic bone in the British Isles: improved reliability using ultrafiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, R. M.; Higham, T. F. G.; Bronk Ramsey, C.

    2006-07-01

    Recent research at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU) has shown that ultrafiltration of gelatin from archaeological bone can, in many instances, remove low molecular weight contaminants. These can sometimes be of a different radiocarbon age and, unless removed, may severely influence results, particularly when dating bones greater than two to three half-lives of 14C. In this study this methodology is applied to samples of Late Middle and Early Upper Palaeolithic age from the British Isles. In many instances the results of redating invite serious reconsideration of the chronology for these periods. Copyright

  20. Comparative AMS radiocarbon dating of pretreated versus non-pretreated tropical wood samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrut, Adrian; von Reden, Karl F.; Lowy, Daniel A.; Mayne, Diana H.; Elder, Kathryn E.; Roberts, Mark L.; McNichol, Ann P.

    2010-04-01

    Several wood samples collected from Dorslandboom, a large iconic African baobab ( Adansonia digitata L.) from Namibia, were investigated by AMS radiocarbon dating subsequent to pretreatment and, alternatively, without pretreatment. The comparative statistical evaluation of results showed that there were no significant differences between fraction modern values and radiocarbon dates of the samples analyzed after pretreatment and without pretreatment, respectively. The radiocarbon date of the oldest sample was 993 ± 20 BP. Dating results also revealed that Dorslandboom is a multi-generation tree, with several stems showing different ages.

  1. Mortar radiocarbon dating: preliminary accuracy evaluation of a novel methodology.

    PubMed

    Marzaioli, Fabio; Lubritto, Carmine; Nonni, Sara; Passariello, Isabella; Capano, Manuela; Terrasi, Filippo

    2011-03-15

    Mortars represent a class of building and art materials that are widespread at archeological sites from the Neolithic period on. After about 50 years of experimentation, the possibility to evaluate their absolute chronology by means of radiocarbon ((14)C) remains still uncertain. With the use of a simplified mortar production process in the laboratory environment, this study shows the overall feasibility of a novel physical pretreatment for the isolation of the atmospheric (14)CO(2) (i.e., binder) signal absorbed by the mortars during their setting. This methodology is based on the assumption that an ultrasonic attack in liquid phase isolates a suspension of binder carbonates from bulk mortars. Isotopic ((13)C and (14)C), % C, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were performed to characterize the proposed methodology. The applied protocol allows suppression of the fossil carbon (C) contamination originating from the incomplete burning of the limestone during the quick lime production, providing unbiased dating for "laboratory" mortars produced operating at historically adopted burning temperatures.

  2. Radioisotope Dating with Accelerators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Richard A.

    1979-01-01

    Explains a new method of detecting radioactive isotopes by counting their accelerated ions rather than the atoms that decay during the counting period. This method increases the sensitivity by several orders of magnitude, and allows one to find the ages of much older and smaller samples. (GA)

  3. Dating of the Basal Aurignacian Sandwich at Abric Romanı́ (Catalunya, Spain) by Radiocarbon and Uranium-Series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, James L.; Ludwig, Kenneth R.; Garcia, Jose Francisco; Carbonell, E.; Vaquero, Manola; Stafford, Thomas W.; Jull, A.J.T.

    1994-01-01

    Abric Romani{dotless}??, a rock shelter located near Barcelona, Spain, contains a charcoal-bearing basal Aurignacian occupation level sandwiched between beds of moss-generated carbonate. The Aurignacian culture is the oldest artefact industry in Europe with which anatomically modern human remains have been associated. Radiocarbon analysis of charcoal fragments by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates the basal Aurignacian to about 37 ?? 2 ka bp. U-series analyses by alpha spectrometry (AS) and mass spectrometry (MS) date the enclosing carbonate to 43 ?? 1 ka bp. These results confirm the great antiquity of the Aurignacian in northern Spain and support the similar AMS dates from El Castillo and l'Arbreda caves. They also show that radiocarbon dates are significantly younger than U-series at 40 ka bp, as predicted by theory. ?? 1994 Academic Press. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiocarbon dating of small terrestrial gastropod shells in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, J.S.; Rech, J.A.; Nekola, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Fossil shells of small terrestrial gastropods are commonly preserved in wetland, alluvial, loess, and glacial deposits, as well as in sediments at many archeological sites. These shells are composed largely of aragonite (CaCO3) and potentially could be used for radiocarbon dating, but they must meet two criteria before their 14C ages can be considered to be reliable: (1) when gastropods are alive, the 14C activity of their shells must be in equilibrium with the 14C activity of the atmosphere, and (2) after burial, their shells must behave as closed systems with respect to carbon. To evaluate the first criterion, we conducted a comprehensive examination of the 14C content of the most common small terrestrial gastropods in North America, including 247 AMS measurements of modern shell material (3749 individual shells) from 46 different species. The modern gastropods that we analyzed were all collected from habitats on carbonate terrain and, therefore, the data presented here represent worst-case scenarios. In sum, ~78% of the shell aliquots that we analyzed did not contain dead carbon from limestone or other carbonate rocks even though it was readily available at all sites, 12% of the aliquots contained between 5 and 10% dead carbon, and a few (3% of the total) contained more than 10%. These results are significantly lower than the 20-30% dead carbon that has been reported previously for larger taxa living in carbonate terrain. For the second criterion, we report a case study from the American Midwest in which we analyzed fossil shells of small terrestrial gastropods (7 taxa; 18 AMS measurements; 173 individual shells) recovered from late-Pleistocene sediments. The fossil shells yielded 14C ages that were statistically indistinguishable from 14C ages of well-preserved plant macrofossils from the same stratum. Although just one site, these results suggest that small terrestrial gastropod shells may behave as closed systems with respect to carbon over geologic

  5. Radiocarbon dating from 40 to 60 ka BP at Border Cave, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, M. I.; Fifield, L. K.; Santos, G. M.; Beaumont, P. B.; Zhou, Y.; di Tada, M. L.; Hausladen, P. A.

    2003-04-01

    We present 21 radiocarbon dates on 19 charcoal samples from the sedimentary sequence preserved in Border Cave, South Africa. The background radiocarbon activity for charcoal from the cave was determined to be 0.050±0.018 percent modern carbon, from the analysis of a radiocarbon-dead sample from unit 5WA. Radiocarbon ages for individual samples ranged from 25.2 to >58.2 ka BP. The error-weighted mean ages for successively older strata are 38.5+0.85/-0.95 ka BP for unit 1WA, 50.2+1.1/-1.0 ka BP for units 2BS.LR.A and 2BS.LR.B, 56.5+2.7/-2.0 ka BP for unit 2BS.LR.C and 59.2+3.4/-2.4 ka BP for unit 2WA. This radiocarbon chronology is consistent with independent chronologies derived from electron spin resonance and amino acid racemization dating. The results therefore provide further evidence that radiocarbon dating of charcoal by the ABOX-SC technique can yield reliable radiocarbon ages beyond 40 ka BP. They also imply that Border Cave 5, a modern human mandible, predates >58.2 ka BP and that the Middle Stone Age (Mode 3)—Later Stone Age (Mode 5) transition of Border Cave was largely effected between ˜56.5 and ˜41.6 ka ago.

  6. A reevaluation of the Pallett Creek earthquake chronology based on new AMS radiocarbon dates, San Andreas fault, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scharer, K.M.; Biasi, G.P.; Weldon, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Pallett Creek paleoseismic record occupies a keystone position in most attempts to develop rupture histories for the southern San Andreas fault. Previous estimates of earthquake ages at Pallett Creek were determined by decay counting radiocarbon methods. That method requires large samples which can lead to unaccounted sources of uncertainty in radiocarbon ages because of the heterogeneous composition of organic layers. In contrast, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates may be obtained from small samples that have known carbon sources and also allow for a more complete sampling of the section. We present 65 new AMS radiocarbon dates that span nine ground-rupturing earthquakes at Pallett Creek. Overall, the AMS dates are similar to and reveal no dramatic bias in the conventional dates. For many layers, however, individual charcoal samples were younger than the conventional dates, leading to earthquake ages that are overall slightly younger than previously reported. New earthquake ages are determined by Bayesian refinement of the layer ages based on stratigraphic ordering and sedimentological constraints. The new chronology is more regular than previously published records in large part due to new samples constraining the age of event R. The closed interval from event C to 1857 has a mean recurrence of 135years (?? = 83.2 years) and a quasiperiodic coefficient of variation (COV) of 0.61. We show that the new dates and resultant earthquake chronology have a stronger effect on COV than the specific membership of this long series and dating precision improvements from sedimentation rates. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Application of compound-specific radiocarbon dating for Antarctic margin sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkouchi, N.; Koizumi, M.; Anderson, J. B.; Eglinton, T. I.; Miura, H.; Yokoyama, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Radiocarbon dating has been extensively applied for the development of chronologies of Antarctic margin sediments deposited during the late Quaternary. However, the problems are 1) the DIC reservoir age in the surface mixed layer is much older than that of the other oceans, 2) Antarctic margin sediments generally lack calcareous foraminifera conventionally used for radiocarbon dating and as stratigraphic tool, and 3) the sediments are subjected to significant "contamination" of relict organic matter eroded from the Antarctic continent, leading to substantially older radiocarbon ages of bulk sedimentary organic matter. Ohkouchi et al. (2003) first applied compound-specific radiocarbon dating to the surface sediments collected from Ross Sea, Antarctica for resolving the problem. They reported that the radiocarbon ages of solvent-extractable, short-chain (C14, C16, and C18) fatty acids are consistent with the modern DIC reservoir age (Pre-bomb: 14C -150, Post-bomb: 14C -100). Furthermore, the radiocarbon ages of these fatty acids at five down-core intervals progressively increase with the core depth. These results clearly show a utility of the compound- specific radiocarbon dating for developing sediment chronologies in Antarctic margin sediments. We also determined radiocarbon ages of the fatty acids from a core recovered in the NW Ross Sea to reconstruct sediment chronologies. Furthermore, we determined hydrogen isotopic compositions of sedimentary biomarkers in the core. Around 6.8, 5.7, 4.1, 2.5, and 1.5 kyr ago, the reconstructed D values of paleo- seawater were -200 or lower, suggesting a large amount of meltwater influx to the Ross Sea. Currently, we are applying the method to more sediment samples collected from wider area of Ross Sea to investigate the timing and pattern of retreat of West Antarctic Ice Sheet in the Holocene. I will present the up-dated results in my talk.

  8. Microflora distributions in paleosols: a method for calculating the validity of radiocarbon-dated surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mahaney, W.C.; Boyer, M.G.

    1986-08-01

    Microflora (bacteria and fungi) distributions in several paleosols from Mount Kenya, East Africa, provide important information about contamination of buried soil horizons dated by radiocarbon. High counts of bacteria and fungi in buried soils provide evidence for contamination by plant root effects or ground water movement. Profiles with decreasing counts versus depth appear to produce internally consistent and accurate radiocarbon dates. Profiles with disjunct or bimodal distributions of microflora at various depths produce internally inconsistent chronological sequences of radiocarbon-dated buried surfaces. Preliminary results suggest that numbers up to 5 x 10/sup 2/ g/sup -1/ for bacteria in buried A horizons do not appear to affect the validity of /sup 14/C dates. Beyond this threshold value, contamination appears to produce younger dates, the difference between true age and /sup 14/C age increasing with the amount of microflora contamination.

  9. Radiocarbon dating of planktonic foraminifer shells: A cautionary tale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekik, Figen

    2014-01-01

    rate, bioturbation, winnowing, and calcite dissolution produce significant radiocarbon age offsets among multiple species of coexisting planktonic foraminifers and pteropod fragments. We compare the radiocarbon age of foraminifer species and pteropod fragments with estimates of percent calcite dissolved made with a sedimentary proxy (Globorotalia menardii fragmentation index—MFI) to delineate the effect of dissolution on radiocarbon age of foraminifers. Data from two core top transects on the Rio Grande Rise (RIO) and Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) and from down core sediments of varying sedimentation rates in the tropical Pacific (ME-27, MD98 2177, and MW91-9 56GGC) reveal that sediments with the greatest accumulation rates produce the least age offsets among coexisting species. Age offsets among coexisting foraminifers are about 3500 years on RIO, and 1000 years on OJP. Two core tops from RIO yield an age of the Last Glacial Maximum possibly due to mass displacement of younger sediments downslope. Foraminifer age increases with increasing dissolution and there is a consistent pattern of older foraminifer fragments coexisting with younger whole shells of the same species. The only exception is sediments which have experienced high dissolution where fragments are younger than whole shells. The age offset between fragments of G. menardii and its coexisting whole shells does not exceed the age offset among other coexisting foraminifer species in the same core tops.

  10. New Hydroxyproline Radiocarbon Dates from Sungir, Russia, Confirm Early Mid Upper Palaeolithic Burials in Eurasia

    PubMed Central

    Nalawade-Chavan, Shweta; McCullagh, James; Hedges, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sungir (Russia) is a key Mid-Upper Palaeolithic site in Eurasia, containing several spectacular burials that disclose early evidence for complex burial rites in the form of a range of grave goods deposited along with the dead. Dating has been particularly challenging, with multiple radiocarbon dates ranging from 19,160±270 to 28,800±240 BP for burials that are believed to be closely similar in age. There are disparities in the radiocarbon dates of human bones, faunal remains and charcoal found on the floor of burials [1], [2], [3]. Our approach has been to develop compound-specific methods using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to separate single amino acids, such as hydroxyproline, and thereby avoid the known human contamination on the bones themselves. Previously, we applied this technique to obtain radiocarbon dates of ∼30,000 BP for Sungir 2, Sungir 3 and a mammoth bone from the occupation levels of the site [4]. The single amino acid radiocarbon dates were in good agreement with each other compared to all the dates previously reported, supporting their reliability. Here we report new hydroxyproline dates for two more human burials from the same site, Sungir 1 and Sungir 4. All five hydroxyproline dates reported are statistically indistinguishable and support an identical age for the group. The results suggest that compound-specific radiocarbon analysis should be considered seriously as the method of choice when precious archaeological remains are to be dated because they give a demonstrably contaminant-free radiocarbon age. The new ages are, together with the previously dated ‘Red Lady of Paviland’ human in the British Isles, the earliest for Mid Upper Palaeolithic burial behaviour in Eurasia, and point to the precocious appearance of this form of rite in Europe Russia. PMID:24416120

  11. New hydroxyproline radiocarbon dates from Sungir, Russia, confirm early Mid Upper Palaeolithic burials in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Nalawade-Chavan, Shweta; McCullagh, James; Hedges, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sungir (Russia) is a key Mid-Upper Palaeolithic site in Eurasia, containing several spectacular burials that disclose early evidence for complex burial rites in the form of a range of grave goods deposited along with the dead. Dating has been particularly challenging, with multiple radiocarbon dates ranging from 19,160±270 to 28,800±240 BP for burials that are believed to be closely similar in age. There are disparities in the radiocarbon dates of human bones, faunal remains and charcoal found on the floor of burials. Our approach has been to develop compound-specific methods using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to separate single amino acids, such as hydroxyproline, and thereby avoid the known human contamination on the bones themselves. Previously, we applied this technique to obtain radiocarbon dates of ∼30,000 BP for Sungir 2, Sungir 3 and a mammoth bone from the occupation levels of the site. The single amino acid radiocarbon dates were in good agreement with each other compared to all the dates previously reported, supporting their reliability. Here we report new hydroxyproline dates for two more human burials from the same site, Sungir 1 and Sungir 4. All five hydroxyproline dates reported are statistically indistinguishable and support an identical age for the group. The results suggest that compound-specific radiocarbon analysis should be considered seriously as the method of choice when precious archaeological remains are to be dated because they give a demonstrably contaminant-free radiocarbon age. The new ages are, together with the previously dated 'Red Lady of Paviland' human in the British Isles, the earliest for Mid Upper Palaeolithic burial behaviour in Eurasia, and point to the precocious appearance of this form of rite in Europe Russia.

  12. Radiocarbon AMS at IOP: System improvements and dating of groundwater from Bhadrak district, Orissa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, G. V. Ravi; Dutta, K.; Ray, D. K.

    2008-04-01

    The radiocarbon AMS facility at Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar is based on a 3 MV tandem accelerator. In this paper, we present the recent improvements to the AMS system at this general purpose accelerator facility. We report an effective method of overcoming terminal voltage instability often met with in switching between AMS and other modes of operation of the accelerator. We report the radiocarbon measurements made on connate groundwater samples from the Bhadrak district of Orissa state (eastern India) to identify the regions that require artificial recharge.

  13. New Radiocarbon Dates on Upper Mid-West Proboscideans: Determining Date Robustness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgins, G.; Widga, C.; Lengyel, S. N.; Saunders, J.; Walker, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    With the objective of refining the picture of Megafaunal extinction patterns in the upper Midwest in the terminal Pleistocene, we have assembled for radiocarbon dating specimens from more than 80 distinct Mammut and Mammuthus remains from potentially late sites. So far, we have measurements for 65 bones, tusks and teeth, nearly double the extant number of published dates . These new specimens were all from museums rather than excavation sites, and 60% were known to be coated with a consolidant. The predominant consolidant was Butvar B-76, however shellac, Elmer's Glue, Glyptol were also noted in the conservation records, or deduced from knowledge of a particular museum's practices. Given the objective of the project is to identify extinction patterns, coupled with the wide prevalence of consolidants amongst the specimen set, it was imperative that testing be carried out to confirm that radiocarbon laboratory protocols removed the consolidants, so that ultimately the dates can be considered robust. To this end, key specimens were dated three times using different sample preparation protocols. These were 1) a solvent extraction followed by a modified Longin-plus -Base continuous flow collagen extraction method used in the NSF-Arizona AMS facility, 2) the solvent/modified Longin method plus ultrafiltration, and 3) solvent/modified Longin method plus hydroxyproline single amino acid dating. Among the specimens subjected to triplicate testing were some of the youngest late Wisconsin proboscidean specimens from the Upper Midwest Region. The data reveal general agreement between the different protocols, and suggested either limited penetration of consolidants into the specimens, or that the standard laboratory cleaning protocols were sufficient to remove traces from deep within bone, tooth or tusk tissue. The preservation of each specimen, recorded in terms of collagen content, C/N ratio and stable isotope values, indicated that most were actually well preserved, implying

  14. Comparative radiocarbon dating of terrestrial plant macrofossils and aquatic moss from the ice-free corridor of western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, G.M.; Beukens, R.P.; Kieser, W.E.; Vitt, D.H.

    1987-09-01

    In order to assess the reliability of aquatic moss for radiocarbon dating, /sup 14/C analyses were performed on a stratigraphic series of terrestrial plant macrofossils and samples of Drepanocladus crassicostatus from a small, hard-water lake (pH = 8.2) in the ice-free corridor of Alberta. All /sup 14/C dating was done by using accelerator mass spectrometry. Mazama Ash provided an independent chronological control. The aquatic bryophyte samples consistently produced /sup 14/C ages significantly older than the terrestrial macrofossils. The relation between the radiocarbon dates from the macrofossils and the moss was not linear, and age differences ranged from approximately 1400 to 6400 yr. The /sup 14/C content of D. crassicostatus growing in the lake at present was less than 85% modern. Despite the apparent inability to take up /sup 14/C-deficient carbon by the direct incorporation of bicarbonate, the bryophytes clearly do not provide reliable material /sup 14/C dating. The /sup 14/C deficiency of aquatic mosses may be explained by the generation of /sup 14/C-deficient CO/sub 2/ through isotopic exchange, the formation of CO/sub 2/ from bicarbonate by chemical processes, and metabolic CO/sub 2/ production. These results demonstrate the potential unreliability of /sup 14/C dates from aquatic mosses and raise serious concerns about the deglaciation dates from the ice-free corridor that were obtained from aquatic Drepanocladus.

  15. Comparative radiocarbon dating of terrestrial plant macrofossils and aquatic moss from the “ice-free corridor” of western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, G. M.; Beukens, R. P.; Kieser, W. E.; Vitt, D. H.

    1987-09-01

    In order to assess the reliability of aquatic moss for radiocarbon dating, 14C analyses were performed on a stratigraphic series of terrestrial plant macrofossils and samples of Drepanocladus crassicostatus from a small, hard-water lake (pH = 8.2) in the “ice-free corridor” of Alberta. All 14C dating was done by using accelerator mass spectrometry. Mazama Ash provided an independent chronological control. The aquatic bryophyte samples consistently produced 14C ages significantly older than the terrestrial macrofossils. The relation between the radiocarbon dates from the macrofossils and the moss was not linear, and age differences ranged from approximately 1400 to 6400 yr. The 14C content of D. crassicostatus growing in the lake at present was less than 85% modern. Despite the apparent inability to take up 14C-deficient carbon by the direct incorporation of bicarbonate, the bryophytes clearly do not provide reliable material for 14C dating. The 14C deficiency of aquatic mosses may be explained by the generation of 14C-deficient CO2 through isotopic exchange, the formation of CO2 from bicarbonate by chemical processes, and metabolic CO2 production. These results demonstrate the potential unreliability of 14C dates from aquatic mosses and raise serious concerns about the deglaciation dates from the ice-free corridor that were obtained from aquatic Drepanocladus.

  16. What is the true age uncertainty of radiocarbon dated Holocene records?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Sze Ling; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Refeld, Kira; Mollenhauer, Gesine; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Nürnberg, Dirk; Laepple, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Radiocarbon-based age-depth models are the backbone of the chronology of Holocene sediment records. The uncertainty of such age-depth models is often estimated from the uncertainty of the calibrated radiocarbon samples. A necessary assumption hereby is that the age of the samples is representative for the proxies in the same sediment layer they originate from. Here we generate radiocarbon and multiple temperature proxy data in three Holocene sediment cores from the same multi-corer employed in the Southwest Pacific. Surprisingly, whilst radiocarbon ages at the same sediment depth strongly differ between the tubes, multiple independent proxy time-series measured in each of the sediment cores suggest stratified sediments at the site. This is based on the finding that proxy time-series correlate significantly better between sediment cores when analyzed over depth, rather than against core-specific age-depth models based on the radiocarbon dates. If our site is not a pathological special case - an argument which we have no evidence for - our finding has important implications for age-depth modeling and the interpretations of paleoclimate time-series. It suggests that the true age uncertainty of a sediment layer can be much higher than the uncertainty obtained from the radiocarbon dates. An alternative but less likely hypothesis is that the proxy values are modified post-deposition in the sediments, resulting in more consistent stratification than the original climate signal time-series. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of replication of the proxy time series and radiocarbon dates in the quest for chronologic precision and proxy reliability, which are crucial for a more quantitative understanding of Holocene climate evolution.

  17. Analysis of artificial radiocarbon in different skeletal and dental tissue types to evaluate date of death.

    PubMed

    Ubelaker, Douglas H; Buchholz, Bruce A; Stewart, John E B

    2006-05-01

    Radiocarbon dating, with special reference to the modern bomb-curve, can provide useful information to elucidate the date of death of skeletonized human remains. Interpretation can be enhanced with analysis of different types of tissues within a single skeleton because of the known variability of formation times and remodeling rates. Analysis of radiocarbon content of teeth, especially the enamel in tooth crowns, provides information about the date of formation in the childhood years and in consideration of the known timing of tooth formation can be used to estimate the birth date after 1950 ad. Radiocarbon analysis of modern cortical and trabecular bone samples from the same skeleton may allow proper placement on the pre-1963 or post-1963 sides of the bomb-curve as most trabecular bone generally undergoes more rapid remodeling than does most cortical bone. Pre-1963 bone formation would produce higher radiocarbon values for most trabecular bone than for most cortical bone. This relationship is reversed for formation after 1963. Radiocarbon analysis was conducted in this study on dental, cortical, and trabecular bone samples from two adult individuals of known birth (1925 and 1926) and death dates (1995 and 1959). As expected, the dental results correspond to prebomb-curve values reflecting conditions during the childhoods of the individuals. The radiocarbon content of most bone samples reflected the higher modern bomb-curve values. Within the bone sample analyses, the values of the trabecular bone were higher than those of cortical bone and supported the known placement on the pre-1963 side of the bomb-curve.

  18. Analysis of Artificial Radiocarbon in Different Skeletal and Dental Tissue Types to Evaluate Date of Death

    SciTech Connect

    Ubelaker, D H; Buchholz, B A; Stewart, J

    2005-07-19

    Radiocarbon dating, with special reference to the modern bomb-curve, can provide useful information to elucidate the date of death of skeletonized human remains. Interpretation can be enhanced with analysis of different types of tissues within a single skeleton because of the known variability of formation times and remodeling rates. Analysis of radiocarbon content of teeth, especially the enamel in tooth crowns provides information about the date of formation in the childhood years and in consideration of the known timing of tooth formation can be used to estimate the birth date after 1950 A.D. Radiocarbon analysis of modern cortical and trabecular bone samples from the same skeleton may allow proper placement on the pre-1963 or post-1963 sides of the bomb-curve since most trabecular bone generally undergoes more rapid remodeling than does most cortical bone. Pre-1963 bone formation would produce higher radiocarbon values for most trabecular bone than for most cortical bone. This relationship is reversed for formation after 1963. Radiocarbon analysis was conducted in this study on dental, cortical and trabecular bone samples from two adult individuals of known birth (1925 and 1926) and death dates (1995 and 1959). As expected, the dental results correspond to pre-bomb bomb-curve values reflecting conditions during the childhoods of the individuals. The curve radiocarbon content of most bone samples reflected the higher modern bomb-curve values. Within the bone sample analyses, the values of the trabecular bone were higher than those of cortical bone and supported the known placement on the pre-1963 side of the bomb-curve.

  19. Radiocarbon Dating, Chronologic Framework, and Changes in Accumulation Rates of Holocene Estuarine Sediments from Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colman, Steven M.; Baucom, Pattie C.; Bratton, John F.; Cronin, Thomas M.; McGeehin, John P.; Willard, Debra; Zimmerman, Andrew R.; Vogt, Peter R.

    2002-01-01

    Rapidly accumulating Holocene sediments in estuaries commonly are difficult to sample and date. In Chesapeake Bay, we obtained sediment cores as much as 20 m in length and used numerous radiocarbon ages measured by accelerator mass spectrometry methods to provide the first detailed chronologies of Holocene sediment accumulation in the bay. Carbon in these sediments is a complex mixture of materials from a variety of sources. Analyses of different components of the sediments show that total organic carbon ages are largely unreliable, because much of the carbon (including coal) has been transported to the bay from upstream sources and is older than sediments in which it was deposited. Mollusk shells (clams, oysters) and foraminifera appear to give reliable results, although reworking and burrowing are potential problems. Analyses of museum specimens collected alive before atmospheric nuclear testing suggest that the standard reservoir correction for marine samples is appropriate for middle to lower Chesapeake Bay. The biogenic carbonate radiocarbon ages are compatible with 210Pb and 137Cs data and pollen stratigraphy from the same sites. Post-settlement changes in sediment transport and accumulation is an important environmental issue in many estuaries, including the Chesapeake. Our data show that large variations in sediment mass accumulation rates occur among sites. At shallow water sites, local factors seem to control changes in accumulation rates with time. Our two relatively deep-water sites in the axial channel of the bay have different long-term average accumulation rates, but the history of sediment accumulation at these sites appears to reflect overall conditions in the bay. Mass accumulation rates at the two deep-water sites rapidly increased by about fourfold coincident with widespread land clearance for agriculture in the Chesapeake watershed.

  20. Empirical calibrated radiocarbon sampler: a tool for incorporating radiocarbon-date and calibration error into Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of ancient DNA.

    PubMed

    Molak, Martyna; Suchard, Marc A; Ho, Simon Y W; Beilman, David W; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-01-01

    Studies of DNA from ancient samples provide a valuable opportunity to gain insight into past evolutionary and demographic processes. Bayesian phylogenetic methods can estimate evolutionary rates and timescales from ancient DNA sequences, with the ages of the samples acting as calibrations for the molecular clock. Sample ages are often estimated using radiocarbon dating, but the associated measurement error is rarely taken into account. In addition, the total uncertainty quantified by converting radiocarbon dates to calendar dates is typically ignored. Here, we present a tool for incorporating both of these sources of uncertainty into Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of ancient DNA. This empirical calibrated radiocarbon sampler (ECRS) integrates the age uncertainty for each ancient sequence over the calibrated probability density function estimated for its radiocarbon date and associated error. We use the ECRS to analyse three ancient DNA data sets. Accounting for radiocarbon-dating and calibration error appeared to have little impact on estimates of evolutionary rates and related parameters for these data sets. However, analyses of other data sets, particularly those with few or only very old radiocarbon dates, might be more sensitive to using artificially precise sample ages and should benefit from use of the ECRS.

  1. Materials Science Challenges in Radiocarbon Dating: The Case of Archaeological Plasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boaretto, Elisabetta; Poduska, Kristin M.

    2013-04-01

    Structural, compositional, and isotopic characterization techniques are critically important to help identify pristine materials that are suitable for accurate and precise radiocarbon dating. Lime plasters, cements, and mortars are ideal materials for establishing firm and secure dates in the archaeological record as human-constructed living surfaces and installations. However, the often complex composite structures of plasters and their susceptibility to diagenetic processes have impeded the development of a reliable and reproducible method to identify the best specimens for dating. In this article we present an overview of the plaster production process and the radiocarbon dating method. We explain how material characterization techniques and radiocarbon dating can be integrated to make progress toward the ultimate goal of relating radiocarbon concentrations with environmental, sample preparation, and/or diagenetic conditions in which the plaster existed. A key aspect of this strategy relies on implementing material characterization techniques in the field, during an excavation, to help establish the archaeological context in which datable material is recovered.

  2. Co-Development of Conceptual Understanding and Critical Attitude: Analyzing Texts on Radiocarbon Dating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Décamp, N.; Viennot, L.

    2015-01-01

    This research documents the impact of a teaching interview aimed at developing a critical attitude in students, and focused on a particular topic: radiocarbon dating. This teaching interview is designed to observe students' reaction to limited written explanations of the phenomenon under study, and their possible frustration or intellectual…

  3. Radiocarbon to calendar date conversion: Calendrical band widths as a function of radiocarbon precision

    SciTech Connect

    McCormac, F.G.; Baillie, M.G.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Accurate high-precision [sup 14]C dating (i.e., [plus minus] 20 yr precision or less on the [sup 14]C date) provides the narrowest calendrical band width and, hence, the best age range determination possible. However, because of the structure in the [sup 14]C calibration curve, the calendar age range for a given [sup 14]C precision is not constant throughout the calibration range. In this study, they quantify the calendar band widths for a range of [sup 14]C precisions throughout the calibration range. They show that an estimate of the likely calendar band width in years can be obtained from the expression: Band width (yr) = 2.12 x [sup 14]C precision (1 [sigma]) + 54.6. They also show that calendar band widths are widest around 4000 Bp at the start of the Bronze Age, and become narrow through the later Bronze Age and Iron Age and back into the Neolithic.

  4. Radiocarbon dating of fossil mollusk shells in the Yucca Mountain region

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, R.; Quade, J.

    1995-12-01

    Fossil mollusk shells from late Quaternary deposits in Southern Nevada were radiocarbon dated to determine the age of paleogroundwater discharge events and to establish minimum {sup 14}C ages of paleogroundwater. Shells of the terrestrial taxa Vallonia sp. and Succineidae returned {sup 14}C dates consistent with those on organic material in the same stratigraphic position. The aquatic taxa Gyraulus parvus and Gyraulus circumstratus returned the oldest dates within each unit samples. These results show that (1) fossil Vallonia and Succineidae are useful in dating deposits in which no other radiocarbon-datable material is available, and (2) Gyraulus sp. select micro habitats with the most {sup 14}C deficient water, providing minimum ages of groundwater in the area during the last glacial period.

  5. Radiocarbon dating of ancient bronze statues: Preliminary results from the Riace statues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagnile, L.; D'Elia, M.; Quarta, G.; Vidale, M.

    2010-04-01

    The low amount of material needed for the measurements makes AMS radiocarbon a technique suitable for the dating of ancient bronze artefacts through the analysis of the organic residues contained into the casting cores. We present the results of the AMS radiocarbon dating analyses carried out on the organic remains extracted from the casting cores of the Riace bronzes, among the most famous and well preserved sculptures of the Greek-Classical period. Although different dating hypotheses have been suggested on the base of stylistic considerations, no conclusive answers are, so far, available. The sample selection and preparation protocols of the different kind of organic materials (charred wood, vegetal remains and animal hairs) are described as well as the interpretation of the results in the frame of the current dating hypotheses and available analytical information about the casting technology.

  6. Collagen Fingerprinting: A New Screening Technique for Radiocarbon Dating Ancient Bone

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Virginia L.; Egerton, Victoria M.; Chamberlain, Andrew T.; Manning, Phillip L.; Buckley, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Collagen is the dominant organic component of bone and is intimately locked within the hydroxyapatite structure of this ubiquitous biomaterial that dominates archaeological and palaeontological assemblages. Radiocarbon analysis of extracted collagen is one of the most common approaches to dating bone from late Pleistocene or Holocene deposits, but dating is relatively expensive compared to other biochemical techniques. Numerous analytical methods have previously been investigated for the purpose of screening out samples that are unlikely to yield reliable dates including histological analysis, UV-stimulated fluorescence and, most commonly, the measurement of percentage nitrogen (%N) and ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C:N). Here we propose the use of collagen fingerprinting (also known as Zooarchaeology by Mass Spectrometry, or ZooMS, when applied to species identification) as an alternative screening method for radiocarbon dating, due to its ability to provide information on collagen presence and quality, alongside species identification. The method was tested on a series of sub-fossil bone specimens from cave systems on Cayman Brac (Cayman Islands), chosen due to the observable range in diagenetic alteration, and in particular, the extent of mineralisation. Six 14C dates, of 18 initial attempts, were obtained from remains of extinct hutia, Capromys sp. (Rodentia; Capromyidae), recovered from five distinct caves on Cayman Brac, and ranging from 393 ± 25 to 1588 ± 26 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP). All of the bone samples that yielded radiocarbon dates generated excellent collagen fingerprints, and conversely those that gave poor fingerprints also failed dating. Additionally, two successfully fingerprinted bone samples were screened out from a set of 81. Both subsequently generated 14C dates, demonstrating successful utilisation of ZooMS as an alternative screening mechanism to identify bone samples that are suitable for 14C analysis. PMID:26938469

  7. Collagen Fingerprinting: A New Screening Technique for Radiocarbon Dating Ancient Bone.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Virginia L; Egerton, Victoria M; Chamberlain, Andrew T; Manning, Phillip L; Buckley, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Collagen is the dominant organic component of bone and is intimately locked within the hydroxyapatite structure of this ubiquitous biomaterial that dominates archaeological and palaeontological assemblages. Radiocarbon analysis of extracted collagen is one of the most common approaches to dating bone from late Pleistocene or Holocene deposits, but dating is relatively expensive compared to other biochemical techniques. Numerous analytical methods have previously been investigated for the purpose of screening out samples that are unlikely to yield reliable dates including histological analysis, UV-stimulated fluorescence and, most commonly, the measurement of percentage nitrogen (%N) and ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C:N). Here we propose the use of collagen fingerprinting (also known as Zooarchaeology by Mass Spectrometry, or ZooMS, when applied to species identification) as an alternative screening method for radiocarbon dating, due to its ability to provide information on collagen presence and quality, alongside species identification. The method was tested on a series of sub-fossil bone specimens from cave systems on Cayman Brac (Cayman Islands), chosen due to the observable range in diagenetic alteration, and in particular, the extent of mineralisation. Six (14)C dates, of 18 initial attempts, were obtained from remains of extinct hutia, Capromys sp. (Rodentia; Capromyidae), recovered from five distinct caves on Cayman Brac, and ranging from 393 ± 25 to 1588 ± 26 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP). All of the bone samples that yielded radiocarbon dates generated excellent collagen fingerprints, and conversely those that gave poor fingerprints also failed dating. Additionally, two successfully fingerprinted bone samples were screened out from a set of 81. Both subsequently generated (14)C dates, demonstrating successful utilisation of ZooMS as an alternative screening mechanism to identify bone samples that are suitable for 1(4)C analysis.

  8. Radiocarbon dating organic detritus: Implications for studying ice sheet dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Punning, J.; Rajamaee, R. . Inst. of Ecology)

    1993-01-01

    They present here a description of the [sup 14]C dating method used at the Institute of Geology, Estonian Academy of Science. They discuss results of geochronological studies of several stratigraphic sections, from which one estimates the age of the Late Weichselian (Late Valdaian) glacial maximum. [sup 14]C and paleobotanical data indicate that biodetrital materials comprise organic debris from various sources and suggests only a maximum age of investigated strata (16,000 BP).

  9. Calibration of radiocarbon dates: tables based on the consensus data of the workshop on calibrating the radiocarbon time scale

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.; Lerman, J.C.; Damon, P.E.; Ralph, E.K.

    1982-01-01

    A calibration is presented for conventional radiocarbon ages ranging from 10 to 7240 years BP and thus covering a calendric range of 8000 years from 6050 BC to AD 1950. Distinctive features of this calibration include: (1) an improved data set consisting of 1154 radiocarbon measurements on samples of known age, (2) an extended range over which radiocarbon ages may be calibrated (an additional 530 years), (3) separate 95% confidence intervals (in tubular form) for six different radiocarbon uncertainties (20, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300 years), and (4) an estimate of the non-Poisson errors related to radiocarbon determinations, including an estimate of the systematic errors between laboratories.

  10. Radiocarbon Dating and age Inversions in Lake Chapala Late Holocene Sediments, Western Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarate-Del Valle, P.; Israde-Alcantara, I.; Ramírez-Sánchez, H.; Gómez-Salazar, S.; Ríos-Donato, N.

    2006-12-01

    Neotectonic Lake Chapala, the major Mexican freshwater reservoir lies at the north and northeast of the Citala Rift and is linked to history of the active Plio-Quaternary Transmexican Volcanic Belt geological province. Eight radiocarbon 14C dates were obtained on shallow sediment samples from a gravity corer (T46) of 5 cm in diameter and 1.7 m long. The core was collected from the western sector of Lake Chapala (103° 15.43' W, 20° 14.45' N) at water depth of 3.7 m (june 2000). In general, shallow sediments (<2m deep) in Lake Chapala are dark and silty with granulometric median ranging from 10 to 50 μm. Major oxides in sediments are: SiO2 (54.05%), Al2O3 (18.94%), Fe2O3 (6.75%) and CaO (2.57%). The major mineralogical composition of sediments is as follows: plagioclases (25.86%), quartz (20.92%), clays (38.5%), carbonates (2.99%) and TiO2 (1.05%). Radiocarbon ages were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and were obtained through the organic carbon fraction extracted from the bulk sediment samples sliced every 20 cm taken from the whole core. Stratigraphically ordered from highest to lowest, the eight ages reported are: 1) 2,000 ±40 yr on sediments at 30 cm deep; 2) 1,920 ±35 yr on sediments at 50 cm deep; 3) 1,900 ±35 yr on sediments at 70 cm deep; 4) 2,080 ±35 yr on sediments at 90 cm deep; 5) 2,090 ±50 yr on sediments at 110 cm deep; 6) 2,190 ±35 yr on sediments at 130 cm deep; 7) 2,050 ±35 yr on sediments at 150 cm deep and, 8) 1,500 ±35 yr on sediments at 170 cm deep. From the top until 70 cm and from 130 to bottom we observe two age inversions; the interval apparently with no age inversions is from 70cm to 130cm. As it is known the age inversions observed may be due to a) ancient carbon being incorporated into the sediment during deposition; b) unrecognized bioturbation, c) Postdepositional alteration and, d) variations in the apparent geological ages of the different chemical phases comprising the total sediment. Basically, the factors

  11. Radiocarbon dating organic residues at the microgram level

    SciTech Connect

    Kirner, D.L.; Burky, R.; Taylor, R.E.; Southon, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Relation between submilligram sample size and {sup 14}C activity for sample blanks (wood from Pliocene sediments) and a contemporary standard (oxalic acid) for catalytically reduced graphitic carbon was examined down to 20 micrograms. Mean age of the 1 mg wood sample blanks is now about 51.3 ka (0.168 pMC) while the mean for 20 microgram sample blanks is about 42.9 ka. So far, the lowest value for a 1-mg wood sample blank is about 60.5 ka (0.056 pMC). We have determined a mean {sup 14}C age of about 9.4 ka from a suite of 7 organic extracts from hair, bone, and matting from a mummified human skeleton from Spirit Cave, Nevada. These data indicate that the Spirit Cave human is the third, oldest directly-dated, human skeleton currently known from North America.

  12. AMS radiocarbon dating of mortar: The case study of the medieval UNESCO site of Modena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmine, Lubritto; Caroselli, Marta; Lugli, Stefano; Marzaioli, Fabio; Nonni, Sara; Marchetti Dori, S.; Terrasi, Filippo

    2015-10-01

    The carbon dioxide contributing to binder formation during the set of a lime mortar reflects the atmospheric 14C content at the time of construction of a building. For this reason, the 14C dating of mortars is used with increasing frequencies in archaeological and architectural research. Mortars, however, may also contain carbonaceous contaminants potentially affecting radiocarbon dating. The Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) of the Second University of Naples (SUN) has recently obtained some promising results in mortar radiocarbon dating thanks to the development of a procedure (i.e. CryoSoniC/Cryo2SoniC) aiming to eliminate exogenous C contamination that may occur in a mortar. The construction history of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Modena (Italy) is still controversial and represents a challenging case study for the application of absolute dating methodologies for different reasons. From the point of view of 14C dating, for example, given the high percentage of carbonate aggregates composing these samples, Modena mortars represent an experimental test particularly indicative of exogenous carbon sources suppression ensuring methodology accuracy. In this paper several AMS Radiocarbon dates were carried out on lime lumps with the aim to: (i) verify procedure accuracy by a comparison of the results obtainable from lime lumps dated after different treatments (i.e. bulk lime lumps vs. CryoSoniC purified lime lumps); (ii) compare different building phases absolute chronology for the medieval UNESCO site of Modena, with that assumed by historical sources in order to assess preliminary the 14C dating feasibility for of the site. Historical temporal constraints and mortar clustering, based on petrography, have been applied to define a temporal framework of the analyzed structure. Moreover, a detailed petrographic characterization of mortars was used both as a preliminary tool for the choice of samples and to infer about the

  13. Brief communication: preliminary radiocarbon dates from Florida crania in Hrdlička's gulf states catalog.

    PubMed

    Stojanowski, Christopher M; Johnson, Kent M

    2011-05-01

    Aleš Hrdlička produced a tremendous amount of data in his career, much of which was published in a series of catalogs by the US National Museum. The Gulf States catalog, for example, contains raw craniometric data for over 700 individuals from the state of Florida alone. However, many of these skeletons are poorly sourced by Hrdlička, thus limiting their utility in modern bioarchaeological analyses where context is critical. In particular, the age of the skeletal material is often based solely on associated material culture and information on the sites themselves is not presented by Hrdlička. To address this impasse we attempted radiocarbon dates for 10 of the largest Florida sites published in the Gulf States catalog. In addition, archival data in the form of unpublished field notes and personal correspondence were accessed to better contextualize the radiocarbon dates and to provide some guidance on the degree of temporal variability at the sites. Eight AMS radiocarbon dates were successful. Archival data was of variable quality per site. In some cases very little is known about the provenience of the specimens. In other cases, however, individual burials could be allocated to specific strata within specific mounds. The relevance of using published raw data is discussed with respect to the Howells and Boas Immigrant datasets and the impact the dissemination of these resources has had on the discipline.

  14. Radiocarbon dating casts doubt on the late chronology of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in southern Iberia.

    PubMed

    Wood, Rachel E; Barroso-Ruíz, Cecilio; Caparrós, Miguel; Jordá Pardo, Jesús F; Galván Santos, Bertila; Higham, Thomas F G

    2013-02-19

    It is commonly accepted that some of the latest dates for Neanderthal fossils and Mousterian industries are found south of the Ebro valley in Iberia at ca. 36 ka calBP (calibrated radiocarbon date ranges). In contrast, to the north of the valley the Mousterian disappears shortly before the Proto-Aurignacian appears at ca. 42 ka calBP. The latter is most likely produced by anatomically modern humans. However, two-thirds of dates from the south are radiocarbon dates, a technique that is particularly sensitive to carbon contaminants of a younger age that can be difficult to remove using routine pretreatment protocols. We have attempted to test the reliability of chronologies of 11 southern Iberian Middle and early Upper Paleolithic sites. Only two, Jarama VI and Zafarraya, were found to contain material that could be reliably dated. In both sites, Middle Paleolithic contexts were previously dated by radiocarbon to less than 42 ka calBP. Using ultrafiltration to purify faunal bone collagen before radiocarbon dating, we obtain ages at least 10 ka (14)C years older, close to or beyond the limit of the radiocarbon method for the Mousterian at Jarama VI and Neanderthal fossils at Zafarraya. Unless rigorous pretreatment protocols have been used, radiocarbon dates should be assumed to be inaccurate until proven otherwise in this region. Evidence for the late survival of Neanderthals in southern Iberia is limited to one possible site, Cueva Antón, and alternative models of human occupation of the region should be considered.

  15. Rewriting the Central European Early Bronze Age Chronology: Evidence from Large-Scale Radiocarbon Dating

    PubMed Central

    Knipper, Corina; Friedrich, Ronny; Kromer, Bernd; Lindauer, Susanne; Radosavljević, Jelena; Wittenborn, Fabian; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The transition from the Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe has often been considered as a supra-regional uniform process, which led to the growing mastery of the new bronze technology. Since the 1920s, archaeologists have divided the Early Bronze Age into two chronological phases (Bronze A1 and A2), which were also seen as stages of technical progress. On the basis of the early radiocarbon dates from the cemetery of Singen, southern Germany, the beginning of the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe was originally dated around 2300/2200 BC and the transition to more complex casting techniques (i.e., Bronze A2) around 2000 BC. On the basis of 140 newly radiocarbon dated human remains from Final Neolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Age cemeteries south of Augsburg (Bavaria) and a re-dating of ten graves from the cemetery of Singen, we propose a significantly different dating range, which forces us to re-think the traditional relative and absolute chronologies as well as the narrative of technical development. We are now able to date the beginning of the Early Bronze Age to around 2150 BC and its end to around 1700 BC. Moreover, there is no transition between Bronze (Bz) A1 and Bronze (Bz) A2, but a complete overlap between the type objects of the two phases from 1900–1700 BC. We thus present a revised chronology of the assumed diagnostic type objects of the Early Bronze Age and recommend a radiocarbon-based view on the development of the material culture. Finally, we propose that the traditional phases Bz A1 and Bz A2 do not represent a chronological sequence, but regionally different social phenomena connected to the willingness of local actors to appropriate the new bronze technology. PMID:26488413

  16. Rewriting the Central European Early Bronze Age Chronology: Evidence from Large-Scale Radiocarbon Dating.

    PubMed

    Stockhammer, Philipp W; Massy, Ken; Knipper, Corina; Friedrich, Ronny; Kromer, Bernd; Lindauer, Susanne; Radosavljević, Jelena; Wittenborn, Fabian; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The transition from the Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe has often been considered as a supra-regional uniform process, which led to the growing mastery of the new bronze technology. Since the 1920s, archaeologists have divided the Early Bronze Age into two chronological phases (Bronze A1 and A2), which were also seen as stages of technical progress. On the basis of the early radiocarbon dates from the cemetery of Singen, southern Germany, the beginning of the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe was originally dated around 2300/2200 BC and the transition to more complex casting techniques (i.e., Bronze A2) around 2000 BC. On the basis of 140 newly radiocarbon dated human remains from Final Neolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Age cemeteries south of Augsburg (Bavaria) and a re-dating of ten graves from the cemetery of Singen, we propose a significantly different dating range, which forces us to re-think the traditional relative and absolute chronologies as well as the narrative of technical development. We are now able to date the beginning of the Early Bronze Age to around 2150 BC and its end to around 1700 BC. Moreover, there is no transition between Bronze (Bz) A1 and Bronze (Bz) A2, but a complete overlap between the type objects of the two phases from 1900-1700 BC. We thus present a revised chronology of the assumed diagnostic type objects of the Early Bronze Age and recommend a radiocarbon-based view on the development of the material culture. Finally, we propose that the traditional phases Bz A1 and Bz A2 do not represent a chronological sequence, but regionally different social phenomena connected to the willingness of local actors to appropriate the new bronze technology.

  17. Radiocarbon dating of the Early Natufian at el-Wad Terrace, Mount Carmel, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckmeier, E.; Yeshurun, R.; Weinstein-Evron, M.; Mintz, E.; Boaretto, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Natufian culture (15-11.5 kyr BP) of the Levant played an integral role in the transition from nomadic hunter-gatherers to the establishment of sedentism and, finally, to food producing societies of the Neolithic. The Natufian sites in the Southern Levant are characterised by a lack of macrobotanical remains, including charcoal, and a poor preservation of bone collagen. A result of the scarcity of radiocarbon dateable material is that only about 30 reliable radiocarbon dates from the Natufian are available for constructing a chronology of this period, which would enable a better synchronisation of archaeological and environmental data. A key question of Natufian research is if and to what extent past climate changes influenced the lifestyle of the Natufian communities, but the prerequisite for the correlation of cultural and environmental events in time are accurate chronologies. Therefore, a chronological framework with dates from well-defined contexts and samples of good quality is essential for the investigation of the Natufian. We present new C-14 data from the site of el-Wad Terrace, one of the major Natufian hamlets of the 'core area' of this culture. The samples (12 charcoals and 34 bones, of which 6 charcoals and 5 bones were suitable for dating) were derived from Early Natufian (15-13 kyr BP) living surfaces, dwellings and burials. Using FTIR, we investigated the environmental factors that influenced the preservation of material for radiocarbon dating of the site, and we tested a modified pre-treatment method for poorly preserved charcoal samples. We found that the usual pre-treatment protocol for C-14 samples (W-ABA) removed more charcoal material than the method modified by Rebollo et al. (2008) which omits the first acid treatment (W-BA). This first acid step enhanced the extraction of humic substances during the subsequent base step. The modified W-BA method is a promising tool for dating poorly preserved charcoals which needs further testing with

  18. An absolute chronology for early Egypt using radiocarbon dating and Bayesian statistical modelling.

    PubMed

    Dee, Michael; Wengrow, David; Shortland, Andrew; Stevenson, Alice; Brock, Fiona; Girdland Flink, Linus; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher

    2013-11-08

    The Egyptian state was formed prior to the existence of verifiable historical records. Conventional dates for its formation are based on the relative ordering of artefacts. This approach is no longer considered sufficient for cogent historical analysis. Here, we produce an absolute chronology for Early Egypt by combining radiocarbon and archaeological evidence within a Bayesian paradigm. Our data cover the full trajectory of Egyptian state formation and indicate that the process occurred more rapidly than previously thought. We provide a timeline for the First Dynasty of Egypt of generational-scale resolution that concurs with prevailing archaeological analysis and produce a chronometric date for the foundation of Egypt that distinguishes between historical estimates.

  19. Pre-Quaternary microfossils—A guide to errors in radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nambudiri, E. M. V.; Teller, James T.; Last, W. M.

    1980-03-01

    The presence of pre-Quaternary microfossils and anomalously old radiocarbon dates frorh fine-grained organic material in Lake Manitoba sediment suggests that old noncarbonate carbon is contaminating these fine-grained deposits. The relative abundance of the pre-Quaternary microfossils in these muds is used as a guide to correcting the anomalous 14C dates. *Present addresses: (Nambudiri) Department of Botany, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; (Last) Alberta Research Council, 11315-87th Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2C2

  20. High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Thomas E.; Higham, Thomas; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Smith, Neil G.; Ben-Yosef, Erez; Robinson, Mark; Münger, Stefan; Knabb, Kyle; Schulze, Jürgen P.; Najjar, Mohammad; Tauxe, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Recent excavations and high-precision radiocarbon dating from the largest Iron Age (IA, ca. 1200–500 BCE) copper production center in the southern Levant demonstrate major smelting activities in the region of biblical Edom (southern Jordan) during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE. Stratified radiocarbon samples and artifacts were recorded with precise digital surveying tools linked to a geographic information system developed to control on-site spatial analyses of archaeological finds and model data with innovative visualization tools. The new radiocarbon dates push back by 2 centuries the accepted IA chronology of Edom. Data from Khirbat en-Nahas, and the nearby site of Rujm Hamra Ifdan, demonstrate the centrality of industrial-scale metal production during those centuries traditionally linked closely to political events in Edom's 10th century BCE neighbor ancient Israel. Consequently, the rise of IA Edom is linked to the power vacuum created by the collapse of Late Bronze Age (LB, ca. 1300 BCE) civilizations and the disintegration of the LB Cypriot copper monopoly that dominated the eastern Mediterranean. The methodologies applied to the historical IA archaeology of the Levant have implications for other parts of the world where sacred and historical texts interface with the material record. PMID:18955702

  1. Radiocarbon dating of fluvial organic matter reveals land-use impacts in boreal peatlands.

    PubMed

    Hulatt, Chris J; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Oinonen, Markku; Sonninen, Eloni; Stedmon, Colin A; Thomas, David N

    2014-11-04

    This study measured the effects of land use on organic matter released to surface waters in a boreal peat catchment using radiocarbon dating of particulate and dissolved organic carbon (POC and DOC), DOC concentration, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition, and optical measurements. Undisturbed sites invariably released modern DOC and POC (<20 years old), and seasonal forcing had little impact on the age distribution. Release of pre-1950 carbon was detected at peat extraction, agricultural and drained sites, and was consistently observed at agricultural and peat extraction areas throughout the seasons. Conventional mean DOC ages reached 3,100 (±122) years before collection. On average, DOC concentrations were up to 38% higher at impacted sites compared to natural areas, but there was no significant effect of land use on surface water DOC concentrations. The study indicates that the true extent of land use impacts is not necessarily detectible through changes in DOC concentration alone: Radiocarbon dating was essential to show that leaching of old soil organic matter at modified sites had replaced, rather than supplemented, the modern DOM that is usually released from pristine peatlands. Relationships between the specific fluorescence intensity of DOM and its radiocarbon age were identified, indicating that optical techniques may provide a method for the detection of changes in DOM age.

  2. High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Levy, Thomas E; Higham, Thomas; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Smith, Neil G; Ben-Yosef, Erez; Robinson, Mark; Münger, Stefan; Knabb, Kyle; Schulze, Jürgen P; Najjar, Mohammad; Tauxe, Lisa

    2008-10-28

    Recent excavations and high-precision radiocarbon dating from the largest Iron Age (IA, ca. 1200-500 BCE) copper production center in the southern Levant demonstrate major smelting activities in the region of biblical Edom (southern Jordan) during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE. Stratified radiocarbon samples and artifacts were recorded with precise digital surveying tools linked to a geographic information system developed to control on-site spatial analyses of archaeological finds and model data with innovative visualization tools. The new radiocarbon dates push back by 2 centuries the accepted IA chronology of Edom. Data from Khirbat en-Nahas, and the nearby site of Rujm Hamra Ifdan, demonstrate the centrality of industrial-scale metal production during those centuries traditionally linked closely to political events in Edom's 10th century BCE neighbor ancient Israel. Consequently, the rise of IA Edom is linked to the power vacuum created by the collapse of Late Bronze Age (LB, ca. 1300 BCE) civilizations and the disintegration of the LB Cypriot copper monopoly that dominated the eastern Mediterranean. The methodologies applied to the historical IA archaeology of the Levant have implications for other parts of the world where sacred and historical texts interface with the material record.

  3. Radiocarbon dating of the Late Cycladic building and destruction phases at Akrotiri, Thera: New evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniatis, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    Akrotiri was a flourishing prehistoric settlement on the Cycladic island of Santorini (Thera) until its life was ended by a huge volcanic eruption in the LCI period. There is much debate as to when this final destruction occurred. Based on the Egyptian historical dating this happened around 1540-1530 BC, while, based on radiocarbon and other scientific data, around 1640-1600 BC. This work is an attempt to date with radiocarbon the whole settlement's life starting from the earlier phases of occupation but focusing in the sequence of the latest events. The samples, coming from the deep shafts dug in the site for the pillars of the new shelter, are pieces of wood and charcoal from house architectural elements and other constructions, including the final earthquake victims temporary camps. Therefore, the dates obtained represent the beginning of the different cultural phases plus the latest events. The results provide novel absolute dates for the commencement of the LMC and LCI Phases at Akrotiri, giving mean ranges around 1820-1790 BC and 1775-1722 BC, respectively, while the final destruction is dated around 1622-1548 BC. These results show that the LCI phase started about 100 years earlier than estimated with the Egyptian Historical chronology while the final destruction around 60 years or less earlier.

  4. Radiocarbon dating the late Middle Paleolithic and the Aurignacian of the Swabian Jura.

    PubMed

    Conard, Nicholas J; Bolus, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Many lines of evidence point to the period between roughly 40 and 30 ka BP as the period in which modern humans arrived in Europe and displaced the indigenous Neandertal populations. At the same time, many innovations associated with the Upper Paleolithic--including new stone and organic technologies, use of personal ornaments, figurative art, and musical instruments--are first documented in the European archaeological record. Dating the events of this period is challenging for several reasons. In the period about six to seven radiocarbon half-lives ago, variable preservation, pre-treatment, and sample preparation can easily lead to a lack of reproducibility between samples and laboratories. A range of biological, cultural, and geological processes can lead to mixing of archaeological strata and their contents. Additionally, some data sets point to this period as a time of significant spikes in levels of atmospheric radiocarbon. This paper assesses these questions in the context of the well-excavated and intensively studied caves of Geissenklösterle and Hohle Fels in the Swabian Jura of southwestern Germany. We conclude that variable atmospheric radiocarbon production contributes to the problems of dating the late Middle Paleolithic and the early Upper Paleolithic. To help establish a reliable chronology for the Swabian Aurignacian, we are beginning to focus our dating program on short-lived, stratigraphically secure features to see if they yield reproducible results. This approach may help to test competing explanations for the noisy and often non-reproducible results that arise when trying to date the transition from the Middle to the Upper Paleolithic.

  5. Rapid revelation of radiocarbon records with laser ablation Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Münsterer, Caroline; Wacker, Lukas; Hattendorf, Bodo; Christl, Marcus; Koch, Joachim; Dietiker, Rolf; Synal, Hans-Arno; Günther, Detlef

    2014-01-01

    By focusing high-intensity laser pulses on carbonate samples carbon dioxide is generated and can be directly introduced into the gas ion source (GIS) of an Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS). This new technique allows rapid radiocarbon analyses at high spatial resolution. The design of the deignated laser ablation cell as well as first results on a stalagmite sample are presented.

  6. NON-DESTRUCTIVE RADIOCARBON DATING: NATURALLY MUMMIFIED INFANT BUNDLE FROM SW TEXAS

    SciTech Connect

    Steelman, K L; Rowe, M W; Turpin, S A; Guilderson, T P; Nightengale, L

    2004-09-07

    Plasma oxidation was used to obtain radiocarbon dates on six different materials from a naturally mummified baby bundle from the Lower Pecos River region of southwest Texas. This bundle was selected because it was thought to represent a single event and would illustrate the accuracy and precision of the plasma oxidation method. Five of the materials were clearly components of the original bundle with 13 dates combined to yield a weighted average of 2135 {+-} 11 B.P. Six dates from a wooden stick of Desert Ash averaged 939 {+-} 14 B.P., indicating that this artifact was not part of the original burial. Plasma oxidation is shown to be a virtually non-destructive alternative to combustion. Because only sub-milligram amounts of material are removed from an artifact over its exposed surface, no visible change in fragile materials has been observed, even under magnification. The method is best applied when natural organic contamination is unlikely and serious consideration of this issue is needed in all cases. If organic contamination is present, it will have to be removed before plasma oxidation to obtain accurate radiocarbon dates.

  7. AMS radiocarbon analyses from Lake Baikal, Siberia: Challenges of dating sediments from a large, oligotrophic lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Jones, Glenn A.; Rubin, M.; King, J.W.; Peck, J.A.; Orem, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    A suite of 146 new accelerator-mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon ages provides the first reliable chronology for late Quaternary sediments in Lake Baikal. In this large, highly oligotrophic lake, biogenic and authigenic carbonate are absent, and plant macrofossils are extremely rare. Total organic carbon is therefore the primary material available for dating. Several problems are associated with the TOC ages. One is the mixture of carbon sources in TOC, not all of which are syndepositional in age. This problem manifests itself in apparent ages for the sediment surface that are greater than zero. However, because most of the organic carbon in Lake Baikal sediments is algal (autochthonous) in origin, this effect is limited to about 1000+500 years, which can be corrected, at least for young deposits. The other major problem with dating Lake Baikal sediments is the very low carbon contents of glacial-age deposits, which makes them extremely susceptible to contamination with modern carbon. This problem can be minimized by careful sampling and handling procedures. The ages show almost an order of magnitude difference in sediment-accumulation rates among different sedimentary environments in Lake Baikal, from about 0.04 mm/year on isolated banks such as Academician Ridge, to nearly 0.3 mm/year in the turbidite depositional areas beneath the deep basin floors, such as the Central Basin. The new AMS ages clearly indicate that the dramatic increase in diatom productivity in the lake, as evidenced by increases in biogenic silica and organic carbon, began about 13 ka, in contrast to previous estimates of 7 ka for the age of this transition. Holocene net sedimentation rates may be less than, equal to, or greater than those in the late Pleistocene, depending on the site. This variability reflects the balance between variable terrigenous sedimentation and increased biogenic sedimentation during interglaciations. The ages reported here, and the temporal and spatial variation in

  8. Late Holocene radiocarbon and aspartic acid racemization dating of deep-sea octocorals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Owen A.; Scott, David B.; Risk, Michael J.

    2006-06-01

    Primnoa resedaeformis is a deep-sea gorgonian coral with a two-part skeleton of calcite and gorgonin (a fibrillar protein), potentially containing long-term records of valuable paleo-environmental information. For various reasons, both radiocarbon and U/Th dating of these corals is problematic over the last few centuries. This paper explores aspartic acid racemization dating of the gorgonin fraction in modern and fossil specimens collected from the NW Atlantic Ocean. Radiocarbon dating of the fossil specimen indicates a lifespan of 700 ± 100 years, the longest yet documented for any octocoral. Gorgonin amino acid compositions were identical in the fossil and modern specimens, indicating resistance to organic diagenesis. Similar to bone collagen, the fibrillar protein of gorgonin may impose conformational constraints on the racemization of Asp at low temperatures. The rate of racemization of aspartic acid ( D/ L-Asp) was similar to previously published results from an 1800 year old anemone ( Gerardia). The age equation was: age (years BP 2000 AD) = [( D/ L - 0.020 (±.002))/.0011 (±.0001)] 2 ( r2 = 0.97, p < .001). The error in an age estimate calculated by D/ L-Asp was marginally better than that for 14C dating over the most recent 50-200 years, although the dating error may be improved by inclusion of more samples over a broader time range. These results suggest that D/ L-Asp dating may be useful in augmenting 14C dating in cases where 14C calibrations yield two or more intercept ages, or in screening samples for further 14C or U/Th dating.

