Science.gov

Sample records for accelerator research organization

  1. Accelerator research studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the first year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams, TASK B, Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams; TASK C, Study of a Gyroklystron High-power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders. In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks.

  2. Accelerator research studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the second year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams,'' (P.I., M. Reiser); TASK B, Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams,'' (Co-P.I.'s, W.W. Destler, M. Reiser, M.J. Rhee, and C.D. Striffler); TASK C, Study of a Gyroklystron High-Power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders,'' (Co-P.I.'s, V.L. Granatstein, W. Lawson, M. Reiser, and C.D. Striffler). In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks.

  3. Flow accelerated organic coating degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qixin

    Applying organic coatings is a common and the most cost effective way to protect metallic objects and structures from corrosion. Water entry into coating-metal interface is usually the main cause for the deterioration of organic coatings, which leads to coating delamination and underfilm corrosion. Recently, flowing fluids over sample surface have received attention due to their capability to accelerate material degradation. A plethora of works has focused on the flow induced metal corrosion, while few studies have investigated the flow accelerated organic coating degradation. Flowing fluids above coating surface affect corrosion by enhancing the water transport and abrading the surface due to fluid shear. Hence, it is of great importance to understand the influence of flowing fluids on the degradation of corrosion protective organic coatings. In this study, a pigmented marine coating and several clear coatings were exposed to the laminar flow and stationary immersion. The laminar flow was pressure driven and confined in a flow channel. A 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution and pure water was employed as the working fluid with a variety of flow rates. The corrosion protective properties of organic coatings were monitored inline by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement. Equivalent circuit models were employed to interpret the EIS spectra. The time evolution of coating resistance and capacitance obtained from the model was studied to demonstrate the coating degradation. Thickness, gloss, and other topography characterizations were conducted to facilitate the assessment of the corrosion. The working fluids were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and conductivity measurement. The influence of flow rate, fluid shear, fluid composition, and other effects in the coating degradation were investigated. We conclude that flowing fluid on the coating surface accelerates the transport of water, oxygen, and ions into the coating, as

  4. Accelerators for research and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.

    1990-06-01

    The newest particle accelerators are almost always built for extending the frontiers of research, at the cutting edge of science and technology. Once these machines are operating and these technologies mature, new applications are always found, many of which touch our lives in profound ways. The evolution of accelerator technologies will be discussed, with descriptions of accelerator types and characteristics. The wide range of applications of accelerators will be discussed, in fields such as nuclear science, medicine, astrophysics and space-sciences, power generation, airport security, materials processing and microcircuit fabrication. 13 figs.

  5. Accelerators in Research and Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, G. A.

    1997-10-01

    Over the last sixty years the applications of ion beam accelerators has grown from basic nuclear structure research to the manufacture, preservation, and development of a large number of products which directly affect every day life. In addition, ion beam accelerators continue to provide a unique contribution in both basic and applied research in fields from art history to zoology. Applications fit into two main groups, materials analysis and materials modification. Most materials analysis include routine use of Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) with new developments in analysis techniques being developed for remote elemental detection of plastic explosives and drugs. Existing accelerator systems and new accelerator systems are being developed for use in the area of accelerator based mass spectrometry (AMS) which is having a profound affect on a wide variety of fields which rely on counting extremely rare isotopes in very small samples. Accelerators used for materials modification continue to have a significant economic impact in the field of semiconductors and the development of new semiconductor and other high technology products.

  6. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E.J.; Marino, S.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) is based on a 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which is used to generate a variety of well-characterized radiation beams for research in radiobiology, radiological physics, and radiation chemistry. It is part of the Center for Radiological Research (CRR) - formerly the Radiological Research Laboratory of Columbia University, and its operation is supported as a National Facility by the US Department of Energy (DOE). As such, RARAF is available to all potential users on an equal basis and scientists outside the CRR are encouraged to submit proposals for experiments at RARAF. The operation of the Van de Graaff is supported by the DOE, but the research projects themselves must be supported separately. This report provides a listing and brief description of experiments performed at RARAF during the May 1, 1992 through April 30, 1993.

  7. Accelerators for Intensity Frontier Research

    SciTech Connect

    Derwent, Paul; /Fermilab

    2012-05-11

    In 2008, the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel identified three frontiers for research in high energy physics, the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier, and the Cosmic Frontier. In this paper, I will describe how Fermilab is configuring and upgrading the accelerator complex, prior to the development of Project X, in support of the Intensity Frontier.

  8. Solid-state Marx based two-switch voltage modulator for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research.

    PubMed

    Redondo, L M; Silva, J Fernando; Canacsinh, H; Ferrão, N; Mendes, C; Soares, R; Schipper, J; Fowler, A

    2010-07-01

    A new circuit topology is proposed to replace the actual pulse transformer and thyratron based resonant modulator that supplies the 60 kV target potential for the ion acceleration of the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator, the stability of which is critical for the mass resolution downstream separator, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The improved modulator uses two solid-state switches working together, each one based on the Marx generator concept, operating as series and parallel switches, reducing the stress on the series stacked semiconductors, and also as auxiliary pulse generator in order to fulfill the target requirements. Preliminary results of a 10 kV prototype, using 1200 V insulated gate bipolar transistors and capacitors in the solid-state Marx circuits, ten stages each, with an electrical equivalent circuit of the target, are presented, demonstrating both the improved voltage stability and pulse flexibility potential wanted for this new modulator. PMID:20687749

  9. Solid-state Marx based two-switch voltage modulator for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo, L. M.; Silva, J. Fernando; Canacsinh, H.; Ferrão, N.; Mendes, C.; Soares, R.; Schipper, J.; Fowler, A.

    2010-07-01

    A new circuit topology is proposed to replace the actual pulse transformer and thyratron based resonant modulator that supplies the 60 kV target potential for the ion acceleration of the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator, the stability of which is critical for the mass resolution downstream separator, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The improved modulator uses two solid-state switches working together, each one based on the Marx generator concept, operating as series and parallel switches, reducing the stress on the series stacked semiconductors, and also as auxiliary pulse generator in order to fulfill the target requirements. Preliminary results of a 10 kV prototype, using 1200 V insulated gate bipolar transistors and capacitors in the solid-state Marx circuits, ten stages each, with an electrical equivalent circuit of the target, are presented, demonstrating both the improved voltage stability and pulse flexibility potential wanted for this new modulator.

  10. Solid-state Marx based two-switch voltage modulator for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research

    SciTech Connect

    Redondo, L. M.; Canacsinh, H.; Ferrao, N.; Mendes, C.; Silva, J. Fernando; Soares, R.; Schipper, J.; Fowler, A.

    2010-07-15

    A new circuit topology is proposed to replace the actual pulse transformer and thyratron based resonant modulator that supplies the 60 kV target potential for the ion acceleration of the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator, the stability of which is critical for the mass resolution downstream separator, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The improved modulator uses two solid-state switches working together, each one based on the Marx generator concept, operating as series and parallel switches, reducing the stress on the series stacked semiconductors, and also as auxiliary pulse generator in order to fulfill the target requirements. Preliminary results of a 10 kV prototype, using 1200 V insulated gate bipolar transistors and capacitors in the solid-state Marx circuits, ten stages each, with an electrical equivalent circuit of the target, are presented, demonstrating both the improved voltage stability and pulse flexibility potential wanted for this new modulator.