  9. Earliest Human Presence in North America Dated to the Last Glacial Maximum: New Radiocarbon Dates from Bluefish Caves, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeon, Lauriane; Burke, Ariane; Higham, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The timing of the first entry of humans into North America is still hotly debated within the scientific community. Excavations conducted at Bluefish Caves (Yukon Territory) from 1977 to 1987 yielded a series of radiocarbon dates that led archaeologists to propose that the initial dispersal of human groups into Eastern Beringia (Alaska and the Yukon Territory) occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). This hypothesis proved highly controversial in the absence of other sites of similar age and concerns about the stratigraphy and anthropogenic signature of the bone assemblages that yielded the dates. The weight of the available archaeological evidence suggests that the first peopling of North America occurred ca. 14,000 cal BP (calibrated years Before Present), i.e., well after the LGM. Here, we report new AMS radiocarbon dates obtained on cut-marked bone samples identified during a comprehensive taphonomic analysis of the Bluefish Caves fauna. Our results demonstrate that humans occupied the site as early as 24,000 cal BP (19,650 ± 130 14C BP). In addition to proving that Bluefish Caves is the oldest known archaeological site in North America, the results offer archaeological support for the “Beringian standstill hypothesis”, which proposes that a genetically isolated human population persisted in Beringia during the LGM and dispersed from there to North and South America during the post-LGM period. PMID:28060931

  10. Earliest Human Presence in North America Dated to the Last Glacial Maximum: New Radiocarbon Dates from Bluefish Caves, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bourgeon, Lauriane; Burke, Ariane; Higham, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The timing of the first entry of humans into North America is still hotly debated within the scientific community. Excavations conducted at Bluefish Caves (Yukon Territory) from 1977 to 1987 yielded a series of radiocarbon dates that led archaeologists to propose that the initial dispersal of human groups into Eastern Beringia (Alaska and the Yukon Territory) occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). This hypothesis proved highly controversial in the absence of other sites of similar age and concerns about the stratigraphy and anthropogenic signature of the bone assemblages that yielded the dates. The weight of the available archaeological evidence suggests that the first peopling of North America occurred ca. 14,000 cal BP (calibrated years Before Present), i.e., well after the LGM. Here, we report new AMS radiocarbon dates obtained on cut-marked bone samples identified during a comprehensive taphonomic analysis of the Bluefish Caves fauna. Our results demonstrate that humans occupied the site as early as 24,000 cal BP (19,650 ± 130 14C BP). In addition to proving that Bluefish Caves is the oldest known archaeological site in North America, the results offer archaeological support for the "Beringian standstill hypothesis", which proposes that a genetically isolated human population persisted in Beringia during the LGM and dispersed from there to North and South America during the post-LGM period.

  11. Preparative separation of underivatized amino acids for compound-specific stable isotope analysis and radiocarbon dating of hydrolyzed bone collagen.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Jennifer A; McCullagh, James S O; Hedges, Robert E M

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of stable and radioactive isotopes from bone collagen provides useful information to archaeologists about the origin and age of bone artifacts. Isolation and analysis of single amino acids from the proteins can provide additional and more accurate information by removing contamination and separating a bulk isotope signal into its constituent parts. In this paper, we report a new method for the separation and isolation of underivatized amino acids from bone collagen, and their analysis by isotope ratio MS and accelerator MS. RP chromatography is used to separate the amino acids with nonpolar side chains, followed by an ion pair separation to isolate the remaining amino acids. The method produces single amino acids with little or no contamination from the separation process and allows for the measurement of accurate stable isotope ratios and pure samples for radiocarbon dating.

  12. Gas chromatographic isolation of individual compounds from complex matrices for radiocarbon dating

    SciTech Connect

    Eglinton, T.I.; Aluwihare, L.I.; McNichol, A.P.; Bauer, J.E.; Druffel, E.R.M.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the application of a novel, practical approach for isolation of individual compounds from complex organic matrices for natural abundance radiocarbon measurement. This is achieved through the use of automated pereparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC) to separate and recover sufficient quantities of individual target compounds for {sup 14}C analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). We developed and tested this approach using a suite of samples (plant lipids, petroleums) whose ages spanned the {sup 14}C time scale and which contained a variety of compound types (fatty acids, sterols, hydrocarbons). Comparison of individual compound and bulk radiocarbon signatures for the isotopically homogeneous samples studied revealed that {Delta}{sup 14}C values generally agreed well ({+-}10%). Background contamination was assessed at each stage of the isolation procedure, and incomplete solvent removal prior to combustion was the only significant source of additional carbon. Isotope fractionation was addressed through compound-specific stable carbon isotopic analyses. Fractionation of isotopes during isolation of individual compounds was minimal (<5% for {delta}{sup 13}C), provided the entire peak was collected during PCGC. Trapping of partially coeluting peaks did cause errors, and these results highlight the importance of conducting stable carbon isotopic measurements of each trapped compound in concert with AMS for reliable radiocarbon measurements. 29 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Chemical Principles Revisited: Archaeological Dating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses methods used to date archaeological artifacts and other remains. They include: (1) nuclear dating techniques (radiocarbon dating, accelerator radiocarbon dating, thermoluminescence, and others); (2) chemical dating techniques (amino acid racemization, obsidian hydration dating, elemental content changes, and thermal analysis dating); and…

  14. Quantum-mechanical equilibrium isotopic fractionation correction to radiocarbon dating: a theory study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jie; Liu, Yun

    This paper relates the quantum-mechanical equilibrium isotopic fractionation correction to the radiocarbon dating method by Eq. 9, and also shows the significant influence of temperature on the method. It is suggested that the correction is a function of the frequencies and temperature of a specific sample and these two variables can be evaluated theoretically by the ab initio quantum calculations and experimentally by analyzing the clumped-isotope ratios in it, respectively. This paper also suggests that the (14)C/(12)C ratio in the atmosphere in geological time can be calculated by Eq. 10.

  15. Comparative radiocarbon dating of lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples from Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.; Chappell, J.; Clark, G.; Phear, S.

    2005-07-01

    It is difficult to construct archaeological chronologies for Babeldaob, the main island of Palau (western Micronesia), because the saprolitic clays of the dominant terraced-hill sites and associated ceramic sherds often contain old carbon that originated in lignites. This has implications, as well, for chronologies of sedimentary sequences. Comparative analysis of the dating problem using lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples indicates that, in fact, there are both old and young sources of potential contamination. It is concluded that radiocarbon samples from Babeldaob need to be tested for appropriate carbon content rather than relying solely upon material identification.

  16. Prehistoric peyote use: alkaloid analysis and radiocarbon dating of archaeological specimens of Lophophora from Texas.

    PubMed

    El-Seedi, Hesham R; De Smet, Peter A G M; Beck, Olof; Possnert, Göran; Bruhn, Jan G

    2005-10-03

    Two archaeological specimens of peyote buttons, i.e. dried tops of the cactus Lophophora williamsii (Lem.) Coulter, from the collection of the Witte Museum in San Antonio, was subjected to radiocarbon dating and alkaloid analysis. The samples were presumably found in Shumla Cave No. 5 on the Rio Grande, Texas. Radiocarbon dating shows that the calibrated 14C age of the weighted mean of the two individual dated samples corresponds to the calendric time interval 3780-3660 BC (one sigma significance). Alkaloid extraction yielded approximately 2% of alkaloids. Analysis with thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) led to the identification of mescaline in both samples. No other peyote alkaloids could be identified. The two peyote samples appear to be the oldest plant drug ever to yield a major bioactive compound upon chemical analysis. The identification of mescaline strengthens the evidence that native North Americans recognized the psychotropic properties of peyote as long as 5700 years ago.

  17. High-precision radiocarbon dating shows recent and rapid initial human colonization of East Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Janet M; Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P; Anderson, Atholl J

    2011-02-01

    The 15 archipelagos of East Polynesia, including New Zealand, Hawaii, and Rapa Nui, were the last habitable places on earth colonized by prehistoric humans. The timing and pattern of this colonization event has been poorly resolved, with chronologies varying by >1000 y, precluding understanding of cultural change and ecological impacts on these pristine ecosystems. In a meta-analysis of 1,434 radiocarbon dates from the region, reliable short-lived samples reveal that the colonization of East Polynesia occurred in two distinct phases: earliest in the Society Islands A.D. ∼1025-1120, four centuries later than previously assumed; then after 70-265 y, dispersal continued in one major pulse to all remaining islands A.D. ∼1190-1290. We show that previously supported longer chronologies have relied upon radiocarbon-dated materials with large sources of error, making them unsuitable for precise dating of recent events. Our empirically based and dramatically shortened chronology for the colonization of East Polynesia resolves longstanding paradoxes and offers a robust explanation for the remarkable uniformity of East Polynesian culture, human biology, and language. Models of human colonization, ecological change and historical linguistics for the region now require substantial revision.

  18. Radiocarbon dating late Quaternary loess deposits using small terrestrial gastropod shells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, Jeff S.; McGeehin, John P.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Bettis, E. Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Constraining the ages and mass accumulation rates of late Quaternary loess deposits is often difficult because of the paucity of organic material typically available for 14C dating and the inherent limitations of luminescence techniques. Radiocarbon dating of small terrestrial gastropod shells may provide an alternative to these methods as fossil shells are common in loess and contain ∼12% carbon by weight. Terrestrial gastropod assemblages in loess have been used extensively to reconstruct past environmental conditions but have been largely ignored for dating purposes. Here, we present the results of a multi-faceted approach to understanding the potential for using small terrestrial gastropod shells to date loess deposits in North America. First, we compare highly resolved 14C ages of well-preserved wood and gastropod shells (Succineidae) recovered from a Holocene loess section in Alaska. Radiocarbon ages derived from the shells are nearly identical to wood and plant macrofossil ages throughout the section, which suggests that the shells behaved as closed systems with respect to carbon for at least the last 10 ka (thousands of calibrated 14C years before present). Second, we apply 14C dating of gastropod shells to late Pleistocene loess deposits in the Great Plains using stratigraphy and independent chronologies for comparison. The new shell ages require less interpretation than humic acid radiocarbon ages that are commonly used in loess studies, provide additional stratigraphic coverage to previous dating efforts, and are in correct stratigraphic order more often than their luminescence counterparts. Third, we show that Succineidae shells recovered from historic loess in the Matanuska River Valley, Alaska captured the 20th century 14C bomb spike, which suggests that the shells can be used to date late Holocene and historic-aged loess. Finally, results from Nebraska and western Iowa suggest that, similar to other materials, shell ages approaching ∼40 ka should

  19. Radiocarbon dating of prehistoric phytoliths: a preliminary study of archaeological sites in China.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xinxin; Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Wang, Can; Sun, Guoping; Zheng, Yunfei

    2016-05-26

    Phytoliths can occlude some organic carbon during their deposition in plants. This carbon fraction is recognised as an ideal dating material because of its high resistance to decomposition and post-deposition contamination at the time of phytolith formation. However, the reliability of phytolith radiocarbon dating has recently been questioned. The development of a new extraction protocol for phytoliths, with paired dating between phytoliths and other materials from the same sediment, may provide further evidence for the reliability of phytolith dating. We present an improved method for extracting phytoliths from soils. We compared the dating of phytoliths and other materials (e.g., charcoal and plant seeds) recovered at the same depth from seven pits at six archaeological sites in China. The estimated ages of the phytoliths and other materials were generally consistent, except for one outlier. We attribute this inconsistency to the post-depositional processes of phytoliths in soil, rather than to the uptake of old carbon from the soil. Our results clearly show the potential for phytolith carbon dating at archaeological sites in the absence of other dating materials.

  20. Radiocarbon dating of prehistoric phytoliths: a preliminary study of archaeological sites in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Xinxin; Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Wang, Can; Sun, Guoping; Zheng, Yunfei

    2016-05-01

    Phytoliths can occlude some organic carbon during their deposition in plants. This carbon fraction is recognised as an ideal dating material because of its high resistance to decomposition and post-deposition contamination at the time of phytolith formation. However, the reliability of phytolith radiocarbon dating has recently been questioned. The development of a new extraction protocol for phytoliths, with paired dating between phytoliths and other materials from the same sediment, may provide further evidence for the reliability of phytolith dating. We present an improved method for extracting phytoliths from soils. We compared the dating of phytoliths and other materials (e.g., charcoal and plant seeds) recovered at the same depth from seven pits at six archaeological sites in China. The estimated ages of the phytoliths and other materials were generally consistent, except for one outlier. We attribute this inconsistency to the post-depositional processes of phytoliths in soil, rather than to the uptake of old carbon from the soil. Our results clearly show the potential for phytolith carbon dating at archaeological sites in the absence of other dating materials.

  1. Radiocarbon dating of prehistoric phytoliths: a preliminary study of archaeological sites in China

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Xinxin; Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Wang, Can; Sun, Guoping; Zheng, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    Phytoliths can occlude some organic carbon during their deposition in plants. This carbon fraction is recognised as an ideal dating material because of its high resistance to decomposition and post-deposition contamination at the time of phytolith formation. However, the reliability of phytolith radiocarbon dating has recently been questioned. The development of a new extraction protocol for phytoliths, with paired dating between phytoliths and other materials from the same sediment, may provide further evidence for the reliability of phytolith dating. We present an improved method for extracting phytoliths from soils. We compared the dating of phytoliths and other materials (e.g., charcoal and plant seeds) recovered at the same depth from seven pits at six archaeological sites in China. The estimated ages of the phytoliths and other materials were generally consistent, except for one outlier. We attribute this inconsistency to the post-depositional processes of phytoliths in soil, rather than to the uptake of old carbon from the soil. Our results clearly show the potential for phytolith carbon dating at archaeological sites in the absence of other dating materials. PMID:27225903

  2. Test of Martin’s overkill hypothesis using radiocarbon dates on extinct megafauna

    PubMed Central

    Surovell, Todd A.; Pelton, Spencer R.; Anderson-Sprecher, Richard; Myers, Adam D.

    2016-01-01

    Following Martin [Martin PS (1973) Science 179:969–974], we propose the hypothesis that the timing of human arrival to the New World can be assessed by examining the ecological impacts of a small population of people on extinct Pleistocene megafauna. To that end, we compiled lists of direct radiocarbon dates on paleontological specimens of extinct genera from North and South America with the expectation that the initial decline of extinct megafauna should correspond in time with the initial evidence for human colonization and that those declines should occur first in eastern Beringia, next in the contiguous United States, and last in South America. Analyses of spacings and frequency distributions of radiocarbon dates for each region support the idea that the extinction event first commenced in Beringia, roughly 13,300–15,000 BP. For the United States and South America, extinctions commenced considerably later but were closely spaced in time. For the contiguous United States, extinction began at ca. 12,900–13,200 BP, and at ca. 12,600–13,900 BP in South America. For areas south of Beringia, these estimates correspond well with the first significant evidence for human presence and are consistent with the predictions of the overkill hypothesis. PMID:26504205

  3. Test of Martin's overkill hypothesis using radiocarbon dates on extinct megafauna.

    PubMed

    Surovell, Todd A; Pelton, Spencer R; Anderson-Sprecher, Richard; Myers, Adam D

    2016-01-26

    Following Martin [Martin PS (1973) Science 179:969-974], we propose the hypothesis that the timing of human arrival to the New World can be assessed by examining the ecological impacts of a small population of people on extinct Pleistocene megafauna. To that end, we compiled lists of direct radiocarbon dates on paleontological specimens of extinct genera from North and South America with the expectation that the initial decline of extinct megafauna should correspond in time with the initial evidence for human colonization and that those declines should occur first in eastern Beringia, next in the contiguous United States, and last in South America. Analyses of spacings and frequency distributions of radiocarbon dates for each region support the idea that the extinction event first commenced in Beringia, roughly 13,300-15,000 BP. For the United States and South America, extinctions commenced considerably later but were closely spaced in time. For the contiguous United States, extinction began at ca. 12,900-13,200 BP, and at ca. 12,600-13,900 BP in South America. For areas south of Beringia, these estimates correspond well with the first significant evidence for human presence and are consistent with the predictions of the overkill hypothesis.

  4. Evidence for Holocene stability of steep slopes, northern Peruvian Andes, based on soils and radiocarbon dates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, D.C.; Birkeland, P.W.; Rodbell, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating and soil relationships indicate that landscapes in highaltitude glaciated valleys of the northern Peruvian Andes have been remarkably stable during the Holocene. Radiocarbon dates show that deglaciation was underway by 12 ka, and that slopes and alluvial fans at the bases of slopes were essentially stabilized by at least 8 ka. The soils consist of fine-grained loessial A horizons overlying Bw horizons in gravelly till or alluvial-fan gravel. Following deglaciation, widespread gullying took place in till on the steep (maximum angle: 37??) sideslopes of most valleys; the eroded material was deposited as fans at the bases of the slopes. Loess was then deposited as a fairly uniform blanket across most elements of the landscape. Soil formation began during or following loess deposition, and because soil-profile morphology is sufficiently similar at most sites, soil formation has been a dominant process during much of the Holocene. This remarkable stability, especially for such steep slopes, is attributed to a combination of tight packing of the till, permeability of the capping loess, rapid revegetation following ice retreat, and roots from the present grassland vegetation and possibly former forests. ?? 1993.

  5. Chemical characterisation, plant remain analysis and radiocarbon dating of the Venetian "Manna di San Nicola".

    PubMed

    Tapparo, Andrea; Di Marco, Valerio B; Bombi, G Giorgio; Paganelli, Arturo

    2002-03-01

    A sample of oil coming from the case containing the relics of St. Nicholas the Great, preserved in the church of "San Nicolò al Lido" (Venice, Italy), has been characterised by the determination of its chemical composition, its age (radiocarbon dating) and the presence of particles of biological origin. Experimental results show that the sample is a vegetal oil, with a fatty acids composition modified by natural oxidation processes, containing pollen grains of plants from Northern Italy, and dating around 1300 A.D. These results together with an historical and artistic evaluation of the ceramic jar containing the oil, allow us to hypothesise that the jar was introduced into the case after the arrival of the relics in Venice (1100 A.D.) during one of the official inquisitions prior to that documented in 1399 A.D.

  6. Radiocarbon dates for lava flows and pyroclastic deposits on Sao Miguel, Azores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.B.; Rubin, M.

    1991-01-01

    We report 63 new radiocarbon analyses of samples from Sao Miguel, the largest island in the Azores archipelago. The samples are mainly carbonized tree roots and other plant material collected from beneath 20 mafic lava flows and spatter deposits and from within and beneath 42 trachytic pyroclastic flow, pyroclastic surge, mudflow, pumice-fall and lacustrine deposits and lava flows. One calcite date is reported. These dates establish ages for 48 previously undated lava flows and pyroclastic deposits, and revise three ages previously reported. These data are critical to deciphering the Holocene and late Pleistocene eruptive history of Sao Miguel and evaluating its potential volcanic hazards. Average dormant intervals during the past 3000 years are about 400 years for Sete Cidades volcano, 145 years for volcanic Zone 2, 1150 years for Agua de Pau volcano and 320 years for Furnas volcano. No known eruptions have occurred in volcanic Zone 4 during the past 3000 years. -from Authors

  7. New radiocarbon dates for Milu (Elaphurus davidianus) sub-fossils from southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, X. F.; Shen, C. D.; Ding, P.; Yi, W. X.; Fu, D. P.; Liu, K. X.

    2013-01-01

    Milu (Elaphurus davidianus, Père David’s deer) is one of the few species of large mammals that became extinct in the wild, but survived domestically. A good understanding of expansion and habitat is required if the reintroduction of Milu into the wild is to be implemented. Among the widely reported findings of Milu sub-fossils, only a small fraction have been dated. Here we report new AMS radiocarbon dates on Milu sub-fossil samples unearthed from two sites at Qingdun, Jiangsu and Fujiashan, Zhejiang in southeast China. These AMS 14C ages of Milu sub-fossils provide new evidence for the presence of Milu expansion in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River during the Holocene Optimum interval from 5000 yr BC to 3000 yr BC. These new ages also have important implications for the reconstruction of the paleoclimate and paleogeography during the Neolithic Period in southeast China.

  8. Radiocarbon dating casts doubt on the late chronology of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in southern Iberia

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Rachel E.; Barroso-Ruíz, Cecilio; Caparrós, Miguel; Jordá Pardo, Jesús F.; Galván Santos, Bertila; Higham, Thomas F. G.

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that some of the latest dates for Neanderthal fossils and Mousterian industries are found south of the Ebro valley in Iberia at ca. 36 ka calBP (calibrated radiocarbon date ranges). In contrast, to the north of the valley the Mousterian disappears shortly before the Proto-Aurignacian appears at ca. 42 ka calBP. The latter is most likely produced by anatomically modern humans. However, two-thirds of dates from the south are radiocarbon dates, a technique that is particularly sensitive to carbon contaminants of a younger age that can be difficult to remove using routine pretreatment protocols. We have attempted to test the reliability of chronologies of 11 southern Iberian Middle and early Upper Paleolithic sites. Only two, Jarama VI and Zafarraya, were found to contain material that could be reliably dated. In both sites, Middle Paleolithic contexts were previously dated by radiocarbon to less than 42 ka calBP. Using ultrafiltration to purify faunal bone collagen before radiocarbon dating, we obtain ages at least 10 ka 14C years older, close to or beyond the limit of the radiocarbon method for the Mousterian at Jarama VI and Neanderthal fossils at Zafarraya. Unless rigorous pretreatment protocols have been used, radiocarbon dates should be assumed to be inaccurate until proven otherwise in this region. Evidence for the late survival of Neanderthals in southern Iberia is limited to one possible site, Cueva Antón, and alternative models of human occupation of the region should be considered. PMID:23382220

  9. Holocene age of the Yuha burial: Direct radiocarbon determinations by accelerator mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stafford, Thomas W.; Jull, A.J.T.; Zabel, T.H.; Donahue, D.J.; Duhamel, R.C.; Brendel, K.; Haynes, C.V.; Bischoff, J.L.; Payen, L.A.; Taylor, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The view that human populations may not have arrived in the Western Hemisphere before about 12,000 radiocarbon yr BP1,2 has been challenged by claims of much greater antiquity for a small number of archaeological sites and human skeleton samples. One such site is the Homo sapiens sapiens cairn burial excavated in 1971 from the Yuha desert, Imperial County, California3-5. Radiocarbon analysis of caliche coating one of the bones of the skeleton yielded a radiocarbon age of 21,500??1,000 yr BP4, while radiocarbon and uranium series analyses of caliche coating a cairn boulder yielded ages of 22,125??400 and 19,000??3,000 yr BP, respectively5. The late Pleistocene age assignment to the Yuha burial has been challenged by comparing the cultural context of the burial with other cairn burials in the same region6, on the basis of the site's geomorphological context and from radiocarbon analyses of soil caliches. 7,8 In rebuttal, arguments in defence of the original age assignment have been presented9,10 as well as an amino acid racemization analysis on the Yuha skeleton indicating an age of 23,600??2,600 yr BP11. The tandem accelerator mass spectrometer at the University of Arizona has now been used to measure the ratio of 14C/13C in several organic and inorganic fractions of post-cranial bone from the Yuha H. sapiens sapiens skeleton. Isotope ratios from six chemical fractions all yielded radiocarbon ages for the skeleton of less than 4,000 yr BP. These results indicate that the Yuha skeleton is of Holocene age, in agreement with the cultural context of the burial, and in disagreement with the previously assigned Pleistocene age of 19,000-23,000 yr. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.

  10. Late Pleistocene Holocene stratigraphy and radiocarbon dating of La Malinche volcano, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Govea, Renato; Siebe, Claus

    2007-04-01

    Previous studies of La Malinche identified and radiocarbon dated several volcanic layers, the youngest of which yielded an age of ca. 7.5 ka. An additional ash fallout layer that crops out at high altitudes was considered the most recent deposit, with an estimated age of 6 ka. In the present work 38 new radiocarbon ages are presented. From these, several date the young ash fallout layer and lie around 3.1 ka. With the aid of these dates a new and comprehensive stratigraphy documenting the Late Pleistocene-Holocene eruptive history of La Malinche is presented. The stratigraphy indicates two main stages of volcanic activity: Pre-Malinche and Malinche. The first undoubtedly comprises the major part of the eruptive history, but its deposits are largely covered by the products of the latter stage, on which this study is focused. The Malinche stage was subdivided into three eruptive periods. Period 1 started with the emplacement of the Huamantla Pumice more than 45 ka ago. This deposit consists of a thick pumice fallout overlain by pyroclastic flow deposits. Subsequently, several episodes of construction and collapse of summit domes occurred. The oldest dome was dated at ca. 45 ka. Period 2 started 21.5 ka ago with the Malinche Pumice I, a widespread pumice fallout covering the entire slopes of the volcano. Pyroclastic flows and lahars related to this eruption were channeled along deep barrancas and reached considerable distances. Deposits produced by partial sector collapse and dated at ca. 20.9 ka, and a pumice-and-ash flow deposit dated at 15.9 ka were also generated during this period. The last period started with the eruption of the Malinche Pumice II, a distinctive fallout deposit overlain by ash flow deposits on the NE slope of the volcano. The age of this pumice layer is estimated between 12 and 9 ka. Formation of block-and-ash flows, lahars and pumice-and-ash flows followed during this period, and peaked in a most intensive episode that was dated at 7.5 ka

  11. Revised direct radiocarbon dating of the Vindija G1 Upper Paleolithic Neandertals

    PubMed Central

    Higham, Tom; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Karavanić, Ivor; Smith, Fred H.; Trinkaus, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The 1998/1999 direct dating of two Neandertal specimens from level G1 of Vindija Cave in Croatia to ≈28,000 and ≈29,000 radiocarbon (14C) years ago has led to interpretations concerning the late survival of Neandertals in south-central Europe, patterns of interaction between Neandertals and in-dispersing early modern humans in Europe, and complex biocultural scenarios for the earlier phases of the Upper Paleolithic. Given improvements, particularly in sample pretreatment techniques for bone radiocarbon samples, especially ultrafiltration of collagen samples, these Vindija G1 Neandertal fossils are redated to ≈32,000–33,000 14C years ago and possibly earlier. These results and the recent redating of a number of purportedly old modern human skeletal remains in Europe to younger time periods highlight the importance of fine chronological control when studying this biocultural time period and the tenuous nature of monolithic scenarios for the establishment of modern humans and earlier phases of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe. PMID:16407102

  12. Revised direct radiocarbon dating of the Vindija G1 Upper Paleolithic Neandertals.

    PubMed

    Higham, Tom; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Karavanić, Ivor; Smith, Fred H; Trinkaus, Erik

    2006-01-17

    The 1998/1999 direct dating of two Neandertal specimens from level G(1) of Vindija Cave in Croatia to approximately 28,000 and approximately 29,000 radiocarbon ((14)C) years ago has led to interpretations concerning the late survival of Neandertals in south-central Europe, patterns of interaction between Neandertals and in-dispersing early modern humans in Europe, and complex biocultural scenarios for the earlier phases of the Upper Paleolithic. Given improvements, particularly in sample pretreatment techniques for bone radiocarbon samples, especially ultrafiltration of collagen samples, these Vindija G(1) Neandertal fossils are redated to approximately 32,000-33,000 (14)C years ago and possibly earlier. These results and the recent redating of a number of purportedly old modern human skeletal remains in Europe to younger time periods highlight the importance of fine chronological control when studying this biocultural time period and the tenuous nature of monolithic scenarios for the establishment of modern humans and earlier phases of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe.

  13. Significances of Radiocarbon Dating on Lake Deposits in Salton Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Xu, X.

    2006-12-01

    During the past four years, we have made 37 AMS C-14 measurements on samples including lake tufa, mollusk shell and charcoal from the ancient Lake Cahuilla, Salton Basin, California. A barnacle shell deposited in 1940 in Salton Sea has radiocarbon age of 160 yr BP, reflecting that the effect of reservoir age on the dating is minor. A bi-valve shell with the calibrated radiocarbon age of 42345 yr BP from the lake's east shore shows that the lake was established at least 40kyr ago. A 64-cm thick tufa slab (LC-1 collected from Travertine Point on the western shoreline has 15 AMS C-14 dates ranging from 1310 to 17840 yr BP with a good age sequence. Three gastropod shells incased in tufas at the 12-m shoreline in the same site have ages of 1390 to 1660 yr BP. These dates indicate that the lake was experienced more alkaline and saline conditions after 18ka and the lake level dropped below the level of LC-1 (-24 m a.s.l.) about 1300 years ago. SST-5, a 38-cm thick tufa slab collected from the 12-m shoreline at Old Pacific Railroad Station, has 9 AMS C-14 dates ranging from 1265 to 7080 yr BP with a good age sequence. An archaeological site, ~40m below SST-5, shows that a charcoal sample has a C-14 date of 575 yr BP and a bivalve shell below the charcoal has a C-14 date of 920 yr BP. Five AMS C-14 dates of SST-1, a 19-cm thick tufa slab collected from the 12-m shoreline in Lake Cahuilla County Park, exhibit the tufa deposited from 4790 to 1365 yr BP. A bivalve shell near SST-1 has a radiocarbon age of 1625 yr BP. At this site, there are tufa traps for fishing made by ancient Indians. The above dates reveal that Lake Cahuilla in the Salton Basin had a continuous history certainly longer than 20 kyrs, probably >40 kyrs. The lake deposits are able to provide information on (1) hydrological change in the Salton Basin; (2) connection between Colorado River and Salton Basin; (3) climate change in the Colorado Drainage basin; (4) westerly jet stream shift and variation of North

  14. Radiocarbon-dating and ancient DNA reveal rapid replacement of extinct prehistoric penguins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Perry, George L. W.; Smith, Ian W. G.; Scofield, R. Paul; Tennyson, Alan J. D.; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Boessenkool, Sanne; Austin, Jeremy J.; Waters, Jonathan M.

    2015-03-01

    Prehistoric faunal extinctions dramatically reshaped biological assemblages around the world. However, the timing of such biotic shifts is often obscured by the fragmentary nature and limited temporal resolution of fossil records. We use radiocarbon-dating and ancient-DNA analysis of prehistoric (ca A.D. 1450-1834) Megadyptes penguin specimens to assess the time-frame of biological turnover in coastal New Zealand following human settlement. These data suggest that the final extirpation of the endemic Megadyptes waitaha, and subsequent replacement by the previously sub-Antarctic-limited Megadyptes antipodes, likely occurred within a narrow temporal window (e.g. a century or less). This transition represents one of the most rapid prehistoric faunal turnover events documented, and is likely linked to human demographic and cultural transitions during the 15th Century. Our results suggest that anthropogenic forces can trigger rapid biogeographic shifts.

  15. Radiocarbon dating of silica sinter deposits in shallow drill cores from the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Hurwitz, Shaul; McGeehin, John

    2016-01-01

    To explore the timing of hydrothermal activity at the Upper Geyser Basin (UGB) in Yellowstone National Park, we obtained seven new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon 14C ages of carbonaceous material trapped within siliceous sinter. Five samples came from depths of 15–152 cm within the Y-1 well, and two samples were from well Y-7 (depths of 24 cm and 122 cm). These two wells, at Black Sand and Biscuit Basins, respectively, were drilled in 1967 as part of a scientific drilling program by the U.S. Geological Survey (White et al., 1975). Even with samples as small as 15 g, we obtained sufficient carbonaceous material (a mixture of thermophilic mats, pollen, and charcoal) for the 14C analyses. Apparent time of deposition ranged from 3775 ± 25 and 2910 ± 30 14C years BP at the top of the cores to about 8000 years BP at the bottom. The dates are consistent with variable rates of sinter formation at individual sites within the UGB over the Holocene. On a basin-wide scale, though, these and other existing 14C dates hint that hydrothermal activity at the UGB may have been continuous throughout the Holocene.

  16. Radiocarbon dating of silica sinter deposits in shallow drill cores from the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Hurwitz, Shaul; McGeehin, John P.

    2016-01-01

    To explore the timing of hydrothermal activity at the Upper Geyser Basin (UGB) in Yellowstone National Park, we obtained seven new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon 14C ages of carbonaceous material trapped within siliceous sinter. Five samples came from depths of 15-152 cm within the Y-1 well, and two samples were from well Y-7 (depths of 24 cm and 122 cm). These two wells, at Black Sand and Biscuit Basins, respectively, were drilled in 1967 as part of a scientific drilling program by the U.S. Geological Survey (White et al., 1975). Even with samples as small as 15 g, we obtained sufficient carbonaceous material (a mixture of thermophilic mats, pollen, and charcoal) for the 14C analyses. Apparent time of deposition ranged from 3775 ± 25 and 2910 ± 30 14C years BP at the top of the cores to about 8000 years BP at the bottom. The dates are consistent with variable rates of sinter formation at individual sites within the UGB over the Holocene. On a basin-wide scale, though, these and other existing 14C dates hint that hydrothermal activity at the UGB may have been continuous throughout the Holocene.

  17. Radiocarbon dating and wood density chronologies of mangrove trees in arid Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Santini, Nadia S; Hua, Quan; Schmitz, Nele; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove trees tend to be larger and mangrove communities more diverse in tropical latitudes, particularly where there is high rainfall. Variation in the structure, growth and productivity of mangrove forests over climatic gradients suggests they are sensitive to variations in climate, but evidence of changes in the structure and growth of mangrove trees in response to climatic variation is scarce. Bomb-pulse radiocarbon dating provides accurate dates of recent wood formation and tree age of tropical and subtropical tree species. Here, we used radiocarbon techniques combined with X-ray densitometry to develop a wood density chronology for the mangrove Avicennia marina in the Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia (WA). We tested whether wood density chronologies of A. marina were sensitive to variation in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index, which reflects temperature fluctuations in the Pacific Ocean and is linked to the instrumental rainfall record in north WA. We also determined growth rates in mangrove trees from the Exmouth Gulf, WA. We found that seaward fringing A. marina trees (~10 cm diameter) were 48 ± 1 to 89 ± 23 years old (mean ± 1 σ) and that their growth rates ranged from 4.08 ± 2.36 to 5.30 ± 3.33 mm/yr (mean ± 1 σ). The wood density of our studied mangrove trees decreased with increases in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index. Future predicted drying of the region will likely lead to further reductions in wood density and their associated growth rates in mangrove forests in the region.

  18. Radiocarbon Dating and Wood Density Chronologies of Mangrove Trees in Arid Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Santini, Nadia S.; Hua, Quan; Schmitz, Nele; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove trees tend to be larger and mangrove communities more diverse in tropical latitudes, particularly where there is high rainfall. Variation in the structure, growth and productivity of mangrove forests over climatic gradients suggests they are sensitive to variations in climate, but evidence of changes in the structure and growth of mangrove trees in response to climatic variation is scarce. Bomb-pulse radiocarbon dating provides accurate dates of recent wood formation and tree age of tropical and subtropical tree species. Here, we used radiocarbon techniques combined with X-ray densitometry to develop a wood density chronology for the mangrove Avicennia marina in the Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia (WA). We tested whether wood density chronologies of A. marina were sensitive to variation in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index, which reflects temperature fluctuations in the Pacific Ocean and is linked to the instrumental rainfall record in north WA. We also determined growth rates in mangrove trees from the Exmouth Gulf, WA. We found that seaward fringing A. marina trees (∼10 cm diameter) were 48±1 to 89±23 years old (mean ± 1σ) and that their growth rates ranged from 4.08±2.36 to 5.30±3.33 mm/yr (mean ±1σ). The wood density of our studied mangrove trees decreased with increases in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index. Future predicted drying of the region will likely lead to further reductions in wood density and their associated growth rates in mangrove forests in the region. PMID:24265797

  19. Collection of radiocarbon dates on the mammoths ( Mammuthus primigenius) and other genera of Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartanyan, Sergey L.; Arslanov, Khikmat A.; Karhu, Juha A.; Possnert, Göran; Sulerzhitsky, Leopold D.

    2008-07-01

    We present and discuss a full list of radiocarbon dates for woolly mammoth and other species of the Mammoth fauna available from Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia. Most of the radiocarbon dates are published here for the first time. Of the124 radiocarbon dates on mammoth bone, 106 fall between 3700 and 9000 yr ago. We believe these dates bracket the period of mammoth isolation on Wrangel Island and their ultimate extinction, which we attribute to natural causes. The absence of dates between 9-12 ka probably indicates a period when mammoths were absent from Wrangel Island. Long bone dimensions of Holocene mammoths from Wrangel Island indicate that these animals were comparable in size to those on the mainland; although they were not large animals, neither can they be classified as dwarfs. Occurrence of mammoth Holocene refugia on the mainland is suggested. Based on other species of the Mammoth fauna that have also been radiocarbon on Wrangel Island, including horse, bison, musk ox and woolly rhinoceros, it appears that the mammoth was the only species of that fauna that inhabited Wrangel Island in the mid-Holocene.

  20. Performance report for the low energy compact radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometer at Uppsala University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehpour, M.; Håkansson, K.; Possnert, G.; Wacker, L.; Synal, H.-A.

    2016-03-01

    A range of ion beam analysis activities are ongoing at Uppsala University, including Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). Various isotopes are used for AMS but the isotope with the widest variety of applications is radiocarbon. Up until recently, only the 5 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator had been used at our site for radiocarbon AMS, ordinarily using 12 MeV 14,13,12C3+ ions. Recently a new radiocarbon AMS system, the Green-MICADAS, developed at the ion physics group at ETH Zurich, was installed. The system has a number of outstanding features which will be described. The system operates at a terminal voltage of 175 kV and uses helium stripper gas, extracting singly charged carbon ions. The low- and high energy mass spectrometers in the system are stigmatic dipole permanent magnets (0.42 and 0.97 T) requiring no electrical power nor cooling water. The system measures both the 14C/12C and the 13C/12C ratios on-line. Performance of the system is presented for both standard mg samples as well as μg-sized samples.

  1. Sun, Ocean, Nuclear Bombs, and Fossil Fuels: Radiocarbon Variations and Implications for High-Resolution Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Koushik

    2016-06-01

    Radiocarbon, or 14C, is a radiometric dating method ideally suited for providing a chronological framework in archaeology and geosciences for timescales spanning the last 50,000 years. 14C is easily detectable in most common natural organic materials and has a half-life (5,730±40 years) relevant to these timescales. 14C produced from large-scale detonations of nuclear bombs between the 1950s and the early 1960s can be used for dating modern organic materials formed after the 1950s. Often these studies demand high-resolution chronology to resolve ages within a few decades to less than a few years. Despite developments in modern, high-precision 14C analytical methods, the applicability of 14C in high-resolution chronology is limited by short-term variations in atmospheric 14C in the past. This article reviews the roles of the principal natural drivers (e.g., solar magnetic activity and ocean circulation) and the anthropogenic perturbations (e.g., fossil fuel CO2 and 14C from nuclear and thermonuclear bombs) that are responsible for short-term 14C variations in the environment. Methods and challenges of high-resolution 14C dating are discussed.

  2. Enhancing sample preparation capabilities for accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon and radiocalcium studies

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R E

    1991-08-20

    With support provided by the LLNL Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, the UCR Radiocarbon Laboratory continued its studies involving sample pretreatment and target preparation for both AMS radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) and radiocalcium ({sup 41}Ca) involving applications to archaeologically -- and paleoanthropologically- related samples. With regard to AMS {sup 14}C-related studies, we have extended the development of a series of procedures which have, as their initial goal, the capability to combust several hundred microgram amounts of a chemically-pretreated organic sample and convert the resultant CO{sub 2} to graphitic carbon which will consistently yield relatively high {sup 13}C{sup {minus}} ion currents and blanks which will yield, on a consistent basis, {sup 14}C count rates at or below 0.20% modern, giving an 2 sigma age limit of >50,000 yr BP.

  3. Rapidly Melting Ice Caps of Northern Baffin Island: Insights From Cosmogenic and Conventional Radiocarbon Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. K.; Miller, G. H.; Briner, J. P.; Lifton, N.; Devogel, S. B.

    2006-12-01

    The interior plateau of northern Baffin Island in the eastern Canadian Arctic is home to several small (< 50 km2) ice caps whose melt has been well recorded since 1949. Modern equilibrium line altitude (ELA) is well above all existing ice and a continuation of current climatic conditions will lead to the disappearance of all ice on the plateau in the future. Between 2000 and 2005, approximately 1 km2 of ice was lost per year, equivalent to ~1.3% of the total ice cover on the plateau. To put this current melt into a larger picture of ice-cap history on the plateau since deglaciation 6 ka, several techniques have been used in concert. The recent extent of the ice caps during the Little Ice Age can be estimated from the preservation of lichen trimlines across much of the plateau. These trimlines represent previous multi-year snow or ice cover and their aerial extent can be measured via satellite imagery. Based on these measurements, modern ice caps represent only ~3% of ice-cap extent during the Little Ice Age. Radiocarbon dating of moss, preserved beneath the ice caps due to their cold-based nature, suggests a sudden expansion of ice cover around 520 calendar years before present (cal BP), indicated by a mode of 7 dates of approximately this age. This coincides with a pulse of global volcanic activity; predicted cooling from increased aerosol loading may have triggered rapid ice-cap growth. However, dead moss emerging at three sites is more than 1000 years old, with a maximum age of 1326±15 cal BP, indicating that portions of the remaining ice caps have remained intact from more than 1000 years Further constraints on ice cap size are provided by 14C cosmogenic exposure dating. 14C concentrations in rocks at the modern ice margin are too low to be the result of continuous exposure since deglaciation followed by shielding for 500-1000 years by ice cover. Exposure history modeling indicates at least one additional prior period of ice cover of approximately 1000 years

  4. AMS radiocarbon dating of pollen concentrates in a karstic lake system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, William; Zielhofer, Christoph; Mischke, Steffen; Campbell, Jennifer; Bryant, Charlotte; Fink, David; Xu, Xiaomei

    2016-04-01

    In lake sediments where terrestrial macrofossils are rare or absent, AMS radiocarbon dating of pollen concentrates represents an important alternative solution for developing a robust and high resolution chronology suitable for Bayesian modelling of age-depth relationships. Here we report an application of the dense media separation approach (Vandergoes and Prior, Radiocarbon 45:479-492, 2003) to Holocene lake sediments from karstic Lake Sidi Ali, Morocco (33° 03'N, 05° 00'W; 2,080 m a.s.l.). Paired dates on terrestrial (macrofossil) and aquatic (ostracod) samples, and dating of bulk sediment surface material at the site indicate varying reservoir effects of up to 900 yr and highlight the need to date terrestrial carbon sources. Dating of pollen concentrates is a viable approach at Lake Sidi Ali, as pollen concentrations are high (~200,000 grains/cc), and pollen assemblages typically contain only minor percentages (<1%) of aquatic pollen. Following laboratory trials, 23 pollen concentrates alongside laboratory standards (anthracite, IAEA C5 wood) were prepared and dated following the heavy liquid (sodium polytungstate, SPT) density separation protocol. A series of SPT solutions of progressively decreasing density (1.9-1.15 s.g.) were used to divide the samples into several fractions. The pollen purity of these fractions was evaluated by microscopic analysis of smear slides, and the richest fraction(s) were selected for dating. Sieving at 10 μm and at 50/125 μm (depending on the size of predominant pollen grains) was used to further concentrate the pollen grains, and the samples were freeze dried to determine the dry weight of material. The results show that the highest purity of pollen is sample dependent and may typically be achieved in the fractions precipitating at 1.4-1.2 s.g. With sieving, terrestrial pollen purity of ~50-80% can be achieved, offering a considerable improvement in terms of terrestrial carbon content over bulk sediment. These values reflect

  5. Radiocarbon dating, chronologic framework, and changes in accumulation rates of holocene estuarine sediments from Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Baucom, P.C.; Bratton, J.F.; Cronin, T. M.; McGeehin, J.P.; Willard, D.; Zimmerman, A.R.; Vogt, P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Rapidly accumulating Holocene sediments in estuaries commonly are difficult to sample and date. In Chesapeake Bay, we obtained sediment cores as much as 20 m in length and used numerous radiocarbon ages measured by accelarator mass spectrometry methods to provide the first detailed chronologies of Holocene sediment accumulation in the bay. Carbon in these sediments is a complex mixture of materials from a variety of sources. Analyses of different components of the sediments show that total organic carbon ages are largely unreliable, because much of the carbon (including coal) has been transported to the bay from upstream sources and is older than sediments in which it was deposited. Mollusk shells (clams, oysters) and foraminifera appear to give reliable results, although reworking and burrowing are potential problems. Analyses of museum specimens collected alive before atmospheric nuclear testing suggest that the standard reservoir correction for marine samples is appropriate for middle to lower Chesapeake Bay. The biogenic carbonate radiocarbon ages are compatible with 210 Pb and 137 Cs data and pollen stratigraphy from the same sites. Post-settlement changes in sediment transport and accumulation is an important environmental issue in many estuaries, including the Chesapeake. Our data show that large variations in sediment mass accumulation rates occur among sites. At shallow water sites, local factors seem to control changes in accumulation rates with time. Our two relatively deep-water sites in the axial channel of the bay have different long-term average accumulation rates, but the history of sediment accumulation at these sites appears to reflect overall conditions in the bay. Mass accumulation rates at the two deep-water sites rapidly increased by about fourfold coincident with widespread land clearance for agriculture in the Chesapeake watershed.

  6. Radiocarbon dating of kohitsugire calligraphies attributed to Fujiwara Shunzei: Akihiro-gire, Oie-gire, and Ryosa-gire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Hirotaka; Ikeda, Kazuomi

    2010-04-01

    Kohitsugire are ancient paper sheets containing graceful calligraphy. They were originally the pages of rare ancient manuscripts; therefore, they contain valuable historical information. However, among the kohitsugire attributed to famous calligraphists, many copies and counterfeits written several centuries later are also in circulation. We measured the radiocarbon ages of three kohitsugire ( Akihiro-gire, Oie-gire, and Ryosa-gire) attributed to Fujiwara Shunzei. Among paleographers, it had been commonly accepted that Akihiro-gire was written by Shunzei in his youth. However, radiocarbon dating showed that Akihiro-gire is not Shunzei's work. Therefore, it is probably a page from an anonymous manuscript.

  7. Radiocarbon dates from the Grotte du Renne and Saint-Césaire support a Neandertal origin for the Châtelperronian

    PubMed Central

    Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Talamo, Sahra; Julien, Michèle; David, Francine; Connet, Nelly; Bodu, Pierre; Vandermeersch, Bernard; Richards, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The transition from the Middle Paleolithic (MP) to Upper Paleolithic (UP) is marked by the replacement of late Neandertals by modern humans in Europe between 50,000 and 40,000 y ago. Châtelperronian (CP) artifact assemblages found in central France and northern Spain date to this time period. So far, it is the only such assemblage type that has yielded Neandertal remains directly associated with UP style artifacts. CP assemblages also include body ornaments, otherwise virtually unknown in the Neandertal world. However, it has been argued that instead of the CP being manufactured by Neandertals, site formation processes and layer admixture resulted in the chance association of Neanderthal remains, CP assemblages, and body ornaments. Here, we report a series of accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates on ultrafiltered bone collagen extracted from 40 well-preserved bone fragments from the late Mousterian, CP, and Protoaurignacian layers at the Grotte du Renne site (at Arcy-sur-Cure, France). Our radiocarbon results are inconsistent with the admixture hypothesis. Further, we report a direct date on the Neandertal CP skeleton from Saint-Césaire (France). This date corroborates the assignment of CP assemblages to the latest Neandertals of western Europe. Importantly, our results establish that the production of body ornaments in the CP postdates the arrival of modern humans in neighboring regions of Europe. This new behavior could therefore have been the result of cultural diffusion from modern to Neandertal groups. PMID:23112183

  8. Radiocarbon dates from the Grotte du Renne and Saint-Césaire support a Neandertal origin for the Châtelperronian.

    PubMed

    Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Talamo, Sahra; Julien, Michèle; David, Francine; Connet, Nelly; Bodu, Pierre; Vandermeersch, Bernard; Richards, Michael P

    2012-11-13

    The transition from the Middle Paleolithic (MP) to Upper Paleolithic (UP) is marked by the replacement of late Neandertals by modern humans in Europe between 50,000 and 40,000 y ago. Châtelperronian (CP) artifact assemblages found in central France and northern Spain date to this time period. So far, it is the only such assemblage type that has yielded Neandertal remains directly associated with UP style artifacts. CP assemblages also include body ornaments, otherwise virtually unknown in the Neandertal world. However, it has been argued that instead of the CP being manufactured by Neandertals, site formation processes and layer admixture resulted in the chance association of Neanderthal remains, CP assemblages, and body ornaments. Here, we report a series of accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates on ultrafiltered bone collagen extracted from 40 well-preserved bone fragments from the late Mousterian, CP, and Protoaurignacian layers at the Grotte du Renne site (at Arcy-sur-Cure, France). Our radiocarbon results are inconsistent with the admixture hypothesis. Further, we report a direct date on the Neandertal CP skeleton from Saint-Césaire (France). This date corroborates the assignment of CP assemblages to the latest Neandertals of western Europe. Importantly, our results establish that the production of body ornaments in the CP postdates the arrival of modern humans in neighboring regions of Europe. This new behavior could therefore have been the result of cultural diffusion from modern to Neandertal groups.

  9. Reconstructing the dynamics of ancient human populations from radiocarbon dates: 10 000 years of population growth in Australia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher N; Brook, Barry W

    2011-12-22

    Measuring trends in the size of prehistoric populations is fundamental to our understanding of the demography of ancient people and their responses to environmental change. Archaeologists commonly use the temporal distribution of radiocarbon dates to reconstruct population trends, but this can give a false picture of population growth because of the loss of evidence from older sites. We demonstrate a method for quantifying this bias, and we use it to test for population growth through the Holocene of Australia. We used model simulations to show how turnover of site occupation across an archaeological landscape, interacting with erasure of evidence at abandoned sites, can create an increase in apparent site occupation towards the present when occupation density is actually constant. By estimating the probabilities of abandonment and erasure from archaeological data, we then used the model to show that this effect does not account for the observed increase in occupation through the Holocene in Australia. This is best explained by population growth, which was low for the first part of the Holocene but accelerated about 5000 years ago. Our results provide new evidence for the dynamism of non-agricultural populations through the Holocene.

  10. Effects of sample mass and macrofossil type on radiocarbon dating of arctic and boreal lake sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, W W; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Brubaker, L B; Hu, F S; Lozhkin, A V; Tinner, W; Kaltenrieder, P

    2006-05-29

    Dating lake sediments by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) {sup 14}C analysis of plant macrofossils overcomes one of the main problems associated with dating bulk sediment samples, the presence of old organic matter. Even so, many AMS dates from arctic and boreal sites appear to misrepresent the age of the sediment. To understand the nature of these apparent dating anomalies better, we conducted a series of {sup 14}C dating experiments using samples from Alaskan and Siberian lake-sediment cores. First, to test whether our analytical procedures introduced a sample-mass bias, we obtained {sup 14}C dates for different-sized pieces of single woody macrofossils. In these sample-mass experiments, sized statistically equivalent ages were found for samples as small as 0.05 mg C. Second, to assess whether macrofossil type influenced dating results, we conducted sample-type experiments in which {sup 14}C dates were obtained for different macrofossil types sieved from the same depth in the sediment. We dated materials from multiple levels in sediment cores from Upper Capsule Lake (North Slope, northern Alaska) and Grizzly Lake (Copper River Basin, southern Alaska), and from single depths in other records from northern Alaska. In several of the experiments there were significant discrepancies between dates for different plant tissues, and in most cases wood and charcoal were older than other macrofossil types, usually by several hundred years. This pattern suggests that {sup 14}C dates for woody macrofossils may misrepresent the age of the sediment by centuries, perhaps due to their longer terrestrial residence time and the potential in-built age of long-lived plants. This study identifies why some {sup 14}C dates appear to be inconsistent with the overall age-depth trend of a lake-sediment record, and it may guide the selection of {sup 14}C samples in future studies.

  11. Radiocarbon dating the appearance of modern humans and timing of cultural innovations in Europe: new results and new challenges.

    PubMed

    Conard, Nicholas J; Bolus, Michael

    2003-03-01

    New radiocarbon dates from the sites of Bockstein-Törle, Geissenklösterle, Hohle Fels, Hohlenstein-Stadel, Sirgenstein, and Vogelherd in the Swabian Jura of southwestern Germany indicate that the Aurignacian of the region spans the period from ca. 40-30ka BP. If the situation at Vogelherd, in which skeletal remains from modern humans underlie an entire Aurignacian sequence, is viewed as representative for the region, the dates from the Swabian Jura support the hypothesis that populations of modern humans entered the region by way of the "Danube Corridor." The lithic technology from the lower Aurignacian of Geissenklösterle III is fully developed, and classic Aurignacian forms are well represented. During the course of the Aurignacian, numerous assemblages rich in art works, jewelry, and musical instruments are documented. By no later than 29ka BP the Gravettian was well established in the region. These dates are consistent with the "Kulturpumpe" hypothesis that important cultural innovations of the Aurignacian and Gravettian in Swabia predate similar developments in other regions of Europe. The radiocarbon dates from Geissenklösterle corroborate observations from other non-archaeological data sets indicating large global fluctuations in the atmospheric concentrations of radiocarbon between 30 and 50ka calendar years ago. These fluctuations lead to complications in building reliable chronologies during this period and cause the "Middle Paleolithic Dating Anomaly" and the "Coexistence Effect," which tend to exaggerate the temporal overlap between Neanderthals and modern humans.

  12. Direct radiocarbon dating and genetic analyses on the purported Neanderthal mandible from the Monti Lessini (Italy).

    PubMed

    Talamo, Sahra; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Mannino, Marcello A; Fasani, Leone; Welker, Frido; Martini, Fabio; Romagnoli, Francesca; Zorzin, Roberto; Meyer, Matthias; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-07-08

    Anatomically modern humans replaced Neanderthals in Europe around 40,000 years ago. The demise of the Neanderthals and the nature of the possible relationship with anatomically modern humans has captured our imagination and stimulated research for more than a century now. Recent chronological studies suggest a possible overlap between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans of more than 5,000 years. Analyses of ancient genome sequences from both groups have shown that they interbred multiple times, including in Europe. A potential place of interbreeding is the notable Palaeolithic site of Riparo Mezzena in Northern Italy. In order to improve our understanding of prehistoric occupation at Mezzena, we analysed the human mandible and several cranial fragments from the site using radiocarbon dating, ancient DNA, ZooMS and isotope analyses. We also performed a more detailed investigation of the lithic assemblage of layer I. Surprisingly we found that the Riparo Mezzena mandible is not from a Neanderthal but belonged to an anatomically modern human. Furthermore, we found no evidence for the presence of Neanderthal remains among 11 of the 13 cranial and post-cranial fragments re-investigated in this study.

  13. Co-development of Conceptual Understanding and Critical Attitude: Analyzing texts on radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Décamp, N.; Viennot, L.

    2015-08-01

    This research documents the impact of a teaching interview aimed at developing a critical attitude in students, and focused on a particular topic: radiocarbon dating. This teaching interview is designed to observe students' reaction to limited written explanations of the phenomenon under study, and their possible frustration or intellectual satisfaction in relation to these texts. We aim to document the possible link between students' developing conceptual understanding of a topic and their ability to express their frustration when presented with very incomplete explanations, or their intellectual satisfaction when presented with complete explanation. As a side product, we intend to observe some of their a priori ideas concerning this topic. Ten teaching interviews conducted with fourth-year University students were recorded, transcribed and coded. Beyond a series of results concerning students' a priori understanding of the domain, the analysis of the interviews suggests that, when students are presented with texts of increasing completeness and discuss these with the interviewer, their critical reactions evolve in time in a very specific way. We propose a tentative model for this co-evolution of student conceptual command and critical stance. The discussion bears on possible interpretations for the 'anesthesia of judgment' observed in most students at the beginning of the interview, and for a few of them throughout the discussion. Keeping in mind the 'competence vs concepts' current alternative, the conditions that seem to free students' critical potential are analyzed in relation to their evolving command of the topic and their degree of intellectual satisfaction.

  14. Direct radiocarbon dating and genetic analyses on the purported Neanderthal mandible from the Monti Lessini (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Talamo, Sahra; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Mannino, Marcello A.; Fasani, Leone; Welker, Frido; Martini, Fabio; Romagnoli, Francesca; Zorzin, Roberto; Meyer, Matthias; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Anatomically modern humans replaced Neanderthals in Europe around 40,000 years ago. The demise of the Neanderthals and the nature of the possible relationship with anatomically modern humans has captured our imagination and stimulated research for more than a century now. Recent chronological studies suggest a possible overlap between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans of more than 5,000 years. Analyses of ancient genome sequences from both groups have shown that they interbred multiple times, including in Europe. A potential place of interbreeding is the notable Palaeolithic site of Riparo Mezzena in Northern Italy. In order to improve our understanding of prehistoric occupation at Mezzena, we analysed the human mandible and several cranial fragments from the site using radiocarbon dating, ancient DNA, ZooMS and isotope analyses. We also performed a more detailed investigation of the lithic assemblage of layer I. Surprisingly we found that the Riparo Mezzena mandible is not from a Neanderthal but belonged to an anatomically modern human. Furthermore, we found no evidence for the presence of Neanderthal remains among 11 of the 13 cranial and post-cranial fragments re-investigated in this study. PMID:27389305

  15. 17 CFR 230.461 - Acceleration of effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acceleration of effective date... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Filings; Fees; Effective Date § 230.461 Acceleration of effective date. (a) Requests for acceleration of the effective date of a registration statement shall...

  16. 17 CFR 230.461 - Acceleration of effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acceleration of effective date... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Filings; Fees; Effective Date § 230.461 Acceleration of effective date. (a) Requests for acceleration of the effective date of a registration statement shall...

  17. 17 CFR 230.461 - Acceleration of effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acceleration of effective date... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Filings; Fees; Effective Date § 230.461 Acceleration of effective date. (a) Requests for acceleration of the effective date of a registration statement shall...

  18. 17 CFR 230.461 - Acceleration of effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acceleration of effective date... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Filings; Fees; Effective Date § 230.461 Acceleration of effective date. (a) Requests for acceleration of the effective date of a registration statement shall...

  19. Holocene Radiocarbon Dates on Coexisting Benthic and Planktic Foraminifera Shells in the Subarctic North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, M. H.; Mix, A. C.; Stoner, J. S.; Southon, J.

    2008-12-01

    The high North Pacific contains some of the oldest and CO2-rich deep waters in the world; however, variations of the interactions between the surface and subsurface reservoirs and the ice-age history of both land and ocean remain poorly known. Here we present paired planktic and benthic foraminifera radiocarbon dates from jumbo piston cores taken on the Gulf of Alaska margin. The present focus of this research is core EW0408-85JC (59.56° N, 144.15° W, 682 m depth), located on the shelf break at a depth shallow enough to avoid carbonate dissolution, yet still experiencing oceanic conditions as confirmed by the oxygen isotope record. The core extends back >17,000 ybp; sedimentation rates implied by the high- resolution dating vary from an early Holocene low of ~20 cm/ka, to late glacial values of >500 cm/ka (likely associated with rapid flux of glacial silt to the ocean). Regional retreat of glaciers behind fjord sills is constrained to >16 ka (calendar). Benthic-planktic 14C age differences (B-P) mostly track values expected from changing atmospheric production rates as they propagate into the ocean system, with a modern B-P of 500 yr. Exceptions include high B-P values of ~800 yr in mid-Holocene time. This interval is associated with reduced percentages of the foraminiferal species G. bulloides, implying greater upper- ocean stratification or weaker upwelling than at present. High B-P values during glaciation, up to ~1000 yr, may reflect the presence of relatively old subsurface waters (i.e. no apparent increase in shallow subsurface ventilation by intermediate waters during glacial time in this region), and/or increased stratification associated with freshwater inputs from regional tidewater glaciers.

  20. Radiocarbon dating of individual lignin phenols: a new approach for establishing chronology of late quaternary lake sediments.

    PubMed

    Hou, Juzhi; Huang, Yongsong; Brodsky, Corynn; Alexandre, Marcelo R; McNichol, Ann P; King, John W; Hu, Feng Sheng; Shen, Ji

    2010-09-01

    The reliability of chronology is a prerequisite for meaningful paleoclimate reconstructions from sedimentary archives. The conventional approach of radiocarbon dating bulk organic carbon in lake sediments is often hampered by the old carbon effect, i.e., the assimilation of ancient dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) derived from carbonate bedrocks or other sources. Therefore, radiocarbon dating is ideally performed on organic compounds derived from land plants that use atmospheric CO(2) and rapidly delivered to sediments. We demonstrate that lignin phenols isolated from lake sediments using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) can serve as effective (14)C dating materials for establishing chronology during the late Quaternary. We developed a procedure to purify lignin phenols, building upon a published method. By isolating lignin from standard wood reference substances, we show that our method yields pure lignin phenols and consistent ages as the consensus ages and that our procedure does not introduce radiocarbon contamination. We further demonstrate that lignin phenol ages are compatible with varve counted and macrofossil dated sediment horizons in Steel Lake and Fayetteville Green Lake. Applying the new method to lake sediment cores from Lake Qinghai demonstrates that lignin phenol ages in Lake Qinghai are consistently younger than bulk total organic carbon (TOC) ages which are contaminated by old carbon effect. We also show that the age offset between lignin and bulk organic carbon differs at different Lake Qinghai sedimentary horizons, suggesting a variable hard water effect at different times and that a uniform age correction throughout the core is inappropriate.

  1. AMS radiocarbon dating of wood trunks in the pumiceous deposits of the Kikai-Akahoya eruption in Yakushima Island, SW Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuno, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Toshio; Geshi, Nobuo; Kimura, Katsuhiko; Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was performed on numerous wood trunks from pumiceous deposits along the Nagata, Isso and Miyanoura rivers on the northern side of Yakushima Island, 60 km south of Kyushu Island. The obtained 14C dates were around 6.5 ka BP, which, in combination with the geological characteristics of the pumiceous deposits indicates that these specimens were buried during the Kikai-Akahoya (K-Ah) eruption from the Kikai caldera. However, the fact that they are not charred suggests that the origin of these deposits are not pyroclastic flows. Fourteen taxa (Pinus subgen. Diploxylon, Tsuga, Cryptomeria, Chamaecyparis, Myrica, Castanea, Castanopsis, Quercus subgen. Cyclobalanopsis, Trochodendron, Phellodendron, Lagerstroemia, Rhododendron, Myrsine and Symplocos) were identified through anatomical characteristics. This is the first discovery of forest species on the Yakushima Island before the devastating eruption.

  2. Blank corrections for ramped pyrolysis radiocarbon dating of sedimentary and soil organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Alvaro; Santos, Guaciara M; Williams, Elizabeth K; Pendergraft, Matthew A; Vetter, Lael; Rosenheim, Brad E

    2014-12-16

    Ramped pyrolysis (RP) targets distinct components of soil and sedimentary organic carbon based on their thermochemical stabilities and allows the determination of the full spectrum of radiocarbon ((14)C) ages present in a soil or sediment sample. Extending the method into realms where more precise ages are needed or where smaller samples need to be measured involves better understanding of the blank contamination associated with the method. Here, we use a compiled data set of RP measurements of samples of known age to evaluate the mass of the carbon blank and its associated (14)C signature, and to assess the performance of the RP system. We estimate blank contamination during RP using two methods, the modern-dead and the isotope dilution method. Our results indicate that during one complete RP run samples are contaminated by 8.8 ± 4.4 μg (time-dependent) of modern carbon (MC, fM ∼ 1) and 4.1 ± 5.5 μg (time-independent) of dead carbon (DC, fM ∼ 0). We find that the modern-dead method provides more accurate estimates of uncertainties in blank contamination; therefore, the isotope dilution method should be used with caution when the variability of the blank is high. Additionally, we show that RP can routinely produce accurate (14)C dates with precisions ∼100 (14)C years for materials deposited in the last 10,000 years and ∼300 (14)C years for carbon with (14)C ages of up to 20,000 years.

  3. Thermal history of the Acoculco geothermal system, eastern Mexico: Insights from numerical modeling and radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canet, Carles; Trillaud, Frederic; Prol-Ledesma, Rosa María; González-Hernández, Galia; Peláez, Berenice; Hernández-Cruz, Berenice; Sánchez-Córdova, María M.

    2015-10-01

    Acoculco is a geothermal prospective area hosted by a volcanic caldera complex in the eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Surface manifestations are scarce and consist of gas discharges (CO2-rich) and acid-sulfate springs of low temperature, whereas hydrothermal explosive activity is profusely manifested by meter-scale craters and mounds of hydrothermal debris and breccias. Silicic alteration extends for several square kilometers around the zone with gas manifestations and explosive features, affecting surficial volcanic rocks, primarily tuffs and breccias. In the subsurface, an argillic alteration zone (ammonium illite) extends down to a depth of ∼ 600 m, and underneath it a propylitic zone (epidote-calcite-chlorite) occurs down to ∼ 1000 m. Thermal logs from an exploratory borehole (EAC-1, drilled in 1995 down to 1810 m) showed a conductive heat transfer regime under high geothermal gradient (∼ 140 °C/1000 m). In contrast, the thermal profile established from temperatures of homogenization of fluid inclusions-measured on core samples from the same drill hole-suggests that convection occurred in the past through the upper ~ 1400 m of the geothermal system. A drop in permeability due to the precipitation of alteration minerals would have triggered the cessation of the convective heat transfer regime to give place to a conductive one. With the purpose of determining when the transition of heat transfer regime occurred, we developed a 1D model that simulates the time-depth distribution of temperature. According to our numerical simulations, this transition happened ca. 7000 years ago; this date is very recent compared to the lifespan of the geothermal system. In addition, radiocarbon chronology indicates that the hydrothermal explosive activity postdates the end of the convective heat transfer regime, having dated at least three explosive events, at 4867-5295, 1049-1417 and 543-709 y cal. BP. Therefore, hydrothermal explosions arise from the self-sealing of

  4. A graphical method to evaluate predominant geochemical processes occurring in groundwater systems for radiocarbon dating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Han, Liang-Feng; Plummer, L. Niel; Aggarwal, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    A graphical method is described for identifying geochemical reactions needed in the interpretation of radiocarbon age in groundwater systems. Graphs are constructed by plotting the measured 14C, δ13C, and concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and are interpreted according to specific criteria to recognize water samples that are consistent with a wide range of processes, including geochemical reactions, carbon isotopic exchange, 14C decay, and mixing of waters. The graphs are used to provide a qualitative estimate of radiocarbon age, to deduce the hydrochemical complexity of a groundwater system, and to compare samples from different groundwater systems. Graphs of chemical and isotopic data from a series of previously-published groundwater studies are used to demonstrate the utility of the approach. Ultimately, the information derived from the graphs is used to improve geochemical models for adjustment of radiocarbon ages in groundwater systems.

  5. The absolute age of events in Earth and human history on the basis of radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazdur, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Radiocarbon chronometry holds a special place among the many discoveries made in the field of applied nuclear research. Few discoveries in fact, even among those being honored with the Nobel Prize, have had such a powerful and lasting impact on the further development of science. This method, as well as many other complex research methods, which appear to constitute an independent scientific discipline, arose as a result of many years of work by a team of several scientists. However, the actual founder of radiocarbon chronometry was one man, Willard Frank Libby, honored for his contribution with the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1960. In Poland, the creative activity in this area was begun in the late 1940s by Włodzimierz Mościcki, who continued it in the last 10 years of his life in the Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice, where he founded the Gliwice Radiocarbon Laboratory.

  6. Towards an absolute chronology for the Aegean iron age: new radiocarbon dates from Lefkandi, Kalapodi and Corinth.

    PubMed

    Toffolo, Michael B; Fantalkin, Alexander; Lemos, Irene S; Felsch, Rainer C S; Niemeier, Wolf-Dietrich; Sanders, Guy D R; Finkelstein, Israel; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    The relative chronology of the Aegean Iron Age is robust. It is based on minute stylistic changes in the Submycenaean, Protogeometric and Geometric styles and their sub-phases. Yet, the absolute chronology of the time-span between the final stages of Late Helladic IIIC in the late second millennium BCE and the archaic colonization of Italy and Sicily toward the end of the 8(th) century BCE lacks archaeological contexts that can be directly related to events carrying absolute dates mentioned in Egyptian/Near Eastern historical sources, or to well-dated Egyptian/Near Eastern rulers. The small number of radiocarbon dates available for this time span is not sufficient to establish an absolute chronological sequence. Here we present a new set of short-lived radiocarbon dates from the sites of Lefkandi, Kalapodi and Corinth in Greece. We focus on the crucial transition from the Submycenaean to the Protogeometric periods. This transition is placed in the late 11(th) century BCE according to the Conventional Aegean Chronology and in the late 12(th) century BCE according to the High Aegean Chronology. Our results place it in the second half of the 11(th) century BCE.

  7. Towards an Absolute Chronology for the Aegean Iron Age: New Radiocarbon Dates from Lefkandi, Kalapodi and Corinth

    PubMed Central

    Toffolo, Michael B.; Fantalkin, Alexander; Lemos, Irene S.; Felsch, Rainer C. S.; Niemeier, Wolf-Dietrich; Sanders, Guy D. R.; Finkelstein, Israel; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    The relative chronology of the Aegean Iron Age is robust. It is based on minute stylistic changes in the Submycenaean, Protogeometric and Geometric styles and their sub-phases. Yet, the absolute chronology of the time-span between the final stages of Late Helladic IIIC in the late second millennium BCE and the archaic colonization of Italy and Sicily toward the end of the 8th century BCE lacks archaeological contexts that can be directly related to events carrying absolute dates mentioned in Egyptian/Near Eastern historical sources, or to well-dated Egyptian/Near Eastern rulers. The small number of radiocarbon dates available for this time span is not sufficient to establish an absolute chronological sequence. Here we present a new set of short-lived radiocarbon dates from the sites of Lefkandi, Kalapodi and Corinth in Greece. We focus on the crucial transition from the Submycenaean to the Protogeometric periods. This transition is placed in the late 11th century BCE according to the Conventional Aegean Chronology and in the late 12th century BCE according to the High Aegean Chronology. Our results place it in the second half of the 11th century BCE. PMID:24386150

  8. A radiocarbon-dated cave sequence and the Pleistocene/Holocene transition in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sümegi, Pál; Náfrádi, Katalin

    2015-11-01

    The Petény Cave located on the Hungarian Highlands yielded one of the most well-documented vertebrate fauna of the Late Pleistocene and Holocene in Hungary. In addition to the vertebrate remains, considerable numbers of mollusc shells and charcoals were retrieved from the profile of the rock shelter. Furthermore, a pollen sequence close to the cavewas also evaluated in order to reconstruct the flora of the region. A new radiocarbon analysis of samples from the Petény Cave was used to correlate data of different methods and to correct the earlier outcomes. The cave sequence exposes layers from 15.180 cal BP to 483 cal BP. Nevertheless, based on our new radiocarbon data, the sequence is incomplete and layers corresponding to the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary are missing from the profile. The results of our radiocarbon analysis clearly support considerable amounts of thermo-mesophylous gastropod species appearing as early as 15.180 cal BP. The appearance of deciduous woodlands in the Carpathian Basin along with the concomitant mollusc elements is much earlier than previously assumed, supporting the presence of temperate woodland refugia in the study area.

  9. Dating Studies of Elephant Tusks Using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sideras-Haddad, E; Brown, T A

    2002-10-03

    A new method for determining the year of birth, the year of death, and hence, the age at death, of post-bomb and recently deceased elephants has been developed. The technique is based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon analyses of small-sized samples extracted from along the length of a ge-line of an elephant tusk. The measured radiocarbon concentrations in the samples from a tusk can be compared to the {sup 14}C atmospheric bomb-pulse curve to derive the growth years of the initial and final samples from the tusk. Initial data from the application of this method to two tusks will be presented. Potentially, the method may play a significant role in wildlife management practices of African national parks. Additionally, the method may contribute to the underpinnings of efforts to define new international trade regulations, which could, in effect, decrease poaching and the killing of very young animals.

  10. Evaluating marine diets through radiocarbon dating and stable isotope analysis of victims of the AD79 eruption of Vesuvius.

    PubMed

    Craig, Oliver E; Bondioli, Luca; Fattore, Luciano; Higham, Tom; Hedges, Robert

    2013-11-01

    The stable carbon (δ(13) C) and nitrogen (δ(15) N) isotope values of bone collagen are frequently used in paleodietary studies to assess the marine contribution to an individual's diet. Surprisingly, the relationship between stable isotope these values characteristics and the percentage of marine foods in diet has never been effectively demonstrated. To clarify this relationship, the stable isotope values and radiocarbon dates of nine humans and one sheep from Herculaneum, all who perished simultaneously during the AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius, were determined. Significant differences were found in the radiocarbon dates which are attributable to the incorporation of "old" carbon from the marine reservoir. The magnitude of the observed differences was linearly correlated with both δ(13) C and δ(15) N values allowing the response of each isotope to increasing marine carbon in collagen to be independently verified. Regression analyses showed that for every 1‰ enrichment in δ(13) C and δ(15) N, 56 years and 34 years were added to the radiocarbon age, respectively. Predictions of the maximum marine reservoir age differed considerably depending on which stable isotope was considered. This discrepancy is attributed to some degree of macronutrient scrambling whereby nitrogen from marine protein is preferentially incorporated in collagen over marine carbon. It is suggested that the macronutrient scrambling explains the observed relationship between δ(13) C and δ(15) N from Roman coastal sites and should be considered when interpreting any diet which is not dominated by protein. Nevertheless, without knowing the degree of macronutrient scrambling in different dietary scenarios, the accuracy of dietary reconstructions is severely compromised.

  11. Spatial gradients in Clovis-age radiocarbon dates across North America suggest rapid colonization from the north.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Marcus J; Buchanan, Briggs

    2007-10-02

    A key issue in the debate over the initial colonization of North America is whether there are spatial gradients in the distribution of the Clovis-age occupations across the continent. Such gradients would help indicate the timing, speed, and direction of the colonization process. In their recent reanalysis of Clovis-age radiocarbon dates, Waters and Stafford [Waters MR, Stafford TW, Jr (2007) Science 315:1122-1126] report that they find no spatial patterning. Furthermore, they suggest that the brevity of the Clovis time period indicates that the Clovis culture represents the diffusion of a technology across a preexisting pre-Clovis population rather than a population expansion. In this article, we focus on two questions. First, we ask whether there is spatial patterning to the timing of Clovis-age occupations and, second, whether the observed speed of colonization is consistent with demic processes. With time-delayed wave-of-advance models, we use the radiocarbon record to test several alternative colonization hypotheses. We find clear spatial gradients in the distribution of these dates across North America, which indicate a rapid wave of advance originating from the north. We show that the high velocity of this wave can be accounted for by a combination of demographic processes, habitat preferences, and mobility biases across complex landscapes. Our results suggest that the Clovis-age archaeological record represents a rapid demic colonization event originating from the north.

  12. High-precision radiocarbon dating of political collapse and dynastic origins at the Maya site of Ceibal, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Takeshi; Triadan, Daniela; MacLellan, Jessica; Burham, Melissa; Aoyama, Kazuo; Palomo, Juan Manuel; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Pinzón, Flory; Nasu, Hiroo

    2017-02-07

    The lowland Maya site of Ceibal, Guatemala, had a long history of occupation, spanning from the Middle Preclassic Period through the Terminal Classic (1000 BC to AD 950). The Ceibal-Petexbatun Archaeological Project has been conducting archaeological investigations at this site since 2005 and has obtained 154 radiocarbon dates, which represent the largest collection of radiocarbon assays from a single Maya site. The Bayesian analysis of these dates, combined with a detailed study of ceramics, allowed us to develop a high-precision chronology for Ceibal. Through this chronology, we traced the trajectories of the Preclassic collapse around AD 150-300 and the Classic collapse around AD 800-950, revealing similar patterns in the two cases. Social instability started with the intensification of warfare around 75 BC and AD 735, respectively, followed by the fall of multiple centers across the Maya lowlands around AD 150 and 810. The population of Ceibal persisted for some time in both cases, but the center eventually experienced major decline around AD 300 and 900. Despite these similarities in their diachronic trajectories, the outcomes of these collapses were different, with the former associated with the development of dynasties centered on divine rulership and the latter leading to their downfalls. The Ceibal dynasty emerged during the period of low population after the Preclassic collapse, suggesting that this dynasty was placed under the influence from, or by the direct intervention of, an external power.

  13. Spatial gradients in Clovis-age radiocarbon dates across North America suggest rapid colonization from the north

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Marcus J.; Buchanan, Briggs

    2007-01-01

    A key issue in the debate over the initial colonization of North America is whether there are spatial gradients in the distribution of the Clovis-age occupations across the continent. Such gradients would help indicate the timing, speed, and direction of the colonization process. In their recent reanalysis of Clovis-age radiocarbon dates, Waters and Stafford [Waters MR, Stafford TW, Jr (2007) Science 315:1122–1126] report that they find no spatial patterning. Furthermore, they suggest that the brevity of the Clovis time period indicates that the Clovis culture represents the diffusion of a technology across a preexisting pre-Clovis population rather than a population expansion. In this article, we focus on two questions. First, we ask whether there is spatial patterning to the timing of Clovis-age occupations and, second, whether the observed speed of colonization is consistent with demic processes. With time-delayed wave-of-advance models, we use the radiocarbon record to test several alternative colonization hypotheses. We find clear spatial gradients in the distribution of these dates across North America, which indicate a rapid wave of advance originating from the north. We show that the high velocity of this wave can be accounted for by a combination of demographic processes, habitat preferences, and mobility biases across complex landscapes. Our results suggest that the Clovis-age archaeological record represents a rapid demic colonization event originating from the north. PMID:17898176

  14. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal and bone collagen associated with early pottery at Yuchanyan Cave, Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Boaretto, Elisabetta; Wu, Xiaohong; Yuan, Jiarong; Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Chu, Vikki; Pan, Yan; Liu, Kexin; Cohen, David; Jiao, Tianlong; Li, Shuicheng; Gu, Haibin; Goldberg, Paul; Weiner, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Yuchanyan Cave in Daoxian County, Hunan Province (People's Republic of China), yielded fragmentary remains of 2 or more ceramic vessels, in addition to large amounts of ash, a rich animal bone assemblage, cobble and flake artifacts, bone tools, and shell tools. The artifacts indicate that the cave was a Late Paleolithic foragers' camp. Here we report on the radiocarbon ages of the sediments based on analyses of charcoal and bone collagen. The best-preserved charcoal and bone samples were identified by prescreening in the field and laboratory. The dates range from around 21,000 to 13,800 cal BP. We show that the age of the ancient pottery ranges between 18,300 and 15,430 cal BP. Charcoal and bone collagen samples located above and below one of the fragments produced dates of around 18,000. These ceramic potsherds therefore provide some of the earliest evidence for pottery making in China. PMID:19487667

  15. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal and bone collagen associated with early pottery at Yuchanyan Cave, Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Boaretto, Elisabetta; Wu, Xiaohong; Yuan, Jiarong; Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Chu, Vikki; Pan, Yan; Liu, Kexin; Cohen, David; Jiao, Tianlong; Li, Shuicheng; Gu, Haibin; Goldberg, Paul; Weiner, Steve

    2009-06-16

    Yuchanyan Cave in Daoxian County, Hunan Province (People's Republic of China), yielded fragmentary remains of 2 or more ceramic vessels, in addition to large amounts of ash, a rich animal bone assemblage, cobble and flake artifacts, bone tools, and shell tools. The artifacts indicate that the cave was a Late Paleolithic foragers' camp. Here we report on the radiocarbon ages of the sediments based on analyses of charcoal and bone collagen. The best-preserved charcoal and bone samples were identified by prescreening in the field and laboratory. The dates range from around 21,000 to 13,800 cal BP. We show that the age of the ancient pottery ranges between 18,300 and 15,430 cal BP. Charcoal and bone collagen samples located above and below one of the fragments produced dates of around 18,000. These ceramic potsherds therefore provide some of the earliest evidence for pottery making in China.

  16. Compound-specific radiocarbon dating of leaf waxes in loess-paleosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zech, Roland; Sprafke, Tobias; Knoll, Sebastian; Haas, Mischa; Zech, Michael; Salazar, Gary; Szidat, Sönke

    2015-04-01

    Loess-paleosol sequences (LPS) are valuable terrestrial archives for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. They form by temporarily variable dust accumulation, pedogenesis, and potentially local sediment reworking. It is not trivial to (i) obtain quantitative information about past climate and environmental changes from LPS, and (ii) establish high-resolution numeric chronologies. Long-chain n-alkanes are essential components of leaf waxes. Their homologue (i.e. chain length) patterns can be used to infer past changes in vegetation, and compound-specific deuterium/hydrogen analyses have great potential to reconstruct paleohydrological conditions (e.g. Zech et al. 2011, 2013). A first study using compound-specific radiocarbon analyses on leaf waxes corroborated their synsedimentary nature and illustrated the high potential of this new technique to obtain high-resolution chronologies for loess-paleosol sequences (Häggi et al., 2014). We now present first tests and analyses that we started on our new preparative gas chromatograph (modified Prep9000, Brechbühler AG). This instrument allows obtaining sufficient amounts of specific leaf wax molecules (~10 to 50 ug) to run radiocarbon analyses on the EA-AMS instrument (MICADAS) at the University of Bern. We aim at establishing and presenting a first high-resolution radiocarbon chronology for the LPS Krems-Wachtberg, Austria (˜40 ka to ˜20 ka, Terhorst et al. 2014), in order to assess the continuity of loess accumulation. This might help to evaluate the hypothesis that loess may not necessarily reflect arid paleoenvironments, but simply high dust accumulation rates (Zech et al., 2013). Häggi et al. (2014). On the stratigraphic integrity of leaf-wax biomarkers in loess paleosols. Biogeosciences 11, 2455-2463. Terhorst et al. (2014). Paleoenvironmental fluctuations as recorded in the loess-paleosol sequence of the Upper Paleolithic site Krems-Wachtberg, Quaternary International 351, 67-82. Zech et al. (2013). Humid

  17. Radiocarbon dating of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater from confined parts of the Upper Floridan aquifer, Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L.N.; Sprinkle, C.L.

    2001-01-01

    Geochemical reaction models were evaluated to improve radiocarbon dating of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in groundwater from confined parts of the Upper Floridan aquifer in central and northeastern Florida, USA. The predominant geochemical reactions affecting the 14C activity of DIC include (1) dissolution of dolomite and anhydrite with calcite precipitation (dedolomitization), (2) sulfate reduction accompanying microbial degradation of organic carbon, (3) recrystallization of calcite (isotopic exchange), and (4) mixing of fresh water with as much as 7% saline water in some coastal areas. The calculated cumulative net mineral transfers are negligibly small in upgradient parts of the aquifer and increase significantly in downgradient parts of the aquifer, reflecting, at least in part, upward leakage from the Lower Floridan aquifer and circulation that contacted middle confining units in the Floridan aquifer system. The adjusted radiocarbon ages are independent of flow path and represent travel times of water from the recharge area to the sample point in the aquifer. Downgradient from Polk City (adjusted age 1.7 ka) and Keystone Heights (adjusted age 0.4 ka), 14 of the 22 waters have adjusted 14C ages of 20-30 ka, indicating that most of the fresh-water resource in the Upper Floridan aquifer today was recharged during the last glacial period. All of the paleowaters are enriched in 18O and 2H relative to modern infiltration, with maximum enrichment in ??18O of approximately 2.0%o.

  18. Age validation of canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger) using two independent otolith techniques: lead-radium and bomb radiocarbon dating.

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, A H; Kerr, L A; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A; Lundstrom, C C; Stanley, R D

    2007-11-04

    Canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger) have long been an important part of recreational and commercial rockfish fishing from southeast Alaska to southern California, but localized stock abundances have declined considerably. Based on age estimates from otoliths and other structures, lifespan estimates vary from about 20 years to over 80 years. For the purpose of monitoring stocks, age composition is routinely estimated by counting growth zones in otoliths; however, age estimation procedures and lifespan estimates remain largely unvalidated. Typical age validation techniques have limited application for canary rockfish because they are deep dwelling and may be long lived. In this study, the unaged otolith of the pair from fish aged at the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada was used in one of two age validation techniques: (1) lead-radium dating and (2) bomb radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) dating. Age estimate accuracy and the validity of age estimation procedures were validated based on the results from each technique. Lead-radium dating proved successful in determining a minimum estimate of lifespan was 53 years and provided support for age estimation procedures up to about 50-60 years. These findings were further supported by {Delta}{sup 14}C data, which indicated a minimum estimate of lifespan was 44 {+-} 3 years. Both techniques validate, to differing degrees, age estimation procedures and provide support for inferring that canary rockfish can live more than 80 years.

  19. Characterizing the export of fossil carbon from permafrost soils of Spitsbergen using compound-specific radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollenhauer, G.; Kusch, S.; Rethemeyer, J.

    2012-04-01

    Permafrost soils in the circumpolar Arctic regions contain vast amounts of carbon stored as organic matter, which could potentially be mobilized during the climate warming expected to be particularly severe in these regions. Deeper thawing of permafrost soils may result in degradation and erosion of previously freeze-locked organic matter, followed by transport to the ocean and respiration to CO2. We studied a small catchment area covered by permafrost soils on the island of Spitsbergen at approximately 78°N, Svalbard archipelago. Total organic carbon (TOC) in a soil profile of the annually thawed active layer exhibits increasing radiocarbon ages with depth of 5800 conventional radiocarbon years (14C yrs BP) in 0 to 30 cm depth to 26000 14C yrs BP at 60-85 cm. However, in this region known for its occurrence of carboniferous and tertiary coals, these ages are likely biased by variable relative contributions of fossil coal particles. Compound-specific radiocarbon ages of short-chain (C16) and long-chain (C26 and C28) fatty acids, which are derived mainly from bacteria and recent tundra vegetation, respectively, aree substantially younger than TOC, but still reach values between 2280 14C yrs BP for C16 in the uppermost 0-30 cm and 8350 14C yrs BP for C26 fatty acids in the 30-60 cm soil depth interval. Obviously, several different carbon pools contribute to TOC in the soil profile, and carbon turnover is slow. Radiocarbon dating of long-chain (C26-C28) fatty acids recovered from core-top sediments of the Bayelva river draining the catchment and from shallow water fjord sediments directly off the river mouth yields 14C ages of 10800 and 7900 yrs BP, respectively. As the C16 fatty acids in marine sediments are primarily attributed to marine phytoplankton, its modern in the marine sediment age clearly identifies it as a recent sediment, in which old terrestrial plant material is deposited. Apparently, this terrigenous material is buried near shore, as 14C ages of long

  20. Radiocarbon dating Arctic deep marine sediment to refine the usage of Mn pattern as a stratigraphic tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Pin-Yao Bernie; Löwemark, Ludvig

    2016-04-01

    The distinctive pattern of Mn content in Arctic deep marine sediment has been used as a proxy to indicate glacial-interglacial cyclicity (Löwemark et al., 2014). As has been observed in many sediment cores, Mn peaks correspond to warm interglacial periods. In order to improve the preciseness of Mn pattern as a proxy, we collected the foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) from brownish, Mn-rich layers, and performed radiocarbon dating on selected cores collected during the LOMROG07, LOMROG09 and LOMROG12 expeditions. Additional cores form the YMER and AO96 expeditions are also included. Based on our general understanding of the Mn system in the Arctic Ocean, we predicted a Mn pattern with a high peak in the uppermost core top, representing the Holocene. This Holocene peak in Mn is separated from the underlying warm period MIS 3 by a Mn-poor interval also characterized by a drop in Ca. This Mn and Ca poor interval reperesents MIS 2 and the LGM. Older warm periods, such as MIS 3, 5, 7 etc will display a similar pattern with distinct Mn peaks, separated by Mn minima representing cold iperiods For example, the MIS 5 sometimes shown a distinct pattern with three Mn peaks representing MIS 5a, 5c and 5e. However, there are still some limitations in the applicability of Mn stratigraphy, such as the remobilization of the Mn layer and the core-top loss during coring. We performed AMS carbon 14 dating on more than 10 cores, and the result revealed several cases of lost core tops, leading to depletion or complete loss of the Holocene interval. In several cores, our AMS dating revealed a hiatus in the MIS2 interval. The complete lack of MIS2 sediment likely is the result of extremely slow sedimentation rate due to severe sea ice conditions, while places with records of LGM may be the result of polynyas within the sea ice, or certain circulation pattern. Consequently, although Mn pattern can be used as a preliminary tool to identify glacial-interglacial cycles

  1. Radiocarbon dates and late-Quaternary stratigraphy from Mamontova Gora, unglaciated central Yakutia, Siberia, U.S.S.R.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pewe, T.L.; Journaux, A.; Stuckenrath, R.

    1977-01-01

    A fine exposure of perennially frozen ice-rich silt and associated flora and vertebrate fauna of late-Quaternary age exists at Mamontova Gora along the Aldan River in central Yakutia, Siberia, U.S.S.R. The silt deposit caps a 50-m-high terrace and consists of three units. An upper layer 1-2 m thick overlies a 10-15-m-thick brownish to black silt layer. The lower silt layer is greenish to gray and about 15 m thick. All the silt is well sorted with 60% of the particles falling between 0.005 and 0.5 mm in diameter and is generally chemically and mineralogically homogeneous. The middle unit contains may extinct vertebrate mammal remains and ice wedges. The lower unit contains little vegetation and no ice wedges. The silt is widespread and exists as a loamy blanket on terraces at various elevations on both sides of the lower Aldan River. The origin of the silt blanket of late-Quaternary age in central Yakutia has long been controversial. Various hypotheses have been suggested, including lacustrine and alluvial, as well as frost-action origins. It is sometimes referred to as loess-like loam. Pe??we?? believes the silt at Mamontova Gora is loess, some of which has been retransported very short distances by water. The silt probably was blown from wide, braided, unvegetated flood plains of rivers draining nearby glaciers. The silt deposits are late Quaternary in age and probably associated with the Maximum glaciation (Samarov) and Sartan and Syryan glaciations of Wisconsinan age. On the basis of biostratigraphy, 10 radiocarbon dates, and their relation to the nearby glacial record, it is felt that the upper unit at Mamontova Gora is Holocene and the middle unit is Wisconsinan. The youngest date available from the middle unit at this particular location is 26,000 years. Dates greater than 56,000 years were obtained in the lower part of the middle unit. The lower unit is definitely beyond the range of radiocarbon dating and probably is older than the last interglacial. The

  2. 14C in a stalagmite from NE India: preliminary results of dating near the limit of radiocarbon time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdas, I.; Breitenbach, S. F. M.; Gierga, M.; Haug, G. H.; Adkins, J. F.; Biechele, C.; Bonani, G.; Maurer, M.; Wacker, L.

    2012-04-01

    The radiocarbon time scale covers the last 50,000 years and is being used in many applications. Old records close to the dating limit that can provide additional information about 14C variability are rare. Stalagmite MAW-3 has been collected in 2006 from Mawmluh Cave, Meghalaya, NE India and subsequently U-series dated at Caltech. Stable isotopes (delC13 and delO18) were measured at the Geological Institute of the ETH Zurich. MAW-3 grew through a large part of Marine Isotope Stage 3 and stable isotope results clearly show millennial scale climatic fluctuations known as Dansgaard-Oeschger events. U-series dating shows that our sample which grew during the time interval corresponding to the geomagnetic low intensity interval, called Laschamp Event at ca. 40 ka BP. Therefore, we test its usefulness for studies of potential 14C variability at the time. Samples for 14C dating were taken following the method of Hoffman et al. (2010). After preparation of a slab from the centre of the stalagmite small sub-samples for 14C and U-series analysis were cut with a wire saw. Samples containing ca. 10 mg of carbonate were dissolved in concentrated (85%) phosphoric acid and graphitized prior to AMS analysis at the ETH AMS facility. Preliminary results indicate that despite of the very high correction for the dead carbon fraction DCF (ca. 6000 14C yrs) and close proximity to the limit of the 14C dating method, we are still able to measure reliable 14C ages of this portion of MAW-3. We argue that, based on available results, fluctuations of DCF could be reconstructed. DCF changes show a correlation with stable isotope changes (delO18), i.e. precipitation patterns in the region.

  3. Radiocarbon dates on cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) and brown bear (Ursus arctos) from Late Pleistocene of Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadachowski, Adam; Lipecki, Grzegorz; Stefaniak, Krzysztof; Wojtal, Piotr

    2010-05-01

    Although cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) is far more abundant in last glacial in Europe than brown bear (Ursus arctos), the co-occurrence of both species during Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 (OIS 3) is not questioned. The cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) has been an important part of the European large mammal fauna of last glaciation. Most of the remains come from karst areas where larger caves were used as hibernation sites. In Poland caves occur in the Sudetes Mts, Kraków-Częstochowa Upland, Świętokrzyskie Mts and in the Carpathians (especially in Tatra and Pieniny Mts). The AMS 14C dates were obtained for 14 sites (23 dates) distributed in all karst areas of Poland. All samples dated in Poznań Radiocarbon Laboratory (Poz) were subject of pre-treatment procedures (ultrafiltration and removal of consolidants). Dates are given as an uncalibrated radiocarbon dates (BP) and as calendar dates (cal. BP). The Eastern Sudetes sites are represented by two cave bear remains from Niedźwiedzia Cave, Kletno. Most of samples come from several localities located in different parts of Kraków-Częstochowa Upland (Nietoperzowa, Mamutowa, Ciemna, Wylotne and Zawalona caves - all near Kraków; Komarowa, Deszczowa, Stajnia and Niedźwiedzia near Olsztyn caves - all from the middle part of the Upland). Raj Cave is located in Świętokrzyskie Mts. The Carpathians samples come from two caves in Tatra Mts: Magurska and Poszukiwaczy Skarbów. Results obtained suggest that in the early part of OIS 3, ca. 50-33 ka (ca. 54-37,5 cal. ka), when the climate was relatively stable and warm, cave bears occurred probably more or less continuously from Sudetes Mts to Kraków-Częstochowa Upland and in the Carpathians. The available 18 dates range from >52,000 BP (Poz-24205) to 33,000±400 BP (Poz-23655) (cal. 38,571±1,449 BP). Around 33 ka BP (cal. 38,5 ka BP) cave bears probably disappeared, or at least reduced their number, in the area north from Sudetes and the Carpathians for next ca. 4-5 millennia

  4. Origin of PCDDs in ball clay assessed with compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis and radiocarbon dating.

    PubMed

    Holmstrand, Henry; Gadomski, Damien; Mandalakis, Manolis; Tysklind, Mats; Irvine, Robert; Andersson, Per; Gustafsson, Orjan

    2006-06-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) of high concentrations in a ball clay deposit from the Mississippi Embayment were found to be consistent with a natural abiotic and non-pyrogenic origin by investigation with bulk radiocarbon analysis, compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis (CSIA-delta37Cl) of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), and black carbon (BC) analysis. The conventional radiocarbon date of total organic carbon from a depth of approximately 10 m in three parallel cores ranged from 14 700 years to >48 000 years, indicating that the strata with elevated levels of PCDDs have remained isolated from recent anthropogenic input in these >40 Ma old clay sediments. The CSIA-delta37Cl of OCDD yielded a delta37Cl of -0.2 per thousandth, which is significantly higher than the postulated range for biotic chlorination by chloroperoxidase enzymes, -11 to -10 per thousandth, and falls within the known range for abiotic organochlorines, -6 to +3 per thousandth. The absence of correlations between concentrations of PCDDs and corresponding pyrogenic black carbon (BC), together with estimations of BC sorptive loadings and the absence of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), suggest that vegetation fires did not form these ball-clay PCDDs. Results from this study indicate that the high levels of the toxic and carcinogenic PCDDs found in kaolinite-bearing clays may result from natural abiotic formation via in situ surface-promoted reactions on the clay mineral, including a so-far unknown organic precursor, rather than being the result of anthropogenic contamination.

  5. Accelerator mass spectrometry: from nuclear physics to dating

    SciTech Connect

    Kutschera, W.

    1983-01-01

    Several applications of accelerator-based mass spectroscopy are reviewed. Among these are the search for unknown species, determination of comogenic radioisotopes in natural materials and measurements of half-lifes, especially those of significance to dating. Accelerator parameters and techniques of importance for these applications are also considered.

  6. Reconstruction of Caspian sea-level fluctuations: Radiocarbon dating coastal and bottom deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Karpytchev, Yu.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Owing to the large basin area of the Caspian Sea, fluctuations in its level reflect climatic changes in the northern hemisphere. To reconstruct these fluctuations, they collected mollusk shells, plant debris, carbonates and organic matter samples for [sup 14]C dating from deposits of ancient salt marshes, depressions and bars formed during significant sea-level decline they studied the impact of eolian sedimentation via parallel dating of carbonates and other materials. The data demonstrate that sea level rises during periods of cooling and falls during warming periods; this is true for both long-term (2--2.5 ka) and short-term climatic changes.

  7. Estimation of past intermittent methane seep activity using radiocarbon dating of Calyptogena shells in the eastern Nankai subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagasaki, K.; Ashi, J.; Yokoyama, Y.; Miyairi, Y.; Kuramoto, S.

    2013-12-01

    alive shell age away from the fossilsed shell age. Preliminary results of radiocarbon dating indicate a distinct age gap of several hundred years between the formerly alive shells (~ 1126calAD -1276calAD) and the fossil shells (~ 671calAD - 797calAD).

  8. Radiocarbon dating loess deposits in the Mississippi Valley using terrestrial gastropod shells (Polygyridae, Helicinidae, and Discidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigati, Jeffrey S.; McGeehin, John P.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Grimley, David A.; Nekola, Jeffrey C.

    2015-03-01

    Small terrestrial gastropod shells (mainly Succineidae) have been used successfully to date late Quaternary loess deposits in Alaska and the Great Plains. However, Succineidae shells are less common in loess deposits in the Mississippi Valley compared to those of the Polygyridae, Helicinidae, and Discidae families. In this study, we conducted several tests to determine whether shells of these gastropods could provide reliable ages for loess deposits in the Mississippi Valley. Our results show that most of the taxa that we investigated incorporate small amounts (1-5%) of old carbon from limestone in their shells, meaning that they should yield ages that are accurate to within a few hundred years. In contrast, shells of the genus Mesodon (Mesodon elevatus and Mesodon zaletus) contain significant and variable amounts of old carbon, yielding ages that are up to a couple thousand 14C years too old. Although terrestrial gastropod shells have tremendous potential for 14C dating loess deposits throughout North America, we acknowledge that accuracy to within a few hundred years may not be sufficient for those interested in developing high-resolution loess chronologies. Even with this limitation, however, 14C dating of terrestrial gastropod shells present in Mississippi Valley loess deposits may prove useful for researchers interested in processes that took place over multi-millennial timescales or in differentiating stratigraphic units that have significantly different ages but similar physical and geochemical properties. The results presented here may also be useful to researchers studying loess deposits outside North America that contain similar gastropod taxa.

  9. The AD 1300 1700 eruptive periods at Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, revealed by historical narratives, stratigraphy and radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pennec, J.-L.; Jaya, D.; Samaniego, P.; Ramón, P.; Moreno Yánez, S.; Egred, J.; van der Plicht, J.

    2008-09-01

    Tungurahua is a frequently active and hazardous volcano of the Ecuadorian Andes that has experienced pyroclastic flow-forming eruption in 1773, 1886, 1916-18 and 2006-08. Earlier eruptions in Late Pre-Hispanic and Early Colonial times have remained poorly known and are debated in the literature. To reconstruct the eruptive chronology in that time interval we examine relevant historical narratives recently found in Sevilla, Spain, and Rome, Italy, and we combine stratigraphic field constraints with 22 new radiocarbon age determinations. Results show that pyroclastic flow-forming eruptions and tephra falls took place repeatedly since ~ 700 14C yr BP, when the Tungurahua region was already populated. Radiocarbon ages averaging around 625 yr BP reveal a period of notable eruptive activity in the 14th century (Late Integration cultural period). The associated andesitic eruptions produced ash and scoria falls of regional extent and left scoria flow deposits on the western flanks of the edifice. The fact that Tungurahua was known by the Puruhás Indians as a volcano at the time of the Spanish Conquest in 1533 perhaps refers to these eruptions. A group of ages ranging from 380 to 270 yr BP is attributed to younger periods of activity that also predates the 1773 event, and calibration results yield eruption dates from late 15th to late 17th centuries (i.e. Inca and Early Colonial Periods). The historical narratives mention an Early Colonial eruption between the Spanish Conquest and the end of the 16th century, followed by a distinct eruptive period in the 1640s. The descriptions are vague but point to destructive eruptions likely accompanied by pyroclastic flows. The dated tephras consist of andesitic scoria flow deposits and the contemporaneous fallout layers occur to the west. These findings reveal that the eruption recurrence rate at Tungurahua is at least one pyroclastic flow-forming event per century since the 13th century and the occurrence of such eruptions in 2006

  10. Radiocarbon dating loess deposits in the Mississippi Valley using terrestrial gastropod shells (Polygyridae, Helicinidae, and Discidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, Jeffery S.; McGeehin, John P.; Muhs, Daniel; Grimley, David A.; Nekola, Jeffery C.

    2014-01-01

    Small terrestrial gastropod shells (mainly Succineidae) have been used successfully to date late Quaternary loess deposits in Alaska and the Great Plains. However, Succineidae shells are less common in loess deposits in the Mississippi Valley compared to those of the Polygyridae, Helicinidae, and Discidae families. In this study, we conducted several tests to determine whether shells of these gastropods could provide reliable ages for loess deposits in the Mississippi Valley. Our results show that most of the taxa that we investigated incorporate small amounts (1–5%) of old carbon from limestone in their shells, meaning that they should yield ages that are accurate to within a few hundred years. In contrast, shells of the genus Mesodon(Mesodon elevatus and Mesodon zaletus) contain significant and variable amounts of old carbon, yielding ages that are up to a couple thousand 14C years too old. Although terrestrial gastropod shells have tremendous potential for 14C dating loess deposits throughout North America, we acknowledge that accuracy to within a few hundred years may not be sufficient for those interested in developing high-resolution loess chronologies. Even with this limitation, however, 14C dating of terrestrial gastropod shells present in Mississippi Valley loess deposits may prove useful for researchers interested in processes that took place over multi-millennial timescales or in differentiating stratigraphic units that have significantly different ages but similar physical and geochemical properties. The results presented here may also be useful to researchers studying loess deposits outside North America that contain similar gastropod taxa..

  11. Radiocarbon Dates Link Marine Incursion and Neoglacial Ice Terminus Advance With Tlingit Ethnohistory and Archeology in Lower Glacier Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, C. L.; Monteith, D.; Howell, W.; Strevelar, G.; Leirer, M.

    2004-12-01

    Radiocarbon dates from wood, organic sediments, and marine shells were collected from eroded beach terraces and upper beach sediments in the Beardslee Islands and Berg Bay in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska. These provide a timetable for the the outwash plain construction and final advance of the Late Neoglacial glacier front over this outwash plain into lower Glacier Bay. On Kidney Island in the central Beardslee Islands, marine sediments containing Macoma baltica shells were deposited 4310 +/- 40 years BP. Outwash from advancing up-bay glaciers, buried these sediments and created terrestrial substrates upon which forests existed by 1630 +/- 60 BP and 1300 +/- 50 yrs BP. Final ice advance over this forested outwash plain occurred after 430 +/- 60 BP (1430 to 1510 AD) on Kidney Island. This ice arrived at the southern edge of Lester Island in Bartlett Cove after 370 +/- 50 BP (1440 to 1520 AD); preceding the arrival of George Vancouver in 1794 AD. In nearby Icy Straits, archeological investigations have yielded some of the oldest dates of human occupation in the region at 10,180 +/- 800 uncorrected years BP (Ackerman, 1968). In Glacier Bay's ethno-historically rich areas of Bartlett Cove, the Beardslee Islands and Berg Bay the Huna people have names for places and narratives that describe late Neoglacial landscapes. S'é Shuyee is the "area at the end of the glacial mud", L'awsha Shakee Aan "town on top of the glacial sand dunes". There are accounts of villages overrun by surging glaciers, and a name for the bay Sit' eeti Geeyi that translates as "bay in place of the glacier". These dates provide linkage between the geological, archeological, and ethnohistorical evidence that chronicles the history of the Huna people in this dynamic glacier marine environment.

  12. Investigations on alluvial deposits through borehole stratigraphy, radiocarbon dating and passive seismic technique (Carnic Alps, NE Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viero, Alessia; Marchi, Lorenzo; Cavalli, Marco; Crema, Stefano; Fontana, Alessandro; Mozzi, Paolo; Venturini, Corrado

    2016-04-01

    Alluvial sediment investigations provide fundamental tools to infer the processes that control geomorphological evolution of mountain environments. By analyzing sediment stratigraphy in depth, it is possible to retrieve the source, the geology, the time of deposition, the relative distance travelled by material as well as to distinguish among different type of transport (i.e., gravitational, fluvial or glacial). In this work, we present a combination of log stratigraphy, radiocarbon dating and geophysical surveys carried out on the valley floor of the But River (Carnic Alps, North East Italy). The But River basin drains an area of 326 km2 with a range in elevation from 2769 to 323 m a.s.l.; the bedrock mainly consists of carbonates and quartz arenites with minor inclusions of effusive rocks. After Pleistocene the gravitational deposits from mountain slopes have impounded the But River several times. In particular, we analyzed a sector of the upper portion of the But valley close to the confluence of the Moscardo Torrent, frequently affected by debris flows. A borehole was drilled in the But River floodplain, at the intersection with the Moscardo Torrent alluvial fan, down to a depth of 80 m. The analysis of the core samples allowed discerning three sedimentary levels rich in clay and organic materials, which testify the presence of small dam lakes, originated from the Moscardo debris-flow deposits. Three samples of wood and plant debris were collected from 13, 14 and 23 m of depth, respectively. They were analyzed through radiocarbon dating in order to determine the age of the lakes and, thus, to infer the activity of the debris flows building the Moscardo cone. The calibrated ages of the 3 samples are close to the younger limit of the radiocarbon method indicating a fast aggradation of the valley floor, starting from a period ranging between 1450 - 1632 AD. Historical maps and documents confirm the presence of the lakes until 19th century and they permit to assess

  13. Comparison of manual and automated pretreatment methods for AMS radiocarbon dating of plant fossils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, L.-A.; Stafford, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    A new automated pretreatment system for the preparation of materials submitted for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis is less time-consuming and results in a higher sample yield. The new procedure was tested using two groups of plant fossils: one group was pretreated using the traditional method, and the second, using the automated pretreatment apparatus. The time it took to complete the procedure and the amount of sample material remaining were compared. The automated pretreatment apparatus proved to be more than three times faster and, in most cases, produced a higher yield. A darker discoloration of the KOH solutions was observed indicating that the automated system is more thorough in removing humates from the specimen compared to the manual method. -Authors

  14. Radiocarbon-dated archaeological record of early first millennium B.C. mounted pastoralists in the Kunlun Mountains, China

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Mayke; Wu, Xinhua; Tarasov, Pavel; Aisha, Ailijiang; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Schultz, Michael; Schmidt-Schultz, Tyede; Gresky, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Pastoral nomadism, as a successful economic and social system drawing on mobile herding, long-distance trade, and cavalry warfare, affected all polities of the Eurasian continent. The role that arid Inner Asia, particularly the areas of northwestern China, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia, played in the emergence of this phenomenon remains a fundamental and still challenging question in prehistoric archaeology of the Eurasian steppes. The cemetery of Liushiu (Xinjiang, China) reveals burial features, bronze bridle bits, weaponry, adornment, horse skulls, and sheep/goat bones, which, together with paleopathological changes in human skeletons, indicate the presence of mobile pastoralists and their flocks at summer pastures in the Kunlun Mountains, ∼2,850 m above sea level. Radiocarbon dates place the onset of the burial activity between 1108 and 893 B.C. (95% probability range) or most likely between 1017 and 926 B.C. (68%). These data from the Kunlun Mountains show a wider frontier within the diversity of mobile pastoral economies of Inner Asia and support the concept of multiregional transitions toward Iron Age complex pastoralism and mounted warfare. PMID:21911387

  15. Diet and mobility in a late Neolithic population of coastal Oman inferred from radiocarbon dating and stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Zazzo, Antoine; Munoz, Olivia; Saliège, Jean-François

    2014-03-01

    In Oman, the presence of highly productive marine environments, coupled with relatively limited land resources, have led to intense exploitation of coastal resources, but the question of the seasonality of occupation of coastal sites remains open. Our aim is to evaluate the contribution of marine resources to the diet of the Neolithic population of Ra's al-Hamra 5 (RH-5) to shed new light on its mobility, using stable isotopes and radiocarbon ((14)C) dating as dietary tracers. Charcoal, shell, human bone and enamel apatite from eight contemporary graves were sampled. Graves are thought to provide the best chance to obtain marine and terrestrial remains that were contemporary with the human remains in order to calculate the marine reservoir effect (MRE) for this period. Inter-individual variation in human bone apatite δ(13)C value is small, suggesting a homogenous diet. Bone apatite (14)C ages are very close to the shell ages while enamel is significantly younger and plots near the charcoal ages. Older enamel ages were obtained when a stronger acetic treatment was used, demonstrating that the young ages are due to diagenetic alteration rather than a diachronic change in diet and that only bone apatite retained in vivo dietary signals. Bone ages indicate a heavy reliance on marine resources and it is therefore unlikely that the individuals analyzed here were leaving the coast seasonally, although mobility along the coast cannot be excluded.

  16. Radiocarbon-dated archaeological record of early first millennium B.C. mounted pastoralists in the Kunlun Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Mayke; Wu, Xinhua; Tarasov, Pavel; Aisha, Ailijiang; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Schultz, Michael; Schmidt-Schultz, Tyede; Gresky, Julia

    2011-09-20

    Pastoral nomadism, as a successful economic and social system drawing on mobile herding, long-distance trade, and cavalry warfare, affected all polities of the Eurasian continent. The role that arid Inner Asia, particularly the areas of northwestern China, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia, played in the emergence of this phenomenon remains a fundamental and still challenging question in prehistoric archaeology of the Eurasian steppes. The cemetery of Liushiu (Xinjiang, China) reveals burial features, bronze bridle bits, weaponry, adornment, horse skulls, and sheep/goat bones, which, together with paleopathological changes in human skeletons, indicate the presence of mobile pastoralists and their flocks at summer pastures in the Kunlun Mountains, ∼2,850 m above sea level. Radiocarbon dates place the onset of the burial activity between 1108 and 893 B.C. (95% probability range) or most likely between 1017 and 926 B.C. (68%). These data from the Kunlun Mountains show a wider frontier within the diversity of mobile pastoral economies of Inner Asia and support the concept of multiregional transitions toward Iron Age complex pastoralism and mounted warfare.

  17. Radiocarbon dating of large termite mounds of the miombo woodland of Katanga, DR Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erens, Hans; Boudin, Mathieu; Mees, Florias; Dumon, Mathijs; Mujinya, Basile; Van Strydonck, Mark; Baert, Geert; Boeckx, Pascal; Van Ranst, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The miombo woodlands of South Katanga (D.R. Congo) are characterized by a high spatial density of large conic termite mounds built by Macrotermes falciger (3 to 5 ha-1, ~5 m high, ~15 m in diameter). The time it takes for these mounds to attain this size is still largely unknown. In this study, the age of four of these mounds is determined by 14C-dating the acid-insoluble organic carbon fraction of samples taken along the central vertical axis of two active and two abandoned mounds. The age sequence in the active mounds is erratic, but the results for the abandoned mounds show a logical increase of 14C-age with depth. The ages measured at 50 cm above ground level were 2335 - 2119 cal yr BP for the large abandoned mound (630 cm high), and 796 - 684 cal yr BP for the small abandoned mound (320 cm high). Cold-water-extractable organic carbon (CWEOC) measurements combined with spectroscopic analysis revealed that the lower parts of the active mounds may have been contaminated with recent carbon that leached from the active nest. Nonetheless, this method appears to provide reliable age estimates of large, abandoned termite mounds, which are older than previously estimated. Furthermore, historical mound growth rates seem to correspond to past temperature changes, suggesting a relation between past environmental conditions and mound occupancy. Keywords : 14C, water-extractable carbon, low-temperature combustion

  18. A review of single-sample-based models and other approaches for radiocarbon dating of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Han, L. F; Plummer, Niel

    2016-01-01

    underlying assumptions on which the various models and approaches are based can result in a wide range of estimates of 14C0 and limit the usefulness of radiocarbon as a dating tool for groundwater. In each of the three generalized approaches (single-sample-based models, statistical approach, and geochemical mass-balance approach), successful application depends on scrutiny of the isotopic (14C and 13C) and chemical data to conceptualize the reactions and processes that affect the 14C content of DIC in aquifers. The recently developed graphical analysis method is shown to aid in determining which approach is most appropriate for the isotopic and chemical data from a groundwater system.

  19. Radiocarbon dating of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater from confined parts of the Upper Floridan aquifer, Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, Niel; Sprinkle, Craig

    2001-03-01

    Geochemical reaction models were evaluated to improve radiocarbon dating of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in groundwater from confined parts of the Upper Floridan aquifer in central and northeastern Florida, USA. The predominant geochemical reactions affecting the 14C activity of DIC include (1) dissolution of dolomite and anhydrite with calcite precipitation (dedolomitization), (2) sulfate reduction accompanying microbial degradation of organic carbon, (3) recrystallization of calcite (isotopic exchange), and (4) mixing of fresh water with as much as 7% saline water in some coastal areas. The calculated cumulative net mineral transfers are negligibly small in upgradient parts of the aquifer and increase significantly in downgradient parts of the aquifer, reflecting, at least in part, upward leakage from the Lower Floridan aquifer and circulation that contacted middle confining units in the Floridan aquifer system. The adjusted radiocarbon ages are independent of flow path and represent travel times of water from the recharge area to the sample point in the aquifer. Downgradient from Polk City (adjusted age 1.7 ka) and Keystone Heights (adjusted age 0.4 ka), 14 of the 22 waters have adjusted 14C ages of 20-30 ka, indicating that most of the fresh-water resource in the Upper Floridan aquifer today was recharged during the last glacial period. All of the paleowaters are enriched in 18O and 2H relative to modern infiltration, with maximum enrichment in δ18O of approximately 2.0‰. Résumé. Les modèles de réactions géochimiques ont été évalués afin de tester la datation par le radiocarbone du carbone minéral dissous (CMD) des eaux souterraines dans les parties captives de la nappe supérieure de Floride, en Floride centrale et nord-orientale (États-Unis). Les réactions géochimiques prédominantes affectant l'activité en 14C du CMD comprennent (1) la dissolution de la dolomite et de l'anhydrite accompagnée de la précipitation de la calcite (d

  20. The Storegga Slide Tsunami - Deposits, Run-up Heights and Radiocarbon Dating of the 8000-Year-Old Tsunami in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondevik, S.; Lovholt, F.; Harbitz, C.; Stormo, S.; Skjerdal, G.

    2006-12-01

    One of the largest Holocene landslide mapped on Earth is the Storegga Slide offshore Norway. Between 2500 and 3400 km3 material were mobilized in a retrogressive process, generating a huge tsunami dated to about 7300 14C years BP, or ca 8100 calendar years BP. The tsunami is documented from onshore deposits along the entire Norwegian coast, on the Faeroe Islands, the Shetland Islands, in Scotland and possibly also on Greenland. Of these, the tsunami deposits in Shetland reach the highest elevation, indicating a run-up of at least 20 m. Coastal lakes have a high potential for preserving deposits from tsunamis and Storegga tsunami deposits are now documented from more than 40 lakes and submarine basins. Such deposits typically show an erosive, sharp, lower boundary against the underlying lake- or sea-floor mud. Coarse sand and fine gravel particles (2-6 mm) rest on this boundary. The sand often contains rip-up clasts of both gray silt and brown organic lake mud. Further up-core, the tsunami deposit is a mixture of plant fragments, twigs, bark, sand, and other re-deposited mud. The upper boundary is very gradual. The sand may contain marine diatoms, fragments of marine shells, and sea-urchins. This clearly demonstrates that material was brought into the fresh water lakes from the sea during the tsunami event. Based on these findings we have established a sedimentological model for tsunami deposits in lakes and shallow marine basins. Accurate radiocarbon dating of paleotsunamis are problematic because of erosion of the underlying strata, re- deposition of organic material within the tsunami deposit and also re-deposition of organic matter for many years after the tsunami event. Unexpectedly, we discovered plant material within the tsunami sand that is excellent for radiocarbon dating - these are green moss stems that we know were killed by the tsunami. The green color is analyzed to be chlorophyll. Chlorophyll in dead plants degrades rapidly with exposure to light and

  1. Hard-water dynamics and their reservoir effects on radiocarbon dating of Lake Heihai sediments (NE Tibetan Plateau, Qinghai, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockot, Gregori; Hartmann, Kai; Wünnemann, Bernd; Ramisch, Arne; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Age determination of lake sediments with radiocarbon dating can always entail a perturbation with hard water. Atmospheric carbon (expressing the "real" ages) can be mixed with older carbon from allochthonous input (e.g. marl or limestone), causing an overestimation of 14C ages. The usual approach to eliminate this effect is to date living plants or shells to determine the modern offset in age. Subsequently, this offset is subtracted from 14C ages of a sediment core to attain hard water corrected ages. However, this approach assumes a constant hard water effect over the entire period under consideration, which generally is unlikely. Here we present a highly variable hard water effect through time determined from a combined chronology of two long sediment cores from Lake Heihai (NE Tibetan Plateau). The chronology is based on 20 14C AMS dates of Potamogeton spec. Based on the relation between 14C ages and the input of allochthonous carbonates as well as calculated sedimentation rates, we developed an age-depth-model that estimates the actual ages of the sediments and allows the quantification of hard water effect through time. As a result this model suggests a fluctuating hard water effect varying between 102 to 103 ka. Ages in the lower 3 meter of the core, which corresponds to late glacial times, strongly correlate with the input of dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2). The correlation suggests a strong linkage between the allochthonous input of old carbon and the variations in dating results. In this section, the estimated hard water effect shows its highest values. Results of XRD, grain size and pollen data confirm a shallow lake with high rates of detrital input. The Late Glacial - Holocene transition to warmer and wetter conditions is marked by prominent changes in the mineralogy of lacustrine carbonates and the composition of pollen taxa. During this time the lake constantly rose and increasingly buffered the influence of allochthonous carbonates. The episode is

  2. Reconnaissance dating: a new radiocarbon method applied to assessing the temporal distribution of Southern Ocean deep-sea corals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, Andrea; Robinson, Laura F.; McNichol, Ann P.; Jenkins, William J.; Scanlon, Kathryn M.; Gerlach, Dana S.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a rapid 'reconnaissance' method of preparing graphite for 14C/12C analysis. Carbonate (~15 mg) is combusted using an elemental analyzer and the resulting CO2 is converted to graphite using a sealed tube zinc reduction method. Over 85% (n=45 replicates on twenty-one individual corals) of reconnaissance ages measured on corals ranging in age from 500 to 33,000 radiocarbon years (Ryr) are within two standard deviations of ages generated using standard hydrolysis methods on the same corals, and all reconnaissance ages are within 300 Ryr of the standard hydrolysis ages. Replicate measurements on three individual aragonitic corals yielded ages of 1076±35 Ryr (standard deviation; n=5), 10,739±47 Ryr (n=8), and 40,146±3500 Ryr (n=9). No systematic biases were found using different cleaning methods or variable sample sizes. Analysis of 13C/12C was made concurrently with the 14C/12C measurement to correct for natural fractionation and for fractionation during sample processing and analysis. This technique provides a new, rapid method for making accurate, percent-level 14C/12C analyses that may be used to establish the rates and chronology of earth system processes where survey-type modes of age estimation are desirable. For example, applications may include creation of sediment core-top maps, preliminary age models for sediment cores, and growth rate studies of marine organisms such as corals or mollusks. We applied the reconnaissance method to more than 100 solitary deep-sea corals collected in the Drake Passage in the Southern Ocean to investigate their temporal and spatial distribution. The corals used in this study are part of a larger sample set, and the subset that was dated was chosen based on species as opposed to preservation state, so as to exclude obvious temporal biases. Similar to studies in other regions, the distribution of deep-sea corals is not constant through time across the Drake Passage. Most of the corals from the Burdwood Bank

  3. Reconnaissance dating: A new radiocarbon method applied to assessing the temporal distribution of Southern Ocean deep-sea corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Andrea; Robinson, Laura F.; McNichol, Ann P.; Jenkins, William J.; Scanlon, Kathryn M.; Gerlach, Dana S.

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a rapid 'reconnaissance' method of preparing graphite for 14C/ 12C analysis. Carbonate (˜15 mg) is combusted using an elemental analyzer and the resulting CO 2 is converted to graphite using a sealed tube zinc reduction method. Over 85% ( n=45 replicates on twenty-one individual corals) of reconnaissance ages measured on corals ranging in age from 500 to 33,000 radiocarbon years (Ryr) are within two standard deviations of ages generated using standard hydrolysis methods on the same corals, and all reconnaissance ages are within 300 Ryr of the standard hydrolysis ages. Replicate measurements on three individual aragonitic corals yielded ages of 1076±35 Ryr (standard deviation; n=5), 10,739±47 Ryr ( n=8), and 40,146±3500 Ryr ( n=9). No systematic biases were found using different cleaning methods or variable sample sizes. Analysis of 13C/ 12C was made concurrently with the 14C/ 12C measurement to correct for natural fractionation and for fractionation during sample processing and analysis. This technique provides a new, rapid method for making accurate, percent-level 14C/ 12C analyses that may be used to establish the rates and chronology of earth system processes where survey-type modes of age estimation are desirable. For example, applications may include creation of sediment core-top maps, preliminary age models for sediment cores, and growth rate studies of marine organisms such as corals or mollusks. We applied the reconnaissance method to more than 100 solitary deep-sea corals collected in the Drake Passage in the Southern Ocean to investigate their temporal and spatial distribution. The corals used in this study are part of a larger sample set, and the subset that was dated was chosen based on species as opposed to preservation state, so as to exclude obvious temporal biases. Similar to studies in other regions, the distribution of deep-sea corals is not constant through time across the Drake Passage. Most of the corals from the Burdwood

  4. CO2 Radiocarbon Analysis to Quantify Organic Contaminant Degradation, MNA, and Engineered Remediation Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-18

    oxidized rapidly outside of wetlands. At all sites studied to date , CH4 radiocarbon ages were more ancient than CO2, therefore in future studies, we...Beta Analytic for radiocarbon dating . Beta analyzed each sample using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Samples were also analyzed for 13C...USA RE: Radiocarbon Dating Results For Samples 1-t1-MW-01, 2-t1-MW-21, 3-t1-MW-25, 4-t1-MW-26, 5- t1-MW-27, 6-t1-MW-28, 7-t1-MW-30, 8-t1-MW-32, 9-t1-MW

  5. The neolithic demographic transition in Europe: correlation with juvenility index supports interpretation of the summed calibrated radiocarbon date probability distribution (SCDPD) as a valid demographic proxy.

    PubMed

    Downey, Sean S; Bocaege, Emmy; Kerig, Tim; Edinborough, Kevan; Shennan, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the proportion of immature skeletons recovered from European prehistoric cemeteries has shown that the transition to agriculture after 9000 BP triggered a long-term increase in human fertility. Here we compare the largest analysis of European cemeteries to date with an independent line of evidence, the summed calibrated date probability distribution of radiocarbon dates (SCDPD) from archaeological sites. Our cemetery reanalysis confirms increased growth rates after the introduction of agriculture; the radiocarbon analysis also shows this pattern, and a significant correlation between both lines of evidence confirms the demographic validity of SCDPDs. We analyze the areal extent of Neolithic enclosures and demographic data from ethnographically known farming and foraging societies and we estimate differences in population levels at individual sites. We find little effect on the overall shape and precision of the SCDPD and we observe a small increase in the correlation with the cemetery trends. The SCDPD analysis supports the hypothesis that the transition to agriculture dramatically increased demographic growth, but it was followed within centuries by a general pattern of collapse even after accounting for higher settlement densities during the Neolithic. The study supports the unique contribution of SCDPDs as a valid demographic proxy for the demographic patterns associated with early agriculture.

  6. Laser Ablation - Accelerator Mass Spectrometry: An Approach for Rapid Radiocarbon Analyses of Carbonate Archives at High Spatial Resolution.

    PubMed

    Welte, Caroline; Wacker, Lukas; Hattendorf, Bodo; Christl, Marcus; Fohlmeister, Jens; Breitenbach, Sebastian F M; Robinson, Laura F; Andrews, Allen H; Freiwald, André; Farmer, Jesse R; Yeman, Christiane; Synal, Hans-Arno; Günther, Detlef

    2016-09-06

    A new instrumental setup, combining laser ablation (LA) with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), has been investigated for the online radiocarbon ((14)C) analysis of carbonate records. Samples were placed in an in-house designed LA-cell, and CO2 gas was produced by ablation using a 193 nm ArF excimer laser. The (14)C/(12)C abundance ratio of the gas was then analyzed by gas ion source AMS. This configuration allows flexible and time-resolved acquisition of (14)C profiles in contrast to conventional measurements, where only the bulk composition of discrete samples can be obtained. Three different measurement modes, i.e. discrete layer analysis, survey scans, and precision scans, were investigated and compared using a stalagmite sample and, subsequently, applied to terrestrial and marine carbonates. Depending on the measurement mode, a precision of typically 1-5% combined with a spatial resolution of 100 μm can be obtained. Prominent (14)C features, such as the atomic bomb (14)C peak, can be resolved by scanning several cm of a sample within 1 h. Stalagmite, deep-sea coral, and mollusk shell samples yielded comparable signal intensities, which again were comparable to those of conventional gas measurements. The novel LA-AMS setup allowed rapid scans on a variety of sample materials with high spatial resolution.

  7. New insights into the radiocarbon calibration based on 14C and U-Th dating of corals drilled offshore Tahiti (IODP Expedition #310)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Nicolas; Deschamps, Pierre; Bard, Edouard; Hamelin, Bruno; Camoin, Gilbert; Thomas, Alexander L.; Henderson, Gideon M.; Yokoyama, Yusuke

    2010-05-01

    Beyond the high-precision tree-ring calibration, the fossil corals are the most reliable archive that can be used to calibrate the radiocarbon time scale. In this contribution, we present a new radiocarbon dataset based on paired 14C and U-Th dating of fossil shallow-water tropical corals drilled offshore Tahiti during the IODP Expedition 310 'Tahiti Sea-Level'. Before 14C and U-Th analyses, rigorous screening criteria have been applied in order to select pristine aragonitic coral skeletons and avoid those displaying any post-mortem diagenesis that alters original ages. In particular, we made a significant effort to improve detection and quantification of very small amount of secondary calcite in the aragonitic coral lattice using X-ray diffraction measurements [1]. In addition, we apply a strict screening criterion based on δ234U. However, the new Tahiti dataset allow to refine the previous tolerance ranges previously adopted. More than 60 radiocarbon dates were processed at the Laboratoire de Mesure du Carbone 14 (Saclay, France) with the ARTEMIS AMS facility. This new Tahiti record provides new data to the radiocarbon calibration for two distinct time windows: for the interval between 29,200 and 36,200 years BP and for the last deglaciation period, with especially, a higher resolution (40 data) for the 14,000 - 16,000 years BP time interval. These new data extend the previous Tahiti record beyond 13,900 years BP which was the oldest U-Th age obtained on cores drilled onshore in the modern Tahiti barrier reef [2, 3]. These new results are compared with 14C chronologies from other corals, those of Barbados [4, 5] and those from other Pacific islands (Mururoa, Vanuatu, Marquesas, Christmas), and from the Cariaco Basin sediment [6, 7], the Iberian Margin sediment [8, 9] and the Bahamian speleothem [10] records. The new 14C dataset from the corals drilled offshore Tahiti allows to validate the precision and accuracy of other records either directly dated by U-Th or

  8. 18 CFR 5.4 - Acceleration of a license expiration date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acceleration of a... APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.4 Acceleration of a license expiration date. (a) Request for acceleration. (1) No... chapter, a written request for acceleration of the expiration date of its existing license, containing...

  9. 18 CFR 5.4 - Acceleration of a license expiration date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceleration of a... APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.4 Acceleration of a license expiration date. (a) Request for acceleration. (1) No... chapter, a written request for acceleration of the expiration date of its existing license, containing...

  10. 18 CFR 5.4 - Acceleration of a license expiration date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acceleration of a... APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.4 Acceleration of a license expiration date. (a) Request for acceleration. (1) No... chapter, a written request for acceleration of the expiration date of its existing license, containing...