  11. UCLA accelerator research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report covers work supported by the above DOE grant over the period November 1, 1991 to July 31, 1992. The work is a program of experimental and theoretical studies in advanced particle accelerator research and development for high energy physics applications. The program features research at particle beam facilities in the United States and includes research on novel high power sources, novel focussing systems (e.g. plasma lens), beam monitors, novel high brightness, high current gun systems, and novel flavor factories in particular the {phi} Factory.

  12. Research needs of the new accelerator technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1982-08-01

    A review is given of some of the new accelerator technologies with a special eye to the requirements which they generate for research and development. Some remarks are made concerning the organizational needs of accelerator research.

  13. Radiobiological research at JINR's accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasavin, E. A.

    2016-04-01

    The half-a-century development of radiobiological studies at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) is reviewed on a stage-by-stage basis. With the use of the institute's accelerators, some key aspects of radiation biology have been settled, including the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of various types of ionizing radiation with different physical characteristics; radiation-induced mutagenesis mechanisms, and the formation and repair of genetic structure damage. Practical space radiobiology problems that can be solved using high-energy charged particles are discussed.

  14. UCLA accelerator research & development. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report discusses work on advanced accelerators and beam dynamics at ANL, BNL, SLAC, UCLA and Pulse Sciences Incorporated. Discussed in this report are the following concepts: Wakefield acceleration studies; plasma lens research; high gradient rf cavities and beam dynamics studies at the Brookhaven accelerator test facility; rf pulse compression development; and buncher systems for high gradient accelerator and relativistic klystron applications.

  15. Accelerator Facilities for Radiation Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1999-01-01

    HSRP Goals in Accelerator Use and Development are: 1.Need for ground-based heavy ion and proton facility to understand space radiation effects discussed most recently by NAS/NRC Report (1996). 2. Strategic Program Goals in facility usage and development: -(1) operation of AGS for approximately 600 beam hours/year; (2) operation of Loma Linda University (LLU) proton facility for approximately 400 beam hours/year; (3) construction of BAF facility; and (4) collaborative research at HIMAC in Japan and with other existing or potential international facilities. 3. MOA with LLU has been established to provide proton beams with energies of 40-250 important for trapped protons and solar proton events. 4. Limited number of beam hours available at Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

  16. Accelerator mass spectrometry in biomedical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, J. S.; Turteltaub, K. W.

    1994-06-01

    Biological effects occur in natural systems at chemical concentrations of parts per billion (1:10 9) or less. Affected biomolecules may be separable in only milligram or microgram quantities. Quantification at attomole sensitivity is needed to study these interactions. AMS measures isotope concentrations to parts per 10 13-15 on milligram-sized samples and is ideal for quantifying long-lived radioisotopic labels for tracing biochemical pathways in natural systems. 14C-AMS has now been coupled to a variety of organic separation and definition technologies. Our primary research investigates pharmacokinetics and genotoxicities of toxins and drugs at very low doses. Human subjects research using AMS includes nutrition, toxicity and elemental balance studies. 3H, 41Ca and 26Al are also traced by AMS for fundamental biochemical kinetic research. Expansion of biomedical AMS awaits further development of biochemical and accelerator technologies designed specifically for these applications.

  17. Accelerator mass spectrometry in biomedical research

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J.S.; Turteltaub, K.W.

    1993-10-20

    Biological effects occur in natural systems at chemical concentrations of parts per billion (1:10{sup 9}) or less. Affected biomolecules may be separable in only milligram or microgram quantities. Quantification at attomole sensitivity is needed to study these interactions. AMS measures isotope concentrations to parts per 10{sup 13--15} on milligram-sized samples and is ideal for quantifying long-lived radioisotopic labels that are commonly used to trace biochemical pathways in natural systems. {sup 14}C-AMS has now been coupled to a variety of organic separation and definition technologies. The primary research investigates pharmacokinetics and genotoxicities of toxins and drugs at very low doses. Human subject research using AMS includes nutrition, toxicity and elemental balance studies. {sup 3} H, {sup 41}Ca and {sup 26}Al are also traced by AMS for fundamental biochemical kinetic research. Expansion of biomedical AMS awaits further development of biochemical and accelerator technologies designed specifically for these applications.

  18. Rail accelerator research at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, W. R.; Cybyk, B. Z.

    1982-01-01

    A rail accelerator was chosen for study as an electromagnetic space propulsion device because of its simplicity and existing technology base. The results of a mission feasibility study using a large rail accelerator for direct launch of ton-size payloads from the Earth's surface to space, and the results of initial tests with a small, laboratory rail accelerator are presented. The laboratory rail accelerator has a bore of 3 by 3 mm and has accelerated 60 mg projectiles to velocities of 300 to 1000 m/s. Rail materials of Cu, W, and Mo were tested for efficiency and erosion rate.

  19. 17 GHz High Gradient Accelerator Research

    SciTech Connect

    Temkin, Richard J.; Shapiro, Michael A.

    2013-07-10

    This is a report on the MIT High Gradient Accelerator Research program which has included: Operation of the 17 GHz, 25 MeV MIT/Haimson Research Corp. electron accelerator at MIT, the highest frequency, stand-alone accelerator in the world; collaboration with members of the US High Gradient Collaboration, including the design and test of novel structures at SLAC at 11.4 GHz; the design, construction and testing of photonic bandgap structures, including metallic and dielectric structures; the investigation of the wakefields in novel structures; and the training of the next generation of graduate students and postdoctoral associates in accelerator physics.

  20. Application of particle accelerators in research.

    PubMed

    Mazzitelli, Giovanni

    2011-07-01

    Since the beginning of the past century, accelerators have started to play a fundamental role as powerful tools to discover the world around us, how the universe has evolved since the big bang and to develop fundamental instruments for everyday life. Although more than 15 000 accelerators are operating around the world only a very few of them are dedicated to fundamental research. An overview of the present high energy physics (HEP) accelerator status and prospectives is presented. PMID:21908658

  1. NIH/NSF accelerate biomedical research innovations

    Cancer.gov

    A collaboration between the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health will give NIH-funded researchers training to help them evaluate their scientific discoveries for commercial potential, with the aim of accelerating biomedical in

  2. Proposed research on advanced accelerator concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.C.; Wurtele, J.S.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes technical progress and accomplishments during the proposed three-year research on advanced accelerator concepts supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-88ER40465. A vigorous theoretical program has been pursued in critical problem areas related to advanced accelerator concepts and the basic equilibrium, stability, and radiation properties of intense charged particle beams. Broadly speaking, our research has made significant contributions in the following three major areas: Investigations of physics issues related to particle acceleration including two-beam accelerators and cyclotron resonance laser (CRL) accelerators; Investigations of RF sources including the free- electron lasers, cyclotron resonance masers, and relativistic magnetrons; Studies of coherent structures in electron plasmas and beams ranging from a low-density, nonrelativistic, pure electron plasma column to high-density, relativistic, non-neutral electron flow in a high-voltage diode. The remainder of this report presents theoretical and computational advances in these areas.

  3. Advanced accelerator research at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Konecny, R.; MacLachlan, J.; Norem, J.; Ruggiero, A.; Schoessow, P.; Simpson, J.