  11. 18 CFR 5.4 - Acceleration of a license expiration date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acceleration of a... APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.4 Acceleration of a license expiration date. (a) Request for acceleration. (1) No... chapter, a written request for acceleration of the expiration date of its existing license, containing...

  12. 18 CFR 5.4 - Acceleration of a license expiration date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acceleration of a... APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.4 Acceleration of a license expiration date. (a) Request for acceleration. (1) No... chapter, a written request for acceleration of the expiration date of its existing license, containing...

  13. Environmental changes in the western Amazônia: morphological framework, geochemistry, palynology and radiocarbon dating data.

    PubMed

    Horbe, Adriana M C; Behling, Hermann; Nogueira, Afonso C R; Mapes, Russell

    2011-09-01

    The sediments from the Coari lake, a "terra firme" lake sculpted into Plio-Pleistocene deposits, and the Acará lake, a flooding-type lake developed on Quaternary sediments in the floodplain of the mid-Solimões river, in the western Amazônia, Brazil, were studied to investigate the environmental condition of their developing. This study includes mineral composition, geochemistry, Pb isotope, palinology, radiocarbon-age and morphological framework of the lakes obtained from SRTM satellite images. The geological and the environmental conditions in the two lakes are highly variable and suggest that their evolution reflect autogenic processes under humid rainforest condition. Although kaolinite, quartz, muscovite, illite, and smectite are the main minerals in both lakes, the geochemistry indicates distinct source, the Acará lake sediments have higher concentrations of Al(2)O(3), Fe(2)O(3), FeO, CaO, K(2)O, MgO, Na(2)O, P(2)O(5), Ba, V, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Sr, Li, Y and La and have more radiogenic Pb than the Coari lake sediments. The radiocarbon ages suggest that at 10160 yr BP the Coari lake started to be developed due to avulsion of the Solimões river, and the Acará lake was formed by the meander abandonment of Solimões river retaining its grass dominated shore at ca. 3710 yr BP.

  14. Radiocarbon chronology of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) from Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadachowski, Adam; Lipecki, Grzegorz; Wojtal, Piotr

    2010-05-01

    Many fossil mammoth remains from more than 300 localities have been discovered over last 170 years in Poland. First radiocarbon dates of woolly mammoth from Poland were published in the 1960s and the 1970s. These dates must be regarded with caution due to absence of details of the used methods. Recently, about 40 fossil mammoth remains were radiocarbon dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) method in the Poznań Radiocarbon Laboratory. Dates are given as an uncalibrated radiocarbon dates (BP) and as calendar dates (cal. BP). The dates range from ca. 52 ka BP to ca. 13,2 ka BP (> 50,0 - ca. 16,1 cal. ka BP) and can be correlated with Oxygen Isotope Stage (OIS) 3 and OIS 2. A new radiocarbon evidence fits into the well known colonization pattern of Mammuthus primigenius in Central Europe and confirms a continuous distribution in the Grudziądz Interstadial (middle Weichselian, OIS 3) and the onset of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). On the other hand, the severe climatic circumstances lasting in conventional radiocarbon dates from ca. 22 ka BP to ca. 17 ka BP probably reduced the number of animals or even cased the withdrawal of woolly mammoth from the area north from the Sudetes and the Carpathian Mountains for 4-5 millennia. Only one date ca. 20,3 ka BP (ca. 24,2 cal, ka BP) is available from this time-span. Mammuthus primigenius reappeared in southern Poland ca. 14,6 ka BP (ca. 17,9 cal. BP) but soon had disappeared from this region because of marked reduction in open habitats at the beginning of Late Glacial Interglacial warming (Greenland Interstadial I or Bølling and Allerød) The latest available record from Poland is from Dzierżysław: 13,180±60 BP (ca. 15,600±400 cal. BP).

  15. Numerical dating of a Late Quaternary spit-shoreline complex at the northern end of Silver Lake playa, Mojave Desert, California: A comparison of the applicability of radiocarbon, luminescence, terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide, electron spin resonance, U-series and amino acid racemization methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, L.A.; Bright, Jordon; Finkel, R.C.; Jaiswal, M.K.; Kaufman, D.S.; Mahan, S.; Radtke, U.; Schneider, J.S.; Sharp, W.; Singhvi, A.K.; Warren, C.N.

    2007-01-01

    A Late Quaternary spit-shoreline complex on the northern shore of Pleistocene Lake Mojave of southeastern California, USA was studied with the goal of comparing accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon, luminescence, electron spin resonance (ESR), terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclide (TCN) surface exposure, amino acid racemization (AAR) and U-series dating methods. The pattern of ages obtained by the different methods illustrates the complexity of processes acting in the lakeshore environment and highlights the utility of a multi-method approach. TCN surface exposure ages (mostly ???20-30 ka) record the initial erosion of shoreline benches, whereas radiocarbon ages on shells (determined in this and previous studies) within the spit, supported by AAR data, record its construction at fluctuating lake levels from ???16 to 10 ka. Luminescence ages on spit sediment (???6-7 ka) and ESR ages on spit shells (???4 ka) are anomalously young relative to radiocarbon ages of shells within the same deposits. The significance of the surprisingly young luminescence ages is not clear. The younger ESR ages could be a consequence of post-mortem enrichment of U in the shells. High concentrations of detrital thorium in tufa coating spit gravels inhibited the use of single-sample U-series dating. Detailed comparisons such as this provide one of the few means of assessing the accuracy of Quaternary dating techniques. More such comparisons are needed. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  16. Precision dating of the Palaeolithic: a new radiocarbon chronology for the Abri Pataud (France), a key Aurignacian sequence.

    PubMed

    Higham, Thomas; Jacobi, Roger; Basell, Laura; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Chiotti, Laurent; Nespoulet, Roland

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents a new series of AMS dates on ultrafiltered bone gelatin extracted from identified cutmarked or humanly-modified bones and teeth from the site of Abri Pataud, in the French Dordogne. The sequence of 32 new determinations provides a coherent and reliable chronology from the site's early Upper Palaeolithic levels 5-14, excavated by Hallam Movius. The results show that there were some problems with the previous series of dates, with many underestimating the real age. The new results, when calibrated and modelled using a Bayesian statistical method, allow detailed understanding of the pace of cultural changes within the Aurignacian I and II levels of the site, something not achievable before. In the future, the sequence of dates will allow wider comparison to similarly dated contexts elsewhere in Europe. High precision dating is only possible by using large suites of AMS dates from humanly-modified material within well understood archaeological sequences modelled using a Bayesian statistical method.

  17. Radiocarbon dating of archaeological samples (sambaqui) using CO(2) absorption and liquid scintillation spectrometry of low background radiation.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Maria Lúcia T G; Godoy, José M; da Cruz, Rosana P; Perez, Rhoneds A R

    2006-01-01

    Sambaqui means, in the Tupi language, a hill of shells. The sambaquis are archaeological sites with remains of pre-historical Brazilian occupation. Since the sambaqui sites in the Rio de Janeiro state region are older than 10,000 years, the applicability of CO(2) absorption on Carbo-sorb and (14)C determination by counting on a low background liquid scintillation counter was tested. In the present work, sambaqui shells were treated with H(3)PO(4) in a closed vessel in order to generate CO(2). The produced CO(2) was absorbed on Carbo-sorb. On saturation about 0.6g of carbon, as CO(2), was mixed with commercial liquid scintillation cocktail (Permafluor), and the (14)C activity determined by counting on a low background counter, Packard Tricarb 3170 TR/SL, for a period of 1000 mins to enable detection of a radiocarbon age of 22,400 BP. But only samples with ages up to 3500 BP were submitted to the method because the samples had been collected in the municipality of Guapimirim, in archaeological sambaqui-type sites belonging to this age range. The same samples were sent to the (14)C Laboratory of the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP) where similar results were obtained.

  18. PRIME Lab Radiocarbon Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillegonds, D. J.; Mueller, K. A.; Ma, X.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1996-03-01

    The Purdue Rare Isotope Measurement Laboratory (PRIME Lab) is one of three NSF national facilities for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), and is the only one capable of determining six cosmogenic radionuclides: 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, and 129I. This abstract describes the current status of the radiocarbon analysis program at PRIME Lab.

  19. Origins of the Iberomaurusian in NW Africa: new AMS radiocarbon dating of the Middle and Later Stone Age deposits at Taforalt Cave, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Barton, R N E; Bouzouggar, A; Hogue, J T; Lee, S; Collcutt, S N; Ditchfield, P

    2013-09-01

    Recent genetic studies based on the distribution of mtDNA of haplogroup U6 have led to subtly different theories regarding the arrival of modern human populations in North Africa. One proposes that groups of the proto-U6 lineage spread from the Near East to North Africa around 40-45 ka (thousands of years ago), followed by some degree of regional continuity. Another envisages a westward human migration from the Near East, followed by further demographic expansion at ∼22 ka centred on the Maghreb and associated with a microlithic bladelet culture known as the Iberomaurusian. In evaluating these theories, we report on the results of new work on the Middle (MSA) and Later Stone (LSA) Age deposits at Taforalt Cave in Morocco. We present 54 AMS radiocarbon dates on bone and charcoals from a sequence of late MSA and LSA occupation levels of the cave. Using Bayesian modelling we show that an MSA non-Levallois flake industry was present until ∼24.5 ka Cal BP (calibrated years before present), followed by a gap in occupation and the subsequent appearance of an LSA Iberomaurusian industry from at least 21,160 Cal BP. The new dating offers fresh light on theories of continuity versus replacement of populations as presented by the genetic evidence. We examine the implications of these data for interpreting the first appearance of the LSA in the Maghreb and providing comparisons with other dated early blade and bladelet industries in North Africa.

  20. First direct dating of a presumed Pleistocene hominid from China: AMS radiocarbon age of a femur from the Ordos Plateau.

    PubMed

    Keates, Susan G; Hodgins, Gregory W L; Kuzmin, Yaroslav V; Orlova, Lyobov A

    2007-07-01

    Human remains from the Xarusgol Valley, Ordos Plateau, northwestern China, have been considered to date to the Late Pleistocene. In order to ascertain their true age, direct AMS (14)C dating of a femur collected in the early 1920s was conducted. The results demonstrate that the femur is very young, with one sample of 'post-bomb' age and the other sample c. 200 years old. This first direct dating of a Chinese fossil hominid underscores the need to apply the same methodology to other Chinese modern human fossils currently believed to be of Pleistocene age.

  1. AMS Radiocarbon dating of paleosols intercalated with tephra layers from Mayon Volcano, southern Luzon, Philippines: A preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mirabueno, Ma. Hannah T.; Okuno, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Toshio; Newhall, Christopher G.; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the AMS 14C dates of paleosols intercalated with tephra layers in the vicinity of Mayon Volcano, southern Luzon, Philippines. the obtained 14C dates are almost consistent with the stratigraphy of the Mayon tephra group. On the basis of calibrated 14C age of soil layer directly overlying the lowest ash layer, the oldest eruptive event must have taken place shortly before 20 cal kyr BP. This age is younger than the previous estimates for Mayon.

  2. Holocene history of deep-seated landsliding in the North Fork Stillaguamish River valley from surface roughness analysis, radiocarbon dating, and numerical landscape evolution modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Adam M.; LaHusen, Sean R.; Duvall, Alison R.; Montgomery, David R.

    2017-02-01

    Documenting spatial and temporal patterns of past landsliding is a challenging step in quantifying the effect of landslides on landscape evolution. While landslide inventories can map spatial distributions, lack of dateable material, landslide reactivations, or time, access, and cost constraints generally limit dating large numbers of landslides to analyze temporal patterns. Here we quantify the record of the Holocene history of deep-seated landsliding along a 25 km stretch of the North Fork Stillaguamish River valley, Washington State, USA, including the 2014 Oso landslide, which killed 43 people. We estimate the ages of more than 200 deep-seated landslides in glacial sediment by defining an empirical relationship between landslide deposit age from radiocarbon dating and landslide deposit surface roughness. We show that roughness systematically decreases with age as a function of topographic wavelength, consistent with models of disturbance-driven soil transport. The age-roughness model predicts a peak in landslide frequency at 1000 calibrated (cal) years B.P., with very few landslide deposits older than 7000 cal years B.P. or younger than 100 cal years B.P., likely reflecting a combination of preservation bias and a complex history of changing climate, base level, and seismic shaking in the study area. Most recent landslides have occurred where channels actively interact with the toes of hillslopes composed of glacial sediments, suggesting that lateral channel migration is a primary control on the location of large deep-seated landslides in the valley.

  3. Dating the end of the Greek Bronze Age: a robust radiocarbon-based chronology from Assiros Toumba.

    PubMed

    Wardle, Kenneth; Higham, Thomas; Kromer, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Over 60 recent analyses of animal bones, plant remains, and building timbers from Assiros in northern Greece form an unique series from the 14th to the 10th century BC. With the exception of Thera, the number of 14C determinations from other Late Bronze Age sites in Greece has been small and their contribution to chronologies minimal. The absolute dates determined for Assiros through Bayesian modelling are both consistent and unexpected, since they are systematically earlier than the conventional chronologies of southern Greece by between 70 and 100 years. They have not been skewed by reference to assumed historical dates used as priors. They support high rather than low Iron Age chronologies from Spain to Israel where the merits of each are fiercely debated but remain unresolved.

  4. Dating the End of the Greek Bronze Age: A Robust Radiocarbon-Based Chronology from Assiros Toumba

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, Kenneth; Higham, Thomas; Kromer, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Over 60 recent analyses of animal bones, plant remains, and building timbers from Assiros in northern Greece form an unique series from the 14th to the 10th century BC. With the exception of Thera, the number of 14C determinations from other Late Bronze Age sites in Greece has been small and their contribution to chronologies minimal. The absolute dates determined for Assiros through Bayesian modelling are both consistent and unexpected, since they are systematically earlier than the conventional chronologies of southern Greece by between 70 and 100 years. They have not been skewed by reference to assumed historical dates used as priors. They support high rather than low Iron Age chronologies from Spain to Israel where the merits of each are fiercely debated but remain unresolved. PMID:25222862

  5. The importance of radiocarbon dates and tephra for developing chronologies of Holocene environmental changes from lake sediments, North Far East

    DOE PAGES

    Lozhkin, Anatoly V.; Brown, Thomas A.; Anderson, Patricia M.; ...

    2016-08-12

    One problem with developing continuous chronologies of paleoenvironmental change in northern areas of the Far East using 14C is the low organic content in lake sediments. However, Holocene age-models can be supplemented by widespread tephra deposits reported in the Magadan region. The best documented of these tephras has been correlated to the KO tephra from southern Kamchatka dated to 7600 BP. Though a key chronostratigraphic marker, no detailed compendium of the distribution of this tephra and its associated 14C dates has been available from sites in the northern Far East. We provide such a summary. Known locally as the Elikchanmore » tephra, lake cores indicate an ash fall that extended ~1800 km north of the Kamchatkan caldera with a ~500 km wide trajectory in the Magadan region. Other Holocene tephras preserved in lake sediments have poorer age control and possibly date to ~2500 BP, ~2700 BP and ~6000 BP. These ashes seem to be restricted to coastal or near-coastal sites. Finally, a single record of a ~25,000 BP tephra has also been documented ~100 km to the northeast of Magadan.« less

  6. The importance of radiocarbon dates and tephra for developing chronologies of Holocene environmental changes from lake sediments, North Far East

    SciTech Connect

    Lozhkin, Anatoly V.; Brown, Thomas A.; Anderson, Patricia M.; Glushkova, Olga Yu; Melekestsev, Ivan V.

    2016-08-12

    One problem with developing continuous chronologies of paleoenvironmental change in northern areas of the Far East using 14C is the low organic content in lake sediments. However, Holocene age-models can be supplemented by widespread tephra deposits reported in the Magadan region. The best documented of these tephras has been correlated to the KO tephra from southern Kamchatka dated to 7600 BP. Though a key chronostratigraphic marker, no detailed compendium of the distribution of this tephra and its associated 14C dates has been available from sites in the northern Far East. We provide such a summary. Known locally as the Elikchan tephra, lake cores indicate an ash fall that extended ~1800 km north of the Kamchatkan caldera with a ~500 km wide trajectory in the Magadan region. Other Holocene tephras preserved in lake sediments have poorer age control and possibly date to ~2500 BP, ~2700 BP and ~6000 BP. These ashes seem to be restricted to coastal or near-coastal sites. Finally, a single record of a ~25,000 BP tephra has also been documented ~100 km to the northeast of Magadan.

  7. Time since death and decay rate constants of Norway spruce and European larch deadwood in subalpine forests determined using dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrillo, M.; Cherubini, P.; Fravolini, G.; Ascher, J.; Schärer, M.; Synal, H.-A.; Bertoldi, D.; Camin, F.; Larcher, R.; Egli, M.

    2015-09-01

    Due to the large size and highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of deadwood, the time scales involved in the coarse woody debris (CWD) decay of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Larix decidua Mill. in Alpine forests have been poorly investigated and are largely unknown. We investigated the CWD decay dynamics in an Alpine valley in Italy using the five-decay class system commonly employed for forest surveys, based on a macromorphological and visual assessment. For the decay classes 1 to 3, most of the dendrochronological samples were cross-dated to assess the time that had elapsed since tree death, but for decay classes 4 and 5 (poorly preserved tree rings) and some others not having enough tree rings, radiocarbon dating was used. In addition, density, cellulose and lignin data were measured for the dated CWD. The decay rate constants for spruce and larch were estimated on the basis of the density loss using a single negative exponential model. In the decay classes 1 to 3, the ages of the CWD were similar varying between 1 and 54 years for spruce and 3 and 40 years for larch with no significant differences between the classes; classes 1-3 are therefore not indicative for deadwood age. We found, however, distinct tree species-specific differences in decay classes 4 and 5, with larch CWD reaching an average age of 210 years in class 5 and spruce only 77 years. The mean CWD rate constants were 0.012 to 0.018 yr-1 for spruce and 0.005 to 0.012 yr-1 for larch. Cellulose and lignin time trends half-lives (using a multiple-exponential model) could be derived on the basis of the ages of the CWD. The half-lives for cellulose were 21 yr for spruce and 50 yr for larch. The half-life of lignin is considerably higher and may be more than 100 years in larch CWD.

  8. Radiocarbon dating of charred human bone remains preserved in urns excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Toshio; Sagawa, Shinichi; Yamada, Tetsuya; Kanehara, Masaaki; Tsuchimoto, Norio; Minami, Masayo; Omori, Takayuki; Okuno, Mitsuru; Ohta, Tomoko

    2010-04-01

    For a preliminary test of 14C dating of cremated human remains, we have collected charred bone and wood-charcoal fragments from cremated remains contained in cinerary urns that had been excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery at the Hoenji temple in Aichi prefecture, central Japan. More than 230 urn vessels were discovered from the excavated area of ca. 14 m wide and 14 m long. The identification of charred bone or charcoal fragments among the remains was performed by observation of surface appearance, inspection of fine structures by a microscope, bubble formation during the HCl treatments in preparing target material for AMS 14C dating, carbon and nitrogen contents, δ13C and δ15N values of the fragments. All 14C ages obtained for the samples that were identified as charred bone remains were almost consistent with the archeological age estimated based on typological analysis of respective urns. On the other hand, some 14C ages for the remains identified as wood charcoal, which had been produced from firewood or a wooden coffin during the cremation, were not consistent with archeological estimation, shifting toward older 14C ages, most probably as the result of old wood effect.

  9. 18 CFR 16.4 - Acceleration of a license expiration date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceleration of a... TAKEOVER AND RELICENSING OF LICENSED PROJECTS General Provisions § 16.4 Acceleration of a license expiration date. (a) Request for acceleration. (1) A licensee may file with the Commission, in...

  10. 18 CFR 16.4 - Acceleration of a license expiration date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acceleration of a... TAKEOVER AND RELICENSING OF LICENSED PROJECTS General Provisions § 16.4 Acceleration of a license expiration date. (a) Request for acceleration. (1) A licensee may file with the Commission, in...

  11. 18 CFR 16.4 - Acceleration of a license expiration date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acceleration of a... TAKEOVER AND RELICENSING OF LICENSED PROJECTS General Provisions § 16.4 Acceleration of a license expiration date. (a) Request for acceleration. (1) A licensee may file with the Commission, in...

  12. 18 CFR 16.4 - Acceleration of a license expiration date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acceleration of a... TAKEOVER AND RELICENSING OF LICENSED PROJECTS General Provisions § 16.4 Acceleration of a license expiration date. (a) Request for acceleration. (1) A licensee may file with the Commission, in...

  13. 18 CFR 16.4 - Acceleration of a license expiration date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acceleration of a... TAKEOVER AND RELICENSING OF LICENSED PROJECTS General Provisions § 16.4 Acceleration of a license expiration date. (a) Request for acceleration. (1) A licensee may file with the Commission, in...

  14. Radiocarbon dating and the 36Cl/Cl evolution of three Great Artesian Basin wells at Dalhousie, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Risha, Usama A.

    2016-06-01

    The use of 14C (half-life = 5,730 years) in modeling the evolution of the 36Cl/Cl ratios in groundwater is reported for the first time. The complexity of the Cl-36Cl system due to the occurrence of different Cl and 36Cl sources and the difficulty of the determination of the initial groundwater 36Cl/Cl ratios have raised concerns about the reliability of using 36Cl (half-life = 301 thousand years, a) as a groundwater-dating tool. This work uses groundwater 14C age as a calibrating parameter of the Cl-36Cl/Cl decay-mixing models of three wells from the southwestern Great Artesian Basin (GAB), Australia. It aims to allow for the different sources of Cl and 36Cl in the southwestern GAB aquifer. The results show that the initial Cl concentrations range from 245 to 320 mg/l and stable Cl is added to groundwater along flowpaths at rates ranging from 1.4 to 3.5 mg/l/ka. The 36Cl content of the groundwater is assumed to be completely of atmospheric origin. The samples have different Cl-36Cl/Cl mixing-decay models reflecting recharge under different conditions as well as the heterogeneity of the aquifer.

  15. Analysis of past recurrent methane seep activity using radiocarbon dating of Calyptogena spp. shells in the eastern Nankai subduction zone, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagasaki, Kazuhiro; Ashi, Juichiro; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Miyairi, Yosuke; Kuramoto, Shin'ichi

    2016-04-01

    analysis that show multiple shallow faults and chaotic sediment structure below the colony site, the Calyptogena spp. shells have a strong connection to the coseismic faulting activity and could show potential for radiocarbon dating to be applied on marine samples providing the necessary calibration tools are available.

  16. An effective method of UV-oxidation of dissolved organic carbon in natural waters for radiocarbon analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yuejun; Ge, Tiantian; Wang, Xuchen

    2015-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurement of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a very powerful tool to study the sources, transformation and cycling of carbon in the ocean. The technique, however, remains great challenges for complete and successful oxidation of sufficient DOC with low blanks for high precision carbon isotopic ratio analysis, largely due to the overwhelming proportion of salts and low DOC concentrations in the ocean. In this paper, we report an effective UV-Oxidation method for oxidizing DOC in natural waters for radiocarbon analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The UV-oxidation system and method show 95%±4% oxidation efficiency and high reproducibility for DOC in both river and seawater samples. The blanks associated with the method was also low (about 3 µg C) that is critical for 14C analysis. As a great advantage of the method, multiple water samples can be oxidized at the same time so it reduces the sample processing time substantially compared with other UV-oxidation method currently being used in other laboratories. We have used the system and method for 14C studies of DOC in rivers, estuaries, and oceanic environments and have received promise results.

  17. Causal links between Nile floods and eastern Mediterranean sapropel formation during the past 125 kyr confirmed by OSL and radiocarbon dating of Blue and White Nile sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. A. J.; Duller, G. A. T.; Williams, F. M.; Woodward, J. C.; Macklin, M. G.; El Tom, O. A. M.; Munro, R. N.; El Hajaz, Y.; Barrows, T. T.

    2015-12-01

    It has long been hypothesised that beds of highly organic mud or sapropels seen in marine sediment cores retrieved from the floor of the eastern Mediterranean accumulated during times of high Nile fluvial discharge. Our recent fieldwork in the valleys of the Blue Nile, the White Nile and the main Nile has for the first time revealed a sequence of extreme flood episodes synchronous with sapropel units S5 (124 kyr), S4 (102 kyr), S3 (81 kyr), S2 (55 kyr) and S1 (13.5-6.5 kyr). There are more weakly defined links with Nile floods and sapropel units S9 (240 kyr), S8 (217 kyr), S7 (195 kyr), S6 (172 kyr), but the dating error terms are too large to allow us to be too definite. During times of extreme floods over the past 125 kyr, wide distributary channels of the Blue Nile flowed across the Gezira alluvial fan in central Sudan and transported a bed load of sand and gravel into the lower White Nile valley. The sands were reworked by wind to form source-bordering dunes, all of which contain heavy minerals of Ethiopian provenance. These source-bordering dunes were active at 115-105 kyr, 60 kyr and 12-7 kyr, all times of extreme Blue Nile floods. The flood and dune sediments were dated using a combination of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon analyses. The Quaternary record of Nile floods discussed here shows a precessional signal and reflects episodes of stronger summer monsoon and more northerly seasonal movement of the ITCZ, linked to times of higher insolation in northern tropical latitudes. Progressive aggradation of Holocene Nile channels in northern Sudan has had a profound influence upon human settlement in the last 8 kyr.

  18. Radiocarbon dates of late quaternary mammals in the Archangelsk Region and their contribution to reconstructions of the last glaciation in Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, D. V.; Markova, A. K.; van Kolfschoten, T.; van der Plicht, J.

    2012-06-01

    Twelve new AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) dates of large Quaternary mammal remains were reported: mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius, bison ( Bison priscus), and musk ox ( Ovibos pallantis) found in the Archangelsk Region. The absolute age of the identified samples varies from 46 000 to 22 000 calibrated years ago. These data suggest that a substantial part of the Archangelsk Region was not covered by ice during the indicated time interval.

  19. New biomedical applications of radiocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.C.

    1990-12-01

    The potential of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and radiocarbon in biomedical applications is being investigated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A measurement of the dose-response curve for DNA damage caused by a carcinogen in mouse liver cells was an initial experiment. This demonstrated the sensitivity and utility of AMS for detecting radiocarbon tags and led to numerous follow-on experiments. The initial experiment and follow-on experiments are discussed in this report. 12 refs., 4 figs. (SM)

  20. Time since death and decay rate constants of Norway spruce and European larch deadwood in subalpine forests determined using dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrillo, Marta; Cherubini, Paolo; Fravolini, Giulia; Marchetti, Marco; Ascher-Jenull, Judith; Schärer, Michael; Synal, Hans-Arno; Bertoldi, Daniela; Camin, Federica; Larcher, Roberto; Egli, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Due to the large size (e.g. sections of tree trunks) and highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of deadwood, the timescales involved in the coarse woody debris (CWD) decay of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Larix decidua Mill. in Alpine forests are largely unknown. We investigated the CWD decay dynamics in an Alpine valley in Italy using the chronosequence approach and the five-decay class system that is based on a macromorphological assessment. For the decay classes 1-3, most of the dendrochronological samples were cross-dated to assess the time that had elapsed since tree death, but for decay classes 4 and 5 (poorly preserved tree rings) radiocarbon dating was used. In addition, density, cellulose, and lignin data were measured for the dated CWD. The decay rate constants for spruce and larch were estimated on the basis of the density loss using a single negative exponential model, a regression approach, and the stage-based matrix model. In the decay classes 1-3, the ages of the CWD were similar and varied between 1 and 54 years for spruce and 3 and 40 years for larch, with no significant differences between the classes; classes 1-3 are therefore not indicative of deadwood age. This seems to be due to a time lag between the death of a standing tree and its contact with the soil. We found distinct tree-species-specific differences in decay classes 4 and 5, with larch CWD reaching an average age of 210 years in class 5 and spruce only 77 years. The mean CWD rate constants were estimated to be in the range 0.018 to 0.022 y-1 for spruce and to about 0.012 y-1 for larch. Snapshot sampling (chronosequences) may overestimate the age and mean residence time of CWD. No sampling bias was, however, detectable using the stage-based matrix model. Cellulose and lignin time trends could be derived on the basis of the ages of the CWD. The half-lives for cellulose were 21 years for spruce and 50 years for larch. The half-life of lignin is considerably higher and may be more than

  1. Palaeoecological caracterisation of the mammoth steppe at Final Pleistocene in Central Ukraine from zooarchaeology, stable isotope analyses and direct radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Péan, Stéphane; Drucker, Dorothée.; Bocherens, Hervé; Haesaerts, Paul; Valladas, Hélène; Stupak, Dmytro; Nuzhnyi, Dmytro

    2010-05-01

    that a modification of the regional plant and climatic context may have inferred a change of food resource for mammoths, which could have been put into food competition with horses. Mammoths from Central Ukraine at late OIS 2 may have formed an isolated local population, under the pressure of modified ecological conditions, compared to the period of maximal extension of the mammoth steppe. Thus, thanks to a combined approach of zooarchaeology, stable isotopes and radiocarbon dating, in the stratigraphic context, a better knowledge of the palaeoecological context of the last mammoths at late Pleniglacial in Central Ukraine is expected.

  2. Map of Western Copper River Basin, Alaska, Showing Lake Sediments and Shorelines, Glacial Moraines, and Location of Stratigraphic Sections and Radiocarbon-Dated Samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John R.; Galloway, John P.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to make available basic data on radiocarbon dating of 61 organic samples from 40 locations in the western Copper River Basin and adjacent uplands and in the uppermost Matanuska River Valley. The former distribution of late Quaternary glacial lakes and of glaciers as mapped from field work and photo interpretation is provided as background for interpretation of the radiocarbon dates and are the basic data needed for construction of the late Quaternary chronology. The glacial boundaries, formed and expressed by moraines, ice-contact margins, marginal channels, deltas, and other features, are obscured by a drape of glaciolacustrine deposits in a series of glacial lakes. The highest lake, represented by bottom sediments as high as 914 m to 975 m above sea level, extends from Fog Lakes lowland on Susitna River upstream into the northwestern part of the Copper River Basin (the part now draining to Susitna River) where it apparently was held in by an ice border. It was apparently dammed by ice from the Mt. McKinley area, by Talkeetna G1acier, and may have had a temporary drainage threshold at the headwaters of Chunilna Creek. No shorelines have been noted within the map area, although Nichols and Yehle (1961) reported shorelines within the 914-975 m range in the Denali area to the north of that mapped. Recent work by geologic consultants for the Susitna Hydroelectric Project has confirmed the early inferences (Karlstrom, 1964) about the existence of a lake in the Susitna canyon, based originally on drilling by the Bureau of Reclamation about 35 years ago. According to dating of deposits at Tyone Bluff (map locations 0, P), Thorson and others (1981) concluded that a late Wisconsin advance of the glaciers between 11,535 and 21,730 years ago was followed by a brief interval of lacustrine sedimentation, and was preceded by a long period of lake deposition broken by a lowering of the lake between 32,000 and about 25,000 years ago. An alternate

  3. Radiocarbon dating of residual organic matter in travertine formed along the Yumoto Fault in Oga Peninsula, northeast Japan: Implications for long-term hot spring activity under the influence of earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Osamu; Furuhashi, Kyoko; Masuyama, Masashi; Ogata, Takeyuki; Shiraishi, Tateo; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2012-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating was performed on trace amounts of organic matter included in travertines formed along the Yumoto fault in Oga Peninsula, NE Japan. The reliability of the dating method was confirmed by the consistency of ages obtained with the stratigraphy of the travertine mound and the ratio of carbon stable isotopes. The radiocarbon chronology of the travertines shows that (1) the hot springs at Oga have been active for approximately 29,000 years, with average depositional rates ranging from 0.24 to 1.75 mm/yr, and (2) the principal hot spring activity has migrated southward with time. Variations in the accumulation rates and the progressive migration of the main focus of the hot spring activity imply irregular spring behaviour. This behaviour has not been influenced by paleoclimate, but may have been controlled by the earthquakes that occur frequently in the region around Oga Peninsula.

  4. Evolution of chemical and isotopic composition of inorganic carbon in a complex semi-arid zone environment: Consequences for groundwater dating using radiocarbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, K. T.; Han, L. F.; Hollins, S. E.; Cendón, D. I.; Jacobsen, G. E.; Baker, A.

    2016-09-01

    Estimating groundwater age is important for any groundwater resource assessment and radiocarbon (14C) dating of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) can provide this information. In semi-arid zone (i.e. water-limited environments), there are a multitude of reasons why 14C dating of groundwater and traditional correction models may not be directly transferable. Some include; (1) the complex hydrological responses of these systems that lead to a mixture of different ages in the aquifer(s), (2) the varied sources, origins and ages of organic matter in the unsaturated zone and (3) high evaporation rates. These all influence the evolution of DIC and are not easily accounted for in traditional correction models. In this study, we determined carbon isotope data for; DIC in water, carbonate minerals in the sediments, sediment organic matter, soil gas CO2 from the unsaturated zone, and vegetation samples. The samples were collected after an extended drought, and again after a flood event, to capture the evolution of DIC after varying hydrological regimes. A graphical method (Han et al., 2012) was applied for interpretation of the carbon geochemical and isotopic data. Simple forward mass-balance modelling was carried out on key geochemical processes involving carbon and agreed well with observed data. High values of DIC and δ13CDIC, and low 14CDIC could not be explained by a simple carbonate mineral-CO2 gas dissolution process. Instead it is suggested that during extended drought, water-sediment interaction leads to ion exchange processes within the top ∼10-20 m of the aquifer which promotes greater calcite dissolution in saline groundwater. This process was found to contribute more than half of the DIC, which is from a mostly 'dead' carbon source. DIC is also influenced by carbon exchange between DIC in water and carbonate minerals found in the top 2 m of the unsaturated zone. This process occurs because of repeated dissolution/precipitation of carbonate that is dependent on

  5. Radiocarbon datings of Yamato meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kigoshi, K.; Matsuda, E.

    1986-01-01

    The terrestrial ages of five Yamato Meteorites were measured by the content of cosmic-ray-produced carbon-14. Three Yamato Meteorites Y-74013, Y-74097, and Y-74136, which are all diogenites, were found at sites from one to two kilometers apart from each other. Evidence is presented for these three meteorites being a single meteorite. Also presented is a method adopted in the experimental procedure which includes a check for modern carbon contamination in the meteorites.

  6. 7 CFR 1436.13 - Loan installments, delinquency, and acceleration of maturity date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loan installments, delinquency, and acceleration of maturity date. 1436.13 Section 1436.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... FACILITY LOAN PROGRAM REGULATIONS § 1436.13 Loan installments, delinquency, and acceleration of...

  7. 7 CFR 1436.13 - Loan installments, delinquency, and acceleration of maturity date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan installments, delinquency, and acceleration of maturity date. 1436.13 Section 1436.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... FACILITY LOAN PROGRAM REGULATIONS § 1436.13 Loan installments, delinquency, and acceleration of...

  8. 7 CFR 1436.13 - Loan installments, delinquency, and acceleration of maturity date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan installments, delinquency, and acceleration of maturity date. 1436.13 Section 1436.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... FACILITY LOAN PROGRAM REGULATIONS § 1436.13 Loan installments, delinquency, and acceleration of...

  9. 7 CFR 1436.13 - Loan installments, delinquency, and acceleration of maturity date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan installments, delinquency, and acceleration of maturity date. 1436.13 Section 1436.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... FACILITY LOAN PROGRAM REGULATIONS § 1436.13 Loan installments, delinquency, and acceleration of...

  10. 7 CFR 1436.13 - Loan installments, delinquency, and acceleration of maturity date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loan installments, delinquency, and acceleration of maturity date. 1436.13 Section 1436.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... FACILITY LOAN PROGRAM REGULATIONS § 1436.13 Loan installments, delinquency, and acceleration of...

  11. Intracavity OptoGalvanic Spectroscopy not suitable for ambient level radiocarbon detection.

    PubMed

    Paul, Dipayan; Meijer, Harro A J

    2015-09-01

    IntraCavity OptoGalvanic Spectroscopy as a radiocarbon detection technique was first reported by the Murnick group at Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, in 2008. This technique for radiocarbon detection was presented with tremendous potentials for applications in various fields of research. Significantly cheaper, this technique was portrayed as a possible complementary technique to the more expensive and complex accelerator mass spectrometry. Several groups around the world started developing this technique for various radiocarbon related applications. The IntraCavity OptoGalvanic Spectroscopy setup at the University of Groningen was constructed in 2012 in close collaboration with the Murnick group for exploring possible applications in the fields of radiocarbon dating and atmospheric monitoring. In this paper we describe a systematic evaluation of the IntraCavity OptoGalvanic Spectroscopy setup at Groningen for radiocarbon detection. Since the IntraCavity OptoGalvanic Spectroscopy setup was strictly planned for dating and atmospheric monitoring purposes, all the initial experiments were performed with CO2 samples containing contemporary levels and highly depleted levels of radiocarbon. Because of recurring failures in differentiating the two CO2 samples, with the radiocarbon concentration 3 orders of magnitude apart, CO2 samples containing elevated levels of radiocarbon were prepared in-house and experimented with. All results obtained thus far at Groningen are in sharp contrast to the results published by the Murnick group and rather support the results put forward by the Salehpour group at Uppsala University. From our extensive test work, we must conclude that the method is unsuited for ambient level radiocarbon measurements, and even highly enriched CO2 samples yield insignificant signal.

  12. Rapid isolation of biomarkers for compound specific radiocarbon dating using high-performance liquid chromatography and flow injection analysis-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Smittenberg, Rienk H; Hopmans, Ellen C; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2002-11-29

    Repeated semi-preparative normal-phase HPLC was performed to isolate selected biomarkers from sediment extracts for radiocarbon analysis. Flow injection analysis-mass spectrometry was used for rapid analysis of collected fractions to evaluate the separation procedure, taking only 1 min per fraction. In this way 100-1000 microg of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers, sterol fractions and chlorophyll-derived phytol were isolated from typically 100 g of marine sediment, i.e., in sufficient quantities for radiocarbon analysis, without significant carbon isotopic fractionation or contamination.

  13. Late Glacial and Holocene Fire History From Radiocarbon Dating of Charcoal in Valley-Bottom Sediments in Small Watersheds of the Oregon Coast Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, S. T.; Frueh, W. T.

    2011-12-01

    A large number (N = 351) of radiocarbon dates of charcoal from valley-bottom sediments in headwater valleys of the southern Oregon Coast Range provides the basis for a new index of fire frequency during the past 17,000 years in this steep landscape covered by dense coniferous forest. Study areas were chosen for their relative lack of recent forest disturbance by harvest or fire, and sampling of stream banks and terrace risers was random, weighted by deposit volume and bank or riser area. This sampling methodology was designed to characterize sediment residence times within valley-bottom storage, and the overall shape of the calibrated age distribution is therefore assumed representative of the dependence of charcoal preservation probability on calibrated age. A proxy record of fire history in the study areas is obtained by fitting a gamma distribution to the weighted mean calibrated charcoal ages by the method of moments; calculating the relative difference between the fit and the normalized histogram, with 50-year bin-widths, of charcoal ages; and smoothing that relative difference with a gaussian distribution, the standard deviation of which is at least two bin-widths and inversely proportional to the value of the fit distribution at larger ages. The calibrated charcoal age mean and variance of 1900 yrs BP and 7.39 x 106 yr2, respectively, yield shape and scale parameters of the fit gamma distribution of 0.490 and 3880 yrs, respectively. This heavy-tailed distribution indicates that probabilities of charcoal evacuation are not simply proportional to relative volume of encasing sediment deposits but, rather, decrease with deposit age. The smoothed proxy record of relative fire frequency has a global maximum at 7700 BP and prominent local maxima at 600 BP and 5700 BP, in order of decreasing magnitude; a global minimum at 4500 BP and local minimum at 1800 BP roughly bracket a period of fluctuating but relatively low fire frequency during the period 5000-1500 BP

  14. Aging of marine organic matter during cross-shelf lateral transport in the Benguela upwelling system revealed by compound-specific radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollenhauer, Gesine; Inthorn, Maik; Vogt, Thomas; Zabel, Matthias; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2007-09-01

    Organic matter accumulation and burial on the Namibian shelf and upper slope are spatially heterogeneous and strongly controlled by lateral transport in subsurface nepheloid layers. Much of the material deposited in depo-centers on the slope ultimately derives from the shelf. Supply of organic matter from the shelf involves selective transport of organic matter. We studied these selective transport processes by analyzing the radiocarbon content of co-occurring sediment fractions. Here we present radiocarbon data for total organic carbon as well as three tracers of surface ocean productivity (phytoplankton-derived alkenones, membrane lipids of pelagic crenarchaeota (crenarchaeol), and calcareous microfossils of planktic foraminifera) in core-top and near-surface sediment samples. The samples were collected on the Namibian margin along a shelf-slope transect (85 to 1040 m) at 24°S and from the upper slope depo-center at 25.5°S. In core-top sediments, alkenone ages gradually increased from modern to 3490 radiocarbon years with distance from shore and with water depth. Crenarchaeol, while younger than alkenones, also increased in age with distance offshore. It was concluded that the observed ages were a consequence of cross-shelf transport and associated aging of organic matter. Radiocarbon ages of preserved lipid biomarkers in sediments thus at least partially depend on the relative amount of laterally supplied, pre-aged material present in a sample, highlighting the importance of nepheloid transport for the sedimentation of organic matter over the Namibian margin.

  15. Radiocarbon Dates from Volcanic Deposits of the Chaos Crags and Cinder Cone Eruptive Sequences and Other Deposits, Lassen Volcanic National Park and Vicinity, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clynne, Michael A.; Christiansen, Robert L.; Trimble, Deborah A.; McGeehin, John P.

    2008-01-01

    This contribution reports radiocarbon ages obtained from charcoal, wood and other samples collected between 1979 and 2001 in Lassen Volcanic National Park and vicinity and a few samples from other nearby localities. Most of the samples are from the Chaos Crags and Cinder Cone eruptive sequences. Brief summaries are given of the Chaos Crags and Cinder Cone eruptive sequences.

  16. Fine-tuning of age integrating magnetostratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, and carbonate cyclicity: Example of lacustrine sediments from Heqing basin (Yunnan, China) covering the past 1 Myr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shouyun; Goddu, Srinivasa Rao; Appel, Erwin; Verosub, Ken

    2007-05-01

    High-resolution magnetostratigraphy, wavelength spectra of carbonate cyclicities, and AMS radiocarbon dating are integrated to establish an optimum age model for a 168 m long drill core of lacustrine sediments from Heqing basin, Yunnan Province, southwestern China. A 14C age of 51.62 +2.42/-1.85 kyr BP is obtained at a depth of 7.3 m. Remanent magnetization is carried by maghemite and partly in addition by magnetite, both showing the same direction. The polarity sequence clearly reveals the Brunhes/Matuyama (B/M) boundary at 141.5 m. Blake Event is found between 16.3 and 17.5 m, and the upper boundary of Jaramillo is indicated at 167.0 m. Carbonate content and magnetic susceptibility were used for spectral analysis. Fourier analysis was done on the depth section for sliding windows with different window lengths. The spectra within the range of window centers (30-140 m) show a dominant long wavelength, which changes from about 18.5 m in the lower part (>65 m depth) to about 14.5 m in the upper part (<65 m depth) of the core. It is assumed that the long wavelength peak represents the 95-kyr Milankovitch eccentricity cycle. The B/M boundary and Blake Event match very well with this model, but the age of Jaramillo is strongly underestimated. Fourier spectra of sliding windows slightly indicate a drop of the sedimentation rate at the lowermost part of the core. An optimum age model is calculated by cubic spline interpolation using tie points from 14C dating, magnetostratigraphy ('true' ages of Blake Event, B/M boundary, and Jaramillo), and wavelengths of carbonate (change in sedimentation rate at 65 m). Alternative depth-to-age transfer functions were tested, i.e. a wavelength age model (using sedimentation rates with 14C as a tie point), a cyclostratigraphic model (using bandpass-filtered carbonate data corresponding to 95 kyr eccentricity cycles) and correlation of carbonate variations to the marine oxygen isotope curve. However, none of the approaches lead to a

  17. Accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating of lime mortars: Methodological aspects and field study applications at CIRCE (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzaioli, Fabio; Nonni, Sara; Passariello, Isabella; Capano, Manuela; Ricci, Paola; Lubritto, Carmine; De Cesare, Nicola; Eramo, Giacomo; Quirós Castillo, Juan Antonio; Terrasi, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) has, recently, obtained some promising results in testing the feasibility of mortar radiocarbon dating by means of an ad hoc developed purification procedure (CryoSoniC: Cryobraking, Sonication, Centrifugation) applied to a series of laboratory mortars. Observed results encouraged CryoSoniC accuracy evaluation on genuine mortars sampled from archeological sites of known or independently constrained age (i.e., other 14C dates on different materials). In this study, some 14C measurements performed on genuine mortars will be discussed and compared with independently estimated (i.e., radiocarbon/archaeometrical dating) absolute chronologies of two Spanish sites. Observed results confirm the agreement of the CryoSoniC mortar dates with the archaeological expectations for both examined cases. Several authors reported the possibility of obtaining accurate radiocarbon dates of mortar matrices by analyzing lime lumps: binder-related particles of different sizes exclusively composed of calcium carbonate. In this paper, preliminary data for the absolute chronology reconstruction of the Basilica of the cemetery complex of Ponte della Lama (Canosa di Puglia, Italy) based on lime lumps will also be discussed. Dating accuracy will be quantified by comparing 14C data on mortar lime lumps from a funerary inscription of known age found near the Basilica, in the same study site. For this site, a comparison between absolute chronologies performed by bulk and CryoSoniC purified lime lumps, and charcoal incased in mortars (when found) will also be discussed. Observed results for this site provide evidence of how bulk lime lump dating may introduce systematic overestimations of the analyzed sample while CryoSoniC purification allows accurate dating.

  18. A combined PIXE-PIGE approach for the assessment of the diagenetic state of cremated bones submitted to AMS radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarta, Gianluca; Calcagnile, Lucio; D'Elia, Marisa; Maruccio, Lucio; Gaballo, Valentina; Caramia, Annalisa

    2013-01-01

    Bone samples from a Bronze age necropolis in Northern Italy, exposed to different combustion temperatures, were submitted to XRD (X-ray Diffraction), PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and PIGE (Particle Induced Gamma Ray Emission) analyses in order to obtain information about their diagenetic state. Structural carbonate was then extracted by acid hydrolysis and used for 14C-AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) dating. These analytical techniques permitted the study of the effects of the combustion temperature on the crystallinity of the bone apatite and on its elemental chemical composition in terms of major, minor and trace elements. The results indicate that combustion at temperatures above ∼700 °C induces changes in the bone crystalline structure, reducing the diagenetic uptake of elements from the burial environment.

  19. An Illustrated Guide to Measuring Radiocarbon from Archaeological Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayliss, Alex; McCormac, Gerry; van der Plicht, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating has been central to the construction of archaeological chronologies for over 50 years. The archaeological, scientific and (increasingly) statistical methods for interpreting radiocarbon measurements to produce these chronologies have become ever more sophisticated. The accurate measurement of the radiocarbon content of an…

  20. Status of mass spectrometric radiocarbon detection at ETHZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, Martin; Maxeiner, Sascha; Wacker, Lukas; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2015-10-01

    A prototype of a mass spectrometric radiocarbon detection instrument without accelerator stage was built for the first time and set into operation at ETH Zurich. The system is designed as an experimental platform to optimize performance of 14C detection at low ion energies and to study the most relevant processes that may limit system performance. The optimized stripper unit incorporates differential pumping to maintain a low gas outflow and a revised tube design to better match the phase space volume of the ion beam at low energies. The system is fully operational and has demonstrated true radiocarbon dating capabilities. The overall beam transmission through the stripper tube is about 40% for the 1+ charge state. Radiocarbon analyses with an overall precision of 0.6% were obtained on a single sample under regular measurement conditions. By analyzing multiple targets of the same sample material an uncertainty level of 0.3% has been reached. The background level corresponds to a radiocarbon age of 40,000 years.

  1. Adult Human Pancreatic Islet Beta-Cells Display Limited Turnover and Long Lifespan as Determined by In-Vivo Thymidine Analog Incorporation and Radiocarbon Dating

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, S; Kushner, J A; Buchholz, B A; Meeker, A K; Stein, G M; Hsieh, M; Kirby, M; Pechhold, S; Liu, E H; Harlan, D M; Tisdale, J F

    2010-03-15

    Diabetes mellitus results from an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells. The adult human beta-cell's turnover rate remains unknown. We employed novel techniques to examine adult human islet beta-cell turnover and longevity in vivo. Subjects enrolled in NIH clinical trials received thymidine analogues [iododeoxyuridine (IdU) or bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)] 8-days to 4-years prior to death. Archival autopsy samples from ten patients (aged 17-74 years) were employed to assess beta-cell turnover by scoring nuclear analog labeling within insulin staining cells. Human adult beta-cell longevity was determined by estimating the cells genomic DNA integration of atmospheric carbon-14 ({sup 14}C). DNA was purified from pancreatic islets isolated from cadaveric donors; whole islet prep DNA was obtained from a 15 year old donor, and purified beta-cell DNA was obtained from two donors (age 48 and 80 years). {sup 14}C levels were then determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Cellular 'birth date' was determined by comparing the subject's DNA {sup 14}C content relative to a well-established {sup 14}C atmospheric prevalence curve. In the two subjects less than age 20 years, 1-2% of the beta-cell nuclei co-stained for BrdU/IdU. No beta-cell nuclei co-stained in the eight patients more than 30 years old. Consistent with the BrdU/IdU turnover data, beta-cell DNA {sup 14}C content indicated the cells 'birth date' occurred within the subject's first 30 years of life. Under typical circumstances, adult human beta-cells and their cellular precursors are established by young adulthood.

  2. Erosion of soil organic carbon at high latitudes and its delivery to Arctic Ocean sediments: New source to sink insight from radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, Robert; Galy, Valier; Gaillardet, Jerome; Dellinger, Mathieu; Bryant, Charlotte; O'Regan, Matt; Grocke, Darren; Coxall, Helen

    2016-04-01

    Soils of the northern high latitudes store carbon over thousands of years and contain almost double the carbon stock of the atmosphere. Erosion processes can mobilise this pre-aged soil organic carbon from the landscape and supply it to rivers. If it escapes degradation during river transport and is delivered to the coastal ocean, this carbon may be sequestered for much longer periods of time (>104 yr) as a geological CO2 sink. Despite this recognition, the erosional flux and fate of particulate organic carbon (POC) in large rivers draining the high latitudes remains poorly constrained. Using radiocarbon activity, we quantify POC source, flux and fate in the Mackenzie River, the main sediment supplier to the Arctic Ocean. When combined with stable carbon isotopes and element ratios, the radiocarbon activity of POC allows us to distinguish inputs of POC from sedimentary rocks and quantify the average age of biospheric POC (from vegetation and soil) transported through the river system. We find that the eroded biospheric POC has resided in the basin for millennia, with a mean radiocarbon age of 5800±800 years. This is much older than large tropical rivers where we have equivalent data (Amazon River, Ganges River), and likely reflects the longer residence time of organic matter in cold, wet, high latitude soils. Based on the measured biospheric POC content and annual sediment flux, we calculate a biospheric POC flux of 2.2 (+1.3/-0.9) TgC yr-1 from the Mackenzie River. This is the largest input of aged organic carbon to the Arctic Ocean, more than the combined POC flux from the Eurasian Rivers. Offshore, we use a marine core to investigate organic carbon burial over the Holocene period. Radiocarbon measurements of bulk organic carbon reveal a significant offset from benthic foraminifera radiocarbon ages throughout the core, which is dependent upon the grain size of the sediments. Organic matter in sediments >63μm are offset from foraminifera by ˜ 6,000 14C years

  3. Identifying sources of dissolved organic carbon in agriculturally dominated rivers using radiocarbon age dating: Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sickman, James O.; DiGiorgio, Carol L.; Davisson, M. Lee; Lucero, Delores M.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    We used radiocarbon measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to resolve sources of riverine carbon within agriculturally dominated landscapes in California. During 2003 and 2004, average Δ14C for DOC was −254‰ in agricultural drains in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, −218‰ in the San Joaquin River, −175‰ in the California State Water Project and −152‰ in the Sacramento River. The age of bulk DOC transiting the rivers of California’s Central Valley is the oldest reported for large rivers and suggests wide-spread loss of soil organic matter caused by agriculture and urbanization. Using DAX 8 adsorbent, we isolated and measured 14C concentrations in hydrophobic acid fractions (HPOA); river samples showed evidence of bomb-pulse carbon with average Δ14C of 91 and 76‰ for the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers, respectively, with older HPOA, −204‰, observed in agricultural drains. An operationally defined non-HPOA fraction of DOC was observed in the San Joaquin River with seasonally computed Δ14C values of between −275 and −687‰; the source of this aged material was hypothesized to be physically protected organic-matter in high clay-content soils and agrochemicals (i.e., radiocarbon-dead material) applied to farmlands. Mixing models suggest that the Sacramento River contributes about 50% of the DOC load in the California State Water Project, and agricultural drains contribute approximately one-third of the load. In contrast to studies showing stabilization of soil carbon pools within one or two decades following land conversion, sustained loss of soil organic matter, occurring many decades after the initial agricultural-land conversion, was observed in California’s Central Valley.

  4. Radiocarbon dates for lava flows from northeast rift zone of Mauna Loa Volcano, Hilo 7 1/2 minute quadrangle, Island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan-Banks, J. M.; Lockwood, J.P.; Rubin, M.

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-eight 14C analyses are reported for carbonized roots and other plant material collected from beneath 15 prehistoric lava flows erupted from the northeast rift zone (NERZ) of Mauna Loa Volcano (ML). The new 14C dates establish ages for 13 previously undated lava flows, and correct or add to information previously reported. Limiting ages on other flows that lie either above or below the dated flows are also established. These dates help to unravel the eruptive history of ML's NERZ. -from Authors

  5. A New Accelerator-Based Mass Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gove, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    Tandem electrostatic accelerators produce beams of positive ions which are used to penetrate atomic nuclei in a target, inducing nuclear reactions whose study elucidates varied properties of the nucleus. Uses of the system, which acts like a mass spectrometer, are discussed. These include radiocarbon dating measurements. (JN)

  6. a Radiocarbon Database for Improved Understanding of Global Soil Carbon Dynamics: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumbore, S.; Torn, M. S.; Sierra, C. A.; Smith, L. J.; Nave, L. E.; Workshop Paritipants, R.

    2011-12-01

    We report results of a workshop to initiate a global database of radiocarbon measurements in soil and other ecosystem compartments. Radiocarbon provides critical information for understanding the rate of exchange of soil carbon with the atmosphere and hydrosphere. For example, radiocarbon has been used to demonstrate the importance of short range order minerals in stabilizing organic carbon on millennial timescales in some soils. On decadal to centennial timescales, the infiltration of 'bomb' radiocarbon provides a measure of the amount and nature of soil carbon that responds on the timescale of most human impacts. The radiocarbon sigature of chemically or physically fractionated soil, or even in specific organic compounds, can yield clues as to controls on organic matter cycling on a range of timescales. Radiocarbon in microbial biomass or respiration can be a sensitive indicator of shifts in substrate use with vegetation, nutrient availability or temperature change. Taken toghether, such measurements can provide critical tests for models of soil carbon dynamics, while patterns in soil C dynamics with edaphic factors can be used to help parameterize models at spatial scales ranging from profile to landscape to global. The advent and proliferation of accelerator mass spectrometry since the early 1990s has vastly increased the number of radiocarbon analyses carried out in soils. However, these studies have usually been carried out by individual investigators within specific sites or regions, and to date the results have not been assembled, interpreted or compared at larger spatial scales. Given the expense of radiocarbon measurements, and the need for global synthesis products to evaluate and/or develop models of soil carbon response to climate and land use changes across a range of spatial scales, our goals are to: (1) bring together in one place existing radiocarbon measurements and provide a continuing common repository for new analyses; (2) supply ancillary

  7. Radiocarbon evidence of mid-Holocene mammoths stranded on an Alaskan Bering Sea island.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, R Dale

    2004-06-17

    Island colonization and subsequent dwarfing of Pleistocene proboscideans is one of the more dramatic evolutionary and ecological occurrences, especially in situations where island populations survived end-Pleistocene extinctions whereas those on the nearby mainland did not. For example, Holocene mammoths have been dated from Wrangel Island in northern Russia. In most of these cases, few details are available about the dynamics of how island colonization and extinction occurred. As part of a large radiocarbon dating project of Alaskan mammoth fossils, I addressed this question by including mammoth specimens from Bering Sea islands known to have formed during the end-Pleistocene sea transgression. One date of 7,908 +/- 100 yr bp (radiocarbon years before present) established the presence of Holocene mammoths on St Paul Island, a first Holocene island record for the Americas. Four lines of evidence--265 accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon dates from Alaskan mainland mammoths, 13 new dates from Alaskan island mammoths, recent reconstructions of bathymetric plots and sea transgression rates from the Bering Sea--made it possible to reconstruct how mammoths became stranded in the Pribilofs and why this apparently did not happen on other Alaskan Bering Sea islands.

  8. Difference in radiocarbon ages of carbonized material from the inner and outer surfaces of pottery from a wetland archaeological site.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Yoshiki; Minami, Masayo; Onbe, Shin; Sakamoto, Minoru; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Toshio; Imamura, Mineo

    2011-01-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) radiocarbon dates for eight potsherds from a single piece of pottery from a wetland archaeological site indicated that charred material from the inner pottery surfaces (5052 ± 12 BP; N = 5) is about 90 (14)C years older than that from the outer surfaces (4961 ± 22 BP; N = 7). We considered three possible causes of this difference: the old wood effect, reservoir effects, and diagenesis. We concluded that differences in the radiocarbon ages between materials from the inner and outer surfaces of the same pot were caused either by the freshwater reservoir effect or by diagenesis. Moreover, we found that the radiocarbon ages of carbonized material on outer surfaces (soot) of pottery from other wetland archaeological sites were the same as the ages of material on inner surfaces (charred food) of the same pot within error, suggesting absence of freshwater reservoir effect or diagenesis.

  9. Difference in radiocarbon ages of carbonized material from the inner and outer surfaces of pottery from a wetland archaeological site

    PubMed Central

    MIYATA, Yoshiki; MINAMI, Masayo; ONBE, Shin; SAKAMOTO, Minoru; MATSUZAKI, Hiroyuki; NAKAMURA, Toshio; IMAMURA, Mineo

    2011-01-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) radiocarbon dates for eight potsherds from a single piece of pottery from a wetland archaeological site indicated that charred material from the inner pottery surfaces (5052 ± 12 BP; N = 5) is about 90 14C years older than that from the outer surfaces (4961 ± 22 BP; N = 7). We considered three possible causes of this difference: the old wood effect, reservoir effects, and diagenesis. We concluded that differences in the radiocarbon ages between materials from the inner and outer surfaces of the same pot were caused either by the freshwater reservoir effect or by diagenesis. Moreover, we found that the radiocarbon ages of carbonized material on outer surfaces (soot) of pottery from other wetland archaeological sites were the same as the ages of material on inner surfaces (charred food) of the same pot within error, suggesting absence of freshwater reservoir effect or diagenesis. PMID:21986315

  10. Climatic impact of the Millennium eruption of Changbaishan volcano in China: New insights from high-precision radiocarbon wiggle-match dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiandong; Pan, Bo; Liu, Tanzhuo; Hajdas, Irka; Zhao, Bo; Yu, Hongmei; Liu, Ruoxin; Zhao, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Changbaishan volcano in northeast China, previously dated to have erupted around the mid-10th century A.D., is renowned for producing one of the largest eruptions in history (magnitude 6.8) and thus speculated to have substantial climatic impact. Here we report a new high-precision 14C wiggle-match age of A.D. 946 ± 3 obtained from a 264 year old tree trunk (with bark) killed during the eruption, using the OxCal's Bayesian modeling approach with 27 sequentially sampled annual rings of decadal intervals. The new chronology conforms well to the calendar date of A.D. 946 for the eruption inferred from historical documentary evidence. We find no stratospherically loaded sulfate spike that might be associated with the A.D. 946 eruption in the global volcanism record from the GISP2 ice core, suggesting the stratospheric sulfate aerosols produced during the eruption were not transported to the arctic region, due probably to its relatively low stratospheric sulfur emission and the seasonal effects of the atmospheric circulation at the time of the eruption that likely occurred in the winter of A.D. 946-947. Since the stratospheric volcanic sulfates are the main cause of large-scale climate perturbations, this finding indicates that the Millennium eruption of Changbaishan volcano might have limited regional climatic effects, rather than global or hemispheric impact as implied by its magnitude.

  11. Radiocarbon dating and wiggle matching of wooden poles forming circular structures in the 1st Millennium BC at the Mawaki archaeological site, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshio; Takada, Hideki

    2010-04-01

    Wooden circular structures, presumed archaeologically as a structure related with ritual of ancient people in the Final Jomon period, are specific to archaeological sites excavated mainly in the coastal region around Noto peninsula, central Japan. So far, only few attempts have been made at chronological studies on these wooden structures. 14C dating has been attempted to wooden poles forming the structures, which had been excavated at the Mawaki archaeological site, Ishikawa prefecture, central Japan, to examine construction period of the structures. It was revealed that these structures were constructed in the Final Jomon period, most probably within 900-400 cal BC. In addition, we have tried wiggle matching of 14C ages for several annual rings separated from three and two poles that were constituting two circular structures, the oldest and the newest ones. 14C dates of annual rings measured with AMS were wiggle-matched to IntCal04 data sets by Bayesian statistics. The results indicated that the construction period of these wooden structures can be placed within ca. 820-680 cal BC, being narrowed by about 350 calendar years successfully.

  12. Constraining Circulation Changes Through the Last Deglaciation with Deep-sea Coral Radiocarbon and Sedimentary Pa231/Th230

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    dates give independent ages that allow radiocarbon to be used as a tracer of circulation and carbon cycle changes. The radiocarbon records...funding), and the USGS-WHOI Co-operative agreement. 4 Table of Contents Chapter 1. Introduction 7 1. Dating methods: radiocarbon and...Drake Passage in the Southern Ocean. However, the usefulness of radiocarbon and U-series isotopes goes beyond generating dates for geological

  13. Bomb radiocarbon in metabolically inert tissues from terrestrial and marine mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Bada, J.L.; Vrolijk, C.D.; Brown, S.; Druffel, E.R.M.; Hedges, R.E.M.

    1987-10-01

    We report here radiocarbon measurements of monkey eye lens nucleus proteins and a narwhal tusk, biological tissues which have sampled the bomb radiocarbon signal in different ways. The results confirm the metabolic inertness of eye lens nucleus proteins and demonstrate the feasibility of measuring radiocarbon in small samples of biological tissue using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The narwhal tusk provides a unique record of the radiocarbon activity in Arctic Ocean waters over most of the 20th century.

  14. Calibration of the radiocarbon time scale at 37ka BP

    SciTech Connect

    Southon, J.R.; Deino, A.L.; Orsi, G.

    1995-12-01

    Results from radiocarbon and U-Th measurements on corals have provided a radiocarbon calibration beyond the range covered by tree ring series, but the uncertainties in the measurements beyond 20ka BP are very large. We have obtained new calibration data from radiocarbon dates on material associated with the catastrophic Campanian Ignimbrite eruption from the Phlegrean Fields near Naples. The eruption has been well dated by {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar to 37ka BP. Radiocarbon measurements were carried out on charcoal from a carbonized branch exposed within the ignimbrite tuff on the wall of an active quarry. The sample was split and analyzed at both the Naples and Lawrence Livermore AMS facilities. The offset between the Ar-Ar data and the radiocarbon results (recalculated using the true 5730-year half life for {sup 14}C) is consistent with predictions from paleomagnetic data and carbon cycle modeling.

  15. The radiocarbon hydroxyl technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Malcolm J.; Sheppard, John C.

    1994-01-01

    The Radiocarbon Technique depends upon measuring the rate of oxidation of CO in an essentially unperturbed sample of air. The airborne technique is slightly different. Hydroxyl concentrations can be calculated directly; peroxyl concentrations can be obtained by NO doping.

  16. Dating Cactus: Annual and Sub-annual Variations of Oxygen-18, Carbon-13 and Radiocarbon in Spines of a Columnar Cactus, Carnegiea gigantea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettman, D. L.; English, N. B.; Sandquist, D. R.; Williams, D. G.

    2006-12-01

    We measured δ18O, δ13C and F14C of spines from a long-lived columnar cactus, Carnegiea gigantea (saguaro), to resolve a record of plant physiological responses to annual and sub-annual climate variation in the eastern Sonoran Desert. Spines grow from the apex of the cactus and are arranged serially along the side of the cactus oldest at the base, youngest at the apex. To establish the age of the spine series, we measured F14C of spines collected at 8 different heights from the apex (3.77 m) to the base of a naturally occurring saguaro. These spines yielded fractions of modern carbon (F14C) from 0.9679 and 1.5537, indicating the presence of carbon in spine tissue derived from atmospheric nuclear testing. We used the F14C of spine tissue to calculate the year of spine emergence for each of the 11 spines, assuming minimal re-allocation of stored carbon to growing spines. At the same 8 heights, we interpolated the date of spine emergence from observed height measurements made between 1964 and 2002. A very strong positive correlation (linear regression, r2 = 0.99, P < 0.0001) between the F14C age of spines and ages determined from direct height measurements was observed, with a two year offset suggesting incorporation of carbon from fossil fuel combustion sources in the Tucson basin. Additionally, spine tips from 97 spines collected serially from the top half of the same saguaro (between 1.77 and 3.50 m) and representing ~15 years of growth, yielded δ18O variations in spine bulk organic material from 38° to 50° (VSMOW) and in δ13C from ° to 11.5° (VPDB). The δ18O and δ13C values were positively correlated over the entire record (linear regression, r2 = 0.22, P < 0.0001). These variations occurred at or near an annual frequency. The most negative δ18O and δ13C values in bulk spine organic material from the naturally occurring cactus were observed in spines grown shortly following the 1983 and 1993 strong El Niño winter precipitation events in Tucson

  17. Revised age of deglaciation of Lake Emma based on new radiocarbon and macrofossil analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, S.A.; Carrara, P.E.; Toolin, L.J.; Jull, A.J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Previous radiocarbon ages of detrital moss fragments in basal organic sediments of Lake Emma indicated that extensive deglaciation of the San Juan Mountains occurred prior to 14,900 yr B.P. (Carrara et al., 1984). Paleoecological analyses of insect and plant macrofossils from these basal sediments cast doubt on the reliability of the radiocarbon ages. Subsequent accelerator radiocarbon dates of insect fossils and wood fragments indicate an early Holocene age, rather than a late Pleistocene age, for the basal sediments of Lake Emma. These new radiocarbon ages suggest that by at least 10,000 yr B.P. deglaciation of the San Juan Mountains was complete. The insect and plant macrofossils from the basal organic sediments indicate a higher-than-present treeline during the early Holocene. The insect assemblages consisted of about 30% bark beetles, which contrasts markedly with the composition of insects from modern lake sediments and modern specimens collected in the Lake Emma cirque, in which bark beetles comprise only about 3% of the assemblages. In addition, in the fossil assemblages there were a number of flightless insect species (not subject to upslope transport by wind) indicative of coniferous forest environments. These insects were likewise absent in the modern assemblage. ?? 1991.

  18. Atmospheric radiocarbon calibration to 45,000 yr B.P.: Late glacial fluctuations and cosmogenic isotope production

    SciTech Connect

    Kitagawa, H.; Plicht, J. van der

    1998-02-20

    More than 250 carbon-14 accelerator mass spectrometry dates of terrestrial macrofossils from annually laminated sediments from Lake Suigetsu (Japan) provide a first atmospheric calibration for almost the total range of the radiocarbon method (45,000 years before the present). The results confirm the (recently revised) floating German pine chronology and are consistent with data from European and marine varved sediments, and combined uranium-thorium and carbon-14 dating of corals up to the Last Glacial Maximum. The data during the Glacial show large fluctuations in the atmospheric carbon-14 content, related to changes in global environment and in cosmogenic isotope production. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Accelerator 14C dates for early upper paleolithic (basal Aurignacian) at El Castillo Cave (Spain)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valdes, V.C.; Bischoff, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Three fragments of charcoal taken from different parts of the lowermost bed containing Aurignacian artifacts at El Castillo Cave yielded AMS dates of 37??7 (?? 1??8) ka bp, 38??5 (?? 1??8) ka bp, and 40??0 (?? 2??1) ka bp (average 38??7 ?? 1??9 ka bp). These dates are almost identical to new AMS dates from l'Arbreda cave in Catalunya on the same cultural horizon (average 38??5 ?? 1??0 ka bp) and are significantly older than the earliest dates for Aurignacian industries in the Aquitaine and in other parts of Central and Western Europe. ?? 1989.

  20. A new radiocarbon revolution and the dispersal of modern humans in Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellars, Paul

    2006-02-01

    Radiocarbon dating has been fundamental to the study of human cultural and biological development over the past 50,000yr. Two recent developments in the methodology of radiocarbon dating show that the speed of colonization of Europe by modern human populations was more rapid than previously believed, and that their period of coexistence with the preceding Neanderthal was shorter.

  1. Extraneous carbon assessment in ultra-microscale radiocarbon analysis using benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanke, Ulrich M.; McIntyre, Cameron P.; Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Wacker, Lukas; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of the natural abundance of radiocarbon (14C) concentrations in inorganic and organic carbon-containing materials can be used to investigate their date of origin. Particularly, the biogeochemical cycling of specific compounds in the environment may be investigated applying molecular marker analyses. However, the isolation of specific molecules from environmental matrices requires a complex processing procedure resulting in small sample sizes that often contain less than 30 μg C. Such small samples are sensitive to extraneous carbon (Cex) that is introduced during the purification of the compounds (Shah and Pearson, 2007). We present a thorough radiocarbon blank assessment for benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCA), a proxy for combustion products that are formed during the oxidative degradation of condensed polyaromatic structures (Wiedemeier et al, in press). The extraneous carbon assessment includes reference material for (1) chemical extraction, (2) preparative liquid chromatography (3) wet chemical oxidation which are subsequently measured with gas ion source AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometer, 5-100 μg C). We always use pairs of reference materials, radiocarbon depleted (14Cfossil) and modern (14Cmodern) to determine the fraction modern (F14C) of Cex.Our results include detailed information about the quantification of Cex in radiocarbon molecular marker analysis using BPCA. Error propagation calculations indicate that ultra-microscale samples (20-30 μg) are feasible with uncertainties of less than 10 %. Calculations of the constant contamination reveal important information about the source (F14C) and mass (μg) of Cex (Wacker and Christl, 2011) for each sub procedure. An external correction of compound specific radiocarbon data is essential for robust results that allow for a high degree of confidence in the 14C results. References Shah and Pearson, 2007. Ultra-microscale (5-25μg C) analysis of individual lipids by 14C AMS: Assessment and

  2. Closed tubes preparation of graphite for high-precision AMS radiocarbon analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdas, I.; Michczynska, D.; Bonani, G.; Maurer, M.; Wacker, L.

    2009-04-01

    Radiocarbon dating is an established tool applied in Geochronology. Technical developments of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry AMS, which allow measurements of samples containing less than 1 mg of carbon, opened opportunities for new applications. Moreover, high resolution records of the past changes require high-resolution chronologies i.e. sampling for 14C dating. In result, the field of applications is rapidly expanding and number of radiocarbon analysis is growing rapidly. Nowadays dedicated 14C AMS machines have great capacity for analysis but in order to keep up with the demand for analysis and provide the results as fast as possible a very efficient way of sample preparation is required. Sample preparation for 14C AMS analysis consists of two steps: separation of relevant carbon from the sample material (removing contamination) and preparation of graphite for AMS analysis. The last step usually involves reaction of CO2 with H2, in the presence of metal catalyst (Fe or Co) of specific mesh size heated to 550-625°C, as originally suggested by Vogel et al. (1984). Various graphitization systems have been built in order to fulfil the requirement of sample quality needed for high-precision radiocarbon data. In the early 90ties another method has been proposed (Vogel 1992) and applied by few laboratories mainly for environmental or biomedical samples. This method uses TiH2 as a source of H2 and can be easily and flexibly applied to produce graphite. Sample of CO2 is frozen in to the tube containing pre-conditioned Zn/TiH2 and Fe catalyst. Torch sealed tubes are then placed in the stepwise heated oven at 500/550°C and left to react for several hours. The greatest problem is the lack of control of the reaction completeness and considerable fractionation. However, recently reported results (Xu et al. 2007) suggest that high precision dating using graphite produced in closed tubes might be possible. We will present results of radiocarbon dating of the set of standards

  3. Changes in the Radiocarbon Reservoir Age in Lake Xingyun, Southwestern China during the Holocene

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Aifeng; He, Yuxin; Wu, Duo; Zhang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Can; Liu, Zhonghui; Yu, Junqing

    2015-01-01

    Chronology is a necessary component of paleoclimatology. Radiocarbon dating plays a central role in determining the ages of geological samples younger than ca. 50 ka BP. However, there are many limitations for its application, including radiocarbon reservoir effects, which may cause incorrect chronology in many lakes. Here we demonstrate temporal changes in the radiocarbon reservoir age of Lake Xingyun, Southwestern China, where radiocarbon ages based on bulk organic matter have been reported in previous studies. Our new radiocarbon ages, determined from terrestrial plant macrofossils suggest that the radiocarbon reservoir age changed from 960 to 2200 years during the last 8500 cal a BP years. These changes to the reservoir effect were associated with inputs from either pre-aged organic carbon or 14C-depleted hard water in Lake Xingyun caused by hydrological change in the lake system. The radiocarbon reservoir age may in return be a good indicator for the carbon source in lake ecosystems and depositional environment. PMID:25815508

  4. Changes in the radiocarbon reservoir age in Lake Xingyun, Southwestern China during the Holocene.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aifeng; He, Yuxin; Wu, Duo; Zhang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Can; Liu, Zhonghui; Yu, Junqing

    2015-01-01

    Chronology is a necessary component of paleoclimatology. Radiocarbon dating plays a central role in determining the ages of geological samples younger than ca. 50 ka BP. However, there are many limitations for its application, including radiocarbon reservoir effects, which may cause incorrect chronology in many lakes. Here we demonstrate temporal changes in the radiocarbon reservoir age of Lake Xingyun, Southwestern China, where radiocarbon ages based on bulk organic matter have been reported in previous studies. Our new radiocarbon ages, determined from terrestrial plant macrofossils suggest that the radiocarbon reservoir age changed from 960 to 2200 years during the last 8500 cal a BP years. These changes to the reservoir effect were associated with inputs from either pre-aged organic carbon or 14C-depleted hard water in Lake Xingyun caused by hydrological change in the lake system. The radiocarbon reservoir age may in return be a good indicator for the carbon source in lake ecosystems and depositional environment.

  5. Dating Techniques in Archaeology and Paleoanthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, R. E.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the new physical dating methods being used by archaeologists and paleoanthropologists to study the material remains of ancient primates. Describes the quaternary physical dating techniques, advances in radiocarbon dating, and the radiocalcium data method. (TW)

  6. Dating techniques in archaeology and paleoanthropology

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.E.

    1987-02-15

    Archaeologists have an increasing array of physical dating methods at their disposal. R.E. Taylor of the University of California discusses available techniques, recent advances in radiocarbon dating, and current developments in radiocalcium dating.

  7. Ancient dates or accelerated rates? Morphological clocks and the antiquity of placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Beck, Robin M D; Lee, Michael S Y

    2014-10-22

    Analyses of a comprehensive morphological character matrix of mammals using 'relaxed' clock models (which simultaneously estimate topology, divergence dates and evolutionary rates), either alone or in combination with an 8.5 kb nuclear sequence dataset, retrieve implausibly ancient, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous estimates for the initial diversification of Placentalia (crown-group Eutheria). These dates are much older than all recent molecular and palaeontological estimates. They are recovered using two very different clock models, and regardless of whether the tree topology is freely estimated or constrained using scaffolds to match the current consensus placental phylogeny. This raises the possibility that divergence dates have been overestimated in previous analyses that have applied such clock models to morphological and total evidence datasets. Enforcing additional age constraints on selected internal divergences results in only a slight reduction of the age of Placentalia. Constraining Placentalia to less than 93.8 Ma, congruent with recent molecular estimates, does not require major changes in morphological or molecular evolutionary rates. Even constraining Placentalia to less than 66 Ma to match the 'explosive' palaeontological model results in only a 10- to 20-fold increase in maximum evolutionary rate for morphology, and fivefold for molecules. The large discrepancies between clock- and fossil-based estimates for divergence dates might therefore be attributable to relatively small changes in evolutionary rates through time, although other explanations (such as overly simplistic models of morphological evolution) need to be investigated. Conversely, dates inferred using relaxed clock models (especially with discrete morphological data and MrBayes) should be treated cautiously, as relatively minor deviations in rate patterns can generate large effects on estimated divergence dates.

  8. Ancient dates or accelerated rates? Morphological clocks and the antiquity of placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Robin M. D.; Lee, Michael S. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of a comprehensive morphological character matrix of mammals using ‘relaxed’ clock models (which simultaneously estimate topology, divergence dates and evolutionary rates), either alone or in combination with an 8.5 kb nuclear sequence dataset, retrieve implausibly ancient, Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous estimates for the initial diversification of Placentalia (crown-group Eutheria). These dates are much older than all recent molecular and palaeontological estimates. They are recovered using two very different clock models, and regardless of whether the tree topology is freely estimated or constrained using scaffolds to match the current consensus placental phylogeny. This raises the possibility that divergence dates have been overestimated in previous analyses that have applied such clock models to morphological and total evidence datasets. Enforcing additional age constraints on selected internal divergences results in only a slight reduction of the age of Placentalia. Constraining Placentalia to less than 93.8 Ma, congruent with recent molecular estimates, does not require major changes in morphological or molecular evolutionary rates. Even constraining Placentalia to less than 66 Ma to match the ‘explosive’ palaeontological model results in only a 10- to 20-fold increase in maximum evolutionary rate for morphology, and fivefold for molecules. The large discrepancies between clock- and fossil-based estimates for divergence dates might therefore be attributable to relatively small changes in evolutionary rates through time, although other explanations (such as overly simplistic models of morphological evolution) need to be investigated. Conversely, dates inferred using relaxed clock models (especially with discrete morphological data and MrBayes) should be treated cautiously, as relatively minor deviations in rate patterns can generate large effects on estimated divergence dates. PMID:25165770

  9. Deglacial Atlantic Radiocarbon: A Southern Ocean Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, L. F.; Burke, A.; Adkins, J. F.; Chen, T.; Spooner, P.

    2014-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the Southern Ocean is an important component of the climate system, acting as a key site for carbon and heat exchange between the atmosphere and oceans. The deglaciation with its associated millenial climate changes is a key time period for testing the mechanisms behind these exchanges. Ascertaining the precise timing of these events is a challenge given complications from variable and largely unconstrained reservoir ages, dissolution of carbonate hard parts and sediment redistribution by strong currents. Nevertheless improvements to our understanding of Southern Ocean dynamics in the past requires accurately-dated proxy records that can be embedded in GCM models. Radiocarbon measured in deep-sea corals offers just such an archive and proxy. Using the skeletons of deep-sea corals we are now able to reconstruct aspects of the history of three distinct water masses in the Drake Passage on a precise timescale, allowing direct comparison to U-series dated speleothem terrestrial records and polar ice cores. We present here a new deglacial radiocarbon record from the Drake Passage which more than doubles the resolution of published records. We focus on the deglacial, as well as providing insights from the contrasting period leading up to the LGM. Together with new data from far-field sites we interpret our results as evidence for a Southern Ocean control on atmospheric carbon dioxide and radiocarbon evolution during the deglaciation, and a northern hemisphere control during the run up to the LGM.

  10. Bomb-curve radiocarbon measurement of recent biologic tissues and applications to wildlife forensics and stable isotope (paleo)ecology.

    PubMed

    Uno, Kevin T; Quade, Jay; Fisher, Daniel C; Wittemyer, George; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Andanje, Samuel; Omondi, Patrick; Litoroh, Moses; Cerling, Thure E

    2013-07-16

    Above-ground thermonuclear weapons testing from 1952 through 1962 nearly doubled the concentration of radiocarbon ((14)C) in the atmosphere. As a result, organic material formed during or after this period may be radiocarbon-dated using the abrupt rise and steady fall of the atmospheric (14)C concentration known as the bomb-curve. We test the accuracy of accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of 29 herbivore and plant tissues collected on known dates between 1905 and 2008 in East Africa. Herbivore samples include teeth, tusks, soft tissue, hair, and horn. Tissues formed after 1955 are dated to within 0.3-1.3 y of formation, depending on the tissue type, whereas tissues older than ca. 1955 have high age uncertainties (>17 y) due to the Suess effect. (14)C dating of tissues has applications to stable isotope (paleo)ecology and wildlife forensics. We use data from 41 additional samples to determine growth rates of tusks, molars, and hair, which improve interpretations of serial stable isotope data for (paleo)ecological studies. (14)C dating can also be used to calculate the time interval represented in periodic histological structures in dental tissues (i.e., perikymata), which in turn may be used as chronometers in fossil teeth. Bomb-curve (14)C dating of confiscated animal tissues (e.g., ivory statues) can be used to determine whether trade of the item is legal, because many Convention of International Trade of Endangered Species restrictions are based on the age of the tissue, and thus can serve as a powerful forensic tool to combat illegal trade in animal parts.

  11. Bomb-curve radiocarbon measurement of recent biologic tissues and applications to wildlife forensics and stable isotope (paleo)ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kevin T.; Quade, Jay; Fisher, Daniel C.; Wittemyer, George; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Andanje, Samuel; Omondi, Patrick; Litoroh, Moses; Cerling, Thure E.

    2013-07-01

    Above-ground thermonuclear weapons testing from 1952 through 1962 nearly doubled the concentration of radiocarbon (14C) in the atmosphere. As a result, organic material formed during or after this period may be radiocarbon-dated using the abrupt rise and steady fall of the atmospheric 14C concentration known as the bomb-curve. We test the accuracy of accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of 29 herbivore and plant tissues collected on known dates between 1905 and 2008 in East Africa. Herbivore samples include teeth, tusks, soft tissue, hair, and horn. Tissues formed after 1955 are dated to within 0.3-1.3 y of formation, depending on the tissue type, whereas tissues older than ca. 1955 have high age uncertainties (>17 y) due to the Suess effect. 14C dating of tissues has applications to stable isotope (paleo)ecology and wildlife forensics. We use data from 41 additional samples to determine growth rates of tusks, molars, and hair, which improve interpretations of serial stable isotope data for (paleo)ecological studies. 14C dating can also be used to calculate the time interval represented in periodic histological structures in dental tissues (i.e., perikymata), which in turn may be used as chronometers in fossil teeth. Bomb-curve 14C dating of confiscated animal tissues (e.g., ivory statues) can be used to determine whether trade of the item is legal, because many Convention of International Trade of Endangered Species restrictions are based on the age of the tissue, and thus can serve as a powerful forensic tool to combat illegal trade in animal parts.

  12. Bomb-curve radiocarbon measurement of recent biologic tissues and applications to wildlife forensics and stable isotope (paleo)ecology

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Kevin T.; Quade, Jay; Fisher, Daniel C.; Wittemyer, George; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Andanje, Samuel; Omondi, Patrick; Litoroh, Moses; Cerling, Thure E.

    2013-01-01

    Above-ground thermonuclear weapons testing from 1952 through 1962 nearly doubled the concentration of radiocarbon (14C) in the atmosphere. As a result, organic material formed during or after this period may be radiocarbon-dated using the abrupt rise and steady fall of the atmospheric 14C concentration known as the bomb-curve. We test the accuracy of accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of 29 herbivore and plant tissues collected on known dates between 1905 and 2008 in East Africa. Herbivore samples include teeth, tusks, soft tissue, hair, and horn. Tissues formed after 1955 are dated to within 0.3–1.3 y of formation, depending on the tissue type, whereas tissues older than ca. 1955 have high age uncertainties (>17 y) due to the Suess effect. 14C dating of tissues has applications to stable isotope (paleo)ecology and wildlife forensics. We use data from 41 additional samples to determine growth rates of tusks, molars, and hair, which improve interpretations of serial stable isotope data for (paleo)ecological studies. 14C dating can also be used to calculate the time interval represented in periodic histological structures in dental tissues (i.e., perikymata), which in turn may be used as chronometers in fossil teeth. Bomb-curve 14C dating of confiscated animal tissues (e.g., ivory statues) can be used to determine whether trade of the item is legal, because many Convention of International Trade of Endangered Species restrictions are based on the age of the tissue, and thus can serve as a powerful forensic tool to combat illegal trade in animal parts. PMID:23818577

  13. Comment on "Radiocarbon Calibration Curve Spanning 0 to 50,000 Years B.P. Based on Paired 230Th/234U/238U and 14C Dates on Pristine Corals" by R.G. Fairbanks, R. A. Mortlock, T.-C. Chiu, L. Cao, A. Kaplan, T. P. Guilderson, T. W. Fairbanks, A. L. Bloom, P

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, P J; Baillie, M L; Bard, E; Beck, J W; Blackwell, P G; Buck, C E; Burr, G S; Edwards, R L; Friedrich, M; Guilderson, T P; Hogg, A G; Hughen, K A; Kromer, B; McCormac, G; Manning, S; Reimer, R W; Southon, J R; Stuiver, M; der Plicht, J v; Weyhenmeyer, C E

    2005-10-02

    Radiocarbon calibration curves are essential for converting radiocarbon dated chronologies to the calendar timescale. Prior to the 1980's numerous differently derived calibration curves based on radiocarbon ages of known age material were in use, resulting in ''apples and oranges'' comparisons between various records (Klein et al., 1982), further complicated by until then unappreciated inter-laboratory variations (International Study Group, 1982). The solution was to produce an internationally-agreed calibration curve based on carefully screened data with updates at 4-6 year intervals (Klein et al., 1982; Stuiver and Reimer, 1986; Stuiver and Reimer, 1993; Stuiver et al., 1998). The IntCal working group has continued this tradition with the active participation of researchers who produced the records that were considered for incorporation into the current, internationally-ratified calibration curves, IntCal04, SHCal04, and Marine04, for Northern Hemisphere terrestrial, Southern Hemisphere terrestrial, and marine samples, respectively (Reimer et al., 2004; Hughen et al., 2004; McCormac et al., 2004). Fairbanks et al. (2005), accompanied by a more technical paper, Chiu et al. (2005), and an introductory comment, Adkins (2005), recently published a ''calibration curve spanning 0-50,000 years''. Fairbanks et al. (2005) and Chiu et al. (2005) have made a significant contribution to the database on which the IntCal04 and Marine04 calibration curves are based. These authors have now taken the further step to derive their own radiocarbon calibration extending to 50,000 cal BP, which they claim is superior to that generated by the IntCal working group. In their papers, these authors are strongly critical of the IntCal calibration efforts for what they claim to be inadequate screening and sample pretreatment methods. While these criticisms may ultimately be helpful in identifying a better set of protocols, we feel that there are also several erroneous and misleading

  14. Accelerator dating of a mixed assemblage of late Pleistocene insect fossils from the Lamb Spring site, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Scott A.; Toolin, Laurence J.

    1990-01-01

    Fossil insects from the late-glacial deposits at the Lamb Spring archaeological site, near Denver, Colorado, are relatively abundant and diverse, providing considerable paleoecological data for the site. The late Pleistocene insect fauna from the site comprises 72 identified taxa, principally beetles. However, the fauna presented an interpretive problem because it contained a mixture of prairie and alpine tundra species. This was initially considered to be the result of a mixing of faunal elements during the climatic transition of late-glacial times, a "no-modern-analog" fauna. Accelerator dating of insect fossil specimens from the two ecological groups helped resolve the paleoecological problem. Fossil specimens of the prairie-associated species were dated at 17,850 ± 550 yr B.P., while specimens of the tundra-associated species yielded an age of 14,500 ± 500 yr B.P. These dates reveal that what appeared to be an ecological mixing was probably a taphonomic problem, wherein full-glacial-age fossils were probably reworked into latest Wisconsin sediments. While both faunal assemblages reflect climatic conditions substantially colder than present, initial results suggest that the full-glacial fauna represents a cold, dry grassland or steppe environment, while the younger fauna suggests moister and more tundra-like conditions.

  15. Impact of fossil fuel emissions on atmospheric radiocarbon and various applications of radiocarbon over this century.

    PubMed

    Graven, Heather D

    2015-08-04

    Radiocarbon analyses are commonly used in a broad range of fields, including earth science, archaeology, forgery detection, isotope forensics, and physiology. Many applications are sensitive to the radiocarbon ((14)C) content of atmospheric CO2, which has varied since 1890 as a result of nuclear weapons testing, fossil fuel emissions, and CO2 cycling between atmospheric, oceanic, and terrestrial carbon reservoirs. Over this century, the ratio (14)C/C in atmospheric CO2 (Δ(14)CO2) will be determined by the amount of fossil fuel combustion, which decreases Δ(14)CO2 because fossil fuels have lost all (14)C from radioactive decay. Simulations of Δ(14)CO2 using the emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report, the Representative Concentration Pathways, indicate that ambitious emission reductions could sustain Δ(14)CO2 near the preindustrial level of 0‰ through 2100, whereas "business-as-usual" emissions will reduce Δ(14)CO2 to -250‰, equivalent to the depletion expected from over 2,000 y of radioactive decay. Given current emissions trends, fossil fuel emission-driven artificial "aging" of the atmosphere is likely to occur much faster and with a larger magnitude than previously expected. This finding has strong and as yet unrecognized implications for many applications of radiocarbon in various fields, and it implies that radiocarbon dating may no longer provide definitive ages for samples up to 2,000 y old.

  16. Impact of fossil fuel emissions on atmospheric radiocarbon and various applications of radiocarbon over this century

    PubMed Central

    Graven, Heather D.

    2015-01-01

    Radiocarbon analyses are commonly used in a broad range of fields, including earth science, archaeology, forgery detection, isotope forensics, and physiology. Many applications are sensitive to the radiocarbon (14C) content of atmospheric CO2, which has varied since 1890 as a result of nuclear weapons testing, fossil fuel emissions, and CO2 cycling between atmospheric, oceanic, and terrestrial carbon reservoirs. Over this century, the ratio 14C/C in atmospheric CO2 (Δ14CO2) will be determined by the amount of fossil fuel combustion, which decreases Δ14CO2 because fossil fuels have lost all 14C from radioactive decay. Simulations of Δ14CO2 using the emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report, the Representative Concentration Pathways, indicate that ambitious emission reductions could sustain Δ14CO2 near the preindustrial level of 0‰ through 2100, whereas “business-as-usual” emissions will reduce Δ14CO2 to −250‰, equivalent to the depletion expected from over 2,000 y of radioactive decay. Given current emissions trends, fossil fuel emission-driven artificial “aging” of the atmosphere is likely to occur much faster and with a larger magnitude than previously expected. This finding has strong and as yet unrecognized implications for many applications of radiocarbon in various fields, and it implies that radiocarbon dating may no longer provide definitive ages for samples up to 2,000 y old. PMID:26195757

  17. Radiocarbon analysis of human remains: a review of forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2014-11-01

    Radiocarbon analysis of organic materials, with the comparison of values with those of the post-1950 modern bomb curve, has proven useful in forensic science to help evaluate the antiquity of evidence. Applications are particularly helpful in the study of human remains, especially with those displaying advanced decomposition of soft tissues. Radiocarbon analysis can reveal if the remains relate to the modern, post-1950 era and if so, also provide information needed to evaluate the death and birth date. Sample selection and interpretation of results must be guided by knowledge of the formation and remodeling of different human tissues, as well as contextual information and the approximate age at death of the individual represented. Dental enamel does not remodel and thus captures dietary radiocarbon values at the time of juvenile formation. Most other human tissues do remodel but at differing rates and therefore collectively offer key information relative to the estimation of the death date.

  18. The Naples University 3 MV tandem accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Campajola, L.; Brondi, A.

    2013-07-18

    The 3 MV tandem accelerator of the Naples University is used for research activities and applications in many fields. At the beginning of operation (1977) the main utilization was in the field of nuclear physics. Later, the realization of new beam lines allowed the development of applied activities as radiocarbon dating, ion beam analysis, biophysics, ion implantation etc. At present, the availability of different ion sources and many improvements on the accelerator allow to run experiments in a wide range of subjects. An overview of the characteristics and major activities of the laboratory is presented.

  19. First accelerator mass spectrometry {sup 14}C dates documenting contemporaneity of nonanalog species in late Pleistocene mammal communities

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, T.W. Jr.; Semken, H.A. Jr.; Graham, R.W.; Klippel, W.F.; Markova, A.; Smirnov, N.G.; Southon, J.

    1999-10-01

    Worldwide late Pleistocene terrestrial mammal faunas are characterized by stratigraphic associations of species that now have exclusive geographic ranges. These have been interpreted as either taphonomically mixed or representative of communities that no longer exist. Accelerator mass spectrometry {sup 14}C dates (n = 60) on single bones of stratigraphically associated fossil micromammals from two American and two Russian sites document for the first time that currently allopatric mammals occurred together between 12,000 and 22,000 yr B.P. on two continents. The existence of mammal communities without modern analogs demonstrates that Northern Hemisphere biological communities are ephemeral and that many modern biomes are younger than 12 ka. Future climate change may result in new nonanalog communities.

  20. The earliest archaeological maize (Zea mays L.) from highland Mexico: new accelerator mass spectrometry dates and their implications.

    PubMed

    Piperno, D R; Flannery, K V

    2001-02-13

    Accelerator mass spectrometry age determinations of maize cobs (Zea mays L.) from Guilá Naquitz Cave in Oaxaca, Mexico, produced dates of 5,400 carbon-14 years before the present (about 6,250 calendar years ago), making those cobs the oldest in the Americas. Macrofossils and phytoliths characteristic of wild and domesticated Zea fruits are absent from older strata from the site, although Zea pollen has previously been identified from those levels. These results, together with the modern geographical distribution of wild Zea mays, suggest that the cultural practices that led to Zea domestication probably occurred elsewhere in Mexico. Guilá Naquitz Cave has now yielded the earliest macrofossil evidence for the domestication of two major American crop plants, squash (Cucurbita pepo) and maize.

  1. Natural Paleoseismometers: Cosmogenic Nuclide Dating of Precariously Balanced Rocks (PBRs) - Integral Constraints on Maximum Ground Accelerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perg, L. A.; Ludwig, L. G.; Kendrick, K.; Brune, J.; Purvance, M.; Anooshehpoor, R.; Akciz, S.

    2007-12-01

    Precariously balanced rocks (PBRs) act as natural seismometers constraining maximum ground acceleration over the surface exposure history of the PBR. These key paleoseismic indicators have the potential to validate ground motions on the timescale necessary to test earthquake rupture forecasts and Seismic Hazard Assessment estimates, and are an active topic of research to validate CyberShake results and constrain National Seismic Hazard Maps. This research focuses on examining the post-exhumation history of PBRs using in-situ terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCNs). TCNs provide a record of near-surface exposure history. The measured concentrations are a function of the residence time in the upper ~20 m of the subsurface (inherited concentration), the timing and rate of exhumation, and post-exhumation surface spalling and chemical erosion. Our goal in the project is to provide reasonable constraints on the post-exhumation history, specifically the age of the PBRs and evolution of precariousness: we should be able to constrain whether the rocks were of similar precariousness 2.5 ka, 5 ka, and 10 ka ago. These specific targets will provide important constraints on time since exceedance for the CyberShake models. We developed our sampling strategy to address subsurface inheritance, exhumation rate and timing, and post- exhumation spalling and chemical erosion. PBRs were selected to meet a variety of considerations. These rocks constrain ground motions from large earthquakes on the San Jacinto and Elsinore faults, in Southern California. Inherited concentrations lead to an age estimate that is too old; we are investigating inherited concentrations though sampling a rock quarry near Perris CA, with shielded samples at greater than 15 m depth. We also have partially shielded samples from the interior of rocks toppled to measure their stability, and through vandalism. To determine exhumation age and rate, our sampling strategy is to collect 5-6 samples per PBR: 1 on top, 3

  2. New and revised 14C dates for Hawaiian surface lava flows: Paleomagnetic and geomagnetic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pressline, N.; Trusdell, F.A.; Gubbins, David

    2009-01-01

    Radiocarbon dates have been obtained for 30 charcoal samples corresponding to 27 surface lava flows from the Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes on the Island of Hawaii. The submitted charcoal was a mixture of fresh and archived material. Preparation and analysis was undertaken at the NERC Radiocarbon Laboratory in Glasgow, Scotland, and the associated SUERC Accelerator Mass Spectrometry facility. The resulting dates range from 390 years B.P. to 12,910 years B.P. with corresponding error bars an order of magnitude smaller than previously obtained using the gas-counting method. The new and revised 14C data set can aid hazard and risk assessment on the island. The data presented here also have implications for geomagnetic modelling, which at present is limited by large dating errors. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Opportunities in low-level radiocarbon microtracing: applications and new technology

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Le Thuy; Song, Qi; Lee, Hee Joo; Roffel, Ad F; Shin, Seok-Ho; Shin, Young G; Dueker, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    14C-radiolabeled (radiocarbon) drug studies are central to defining the disposition of therapeutics in clinical development. Concerns over radiation, however, have dissuaded investigators from conducting these studies as often as their utility may merit. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), originally designed for carbon dating and geochronology, has changed the outlook for in-human radiolabeled testing. The high sensitivity of AMS affords human clinical testing with vastly reduced radiative (microtracing) and chemical exposures (microdosing). Early iterations of AMS were unsuitable for routine biomedical use due to the instruments’ large size and associated per sample costs. The situation is changing with advances in the core and peripheral instrumentation. We review the important milestones in applied AMS research and recent advances in the core technology platform. We also look ahead to an entirely new class of 14C detection systems that use lasers to measure carbon dioxide in small gas cells. PMID:28031933

  4. Opportunities in low-level radiocarbon microtracing: applications and new technology.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Le Thuy; Song, Qi; Lee, Hee Joo; Roffel, Ad F; Shin, Seok-Ho; Shin, Young G; Dueker, Stephen R

    2016-03-01

    (14)C-radiolabeled (radiocarbon) drug studies are central to defining the disposition of therapeutics in clinical development. Concerns over radiation, however, have dissuaded investigators from conducting these studies as often as their utility may merit. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), originally designed for carbon dating and geochronology, has changed the outlook for in-human radiolabeled testing. The high sensitivity of AMS affords human clinical testing with vastly reduced radiative (microtracing) and chemical exposures (microdosing). Early iterations of AMS were unsuitable for routine biomedical use due to the instruments' large size and associated per sample costs. The situation is changing with advances in the core and peripheral instrumentation. We review the important milestones in applied AMS research and recent advances in the core technology platform. We also look ahead to an entirely new class of (14)C detection systems that use lasers to measure carbon dioxide in small gas cells.

  5. Radiocarbon ages of sedimentary lipids as tracers of organic carbon input to marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Eglinton, T.I.; Nelson, B.; McNichol, A.P.

    1996-10-01

    A novel analytical approach, Preparative Capillary Gas Chromatography (PCGC), has been used to isolate sufficient quantities of individual hydrocarbon lipids from two marine surface sediments (Black Sea, Arabian Sea) for radiocarbon dating by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). {Delta}{sup 14}C values for bulk sedimentary organic carbon (OC) from the Black and Arabian Sea samples are -105 and -112{per_thousand} respectively. In the Black Sea, extended [higher plant] n-alkanes (n-C{sub 29}, n-C{sub 31}) are significantly enriched relative to bulk OC (ave -80{per_thousand}), indicating input of {open_quotes}fresh{close_quotes} terrestrial organic matter, while shorter chain homologues (n-C{sub 23}, n-C{sub 25}) exhibit depleted (ca. -160{per_thousand}) values, in keeping with the total hydrocarbon fraction (-150{per_thousand}). Arabian Sea hydrocarbons exhibit a much wider range of {Delta}{sup 14}C values (from -38 to -780{per_thousand}). Markers for diatoms (highly branched isoprenoid alkenes) show the youngest radiocarbon ages while saturated hydrocarbons display the oldest ages. We interpret these variations in terms of uptake of atmospheric CO{sub 2} and contributions from relic carbon sources. These and related data will be discussed in the context of organic carbon input and preservation in these marine systems.

  6. Radiocarbon content in the annual tree rings during last 150 years and time variation of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kocharov, G. E.; Metskvarishvili, R. Y.; Tsereteli, S. L.

    1985-01-01

    The results of the high accuracy measurements of radiocarbon abundance in precisely dated tree rings in the interval 1800 to 1950 yrs are discussed. Radiocarbon content caused by solar activity is established. The temporal dependence of cosmic rays is constructed, by use of radio abundance data.

  7. Radiocarbon positive-ion mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Shanks, Richard P.; Donzel, Xavier; Gaubert, Gabriel

    2015-10-01

    Proof-of-principle of a new mass spectrometric technique for radiocarbon measurement is demonstrated. Interfering nitrogen and hydrocarbon molecules are largely eliminated in a charge-exchange cell operating on non-metallic gas. The positive-to-negative ion conversion is the reverse of that conventionally used in accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and is compatible with plasma ion sources that may be significantly more efficient and capable of greater output than are AMS sputter ion sources. The Nanogan electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source employed exhibited no sample memory and the >50 kyrs age range of AMS was reproduced. A bespoke prototype new instrument is now required to optimise the plasma and cell physics and to realise hypothetical performance gains over AMS.

  8. IntCal04: A New Consensus Radiocarbon Calibration Dataset from 0-26 ka BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, P. J.; Baillie, M. G.; Bard, E.; Beck, J. W.; Buck, C. E.; Blackwell, P. G.; Burr, G. S.; Cutler, K. B.; Damon, P. E.; Edwards, R. L.; Fairbanks, R. G.; Friedrich, M.; Guilderson, T. P.; Hogg, A. G.; Hughen, K. A.; Kromer, B.; McCormac, G.; Ramsey, C. B.; Reimer, R. W.; Remmele, S.; Southon, J. R.; Stuiver, M.; Taylor, F. W.; van der Plicht, J.; Weyhenmeyer, C. E.

    2003-12-01

    Because atmosphere 14C levels have not been constant through time, it is necessary to calibrate radiocarbon dates with known age radiocarbon datasets in order to compare paleorecords based on 14C ages and those based on other timescales. The need for a consensus calibration dataset was acknowledged by the radiocarbon community as a way of preventing confusion and the subjective use of selected datasets (1). Since then, radiocarbon calibration datasets have been developed by international collaborations and presented for ratification at the International Radiocarbon Conference (2-4). The IntCal04 Radiocarbon Calibration/Comparison Working Group has put together a dataset which incorporates existing and new measurements of tree-ring records, foraminifera from varved sediments, and corals that meet a strict set of acceptance criteria (5). Uncertainties for both the calendar time scale and the radiocarbon ages have been quantified and included in the dataset combination using a statistical technique based on the ideas of Christen and Nicholls (6) and Gomez Portugal Aguilar (7). The IntCal04 dataset, which covers the range of 0 to 26 ka BP, was presented for ratification at the 19th International Radiocarbon Conference in Wellington, New Zealand, in September, 2003. This paper will highlight the differences between IntCal98 and the new IntCal04 dataset and give an example showing the effect on the calibrated age for a Younger Dryas age sample. 1. J. Klein, J. C. Lerman, P. E. Damon, E. K. Ralph, Radiocarbon 24, 103-150 (1982). 2. M. Stuiver, Radiocarbon 28, R2-R2 (1986). 3. M. Stuiver et al., Radiocarbon 40, 1041-1083 (1998). 4. M. Stuiver, P. J. Reimer, Radiocarbon 35, 215-230 (1993). 5. P. J. Reimer et al., Radiocarbon 44, 653-661. (2002). 6. J. A. Christen, G. Nicholls, "Random-walk radiocarbon calibration." (Mathematics Department, University of Auckland, 2000). 7.D. G. P. Aguilar, C. D. Litton, A. O'Hagan, Radiocarbon 44, 195-212 (2002).

  9. Issues and opportunities in accelerator mass spectrometry for stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Matteson, Sam

    2008-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has developed in the last 30 years many notable applications to the spectrometry of radioisotopes, particularly in radiocarbon dating. The instrumentation science of trace element AMS (TEAMS) that analyzes stable isotopes, also called Accelerator SIMS or MegaSIMS, while unique in many features, has also shared in many of these significant advances and has pushed TEAMS sensitivity to concentration levels surpassing many competing mass spectroscopic technologies. This review examines recent instrumentation developments, the capabilities of the new instrumentation and discernable trends for future development.

  10. Mass spectrometry with accelerators.

    PubMed

    Litherland, A E; Zhao, X-L; Kieser, W E

    2011-01-01

    As one in a series of articles on Canadian contributions to mass spectrometry, this review begins with an outline of the history of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), noting roles played by researchers at three Canadian AMS laboratories. After a description of the unique features of AMS, three examples, (14)C, (10)Be, and (129)I are given to illustrate the methods. The capabilities of mass spectrometry have been extended by the addition of atomic isobar selection, molecular isobar attenuation, further ion acceleration, followed by ion detection and ion identification at essentially zero dark current or ion flux. This has been accomplished by exploiting the techniques and accelerators of atomic and nuclear physics. In 1939, the first principles of AMS were established using a cyclotron. In 1977 the selection of isobars in the ion source was established when it was shown that the (14)N(-) ion was very unstable, or extremely difficult to create, making a tandem electrostatic accelerator highly suitable for assisting the mass spectrometric measurement of the rare long-lived radioactive isotope (14)C in the environment. This observation, together with the large attenuation of the molecular isobars (13)CH(-) and (12)CH 2(-) during tandem acceleration and the observed very low background contamination from the ion source, was found to facilitate the mass spectrometry of (14)C to at least a level of (14)C/C ~ 6 × 10(-16), the equivalent of a radiocarbon age of 60,000 years. Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, or AMS, has now made possible the accurate radiocarbon dating of milligram-sized carbon samples by ion counting as well as dating and tracing with many other long-lived radioactive isotopes such as (10)Be, (26)Al, (36)Cl, and (129)I. The difficulty of obtaining large anion currents with low electron affinities and the difficulties of isobar separation, especially for the heavier mass ions, has prompted the use of molecular anions and the search for alternative

  11. The impact of age at death on the lag time of radiocarbon values in human bone.

    PubMed

    Ubelaker, Douglas H; Thomas, Christian; Olson, Jacqueline E

    2015-06-01

    Analysis of modern bomb-pulse radiocarbon in human bone offers data needed to interpret the post-mortem interval in skeletonized human remains recovered from forensic contexts. Radiocarbon analysis of different tissues with distinct rates of remodeling allows proper placement of the values on the modern bomb-curve. However, the lag time between the date of intercept on the curve and the actual death date is largely affected by the age at death. Published data on radiocarbon analysis of individuals of known age at death and death dates indicate that this lag time increases with age until about 60 years. The lag time documented for each decade of life can be used to compensate for this age-related factor and increase the accuracy of interpretation of the death date. While this method could be greatly improved by original research with a larger sample size, this study provides an adequate point from which to launch further investigations into the subject.

  12. Accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hellborg, Ragnar; Skog, Göran

    2008-01-01

    In this overview the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its use are described. AMS is a highly sensitive method of counting atoms. It is used to detect very low concentrations of natural isotopic abundances (typically in the range between 10(-12) and 10(-16)) of both radionuclides and stable nuclides. The main advantages of AMS compared to conventional radiometric methods are the use of smaller samples (mg and even sub-mg size) and shorter measuring times (less than 1 hr). The equipment used for AMS is almost exclusively based on the electrostatic tandem accelerator, although some of the newest systems are based on a slightly different principle. Dedicated accelerators as well as older "nuclear physics machines" can be found in the 80 or so AMS laboratories in existence today. The most widely used isotope studied with AMS is 14C. Besides radiocarbon dating this isotope is used in climate studies, biomedicine applications and many other fields. More than 100,000 14C samples are measured per year. Other isotopes studied include 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 59Ni, 129I, U, and Pu. Although these measurements are important, the number of samples of these other isotopes measured each year is estimated to be less than 10% of the number of 14C samples.

  13. Age models for peat deposits on the basis of coupled lead-210 and radiocarbon data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowska, Natalia; de Vleeschouwer, François; Sikorski, Jarosław; Sensuła, Barbara; Michczyński, Adam; Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł, Barbara; Palowski, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    The study presents three examples of age-model construction based on the results of 210Pb and 14C dating methods applied to peat deposits. The three sites are ombrotrophic peat bogs: the Misten (Belgium), Slowinskie Bloto (N Poland) and Puscizna Mala (S Poland). All sites have been subjected to multiproxy studies aimed at reconstructing paleoenvironment and human activity, covering the last 1500, 1300 and 1800 years, respectively (De Vleeschouwer et al. 2009A, 2009B, in prep., Fialkiewicz-Koziel, ongoing PhD). A detailed comparison between 210Pb and post-bomb 14C results in the Misten bog has also been carried out by Piotrowska et al. (2009). In all cores, the 210Pb activity was calculated using 210Po and 208Po activities after acid-extraction from bulk samples, subsequent deposition on silver discs and measurements by alpha spectrometry. Unsupported 210Pb was detected until 35cm in Slowinskie Bloto, 15cm in the Misten and 19cm in Puscizna Mala. Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) model was then applied to compute ages of each 1-cm core interval. For the Misten and Slowinskie Bloto, radiocarbon measurements were performed on selected aboveground plant macrofossils, mainly Sphagnum spp. or Calluna vulgaris, Erica tetralix, and Andromeda polyfolia. Radiocarbon ages were determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) after acid-alkali-acid wash, combustion, purification of carbon dioxide and graphitisation. For Puscizna Mala bulk samples were dated after chemical preparation of benzene for liquid scintillation counting (LSC) or CO2 for gas proportional counting (GPC). Radiocarbon calibration was undertaken using the Intcal04 calibration curve and OxCal 4 software. As a priori information the 210Pb-derived ages were used in a P_Sequence model (Bronk Ramsey, 2008). A number of dates characterized by low agreement with stratigraphical order had to be considered as outliers and rejected from the final age model. For building a continuous age models a non-linear approach

  14. Preliminary report on radiocarbon dating of cryptoendolithic microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonani, G.; Friedmann, E. I.; Ocampo-Friedmann, R.; McKay, C. P.; Woelfli, W.

    1988-01-01

    The existence of microbial communities living inside desert rocks has been reported by FRIEDMANN et al. (1967, 1976), first in rocks collected from the hot and dry Negev desert and later in rocks in the frigid Ross Desert of Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. The extremely inhospitable climatic conditions in both places has led to the suggestion that these organisms have very low rates of metabolism and may, in addition, be very old (FRIEDMANN 1982). Our preliminary measurements showed a 14C deficiency indicating a carbon age in the order of magnitude of 10(3) years.

  15. RADIOCARBON SOURCE APPORTIONMENT IN A BIOFUELS ERA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuels (gasohol and biodiesel) introduce radiocarbon into the U.S. mobile source fuel supply where it was previously absent. Initial measurements of radiocarbon in the PM2.5 combustion emissions from engines using gasohol indicate that this may have less effect on r...

  16. The role of inter-comparisons in radiocarbon quality assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Marian; Cook, Gordon; Naysmith, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Radiocarbon dating is used widely in many geochronology projects as a basis for the creation and testing of chronological constructs. Radiocarbon measurements are by their nature complex and the degree of sample pre-treatment varies considerably depending on the material. Within the UK and Europe, there are a number of well-established laboratories and increasingly, scientists are not just commissioning new dates, but also using statistical modelling of assemblages of dates, perhaps measured in different laboratories, to provide formal date estimates for their investigations. The issue of comparability of measurements (and thus bias, accuracy and precision of measurement) from the diverse laboratories is one which has been the focus of some attention both within the 14C community and the wider user communities for some time. As a result of this but also as part of laboratory benchmarking and quality assurance, the 14C community has undertaken a wide-scale, far-reaching and evolving programme of inter-comparisons, to the benefit of laboratories and users alike. This paper presents the results from the most recent exercise SIRI. The objectives of SIRI included, through choice of material, to contribute to the discussion concerning laboratory offsets and error multipliers in the context of IntCal (the International Calibration Programme) and to gain a better understanding of differences in background derived from a range of infinite age material types.

  17. New radiocarbon data to study the history of roman and medieval Florence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoldus-Huyzendveld, A.; Fedi, M. E.; Cantini, F.; Bruttini, J.; Cartocci, A.; Calabrisotto, C. Scirè

    2010-04-01

    Florence is a town worldwide known for its Renaissance masterpieces. It is often forgotten that it was founded during Roman times and remained a small village until the end of the early Middle Ages, practically confined within the ancient Roman boundaries. Since 2003, an extended archaeological research executed by the University of Sienna has studied the most ancient layers in the centre of Florence with the aim to enhance both the archaeological and paleo-environmental reconstruction of this area. One of the peculiarities of these excavations is that the early medieval layers were poor in datable ceramics, thus charcoals were sampled from different stratigraphic layers in order to contribute to the dating. Several data have already been published; here we focus on the excavation site of Palazzo Vecchio, now the seat of the municipality of Florence. This area is located close to the Arno river, along the eastern margin of the slightly elevated height upon which the Roman town was founded; actually, in the layers beneath the surface, the Roman theatre is still preserved. Radiocarbon dating of charcoals was performed in the LABEC laboratory in Florence, at the AMS beam line of the AMS-IBA 3 MV Tandetron accelerator. Comparison of these new data with the former ones and with the archaeological and geological data adds new information especially on natural phenomena like floods and on the human occupation of this area in the past.

  18. Agriculture, population growth, and statistical analysis of the radiocarbon record.

    PubMed

    Zahid, H Jabran; Robinson, Erick; Kelly, Robert L

    2016-01-26

    The human population has grown significantly since the onset of the Holocene about 12,000 y ago. Despite decades of research, the factors determining prehistoric population growth remain uncertain. Here, we examine measurements of the rate of growth of the prehistoric human population based on statistical analysis of the radiocarbon record. We find that, during most of the Holocene, human populations worldwide grew at a long-term annual rate of 0.04%. Statistical analysis of the radiocarbon record shows that transitioning farming societies experienced the same rate of growth as contemporaneous foraging societies. The same rate of growth measured for populations dwelling in a range of environments and practicing a variety of subsistence strategies suggests that the global climate and/or endogenous biological factors, not adaptability to local environment or subsistence practices, regulated the long-term growth of the human population during most of the Holocene. Our results demonstrate that statistical analyses of large ensembles of radiocarbon dates are robust and valuable for quantitatively investigating the demography of prehistoric human populations worldwide.

  19. Agriculture, population growth, and statistical analysis of the radiocarbon record

    PubMed Central

    Zahid, H. Jabran; Robinson, Erick; Kelly, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    The human population has grown significantly since the onset of the Holocene about 12,000 y ago. Despite decades of research, the factors determining prehistoric population growth remain uncertain. Here, we examine measurements of the rate of growth of the prehistoric human population based on statistical analysis of the radiocarbon record. We find that, during most of the Holocene, human populations worldwide grew at a long-term annual rate of 0.04%. Statistical analysis of the radiocarbon record shows that transitioning farming societies experienced the same rate of growth as contemporaneous foraging societies. The same rate of growth measured for populations dwelling in a range of environments and practicing a variety of subsistence strategies suggests that the global climate and/or endogenous biological factors, not adaptability to local environment or subsistence practices, regulated the long-term growth of the human population during most of the Holocene. Our results demonstrate that statistical analyses of large ensembles of radiocarbon dates are robust and valuable for quantitatively investigating the demography of prehistoric human populations worldwide. PMID:26699457

  20. Radiocarbon: nature's tracer for carbonaceous pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, L.A.; Klouda, G.A.; Gerlach, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Recent developments in radiocarbon dating techniques have made it feasible to determine /sup 14/C//sup 12/C ratios in samples containing milligram or even microgram quantities of carbon. As a result, it has become practicable to apply these techniques to the study of trace gases and particles in the atmosphere, as a means of resolving anthropogenic from natural source components. Interpretation of /sup 14/C data is straightforward: biospheric carbon (such as vegetation) is alive with a /sup 14/C//sup 12/C ratio of about 1.5 x 10 to the 12th power, whereas fossil carbon is dead. Beyond this dichotomous classification it becomes very interesting to combine the isotopic data with concurrent chemical data, as well as spatial and temporal distributions, in order to infer the strengths of specific sources of carbonaceous pollutants. A brief review will be presented of program on atmospheric gases and carbonaceous particles. For the latter, the authors have assayed individual chemical and size fractions, and samples collected in urban, rural, and remote locales. The biogenic carbon fraction -- presumably from wood-burning -- ranged from 10 to 100% for the urban samples analyzed.

  1. Improving estimates of surface water radiocarbon reservoir ages in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenop, Rosanna; Burke, Andrea; Rae, James; Austin, William; Reimer, Paula; Blaauw, Maarten; Crocker, Anya; Chalk, Thomas; Barker, Stephen; Knutz, Paul; Hall, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Radiocarbon measurements from foraminifera in marine sediment cores are widely used to constrain age models and the timing of paleoceanographic events, as well as past changes in ocean circulation and carbon cycling. However, the use of radiocarbon for both dating and palaeoceanographic applications is limited in sediment cores by a lack of knowledge about the surface ocean radiocarbon reservoir age and how it varies in both space and time. Typically, to convert a planktic radiocarbon age into a calendar age, an assumed constant reservoir age is applied. However, there is mounting evidence to suggest that this assumption of constant reservoir age through time is an oversimplification, particularly for the high latitude oceans during the cold climates of the last glacial and deglacial periods. Here we present new high-resolution radiocarbon records together with tephra tie points and 230-thorium (230Th) constrained sedimentation rates to improve estimates of radiocarbon reservoir age in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. In addition we will explore the impact of the new reservoir ages for both the age models of the cores studied, as well as the palaeoceanographic implications of these reservoir age changes during intervals of rapid climate change over the past 40,000 years.

  2. Youngest radiocarbon age for Jefferson's ground sloth, Megalonyx jeffersonii (Xenarthra, Megalonychidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory McDonald, H.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Gnidovec, Dale M.

    2015-03-01

    A partial skeleton of the extinct ground sloth, Megalonyx jeffersonii, recovered from a farm near Millersburg, Ohio in 1890, was radiocarbon dated for the first time. The ungual dated is part of a skeleton mounted for exhibit at the Orton Geological Museum at Ohio State University and was the first mounted skeleton of this animal. From its initial discovery the bones were treated with multiple organic compounds that had the potential to compromise the radiocarbon age and the specimen required special treatments in order to obtain a valid radiocarbon age. The 14C measurement on the ungual from this skeleton (11,235 ± 40 14C yr BP = 13,180-13,034 cal yr BP) is the youngest 14C age presently determined for M. jeffersonii.

  3. AMS radiocarbon investigation of the African baobab: Searching for the oldest tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrut, Adrian; von Reden, Karl F.; Mayne, Diana H.; Lowy, Daniel A.; Patrut, Roxana T.

    2013-01-01

    The Glencoe baobab, a very large specimen from South Africa, split twice in 2009. Several wood samples were collected from the eastern cavity, from the outer part of the main section and also from the largest broken segment which was connected to this section. These wood samples were processed and investigated by AMS radiocarbon dating. The radiocarbon date of the oldest sample was found to be 1838 ± 21 BP, which corresponds to a calibrated age of 1835 ± 40 years. Thus, the Glencoe baobab becomes the oldest dated baobab and also the oldest angiosperm tree with accurate dating results. The distribution of dating results revealed that the Glencoe baobab is a multi-generation tree, with several standing or collapsed and partially fused stems, showing different ages.

  4. A complete terrestrial radiocarbon record for 11.2 to 52.8 kyr B.P.

    PubMed

    Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Staff, Richard A; Bryant, Charlotte L; Brock, Fiona; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; van der Plicht, Johannes; Schlolaut, Gordon; Marshall, Michael H; Brauer, Achim; Lamb, Henry F; Payne, Rebecca L; Tarasov, Pavel E; Haraguchi, Tsuyoshi; Gotanda, Katsuya; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Tada, Ryuji; Nakagawa, Takeshi

    2012-10-19

    Radiocarbon ((14)C) provides a way to date material that contains carbon with an age up to ~50,000 years and is also an important tracer of the global carbon cycle. However, the lack of a comprehensive record reflecting atmospheric (14)C prior to 12.5 thousand years before the present (kyr B.P.) has limited the application of radiocarbon dating of samples from the Last Glacial period. Here, we report (14)C results from Lake Suigetsu, Japan (35°35'N, 135°53'E), which provide a comprehensive record of terrestrial radiocarbon to the present limit of the (14)C method. The time scale we present in this work allows direct comparison of Lake Suigetsu paleoclimatic data with other terrestrial climatic records and gives information on the connection between global atmospheric and regional marine radiocarbon levels.

  5. Radiocarbon-based chronology for dynastic Egypt.

    PubMed

    Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Dee, Michael W; Rowland, Joanne M; Higham, Thomas F G; Harris, Stephen A; Brock, Fiona; Quiles, Anita; Wild, Eva M; Marcus, Ezra S; Shortland, Andrew J

    2010-06-18

    The historical chronologies for dynastic Egypt are based on reign lengths inferred from written and archaeological evidence. These floating chronologies are linked to the absolute calendar by a few ancient astronomical observations, which remain a source of debate. We used 211 radiocarbon measurements made on samples from short-lived plants, together with a Bayesian model incorporating historical information on reign lengths, to produce a chronology for dynastic Egypt. A small offset (19 radiocarbon years older) in radiocarbon levels in the Nile Valley is probably a growing-season effect. Our radiocarbon data indicate that the New Kingdom started between 1570 and 1544 B.C.E., and the reign of Djoser in the Old Kingdom started between 2691 and 2625 B.C.E.; both cases are earlier than some previous historical estimates.

  6. Determination of radiocarbon in stratospheric CO2, obtained through AirCore sampling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Dipayan; Chen, Huilin; Been, Henk A.; Kivi, Rigel; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2016-04-01

    The concentration of Greenhouse Gases (GHG), with carbon dioxide as the most prominent example, has been and still is increasing, predominantly due to emissions from fossil fuel combustion. CO2 is also the most important component of the global carbon cycle. Among other tracers, radiocarbon (Carbon-14) is a unique and an important atmospheric tracer used in the understanding of the global carbon cycle. Radiocarbon is a naturally occurring isotope (radioactive, t 1/2 = 5730 ± 40 years) of carbon produced through the interaction of thermalized neutrons and nitrogen in the upper atmosphere. Generally, for performing atmospheric radiocarbon measurements in the higher atmosphere, large samples (few liters of air) were collected using aircrafts and balloons. However, collecting stratospheric samples on a regular basis for radiocarbon analysis is extremely expensive. Here we describe the determination of radiocarbon concentrations in stratospheric CO2, collected using AirCore sampling. AirCore is an innovative sampling technique for obtaining vertical atmospheric profiles and, in Europe, is done on a regular basis at Sodankylä, Finland for CO2, CH4 and CO. The stratospheric parts of two such AirCore profiles were used in this study as a proof-of-principle. CO2 from the stratospheric air samples were extracted and converted to elemental carbon, which were then measured at the Accelerator Mass Spectrometric (AMS) facility of the Centre for Isotope Research (CIO) at the University of Groningen. The stratospheric part of the AirCore profile was divided into six sections, each contained approximately 10 μg C. A detailed description of the extraction, graphitization, AMS analysis and the derivation of the stratospheric radiocarbon profile will be the main focus. Through our results, we will show that AirCore is a viable sampling method for performing high-precision radiocarbon measurements of stratospheric CO2 with reasonably good spatial resolution on a regular basis

  7. Intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy: Is there any evidence of a radiocarbon signal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Anders; Salehpour, Mehran

    2015-10-01

    In 2008, the first report of an ultrasensitive method for ro-vibrational spectrometry of radiocarbon dioxide was published. The method, called intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy (ICOGS), claimed a sensitivity and limit-of-detection comparable to accelerator mass spectroscopy. ICOGS was claimed to utilize the isotope-dependent ro-vibrational absorption lines of carbon dioxide in the infrared spectrum. In order to facilitate unambiguous detection of radiocarbon, the sample was placed inside the cavity of a radiocarbon dioxide laser. This intracavity approach was claimed to increase the sensitivity by seven orders of magnitude compared with traditional optogalvanic methods. However, despite the methodical and thorough efforts of several research groups worldwide, these claims have not been possible to reproduce. Instead, we have previously reported serious deviations from the original results, where we found that ICOGS suffers from considerable problems with the stability and reproducibility of the optogalvanic signal, and that misinterpretations of these uncertainties likely are the explanation for the claimed sensitivity in the first reports. Having identified the stability and reproducibility of the detection as major concerns, we decided to improve the setup by with state-of-the-art plasma source technology. Deploying a custom-made stripline split-ring resonator optogalvanic detector, we have now investigated the applicability of ICOGS to radiocarbon detection even further. Measurements have been made with a wide range of parameters including different gas mixtures at various pressures and wavelengths. We have also conducted measurements with gas flowing through the sample cell to investigate the effect of plasma induced decomposition of the sample. Still, we have seen no indications of a significant radiocarbon signal in a concentration range between 0.29 Modern and 9.7 Modern, i.e., the range of interest to the radiocarbon community. Hence, our conclusions

  8. Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP

    SciTech Connect

    Hughen, K; Baille, M; Bard, E; Beck, J; Bertrand, C; Blackwell, P; Buck, C; Burr, G; Cutler, K; Damon, P; Edwards, R; Fairbanks, R; Friedrich, M; Guilderson, T; Kromer, B; McCormac, F; Manning, S; Bronk-Ramsey, C; Reimer, P; Reimer, R; Remmele, S; Southon, J; Stuiver, M; Talamo, S; Taylor, F; der Plicht, J v; Weyhenmeyer, C

    2004-11-01

    New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration datasets extend an additional 2000 years, from 0-26 ka cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box-diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0-10.5 ka cal BP. Beyond 10.5 ka cal BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific {sup 14}C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5-26.0 ka cal BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the radiocarbon age to calculate the underlying calibration curve. The marine datasets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring datasets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al.

  9. Concordance of Collagen-Based Radiocarbon and Aspartic-Acid Racemization Ages

    PubMed Central

    Bada, Jeffrey L.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Protsch, Reiner; Berger, Rainer

    1974-01-01

    By determining the extent of racemization of aspartic acid in a well-dated bone, it is possible to calculate the in situ first-order rate constant for the interconversion of the L and D enantiomers of aspartic acid. Collagen-based radiocarbon-dated bones are shown to be suitable samples for use in “calibrating” the racemization reaction. Once the aspartic-acid racemization reaction has been “calibrated” for a site, the reaction can be used to date other bones from the deposit. Ages deduced by this method are in good agreement with radiocarbon ages. These results provide evidence that the aspartic-acid racemization reaction is an important chronological tool for dating bones either too old or too small for radiocarbon dating. As an example of the potential application of the technique for dating fossil man, a piece of Rhodesian Man from Broken Hill, Zambia, was analyzed and tentatively assigned an age of about 110,000 years. PMID:4522802

  10. Molecular gas sensing below parts per trillion: radiocarbon-dioxide optical detection.

    PubMed

    Galli, I; Bartalini, S; Borri, S; Cancio, P; Mazzotti, D; De Natale, P; Giusfredi, G

    2011-12-30

    Radiocarbon ((14)C) concentrations at a 43 parts-per-quadrillion level are measured by using saturated-absorption cavity ringdown spectroscopy by exciting radiocarbon-dioxide ((14)C(16)O(2)) molecules at the 4.5 μm wavelength. The ultimate sensitivity limits of molecular trace gas sensing are pushed down to attobar pressures using a comb-assisted absorption spectroscopy setup. Such a result represents the lowest pressure ever detected for a gas of simple molecules. The unique sensitivity, the wide dynamic range, the compactness, and the relatively low cost of this table-top setup open new perspectives for ^{14}C-tracing applications, such as radiocarbon dating, biomedicine, or environmental and earth sciences. The detection of other very rare molecules can be pursued as well thanks to the wide and continuous mid-IR spectral coverage of the described setup.