    1986-01-01

    A facility with which to experimentally measure methods of advanced acceleration is at the point of completion at Argonne National Laboratory. The new facility consists a system which produces pulse ''doublets'' of energetic electrons, pulse shaping hardware, a space for experimental apparatus, and a high resolution spectrometer. The leading 21 MeV pulse in a doublet can contain up to 15 nano-coulombs of charge and can be adjusted to be from 6 to over 100 pic-seconds in length. The trailing doublet pulse is at 15 MeV, contains about 10/sup 6/ electrons, and can be precisely positioned behind the first from 0 to more than 2000 pico-seconds. This second pulse serves as a probe of fields produced by the intense leading pulse. The initial experimental program includes studies of wake field effects in structures and in plasma. The high resolution of the spectrometer will also make possible measurements of the wakes of various components such as bellows, beam signal pickups, and vacuum connections. Commissioning of the facility is to begin in September, 1986. Tests using cavities and plasma are expected to begin soon thereafter.

  4. RF-Based Accelerators for HEDP Research

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, John W.; Sessler, Andrew; Keller, Roderich; Ostroumov,Petr; Chou, Weiren

    2005-05-09

    Accelerator-driven High-Energy Density Physics (HEDP) experiments require typically 1 nanosecond, 1 microcoulomb pulses of mass 20 ions accelerated to several MeV to produce eV-level excitations in thin targets, the warm dense matter regime. Traditionally the province of induction linacs, RF-based acceleration may be a viable alternative with recent breakthroughs in accelerating structures and high-field compact superconducting solenoids. A reference design for an RF-based accelerator for HEDP research is presented using 15 T solenoids and multiple-gap RF structures configured with multiple parallel beams combined at the target. The beam is ballistically compressed with an induction linac core providing the necessary energy sweep and injected into a plasma-neutralized drift compression channel resulting in a 1 mm radius beam spot 1 nanosecond long at a thin foil or low-density target.

  5. Accelerating Geothermal Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    Geothermal research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is advancing geothermal technologies to increase renewable power production. Continuous and not dependent on weather, the geothermal resource has the potential to jump to more than 500 gigawatts in electricity production, which is equivalent to roughly half of the current U.S. capacity. Enhanced geothermal systems have a broad regional distribution in the United States, allowing the potential for development in many locations across the country.

  6. Accelerating Neoproterozoic Research through Scientific Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, Daniel; Prave, Anthony; Boggiani, Paulo; Fike, David; Halverson, Galen; Kasemann, Simone; Knoll, Andrew; Zhu, Maoyan

    2014-05-01

    The Neoproterozoic Era (1.0 to 0.541 Ga) and earliest Cambrian (541 to ca. 520 Ma) records geologic changes unlike any other in Earth history: supercontinental tectonics of Rodinia followed by its breakup and dispersal into fragments that form the core of today's continents; a rise in oxygen that, perhaps for the first time in Earth history, resulted in the deep oceans becoming oxic; snowball Earth, which envisages a blanketing of global ice cover for millions of years; and, at the zenith of these combined biogeochemical changes, the evolutionary leap from eukaryotes to animals. Such a concentration of hallmark events in the evolution of our planet is unparalleled and many questions regarding Earth System evolution during times of profound climatic and geological changes remain to be answered. Neoproterozoic successions also offer insight into the genesis of a number of natural resources. These include banded-iron formation, organic-rich shale intervals (with demonstrated hydrocarbon source rocks already economically viable in some countries), base and precious metal ore deposits and REE occurrences, as well as industrial minerals and dimension stone. Developing our understanding of the Neoproterozoic Earth-system, combined with regional geology has the potential to impact the viability of these resources. Our understanding of the Neoproterozoic and early Cambrian, though, is overwhelmingly dependent on outcrop-based studies, which suffer from lack of continuity of outcrop and, in many instances, deep weathering profiles. A limited number of research projects study Precambrian strata have demonstrated the potential impact of scientific drilling to augment and complement ongoing outcrop based studies and advancing research. An ICDP and ECORD sponsored workshop, to be held in March 2014, has been convened to discuss the utility of scientific drilling for accelerating research of the Neoproterozoic through early Cambrian (ca. 0.9 to 0.52 Ga) rock record. The aim is to

  7. Organizing research data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Research relies on ever larger amounts of data from experiments, automated production equipment, questionnaries, times series such as weather records, and so on. A major task in science is to combine, process and analyse such data to obtain evidence of patterns and correlations. Most research data are on digital form, which in principle ensures easy processing and analysis, easy long-term preservation, and easy reuse in future research, perhaps in entirely unanticipated ways. However, in practice, obstacles such as incompatible or undocumented data formats, poor data quality and lack of familiarity with current technology prevent researchers from making full use of available data. This paper argues that relational databases are excellent tools for veterinary research and animal production; provides a small example to introduce basic database concepts; and points out some concerns that must be addressed when organizing data for research purposes. PMID:21999359

  8. Arc-driven rail accelerator research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Pradosh K.

    1987-01-01

    Arc-driven rail accelerator research is analyzed by considering wall ablation and viscous drag in the plasma. Plasma characteristics are evaluated through a simple fluid-mechanical analysis considering only wall ablation. By equating the energy dissipated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the average properties of the plasma are determined as a function of time and rate of ablation. Locations of two simultaneously accelerating arcs were determined by optical and magnetic probes and fron streak camera photographs. All three measurements provide consistent results.

  9. Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment: Calibration Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James R.; Larman, Kevin T.

    1995-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), which has flown on STS-40, STS-50, and STS-58, contains a three-axis accelerometer with a single, nonpendulous, electrostatically suspended proofmass, which can resolve accelerations to the 10(sub -9) g level. The experiment also contains a full calibration station to permit in situ bias and scale-factor calibration. This on-orbit calibration capability eliminates the large uncertainty of ground-based calibrations encountered with accelerometers flown in the past on the Orbiter, and thus provides absolute acceleration measurement accuracy heretofore unachievable. This is the first time accelerometer scale-factor measurements have been performed on orbit. A detailed analysis of the calibration process is given, along with results of the calibration factors from the on-orbit OARE flight measurements on STS-58. In addition, the analysis of OARE flight-maneuver data used to validate the scale-factor measurements in the sensor's most sensitive range are also presented. Estimates on calibration uncertainties are discussed. These uncertainty estimates provides bounds on the STS-58 absolute acceleration measurements for future applications.

  10. Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The National Energy Strategy calls for a demonstration IFE power plant by the year 2025. The cornerstone of the plan to meet this ambitious goal is research and development for heavy-ion driver technology. A series of successes indicates that the technology being studied by the HIFAR Group -- the induction accelerator -- is a prime candidate for further technology development toward this long-range goal. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions; the understanding of the scaling laws that apply in this hitherto little-explored physics regime; and the validation of new, potentially more economical accelerator strategies. Key specific elements to be addressed include: fundamental physical limits of transverse and longitudinal beam quality; development of induction modules for accelerators, along with multiple-beam hardware, at reasonable cost; acceleration of multiple beams, merging of the beams, and amplification of current without significant dilution of beam quality; final bunching, transport, and focusing onto a small target. In 1992, the HIFAR Program was concerned principally with the next step toward a driver: the design of ILSE, the Induction Linac Systems Experiments. ILSE will address most of the remaining beam-control and beam-manipulation issues at partial driver scale. A few parameters -- most importantly, the line charge density and consequently the size of the ILSE beams -- will be at full driver scale. A theory group closely integrated with the experimental groups continues supporting present-day work and looking ahead toward larger experiments and the eventual driver. Highlights of this long-range, driver-oriented research included continued investigations of longitudinal instability and some new insights into scaled experiments with which the authors might examine hard-to-calculate beam-dynamics phenomena.

  11. Accelerating drug discovery via organs-on-chips

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chung Yu; Huang, Po-Hsun; Guo, Feng; Ding, Xiaoyun; Kapur, Vivek; Mai, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made in the development of micro-physiological systems that seek to faithfully replicate the complexity and functionality of animal and human physiology in research laboratories. Sometimes referred to as “organs-on-chips”, these systems provide key insights into physiological or pathological processes associated with health maintenance and disease control, and serve as powerful platforms for new drug development and toxicity screening. In this Focus article, we review the state-of-the-art designs and examples for developing multiple “organs-on-chips”, and discuss the potential of this emerging technology to enhance our understanding of human physiology, and to transform and accelerate the drug discovery and pre-clinical testing process. This Focus article highlights some of the recent technological advances in this field, along with the challenges that must be addressed for these technologies to fully realize their potential. PMID:24193241

  12. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division 1989 summary of activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses the research being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. The main topics covered are: heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; high-energy physics technology; and bevalac operations.

  13. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics: emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction lina; transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions; drift compression experiments on MBE-4 and related emittance; low emittance uniform- density C{sub s}+ sources for heavy ion fusion accelerator studies; survey of alignment of MBE-4; time-of-flight dependence on the MBE-4 quadrupole voltage; high order calculation of the multiple content of three dimensional electrostatic geometries; an induction linac injector for scaled experiments; induction accelerator test module for HIF; longitudinal instability in HIF beams; and analysis of resonant longitudinal instability in a heavy ion induction linac.

  14. Relativistic klystron research for high gradient accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fowkes, W.R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Higo, T.; Hoag, H.A.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, T.G.

    1988-06-01

    Relativistic klystrons are being developed as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron--positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. We have attained 200MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. We report here on the design of our first klystrons, the results of our experiments so far, and some of our plans for the near future. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Solid oxide materials research accelerated electrochemical testing

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, C.; Arey, B.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of this work were to develop methods for accelerated testing of cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells under selected operating conditions. The methods would be used to evaluate the performance of LSM cathode material.

  16. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: Summary of activities, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-15

    This report contains a summary of activities at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division for the year 1986. Topics and facilities investigated in individual papers are: 1-2 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source, the Center for X-Ray Optics, Accelerator Operations, High-Energy Physics Technology, Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research and Magnetic Fusion Energy. Six individual papers have been indexed separately. (LSP)

  17. Accelerator & Fusion Research Division 1991 summary of activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses research projects in the following areas: Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; superconducting magnets; and bevalac operations.

  18. Accelerator Fusion Research Division 1991 summary of activities

    SciTech Connect

    Berkner, Klaus H.

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses research projects in the following areas: Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; superconducting magnets; and bevalac operations.

  19. Accelerator and fusion research division. 1992 Summary of activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This report contains brief discussions on research topics in the following area: Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research; Magnetic Fusion Energy; Advanced Light Source; Center for Beam Physics; Superconducting Magnets; and Bevalac Operations.

  20. Update on organic rice research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic products command a premium in the marketplace and bring greater farmgate value to growers and processors. Although total rice acreage has decreased in Texas over the last ten years, there has been an increase in rice acreage produced under organic management. USDA ARS has conducted research ...

  1. Mercury ion thruster research, 1977. [plasma acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1977-01-01

    The measured ion beam divergence characteristics of two and three-grid, multiaperture accelerator systems are presented. The effects of perveance, geometry, net-to-total accelerating voltage, discharge voltage and propellant are examined. The applicability of a model describing doubly-charged ion densities in mercury thrusters is demonstrated for an 8-cm diameter thruster. The results of detailed Langmuir probing of the interior of an operating cathode are given and used to determine the ionization fraction as a function of position upstream of the cathode orifice. A mathematical model of discharge chamber electron diffusion and collection processes is presented along with scaling laws useful in estimating performance of large diameter and/or high specific impluse thrusters. A model describing the production of ionized molecular nitrogen in ion thrusters is included.

  2. Managing the Organized Research Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Robert S.; Friedman, Renee C.

    1984-01-01

    Organized research units, a nondepartmental structure for industry-sponsored university research administration, are attractive vehicles. They support high-risk ventures, encourage faculty recruitment and retention, consolidate resources, provide a forum for interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary exchange, offer graduate study opportunities,…

  3. The melanoma research alliance: the power of patient advocacy to accelerate research and novel therapies.

    PubMed

    Black, Debra; Brockway-Lunardi, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Patient advocacy organizations play a major role in accelerating research and are particularly important in a disease like melanoma, for which there is an urgent need for new tools and treatments. Melanoma is a growing public health burden. In the United States alone, the incidence of melanoma has tripled over the past 30 years, and one American dies every hour from the disease. To accelerate the field, the Melanoma Research Alliance (MRA) was founded in 2007 and is now the largest private funder of melanoma research, having invested more than $48 million in innovative and translational research projects worldwide to date. This investment is bearing fruit in the recent transformation of the melanoma clinical landscape, which has brought new hope to patients and their families. Yet, even with new drugs on the market, much more needs to be done until melanoma is effectively addressed. MRA is part of a growing group of nonprofit disease research foundations collectively called "venture philanthropies" that are playing a powerful role in transforming the outlook for their disease by overcoming barriers that bog down progress, targeting key areas, and enhancing collaboration. MRA is leading an innovative agenda to accelerate efforts on behalf of patients. Our goal, while significant, is straightforward: to end suffering and death due to melanoma. PMID:24778128

  4. The Influence of Accelerator Science on Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haussecker, Enzo F.; Chao, Alexander W.

    2011-06-01

    We evaluate accelerator science in the context of its contributions to the physics community. We address the problem of quantifying these contributions and present a scheme for a numerical evaluation of them. We show by using a statistical sample of important developments in modern physics that accelerator science has influenced 28% of post-1938 physicists and also 28% of post-1938 physics research. We also examine how the influence of accelerator science has evolved over time, and show that on average it has contributed to a physics Nobel Prize-winning research every 2.9 years.

  5. Teaching and Research with Accelerators at Tarleton State University

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, Daniel K.

    2009-03-10

    Tarleton State University students began performing both research and laboratory experiments using accelerators in 1998 through visitation programs at the University of North Texas, US Army Research Laboratory, and the Naval Surface Warfare Center at Carderock. In 2003, Tarleton outfitted its new science building with a 1 MV pelletron that was donated by the California Institution of Technology. The accelerator has been upgraded and supports a wide range of classes for both the Physics program and the ABET accredited Engineering Physics program as well as supplying undergraduate research opportunities on campus. A discussion of various laboratory activities and research projects performed by Tarleton students will be presented.

  6. Natural and accelerated bioremediation research program plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This draft plan describes a ten-year program to develop the scientific understanding needed to harness and develop natural and enhanced biogeochemical processes to bioremediate contaminated soils, sediments and groundwater at DOE facilities. The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) developed this program plan, with advice and assistance from DOE`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). The program builds on OHER`s tradition of sponsoring fundamental research in the life and environmental sciences and was motivated by OHER`s and Office of Energy Research`s (OER`s) commitment to supporting DOE`s environmental management mission and the belief that bioremediation is an important part of the solution to DOE`s environmental problems.

  7. A facility for accelerator research and education at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Church, Mike; Nagaitsev, Sergei; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    Fermilab is currently constructing the 'SRF Test Accelerator at the New Muon Lab' (NML). NML consists of a photo-emitted RF electron gun, followed by a bunch compressor, low energy test beamlines, SCRF accelerating structures, and high energy test beamlines. The initial primary purpose of NML will be to test superconducting RF accelerating modules for the ILC and for Fermilab's 'Project X' - a proposal for a high intensity proton source. The unique capability of NML will be to test these modules under conditions of high intensity electron beams with ILC-like beam parameters. In addition NML incorporates a photoinjector which offers significant tunability and especially the possibility to generate a bright electron beam with brightness comparable to state-of-the-art accelerators. This opens the exciting possibility of also using NML for fundamental beams research and tests of new concepts in beam manipulations and acceleration, instrumentation, and the applications of beams.