  11. Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon chronologies: examples from the European Late-glacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blockley, S. P. E.; Lowe, J. J.; Walker, M. J. C.; Asioli, A.; Trincardi, F.; Coope, G. R.; Donahue, R. E.

    2004-02-01

    Although there are many Late-glacial (ca. 15 000-11 000 cal. yr BP) proxy climate records from northwest Europe, some analysed at a very high temporal resolution (decadal to century scale), attempts to establish time-stratigraphical correlations between sequences are constrained by problems of radiocarbon dating. In an attempt to overcome some of these difficulties, we have used a Bayesian approach to the analysis of radiocarbon chronologies for two Late-glacial sites in the British Isles and one in the Adriatic Sea. The palaeoclimatic records from the three sites were then compared with that from the GRIP Greenland ice-core. Although there are some apparent differences in the timing of climatic events during the early part of the Late-glacial (pre-14 000 cal. yr BP), the results suggest that regional climatic changes appear to have been broadly comparable between Greenland, the British Isles and the Adriatic during the major part of the Late-glacial (i.e. between 14 000 and 11 000 cal. yr BP). The advantage of using the Bayesian approach is that it provides a means of testing the reliability of Late-glacial radiocarbon chronologies that is independent of regional chronostratigraphical (climatostratigraphical) frameworks. It also uses the full radiocarbon inventory available for each sequence and makes explicit any data selection applied. Potentially, therefore, it offers a more objective basis for comparing regional radiocarbon chronologies than the conventional approaches that have been used hitherto. Copyright

  12. Age estimation in forensic sciences: Application of combined aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Alkass, K; Buchholz, B A; Ohtani, S; Yamamoto, T; Druid, H; Spalding, S L

    2009-11-02

    Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster, since the age at death, birth date and year of death, as well as gender, can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this paper we analyze teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that above-ground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955-1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) which have been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel and ten of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2=0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 0.6 {+-} 04 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 {+-} 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification.

  13. Age estimation in forensic sciences: application of combined aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon analysis.

    PubMed

    Alkass, Kanar; Buchholz, Bruce A; Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Druid, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty L

    2010-05-01

    Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization, has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this study, we analyzed teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that aboveground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955-1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 ((14)C), which has been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel, and 10 of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R(2) = 0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 1.0 +/- 0.6 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 +/- 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification.

  14. Complexities in the Use of Bomb-Curve Radiocarbon to Determine Time Since Death of Human Skeletal Remains

    SciTech Connect

    Ubelaker, D H; Buchholz, B A

    2005-04-26

    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the 1950s and early 1960s doubled the level of radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) in the atmosphere. From the peak in 1963, the level of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} has decreased exponentially with a mean life of about 16 years, not due to radioactive decay, but due to mixing with large marine and terrestrial carbon reservoirs. Since radiocarbon is incorporated into all living things, the bomb-pulse is an isotopic chronometer of the past half century. The absence of bomb radiocarbon in skeletonized human remains generally indicates a date of death before 1950. Comparison of the radiocarbon values with the post 1950 bomb-curve may also help elucidate when in the post 1950 era, the individual was still alive. Such interpretation however, must consider the age at death of the individual and the type of tissue sampled.

  15. A Rapid Radiocarbon Method for Age Surveys of Southern Ocean Deep-sea Corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, A.; Robinson, L. F.; Gerlach, D. S.; Jenkins, W. J.; McNichol, A. P.

    2008-12-01

    Deep-sea corals provide a unique archive of past ocean radiocarbon because they are sessile and can be dated independently using U-series nuclides. One difficulty, however, is that using current techniques it is impractical to date large numbers of corals in order to determine which specimens have the appropriate ages for radiocarbon reconstructions. Here we present results from a quick method of making graphite for radiocarbon dating that reduces the amount of sample preparation time, thus allowing us to date a greater number of corals. In addition, these rapid age surveys provide important information on coral age populations, allowing us to examine coral distributions through time. The corals used in this study come from a sample set of about 6,000 specimens of Flabellum, Balanophyllia and Desmophyllum spp. collected from the Drake Passage area (50S -70S, 120 m-1700 m depth). Replicate samples from a single coral yielded a standard deviation of 81 years (n=9). Variations in sample mass (3 to 85 mg) have no clear effect on the Fm and furthermore, a simple cleaning using methanol yields the same results as a more involved cleaning procedure that includes an oxidizing solution and perchloric acid rinse. To improve the efficiency of the method, we assumed a delta13C = 0 per mil. This assumption is likely our largest source of uncertainty, resulting in offsets of up to 200 radiocarbon years over a reasonable range of delta13C. This level of uncertainty is sufficiently low to allow distinction between corals from different time periods over the past 35 ky (e.g. Last Glacial Maximum, Younger Dryas, etc.). To date, we have found corals from Burdwood Bank dating from the modern to the Younger Dryas and corals from the Drake Passage dating from the modern to Heinrich Event 1, which will be used in future paleo-climatic reconstructions in this important part of the ocean.

  16. African Baobabs with False Inner Cavities: The Radiocarbon Investigation of the Lebombo Eco Trail Baobab

    PubMed Central

    Patrut, Adrian; Woodborne, Stephan; von Reden, Karl F.; Hall, Grant; Hofmeyr, Michele; Lowy, Daniel A.; Patrut, Roxana T.

    2015-01-01

    The article reports the radiocarbon investigation results of the Lebombo Eco Trail tree, a representative African baobab from Mozambique. Several wood samples collected from the large inner cavity and from the outer part of the tree were investigated by AMS radiocarbon dating. According to dating results, the age values of all samples increase from the sampling point with the distance into the wood. For samples collected from the cavity walls, the increase of age values with the distance into the wood (up to a point of maximum age) represents a major anomaly. The only realistic explanation for this anomaly is that such inner cavities are, in fact, natural empty spaces between several fused stems disposed in a ring-shaped structure. We named them false cavities. Several important differences between normal cavities and false cavities are presented. Eventually, we dated other African baobabs with false inner cavities. We found that this new architecture enables baobabs to reach large sizes and old ages. The radiocarbon date of the oldest sample was 1425 ± 24 BP, which corresponds to a calibrated age of 1355 ± 15 yr. The dating results also show that the Lebombo baobab consists of five fused stems, with ages between 900 and 1400 years; these five stems build the complete ring. The ring and the false cavity closed 800–900 years ago. The results also indicate that the stems stopped growing toward the false cavity over the past 500 years. PMID:25621989

  17. African baobabs with false inner cavities: the radiocarbon investigation of the Lebombo Eco Trail baobab.

    PubMed

    Patrut, Adrian; Woodborne, Stephan; von Reden, Karl F; Hall, Grant; Hofmeyr, Michele; Lowy, Daniel A; Patrut, Roxana T

    2015-01-01

    The article reports the radiocarbon investigation results of the Lebombo Eco Trail tree, a representative African baobab from Mozambique. Several wood samples collected from the large inner cavity and from the outer part of the tree were investigated by AMS radiocarbon dating. According to dating results, the age values of all samples increase from the sampling point with the distance into the wood. For samples collected from the cavity walls, the increase of age values with the distance into the wood (up to a point of maximum age) represents a major anomaly. The only realistic explanation for this anomaly is that such inner cavities are, in fact, natural empty spaces between several fused stems disposed in a ring-shaped structure. We named them false cavities. Several important differences between normal cavities and false cavities are presented. Eventually, we dated other African baobabs with false inner cavities. We found that this new architecture enables baobabs to reach large sizes and old ages. The radiocarbon date of the oldest sample was 1425 ± 24 BP, which corresponds to a calibrated age of 1355 ± 15 yr. The dating results also show that the Lebombo baobab consists of five fused stems, with ages between 900 and 1400 years; these five stems build the complete ring. The ring and the false cavity closed 800-900 years ago. The results also indicate that the stems stopped growing toward the false cavity over the past 500 years.

  18. Radiocarbon age modeling: dissolution, bioturbation and sediment redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekik, F.

    2012-12-01

    We generated radiocarbon dates for whole and fragmented planktonic foraminifer tests (by several species) from a series of core tops which have experienced little dissolution from two depth transects (Rio Grande Rise - RIO and Ontong Java Plateau - OJP) and from down core records from three tropical Pacific cores with significantly different sediment accumulation rates. We also generated new radiocarbon data from both whole Globorotalia menardii shells and its fragments within the same sediments in order to test the robustness of a calcite dissolution proxy, the G. menardii Fragmentation Index (MFI). Our data reveal that the ages of all sediment components increase with increasing dissolution. This is most easily observable on RIO where the age offset between the shallowest samples and deepest samples is ~5 ka, while the mixing ages of the cores are ~1.9ka. This result is new and significant because previous work has always been in the tropical Pacific where bioturbation and mixing ages are high. Furthermore, two of the 7 core top samples from RIO revealed whole G. menardii shells of Glacial age. This is surprising because G. menardiis have not been reported in sediments from the Atlantic Ocean older than 13,000 years. Lastly, we found that the higher the sediment accumulation rate, the closer the age offset between G. menradii whole shells and its fragments in the same sediments both on RIO and OJP. This is important for the interpretation of down core work with MFI.

  19. Growth rate determinations from radiocarbon in bamboo corals (genus Keratoisis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, Jesse R.; Robinson, Laura F.; Hönisch, Bärbel

    2015-11-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurements are an important tool for determining growth rates of bamboo corals, a cosmopolitan group of calcitic deep-sea corals. Published growth rate estimates for bamboo corals are highly variable, with potential environmental or ecological drivers of this variability poorly constrained. Here we systematically investigate the application of 14C for growth rate determinations in bamboo corals using 55 14C dates on the calcite and organic fractions of six bamboo corals (identified as Keratoisis sp.) from the western North Atlantic Ocean. Calcite 14C measurements on the distal surface of these corals and five previously published bamboo corals exhibit a strong one-to-one relationship with the 14C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DI14C) in ambient seawater (r2=0.98), confirming the use of Keratoisis sp. calcite 14C as a proxy for seawater 14C activity. Radial growth rates determined from 14C age-depth regressions, 14C plateau tuning and bomb 14C reference chronologies range from 12 to 78 μm y-1, in general agreement with previously published radiometric growth rates. We document potential biases to 14C growth rate determinations resulting from water mass variability, bomb radiocarbon, secondary infilling (ontogeny), and growth rate nonlinearity. Radial growth rates for Keratoisis sp. specimens do not correlate with ambient temperature, suggesting that additional biological and/or environmental factors may influence bamboo coral growth rates.

  20. Direct dating of human fossils.

    PubMed

    Grün, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The methods that can be used for the direct dating of human remains comprise of radiocarbon, U-series, electron spin resonance (ESR), and amino acid racemization (AAR). This review gives an introduction to these methods in the context of dating human bones and teeth. Recent advances in ultrafiltration techniques have expanded the dating range of radiocarbon. It now seems feasible to reliably date bones up to 55,000 years. New developments in laser ablation mass spectrometry permit the in situ analysis of U-series isotopes, thus providing a rapid and virtually non-destructive dating method back to about 300,000 years. This is of particular importance when used in conjunction with non-destructive ESR analysis. New approaches in AAR analysis may lead to a renaissance of this method. The potential and present limitations of these direct dating techniques are discussed for sites relevant to the reconstruction of modern human evolution, including Florisbad, Border Cave, Tabun, Skhul, Qafzeh, Vindija, Banyoles, and Lake Mungo.

  1. Radiocarbon age of waters in the deep Atlantic revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Broecker, W.S.; Virgilio, A. ); Peng, T.H. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors use a simple box model to evaluate the impact of temporal changes of the atmosphere's {sup 14}C/C on ventilation fluxes for the deep Atlantic calculated from radiocarbon measurements. The conclusion is that despite the fact that over the 300 year period from 1650 to 1950 the atmosphere's radiocarbon content declined at the same rate as radiocarbon decays, this temporal change has a relatively small impact (10-15%) on radiocarbon-based estimates of the ventilation rate of the deep Atlantic. The reason is that the radiocarbon content of the source waters for deep Atlantic are reasonably well buffered against changes in atmospheric {sup 14}C/C.

  2. Direct dating of archaeological pottery by compound-specific 14C analysis of preserved lipids.

    PubMed

    Stott, Andrew W; Berstan, Robert; Evershed, Richard P; Bronk-Ramsey, Christopher; Hedges, Robert E M; Humm, Martin J

    2003-10-01

    A methodology is described demonstrating the utility of the compound-specific 14C technique as a direct means of dating archaeological pottery. The method uses automated preparative capillary gas chromatography employing wide-bore capillary columns to isolate individual compounds from lipid extracts of archaeological potsherds in high purity (>95%) and amounts (>200 microg) sufficient for radiocarbon dating using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). A protocol was developed and tested on n-alkanes and n-carboxylic acids possessing a broad range of 14C ages. Analytical blanks and controls allowed background 14C measurements to be assessed and potential sources of errors to be detected, i.e., contamination with modern or dead 14C, isotopic fraction effects, etc. A "Russian doll" method was developed to transfer isolated target compounds onto tin powder/capsules prior to combustion and AMS analyses. The major advantage of the compound-specific technique is that 14C dates obtained for individual compounds can be directly linked to the commodities processed in the vessels during their use, e.g., animal fats. The compound-specific 14C dating protocol was validated on a suite of ancient pottery whose predicted ages spanned a 5000-year date range. Initial results indicate that meaningful correlations can be obtained between the predicted date of pottery and that of the preserved lipids. These findings constitute an important step forward to the direct dating of archaeological pottery.

  3. Application of Bomb Radiocarbon Chronologies to Shortfin Mako (Isurus oxyrinchus)

    SciTech Connect

    Ardizzone, D; Cailliet, G M; Natanson, L J; Andrews, A H; Kerr, L A; Brown, T A

    2007-07-16

    and the number of samples for MIA analysis was insufficient for some months. Hence, unequivocal validation of shortfin mako age estimates has yet to be accomplished. Atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices in the 1950s and 1960s effectively doubled the natural atmospheric radiocarbon ({sup 14}C). The elevated {sup 14}C levels were first recorded in 1957-58, with a peak around 1963. As a consequence, {sup 14}C entered the ocean through gas exchange with the atmosphere at the ocean surface and in terrestrial runoff. Despite variable oceanographic conditions, a worldwide rise of the bomb {sup 14}C signal entered the ocean mixed layer as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in 1957-58. The large amounts of {sup 14}C released from the bomb tests produced a signature that can be followed through time, throughout the marine food web, and into deeper waters. The marked increase of radiocarbon levels was first measured in the DIC of seawater and in biogenic marine carbonates of hermatypic corals in Florida. Subsequently, this record was documented in corals from other regions and in the thallus of rhodoliths. The accumulation of radiocarbon in the hard parts of most marine organisms in the mixed layer (such as fish otoliths and bivalves) was synchronous with the coral time-series. This technique has been used to validate age estimates and longevity of numerous bony fishes to date, as well as to establish bomb radiocarbon chronologies from different oceans. In the first application of this technique to lamnoid sharks, validated annual band-pair deposition in vertebral growth bands for the porbeagle (Lamna nasus) aged up to 26 years. Radiocarbon values from samples obtained from 15 porbeagle caught in the western North Atlantic Ocean (some of which were known-age) produced a chronology similar in magnitude to the reference carbonate chronology for that region. The observed phase shift of about 3 years was attributed to different sources of carbon between vertebrae and those for

  4. Detection of radiocarbon in the cyclotrino

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsche, K.J.; Karadi, C.A.; Muller, R.A.; Paulson, G.C.

    1990-04-01

    A small low energy cyclotron (the cyclotrino''), which was proposed for direct detection of radiocarbon in 1980, has now detected radiocarbon at natural abundance. This device combines the suppression of background through the use of negative ions with the high intrinsic mass resolution of a cyclotron. A high current cesium sputter negative ion source generates a beam of carbon ions which is pre-separated with Wien filter and is transported to the cyclotron via a series of electrostatic lenses. Beam is injected radially into the cyclotron using electrostatic deflectors and an electrostatic mirror. Axial focusing is entirely electrostatic. A microchannel plate detector is used with a phase-gated output. Data is presented showing resolution of radiocarbon at natural abundance. In its present form the system is capable of improving the sensitivity of detecting {sup 14}C in some biomedical experiments by a factor of 10{sup 4}. Modifications are discussed which could bring about an additional factor of 100 in sensitivity, which is important for archaeological and geological applications. Possibilities for measurements of other isotopes are discussed. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Intercomparison of radiocarbon bomb pulse and 210Pb age models. A study in a peat bog core from North Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowska, Natalia; De Vleeschouwer, François; Sikorski, Jarosław; Pawlyta, Jacek; Fagel, Nathalie; Le Roux, Gaël; Pazdur, Anna

    2010-04-01

    Radiocarbon and 210Pb were measured on the uppermost 40 cm of a Wardenaar peat core retrieved from a Baltic raised bog at Słowińskie Błota (Pomerania, North Poland). This site is the subject of ongoing multiproxy studies covering the last 1300 years. Radiocarbon age model was constructed on the basis of 14 AMS dates obtained on selected Sphagnum spp. fragments, with use of P_Sequence tool. We present here a comparison of this model with the age model obtained using CRS model classically applied to 210Pb measurements.

  6. A comparison between conventional and AMS [sup 14]C dates on basal salt marsh peats from coastal Maine. [Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrels, R.W.; Belknap, D.F. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    This study reports AMS dates from four Maine salt marshes: Webbannet Marsh (Wells), Morse and Sprague River marshes (Phippsburg), and Sanborn Cove marsh (Machiasport). The AMS dates are compared with conventional dates on bulk samples obtained from either the same cores or from other cores at comparable depths. Four AMS dates from the Webhannet and Sanborn Cove marshes were considerably older than their conventional counterparts, by as much as 1,000 years. Three causes for this age discrepancy are suggested. First, under slow rates of marsh accretion, peats remain within the root zone of modern plants for a relatively long period, causing a continued input of younger carbon. Intruded roots are undetectable in the highly macerated, 4,000--5,000 C-14 year old peats. Another source of contamination is the percolation of mobile humic acids along the impermeable Pleistocene substrate. Finally, a date on a bulk peat of 10 cm vertical extent represents an average age for a portion of peat that spans a time interval possibly of several centuries. The age difference between the bulk date and the AMS date from the base of the peat increases with decreasing rates of marsh accretion. The forested steep slopes of the upland surrounding the marsh seem a likely source of old carbon that can easily be washed onto the marsh surface. The slow rate of late-Holocene sea-level rise in Maine, as well as the geologic and hydrologic setting of the salt marshes, make conventional C-14 dating of salt marsh peats in Maine a problematic affair. This study implies that AMS dates may be needed to verify Holocene sea-level curves from other coastal areas that have hitherto been based solely on conventional C-14 peat dates.

  7. Early Upper Paleolithic chronology in the Levant: new ABOx-SC accelerator mass spectrometry results from the Mughr el-Hamamah Site, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Stutz, Aaron Jonas; Shea, John J; Rech, Jason A; Pigati, Jeffrey S; Wilson, Jim; Belmaker, Miriam; Albert, Rosa Maria; Arpin, Trina; Cabanes, Dan; Clark, Jamie L; Hartman, Gideon; Hourani, Fuad; White, Chantel E; Nilsson Stutz, Liv

    2015-08-01

    Methodological developments and new paleoanthropological data remain jointly central to clarifying the timing and systemic interrelationships between the Middle-Upper Paleolithic (MP-UP) archaeological transition and the broadly contemporaneous anatomically modern human-archaic biological turnover. In the recently discovered cave site of Mughr el-Hamamah, Jordan, in situ flint artifacts comprise a diagnostic early Upper Paleolithic (EUP) assemblage. Unusually well-preserved charcoal from hearths and other anthropogenic features associated with the lithic material were subjected to acid-base-wet oxidation-stepped combustion (ABOx-SC) pretreatment. This article presents the ABOx-SC accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates on nine charcoal specimens from a single palimpsest occupation layer. Date calibration was carried out using the INTCAL13 radiocarbon calibration dataset. With the bulk of the material dating to 45-39 ka cal BP (thousands of years calibrated before present), the Mughr el-Hamamah lithic artifacts reveal important differences from penecontemporaneous sites in the region, documenting greater technological variability than previously known for this time frame in the Levant. The radiocarbon data from this EUP archaeological context highlight remaining challenges for increasing chronological precision in documenting the MP-UP transition.

  8. Radiocarbon evidence for maritime pioneer colonization at the origins of farming in west Mediterranean Europe

    PubMed Central

    Zilhão, João

    2001-01-01

    Most radiocarbon dates for the earliest Neolithic cultures of west Mediterranean Europe are on samples of unidentified charcoal. If only results obtained on short lived samples (seeds, shells, and bone) of diagnostic material (domesticates, artifacts, and human remains) are considered, then the dates for the first appearance of the Neolithic package are indistinguishable statistically from central Italy to Portugal and cluster around 5400 calendar B.C. This rapidity of spread, no more than six generations, can be best explained in the framework of a maritime pioneer colonization model. PMID:11707599

  9. Radiocarbon evidence for maritime pioneer colonization at the origins of farming in west Mediterranean Europe.

    PubMed

    Zilhão, J

    2001-11-20

    Most radiocarbon dates for the earliest Neolithic cultures of west Mediterranean Europe are on samples of unidentified charcoal. If only results obtained on short lived samples (seeds, shells, and bone) of diagnostic material (domesticates, artifacts, and human remains) are considered, then the dates for the first appearance of the Neolithic package are indistinguishable statistically from central Italy to Portugal and cluster around 5400 calendar B.C. This rapidity of spread, no more than six generations, can be best explained in the framework of a maritime pioneer colonization model.

  10. Thirteenth radioactive conference, radiocarbon measurements and applications, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, June 20--25, 1988: Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, T.H.

    1988-07-08

    The International Radiocarbon Conference is held once every three years. The purpose of the meeting is to offer an opportunity for an international community of scientists to present and discuss results of their research on improving techniques for radiocarbon measurement and their application in various aspects of natural systems, including the ocean-atmosphere carbon cycle. Four major sessions were held for the presentation of scientific results, another session dealt with radiocarbon data bases, and the final session was devoted to workshops for radiocarbon measurement and international comparison. A total of 152 papers were presented, which included both oral and poster presentations. Participants came from over 30 countries, with a total number of about 200. The paper presented by the traveler, entitled ''Changes in Ocean Ventilation Rates Over the Last 7000 Years Based on /sup 14/C Variations in the Atmosphere and Oceans,'' was included in the oceanography portion of the Carbon Cycle in the Environment session. Radiocarbon is the most powerful and useful tracer for studying the carbon cycle in the atmosphere-biosphere-ocean system. The measuring technique has mostly shifted from a conventional ..beta..-counting approach that uses gas or liquid scintillation counters to an atom counting approach that uses the accelerator mass spectrometer.

  11. Dating sediments using luminescence signals

    SciTech Connect

    Wintle, A. )

    1993-05-01

    Before siting a nuclear power station or a nuclear waste repository, it is necessary to establish that the area has been free of earthquake activity for a sufficient period of time. Evidence of past earthquake activity is often provided by faults in surface sediments. Age limits for fault formation can be set by obtaining the depositional ages of the sediment unit in which the fault was formed and the overlying sediment. A useful technique would be one that dating could be applied to the mineral grains that make up the sediments and that would give the time that has passed since the grains were blown or washed into position. Luminescence dating techniques, of which the most well known is thermo-luminescence (TL), provide such information. This approach has been successful in dating movement on the Wasatch Fault in Utah. A combination of TL and radiocarbon dates indicated that three faulting events had occurred within the past 5000 years. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Extracting growth rates from the non-laminated coralline sponge Astrosclera willeyana using "bomb" radiocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Fallon, S; Guilderson, T

    2004-06-30

    Coralline sponges have the potential to fill in gaps in our understanding of subsurface oceanographic variability. However, one disadvantage they have compared to hermatypic reef building coral proxies is that they do not have annual density bands and need to be radiometrically dated for an age determination. To elucidate growth rate variability we have measured radiocarbon in 1 mm increments from Astrosclera willeyana sponges collected off the Central and Northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and from Truk in the Caroline Islands and compared these radiocarbon profiles to independently dated coral radiocarbon records. Growth rates of the GBR sponges average 1.2 {+-} 0.3 and 1.0 {+-} 0.3 mm yr{sup -1}, north and central respectively but can vary by a factor of two. The growth rate of the Truk sponge averages 1.2 {+-} 0.1 mm yr{sup -1}. These growth rates are significantly faster to those measured for other GBR Astrosclera willeyana sponges (0.2 mm yr{sup -1}) by Calcein staining (Woerheide 1988).

  13. Radiocarbon geochronology of the sediments of the São Paulo Bight (southern Brazilian upper margin).

    PubMed

    Mahiques, Michel M; Sousa, Silvia H M; Burone, Leticia; Nagai, Renata H; Silveira, Ilson C A; Figueira, Rubens C L; Soutelino, Rafael G; Ponsoni, Leandro; Klein, Daniel A

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this work was to generate an inventory of the data on radiocarbon datings obtained from sediments of the São Paulo Bight (southern Brazilian upper margin) and to analyze the data in terms of Late Quaternary sedimentary processes and sedimentation rates. A total of 238 radiocarbon datings from materials collected using differents ampling procedures was considered for this work. The sedimentation rates varied from less than 2 to 68 cm.kyr(-1). The highest sedimentation rate values were found in a low-energy (ría type) coastal system as well as in the upwelling zones of Santa Catarina and Cabo Frio. The lowest rates were found on the outer shelf and upper slopes. Our results confirm the strong dependency of the shelf currents, with an emphasis to the terrigenous input from the Río de La Plata outflow which is transported via the Brazilian Coastal Current, as well as of the coupled Brazil Current - Intermediate Western Boundary Current (BC-IWBC) dynamics on the sedimentary processes. At least three indicators of the paleo sea level were found at 12200 yr BP (conventional radiocarbon age) (103 meters below sea level - mbsl), 8300-8800 cal yr BP (13 mbsl) and 7700-8100 cal yr BP (6 mbsl).

  14. Eye lens radiocarbon reveals centuries of longevity in the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus).

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Julius; Hedeholm, Rasmus B; Heinemeier, Jan; Bushnell, Peter G; Christiansen, Jørgen S; Olsen, Jesper; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Brill, Richard W; Simon, Malene; Steffensen, Kirstine F; Steffensen, John F

    2016-08-12

    The Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus), an iconic species of the Arctic Seas, grows slowly and reaches >500 centimeters (cm) in total length, suggesting a life span well beyond those of other vertebrates. Radiocarbon dating of eye lens nuclei from 28 female Greenland sharks (81 to 502 cm in total length) revealed a life span of at least 272 years. Only the smallest sharks (220 cm or less) showed signs of the radiocarbon bomb pulse, a time marker of the early 1960s. The age ranges of prebomb sharks (reported as midpoint and extent of the 95.4% probability range) revealed the age at sexual maturity to be at least 156 ± 22 years, and the largest animal (502 cm) to be 392 ± 120 years old. Our results show that the Greenland shark is the longest-lived vertebrate known, and they raise concerns about species conservation.

  15. Watershed storage and riverine particulate organic radiocarbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, N. E.; Leithold, E. L.

    2011-12-01

    Lateral movement of carbon and other materials across landscapes is punctuated with periods of storage and reaction. Though we understand basic principles concerning transport and storage effects on the nature of some materials, an adequate understanding is lacking of the cumulative impacts of those processes as material migrates across the biogeochemical landscape. This is essential to the interpretation of geochemical soil and sedimentary records of the past as well as to predicting future responses of systems to perturbations in climate or landuse. Sources of organic carbon exported from watersheds can be broadly defined as those recently derived for extant ecosystems, those derived from materials aged and altered in storage (aged soil OC), and fossil material associated with sedimentary bedrock. Separately, these materials are easy to recognize based on isotopic and molecular compositions and each could in principle be linked to specific mass transport processes such as sheet wash, shallow landsliding or gullying. The blending and alteration of original source signatures during storage appear to attenuate the variability of the exported signal within a system and complicate source identification. Riverine particulate organic carbon 14C-compositions reveal robust relationships between radiocarbon content, suspended load concentrations and % organic C. These are explained as a result of mixing of the 14C-free fossil C from sedimentary rocks with 14C-containing material derived from extant ecosystems and soils. In essence, the 14C-content of riverine POC inversely correlates with the muddiness of the system. Whereas one might predict that POC radiocarbon content might decrease with increased storage or residence time in watersheds, no obvious relationship exists between bulk 14C-content observations and watershed size. Instead, the hypothetical watershed size effect is obscured by precipitation- and discharge-driven variations in the mixture of the fossil and non

  16. New radiocarbon chronology of a late Holocene landslide event in the Mont Blanc massif, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdas, Irka; Sojc, Ursula; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Akçar, Naki; Deline, Philip

    2016-04-01

    The Ferret valley Arp Nouva peat bog located in the Mont Blanc massif was critically evaluated since previously published radiocarbon dates have led to controversial conclusions on the formation of the swamp. Radiocarbon dating of roots from three pits of up to 1 m depth was applied to discuss the question whether the historical documented rock avalanche occurring in AD 1717 overran the peat bog or formed it at a later stage. Our results indicate that the rock avalanche formed the Arp Nouva peat bog by downstream blockage of the Bellecombe torrent. Furthermore, careful sample preparation with consequent separation of roots from the bulk peat sample provides possible explanation for the too old 14C ages of bulk peat samples dated previously (Deline and Kirkbride, 2009 and references therein). This work demonstrates that a combined geomorphological and geochronological approach is the most reliable way to reconstruct landscape evolution, especially in light of apparent chronological problems. The key to successful 14C dating is a careful sample selection and the identification of material that might be not ideal for chronological reconstructions. References Deline, Philip, and Martin P. Kirkbride. "Rock avalanches on a glacier and morainic complex in Haut Val Ferret (Mont Blanc Massif, Italy)".Geomorphology 103 (2009): 80-92.

  17. Radiocarbon analysis of halophilic microbial lipids from an Australian salt lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, P. Sargent; Jones, Claudia M.; Fallon, Stewart J.; Brocks, Jochen J.; George, Simon C.

    2012-01-01

    Assigning accurate dates to hypersaline sediments opens important terrestrial records of local and regional paleoecologies and paleoclimatology. However, as of yet no conventional method of dating hypersaline systems has been widely adopted. Biomarker, mineralogical, and radiocarbon analyses of sediments and organic extracts from a shallow (13 cm) core from a hypersaline playa, Lake Tyrrell, southeastern Australia, produce a coherent age-depth curve beginning with modern microbial mats and extending to ~ 7500 cal yr BP. These analyses are furthermore used to identify and constrain the timing of the most recent change in hydrological regime at Lake Tyrrell, a shift from a clay deposit to the precipitation of evaporitic sands occurring at some time between ~ 4500 and 7000 yr. These analyses show the potential for widespread dating of hypersaline systems integrating the biomarker approach, reinforce the value of the radiocarbon content of biomarkers in understanding the flow of carbon in modern ecologies, and validate the temporal dimension of data provided by biomarkers when dating late Quaternary sediments.

  18. A simplified approach to calibrating [sup 14]C dates

    SciTech Connect

    Talma, A.S.; Vogel, J.C. )

    1993-01-01

    The authors propose a simplified approach to the calibration of radiocarbon dates. They use splines through the tree-ring data as calibration curves, thereby eliminating a large part of the statistical scatter of the actual data points. To express the age range, they transform the [plus minus]1 [sigma] and [plus minus]2 [sigma] values of the BP age to calendar dates and interpret them as the 68% and 95% confidence intervals. This approach by-passes the conceptual problems of the transfer of individual probability values from the radiocarbon to the calendar age. They have adapted software to make this calibration possible.

  19. Radiocarbon source apportionment of urban and wildfire black and organic carbon aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouteva, G.; Fahrni, S. M.; Santos, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2013-12-01

    Fossil and non-fossil sources of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) in carbonaceous aerosols can be quantified unambiguously by radiocarbon (14C) measurements. However, accurate 14C-based source apportionment requires a clear and reproducible physical separation of OC and BC, as well as minimal sample contaminations with non-sample carbon. To achieve a clear separation, we used a thermo-optical aerosol analyzer (Sunset Laboratory Inc, USA) with a newly established protocol (Swiss_4S protocol, Zhang et al., 2012), specifically optimized to completely separate the OC and BC fractions with minimal charring and maximum BC recovery. A simple and efficient vacuum line was coupled to the analyzer to trap produced CO2 with high yields and low carbon blanks. Upon trapping, CO2 samples sealed into glass ampoules were converted to graphite and measured for their radiocarbon content at the Keck Carbon Cycle Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory at the University of California, Irvine. Here, we present the results from the radiocarbon analysis of a set of 14C reference materials, blanks and inter-comparison samples for both OC and BC with sample sizes as small as 5 μg C. We will also present initial results from a set of urban aerosol samples from Salt Lake City, collected throughout 2012 and 2013, and from interior Alaska, collected during the summer of 2013 near the Stuart Creek 2 wildfire.

  20. Luminescence dates for the Paleoindian site of Pedra Pintada, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michab, M.; Feathers, J. K.; Joron, J.-L.; Mercier, N.; Selo, M.; Valladas, H.; Valladas, G.; Reyss, J.-L.; Roosevelt, A. C.

    Dates are presented for the Paleoindian levels of Pedra Pintada cave in Brazil, based on the thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) study of ten specimens of heated siliceous stones and three of sand, respectively. Also discussed are the details of preliminary mineralogical, radiographic, and analytical work done on the lithic specimens in France and the OSL work done on the sediments in the US. The luminescence dates are in agreement with radiocarbon dates for the same strata.

  1. Influence of matrix diffusion and exchange reactions on radiocarbon ages in fissured carbonate aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Maloszewski, P. ); Zuber, A. )

    1991-08-01

    The parallel fissure model coupled with the equation of diffusion into the matrix and with exchange reaction equations has been used to derive a simple formula for estimating the influence of matrix porosity and reaction parameters on the determination of radiocarbon ages in fissured carbonate rocks. Examples of evidently too great radiocarbon ages in carbonate formations, which are not explainable by models for the initial {sup 14}C corrections, can easily be explained by this formula. Parameters obtained for a chalk formation from a known multitracer experiment combined with a pumping test suggest a possibility of {sup 14}C ages more than three orders of magnitude greater than the ages which would be observed if the radiocarbon transport took place only in the mobile water in the fissures. It is shown that contrary to the solute movement on a small scale and with a variable input, the large-scale movement, characteristic for the {sup 14}C dating, does not necessarily require the knowledge of kinetic parameters, because they may be replaced by the distribution coefficient. Discordant tritium and {sup 14}C concentrations are commonly interpreted as a proof of mixing either in the aquifer or at the discharge site. For fissured carbonate formations, however, an alternative explanation is given by the derived model showing a considerable delay of {sup 14}C with respect to nonsorbable tracers.

  2. Estimation of paleotemperature from racemization of aspartic acid in combination with radiocarbon age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Masayo; Takeyama, Masami; Mimura, Koichi; Nakamura, Toshio

    2007-06-01

    We tried to estimate paleotemperatures from two chosen fossils by measuring D/L aspartic acid ratios and radiocarbon ages of the XAD-2-treated hydrolysate fractions in the fossils. The D/L aspartic acid ratio was measured with a gas chromatograph and radiocarbon dating was performed using a Tandetron AMS system at Nagoya University. The radiocarbon age of a fossil mammoth molar collected from Bykovsky Peninsula, eastern Siberia, was found to be 35,170 ± 300 BP as an average value for the XAD-treated hydrolysate fractions. The aspartic acid in the mammoth molar showed a little evidence of racemization, which might be due to in vivo racemization during the lifetime and then suggests negligible or no postmortem racemization during burial in permafrost. From four animal bone fossils collected from a shell mound excavated at the Awazu submarine archeological site in Lake Biwa, Shiga, Japan, the racemization-based effective mean temperature was calculated to be 15-16 °C using the D/L aspartic acid ratio of about 0.11 and the 14C age of 4500 BP for the XAD-2-treated hydrolysate fractions in the fossils. The average annual temperature was estimated to be 11-12 °C, which approximates to the temperature that the fossils experienced during burial at the site. Although the application of racemization ratios in fossils as paleotemperature indicators is surrounded with many difficulties, the results obtained in this study suggest its feasibility.

  3. Radiocarbon test of earthquake magnitude at the Cascadia subduction zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, B.F.; Stuiver, M.; Yamaguchi, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    THE Cascadia subduction zone, which extends along the northern Pacific coast of North America, might produce earthquakes of magnitude 8 or 9 ('great' earthquakes) even though it has not done so during the past 200 years of European observation 1-7. Much of the evidence for past Cascadia earthquakes comes from former meadows and forests that became tidal mudflats owing to abrupt tectonic subsidence in the past 5,000 years2,3,6,7. If due to a great earthquake, such subsidence should have extended along more than 100 km of the coast2. Here we investigate the extent of coastal subsidence that might have been caused by a single earthquake, through high-precision radiocarbon dating of coastal trees that abruptly subsided into the intertidal zone. The ages leave the great-earthquake hypothesis intact by limiting to a few decades the discordance, if any, in the most recent subsidence of two areas 55 km apart along the Washington coast. This subsidence probably occurred about 300 years ago.

  4. Accelerator mass spectrometry-enabled studies: current status and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Arjomand, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry is a detection platform with exceptional sensitivity compared with other bioanalytical platforms. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is widely used in archeology for radiocarbon dating applications. Early exploration of the biological and pharmaceutical applications of AMS began in the early 1990s. AMS has since demonstrated unique problem-solving ability in nutrition science, toxicology and pharmacology. AMS has also enabled the development of new applications, such as Phase 0 microdosing. Recent development of AMS-enabled applications has transformed this novelty research instrument to a valuable tool within the pharmaceutical industry. Although there is now greater awareness of AMS technology, recognition and appreciation of the range of AMS-enabled applications is still lacking, including study-design strategies. This review aims to provide further insight into the wide range of AMS-enabled applications. Examples of studies conducted over the past two decades will be presented, as well as prospects for the future of AMS. PMID:20440378

  5. Accelerator mass spectrometry-enabled studies: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Arjomand, Ali

    2010-03-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry is a detection platform with exceptional sensitivity compared with other bioanalytical platforms. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is widely used in archeology for radiocarbon dating applications. Early exploration of the biological and pharmaceutical applications of AMS began in the early 1990s. AMS has since demonstrated unique problem-solving ability in nutrition science, toxicology and pharmacology. AMS has also enabled the development of new applications, such as Phase 0 microdosing. Recent development of AMS-enabled applications has transformed this novelty research instrument to a valuable tool within the pharmaceutical industry. Although there is now greater awareness of AMS technology, recognition and appreciation of the range of AMS-enabled applications is still lacking, including study-design strategies. This review aims to provide further insight into the wide range of AMS-enabled applications. Examples of studies conducted over the past two decades will be presented, as well as prospects for the future of AMS.

  6. Radiocarbon ages of pre-bomb clams and the hard-water effect in Lakes Michigan and Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rea, David K.; Colman, Steven M.

    1995-01-01

    Five radiocarbon ages, all determined by accelerator mass spectrometry, have been obtained for two pre-bomb bivalves from Lake Michigan and one from Lake Huron. After correcting those ages for the fractionation of14C in calcite and for the radioactively inert CO2 in the atmosphere, we find residual ages, caused by the hard water effect, of about 250 years for Lake Michigan and 440 years for Lake Huron.

  7. Radiocarbon calibration-comparison records based on marine sediments from the Pakistan and Iberian Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, E.; Ménot, G.; Licari, L.

    2009-04-01

    We present new results on the radiocarbon records based on planktonic foraminifera of core MD042876 from the Pakistan Margin and updated results for core MD952042 from the Iberian Margin (Bard et al. 2004, Science 303, 178; 2004, Quat. Res. 61, 204; 2004, Radiocarbon 46, 1189; Shackleton et al. 2004, QSR 23, 1513). Both cores exhibit high sedimentation rates on the order of 50 and 40 cm/kyr for the Pakistan and Iberian cores, respectively. For a calendar age scale, we matched climate records of both cores to the oxygen isotopic profile of the Hulu Cave stalagmites that have been accurately dated by U-Th (Wang et al. 2001, Science 294, 2345). Our new comparison data can be compared with the IntCal04 record (Reimer et al. 2004, Radiocarbon 46, 1029) and with individual records based on other archives: corals from Barbados (Fairbanks et al. 2005, QSR 24, 1781), marine sediments of the Cariaco Basin (Hughen et al. 2004, Science 303, 202; 2006, QSR 25, 3216), varves of Lake Suigetsu (Kitagawa & van der Plicht 1998, Science 279, 1187; 2000, Radiocarbon 42, 369), and speleothems from the Bahamas (Beck et al. 2001, Science 292, 2453). Up to 26,000 cal-yr-BP, the Pakistan and Iberian data can be used to validate the precision and accuracy of the marine sediment approach. In the interval between 26,000 and 50,000 cal-yr-B.P., the Pakistan and Iberian records agree closely with each other and with the Cariaco and Barbados data. This agreement clearly shows the feasibility of extending the IntCal04 14C calibration curve.

  8. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for Measurement of Long-Lived Radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmore, David; Phillips, Fred M.

    1987-05-01

    Particle accelerators, such as those built for research in nuclear physics, can also be used together with magnetic and electrostatic mass analyzers to measure rare isotopes at very low abundance ratios. All molecular ions can be eliminated when accelerated to energies of millions of electron volts. Some atomic isobars can be eliminated with the use of negative ions; others can be separated at high energies by measuring their rate of energy loss in a detector. The long-lived radioisotopes 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, and 129I can now be measured in small natural samples having isotopic abundances in the range 10-12 to 10-15 and as few as 105 atoms. In the past few years, research applications of accelerator mass spectrometry have been concentrated in the earth sciences (climatology, cosmochemistry, environmental chemistry, geochronology, glaciology, hydrology, igneous petrogenesis, minerals exploration, sedimentology, and volcanology), in anthropology and archeology (radiocarbon dating), and in physics (searches for exotic particles and measurement of half-lives). In addition, accelerator mass spectrometry may become an important tool for the materials and biological sciences.

  9. Accelerator mass spectrometry for measurement of long-lived radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Elmore, D; Phillips, F M

    1987-05-01

    Particle accelerators, such as those built for research in nuclear physics, can also be used together with magnetic and electrostatic mass analyzers to measure rare isotopes at very low abundance ratios. All molecular ions can be eliminated when accelerated to energies of millions of electron volts. Some atomic isobars can be eliminated with the use of negative ions; others can be separated at high energies by measuring their rate of energy loss in a detector. The long-lived radioisotopes (10)Be, (14)C,(26)A1, 36Cl, and (129)1 can now be measured in small natural samples having isotopic abundances in the range 10(-12) to 10(- 5) and as few as 10(5) atoms. In the past few years, research applications of accelerator mass spectrometry have been concentrated in the earth sciences (climatology, cosmochemistry, environmental chemistry, geochronology, glaciology, hydrology, igneous petrogenesis, minerals exploration, sedimentology, and volcanology), in anthropology and archeology (radiocarbon dating), and in physics (searches for exotic particles and measurement of halflives). In addition, accelerator mass spectrometry may become an important tool for the materials and biological sciences.

  10. Radiocarbon and DNA evidence for a pre-Columbian introduction of Polynesian chickens to Chile

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Alice A.; Ramírez, José Miguel; Quiroz, Daniel; Burley, David V.; Addison, David J.; Walter, Richard; Anderson, Atholl J.; Hunt, Terry L.; Athens, J. Stephen; Huynen, Leon; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Two issues long debated among Pacific and American prehistorians are (i) whether there was a pre-Columbian introduction of chicken (Gallus gallus) to the Americas and (ii) whether Polynesian contact with South America might be identified archaeologically, through the recovery of remains of unquestionable Polynesian origin. We present a radiocarbon date and an ancient DNA sequence from a single chicken bone recovered from the archaeological site of El Arenal-1, on the Arauco Peninsula, Chile. These results not only provide firm evidence for the pre-Columbian introduction of chickens to the Americas, but strongly suggest that it was a Polynesian introduction. PMID:17556540

  11. Mediterranean Sea surface radiocarbon reservoir age changes since the last glacial maximum.

    PubMed

    Siani, G; Paterne, M; Michel, E; Sulpizio, R; Sbrana, A; Arnold, M; Haddad, G

    2001-11-30

    Sea surface reservoir ages must be known to establish a common chronological framework for marine, continental, and cryospheric paleoproxies, and are crucial for understanding ocean-continent climatic relationships and the paleoventilation of the ocean. Radiocarbon dates of planktonic foraminifera and tephra contemporaneously deposited over Mediterranean marine and terrestrial regions reveal that the reservoir ages were similar to the modern one (approximately 400 years) during most of the past 18,000 carbon-14 years. However, reservoir ages increased by a factor of 2 at the beginning of the last deglaciation. This is attributed to changes of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation during the massive ice discharge event Heinrich 1.

  12. Suggested terminology for Quaternary dating methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Pierce, K.L.; Birkeland, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Classification of Quaternary dating methods should be based on the level of quantitative information and the degree of confidence contained in the age estimates produced by the dating methods. We recommend the use of the terms numerical-age, calibrated-age, relative-age, and correlated-age to describe these levels. We also classify dating methods by type into sideral, isotopic, radiogenic, chemical and biological, geomorphic, and correlation methods. The use of "absolute" is inappropriate for most dating methods, and should be replaced by "numerical." The use of "date" should be minimized in favor of "age" or "age estimate." We recommend use of the abbreviations ka and Ma for most ages; calender dates can be used where appropriate and yr B.P. can be used for radiocarbon ages. ?? 1987.

  13. Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stader, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

  14. GeneYenta: a phenotype-based rare disease case matching tool based on online dating algorithms for the acceleration of exome interpretation.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Michael M; Arenillas, David J; Maithripala, Savanie; Maurer, Zachary D; Tarailo Graovac, Maja; Armstrong, Linlea; Patel, Millan; van Karnebeek, Clara; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2015-04-01

    Advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have helped reveal causal variants for genetic diseases. In order to establish causality, it is often necessary to compare genomes of unrelated individuals with similar disease phenotypes to identify common disrupted genes. When working with cases of rare genetic disorders, finding similar individuals can be extremely difficult. We introduce a web tool, GeneYenta, which facilitates the matchmaking process, allowing clinicians to coordinate detailed comparisons for phenotypically similar cases. Importantly, the system is focused on phenotype annotation, with explicit limitations on highly confidential data that create barriers to participation. The procedure for matching of patient phenotypes, inspired by online dating services, uses an ontology-based semantic case matching algorithm with attribute weighting. We evaluate the capacity of the system using a curated reference data set and 19 clinician entered cases comparing four matching algorithms. We find that the inclusion of clinician weights can augment phenotype matching.

  15. The Oldest Anatomically Modern Humans from Far Southeast Europe: Direct Dating, Culture and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Prat, Sandrine; Péan, Stéphane C.; Crépin, Laurent; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Puaud, Simon J.; Valladas, Hélène; Lázničková-Galetová, Martina; van der Plicht, Johannes; Yanevich, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Background Anatomically Modern Humans (AMHs) are known to have spread across Europe during the period coinciding with the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Whereas their dispersal into Western Europe is relatively well established, evidence of an early settlement of Eastern Europe by modern humans are comparatively scarce. Methodology/Principal Finding Based on a multidisciplinary approach for the study of human and faunal remains, we describe here the oldest AMH remains from the extreme southeast Europe, in conjunction with their associated cultural and paleoecological background. We applied taxonomy, paleoecology, and taphonomy combined with geomorphology, stratigraphy, archeology and radiocarbon dating. More than 160 human bone remains have been discovered. They originate from a well documented Upper Paleolithic archeological layer (Gravettian cultural tradition) from the site of Buran-Kaya III located in Crimea (Ukraine). The combination of non-metric dental traits and the morphology of the occipital bones allow us to attribute the human remains to Anatomically Modern Humans. A set of human and faunal remains from this layer has been radiocarbon dated by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. The direct-dating results of human bone establish a secure presence of AMHs at 31,900+240/−220 BP in this region. They are the oldest direct evidence of the presence of AMHs in a well documented archeological context. Based on taphonomical observations (cut marks and distribution of skeletal elements), they represent the oldest Upper Paleolithic modern humans from Eastern Europe, showing post-mortem treatment of the dead as well. Conclusion/Significance These findings are essential for the debate on the spread of modern humans in Europe during the Upper Paleolithic, as well as their cultural behaviors. PMID:21698105

  16. Evaluating the Paleoindian Radiocarbon Record at the Onset of the Younger Dryas: Sensitivity Analyses and Bayesian Chronology-Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culleton, B. J.; Kennett, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    The onset of the Younger Dryas (13.0-12.9 ka) in North America is marked in the archaeological record by the transition from Clovis to Folsom cultural assemblages, as well as the extinction of many megafauna species. The nature of the transition-gradual or abrupt, continuous or discontinuous, regionally uniform or variable - remains poorly understood because of: 1) low-precision and low-quality radiocarbon records; 2) concerns about the accuracy of the calibration curve before ca. 12.4 ka; and, 3) disagreement on the appropriate statistical models for chronology building. Here we evaluate two approaches to Paleoindian radiocarbon chronology, summed probability distributions and Bayesian phase/boundary models. Summed probability frequencies have been used as demographic proxies recently, but the effects of sample quality, density, and the variations in the calibration curve are largely unexplored. Sensitivity analyses were done by simulating radiocarbon ages at 10, 25, 50 and 100 cal yr intervals with varying measurement errors, which were calibrated and summed to obtain a probability distribution function for each run. We find that dense, high-precision radiocarbon records are necessary to detect gaps as small as 100 years in the record. Currently available radiocarbon databases for the Paleoindian period can at best be characterized as sparse and of low- to medium-precision, arguing against the use of summed probabilities as a proxy for human activity during that period. Bayesian statistical models incorporate a priori archaeological information (e.g., stratigraphic relationships, cultural assemblage) to constrain calibrated radiocarbon ages leading to more refined chronologies. Selected high-precision, reliable radiocarbon dates were used to build phase and boundary models for Clovis and post-Clovis periods, and to determine the likelihood of a gap between them consistent with depopulation consistent with an ET impact at the Younger Dryas boundary. Model results

  17. Investigations of paleoclimate variations using accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Southon, J R; Kashgarian, M; Brown, T A

    2000-08-24

    This project has used Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) {sup 14}C measurements to study climate and carbon cycle variations on time scales from decades to millennia over the past 30,000 years, primarily in the western US and the North Pacific. {sup 14}C dates provide a temporal framework for records of climate change, and natural radiocarbon acts as a carbon cycle tracer in independently dated records. The overall basis for the study is the observation that attempts to model future climate and carbon cycle changes cannot be taken seriously if the models have not been adequately tested. Paleoclimate studies are unique because they provide realistic test data under climate conditions significantly different from those of the present, whereas instrumental results can only sample the system as it is today. The aim of this project has been to better establish the extent, timing, and causes of past climate perturbations, and the carbon cycle changes with which they are linked. This provides real-world data for model testing, both for the development of individual models and also for inter-model diagnosis and comparison activities such as those of LLNL's PCMDI program; it helps us achieve a better basic understanding of how the climate system works so that models can be improved; and it gives an indication of the natural variability in the climate system underlying any anthropogenically-driven changes. The research has involved four projects which test hypotheses concerning the overall behavior of the North Pacific climate system. All are aspects of an overall theme that climate linkages are strong and direct, so that regional climate records are correlated, details of fine structure are important, and accurate and precise dating is critical for establishing correlations and even causality. An important requirement for such studies is the requirement for an accurate and precise radiocarbon calibration, to allow better correlation of radiocarbon-dated records with

  18. Radiocarbon chronology of the late-glacial Puerto Bandera moraines, Southern Patagonian Icefield, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelin, J. A.; Denton, G. H.; Vandergoes, M. J.; Ninnemann, U. S.; Putnam, A. E.

    2011-09-01

    We report radiocarbon dates that constrain the timing of the deposition of the late-glacial Puerto Bandera moraine system alongside the western reaches of Lago Argentino adjacent to the Southern Patagonian Icefield. Close maximum-limiting radiocarbon ages ( n = 11) for glacier advance into the outer moraines, with a mean value of 11,100 ± 60 14C yrs BP (12,990 ± 80 cal yrs BP), were obtained from wood in deformation (soft) till exposed beneath flow and lodgment till in Bahía del Quemado on the northeast side of Brazo Norte (North Branch) of western Lago Argentino. Other exposures of this basal deformation till in Bahía del Quemado reveal incorporated clasts of peat, along with larger inclusions of deformed glaciofluvial and lacustrine deposits. Radiocarbon dates of wood included in these reworked peat clasts range from 11,450 ± 45 14C yrs BP to 13,450 ± 150 14C yrs BP (13,315 ± 60 to 16,440 ± 340 cal yrs BP). The implication is that, during this interval, glacier fronts were situated inboard of the Puerto Bandera moraines, with the peat clasts and larger proglacial deposits being eroded and then included in the basal till during the Puerto Bandera advance. Minimum-limiting radiocarbon ages for ice retreat come from basal peat in cores sampled in spillways and depressions generated during abandonment of the Puerto Bandera moraines. Glacier recession and subsequent plant colonization were initiated close behind different frontal sectors of these moraines prior to: 10,750 ± 75 14C yrs BP (12,660 ± 70 cal yrs BP) east of Brazo Rico, 10,550 ± 55 14C yrs BP (12,490 ± 80 cal yrs BP) in Peninsula Avellaneda, and 10,400 ± 50 14C yrs BP (12,280 ± 110 cal yrs BP) in Bahía Catalana. In addition, a radiocarbon date indicates that by 10,350 ± 45 14C yrs BP (12,220 ± 110 cal yrs BP), the Brazo Norte lobe (or former Upsala Glacier) had receded well up the northern branch of Lago Argentino, to a position behind the Herminita moraines. Furthermore, glacier termini

  19. Optimization of simultaneous tritium–radiocarbon internal gas proportional counting

    SciTech Connect

    Bonicalzi, R. M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Mace, E. K.; Moran, J. J.; Overman, C. T.; Panisko, M. E.; Seifert, A.

    2016-03-01

    Specific environmental applications can benefit from dual tritium and radiocarbon measurements in a single compound. Assuming typical environmental levels, it is often the low tritium activity relative to the higher radiocarbon activity that limits the dual measurement. In this paper, we explore the parameter space for a combined tritium and radiocarbon measurement using a methane sample mixed with an argon fill gas in low-background proportional counters of a specific design. We present an optimized methane percentage, detector fill pressure, and analysis energy windows to maximize measurement sensitivity while minimizing count time. The final optimized method uses a 9-atm fill of P35 (35% methane, 65% argon), and a tritium analysis window from 1.5 to 10.3 keV, which stops short of the tritium beta decay endpoint energy of 18.6 keV. This method optimizes tritium counting efficiency while minimizing radiocarbon beta decay interference.

  20. Optimization of simultaneous tritium-radiocarbon internal gas proportional counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonicalzi, R. M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Mace, E. K.; Moran, J. J.; Overman, C. T.; Panisko, M. E.; Seifert, A.

    2016-03-01

    Specific environmental applications can benefit from dual tritium and radiocarbon measurements in a single compound. Assuming typical environmental levels, it is often the low tritium activity relative to the higher radiocarbon activity that limits the dual measurement. In this paper, we explore the parameter space for a combined tritium and radiocarbon measurement using a natural methane sample mixed with an argon fill gas in low-background proportional counters of a specific design. We present an optimized methane percentage, detector fill pressure, and analysis energy windows to maximize measurement sensitivity while minimizing count time. The final optimized method uses a 9-atm fill of P35 (35% methane, 65% argon), and a tritium analysis window from 1.5 to 10.3 keV, which stops short of the tritium beta decay endpoint energy of 18.6 keV. This method optimizes tritium-counting efficiency while minimizing radiocarbon beta-decay interference.

  1. Grass material as process standard for compound-specific radiocarbon analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros-Dozal, Malu; Xu, Xiaomei; Bryant, Charlotte; Pearson, Emma; Dungait, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    Compound-specific radiocarbon analysis (CSRA) is a powerful tool to study the carbon cycle and/or as a dating technique in paleoclimate reconstructions. The radiocarbon value of individual compounds can provide insight into turnover times, organic matter sources and in specific cases can be used to establish chronologies when traditional dating materials (e.g. macrofossils, pollen, charcoal) are not available. The isolation of compounds (or group of compounds) from parent material (e.g. soil, plant) for radiocarbon analysis can, however, introduce carbon contamination through chemical separation steps and preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC). In addition, the compounds of interest are often in low abundance which amplifies the contamination effect. The extraneous carbon can be of modern 14C age and/or 14C -free and its amount and 14C value must be determined for a given system/isolation procedure in order to report accurate 14C values. This can be achieved by using adequate standard materials but, by contrast with traditional radiocarbon dating, there are not established reference standards for CSRA work, in part because the type of standard material depends on the compounds of interest and the isolation procedure. Here we evaluate the use of n-alkanes extracted from single-year growth grass as modern process standard material for CSRA using PCGC isolation. The grass material has a known 14C value of 1.224 ± 0.006 fraction modern (FM) and the individual n-alkanes are expected to have a similar 14C value. In order to correct for the addition of extraneous carbon during PCGC isolation of the n-alkanes, we used commercially available compounds of modern 14C content and 14C -free (adipic acid, FM= 0.0015 ± 0.0001 and docosane, FM=1.059 ± 0.003) to evaluate our PCGC procedure. The corrected 14C values of the isolated n-alkanes extracted from the modern grass are within one sigma of the grass bulk 14C value for n-C29 and within two sigma for n-C23-C27, C31

  2. Fire and Fish: Using Radiocarbon And Stratigraphy To Discern The Impact Of Wildfire On Fish Metapopulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffrath, K. R.; Finch, C.; Belmont, P.; Budy, P.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfires have profound and variable impacts on erosion, channel morphology, and aquatic habitat. Previous research has quantified post-fire geomorphic response on event and millennial timescales. While these studies have informed our understanding of post-fire geomorphic response during the Holocene, we have yet to fully understand the variability of post-wildfire geomorphic response and how it might change in response to changing climate. Response of aquatic biota is just as variable as post-wildfire response yet we know very little about effects on metapopulations and how management decisions affect aquatic populations. Barriers to movement are installed to isolate native fish populations and prescribed fire and thinning are used to try to reduce future wildfire severity and extent. In order to improve understanding of the implications of management decisions, we evaluated geomorphic response and synchronicity of wildfires over the Holocene relative to the impact to the metapopulation of Bonneville cutthroat trout from a recent wildfire. The Twitchell Canyon fire burned 45,000 acres near Beaver, UT in July 2010. Over 30% of the area burned at high severity, which included two major headwater streams that sustained a trout population. In summer 2011, monsoonal thunderstorms caused massive debris flows and sheetflow erosion that altered channel morphology and aquatic habitat in the burned area. A previously robust, non-native trout fishery was nearly extirpated as a result of the geomorphic response to the wildfire. We used radiocarbon dating of burned material to determine how often headwater streams burned synchronously over the Holocene. Radiocarbon dates are associated with field observations of stratigraphy in order to infer geomorphic response to historic wildfires. Thirty samples were collected from sediment layers in 10 alluvial fans distributed among three watersheds (two burned and one unburned in the 2010 fire). Preliminary results suggest that we

  3. Investigating bomb radiocarbon transport in the southern Pacific Ocean with otolith radiocarbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammer, G. L.; Fallon, S. J.; Izzo, C.; Wood, R.; Gillanders, B. M.

    2015-08-01

    To explore the transport of carbon into water masses from the surface ocean to depths of ∼ 1000 m in the southwest Pacific Ocean, we generated time series of radiocarbon (Δ14C) from fish otoliths. Otoliths (carbonate earstones) from long-lived fish provide an indirect method to examine the "bomb pulse" of radiocarbon that originated in the 1950s and 1960s, allowing identification of changes to distributions of 14C that has entered and mixed within the ocean. We micro-sampled ocean perch (Helicolenus barathri) otoliths, collected at ∼ 400- 500 m in the Tasman Sea, to obtain measurements of Δ14C for those depths. We compared our ocean perch Δ14C series to published otolith-based marine surface water Δ14C values (Australasian snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) and nannygai (Centroberyx affinis)) and to published deep-water values (800-1000 m; orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus)) from the southwest Pacific to establish a mid-water Δ14C series. The otolith bomb 14C results from these different depths were consistent with previous water mass results in the upper 1500 m of the southwest Pacific Ocean (e.g. World Ocean Circulation Experiment and Geochemical Ocean Sections Study). A comparison between the initial Δ14C bomb pulse rise at 400-500 m suggested a ventilation lag of 5 to 10 yr, whereas a comparison of the surface and depths of 800-1000 m detailed a 10 to 20 yr lag in the time history of radiocarbon invasion at this depth. Pre-bomb reservoir ages derived from otolith 14C located in Tasman Sea thermocline waters were ∼ 530 yr, while reservoir ages estimated for Tasman Antarctic intermediate water were ∼ 730 yr.

  4. Dating megafaunal extinction on the Pleistocene Darling Downs, eastern Australia: the promise and pitfalls of dating as a test of extinction hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Gilbert J.; Webb, Gregory E.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yue-xing; Murray, Andrew S.; Cooke, Bernard N.; Hocknull, Scott A.; Sobbe, Ian H.

    2011-04-01

    A key to understanding Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinction dynamics is knowledge of megafaunal ecological response(s) to long-term environmental perturbations. Strategically, that requires targeting fossil deposits that accumulated during glacial and interglacial intervals both before and after human arrival, with subsequent palaeoecological models underpinned by robust and reliable chronologies. Late Pleistocene vertebrate fossil localities from the Darling Downs, eastern Australia, provide stratigraphically-intact, abundant megafaunal sequences, which allows for testing of anthropogenic versus climate change megafauna extinction hypotheses. Each stratigraphic unit at site QML796, Kings Creek Catchment, was previously shown to have had similar sampling potential, and the basal units contain both small-sized taxa (e.g., land snails, frogs, bandicoots, rodents) and megafauna. Importantly, sequential faunal horizons show stepwise decrease in taxonomic diversity with the loss of some, but not all, megafauna in the geographically-small palaeocatchment. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of our intensive, multidisciplinary dating study of the deposits (>40 dates). Dating by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C (targeting bone, freshwater molluscs, and charcoal) and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry U/Th (targeting teeth and freshwater molluscs) do not agree with each other and, in the case of AMS 14C dating, lack internal consistency. Scanning electron microscopy and rare earth element analyses demonstrate that the dated molluscs are diagenetically altered and contain aragonite cements that incorporated secondary young C, suggesting that such dates should be regarded as minimum ages. AMS 14C dated charcoals provide ages that occur out of stratigraphic order, and cluster in the upper chronological limits of the technique (˜40-48 ka). Again, we suggest that such results should be regarded as suspicious and only minimum ages. Subsequent

  5. Reconciling radiocarbon and ice core timescales over the Holocene - Cosmogenic radionuclides as synchronization tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muscheler, R.; Adolphi, F.; Mekhaldi, F.

    2015-12-01

    The atmospheric production rates of cosmogenic radionuclides, such as 14C and 10Be, vary globally due to external processes, namely the solar and geomagnetic modulation of the galactic cosmic ray flux as well as solar proton events. This signature is recorded in various archives such as ice cores (10Be) and tree-rings (14C). Hence, cosmogenic radionuclides offer a means to continuously assess timescale differences between two of the most widely used timescales in paleoclimatology - the radiocarbon and the ice core timescales. Short lived solar proton events additionally provide distinct marker horizons that allow synchronization of discrete horizons at annual precision. We will present a cosmogenic radionuclide based synchronization of the Greenland ice core timescale (GICC05, Svensson et al., 2008) and the radiocarbon timescale (IntCal13, Reimer et al., 2013) over the Holocene. This synchronization allows radiocarbon dated and ice core paleoclimate records to be compared on a common timescale at down to sub-decadal precision. We will compare these results to independent discrete isochrones obtained from tephrochronology and solar proton events. In addition, we will discuss implications for the accuracy and uncertainty estimates of GICC05 over the Holocene. Reimer, P. J., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J. W., Blackwell, P. G., Bronk Ramsey, C., Buck, C. E., Cheng, H., Edwards, R. L., Friedrich, M., Grootes, P. M., Guilderson, T. P., Haflidason, H., Hajdas, I., Hatté, C., Heaton, T. J., Hoffmann, D. L., Hogg, A. G., Hughen, K. A., Kaiser, K. F., Kromer, B., Manning, S. W., Niu, M., Reimer, R. W., Richards, D. A., Scott, E. M., Southon, J. R., Staff, R. A., Turney, C. S. M., and van der Plicht, J.: IntCal13 and Marine13 Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curves 0-50,000 Years cal BP, Radiocarbon, 55, 1869-1887, 10.2458/azu_js_rc.55.16947, 2013. Svensson, A., Andersen, K. K., Bigler, M., Clausen, H. B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Davies, S. M., Johnsen, S. J., Muscheler, R., Parrenin

  6. Southern Appalachian hillslope erosion rates measured by soil and detrital radiocarbon in hollows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, T. C.; Scharer, K. M.; Wooten, R. M.

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the dynamics of sediment generation and transport on hillslopes provides important constraints on the rate of sediment output from orogenic systems. Hillslope sediment fluxes are recorded by organic material found in the deposits infilling unchanneled convergent topographic features called hollows. This study describes the first hollow infilling rates measured in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Infilling rates (and bedrock erosion rates) were calculated from the vertical distribution of radiocarbon ages at two sites in the Coweeta drainage basin, western North Carolina. At each site we dated paired charcoal and silt soil organic matter samples from five different horizons. Paired radiocarbon samples were used to bracket the age of the soil material in order to capture the range of complex soil forming processes and deposition within the hollows. These dates constrain hillslope erosion rates of between 0.051 and 0.111 mm yr - 1 . These rates are up to 4 times higher than spatially-averaged rates for the Southern Appalachian Mountains making creep processes one of the most efficient erosional mechanisms in this mountain range. Our hillslope erosion rates are consistent with those of forested mountain ranges in the western United States, suggesting that the mechanisms (dominantly tree throw) driving creep erosion in both the western United States and the Southern Appalachian Mountains are equally effective.

  7. Searching for the Oldest Baobab of Madagascar: Radiocarbon Investigation of Large Adansonia rubrostipa Trees

    PubMed Central

    Patrut, Adrian; von Reden, Karl F.; Danthu, Pascal; Leong Pock-Tsy, Jean-Michel; Patrut, Roxana T.; Lowy, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    We extended our research on the architecture, growth and age of trees belonging to the genus Adansonia, by starting to investigate large individuals of the most widespread Malagasy species. Our research also intends to identify the oldest baobabs of Madagascar. Here we present results of the radiocarbon investigation of the two most representative Adansonia rubrostipa (fony baobab) specimens, which are located in south-western Madagascar, in the Tsimanampetsotse National Park. We found that the fony baobab called “Grandmother” consists of 3 perfectly fused stems of different ages. The radiocarbon date of the oldest sample was found to be 1136 ± 16 BP. We estimated that the oldest part of this tree, which is mainly hollow, has an age close to 1,600 yr. This value is comparable to the age of the oldest Adansonia digitata (African baobab) specimens. By its age, the Grandmother is a major candidate for the oldest baobab of Madagascar. The second investigated specimen, called the “polygamous baobab”, consists of 6 partially fused stems of different ages. According to dating results, this fony baobab is 1,000 yr old. This research is the first investigation of the structure and age of Malagasy baobabs. PMID:25806967

  8. Searching for the oldest baobab of Madagascar: radiocarbon investigation of large Adansonia rubrostipa trees.

    PubMed

    Patrut, Adrian; von Reden, Karl F; Danthu, Pascal; Pock-Tsy, Jean-Michel Leong; Patrut, Roxana T; Lowy, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    We extended our research on the architecture, growth and age of trees belonging to the genus Adansonia, by starting to investigate large individuals of the most widespread Malagasy species. Our research also intends to identify the oldest baobabs of Madagascar. Here we present results of the radiocarbon investigation of the two most representative Adansonia rubrostipa (fony baobab) specimens, which are located in south-western Madagascar, in the Tsimanampetsotse National Park. We found that the fony baobab called "Grandmother" consists of 3 perfectly fused stems of different ages. The radiocarbon date of the oldest sample was found to be 1136 ± 16 BP. We estimated that the oldest part of this tree, which is mainly hollow, has an age close to 1,600 yr. This value is comparable to the age of the oldest Adansonia digitata (African baobab) specimens. By its age, the Grandmother is a major candidate for the oldest baobab of Madagascar. The second investigated specimen, called the "polygamous baobab", consists of 6 partially fused stems of different ages. According to dating results, this fony baobab is 1,000 yr old. This research is the first investigation of the structure and age of Malagasy baobabs.

  9. Southern Appalachian hillslope erosion rates measured by soil and detrital radiocarbon in hollows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hales, T.C.; Scharer, K.M.; Wooten, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of sediment generation and transport on hillslopes provides important constraints on the rate of sediment output from orogenic systems. Hillslope sediment fluxes are recorded by organic material found in the deposits infilling unchanneled convergent topographic features called hollows. This study describes the first hollow infilling rates measured in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Infilling rates (and bedrock erosion rates) were calculated from the vertical distribution of radiocarbon ages at two sites in the Coweeta drainage basin, western North Carolina. At each site we dated paired charcoal and silt soil organic matter samples from five different horizons. Paired radiocarbon samples were used to bracket the age of the soil material in order to capture the range of complex soil forming processes and deposition within the hollows. These dates constrain hillslope erosion rates of between 0.051 and 0.111mmyr-1. These rates are up to 4 times higher than spatially-averaged rates for the Southern Appalachian Mountains making creep processes one of the most efficient erosional mechanisms in this mountain range. Our hillslope erosion rates are consistent with those of forested mountain ranges in the western United States, suggesting that the mechanisms (dominantly tree throw) driving creep erosion in both the western United States and the Southern Appalachian Mountains are equally effective. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Centuries of marine radiocarbon reservoir age variation within archaeological Mesodesma Donacium shells from Southern Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, K.B.; Hodgins, G.W.L.; Etayo-Cadavid, M. F.; Andrus, C.F.T.; Sandweiss, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    Mollusk shells provide brief (<5 yr per shell) records of past marine conditions, including marine radiocarbon reservoir age (R) and upwelling. We report 21 14C ages and R calculations on small (~2 mg) samples from 2 Mesodesma donacium (surf clam) shells. These shells were excavated from a semi-subterranean house floor stratum 14C dated to 7625 ?? 35 BP at site QJ-280, Quebrada Jaguay, southern Peru. The ranges in marine 14C ages (and thus R) from the 2 shells are 530 and 170 14C yr; R from individual aragonite samples spans 130 ?? 60 to 730 ?? 170 14C yr. This intrashell 14C variability suggests that 14C dating of small (time-slice much less than 1 yr) marine samples from a variable-R (i.e. variable-upwelling) environment may introduce centuries of chronometric uncertainty. ?? 2010 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

  11. Radiocarbon Age Offsets Among co-Existing Foraminifers: Effects of Bioturbation, Dissolution, and Sediment Redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickers, A. C.; Mekik, F.

    2015-12-01

    Radiocarbon dating of microfossils in deep sea cores has many caveats. Of these, three are the most problematic: bioturbation, dissolution, and lateral sediment redistribution. We attempted to isolate these caveats by selecting cores with different sedimentation rates and water depths. Our ultimate goal is to identify a foraminifer species that is affected the least by these caveats and thus is the most reliable for age dating. We present species-specific radiocarbon ages, whole assemblage counts, and calculations of sediment mixing rates in two cores extending to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM): Y69-71 in the Panama Basin and MD98-2177 in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Thorium normalization yields high lateral sediment redistribution in Y69-71 which is located below the lysocline. MD98-2177 has high sediment accumulation rates (~50cm/kyr) and is located above the lysocline. We found large disagreement among the ages of co-occurring microfossils in several horizons (up to 2000 years) in MD98-2177. Based on our whole assemblage counts bracketing these horizons, we conclude that bioturbation is the most likely agent of age discrepancy among co-occurring sedimentary components in MD98-2177 despite its high sedimentation rate. Surprisingly, the age offset among co-occurring components is reduced in Y69-71, especially during the LGM when the sediment focusing factor was about 8. This may suggest that sediment focusing was not disruptive enough to hinder the accurate dating of sediment layers in this core, especially during the LGM when foraminifer preservation was good. Lastly, we conclude that shells of G. menardii may be the most reliable for dating due to their flat morphology and high dissolution resistance.

  12. Developing inorganic carbon-based radiocarbon chronologies for Holocene lake sediments in arid NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiawu; Ma, Xueyang; Qiang, Mingrui; Huang, Xiaozhong; Li, Shuang; Guo, Xiaoyan; Henderson, Andrew C. G.; Holmes, Jonathan A.; Chen, Fahu

    2016-07-01

    Inorganic carbonates are often used to establish radiocarbon (14C) chronologies for lake sediments when terrestrial plant remains (TPR) are rare or when bulk organic matter is insufficient for dating, a problem that is common for many lakes in arid regions. However, the reservoir effect (RE), as well as old carbon contributed from the lakes catchment make it difficult to establish reliable chronologies. Here we present a systematic study of inorganic 14C ages of two lake-sediment sequences, one from a small-enclosed saline lake - Lake Gahai in Qaidam Basin, and the other from a large freshwater lake - Lake Bosten in Xinjiang. Modern dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of the lakes, paleo-lake sediments exposed in the catchment, and mollusk shells in core sediments from Lake Gahai were dated to assess the RE and the contribution of pre-aged carbon to the old ages in the cores. We propose a statistical regression to assess more than one RE for the 14C carbonate ages within our sedimentary sequences. Old radiocarbon ages contributed by detrital carbonates were assessed by comparing the ages of mollusk shells with those of carbonates at the same sediment depths. We established the RE of the authigenic component and assessed detrital old carbon contributions to our two sites, and this was used to correct the 14C ages. Based on this approach, we developed age models for both cores, and tested them using 210Pb ages in both cores and TPR-based 14C-ages recovered from Lake Bosten. We further tested our age models by comparing carbonate-based oxygen isotope (δ18O) records from both lakes to an independently-dated regional speleothem δ18O record. Our results suggest if sedimentary sequences are densely dated and the RE and the contribution of old carbon from detrital carbonates can be ascertained, robust chronological frameworks based on carbonate-based 14C determinations can be established.

  13. Comparison of Radiocarbon Ages for Multiproxy Paleoclimate Reconstruction of the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, K. E.; Bowen, G. J.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2008-12-01

    Multiproxy paleoclimate reconstructions from high sedimentation-rate systems offer promising opportunities to deconvolve multiple aspects climate system response to past forcing. However, the time-equivalence of proxies must be established before such reconstructions can be usefully interpreted. Differences in source ages, transport pathways, and surface residence times for substrates may lead to differences in lag times between proxy formation and deposition, compromising comparative analysis of data from multiple proxies. We used multi-substrate radiocarbon dating to investigate the potential for multi-proxy reconstruction of Holocene changes in the volume of the Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, based on the stable isotope composition of organic and inorganic substrates in lake sediment cores. Among potential substrates for this work are normal alkanes of vascular higher plant and algal origin, fossil cysts of lake-dwelling brine shrimp (Artemia), and micritic aragonite. Radiocarbon ages for all organic substrates (alkanes, cysts) sampled at any given core depth are concordant within analytical uncertainty and are similar to ages determined on land-plant debris and filamentous algae isolated from the sediment. Inorganic carbonate, in contrast, is depleted in 14C compare to the organic proxies, giving ages that were apparently 2000 to 3000 years older, likely due to winnowing and re-deposition of carbonate at the core site. These results suggest that the maximum temporal resolution achievable through analysis of mineral substrates is on the order of several millennia. Although the limited precision of the radiocarbon analysis precludes precise determination of the maximum potential resolution of organic-proxy based climate reconstructions, the relatively high sedimentation rates (50--150 cm/kyr) and age-equivalence of the substrates analyzed implies that sub- centennial scale resolution should be achievable throughout much of the Holocene portion of the GSL

  14. Better characterization of young and old groundwater systems through improved groundwater dating by isotope methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Pradeep; Suckow, Axel; Newman, Brent; Araguas, Luis; Groening, Manfred; Voss, Clifford; Vitvar, Tomas; Froehlich, Klaus; Kurttas, Turker

    2010-05-01

    . The combined use of radioactive tracers such as carbon-14, chlorine-36 and krypton-81, and numerical hydrodynamic modelling showed inconsistencies in residence time estimates made before the extensive use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dating methods. Most of the inconsistencies in the use of radiocarbon were the result of contamination with atmospheric CO2 during sampling by the conventional precipitation method. Duplicate analysis of radiocarbon by both sampling methods in selected large aquifers showed consistent differences, up to 10 pMC. The lack of radiocarbon in some deep groundwaters has been confirmed by other long-lived radioisotopes. We have re-evaluated groundwater ages of several of these aquifers coupled with 3-D groundwater models. Our study has demonstrated the usefulness of conservative long-lived radioisotopes for assessing groundwater dynamics of large aquifers containing fossil groundwaters, such as the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System in Africa and the Guarani aquifer in South America. This presentation will discuss these and related IAEA initiatives in the field of isotope age dating of both young and old groundwaters under various climatic conditions.

  15. The distribution of bomb radiocarbon in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broecker, Wallace S.; Peng, Tsung-Hung; Ostlund, Gote; Stuiver, Minze

    1985-01-01

    Water column inventories are calculated for bomb radiocarbon at all the stations occupied during the GEOSECS and NORPAX expeditions and for the available TTO stations. The pattern of global inventories obtained in this way suggests that a sizable portion of the bomb radiocarbon that entered the Antarctic, the northern Pacific, and the tropical ocean has been transported to the adjacent temperate zones. A strategy for utilizing these inventory anomalies as constraints on global ocean circulation models is presented. Essential to this strategy are the improvement of our knowledge of the pattern of wind speed over the ocean, the establishment of the wind speed dependence of the rate of gas exchange between the atmosphere and sea, and the continued mapping of the distribution of bomb-produced radiocarbon in the sea.

  16. Fossil and biogenic CO{sub 2} from waste incineration based on a yearlong radiocarbon study

    SciTech Connect

    Mohn, J.; Szidat, S.; Zeyer, K.; Emmenegger, L.

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yearlong radiocarbon study on the share of biogenic CO{sub 2} from waste incineration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct approach combining temporal integrating gas sampling and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} analysis by AMS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant differences between incinerators with 43% and 54%Fos C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No annual cycle of fossil CO{sub 2} for all, except one, of the included incinerators. - Abstract: We describe the first long-term implementation of the radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) method to study the share of biogenic (%Bio C) and fossil (%Fos C) carbon in combustion CO{sub 2}. At five Swiss incinerators, a total of 24 three-week measurement campaigns were performed over 1 year. Temporally averaged bag samples were analyzed for {sup 14}CO{sub 2} by accelerator mass spectrometry. Significant differences between the plants in the share of fossil CO{sub 2} were observed, with annual mean values from 43.4 {+-} 3.9% to 54.5 {+-} 3.1%. Variations can be explained by the waste composition of the respective plant. Based on our dataset, an average value of 48 {+-} 4%Fos C was determined for waste incineration in Switzerland. No clear annual trend in %Fos C was observed for four of the monitored incinerators, while one incinerator showed considerable variations, which are likely due to the separation and temporary storage of bulky goods.

  17. Τesting models for the beginnings of the Aurignacian and the advent of figurative art and music: the radiocarbon chronology of Geißenklösterle.

    PubMed

    Higham, Thomas; Basell, Laura; Jacobi, Roger; Wood, Rachel; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Conard, Nicholas J

    2012-06-01

    The German site of Geißenklösterle is crucial to debates concerning the European Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition and the origins of the Aurignacian in Europe. Previous dates from the site are central to an important hypothesis, the Kulturpumpe model, which posits that the Swabian Jura was an area where crucial behavioural developments took place and then spread to other parts of Europe. The previous chronology (critical to the model), is based mainly on radiocarbon dating, but remains poorly constrained due to the dating resolution and the variability of dates. The cause of these problems is disputed, but two principal explanations have been proposed: a) larger than expected variations in the production of atmospheric radiocarbon, and b) taphonomic influences in the site mixing the bones that were dated into different parts of the site. We reinvestigate the chronology using a new series of radiocarbon determinations obtained from the Mousterian, Aurignacian and Gravettian levels. The results strongly imply that the previous dates were affected by insufficient decontamination of the bone collagen prior to dating. Using an ultrafiltration protocol the chronometric picture becomes much clearer. Comparison of the results against other recently dated sites in other parts of Europe suggests the Early Aurignacian levels are earlier than other sites in the south of France and Italy, but not as early as recently dated sites which suggest a pre-Aurignacian dispersal of modern humans to Italy by ∼45000 cal BP. They are consistent with the importance of the Danube Corridor as a key route for the movement of people and ideas. The new dates fail to refute the Kulturpumpe model and suggest that Swabian Jura is a region that contributed significantly to the evolution of symbolic behaviour as indicated by early evidence for figurative art, music and mythical imagery.

  18. The Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition: dating, stratigraphy, and isochronous markers.

    PubMed

    Blockley, S P E; Ramsey, C Bronk; Higham, T F G

    2008-11-01

    Accurate and precise dating is vital to our understanding of the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. There are, however, a number of uncertainties in the chronologies currently available for this period. We attempt to examine these uncertainties by utilizing a number of recent developments in the field. These include: the precise dating of the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) tephra by 40Ar/39Ar; the tracing of this tephra to a number of deposits that are radiocarbon dated; the publication of revised radiocarbon calibration data for the period, showing a much better convergence with other available data than during the recent IntCal comparison; and a layer-counted ice-core chronology extending beyond 40,000cal BP. Our data comparisons suggest that a reasonable overall convergence between calibrated radiocarbon ages and calendar dates is possible using the new curves. Additionally, we suggest that charcoal-based radiocarbon ages, as well as bone-based radiocarbon determinations, require cautious interpretation in this period. Potentially, these issues extend far beyond the sites in this study and should be of serious concern to archaeologists studying the Middle to Upper Paleolithic. We conclude by outlining a strategy for moving the science forward by a closer integration of archaeology, chronology, and stratigraphy.

  19. Time in tortoiseshell: a bomb radiocarbon-validated chronology in sea turtle scutes

    PubMed Central

    Van Houtan, Kyle S.; Andrews, Allen H.; Jones, T. Todd; Murakawa, Shawn K. K.; Hagemann, Molly E.

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most basic questions of sea turtle life history are also the most elusive. Many uncertainties surround lifespan, growth rates, maturity and spatial structure, yet these are critical factors in assessing population status. Here we examine the keratinized hard tissues of the hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) carapace and use bomb radiocarbon dating to estimate growth and maturity. Scutes have an established dietary record, yet the large keratin deposits of hawksbills evoke a reliable chronology. We sectioned, polished and imaged posterior marginal scutes from 36 individual hawksbills representing all life stages, several Pacific populations and spanning eight decades. We counted the apparent growth lines, microsampled along growth contours and calibrated Δ14C values to reference coral series. We fit von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF) models to the results, producing a range of age estimates for each turtle. We find Hawaii hawksbills deposit eight growth lines annually (range 5–14), with model ensembles producing a somatic growth parameter (k) of 0.13 (range 0.1–0.2) and first breeding at 29 years (range 23–36). Recent bomb radiocarbon values also suggest declining trophic status. Together, our results may reflect long-term changes in the benthic community structure of Hawaii reefs, and possibly shed light on the critical population status for Hawaii hawksbills. PMID:26740617

  20. Time in tortoiseshell: a bomb radiocarbon-validated chronology in sea turtle scutes.

    PubMed

    Van Houtan, Kyle S; Andrews, Allen H; Jones, T Todd; Murakawa, Shawn K K; Hagemann, Molly E

    2016-01-13

    Some of the most basic questions of sea turtle life history are also the most elusive. Many uncertainties surround lifespan, growth rates, maturity and spatial structure, yet these are critical factors in assessing population status. Here we examine the keratinized hard tissues of the hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) carapace and use bomb radiocarbon dating to estimate growth and maturity. Scutes have an established dietary record, yet the large keratin deposits of hawksbills evoke a reliable chronology. We sectioned, polished and imaged posterior marginal scutes from 36 individual hawksbills representing all life stages, several Pacific populations and spanning eight decades. We counted the apparent growth lines, microsampled along growth contours and calibrated Δ(14)C values to reference coral series. We fit von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF) models to the results, producing a range of age estimates for each turtle. We find Hawaii hawksbills deposit eight growth lines annually (range 5-14), with model ensembles producing a somatic growth parameter (k) of 0.13 (range 0.1-0.2) and first breeding at 29 years (range 23-36). Recent bomb radiocarbon values also suggest declining trophic status. Together, our results may reflect long-term changes in the benthic community structure of Hawaii reefs, and possibly shed light on the critical population status for Hawaii hawksbills.

  1. Annual variability in the radiocarbon age and source of dissolved CO2 in a peatland stream.

    PubMed

    Garnett, Mark H; Dinsmore, Kerry J; Billett, Michael F

    2012-06-15

    Radiocarbon dating has the capacity to significantly improve our understanding of the aquatic carbon cycle. In this study we used a new passive sampler to measure the radiocarbon ((14)C) and stable carbon (δ(13)C) isotopic composition of dissolved CO(2) for the first time in a peatland stream throughout a complete year (May 2010-June 2011). The in-stream sampling system collected time-integrated samples of CO(2) continuously over approximately 1 month periods. The rate of CO(2) trapping was proportional to independently measured streamwater CO(2) concentrations, demonstrating that passive samplers can be used to estimate the time-averaged dissolved CO(2) concentration of streamwater. While there was little variation and no clear trend in δ(13)CO(2) values (suggesting a consistent CO(2) source), we found a clear temporal pattern in the (14)C concentration of dissolved CO(2). The (14)C age of CO(2) varied from 707±35 to 1210±39 years BP, with the youngest CO(2) in the autumn and oldest in spring/early summer. Mean stream discharge and (14)C content of dissolved CO(2) were positively correlated. We suggest that the observed pattern in the (14)C content of dissolved CO(2) reflects changes in its origin, with older carbon derived from deeper parts of the peat profile contributing proportionally more gaseous carbon during periods of low stream flow.

  2. A low cost optical radiocarbon (14C) sensor for greenhouse gas source attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, D.; Fleisher, A. J.; Liu, Q.; Hodges, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) provides a convenient means for the attribution of atmospheric greenhouse gases between anthropogenic and biogenic sources. Unfortunately, routine measurements are costly and require extensive sample preparation to meet sensitivity goals only achievable at large accelerator mass spectrometer facilities. We describe an alternate approach in which a laser is used to selectively record the absorption signatures of the 14C isotope of CO2. The designed instrument will allow for bench-top measurements of 14CO2 at and below ambient levels (~1.2 parts-per-trillion). The use of a commercially available mid-infrared quantum cascade laser as the optical source greatly reduces the cost of the instrument over more complicated sources and should allow for routine inline measurements.

  3. RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENTS ON PM-2.5 AMBIENT AEROSOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurements provide an estimate of the fraction of carbon in a sample that is biogenic. The methodology has been extensively used in past wintertime studies to quantify the contribution of wood smoke to ambient aerosol. In summertime such measurements can p...

  4. RADIOCARBON ANALYSIS OF PM 2.5 AMBIENT AEROSOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The radiocarbon (14C) content of an ambient aerosol sample can be directly related to the fraction of the sample's total carbon mass contributed by natural (biogenic) sources. Such knowledge is difficult to determine by other means, and important for devising ambient PM contro...

  5. Oceanic radiocarbon: Separation of the natural and bomb components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broecker, Wallace S.; Sutherland, Stewart; Smethie, William; Peng, Tsung-Hung; Ostlund, Gote

    1995-06-01

    An improved method has been developed for the separation of the natural and bomb components of the radiocarbon in the ocean. The improvement involves the use of a very strong correlation between natural radiocarbon and dissolved silica. This method is applied to radiocarbon measurements made on samples collected during the Geochemical Ocean Sections Study (GEOSECS), Transient Tracers in the Ocean (TTO) and South Atlantic Ventilation Experiment (SAVE) expeditions. On the basis of this new separation we provide not only an estimate of the global inventory of bomb 14C at the time of the GEOSECS survey but also the distribution of bomb radiocarbon along four thermocline isopycnals in each ocean. We also document the evolution of the bomb 14C inventory and penetration along thermocline isopycnals in the North Atlantic Ocean between the times of the GEOSECS (1972-1973) and TTO (1980-1982) surveys and in the South Atlantic Ocean between the times of the GEOSECS (1973) and SAVE (1987-1989) surveys. In addition, we show that the bomb tritium to bomb 14C ratio (expressed in the tritium unit (TU) 81 units/100‰) for waters entering the thermocline of the northern hemisphere is about 9 times higher than for those entering the southern hemisphere thermocline. This contrast offers long-term potential as an indicator of inter-hemispheric transport of upper ocean waters.

  6. VOC RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENTS DURING SCOS97 AND EMISSIONS INVENTORY VALIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurements provide an estimate of the fraction of carbon in a sample that is biogenic. In September 1997 during SCOS97 a series of 3-h canister samples of ambient air were collected at the Azusa air monitoring station during morning and afternoon periods. ...

  7. Radiocarbon dating of groundwater in a confined aquifer in southeast Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, F.N.

    1992-01-01

    Groundwater ages, after correcting for chemistry, are greater than 10 ka BP. The groundwater ages do not increase in a downvalley direction, the assumed direction of groundwater movement in most intermontane basins in the region, but along general flow paths normal to the mountains toward the center of the basin. Recharge to the confined aquifer originates from infiltration of precipitation and runoff near the alluvium-mountain contact along the Galiuro Mountains and is discharged by evapotranspiration along the center of the basin. The hydrogeological concept of the 14C model is supported by the water chemistry and by the mass transfer defined by the chemical model. Weathering of primary silicate minerals in the confined aquifer does not occur downvalley, but only along the direction of flow. Hydraulic conductivities calculated for the aquifer from 14C velocities are about an order of magnitude slower than those determined through hydrological methods. The lower hydraulic-conductivity values are attributed to a thick confining layer overlying the discharge area along the San Pedro River. -from Author

  8. Radiocarbon dating reveals minimal collagen turnover in both healthy and osteoarthritic human cartilage.

    PubMed

    Heinemeier, Katja M; Schjerling, Peter; Heinemeier, Jan; Møller, Mathias B; Krogsgaard, Michael R; Grum-Schwensen, Tomas; Petersen, Michael M; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-07-06

    The poor regenerative capacity of articular cartilage presents a major clinical challenge and may relate to a limited turnover of the cartilage collagen matrix. However, the collagen turnover rate during life is not clear, and it is debated whether osteoarthritis (OA) can influence it. Using the carbon-14 ((14)C) bomb-pulse method, life-long replacement rates of collagen were measured in tibial plateau cartilage from 23 persons born between 1935 and1997 (15 and 8 persons with OA and healthy cartilage, respectively). The (14)C levels observed in cartilage collagen showed that, virtually, no replacement of the collagen matrix happened after skeletal maturity and that neither OA nor tissue damage, per se, influenced collagen turnover. Regional differences in (14)C content across the joint surface showed that cartilage collagen located centrally on the joint surface is formed several years earlier than collagen located peripherally. The collagen matrix of human articular cartilage is an essentially permanent structure that has no significant turnover in adults, even with the occurrence of disease.

  9. Dating of Modern Human Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grun, R.

    Dating studies on palaoeanthropological sites is usually carried out on material associ- ated with the human remains, such as the sediment, charcoal or other fauna rather than the human specimen itself. The reason lies in the fact that most dating techniques are destructive and because the hominid remains are too rare to be sacrificed for dating. This indirect dating approach is in many cases not satisfactory, because: (i) the human remains are often buried into the sediments and the association with other materials is uncertain (e.g. Skhul, Qafzeh, etc.); (ii) faunal remains or minerals from the sediment are re-worked from older deposits (see e.g. present discussion of the age of the Homo erectus remains in Indonesia; (iii) the hominid fossils were discovered at a time when no careful excavations were carried out and it is impossible to correlate the specimen with other datable material (which applies tonearly 90% of all palaeoanthropological specimens). For example, the hominid burial site of Qafzeh in Israel has been dated by several independent dating laboratories with a multitude of methods. However, the data are still not accepted by some because the dating has not been carried out on the hominid specimen. Until recently, hominid fossils could only be dated by radiocarbon. This method reaches back to about 40,000 years. As a consequence, all the older fossils could not be analysed and many important questions in our understanding of human evolution could not be addressed. Human remains are scarce and extremely valuable, therefore any sort of destruction has to be kept to an absolute minimum. This is of particular importance in Australia where any human fossils are sacred. Thus, for the analysis of hominid material it was necessary to develop a more or less non-destructive techniques. This has been ac- complished in recent years by the application of ESR dating of tooth enamel and a combination of gamma spectrometric and TIMS U-series dating of bones. The exam

  10. Geographic and temporal trends in proboscidean and human radiocarbon histories during the late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugan, Andrew; Byers, David

    2007-12-01

    The causes of large animal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene remain a hotly debated topic focused primarily on the effects of human over hunting and climate change. Here we examine multiple, large radiocarbon data sets for humans and extinct proboscideans and explore how variation in their temporal and geographic distributions were related prior to proboscidean extinction. These data include 4532 archaeological determinations from Europe and Siberia and 1177 mammoth and mastodont determinations from Europe, Siberia, and North America. All span the period from 45,000 to 12,000 calendar years BP. We show that while the geographic ranges of dated human occupations and proboscidean remains overlap across the terminal Pleistocene of the Old World, the two groups remain largely segregated and increases in the frequency of human occupations do not coincide with declines in proboscidean remains. Prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ca 21,000 years BP), archaeological 14C determinations increase slightly in frequency worldwide while the frequency of dated proboscidean remains varies depending on taxon and location. After the LGM, both sympatric and allopatric groups of humans and proboscideans increase sharply as climatic conditions ameliorate. Post-LGM radiocarbon frequencies among proboscideans peak at different times, also depending upon taxon and location. Woolly mammoths in Beringia reach a maximum and then decline beginning between 16,000 and 15,500 years BP, woolly mammoths in Europe and Siberia ca 14,500 and 13,500 BP, and Columbian mammoth and American mastodont only after 13,000 BP. Declines among woolly mammoths appear to coincide with the restructuring of biotic communities following the Pleistocene-Holocene transition.

  11. Large variations in the Holocene marine radiocarbon reservoir effect reflect ocean circulation and climatic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Quan; Webb, Gregory E.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Nothdurft, Luke D.; Lybolt, Matthew; Price, Gilbert J.; Opdyke, Bradley N.

    2015-07-01

    Accurate radiocarbon dating of marine samples requires knowledge of the marine radiocarbon reservoir effect. This effect for a particular site/region is generally assumed constant through time when calibrating marine 14C ages. However, recent studies have shown large temporal variations of several hundred to a couple of thousand years in this effect for a number of regions during the late Quaternary and Holocene. Here we report marine radiocarbon reservoir correction (ΔR) for Heron Reef and Moreton Bay in southwestern (SW) Pacific for the last 8 ka derived from 14C analysis of 230Th-dated corals. Most of our ΔR for the last ∼5.4 ka agree well with their modern value, but large ΔR variability of ∼410 yr (from trough to peak) with possible decadal/centennial fluctuations is evident for the period ∼5.4-8 ka. The latter time interval also has significant variations with similar features in previously published ΔR values for other sites in the Pacific, including southern Peru-northern Chile in southeastern (SE) Pacific, the South China Sea, Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea, with the largest magnitude of ∼920 yr from SE Pacific. The mechanisms for these large ΔR variations across the Pacific during the mid-Holocene are complex processes involving (1) changes in the quantity and 14C content of upwelled waters in tropical east Pacific (TEP) (frequency and intensity of ocean upwelling in the TEP, and contribution of Subantarctic Mode Water to the upwelled waters, which is influenced by the intensity and position of southern westerly winds), and (2) variations in ocean circulation associated with climate change (La Niña/El Niño conditions, intensity of easterly trade winds, positions of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the South Pacific Convergence Zone), which control the spreading of the older upwelled surface waters in the TEP to the western sites. Our results imply the need for employing temporal changes in ΔR values, instead of constant (modern) values

  12. Ocean science: Radiocarbon variability in the western North Atlantic during the last deglaciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, L.F.; Adkins, J.F.; Keigwin, L.D.; Southon, J.; Fernandez, D.P.; Wang, S.-L.; Scheirer, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    We present a detailed history of glacial to Holocene radiocarbon in the deep western North Atlantic from deep-sea corals and paired benthic-planktonic foraminifera. The deglaciation is marked by switches between radiocarbon-enriched and -depleted waters, leading to large radiocarbon gradients in the water column. These changes played an important role in modulating atmospheric radiocarbon. The deep-ocean record supports the notion of a bipolar seesaw with increased Northern-source deep-water formation linked to Northern Hemisphere warming and the reverse. In contrast, the more frequent radiocarbon variations in the intermediate/deep ocean are associated with roughly synchronous changes at the poles.

  13. Radiocarbon and stable isotope investigations at the Central Rhineland sites of Gönnersdorf and Andernach-Martinsberg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Rhiannon E; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Hedges, Robert E M; Street, Martin

    2009-08-01

    The late glacial open-air sites of Gönnersdorf and Andernach-Martinsberg in the German Central Rhineland are well known for their Magdalenian occupation and activities. The latter site also produced evidence for a younger, Final Palaeolithic occupation of the locality by people of the Federmessergruppen. Both sites are particularly well preserved, largely due to their burial beneath volcanic deposits of the late glacial Laacher See eruption. We conducted a program of AMS radiocarbon dating and stable isotope analyses with the aim of improving understanding of the chronological history and ecological setting of the two sites. Previously published radiocarbon dates appeared to indicate that the earliest Magdalenian occupation at Gönnersdorf fell around 12,900 uncalibrated (14)C yr BP, while the earliest occupation at Andernach may have been more than 500 radiocarbon years earlier. The AMS determinations presented here revise this impression and suggest that the onset of occupation at the two sites was in fact simultaneous and prior to the warming of Greenland Interstadial GI 1e. At Gönnersdorf, a chronological hiatus exists between the main Magdalenian faunal assemblage and mega-faunal remains interpreted as collected sub-fossil material. At Andernach-Martinsberg, there is a clear chronological hiatus between the Magdalenian occupation and subsequent Federmessergruppen activities at the site. However, an intermediate radiocarbon date on an atypically preserved horse bone is suggestive of ephemeral human visits to the site between these well demonstrated phases. A date of similar age on an elk bone from Gönnersdorf may indicate broadly contemporaneous human presence at Gönnersdorf too. Stable isotope analysis of faunal remains from Gönnersdorf and Andernach-Martinsberg was conducted with the aim of both reconstructing and comparing local environmental conditions at the two sites, and also potentially identifying subtle variations in the chronological development

  14. A new procedure for extraction of collagen from modern and archaeological bones for 14C dating.

    PubMed

    Maspero, F; Sala, S; Fedi, M E; Martini, M; Papagni, A

    2011-10-01

    Bones are potentially the best age indicators in a stratigraphic study, because they are closely related to the layer in which they are found. Collagen is the most suitable fraction and is the material normally used in radiocarbon dating. Bone contaminants can strongly alter the carbon isotopic fraction values of the samples, so chemical pretreatment for (14)C dating by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is essential. The most widespread method for collagen extraction is based on the Longin procedure, which consists in HCl demineralization to dissolve the inorganic phase of the samples, followed by dissolution of collagen in a weak acid solution. In this work the possible side effects of this procedure on a modern bone are presented; the extracted collagen was analyzed by ATR-IR spectroscopy. An alternative procedure, based on use of HF instead of HCl, to minimize unwanted degradation of the organic fraction, is also given. A study by ATR-IR spectroscopic analysis of collagen collected after different demineralization times and with different acid volumes, and a study of an archaeological sample, are also presented.

  15. Radiocarbon analysis of stratospheric CO2 retrieved from AirCore sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Dipayan; Chen, Huilin; Been, Henk A.; Kivi, Rigel; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2016-10-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) is an important atmospheric tracer and one of the many used in the understanding of the global carbon budget, which includes the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4. Measurement of radiocarbon in atmospheric CO2 generally requires the collection of large air samples (a few liters) from which CO2 is extracted and then the concentration of radiocarbon is determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). However, the regular collection of air samples from the stratosphere, for example using aircraft and balloons, is prohibitively expensive. Here we describe radiocarbon measurements in stratospheric CO2 collected by the AirCore sampling method. AirCore is an innovative atmospheric sampling system, which comprises a long tube descending from a high altitude with one end open and the other closed, and it has been demonstrated to be a reliable, cost-effective sampling system for high-altitude profile (up to ≈ 30 km) measurements of CH4 and CO2. In Europe, AirCore measurements have been being performed on a regular basis near Sodankylä (northern Finland) since September 2013. Here we describe the analysis of samples from two such AirCore flights made there in July 2014, for determining the radiocarbon concentration in stratospheric CO2. The two AirCore profiles were collected on consecutive days. The stratospheric part of the AirCore was divided into six sections, each containing ≈ 35 µg CO2 ( ≈ 9.6 µgC), and stored in a stratospheric air subsampler constructed from 1/4 in. coiled stainless steel tubing ( ≈ 3 m). A small-volume extraction system was constructed that enabled > 99.5 % CO2 extraction from the stratospheric air samples. Additionally, a new small-volume high-efficiency graphitization system was constructed for graphitization of these extracted CO2 samples, which were measured at the Groningen AMS facility. Since the stratospheric samples were very similar in mass, reference samples were also prepared in the same mass range for

  16. New radiocarbon evidence on the extirpation of the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta (Erxl.)) in northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Anthony J.; Lister, Adrian M.

    2014-07-01

    The extirpation of spotted hyaena, Crocuta crocuta, in northern Eurasia can be seen as part of the late Quaternary megafaunal extinction event. The radiocarbon record for this species is less substantial than for other megafaunal species, but with the addition of new dates we have significantly increased the tally to approximately 100 reliable direct dates. These suggest extirpation at ca 40 ka (calendar years) in Central Europe and Russia, and ca 31 ka in north-west and southern Europe, so that the species was probably restricted to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic seaboard after 40 ka. Previous records suggesting Lateglacial or even Holocene survival (especially in eastern Asia) are not substantiated. The current estimate of 31 ka for extirpation of the spotted hyaena in northern Eurasia is close to the estimated extinction date of cave bear (Ursus spelaeus), suggesting a possible common cause. Factors likely to have impacted the spotted hyaena include, in particular, physiological cold intolerance in the face of deteriorating climate, as well as reduction of prey abundance driven by depressed vegetational productivity, and increased competition for food or space with lions, bears and people, possibly exacerbated by the arrival of modern humans.

  17. The radiocarbon budget for Mono Lake: an unsolved mystery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broecker, W.S.; Wanninkhof, R.; Mathieu, G.; Peng, T.-H.; Stine, S.; Robinson, S.; Herczeg, A.; Stuiver, M.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1957 the 14C C ratio of the dissolved inorganic carbon in Mono Lake has risen by about 60???. The magnitude of this increase is about four times larger than that expected from the invasion of bomb-produced 14C from the atmosphere. We have eliminated the following explanations: (1) measurement error, (2) an unusually high physical exchange rate for non-reactive gases, (3) inorganic enhancement of the CO2 exchange rate, and (4) biological enhancement of the CO2 exchange rate. Clandestine disposal of waste radiocarbon remains a dark-horse explanation. In the course of our investigations we have uncovered evidence for at least one episodic input of radiocarbon-free carbon to the lake over the last 1000 years. We speculate that this injection was related to a hydrothermal event resulting from sublacustrine volcanic activity. ?? 1988.

  18. New radiocarbon ages from cirques in Colorado Front Range

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.T. . Dept. Natural Science); Birkeland, P.W. . Dept. Geological Science); Caine, N. . Dept. of Geography); Rodbell, D.T. )

    1992-01-01

    The authors recovered sediment cores 3.1 m long from Blue Lake ([approximately]37m water depth, [approximately]3,445m a.s.l., 40[degree]5 minutes 20 seconds N, 105[degree]37 minutes 08 seconds W) and 2.7m long from Lake Dorothy ([approximately]35m water depth, [approximately]3,675m a.s.l., 40[degree]00 minutes 46 seconds N, 105[degree]41 minutes 11 seconds W). A light-weight percussion coring system suspended from perlon ropes was used because of sediment thicknesses, water depths, and ski-backpacking requirements. Lake ice provided a stable coring platform. One purpose of the project is provision of a high-resolution record of environmental change in the subalpine/alpine ecotone during the Holocene, under the auspices of the Niwot Ridge Long-Term Ecological Research program. The sediment cores also provide minimum-limiting radiocarbon ages for deglaciation of cirques and the deposits that impound their tarns. Here the authors report on this second purpose. The Blue Lake core bottomed in sandy, gray, inorganic sediment, presumably glacial diamict. A bulk sample from 2.8--2.9m depth yielded a conventional radiocarbon age of 12,275[+-]345 yrs BP. Thus, ice retreated from the site by 12 ka. Since 12 ka both glacial and rock-glacial sediments have been deposited upvalley; some of these events may be recognized in the core. In contrast, the Lake Dorothy core did not penetrate gray inorganic diamict and is entirely organic-rich. A bulk sample from 2.65--2.7m depth yielded a conventional radiocarbon age of 10,910 [+-] 320 yrs BP. Thus, the moraines impounding the lake are 2--3 times older than suggested by a combination of relative-age methods and one radiocarbon age from surface sediments.

  19. Foraminiferal radiocarbon record of northeast Pacific decadal subsurface variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, Lydia D.; Charles, Christopher D.; Field, David B.; Guilderson, Thomas P.

    2013-09-01

    The decadal dynamics of the subsurface North Pacific Ocean are largely inaccessible beyond sparse instrumental observations spanning the last 20 years. Here we present a ˜200 year long record of benthic foraminiferal radiocarbon (Δ14C), extracted at biennial resolution from the annually laminated sediments at the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) depocenter (˜600 m). The close match between core top benthic foraminiferal Δ14C values and the Δ14C of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) suggests that benthic foraminifera faithfully capture the bottom water radiocarbon concentrations, as opposed to that of the deeper (>0.5 cm) sediment porewater zone. The full time series of benthic foraminiferal Δ14C displays significant variability on decadal timescales, with excursions on the order of 40‰. These excursions are overprinted by a unidirectional trend over the late 20th century that likely reflects the sedimentary incorporation of bomb radiocarbon (via remineralized particulate organic carbon). We isolate this trend by means of a one-dimensional oxidation model, which considers the possible contribution of remineralized particles to the total ambient carbon pool. This oxidation model also considers the possible influence of carbon with a variety of sources (ages). Though variable oxidation of preaged carbon could exert a strong influence on benthic foraminiferal radiocarbon variability, the totality of evidence points to the vertical density structure along the Southern California Margin (SCM) as the primary driver of the SBB benthic foraminiferal Δ14C record. For example, intervals characterized by significantly lower Δ14C values correspond to periods of enhanced upwelling and subsurface equatorward flow along the SCM.

  20. Towards a North Atlantic Marine Radiocarbon Calibration Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, William; Reimer, Paula; Blaauw, Maarten; Bryant, Charlotte; Rae, James; Burke, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Service du dejeuner! Twenty years ago, in 1995, I sailed as a post-doctoral researcher based at the University of Edinburgh (UK) on the first scientific mission of the new Marion Dufresne II. In this presentation, I will provide an update on the work that first quantified North Atlantic marine radiocarbon reservoir ages, highlighting how advances in marine tephrochronology over the last twenty years have significantly improved our understanding (and ability to test) land-ice-ocean linkages. The mechanistic link that connects marine radiocarbon reservoir ages to ocean ventilation state will also be discussed with reference to the Younger Dryas climate anomaly, where models and data have been successfully integrated. I will discuss the use of reference chronologies in the North Atlantic region and evaluate the common practice of climate synchronization between the Greenland ice cores and some of the key MD records that are now available. The exceptional quality of the MD giant piston cores and their potential to capture high-resolution last glacial sediment records from the North Atlantic provides an exciting opportunity to build new regional marine radiocarbon calibration curves. I will highlight new efforts by my co-authors and others to build such curves, setting-out a new agenda for the next twenty years of the IMAGES programme.

  1. Late Holocene Radiocarbon Variability in Northwest Atlantic Slope Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, O; Edinger, E; Guilderson, T P; Ghaleb, B; Risk, M J; Scott, D B

    2008-08-15

    Deep-sea gorgonian corals secrete a 2-part skeleton of calcite, derived from dissolved inorganic carbon at depth, and gorgonin, derived from recently fixed and exported particulate organic matter. Radiocarbon contents of the calcite and gorgonin provide direct measures of seawater radiocarbon at depth and in the overlying surface waters, respectively. Using specimens collected from Northwest Atlantic slope waters, we generated radiocarbon records for surface and upper intermediate water layers spanning the pre- and post bomb-{sup 14}C eras. In Labrador Slope Water (LSW), convective mixing homogenizes the pre-bomb {Delta}{sup 14}C signature (-67 {+-} 4{per_thousand}) to at least 1000 m depth. Surface water bomb-{sup 14}C signals were lagged and damped (peaking at {approx} +45{per_thousand} in the early 1980s) relative to other regions of the northwest Atlantic, and intermediate water signals were damped further. Off southwest Nova Scotia, the vertical gradient in {Delta}{sup 14}C is much stronger. In surface water, pre-bomb {Delta}{sup 14}C averaged -75 {+-} 5{per_thousand}. At 250-475 m depth, prebomb {Delta}{sup 14}C oscillated quasi-decadally between -80 and -100{per_thousand}, likely reflecting interannual variability in the presence of Labrador Slope Water vs. Warm Slope Water (WSW). Finally, subfossil corals reveal no systematic changes in vertical {Delta}{sup 14}C gradients over the last 1200 years.

  2. Using the Suess effect on the stable carbon isotope to distinguish the future from the past in radiocarbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The depletion of 14C due to the emission of radiocarbon-free fossil fuels (14C Suess effect) might lead to similar values in future and past radiocarbon signatures potentially introducing ambiguity in dating. I here test if a similar impact on the stable carbon isotope via the 13C Suess effect might help to distinguish between ancient and future carbon sources. To analyze a wide range of possibilities, I add to future emission scenarios carbon dioxide reduction (CDR) mechanisms, which partly enhance the depletion of atmospheric {{{Δ }}}14{{C}} already caused by the 14C Suess effect. The 13C Suess effect leads to unprecedented depletion in {δ }13{{C}} shifting the carbon cycle to a phase space in {{{Δ }}}14{{C}}{--}{δ }13{{C}}, in which the system has not been during the last 50 000 years and therefore the similarity in past and future {{{Δ }}}14{{C}} (the ambiguity in 14C dating) induced by fossil fuels can in most cases be overcome by analyzing 13C. Only for slow changing reservoirs (e.g. deep Indo-Pacific Ocean) or when CDR scenarios are dominated by bioenergy with capture and storage the effect of anthropogenic activities on 13C does not unequivocally identify between past and future carbon cycle changes.

  3. Radiometric dating of the Siloam Tunnel, Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, Amos; Shimron, Aryeh; Rosenbaum, Jeff

    2003-09-11

    The historical credibility of texts from the Bible is often debated when compared with Iron Age archaeological finds (refs. 1, 2 and references therein). Modern scientific methods may, in principle, be used to independently date structures that seem to be mentioned in the biblical text, to evaluate its historical authenticity. In reality, however, this approach is extremely difficult because of poor archaeological preservation, uncertainty in identification, scarcity of datable materials, and restricted scientific access into well-identified worship sites. Because of these problems, no well-identified Biblical structure has been radiometrically dated until now. Here we report radiocarbon and U-Th dating of the Siloam Tunnel, proving its Iron Age II date; we conclude that the Biblical text presents an accurate historic record of the Siloam Tunnel's construction. Being one of the longest ancient water tunnels lacking intermediate shafts, dating the Siloam Tunnel is a key to determining where and when this technological breakthrough took place. Siloam Tunnel dating also refutes a claim that the tunnel was constructed in the second century bc.

  4. Between a rock and a soft place: Using optical ages to date ancient clam gardens on the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Neudorf, Christina M; Smith, Nicole; Lepofsky, Dana; Toniello, Ginevra; Lian, Olav B

    2017-01-01

    Rock-walled archaeological features are notoriously hard to date, largely because of the absence of suitable organic material for radiocarbon dating. This study demonstrates the efficacy of dating clam garden wall construction using optical dating, and uses optical ages to determine how sedimentation rates in the intertidal zone are affected by clam garden construction. Clam gardens are rock-walled, intertidal terraces that were constructed and maintained by coastal First Nation peoples to increase bivalve habitat and productivity. These features are evidence of ancient shellfish mariculture on the Pacific Northwest and, based on radiocarbon dating, date to at least the late Holocene. Optical dating exploits the luminescence signals of quartz or feldspar minerals to determine the last time the minerals were exposed to sunlight (i.e., their burial age), and thus does not require the presence of organic material. Optical ages were obtained from three clam garden sites on northern Quadra Island, British Columbia, and their reliability was assessed by comparing them to radiocarbon ages derived from shells underneath the clam garden walls, as well as below the terrace sediments. Our optical and radiocarbon ages suggest that construction of these clam garden walls commenced between ~1000 and ~1700 years ago, and our optical ages suggest that construction of the walls was likely incremental and increased sedimentation rates in the intertidal zone by up to fourfold. Results of this study show that when site characteristics are not amenable to radiocarbon dating, optical dating may be the only viable geochronometer. Furthermore, dating rock-walled marine management features and their geomorphic impact can lead to significant advances in our understanding of the intimate relationships that Indigenous peoples worldwide developed with their seascapes.

  5. Between a rock and a soft place: Using optical ages to date ancient clam gardens on the Pacific Northwest

    PubMed Central

    Neudorf, Christina M.; Smith, Nicole; Lepofsky, Dana; Toniello, Ginevra; Lian, Olav B.

    2017-01-01

    Rock-walled archaeological features are notoriously hard to date, largely because of the absence of suitable organic material for radiocarbon dating. This study demonstrates the efficacy of dating clam garden wall construction using optical dating, and uses optical ages to determine how sedimentation rates in the intertidal zone are affected by clam garden construction. Clam gardens are rock-walled, intertidal terraces that were constructed and maintained by coastal First Nation peoples to increase bivalve habitat and productivity. These features are evidence of ancient shellfish mariculture on the Pacific Northwest and, based on radiocarbon dating, date to at least the late Holocene. Optical dating exploits the luminescence signals of quartz or feldspar minerals to determine the last time the minerals were exposed to sunlight (i.e., their burial age), and thus does not require the presence of organic material. Optical ages were obtained from three clam garden sites on northern Quadra Island, British Columbia, and their reliability was assessed by comparing them to radiocarbon ages derived from shells underneath the clam garden walls, as well as below the terrace sediments. Our optical and radiocarbon ages suggest that construction of these clam garden walls commenced between ~1000 and ~1700 years ago, and our optical ages suggest that construction of the walls was likely incremental and increased sedimentation rates in the intertidal zone by up to fourfold. Results of this study show that when site characteristics are not amenable to radiocarbon dating, optical dating may be the only viable geochronometer. Furthermore, dating rock-walled marine management features and their geomorphic impact can lead to significant advances in our understanding of the intimate relationships that Indigenous peoples worldwide developed with their seascapes. PMID:28182645

  6. Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  7. Dating a burnt mound from Kilmartin, Argyll, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, I. M. C.; Sanderson, D. C. W.; Cook, G. T.; Abernethy, D.; Housley, R. A.

    2001-12-01

    Around 1600 burnt mounds, comprising heaps of fire cracked stones, up to several metres across with characteristic forms, are listed in the National Monuments Records of Scotland, with a diverse distribution. Many more are known in other parts of Europe, notably in Ireland and Scandinavia. Traditionally, these monuments are thought to relate to cooking activities throughout the Bronze Age though in recent years alternative functions have been suggested. Here results are presented from Lady Glassery Wood, a recently excavated site in the Kilmartin Valley. Samples for luminescence dating were collected in 1998, together with field gamma spectrometry measurements. Associated charcoal has also been subjected to radiocarbon dating. Despite and unusually low internal radioactivity from the rock samples examined, and low luminescence sensitivities from separated minerals, it has been possible to obtain concordant luminescence ages from both quartz and feldspars, giving a mean date of 2800±300 BC. Radiocarbon dating produces a 2 sigma calibrated age range of approximately 2800-2400 cal BC, in agreement with the luminescence age, indicating a late Neolithic date for the mound, one of a growing number of early dates in Scotland.

  8. An annually-resolved marine radiocarbon bomb-pulse compilation from the temperate North Atlantic using long-lived molluscs (Arctica islandica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scourse, J. D.; Wanamaker, A. D., Jr.; Weidman, C.; Heinemeier, J.; Richardson, C. A.

    2009-04-01

    Radiocarbon measurements from increments of annually-banded corals covering the past 60 years from sub-tropical and tropical contexts provide valuable records of the marine expression of the atmospheric excess radiocarbon "bomb-pulse" due to post-war nuclear weapons tests. These records can be used as calibration series for high-resolution post-bomb marine radiocarbon dating and constitute tracers for identifying watermass age and mixing processes. Until now, such applications have been restricted in temperate shelf seas because of the lack of widespread measurements from annually-resolved archives. Here we present a compilation of bomb-pulse data from annual growth increments of the bivalve mollusc Arctica islandica from relatively shallow sites (< 200 m) across the temperate North Atlantic (Georges Bank, north Icelandic shelf, north Norway, North Sea). The temporal response is highly correlated at all sites, but the amplitude of the bomb-pulse varies, with the highest values attained in the North Sea and the most damped response on the north Icelandic shelf. These differences can be attributed to the integrated hydrographic context of these sites (entrainment of deep, old water; rates of air-sea exchange; fluvial runoff; removal of high radiocarbon level surface waters through north Atlantic deep water formation). The north Icelandic data contain a reversal in the rising limb of the bomb-pulse which is not present elsewhere, even in the more sensitive sites. This reversal is coincident with instrumental data characterising the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1960s when cold, relatively fresh, and old (with respect to radiocarbon; Delta R = + 200 years) waters of the East Icelandic Current flooded the north Icelandic shelf as a result of southward migration of the Polar Front. However this reversal may also be a result of the short hiatus in bomb testing in the late 1950s. The evolution of bomb-pulse data will be discussed as well as other potential applications of

  9. Extension of the Southern Hemisphere Atmospheric Radiocarbon Curve, 2120-850 years BP: Results from Tasmanian Huon Pine

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, S R; P.Guilderson, T; Buckley, B M; Cook, E

    2010-02-12

    Decadal samples of dendrochronologically-dated pine (Lagorostrobos franklinii) from the Stanley River basin, Tasmania have been radiocarbon dated between 2120-850 yr BP. This data set overlaps and extends the current Southern Hemisphere record, which currently covers the period 110-995 yr BP. There is good agreement between the two records between 995-850 yr BP, between sample replicates and with consensus values for standards. As in the younger dataset, we find evidence for a distinct but variable offset between the southern hemisphere data and IntCal04; although this is likely due to real temporal variability in the interhemispheric offset, further work is planned to rule out possible laboratory or sample preparation differences.

  10. U-Th Burial Dates on Ostrich Eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, W. D.; Fylstra, N. D.; Tryon, C. A.; Faith, J. T.; Peppe, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Obtaining precise and accurate dates at archaeological sites beyond the range of radiocarbon dating is challenging but essential for understanding human origins. Eggshells of ratites (large flightless birds including ostrich, emu and others) are common in many archaeological sequences in Africa, Australia and elsewhere. Ancient eggshells are geochemically suitable for the U-Th technique (1), which has about ten times the range of radiocarbon dating (>500 rather than 50 ka), making eggshells attractive dating targets. Moreover, C and N isotopic studies of eggshell provide insights into paleovegetation and paleoprecipitation central to assessing past human-environment interactions (2,3). But until now, U-Th dates on ratite eggshell have not accounted for the secondary origin of essentially all of their U. We report a novel approach to U-Th dating of eggshell that explicitly accounts for secondary U uptake that begins with burial. Using ostrich eggshell (OES) from Pleistocene-Holocene east African sites, we have measured U and 232Th concentration profiles across OES by laser ablation ICP-MS. U commonly peaks at 10s to 100s of ppb and varies 10-fold or more across the ~2 mm thickness of OES, with gradients modulated by the layered structure of the eggshell. Common Th is high near the shell surfaces, but low in the middle "pallisade" layer of OES, making it optimal for U-Th dating. We determine U-Th ages along the U concentration gradient by solution ICP-MS analyses of two or more fractions of the pallisade layer. We then estimate OES burial dates using a simple model for diffusive uptake of uranium. Comparing such "U-Th burial dates" with radiocarbon dates for OES calcite from the same shells, we find good agreement in 7 out of 9 cases, consistent with rapid burial and confirming the accuracy of the approach. The remaining 2 eggshells have anomalous patterns of apparent ages that reveal they are unsuitable for U-Th dating, thereby providing reliability criteria innate

  11. Associated terrestrial and marine fossils in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation, southern Maine, USA, and the marine reservoir effect on radiocarbon ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, W.B.; Griggs, C.B.; Miller, N.G.; Nelson, R.E.; Weddle, T.K.; Kilian, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Excavations in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation at Portland, Maine, uncovered tree remains and other terrestrial organics associated with marine invertebrate shells in a landslide deposit. Buds of Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) occurred with twigs of Picea glauca (white spruce) in the Presumpscot clay. Tree rings in Picea logs indicate that the trees all died during winter dormancy in the same year. Ring widths show patterns of variation indicating responses to environmental changes. Fossil mosses and insects represent a variety of species and wet to dry microsites. The late-glacial environment at the site was similar to that of today's Maine coast. Radiocarbon ages of 14 tree samples are 11,907??31 to 11,650??5014C yr BP. Wiggle matching of dated tree-ring segments to radiocarbon calibration data sets dates the landslide occurrence at ca. 13,520+95/??20calyr BP. Ages of shells juxtaposed with the logs are 12,850??6514C yr BP (Mytilus edulis) and 12,800??5514C yr BP (Balanus sp.), indicating a marine reservoir age of about 1000yr. Using this value to correct previously published radiocarbon ages reduces the discrepancy between the Maine deglaciation chronology and the varve-based chronology elsewhere in New England. ?? 2011 University of Washington.

  12. Increase of radiocarbon concentration in tree rings from Kujawy (SE Poland) around AD 774-775

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakowski, Andrzej Z.; Krąpiec, Marek; Huels, Mathias; Pawlyta, Jacek; Dreves, Alexander; Meadows, John

    2015-10-01

    Evidence of a rapid increase in atmospheric radiocarbon (14C) content in AD 774-775 was presented by Miyake et al. (2012), who observed an increase of about 12‰ in the 14C content in annual tree rings from Japanese cedar. Usoskin et al. (2013) report a similar 14C spike in German oak, and attribute it to exceptional solar activity. If this phenomenon is global in character, such rapid changes in 14C concentration may affect the accuracy of calibrated dates, as the existing calibration curve is composed mainly of decadal samples. Single-year samples of dendro-chronologically dated tree rings of deciduous oak (Quercus robur) from Kujawy, a village near Krakow (SE Poland), spanning the years AD 765-796, were collected and their 14C content was measured using the AMS system in the Leibniz Laboratory. The results clearly show a rapid increase of 9.2 ± 2.1‰ in the 14C concentration in tree rings between AD 774 and AD 775, with maximum Δ14C = 4.1 ± 2.3‰ noted in AD 776.

  13. U-series and radiocarbon analyses of human and faunal remains from Wajak, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Storm, Paul; Wood, Rachel; Stringer, Chris; Bartsiokas, Antonis; de Vos, John; Aubert, Maxime; Kinsley, Les; Grün, Rainer

    2013-05-01

    Laser ablation U-series dating results on human and faunal bone fragments from Wajak, Indonesia, indicate a minimum age of between 37.4 and 28.5 ka (thousands of years ago) for the whole assemblage. These are significantly older than previously published radiocarbon estimates on bone carbonate, which suggested a Holocene age for a human bone fragment and a late Pleistocene age for a faunal bone. The analysis of the organic components in the faunal material show severe degradation and a positive δ(13)C ratio indicate a high degree of secondary carbonatisation. This may explain why the thermal release method used for the original age assessments yielded such young ages. While the older U-series ages are not in contradiction with the morphology of the Wajak human fossils or Javanese biostratigraphy, they will require a reassessment of the evolutionary relationships of modern human remains in Southeast Asia and Oceania. It can be expected that systematic direct dating of human fossils from this area will lead to further revisions of our understanding of modern human evolution.

  14. AMS radiocarbon age for fossil bone by XAD-2 chromatography method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Masayo; Nakamura, Toshio

    2000-10-01

    The XAD-2 chromatography method was examined for its ability to efficiently eliminate exogenous organic matter from fossil bones and to improve the accuracy of radiocarbon ( 14C) dating and stable isotope determinations on bone proteins. The fossil bones used in the experiment were animal fossil bones collected from the Awazu submarine archaeological site, Shiga, Japan. For comparison, the gelatin-extraction method was also applied to the same samples. It was found that the gelatin-extraction method is sufficient for 14C dating on well-preserved bones, but insufficient on poorly preserved bones, containing less than 1% extractable gelatin. The XAD-2 resin is useful for the clean up of proteins especially from poorly preserved bones. The carbon stable isotope fractionation of around 1‰ by XAD-2 treatment on modern collagen standards was larger than reported previously. The isotopic variation by sequential extraction of bones probably originates from changes in the amino acid composition and seems to be less sensitive to the indication of the removal of organic contamination.

  15. Radiometric dates of uplifted marine fauna in Greece: Implications for the interpretation of recent earthquake and tectonic histories using lithophagid dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, B.; Jackson, J. A.; Higham, T. F. G.; England, P. C.; Thomas, A. L.