  8. Proton and heavy ion acceleration facilities for space radiation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jack

    2003-01-01

    The particles and energies commonly used for medium energy nuclear physics and heavy charged particle radiobiology and radiotherapy at particle accelerators are in the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation health. In this article we survey some of the particle accelerator facilities in the United States and around the world that are being used for space radiation health and related research, and illustrate some of their capabilities with discussions of selected accelerator experiments applicable to the human exploration of space.

  9. Proton and heavy ion acceleration facilities for space radiation research.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jack

    2003-06-01

    The particles and energies commonly used for medium energy nuclear physics and heavy charged particle radiobiology and radiotherapy at particle accelerators are in the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation health. In this article we survey some of the particle accelerator facilities in the United States and around the world that are being used for space radiation health and related research, and illustrate some of their capabilities with discussions of selected accelerator experiments applicable to the human exploration of space. PMID:12959128

  10. Novel neutron sources at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanping; Garty, Guy; Marino, Stephen A; Massey, Thomas N; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Johnson, Gary W; Brenner, David J

    2012-03-16

    Since the 1960s, the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been providing researchers in biology, chemistry and physics with advanced irradiation techniques, using charged particles, photons and neutrons.We are currently developing a unique facility at RARAF, to simulate neutron spectra from an improvised nuclear device (IND), based on calculations of the neutron spectrum at 1.5 km from the epicenter of the Hiroshima atom bomb. This is significantly different from a standard fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and is dominated by neutron energies between 0.05 and 8 MeV. This facility will be based on a mixed proton/deuteron beam impinging on a thick beryllium target.A second, novel facility under development is our new neutron microbeam. The neutron microbeam will, for the first time, provide a kinematically collimated neutron beam, 10-20 micron in diameter. This facility is based on a Proton Microbeam, impinging on a thin lithium target near the threshold of the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction. This novel neutron microbeam will enable studies of neutron damage to small targets, such as single cells, individual organs within small animals or microelectronic components. PMID:22545061

  11. Novel neutron sources at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, Yanping; Garty, G.; Marino, S. A.; Massey, Thomas Neal; Johnson, G. W.; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Brenner, D. J.

    2012-03-16

    Since the 1960s, the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been providing researchers in biology, chemistry and physics with advanced irradiation techniques, using charged particles, photons and neutrons. We are currently developing a unique facility at RARAF, to simulate neutron spectra from an improvised nuclear device (IND), based on calculations of the neutron spectrum at 1.5 km from the epicenter of the Hiroshima atom bomb. This is significantly different from a standard fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and is dominated by neutron energies between 0.05 and 8 MeV. This facility will bemore » based on a mixed proton/deuteron beam impinging on a thick beryllium target. A second, novel facility under development is our new neutron microbeam. The neutron microbeam will, for the first time, provide a kinematically collimated neutron beam, 10-20 micron in diameter. This facility is based on a proton microbeam, impinging on a thin lithium target near the threshold of the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction. Lastly, this novel neutron microbeam will enable studies of neutron damage to small targets, such as single cells, individual organs within small animals or microelectronic components.« less

  12. Novel neutron sources at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanping; Garty, Guy; Marino, Stephen A.; Massey, Thomas N.; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Johnson, Gary W.; Brenner, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1960s, the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been providing researchers in biology, chemistry and physics with advanced irradiation techniques, using charged particles, photons and neutrons. We are currently developing a unique facility at RARAF, to simulate neutron spectra from an improvised nuclear device (IND), based on calculations of the neutron spectrum at 1.5 km from the epicenter of the Hiroshima atom bomb. This is significantly different from a standard fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and is dominated by neutron energies between 0.05 and 8 MeV. This facility will be based on a mixed proton/deuteron beam impinging on a thick beryllium target. A second, novel facility under development is our new neutron microbeam. The neutron microbeam will, for the first time, provide a kinematically collimated neutron beam, 10–20 micron in diameter. This facility is based on a Proton Microbeam, impinging on a thin lithium target near the threshold of the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. This novel neutron microbeam will enable studies of neutron damage to small targets, such as single cells, individual organs within small animals or microelectronic components. PMID:22545061

  13. Novel neutron sources at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yanping; Garty, G.; Marino, S. A.; Massey, Thomas Neal; Johnson, G. W.; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Brenner, D. J.

    2012-03-16

    Since the 1960s, the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been providing researchers in biology, chemistry and physics with advanced irradiation techniques, using charged particles, photons and neutrons. We are currently developing a unique facility at RARAF, to simulate neutron spectra from an improvised nuclear device (IND), based on calculations of the neutron spectrum at 1.5 km from the epicenter of the Hiroshima atom bomb. This is significantly different from a standard fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and is dominated by neutron energies between 0.05 and 8 MeV. This facility will be based on a mixed proton/deuteron beam impinging on a thick beryllium target. A second, novel facility under development is our new neutron microbeam. The neutron microbeam will, for the first time, provide a kinematically collimated neutron beam, 10-20 micron in diameter. This facility is based on a proton microbeam, impinging on a thin lithium target near the threshold of the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction. Lastly, this novel neutron microbeam will enable studies of neutron damage to small targets, such as single cells, individual organs within small animals or microelectronic components.

  14. Novel neutron sources at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Garty, G.; Marino, S. A.; Massey, T. N.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Johnson, G. W.; Brenner, D. J.

    2012-03-01

    Since the 1960s, the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been providing researchers in biology, chemistry and physics with advanced irradiation techniques, using charged particles, photons and neutrons. We are currently developing a unique facility at RARAF, to simulate neutron spectra from an improvised nuclear device (IND), based on calculations of the neutron spectrum at 1.5 km from the epicenter of the Hiroshima atom bomb. This is significantly different from a standard fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and is dominated by neutron energies between 0.05 and 8 MeV. This facility will be based on a mixed proton/deuteron beam impinging on a thick beryllium target. A second, novel facility under development is our new neutron microbeam. The neutron microbeam will, for the first time, provide a kinematically collimated neutron beam, 10-20 micron in diameter. This facility is based on a proton microbeam, impinging on a thin lithium target near the threshold of the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. This novel neutron microbeam will enable studies of neutron damage to small targets, such as single cells, individual organs within small animals or microelectronic components.

  15. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: 1987 summary of activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    An overview of the design and the initial studies for the Advanced Light Source is given. The research efforts for the Center for X-Ray Optics include x-ray imaging, multilayer mirror technology, x-ray sources and detectors, spectroscopy and scattering, and synchrotron radiation projects. The Accelerator Operations highlights include the research by users in nuclear physics, biology and medicine. The upgrade of the Bevalac is also discussed. The High Energy Physics Technology review includes the development of superconducting magnets and superconducting cables. A review of the Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research is also presented. The Magnetic Fusion Energy research included the development of ion sources, accelerators for negative ions, diagnostics, and theoretical plasma physics. (WRF)

  16. idaho Accelerator Center Advanced Fuel Cycle Research

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Douglas; Dale, Dan

    2011-10-20

    The technical effort has been in two parts called; Materials Science and Instrumentation Development. The Materials Science technical program has been based on a series of research and development achievements in Positron-Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) for defect detection in structural materials. This work is of particular importance in nuclear power and its supporting systems as the work included detection of defects introduced by mechanical and thermal phenomena as well as those caused by irradiation damage. The second part of the program has focused on instrumentation development using active interrogation techniques supporting proliferation resistant recycling methodologies and nuclear material safeguards. This effort has also lead to basic physics studies of various phenomena relating to photo-fission. Highlights of accomplishments and facility improvement legacies in these areas over the program period include

  17. Particle acceleration on a chip: A laser-driven micro-accelerator for research and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, R. B.; Travish, G.

    2013-03-01

    Particle accelerators are conventionally built from radio-frequency metal cavities, but this technology limits the maximum energy available and prevents miniaturization. In the past decade, laser-powered acceleration has been intensively studied as an alternative technology promising much higher accelerating fields in a smaller footprint and taking advantage of recent advances in photonics. Among the more promising approaches are those based on dielectric field-shaping structures. These ``dielectric laser accelerators'' (DLAs) scale with the laser wavelength employed and can be many orders of magnitude smaller than conventional accelerators; DLAs may enable the production of high-intensity, ultra-short relativistic electron bunches in a chip-scale device. When combined with a high- Z target or an optical-period undulator, these systems could produce high-brilliance x-rays from a breadbox-sized device having multiple applications in imaging, medicine, and homeland security. In our research program we have developed one such DLA, the Micro-Accelerator Platform (MAP). We describe the fundamental physics, our fabrication and testing program, and experimental results to date, along with future prospects for MAP-based light-sources and some remaining challenges. Supported in part by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency and National Nuclear Security Administration.

  18. Accelerator R&D: Research for Science - Science for Society

    SciTech Connect

    The HEP Accelerator R&D Task Force: N.R. Holtkamp,S. Biedron, S.V. Milton, L. Boeh, J.E. Clayton, G. Zdasiuk, S.A. Gourlay, M.S. Zisman,R.W. Hamm, S. Henderson, G.H. Hoffstaetter, L. Merminga, S. Ozaki, F.C. Pilat, M. White

    2012-07-01

    In September 2011 the US Senate Appropriations Committee requested a ten-year strategic plan from the Department of Energy (DOE) that would describe how accelerator R&D today could advance applications directly relevant to society. Based on the 2009 workshop 'Accelerators for America's Future' an assessment was made on how accelerator technology developed by the nation's laboratories and universities could directly translate into a competitive strength for industrial partners and a variety of government agencies in the research, defense and national security sectors. The Office of High Energy Physics, traditionally the steward for advanced accelerator R&D within DOE, commissioned a task force under its auspices to generate and compile ideas on how best to implement strategies that would help fulfill the needs of industry and other agencies, while maintaining focus on its core mission of fundamental science investigation.

  19. Accelerator & Fusion Research Division: 1993 Summary of activities

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, J.

    1994-04-01

    The Accelerator and Fusion Research Division (AFRD) is not only one of the largest scientific divisions at LBL, but also the one of the most diverse. Major efforts include: (1) investigations in both inertial and magnetic fusion energy; (2) operation of the Advanced Light Source, a state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation facility; (3) exploratory investigations of novel radiation sources and colliders; (4) research and development in superconducting magnets for accelerators and other scientific and industrial applications; and (5) ion beam technology development for nuclear physics and for industrial and biomedical applications. Each of these topics is discussed in detail in this book.

  20. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: 1993 Summary of activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, J.

    1994-04-01

    The Accelerator and Fusion Research Division (AFRD) is not only one of the largest scientific divisions at LBL, but also one of the most diverse. Major efforts include: (1) investigations in both inertial and magnetic fusion energy; (2) operation of the Advanced Light Source, a state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation facility; (3) exploratory investigations of novel radiation sources and colliders; (4) research and development in superconducting magnets for accelerators and other scientific and industrial applications; and (5) ion beam technology development for nuclear physics and for industrial and biomedical applications. Each of these topics is discussed in detail in this book.

  1. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: summary of activities, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    The activities described in this summary of the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division are diverse, yet united by a common theme: it is our purpose to explore technologically advanced techniques for the production, acceleration, or transport of high-energy beams. These beams may be the heavy ions of interest in nuclear science, medical research, and heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion; they may be beams of deuterium and hydrogen atoms, used to heat and confine plasmas in magnetic fusion experiments; they may be ultrahigh-energy protons for the next high-energy hadron collider; or they may be high-brilliance, highly coherent, picosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation.

  2. Concept of an accelerator-driven subcritical research reactor within the TESLA accelerator installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pešić, Milan; Nešković, Nebojša

    2006-06-01

    Study of a small accelerator-driven subcritical research reactor in the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences was initiated in 1999. The idea was to extract a beam of medium-energy protons or deuterons from the TESLA accelerator installation, and to transport and inject it into the reactor. The reactor core was to be composed of the highly enriched uranium fuel elements. The reactor was designated as ADSRR-H. Since the use of this type of fuel elements was not recommended any more, the study of a small accelerator-driven subcritical research reactor employing the low-enriched uranium fuel elements began in 2004. The reactor was designated as ADSRR-L. We compare here the results of the initial computer simulations of ADSRR-H and ADSRR-L. The results have confirmed that our concept could be the basis for designing and construction of a low neutron flux model of the proposed accelerator-driven subcritical power reactor to be moderated and cooled by lead. Our objective is to study the physics and technologies necessary to design and construct ADSRR-L. The reactor would be used for development of nuclear techniques and technologies, and for basic and applied research in neutron physics, metrology, radiation protection and radiobiology.

  3. Harnessing the crowd to accelerate molecular medicine research.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert J; Merchant, Raina M

    2015-07-01

    Crowdsourcing presents a novel approach to solving complex problems within molecular medicine. By leveraging the expertise of fellow scientists across the globe, broadcasting to and engaging the public for idea generation, harnessing a scalable workforce for quick data management, and fundraising for research endeavors, crowdsourcing creates novel opportunities for accelerating scientific progress. PMID:26141797

  4. Acceleration display system for aircraft zero-gravity research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1987-01-01

    The features, design, calibration, and testing of Lewis Research Center's acceleration display system for aircraft zero-gravity research are described. Specific circuit schematics and system specifications are included as well as representative data traces from flown trajectories. Other observations learned from developing and using this system are mentioned where appropriate. The system, now a permanent part of the Lewis Learjet zero-gravity program, provides legible, concise, and necessary guidance information enabling pilots to routinely fly accurate zero-gravity trajectories. Regular use of this system resulted in improvements of the Learjet zero-gravity flight techniques, including a technique to minimize later accelerations. Lewis Gates Learjet trajectory data show that accelerations can be reliably sustained within 0.01 g for 5 consecutive seconds, within 0.02 g for 7 consecutive seconds, and within 0.04 g for up to 20 second. Lewis followed the past practices of acceleration measurement, yet focussed on the acceleration displays. Refinements based on flight experience included evolving the ranges, resolutions, and frequency responses to fit the pilot and the Learjet responses.