    2010-09-01

    In AD 365 a great ( Mw > 8) earthquake lifted up western Crete, exposing a shoreline encrusted by marine organisms, and up to 10 m of marine substrate beneath it. Radiocarbon ages determined for corals and bryozoans exposed between the paleo-shoreline and present sea level are consistent, within measurement error, with each other and with the date of the earthquake. But radiocarbon ages determined for the boring bivalve Lithophaga lithophaga found on the same substrate are at least 350 years, and up to 2000 years, older than the date of the earthquake that lifted them above sea level. These observations reveal two important effects that limit the use of radiocarbon lithophagid ages in tectonic and paleoseismological studies. The first is that the exceptional preservation potential of lithophagids allows them to remain intact and in situ long after natural death, while the substrate continues to be colonised until eventual uplift. The second, which we confirm with radiocarbon analysis of museum specimens of known age, is the incorporation of old ( 14C-free) carbon into lithophagid shells from the limestone host rock into which the lithophagids bored. The two effects are both significant in Crete and central Greece, and can cause the radiocarbon lithophagid ages to be up to 2000 years older than the uplift event which exposed them. Understanding these effects is important because lithophagids are far more abundantly preserved, and used to date uplift, than most other marine organisms. This study shows that they can rarely be used to distinguish uplift events, or date them to better than 1000 years, or even to distinguish whether observed uplift occurred in a single or in multiple events. After taking account of these uncertainties, the ages of the lithophagids are, however, consistent with the hypothesis that the highest prominent marine notches and exposed lithophagid holes within a few metres of sea level in Greece formed when sea level became relatively stable

  16. High precision u/th dating of first Polynesian settlement.

    PubMed

    Burley, David; Weisler, Marshall I; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies document Nukuleka in the Kingdom of Tonga as a founder colony for first settlement of Polynesia by Lapita peoples. A limited number of radiocarbon dates are one line of evidence supporting this claim, but they cannot precisely establish when this event occurred, nor can they afford a detailed chronology for sequent occupation. High precision U/Th dates of Acropora coral files (abraders) from Nukuleka give unprecedented resolution, identifying the founder event by 2838±8 BP and documenting site development over the ensuing 250 years. The potential for dating error due to post depositional diagenetic alteration of ancient corals at Nukuleka also is addressed through sample preparation protocols and paired dates on spatially separated samples for individual specimens. Acropora coral files are widely distributed in Lapita sites across Oceania. U/Th dating of these artifacts provides unparalleled opportunities for greater precision and insight into the speed and timing of this final chapter in human settlement of the globe.

  17. Coral Radiocarbon Records of Indian Ocean Water Mass Mixing and Wind-Induced Upwelling Along the Coast of Sumatra, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Guilderson, T P; Grumet, N S; Abram, N J; Beck, J W; Dunbar, R B; Gagan, M K; Hantoro, W S; Suwargadi, B W

    2004-02-06

    Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) in the skeletal aragonite of annually banded corals track radiocarbon concentrations in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface seawater. As a result of nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s, oceanic uptake of excess {sup 14}C in the atmosphere has increased the contrast between surface and deep ocean {sup 14}C concentrations. We present accelerator mass spectrometric (AMS) measurements of radiocarbon isotope ({Delta}{sup 14}C) in Porites corals from the Mentawai Islands, Sumatra (0 S, 98 E) and Watamu, Kenya (3 S, 39 E) to document the temporal and spatial evolution of the {sup 14}C gradient in the tropical Indian Ocean. The rise in {Delta}{sup 14}C in the Sumatra coral, in response to the maximum in nuclear weapons testing, is delayed by 2-3 years relative to the rise in coral {Delta}{sup 14}C from the coast of Kenya. Kenya coral {Delta}{sup 14}C values rise quickly because surface waters are in prolonged contact with the atmosphere. In contrast, wind-induced upwelling and rapid mixing along the coast of Sumatra entrains {sup 14}C-depleted water from the subsurface, which dilutes the effect of the uptake of bomb-laden {sup 14}C by the surface-ocean. Bimonthly AMS {Delta}{sup 14}C measurements on the Mentawai coral reveal mainly interannual variability with minor seasonal variability. The interannual signal may be a response to changes in the Walker circulation, the development of easterly wind anomalies, shoaling of the eastern thermocline, and upwelling of {sup 14}C-depleted water along the coast of Sumatra. Singular spectrum analysis of the Sumatra coral {Delta}{sup 14}C record reveals a significant 3-year periodicity. The results lend support to the concept that ocean atmosphere interactions between the Pacific and Indian Oceans operate in concert with the El Ni{tilde n}o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  18. Turnover of grassland roots in mountain ecosystems revealed by their radiocarbon signature: role of temperature and management.

    PubMed

    Leifeld, Jens; Meyer, Stefanie; Budge, Karen; Sebastia, Maria Teresa; Zimmermann, Michael; Fuhrer, Juerg

    2015-01-01

    Root turnover is an important carbon flux component in grassland ecosystems because it replenishes substantial parts of carbon lost from soil via heterotrophic respiration and leaching. Among the various methods to estimate root turnover, the root's radiocarbon signature has rarely been applied to grassland soils previously, although the value of this approach is known from studies in forest soils. In this paper, we utilize the root's radiocarbon signatures, at 25 plots, in mountain grasslands of the montane to alpine zone of Europe. We place the results in context of a global data base on root turnover and discuss driving factors. Root turnover rates were similar to those of a subsample of the global data, comprising a similar temperature range, but measured with different approaches, indicating that the radiocarbon method gives reliable, plausible and comparable results. Root turnover rates (0.06-1.0 y(-1)) scaled significantly and exponentially with mean annual temperatures. Root turnover rates indicated no trend with soil depth. The temperature sensitivity was significantly higher in mountain grassland, compared to the global data set, suggesting additional factors influencing root turnover. Information on management intensity from the 25 plots reveals that root turnover may be accelerated under intensive and moderate management compared to low intensity or semi-natural conditions. Because management intensity, in the studied ecosystems, co-varied with temperature, estimates on root turnover, based on mean annual temperature alone, may be biased. A greater recognition of management as a driver for root dynamics is warranted when effects of climatic change on belowground carbon dynamics are studied in mountain grasslands.

  19. Direct Dating of Hominids Remains In Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Falguères, C.

    When archaeological sites are associated with human remains, it is relevant to be able to date those valuable remains for different reasons. The main one is that it avoids the stratigraphical problems which can be due to intrusive burials in the sequence. The other reason consists in the fact that human bones may be encountered out of established stratigraphical context. On the other hand, the majority of dating methods currently used are destructive and can not be applied on these precious samples particularly when they are older than 40,000 years and can not be dated by radiocarbon. Since several years, we have developped a completely non-destructive method which consists in the measurement of human remains using the gamma -ray spectrometry. This technique has been used recently by other laboratories. We present here two important cases for the knowledge of human evolution in Eurasia. The first example is Qafzeh site in Israel where many human skeletons have been unearthed from burials associated with fauna and lithic artefacts. This site has been dated by several independent radiometric methods. So, it was possible to compare our gamma results with the other results yielded by the different methods. The second case concerns the most evolved Homo erectus found in Java, Indonesia, at Ngandong site, close to the Solo river. A recent debate has been focused on the age of these fossils and their direct dating is of outmost importance for the knowledge of settlement of Modern Humans in South-East Asia.

  20. Can UK fossil fuel emissions be determined by radiocarbon measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, Angelina; O'Doherty, Simon; Rigby, Matthew; Manning, Alistair; Palmer, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The GAUGE project evaluates different methods to estimate UK emissions. However, estimating carbon dioxide emissions as a result of fossil fuel burning is challenging as natural fluxes in and out of the atmosphere are very large. Radiocarbon (14C) measurements offer a way to specifically measure the amount of recently added carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning. This is possible as, due to their age, all the radiocarbon in fossil fuels has decayed. Hence the amount of recently added CO2 from fossil fuel burning can be measured as a depletion of the 14C content in air. While this method has been successfully applied by several groups on a city or a regional scale, this is the first attempt at using the technique for a national emission estimate. Geographically the UK, being an island, is a good location for such an experiment. But are 14CO2 measurements the ideal solution for estimating fossil fuel emissions as they are heralded to be? Previous studies have shown that 14CO2emissions from the nuclear industry mask the 14C depletion caused by fossil fuel burning and result in an underestimation of the fossil fuel CO2. While this might not be a problem in certain regions around the world, many countries like the UK have a substantial nuclear industry. A correction for this enhancement from the nuclear industry can be applied but are invariably difficult as 14CO2emissions from nuclear power plants have a high temporal variability. We will explain how our sampling strategy was chosen to minimize the influence form the nuclear industry and why this proved to be challenging. In addition we present the results from our ground based measurements to show why trying to estimate national emissions using radiocarbon measurements was overambitious, and how practical the technique is for the UK in general.

  1. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  2. Bomb radiocarbon in annual tree rings from Thailand and Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Q.; Barbetti, M.; Jacobsen, G. E.; Zoppi, U.; Lawson, E. M.

    2000-10-01

    We have examined the atmospheric 14C excess in the tropics and the southern hemisphere temperate region in the bomb pulse period, using two sets of cross-dated tree rings. One set was from a medium-sized three-leaf pine ( Pinus kesiya) grown in northwestern Thailand and the other was from a Huon pine ( Lagarostrobos franklinii) grown in northwestern Tasmania, Australia. A total of 48 annual tree rings (24 pairs) from 1952 to 1975 AD were pretreated to alpha-cellulose, combusted to CO 2 and converted to graphite for 14C measurement in the tandem accelerator at ANSTO. Excellent agreement was found between our measured 14C data from tree rings and atmospheric 14C records at similar latitudes. A large depletion of atmospheric 14C for Thailand in 1953-1954 AD was observed. This might be due to a combination of the Suess effect and upwelling in the tropical Indian Ocean. The results also showed the rise and decay of bomb 14C peaks from north to south with a time delay of about 1.5 yr, and the effects of minor atmospheric nuclear tests in the late 1960s and early 1970s. A delay of at least one month for 14C in tree cellulose of Huon pine compared with that in the atmosphere was also found.

  3. PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Teng, L.C.

    1960-01-19

    ABS>A combination of two accelerators, a cyclotron and a ring-shaped accelerator which has a portion disposed tangentially to the cyclotron, is described. Means are provided to transfer particles from the cyclotron to the ring accelerator including a magnetic deflector within the cyclotron, a magnetic shield between the ring accelerator and the cyclotron, and a magnetic inflector within the ring accelerator.

  4. Marine radiocarbon reservoir age simulations for the past 50000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butzin, Martin; Köhler, Peter; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    We present simulations of marine radiocarbon reservoir ages using the ocean general circulation model LSG-HAMOCC2s, and evaluate the results with Marine13 raw data records. Our model considers various climatic background states. Radiocarbon cycle boundary conditions are atmospheric Δ14C values according to IntCal13, a recent atmospheric CO2 reconstruction, and spatially variable concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon derived from marine carbon cycle simulations. Our model reasonably agrees with glacial marine Δ14C records but indicates reservoir ages varying with time, different to the invariant reservoir age corrections applied to the observations and to Marine13. Modelled global-mean reservoir ages are in the range 400-800 years compared to the invariant Marine13 value of 405 years. Self-consistent simulations involving the Cariaco Basin record (which is the most continuous marine record contributing to IntCal13 for periods prior to about 30 kyears) amplify the temporal reservoir age variability with global-mean values of about 350-850 years, and improve the agreement with Δ14C observations in some areas.

  5. Vertebral bomb radiocarbon suggests extreme longevity in white sharks.

    PubMed

    Hamady, Li Ling; Natanson, Lisa J; Skomal, Gregory B; Thorrold, Simon R

    2014-01-01

    Conservation and management efforts for white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) remain hampered by a lack of basic demographic information including age and growth rates. Sharks are typically aged by counting growth bands sequentially deposited in their vertebrae, but the assumption of annual deposition of these band pairs requires testing. We compared radiocarbon (Δ(14)C) values in vertebrae from four female and four male white sharks from the northwestern Atlantic Ocean (NWA) with reference chronologies documenting the marine uptake of (14)C produced by atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices to generate the first radiocarbon age estimates for adult white sharks. Age estimates were up to 40 years old for the largest female (fork length [FL]: 526 cm) and 73 years old for the largest male (FL: 493 cm). Our results dramatically extend the maximum age and longevity of white sharks compared to earlier studies, hint at possible sexual dimorphism in growth rates, and raise concerns that white shark populations are considerably more sensitive to human-induced mortality than previously thought.

  6. Measurements and modeling of contemporary radiocarbon in the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanu, A. M.; Comfort, L. L.; Guilderson, T. P.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Bergmann, D. J.; Atlas, E. L.; Schauffler, S.; Boering, K. A.

    2016-02-01

    Measurements of the 14C content of carbon dioxide in air collected by high-altitude balloon flights in 2003-2005 reveal the contemporary radiocarbon distribution in the northern midlatitude stratosphere, four decades after the Limited Test Ban Treaty restricted atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Comparisons with results from a 3-D chemical-transport model show that the 14CO2 distribution is now largely governed by the altitude/latitude dependence of the natural cosmogenic production rate, stratospheric transport, and propagation into the stratosphere of the decreasing radiocarbon trend in tropospheric CO2 due to fossil fuel combustion. From the observed correlation of 14CO2 with N2O mixing ratios, an annual global mean net flux of 14CO2 to the troposphere of 1.6(±0.4) × 1017‰ mol CO2 yr-1 and a global production rate of 2.2(±0.6) × 1026 atoms 14C yr-1 are empirically derived. The results also indicate that contemporary 14CO2 observations provide highly sensitive diagnostics for stratospheric transport and residence times in models.

  7. Synchronizing the Greenland ice core and radiocarbon timescales over the Holocene - Bayesian wiggle-matching of cosmogenic radionuclide records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolphi, F.; Muscheler, R.

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of past climate dynamics rely on accurate and precise chronologies of the employed climate reconstructions. The radiocarbon dating calibration curve (IntCal13) and the Greenland ice core chronology (GICC05) represent two of the most widely used chronological frameworks in paleoclimatology of the past ˜ 50 000 years. However, comparisons of climate records anchored on these chronologies are hampered by the precision and accuracy of both timescales. Here we use common variations in the production rates of 14C and 10Be recorded in tree-rings and ice cores, respectively, to assess the differences between both timescales during the Holocene. Compared to earlier work, we employ a novel statistical approach which leads to strongly reduced and yet, more robust, uncertainty estimates. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the inferred timescale differences are robust independent of (i) the applied ice core 10Be records, (ii) assumptions of the mode of 10Be deposition, as well as (iii) carbon cycle effects on 14C, and (iv) in agreement with independent estimates of the timescale differences. Our results imply that the GICC05 counting error is likely underestimated during the most recent 2000 years leading to a dating bias that propagates throughout large parts of the Holocene. Nevertheless, our analysis indicates that the GICC05 counting error is generally a robust uncertainty measurement but care has to be taken when treating it as a nearly Gaussian error distribution. The proposed IntCal13-GICC05 transfer function facilitates the comparison of ice core and radiocarbon dated paleoclimate records at high chronological precision.

  8. Synchronizing the Greenland ice core and radiocarbon timescales over the Holocene - Bayesian wiggle-matching of cosmogenic radionuclide records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolphi, F.; Muscheler, R.

    2015-07-01

    Investigations of past climate dynamics rely on accurate and precise chronologies of the employed climate reconstructions. The radiocarbon dating calibration curve (IntCal13) and the Greenland ice core chronology (GICC05) represent two of the most widely used chronological frameworks in paleoclimatology of the past ∼ 50 000 years. However, comparisons of climate records anchored on these chronologies are hampered by the precision and accuracy of both timescales. Here we use common variations in the production rates of 14C and 10Be recorded in tree-rings and ice cores, respectively, to assess the differences between both timescales during the Holocene. We employ a novel statistical approach which leads to strongly reduced and yet, more robust, uncertainty estimates in comparison to earlier work. We demonstrate that the inferred timescale differences are robust independent of (i) the applied ice core 10Be records, (ii) assumptions of the mode of 10Be deposition, as well as (iii) carbon cycle effects on 14C, and in agreement with independent estimates of the timescale differences. Our results imply that the GICC05 counting error is likely underestimated during the most recent 2000 years leading to a dating bias that propagates throughout large parts of the Holocene. Nevertheless, our analysis indicates that the GICC05 counting error is generally a robust uncertainty measurement but care has to be taken when treating it as a nearly Gaussian error distribution. The proposed IntCal13-GICC05 transfer function facilitates the comparison of ice core and radiocarbon dated paleoclimate records at high chronological precision.

  9. Late Quaternary sedimentological and climate changes at Lake Bosumtwi Ghana: new constraints from laminae analysis and radiocarbon age modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanahan, Timothy M.; Beck, J. Warren; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; McKay, Nicholas P.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Peck, John A.; Scholz, Christopher A.; Heil, Clifford W.; King, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The Lake Bosumtwi sediment record represents one of the longest and highest-resolution terrestrial records of paleoclimate change available from sub-Saharan Africa. Here we report a new sediment age model framework for the last ~ 45 cal kyr of sedimentation using a combination of high-resolution radiocarbon dating, Bayesian age-depth modeling and lamination counting. Our results highlight the practical limits of these methods for reducing age model uncertainties and suggest that even with very high sampling densities, radiocarbon uncertainties of at least a few hundred years are unavoidable. Age model uncertainties are smallest during the Holocene (205 yr) and the glacial (360 yr) but are large at the base of the record (1660 yr), due to a combination of decreasing sample density, larger calibration uncertainties and increases in radiocarbon age scatter. For portions of the chronology older than ~ 35 cal kyr, additional considerations, such as the use of a low-blank graphitization system and more rigorous sample pretreatment were necessary to generate a reliable age depth model because of the incorporation of small amounts of younger carbon. A comparison of radiocarbon age model results and lamination counts over the time interval ~ 15–30 cal kyr agree with an overall discrepancy of ~ 10% and display similar changes in sedimentation rate, supporting the annual nature of sediment laminations in the early part of the record. Changes in sedimentation rates reconstructed from the age-depth model indicate that intervals of enhanced sediment delivery occurred at 16–19, 24 and 29–31 cal kyr, broadly synchronous with reconstructed drought episodes elsewhere in northern West Africa and potentially, with changes in Atlantic meridional heat transport during North Atlantic Heinrich events. These data suggest that millennial-scale drought events in the West African monsoon region were latitudinally extensive, reaching within several hundred kilometers of the Guinea coast

  10. Independently dated paleomagnetic secular variation records from the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberzettl, T.; Henkel, K.; Kasper, T.; Ahlborn, M.; Su, Y.; Appel, E.; St-Onge, G.; Stoner, J. S.; Daut, G.; Wang, J.; Zhu, L.; Maeusbacher, R.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetostratigraphy has been serving as a valuable tool for dating and confirming chronologies of lacustrine sediments in many parts of the world. However, suitable paleomagnetic records on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and adjacent areas are extremely scarce. Here, independently radiocarbon dated sediments of two lakes on the southern central TP, Tangra Yumco and Taro Co some 250 km further west, were investigated for their potential to record paleomagnetic secular variations. Multiple sediment cores resemble a very similar inclination pattern for the past 4000 years. This demonstrates the high potential of inclination to compare records over the Tibetan Plateau and eventually date other Tibetan records stratigraphically. Comparisons to an existing record from Nam Co, a lake 350 km west of Tangra Yumco, a varve dated record from the Makran Accretionary Wedge, and a stack record from East Asia reveal many similarities. However, model output data of geomagnetic field models for the coordinates of Tangra Yumco do not agree with our findings.

  11. Forensic applications of 14C bomb-pulse dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppi, U.; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A.

    2004-08-01

    After a brief review of the basics of 14C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the 14C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of 14C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. 14C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

  12. A coupled model for carbon and radiocarbon evolution during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, Véronique; Paillard, Didier; Bopp, Laurent; Roche, Didier M.; Bouttes, Nathaëlle

    2016-02-01

    Changes in the ventilation of the Southern Ocean are thought to play an important role on deglacial carbon and radiocarbon evolution but have not been tested within a coupled climate-carbon model. Here we present such a simulation based on a simple scenario of transient deglacial sinking of brines—sea ice salt rejections—around Antarctica, which modulates Southern Ocean ventilation. This experiment is able to reproduce deglacial atmospheric changes in carbon and radiocarbon and also ocean radiocarbon records measured in the Atlantic, Southern, and Pacific Oceans. Simulated for the first time in a fully coupled climate-carbon model of intermediate complexity including radiocarbon, our modeling results suggest that the deglacial changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and radiocarbon were achieved by means of a breakdown in the glacial brine-induced stratification of the Southern Ocean.

  13. Fossil and biogenic CO₂ from waste incineration based on a yearlong radiocarbon study.

    PubMed

    Mohn, J; Szidat, S; Zeyer, K; Emmenegger, L

    2012-08-01

    We describe the first long-term implementation of the radiocarbon (¹⁴C) method to study the share of biogenic (%Bio C) and fossil (%Fos C) carbon in combustion CO₂. At five Swiss incinerators, a total of 24 three-week measurement campaigns were performed over 1 year. Temporally averaged bag samples were analyzed for ¹⁴CO₂ by accelerator mass spectrometry. Significant differences between the plants in the share of fossil CO₂ were observed, with annual mean values from 43.4 ± 3.9% to 54.5 ± 3.1%. Variations can be explained by the waste composition of the respective plant. Based on our dataset, an average value of 48 ± 4%Fos C was determined for waste incineration in Switzerland. No clear annual trend in %Fos C was observed for four of the monitored incinerators, while one incinerator showed considerable variations, which are likely due to the separation and temporary storage of bulky goods.

  14. Radiocarbon Signature and Cycling of Dissolved Organic Carbon in the South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druffel, E. R.; Griffin, S.

    2010-12-01

    The average radiocarbon (Delta14C) measurements of bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the deep ocean range from -390 per mil in the deep Sargasso Sea to -550 per mil in the deep Northeast Pacific. The data set used to estimate this range is based on only four sites in the world ocean. We participated in the P-6 Repeat Hydrography cruise in January to February 2010 along 30-32°S in the South Pacific and collected samples from four depth profiles. High-precision Delta14C measurements of bulk DOC are ongoing using AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) techniques at the Keck Carbon Cycle AMS Laboratory. We will report completed Delta14C measurements from these South Pacific sites and compare them to those available from two other sites in the North Pacific and one in the Southern Ocean. It is anticipated that Delta14C values of deep South Pacific DOC are intermediate between those in the Southern Ocean (Delta14C = -500‰) and those in the North central Pacific (-525‰). These DOC Delta14C values will be used to assess the residence time and overall cycling of bulk DOC in deep waters of the Pacific.

  15. Hydrological and climatological controls on radiocarbon concentrations in a tropical stalagmite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechleitner, Franziska A.; Baldini, James U. L.; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Fohlmeister, Jens; McIntyre, Cameron; Goswami, Bedartha; Jamieson, Robert A.; van der Voort, Tessa S.; Prufer, Keith; Marwan, Norbert; Culleton, Brendan J.; Kennett, Douglas J.; Asmerom, Yemane; Polyak, Victor; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2016-12-01

    Precisely-dated stalagmites are increasingly important archives for the reconstruction of terrestrial paleoclimate at very high temporal resolution. In-depth understanding of local conditions at the cave site and of the processes driving stalagmite deposition is of paramount importance for interpreting proxy signals incorporated in stalagmite carbonate. Here we present a sub-decadally resolved dead carbon fraction (DCF) record for a stalagmite from Yok Balum Cave (southern Belize). The record is coupled to parallel stable carbon isotope (δ13C) and U/Ca measurements, as well as radiocarbon (14C) measurements from soils overlying the cave system. Using a karst carbon cycle model we disentangle the importance of soil and karst processes on stalagmite DCF incorporation, revealing a dominant host rock dissolution control on total DCF. Covariation between DCF, δ13C, and U/Ca indicates that karst processes are a common driver of all three parameters, suggesting possible use of δ13C and trace element ratios to independently quantify DCF variability. A statistically significant multi-decadal lag of variable length exists between DCF and reconstructed solar activity, suggesting that solar activity influenced regional precipitation in Mesoamerica over the past 1500 years, but that the relationship was non-static. Although the precise nature of the observed lag is unclear, solar-induced changes in North Atlantic oceanic and atmospheric dynamics may play a role.

  16. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and its Applications in Archaeology, Geology, andEnvironmental Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretschmer, Wolfgang

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is an ultrasensitive method for the measurement of isotope ratios in the range of 10 - 12 - 10 - 15. Most frequently the 14C / 12C ratio from biogenic samples is determined which gives information on the age of the sample of up to 50 ka with a precision of typically 40-80 years. In this paper the radiocarbon method is discussed and various applications to interdisciplinary research are presented. One application at the Erlangen AMS facility is the 14C dating of sediment samples which together with simultaneous pollen analyses can establish a better chronology of climate and vegetation during Holocene in Germany. For an enhanced reliability of sediment dating different fractions like bulk sediments, pollen grains, macrofossils, and humic acids have been measured. For environmental research the 14C content of aldehydes from indoor air samples can be used to disentangle the anthropogenic or biogenic origin of these compounds. Finally interesting archaeological samples from a Persian mummy are discussed.

  17. Detection of Adriamycin-DNA adducts by accelerator mass spectrometry at clinically relevant Adriamycin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Coldwell, Kate E; Cutts, Suzanne M; Ognibene, Ted J; Henderson, Paul T; Phillips, Don R

    2008-09-01

    Limited sensitivity of existing assays has prevented investigation of whether Adriamycin-DNA adducts are involved in the anti-tumour potential of Adriamycin. Previous detection has achieved a sensitivity of a few Adriamycin-DNA adducts/10(4) bp DNA, but has required the use of supra-clinical drug concentrations. This work sought to measure Adriamycin-DNA adducts at sub-micromolar doses using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a technique with origins in geochemistry for radiocarbon dating. We have used conditions previously validated (by less sensitive decay counting) to extract [(14)C]Adriamycin-DNA adducts from cells and adapted the methodology to AMS detection. Here we show the first direct evidence of Adriamycin-DNA adducts at clinically-relevant Adriamycin concentrations. [(14)C]Adriamycin treatment (25 nM) resulted in 4.4 +/- 1.0 adducts/10(7) bp ( approximately 1300 adducts/cell) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, representing the best sensitivity and precision reported to date for the covalent binding of Adriamycin to DNA. The exceedingly sensitive nature of AMS has enabled over three orders of magnitude increased sensitivity of Adriamycin-DNA adduct detection and revealed adduct formation within an hour of drug treatment. This method has been shown to be highly reproducible for the measurement of Adriamycin-DNA adducts in tumour cells in culture and can now be applied to the detection of these adducts in human tissues.

  18. Efficient Collection of Methane from Extremely Large Volumes of Water for Natural Radiocarbon Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, K. J.; Kessler, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Collecting sufficient amounts of natural methane sample for a high precision radiocarbon (14C-CH4) analysis was previously unfeasible when sampling from low methane concentration waters like the open ocean. A new method incorporating dissolved gas extraction technology (Liqui-Cel® membrane contactors) has been developed to circumvent the challenges that natural 14C-CH4 sampling presents. With this method, adequate amounts of methane-carbon for a traditional 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis can be cleanly and efficiently extracted from 1000s L water in a few hours. This technique is currently being improved to enable sampling from > 11,000 L water in less than 1 hr. For transport from the field to the laboratory, each extracted gas sample is compressed into a small (1.68 L) high-pressure aluminum cylinder using an oil-free compressor pump. Due to the small size and portability of the sample cylinders, high resolution sampling plans composed of 30+ samples are possible even in remote locations. The laboratory preparation of these methane samples for 14C-AMS analyses is carried out on a new flow-through vacuum line. While the bulk water vapor and carbon dioxide (CO2) are removed before the sample is compressed in the field, the residual trace amounts of these constituents are cryogenically removed from the sample in the initial phase of the vacuum line. Carbon monoxide in the sample is quantitatively oxidized at 290°C to CO2 and cryogenically removed. Finally, the sample methane is quantitatively oxidized at 950°C to products CO2 and water and then cryogenically isolated. The new vacuum line technique achieves low blanks and purifies and oxidizes the methane contained in the extracted gas sample with high efficiency. At an AMS facility, an aliquot of the methane-produced CO2 is graphitized and analyzed for radiocarbon content using traditional 14C-AMS. Supporting dual-inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometry measurements are conducted to determine both

  19. The radiocarbon signature of microorganisms in the mesopelagic ocean

    PubMed Central

    Hansman, Roberta L.; Griffin, Sheila; Watson, Jordan T.; Druffel, Ellen R. M.; Ingalls, Anitra E.; Pearson, Ann; Aluwihare, Lihini I.

    2009-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that microorganisms in the meso- and bathypelagic ocean are metabolically active and respiring carbon. In addition, growing evidence suggests that archaea are fixing inorganic carbon in this environment. However, direct quantification of the contribution from deep ocean carbon sources to community production in the dark ocean remains a challenge. In this study, carbon flow through the microbial community at 2 depths in the mesopelagic zone of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre was examined by exploiting the unique radiocarbon signatures (Δ14C) of the 3 major carbon sources in this environment. The radiocarbon content of nucleic acids, a biomarker for viable cells, isolated from size-fractionated particles (0.2–0.5 μm and >0.5 μm) showed the direct incorporation of carbon delivered by rapidly sinking particles. Most significantly, at the 2 mesopelagic depths examined (670 m and 915 m), carbon derived from in situ autotrophic fixation supported a significant fraction of the free-living microbial community (0.2–0.5 μm size fraction), but the contribution of chemoautotrophy varied markedly between the 2 depths. Results further showed that utilization of the ocean's largest reduced carbon reservoir, 14C-depleted, dissolved organic carbon, was negligible in this environment. This isotopic portrait of carbon assimilation by the in situ, free-living microbial community, integrated over >50,000 L of seawater, implies that recent, photosynthetic carbon is not always the major carbon source supporting microbial community production in the mesopelagic realm. PMID:19366673

  20. The North Atlantic Tritium and Radiocarbon Transients 1972-1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göte Östlund, H.; Rooth, Claes G. H.

    1990-11-01

    Deep ventilation and water mass transformation processes in the North Atlantic, on decadal time scales, are illustrated by the evolving distribution patterns of anthropogenic tritium and radiocarbon. Data from two quasisynoptic surveys of the interior of the North Atlantic, the Geochemical Ocean Sections Study (GEOSECS) and complementary oceanographic observation projects in 1972, and the Transient Tracers in the Oceans (TTO) in 1981 and 1983, are presented in comparative cross sections and maps representing conditions roughly one and two decades, respectively, after the first major tracer injections. The discussion emphasizes comparisons of the decay corrected tritium concentration fields, which show several distinct regimes of transient evolution, including examples of surprising constancy in some regional patterns. While largely supportive of previous qualitative ideas about transport patterns, these results also suggest that the patterns of deep water injection in high latitudes must have undergone a major change around or soon after the time of GEOSECS (1972), involving a major increase in supply of Upper North Atlantic Deep Water. The near-surface waters show strong signatures of tropical (low tritium) influence in the southwestern and western part of the subtropical gyre, while the northeastern part is influenced by continued tritium input from Arctic surface waters. Strong evidence for distinct sub-basin-scale interior circulation domains is found in the fact that the major distribution regime transitions seen in the GEOSECS data are observed again in TTO, and thus maintained through the second decade of the transient. The radiocarbon data set, which reflects the addition to the natural background distribution, supports the significance also on longer time scales of the mid-depth regime transition around 30°N latitude.

  1. Radiocarbon measurements of black carbon in aerosols and ocean sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, C. A.; Druffel, E. R. M.; Currie, L. A.

    2002-03-01

    Black carbon (BC) is the combustion-altered, solid residue remaining after biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion. Radiocarbon measurements of BC provide information on the residence time of BC in organic carbon pools like soils and sediments, and also provide information on the source of BC by distinguishing between fossil fuel and biomass combustion byproducts. We have optimized dichromate-sulfuric acid oxidation for the measurement of radiocarbon in BC. We also present comparisons of BC 14C measurements on NIST aerosol SRM 1649a with previously published bulk aromatic 14C measurements and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) 14C measurements on the same NIST standard. Dichromate-sulfuric acid oxidation belongs to the chemical class of BC measurement methods, which rely on the resistance of some forms of BC to strong chemical oxidants. Dilute solutions of dichromate-sulfuric acid degrade BC and marine-derived carbon at characteristic rates from which a simple kinetic formula can be used to calculate concentrations of individual components (Wolbach and Anders, 1989). We show that: (1) dichromate-sulfuric acid oxidation allows precise, reproducible 14C BC measurements; (2) kinetics calculations give more precise BC yield information when performed on a % OC basis (vs. a % mass basis); (3) kinetically calculated BC concentrations are similar regardless of whether the oxidation is performed at 23°C or 50°C; and (4) this method yields 14C BC results consistent with previously published aromatic 14C data for an NIST standard. For the purposes of intercomparison, we report % mass and carbon results for two commercially available BC standards. We also report comparative data from a new thermal method applied to SRM 1649a, showing that thermal oxidation of this material also follows the simple kinetic sum of exponentials model, although with different time constants.

  2. Age-dating of rockslides: Methods and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostermann, M.; Sanders, D.; Prager, C.

    2009-04-01

    Age-dating of deposits of catastrophic rockslides is prerequisite to unravel the potential relation between the frequency of mass-wasting events with climatic change or earthquakes. In the Alps, about 250 rockslides exceeding 106 m3 in volume are known, but the age as yet is determined only for a comparatively small number of events. For age determination of rockslide events, different methods are available (e. g. Lang et al., 1999). Radiocarbon Dating In the past few decades, rockslide deposits commonly were proxy-dated by 14C age determination of organic remnants preserved (a) in glacial, fluvio-glacial sediments overridden by the rockslide, (b) within the rockslide mass, or (c) in rockslide-dammed backwater deposits or lakes situated atop the rockslide mass. In each case, the 14C age provides a different constraint on the age of the rockslide event: in case (a), the 14C age represents a maximum age of the event; in case (b), which is quite rare, the 14C age is generally considered as a good proxy of the event age; in case (c) the 14C age represents a minimum age for the rockslide event. Unfortunately, radiocarbon dating often cannot be applied because of absence of suited deposits or exposures thereof, lack of organic remnants or of remnants suited for age-dating, and/or because determined 14C ages are substantially biased. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) Proxy-dating of rockslide events by OSL can be applied to silt- to sand-sized quartzose sediments present (a) directly below, (b) within, or (c) above/laterally aside a rockslide mass. For each case (a) to (c), the determined ages are subject to the same constraints as outlined for radiocarbon dating. Unfortunately, situations allowing for application of OSL to rockslide event dating are comparatively rare, and the resulting ages tend to have a wide error range. Surface Exposure Dating with cosmogenic radionuclides Surface exposure ages can be determined for rock samples taken from the sliding planes at

  3. Compilation of Marine Radiocarbon Bomb-Pulse from the Temperate North Atlantic Using Annually-Resolved Time-Series From Arctica islandica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scourse, J.; Wanamaker, A. D.; Weidman, C.; Heinemeier, J.; Richardson, C.

    2008-12-01

    Radiocarbon measurements from increments of annually-banded corals covering the past 60 years from sub- tropical and tropical contexts provide valuable records of the marine expression of the atmospheric excess radiocarbon "bomb-pulse". These records can be used as calibration series for high-resolution post- bomb radiocarbon dating and constitute tracers for identifying watermass age and mixing processes. Hitherto such applications have been restricted in temperate shelf seas because of the lack of widespread measurements from annually-resolved archives. Here we present a compilation of bomb-pulse data from annual growth increments of the shallow marine bivalve mollusc Arctica islandica from sites across the temperate North Atlantic (Georges Bank, north Icelandic shelf, north Norway, North Sea). The temporal response is highly correlated at all sites, but the amplitude of the bomb-pulse varies, with the highest values attained in the North Sea and the most damped response on the north Icelandic shelf. These differences can be attributed to the integrated hydrographic context of these sites (entrainment of deep, old water; rates of air-sea exchange; fluvial runoff). The north Icelandic data contain a reversal in the rising limb of the bomb- pulse which is not present elsewhere, even in the more sensitive sites. This reversal correlates with instrumental data characterising the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1960s when old (deltaR = + 200 years), cold and relatively fresh East Icelandic Current flooded the north Icelandic shelf as a result of southward migration of the Polar Front. The bomb-pulse radiocarbon proxy is therefore a sensitive proxy for hydrographic variability. Further applications of these data will be discussed.

  4. The Sea Peoples, from Cuneiform Tablets to Carbon Dating

    PubMed Central

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Van Lerberghe, Karel; Boiy, Tom; Vansteenhuyse, Klaas; Jans, Greta; Nys, Karin; Weiss, Harvey; Morhange, Christophe; Otto, Thierry; Bretschneider, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The 13th century BC witnessed the zenith of the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean civilizations which declined at the end of the Bronze Age, ∼3200 years ago. Weakening of this ancient flourishing Mediterranean world shifted the political and economic centres of gravity away from the Levant towards Classical Greece and Rome, and led, in the long term, to the emergence of the modern western civilizations. Textual evidence from cuneiform tablets and Egyptian reliefs from the New Kingdom relate that seafaring tribes, the Sea Peoples, were the final catalyst that put the fall of cities and states in motion. However, the lack of a stratified radiocarbon-based archaeology for the Sea People event has led to a floating historical chronology derived from a variety of sources spanning dispersed areas. Here, we report a stratified radiocarbon-based archaeology with anchor points in ancient epigraphic-literary sources, Hittite-Levantine-Egyptian kings and astronomical observations to precisely date the Sea People event. By confronting historical and science-based archaeology, we establish an absolute age range of 1192–1190 BC for terminal destructions and cultural collapse in the northern Levant. This radiocarbon-based archaeology has far-reaching implications for the wider Mediterranean, where an elaborate network of international relations and commercial activities are intertwined with the history of civilizations. PMID:21687714

  5. The Sea Peoples, from cuneiform tablets to carbon dating.

    PubMed

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Van Lerberghe, Karel; Boiy, Tom; Vansteenhuyse, Klaas; Jans, Greta; Nys, Karin; Weiss, Harvey; Morhange, Christophe; Otto, Thierry; Bretschneider, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The 13(th) century BC witnessed the zenith of the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean civilizations which declined at the end of the Bronze Age, ∼3200 years ago. Weakening of this ancient flourishing Mediterranean world shifted the political and economic centres of gravity away from the Levant towards Classical Greece and Rome, and led, in the long term, to the emergence of the modern western civilizations. Textual evidence from cuneiform tablets and Egyptian reliefs from the New Kingdom relate that seafaring tribes, the Sea Peoples, were the final catalyst that put the fall of cities and states in motion. However, the lack of a stratified radiocarbon-based archaeology for the Sea People event has led to a floating historical chronology derived from a variety of sources spanning dispersed areas. Here, we report a stratified radiocarbon-based archaeology with anchor points in ancient epigraphic-literary sources, Hittite-Levantine-Egyptian kings and astronomical observations to precisely date the Sea People event. By confronting historical and science-based archaeology, we establish an absolute age range of 1192-1190 BC for terminal destructions and cultural collapse in the northern Levant. This radiocarbon-based archaeology has far-reaching implications for the wider Mediterranean, where an elaborate network of international relations and commercial activities are intertwined with the history of civilizations.

  6. Radiocarbon chronology and environment of woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius Blum.) in northern Asia: results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Orlova, Lyobov A.

    2004-12-01

    This paper reviews the history of the woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius Blum.) in Siberia and adjacent northern Asia. The particular emphases are the chronology and environment of mammoth existence and extinction, based on about 530 radiocarbon dates from about 230 localities with mammoth remains and palaeoenvironmental records of the last 50,000 years. Until ca. 12,000 radiocarbon years ago (BP), mammoths inhabited all of northern Asia, from the High Arctic to southern Siberia and northeastern China. Since ca. 12,000 BP, mammoth disappeared from major parts of Siberia and adjacent northern Asia, and survived mainly in the Arctic regions of Siberia, north of 69° northern latitude. However, recently, it was found that some mammoth populations continued to exist in central and southern Western Siberia until ca. 11,100-10,200 BP. 'Normal' size mammoths became extinct in mainland Siberia at the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, ca. 9700 BP. On Wrangel Island in the High Arctic, small-sized mammoths survived into the Middle-Late Holocene, ca. 7700-3700 BP. Compared with previous studies, it is now possible to reveal the complex nature of the process of final mammoth extinction in Siberia, with some small populations surviving outside of the Arctic until ca. 10,000 BP. The extinction of mammoth was most probably caused by a combination of factors, such as global warming in the Late Glacial (since ca. 15,000 BP) and the disintegration of landscapes suitable for mammoths throughout the Upper Pleistocene, such as light forests with vast open spaces occupied by meadows and forest tundra. The expansion of forest vegetation after the Last Glacial Maximum in Siberia, including its northeastern part, created unsuitable habitats for herbivorous megafauna, especially for mammoths. However, the Holocene environment of Wrangel Island was not of 'glacial' type and this requires further studies. The relationship between mammoths and Upper Palaeolithic humans is also considered. The

  7. Constraint on radiocarbon age correction in Lake Biwa environment from the middle to late Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Y.; Minami, M.; Onbe, S.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakamura, T.; Imamura, M.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from previous studies and newly collected data, we compared the measured radiocarbon ages of molluscan shells, common reed (Phragmites australis) and pine needles (Pinus thunbergii) collected in 1966, 1970, 1990 and 2008 at Lake Biwa in Japan, and of archaeological samples, to examine radiocarbon reservoir effects at Lake Biwa. We also tested for differences in the radiocarbon reservoir effect between species and locations in the lake. The effects of nuclear bomb tests conducted in the 1950s and 1960s are clear, the offset between atmospheric 14C and the Lake Biwa freshwater 14C is larger for this period because the atmospheric 14C is so high. The semiclosed Lake Biwa system is in dynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere, resulting in the 14C content of the water following the changes in atmospheric 14C caused by nuclear testing. The shells collected after 1990 had radiocarbon ages that were 330-450 14C years older than those of the coeval atmosphere. The apparent differences in radiocarbon age (about 300 14C years) between shell fossils and wood samples excavated from the same layer of the submerged Awazu shell midden at Lake Biwa suggest that the radiocarbon reservoir effect also existed in the middle Holocene (the Middle Jomon period, about 5000 years ago). Because the present-day average residence time of Lake Biwa water is 3-6 years, its direct influence on the radiocarbon reservoir effect is small, which suggests that old carbon has been supplied into Lake Biwa.

  8. Radiocarbon in the Weddell Sea as observed in a deep-sea coral and in krill

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, R.L.; Druffel, E.M.

    1983-03-01

    Radiocarbon mesurements were performed on krill and coral samples collected from the Weddell Sea during IWSOE '80. These are the first radiocarbon measurements available from this area since 1973. These data reveal carbon-14 levels for Weddell surface water and southern Weddell Shelf water. These data indicate that the radiocarbon levels in surface waters in 1980 were the same or slightly lower than those present in 1973. In addition, an unusually low ..delta../sup 14/C value for shelf water (from coral) at 500 m is evidence that Warm Deep Water (WDW) may penetrate much further and more frequently onto the shelf region than had previously been expected.

  9. Future accelerators (?)

    SciTech Connect

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  10. Accelerator mass spectrometry for quantitative in vivo tracing

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J S

    2005-04-19

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) counts individual rare, usually radio-, isotopes such as radiocarbon at high efficiency and specificity in milligram-sized samples. AMS traces very low chemical doses ({micro}g) and radiative doses (100 Bq) of isotope labeled compounds in animal models and directly in humans for pharmaceutical, nutritional, or toxicological research. Absorption, metabolism, distribution, binding, and elimination are all quantifiable with high precision after appropriate sample definition.

  11. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices PMID:25417648

  12. May 14C be used to date contemporary art?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedi, M. E.; Caforio, L.; Mandò, P. A.; Petrucci, F.; Taccetti, F.

    2013-01-01

    The use of radiocarbon in forensics is by now widespread, thanks to the so-called bomb peak, which makes it possible to perform high-precision dating. Since 1955, 14C concentration in the atmosphere had strongly increased due to nuclear explosions, reaching its maximum value in 1963-1965. After the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 14C started to decrease as a consequence of the exchanges between atmosphere and the other natural carbon reservoirs. Nowadays, it is still slightly above the pre-bomb value. The work presented in this paper is based on the idea of exploiting the bomb peak to “precisely” date works of contemporary art, with the aim at identifying possible fakes. We analysed two kinds of materials from the 20th century: newspapers and painting canvases. Newspaper samples were taken because they might in principle be considered to represent dated samples (considering the date on the issues). Our data (28 samples) show a trend similar to atmospheric data in the literature, although with some differences; the paper peak is flatter and shifted towards more recent years (about five years) with respect to the atmospheric data. This can be explained by taking paper manufacturing processes into account. As to the canvas samples, the measured 14C concentrations were generally reasonably consistent with the expected concentrations (based on the year on the paintings). However, this does not indicate that the interpretation of the results is simpler and more straightforward. Obviously, we only measure the 14C concentration of the fibre used for the canvas, which does not necessarily measure the date the painting was manufactured. In this paper, sample preparation and experimental results will be discussed, in order to show the potential as well as the limitations of radiocarbon to date contemporary art.

  13. Age validation of quillback rockfish (Sebastes maliger) using bomb radiocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, L A; Andrews, A H; Munk, K; Coale, K H; Frantz, B R; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A

    2005-01-05

    Rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) support one of the most economically important fisheries of the Pacific Northwest and it is essential for sustainable management that age estimation procedures be validated for these species. Atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices during the 1950s and 1960s created a global radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) signal in the ocean environment that scientists have identified as a useful tracer and chronological marker in natural systems. In this study, we first demonstrated that fewer samples are necessary for age validation using the bomb-generated {sup 14}C signal by emphasizing the utility of the time-specific marker created by the initial rise of bomb-{sup 14}C. Second, the bomb-generated {sup 14}C signal retained in fish otoliths was used to validate the age and age estimation methodology of the quillback rockfish (Sebastes maliger) in the waters of southeast Alaska. Radiocarbon values from the first year's growth of quillback rockfish otoliths were plotted against estimated birth year producing a {sup 14}C time series spanning 1950 to 1985. The initial rise of bomb-{sup 14}C from pre-bomb levels ({approx} -90 {per_thousand}) occurred in 1959 {+-} 1 year and {sup 14}C levels rose relatively rapidly to peak {Delta}{sup 14}C values in 1967 (+105.4 {per_thousand}), with a subsequent declining trend through the end of the record in 1985 (+15.4 {per_thousand}). The agreement between the year of initial rise of {sup 14}C levels from the quillback rockfish record and the chronometer determined for the waters of southeast Alaska from yelloweye rockfish (S. ruberrimus) otoliths validated the ageing methodology for the quillback rockfish. The concordance of the entire quillback rockfish {sup 14}C record with the yelloweye rockfish time series demonstrated the effectiveness of this age validation technique, confirmed the longevity of the quillback rockfish up to a minimum of 43 years, and strongly supports higher age estimates of up to 90 years.

  14. Solar activity around AD 775 from aurorae and radiocarbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, R.; Neuhäuser, D. L.

    2015-04-01

    A large variation in 14C around AD 775 has been considered to be caused by one or more solar super-flares within one year. We critically review all known aurora reports from Europe as well as the Near, Middle, and Far East from AD 731 to 825 and find 39 likely true aurorae plus four more potential aurorae and 24 other reports about halos, meteors, thunderstorms etc., which were previously misinterpreted as aurorae or misdated; we assign probabilities for all events according to five aurora criteria. We find very likely true aurorae in AD 743, 745, 762, 765, 772, 773, 793, 796, 807, and 817. There were two aurorae in the early 770s observed near Amida (now Diyarbak\\i r in Turkey near the Turkish-Syrian border), which were not only red, but also green-yellow - being at a relatively low geomagnetic latitude, they indicate a relatively strong solar storm. However, it cannot be argued that those aurorae (geomagnetic latitude 43 to 50°, considering five different reconstructions of the geomagnetic pole) could be connected to one or more solar super-flares causing the 14C increase around AD 775: There are several reports about low- to mid-latitude aurorae at 32 to 44° geomagnetic latitude in China and Iraq; some of them were likely observed (quasi-)simultaneously in two of three areas (Europe, Byzantium/Arabia, East Asia), one lasted several nights, and some indicate a particularly strong geomagnetic storm (red colour and dynamics), namely in AD 745, 762, 793, 807, and 817 - always without 14C peaks. We use 39 likely true aurorae as well as historic reports about sunspots together with the radiocarbon content from tree rings to reconstruct the solar activity: From AD {˜ 733} to {˜ 823}, we see at least nine Schwabe cycles; instead of one of those cycles, there could be two short, weak cycles - reflecting the rapid increase to a high 14C level since AD 775, which lies at the end of a strong cycle. In order to show the end of the dearth of naked-eye sunspots, we

  15. BIOGENIC CONTRIBUTION TO PM-2.5 AMBIENT AEROSOL FROM RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowledge of the relative contributions of biogenic versus anthropogenic sources to ambient aerosol is of great interest in the formulation of strategies to achieve nationally mandated air quality standards. Radiocarbon (Carbon-14) measurements provide a means to quantify the ...

  16. High-resolution regional modelling of natural and anthropogenic radiocarbon in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayache, Mohamed; Dutay, Jean-Claude; Mouchet, Anne; Tisnérat-Laborde, Nadine; Montagna, Paolo; Tanhua, Toste; Siani, Giuseppe; Jean-Baptiste, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    A high-resolution dynamical model (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean, Mediterranean configuration - NEMO-MED12) was used to give the first simulation of the distribution of radiocarbon (14C) across the whole Mediterranean Sea. The simulation provides a descriptive overview of both the natural pre-bomb 14C and the entire anthropogenic radiocarbon transient generated by the atmospheric bomb tests performed in the 1950s and early 1960s. The simulation was run until 2011 to give the post-bomb distribution. The results are compared to available in situ measurements and proxy-based reconstructions. The radiocarbon simulation allows an additional and independent test of the dynamical model, NEMO-MED12, and its performance to produce the thermohaline circulation and deep-water ventilation. The model produces a generally realistic distribution of radiocarbon when compared with available in situ data. The results demonstrate the major influence of the flux of Atlantic water through the Strait of Gibraltar on the inter-basin natural radiocarbon distribution and characterize the ventilation of intermediate and deep water especially through the propagation of the anthropogenic radiocarbon signal. We explored the impact of the interannual variability on the radiocarbon distribution during the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) event. It reveals a significant increase in 14C concentration (by more than 60 ‰) in the Aegean deep water and at an intermediate level (value up to 10 ‰) in the western basin. The model shows that the EMT makes a major contribution to the accumulation of radiocarbon in the eastern Mediterranean deep waters.

  17. Radiocarbon-derived sedimentation rates in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santschi, Peter H.; Rowe, Gilbert T.

    2008-12-01

    Sedimentation rates were determined for the northern Gulf of Mexico margin sediments at water depths ranging from 770 to 3560 m, using radiocarbon determinations of organic matter. Resulting sedimentation rates ranged from 3 to 15 cm/kyr, decreasing with increasing water depth. These rates agree with long-term sedimentation rates estimated previously using stratigraphic methods, and with estimates of sediment delivery rates by the Mississippi River to the northern Gulf of Mexico, but are generally higher by 1-2 orders of magnitude than those estimated by 210Pb xs methods. Near-surface slope sediments from 2737 m water depth in the Mississippi River fan were much older than the rest. They had minimum 14C ages of 16-27 kyr and δ13C values ranging from -24‰ to -26.5‰, indicating a terrestrial origin of organic matter. The sediments from this site were thus likely deposited by episodic mass wasting of slope sediment through the canyon, delineating the previously suggested main pathway of sediment and clay movement to abyssal Gulf sediments.

  18. Radiocarbon Releases from the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Sheng; Cook, Gordon T.; Cresswell, Alan J.; Dunbar, Elaine; Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Hou, Xiaolin; Jacobsson, Piotr; Kinch, Helen R.; Naysmith, Philip; Sanderson, David C. W.; Tripney, Brian G.

    2016-01-01

    Radiocarbon activities were measured in annual tree rings for the years 2009 to 2015 from Japanese cedar trees (Cryptomeria japonica) collected at six sites ranging from 2.5–38 km northwest and north of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The 14C specific activity varied from 280.4 Bq kg−1 C in 2010 to 226.0 Bq kg−1 C in 2015. The elevated 14C activities in the 2009 and 2010 rings confirmed 14C discharges during routine reactor operations, whereas those activities that were indistinguishable from background in 2012–2015 coincided with the permanent shutdown of the reactors after the accident in 2011. High-resolution 14C analysis of the 2011 ring indicated 14C releases during the Fukushima accident. The resulted 14C activity decreased with increasing distance from the plant. The maximum 14C activity released during the period of the accident was measured 42.4 Bq kg−1 C above the natural ambient 14C background. Our findings indicate that, unlike other Fukushima-derived radionuclides, the 14C released during the accident is indistinguishable from ambient background beyond the local environment (~30 km from the plant). Furthermore, the resulting dose to the local population from the excess 14C activities is negligible compared to the dose from natural/nuclear weapons sources. PMID:27841312

  19. Radiocarbon Releases from the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Sheng; Cook, Gordon T.; Cresswell, Alan J.; Dunbar, Elaine; Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Hou, Xiaolin; Jacobsson, Piotr; Kinch, Helen R.; Naysmith, Philip; Sanderson, David C. W.; Tripney, Brian G.

    2016-11-01

    Radiocarbon activities were measured in annual tree rings for the years 2009 to 2015 from Japanese cedar trees (Cryptomeria japonica) collected at six sites ranging from 2.5–38 km northwest and north of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The 14C specific activity varied from 280.4 Bq kg‑1 C in 2010 to 226.0 Bq kg‑1 C in 2015. The elevated 14C activities in the 2009 and 2010 rings confirmed 14C discharges during routine reactor operations, whereas those activities that were indistinguishable from background in 2012–2015 coincided with the permanent shutdown of the reactors after the accident in 2011. High-resolution 14C analysis of the 2011 ring indicated 14C releases during the Fukushima accident. The resulted 14C activity decreased with increasing distance from the plant. The maximum 14C activity released during the period of the accident was measured 42.4 Bq kg‑1 C above the natural ambient 14C background. Our findings indicate that, unlike other Fukushima-derived radionuclides, the 14C released during the accident is indistinguishable from ambient background beyond the local environment (~30 km from the plant). Furthermore, the resulting dose to the local population from the excess 14C activities is negligible compared to the dose from natural/nuclear weapons sources.

  20. Anomalous elevated radiocarbon measurements of PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Bruce A.; Fallon, Stewart J.; Zermeño, Paula; Bench, Graham; Schichtel, Bret A.

    2013-01-01

    Two-component models are often used to determine the contributions made by fossil fuel and natural sources of carbon in airborne particulate matter (PM). The models reduce thousands of actual sources to two end members based on isotopic signature. Combustion of fossil fuels produces PM free of carbon-14 (14C). Wood or charcoal smoke, restaurant fryer emissions, and natural emissions from plants produce PM with the contemporary concentration of 14C approximately 1.2 × 10-1214C/C. Such data can be used to estimate the relative contributions of fossil fuels and biogenic aerosols to the total aerosol loading and radiocarbon analysis is becoming a popular source apportionment method. Emissions from incinerators combusting medical or biological wastes containing tracer 14C can skew the 14C/C ratio of PM, however, so critical analysis of sampling sites for possible sources of elevated PM needs to be completed prior to embarking on sampling campaigns. Results are presented for two ambient monitoring sites in different areas of the United States where 14C contamination is apparent. Our experience suggests that such contamination is uncommon but is also not rare (∼10%) for PM sampling sites.

  1. Personal identification of cold case remains through combined contribution from anthropological, mtDNA, and bomb-pulse dating analyses.

    PubMed

    Speller, Camilla F; Spalding, Kirsty L; Buchholz, Bruce A; Hildebrand, Dean; Moore, Jason; Mathewes, Rolf; Skinner, Mark F; Yang, Dongya Y

    2012-09-01

    In 1968, a child's cranium was recovered from the banks of a northern Canadian river and held in a trust until the "cold case" was reopened in 2005. The cranium underwent reanalysis at the Centre for Forensic Research, Simon Fraser University, using recently developed anthropological analysis, "bomb-pulse" radiocarbon analysis, and forensic DNA techniques. Craniometrics, skeletal ossification, and dental formation indicated an age-at-death of 4.4 ± 1 year. Radiocarbon analysis of enamel from two teeth indicated a year of birth between 1958 and 1962. Forensic DNA analysis indicated the child was a male, and the obtained mitochondrial profile matched a living maternal relative to the presumed missing child. These multidisciplinary analyses resulted in a legal identification 41 years after the discovery of the remains, highlighting the enormous potential of combining radiocarbon analysis with anthropological and mtDNA analyses in producing confident personal identifications for forensic cold cases dating to within the last 60 years.

  2. Towards 1‰ AMS 14C measurement precision at the Rafter Radiocarbon Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Baisden, T. T.; Zondervan, A.; Kaiser, J.; Brailsford, G.; Moss, R.

    2012-12-01

    The radiocarbon content of atmospheric CO2 (Δ14CO2) is an increasingly important tracer used to quantify the different sources of CO2 in the atmosphere. Due to the absence of 14C in fossil fuels, 14CO2 is perhaps the best way to quantify recently added fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere. The sea-air CO2 flux also has Δ14C different from the atmosphere, so Δ14CO2 observations can be used to examine the one-way gross CO2 flux out of the oceans. Each one part per million (ppm) of fossil fuel CO2 added to the atmosphere decreases Δ14CO2 by about 2.6‰, and fossil fuel CO2 enhancements are typically in the range of a few ppm. The detection capability is therefore strongly influenced by the precision of 14C measurements. The World Meteorological Organization recommends a goal of 1‰ 14C precision, and Δ14CO2 measurements can currently be made to slightly better than 2‰ at several facilities. New Zealand has a long history of atmospheric Δ14CO2 measurements, starting in Wellington in 1955. Rafter lab recently obtained a new accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) and developed a new graphitization system. A major focus emerging from the upgrade is the opportunity to expand the high precision atmospheric Δ14CO2 capability. Results from the first year of measurements indicate 1.3‰ repeatability on modern atmospheric CO2 in samples as small as one liter of whole air, a significant improvement over previously reported AMS 14C repeatability. We use new measurements from the long-term Baring Head Δ14CO2 record demonstrate the utility of this new high precision capability in interpreting atmospheric signals. We will report on development of graphitization procedures and AMS methodology which allow us to achieve this precision. Progress towards 1‰ precision will be discussed.

  3. Radiocarbon-Based Source apportionment of Elemental Carbon Aerosols at Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerian Ghahferrokhi, Farid; Ahn, Jinho; Czimczik, Claudia I.; Holden, Sandra; Park, JinSoo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, 10 samples of PM2.5 (aerosol particle with diameter less than 2.5 μm) were collected in the Northeast of Seoul (37.60o N, 127.05o E), South Korea, over 2-4 day periods in May and June of 2015 with a high volume air sampler. The samples were analyzed for their bulk carbon (TC) and nitrogen (N) elemental and stable isotope composition with EA-IRMS. Elemental carbon (EC) was quantified with the Swiss_4S protocol using a Sunset OC/EC analyzer. Both, TC and EC were analyzed for their radiocarbon (14C) content via accelerator mass spectrometry. The mass and isotopic composition of organic carbon (OC) was quantified by (isotope) mass balance. TC loads were 6.6 +/- 1.5 ug C m-3 air (ave. +/- sd; range 4.7-9.7), with a ∆14C ranging from 240 to -446 per mill and a δ13C of -25.4+/-0.3 per mill. EC was a minor fraction of TC (7.2+/-1.9% or 0.5+/-0.2 ug C m-3 air). EC was strongly depleted in 14C (∆14C = -915 to -819 per mill), with fossil sources accounting for 88+/-3% of EC (6.3+/-1.7% of TC). OC was enriched in 14C above natural levels (∆14C = -401 to 309 per mill), and thus could not be partitioned into fossil and modern sources. Local wind directions showed that air masses originated from the South, demonstrating that regional sources may be the crucial contributor to PM pollution in Seoul during that sampling period (early summer).

  4. Implications of a Bayesian radiocarbon calibration of colonization ages for mammalian megafauna in glaciated New York State after the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feranec, Robert S.; Kozlowski, Andrew L.

    2016-03-01

    To understand what factors control species colonization and extirpation within specific paleoecosystems, we analyzed radiocarbon dates of megafaunal mammal species from New York State after the Last Glacial Maximum. We hypothesized that the timing of colonization and extirpation were both driven by access to preferred habitat types. Bayesian calibration of a database of 39 radiocarbon dates shows that caribou (Rangifer tarandus) were the first colonizers, then mammoth (Mammuthus sp.), and finally American mastodon (Mammut americanum). The timing of colonization cannot reject the hypothesis that colonizing megafauna tracked preferred habitats, as caribou and mammoth arrived when tundra was present, while mastodon arrived after boreal forest was prominent in the state. The timing of caribou colonization implies that ecosystems were developed in the state prior to 16,000 cal yr BP. The contemporaneous arrival of American mastodon with Sporormiella spore decline suggests the dung fungus spore is not an adequate indicator of American mastodon population size. The pattern in the timing of extirpation is opposite to that of colonization. The lack of environmental changes suspected to be ecologically detrimental to American mastodon and mammoth coupled with the arrival of humans shortly before extirpation suggests an anthropogenic cause in the loss of the analyzed species.

  5. Mass-dependent Corrections and Atmospheric Invasion: Working with the Radiocarbon Content of CO2 in the Soil Gas Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, J. E.; Bowling, D. R.; Risk, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Radiocarbon is becoming a more commonly utilized tool for C cycling studies, as it helps constrain biotic ecosystem processes such as C turnover times and sources of production. However, for studies that focus on CO2, the sampling methods for Δ14CO2 (surface chambers and subsurface gas wells) can be affected by abiotic processes, which may bias results as a function of gas transport regime (diffusion and advection). The radiocarbon community currently uses a δ13C correction to account for mass-dependent fractionation, but to date this correction has not been validated for the soil gas environment, where atmospheric invasion and gas transport are important. This study used an analytical soil gas transport model across a range of soil diffusivities and production rates, in which we could control Δ14CO2 and δ13CO2 signatures of production and atmosphere. This synthetic situation allowed us to assess the bias that results from using the conventional correction method for estimating Δ14CO2 of soil production. We found that the conventional correction is not strictly valid in this setting for interpreting the signature of production and does not account for diffusion and atmospheric invasion. The resultant Δ14CO2 bias scales with soil diffusivity and production rates. We propose a new two-step correction for Δ14CO2 work in the soil environment that accounts for atmospheric invasion and the δ13CO2 correction, and is able to reproduce a true value of Δ14CO2 of production. This work not only assists in data interpretation, but also helps clarify a methodological window of opportunity for accurately measuring the Δ14CO2 of soil production using subsurface sampling.

  6. What Can Radiocarbon Depth Profiles Tell Us About The LGM Circulation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, A.; Stewart, A.; Adkins, J. F.; Ferrari, R. M.; Thompson, A. F.; Jansen, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    Published reconstructions of radiocarbon in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean indicate that there is a mid-depth maximum in radiocarbon age during the last glacial maximum (LGM). This is in contrast to the modern ocean where intense mixing between water masses along shared density surfaces (isopycnals) results in a relatively homogenous radiocarbon profile. A recent study (Ferrari et al. 2014) suggested that the extended Antarctic sea ice cover during the LGM necessitated a shallower boundary between the upper and lower branches of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). This shoaled boundary lay above major topographic features and their associated strong diapycnal mixing, which isolated dense southern-sourced water in the lower branch of the overturning circulation. This isolation would have allowed radiocarbon to decay, and thus provides a possible explanation for the mid-depth radiocarbon age bulge. We test this hypothesis using an idealized, 2D, residual-mean dynamical model of the global overturning circulation. Concentration distributions of a decaying tracer that is advected by the simulated overturning are compared to published radiocarbon data. We test the sensitivity of the mid-depth radiocarbon age to changes in sea ice extent, wind strength, and isopycnal and diapycnal diffusion. The mid-depth radiocarbon age bulge is most likely caused by the different circulation geometry, associated with increased sea ice extent. In particular, with an LGM-like sea ice extent the upper and lower branches of the MOC no longer share isopycnals, so radiocarbon-rich northern-sourced water is no longer mixed rapidly into the southern-sourced water. However, this process alone cannot explain the magnitude of the glacial radiocarbon anomalies; additional isolation (e.g. from reduced air-sea gas exchange associated with the increased sea ice) is required. Ferrari, R., M. F. Jansen, J. F. Adkins, A. Burke, A. L. Stewart, and A. F. Thompson (2014), Antarctic sea