  5. WIPO Re:Search: Accelerating anthelmintic development through cross-sector partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Ramamoorthi, Roopa; Graef, Katy M.; Dent, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), malaria, and tuberculosis have a devastating effect on an estimated 1.6 billion people worldwide. The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Re:Search consortium accelerates the development of new drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics for these diseases by connecting the assets and resources of pharmaceutical companies, such as compound libraries and expertise, to academic or nonprofit researchers with novel product discovery or development ideas. As the WIPO Re:Search Partnership Hub Administrator, BIO Ventures for Global Health (BVGH) fields requests from researchers, identifies Member organizations able to fulfill these requests, and helps forge mutually beneficial collaborations. Since its inception in October 2011, WIPO Re:Search membership has expanded to more than 90 institutions, including leading pharmaceutical companies, universities, nonprofit research institutions, and product development partnerships from around the world. To date, WIPO Re:Search has facilitated over 70 research agreements between Consortium Members, including 11 collaborations focused on anthelmintic drug discovery. PMID:25516832

  6. Absolute acceleration measurements on STS-50 from the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James R.

    1994-01-01

    Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) data on Space Transportation System (STS)-50 have been examined in detail during a 2-day time period. Absolute acceleration levels have been derived at the OARE location, the orbiter center-of-gravity, and at the STS-50 spacelab Crystal Growth Facility. During the interval, the tri-axial OARE raw telemetered acceleration measurements have been filtered using a sliding trimmed mean filter in order to remove large acceleration spikes (e.g., thrusters) and reduce the noise. Twelve OARE measured biases in each acceleration channel during the 2-day interval have been analyzed and applied to the filtered data. Similarly, the in situ measured x-axis scale factors in the sensor's most sensitive range were also analyzed and applied to the data. Due to equipment problem(s) on this flight, both y- and z-axis sensitive range scale factors were determined in a separate process using orbiter maneuvers and subsequently applied to the data. All known significant low-frequency corrections at the OARE location (i.e., both vertical and horizontal gravity-gradient, and rotational effects) were removed from the filtered data in order to produce the acceleration components at the orbiter center-of-gravity, which are the aerodynamic signals along each body axis. Results indicate that there is a force being applied to the Orbiter in addition to the aerodynamic forces. The OARE instrument and all known gravitational and electromagnetic forces have been reexamined, but none produces the observed effect. Thus, it is tentatively concluded that the orbiter is creating the environment observed. At least part of this force is thought to be due to the Flash Evaporator System.

  7. An overview of cosmic ray research - Composition, acceleration and propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, John P.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of cosmic ray (CR) research and its relationship to other areas of high-energy astrophysics is presented. Research being conducted on the composition of cosmic rays (CRs) is examined, including the study of the solar system 'template' for CRs, CR abundances at earth, solar energetic particles, the CR elements beyond zinc, and the study of electrons, positrons, antinuclei, and of isotopic composition of CRs. Research on the CR energy spectrum and anisotropy is briefly reviewed. The study of acceleration processes, particle confinement, and propagation of CRs is addressed. Finally, the investigation of source abundances in CRs is discussed.

  8. USDA/ARS Organic Production Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For much of its history, USDA/ARS had little to do with research on organic agriculture, however research in organic systems has made considerable gains at the agency over the past decade. In the 1980's and 1990's, as the organic food industry was taking off, ARS researchers who wanted to serve orga...

  9. Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH). Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughman, Jack A.; Micheletti, David A.; Nelson, Gordon L.; Simmons, Gloyd A.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the activities, results, conclusions and recommendations of the Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research Into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH) Project in which the use of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology is investigated for its applicability to augment hypersonic wind tunnels. The long range objective of this investigation is to advance the development of ground test facilities to support the development of hypervelocity flight vehicles. The MHD accelerator adds kinetic energy directly to the wind tunnel working fluid, thereby increasing its Mach number to hypervelocity levels. Several techniques for MHD augmentation, as well as other physical characteristics of the process are studied to enhance the overall performance of hypersonic wind tunnel design. Specific recommendations are presented to improve the effectiveness of ground test facilities. The work contained herein builds on nearly four decades of research and experimentation by the aeronautics ground test and evaluation community, both foreign and domestic.

  10. Research and Development for Ultra-High Gradient Accelerator Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Dolgashev, Valery; Higashi, Yasuo; Spataro, Bruno

    2010-11-01

    Research on the basic physics of high-gradient, high frequency accelerator structures and the associated RF/microwave technology are essential for the future of discovery science, medicine and biology, energy and environment, and national security. We will review the state-of-the-art for the development of high gradient linear accelerators. We will present the research activities aimed at exploring the basic physics phenomenon of RF breakdown. We present the experimental results of a true systematic study in which the surface processing, geometry, and materials of the structures have been varied, one parameter at a time. The breakdown rate or alternatively, the probability of breakdown/pulse/meter has been recorded for different operating parameters. These statistical data reveal a strong dependence of breakdown probability on surface magnetic field, or alternatively on surface pulsed heating. This is in contrast to the classical view of electric field dependence.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research Into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH). Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micheletti, David A.; Baughman, Jack A.; Nelson, Gordon L.; Simmons, Gloyd A.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the activities, results, conclusions and recommendations of the Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research Into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH) Project in which the use of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology is investigated for its applicability to augment hypersonic wind tunnels. The long range objective of this investigation is to advance the development of ground test facilities to support the development of hypervelocity flight vehicles. The MHD accelerator adds kinetic energy directly to the wind tunnel working fluid, thereby increasing its Mach number to hypervelocity levels. Several techniques for MHD augmentation, as well as other physical characteristics of the process are studied to enhance the overall performance of hypersonic wind tunnel design. Specific recommendations are presented to improve the effectiveness of ground test facilities. The work contained herein builds on nearly four decades of research and experimentation by the aeronautics ground test and evaluation community, both foreign and domestic.

  12. Research Leadership as Entrepreneurial Organizing for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Finn; Monsted, Mette

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses research leadership in public universities under change and the role of entrepreneurial strategies in research. Research leadership function today in situations where the New Public Management movement one the one hand have introduced management by accountability and control in the university while on the other hand open…

  13. Application of accelerators for the research and development of scintillators.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Kengo; Koshimizu, Masanori; Asai, Keisuke; Muroya, Yusa; Katsumura, Yosuke; Inadama, Naoko; Yoshida, Eiji; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yamaya, Taiga; Murayama, Hideo

    2007-08-01

    We introduce experimental systems which use accelerators to evaluate scintillation properties such as scintillation intensity, wavelength, and lifetime. A single crystal of good optical quality is often unavailable during early stages in the research and development (R&D) of new scintillator materials. Because of their beams' high excitation power and/or low penetration depth, accelerators facilitate estimation of the properties of early samples which may only be available as powders, thin films, and very small crystals. We constructed a scintillation spectrum measurement system that uses a Van de Graaff accelerator and an optical multichannel analyzer to estimate the relative scintillation intensity. In addition, we constructed a scintillation time profile measurement system that uses an electron linear accelerator and a femtosecond streak camera or a microchannel plate photomultiplier tube followed by a digital oscilloscope to determine the scintillation lifetimes. The time resolution is approximately 10 ps. The scintillation spectra or time profiles can be obtained in a significantly shorter acquisition time in comparison with that required by conventional measuring systems. The advantages of the systems described in this study can significantly promote the R&D of novel scintillator materials. PMID:17764319

  14. COBRA accelerator for Sandia ICF diode research at Cornell University

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Ingwersen, P.; Bennett, L.F.; Boyes, J.D.; Anderson, D.E.; Greenly, J.B.; Sudan, R.N.

    1995-05-01

    The new COBRA accelerator is being built in stages at the Laboratory of Plasma Studies in Cornell University where its applications will include extraction diode and ion beam research in support of the light ion inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program at Sandia National Laboratories. The 4- to 5-MV, 125- to 250-kA accelerator is based on a four-cavity inductive voltage adder (IVA) design. It is a combination of new ferromagnetically-isolated cavities and self magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) hardware and components from existing Sandia and Cornell facilities: Marx generator capacitors, hardware, and power supply from the DEMON facility; water pulse forming lines (PFL) and gas switch from the Subsystem Test Facility (STF); a HERMES-III intermediate store capacitor (ISC); and a modified ion diode from Cornell`s LION. The present accelerator consists of a single modified cavity similar to those of the Sandia SABRE accelerator and will be used to establish an operating system for the first stage initial lower voltage testing. Four new cavities will be fabricated and delivered in the first half of FY96 to complete the COBRA accelerator. COBRA is unique in the sense that each cavity is driven by a single pulse forming line, and the IVA output polarity may be reversed by rotating the cavities 180{degrees} about their vertical axis. The site preparations, tank construction, and diode design and development are taking place at Cornell with growing enthusiasm as this machine becomes a reality. Preliminary results with the single cavity and short positive inner cylinder MITL configuration will soon be available.

  15. COBRA accelerator for Sandia ICF diode research at Cornell University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David L.; Ingwersen, Pete; Bennett, Lawrence F.; Boyes, John D.; Anderson, David E.; Greenly, John B.; Sudan, Ravi N.

    The new COBRA accelerator is being built in stages at the Laboratory of Plasma Studies in Cornell University where its applications will include extraction diode and ion beam research in support of the light ion inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program at Sandia National Laboratories. The 4- to 5-MV, 125- to 250-kA accelerator is based on a four-cavity inductive voltage adder (IVA) design. It is a combination of new ferromagnetically-isolated cavities and self magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) hardware and components from existing Sandia and Cornell facilities: Marx generator capacitors, hardware, and power supply from the DEMON facility; water pulse forming lines (PFL) and gas switch from the Subsystem Test Facility (STF); a HERMES-3 intermediate store capacitor (ISC); and a modified ion diode from Cornell's LION. The present accelerator consists of a single modified cavity similar to those of the Sandia SABRE accelerator and will be used to establish an operating system for the first stage initial lower voltage testing. Four new cavities will be fabricated and delivered in the first half of FY96 to complete the COBRA accelerator. COBRA is unique in the sense that each cavity is driven by a single pulse forming line, and the IVA output polarity may be reversed by rotating the cavities 180(degrees) about their vertical axis. The site preparations, tank construction, and diode design and development are taking place at Cornell with growing enthusiasm as this machine becomes a reality. Preliminary results with the single cavity and short positive inner cylinder MITL configuration will soon be available.

  16. The Awful Truth About Zero-Gravity: Space Acceleration Measurement System; Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Earth's gravity holds the Shuttle in orbit, as it does satellites and the Moon. The apparent weightlessness experienced by astronauts and experiments on the Shuttle is a balancing act, the result of free-fall, or continuously falling around Earth. An easy way to visualize what is happening is with a thought experiment that Sir Isaac Newton did in 1686. Newton envisioned a mountain extending above Earth's atmosphere so that friction with the air would be eliminated. He imagined a cannon atop the mountain and aimed parallel to the ground. Firing the cannon propels the cannonball forward. At the same time, Earth's gravity pulls the cannonball down to the surface and eventual impact. Newton visualized using enough powder to just balance gravity so the cannonball would circle the Earth. Like the cannonball, objects orbiting Earth are in continuous free-fall, and it appears that gravity has been eliminated. Yet, that appearance is deceiving. Activities aboard the Shuttle generate a range of accelerations that have effects similar to those of gravity. The crew works and exercises. The main data relay antenna quivers 17 times per second to prevent 'stiction,' where parts stick then release with a jerk. Cooling pumps, air fans, and other systems add vibration. And traces of Earth's atmosphere, even 200 miles up, drag on the Shuttle. While imperceptible to us, these vibrations can have a profound impact on the commercial research and scientific experiments aboard the Shuttle. Measuring these forces is necessary so that researchers and scientists can see what may have affected their experiments when analyzing data. On STS-107 this service is provided by the Space Acceleration Measurement System for Free Flyers (SAMS-FF) and the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE). Precision data from these two instruments will help scientists analyze data from their experiments and eliminate outside influences from the phenomena they are studying during the mission.

  17. Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC) Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D.B.

    2002-02-28

    The Environmental Sciences Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has established a Field Research Center (FRC) to support the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee for the DOE Headquarters Office of Biological and Environmental Research within the Office of Science.

  18. Accelerated Chemical Reactions and Organic Synthesis in Leidenfrost Droplets.

    PubMed

    Bain, Ryan M; Pulliam, Christopher J; Thery, Fabien; Cooks, R Graham

    2016-08-22

    Leidenfrost levitated droplets can be used to accelerate chemical reactions in processes that appear similar to reaction acceleration in charged microdroplets produced by electrospray ionization. Reaction acceleration in Leidenfrost droplets is demonstrated for a base-catalyzed Claisen-Schmidt condensation, hydrazone formation from precharged and neutral ketones, and for the Katritzky pyrylium into pyridinium conversion under various reaction conditions. Comparisons with bulk reactions gave intermediate acceleration factors (2-50). By keeping the volume of the Leidenfrost droplets constant, it was shown that interfacial effects contribute to acceleration; this was confirmed by decreased reaction rates in the presence of a surfactant. The ability to multiplex Leidenfrost microreactors, to extract product into an immiscible solvent during reaction, and to use Leidenfrost droplets as reaction vessels to synthesize milligram quantities of product is also demonstrated. PMID:27465311

  19. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: 1984 summary of activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    During fiscal 1984, major programmatic activities in AFRD continued in each of five areas: accelerator operations, highlighted by the work of nuclear science users, who produced clear evidence for the formation of compressed nuclear matter during heavy-ion collisions; high-energy physics, increasingly dominated by our participation in the design of the Superconducting Super Collider; heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, which focused on the design of a four-beam experiment as a first step toward assessing the promise of heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion; and research at the Center for X-Ray Optics, which completed its first year of broadly based activities aimed at the exploitation of x-ray and ultraviolet radiation. At the same time, exploratory studies were under way, aimed at investigating major new programs for the division. During the past year, for example, we took a preliminary look at how we could use the Bevatron as an injector for a pair of colliding-beam rings that might provide the first glimpse of a hitherto unobserved state of matter called the quark-gluon plasma. Together with Livermore scientists, we also conducted pioneering high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) experiments and proposed a new FEL-based scheme (called the two-beam accelerator) for accelerating electrons to very high energies. And we began work on the design of the Coherent XUV Facility (CXF), an advanced electron storage ring for the production of intense coherent radiation from either undulators or free-electron lasers.

  20. Accelerating Regulatory Progress in Multi-Institutional Research

    PubMed Central

    Paolino, Andrea R.; Lauf, Sherry Lee; Pieper, Lisa E.; Rowe, Jared; Vargas, Ileana M.; Goff, Melissa A.; Daley, Matthew F.; Tuzzio, Leah; Steiner, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Multi-institutional collaborations are necessary in order to create large and robust data sets that are needed to answer important comparative effectiveness research (CER) questions. Before scientific work can begin, a complex maze of administrative and regulatory requirements must be efficiently navigated to avoid project delays. Innovation: Staff from research, regulatory, and administrative teams involved in three HMO Research Network (HMORN) multi-institutional collaborations developed and employed novel approaches: to secure and maintain Institutional Review Board (IRB) approvals; to enable data sharing, and to expedite subawards for two data-only minimal risk studies. These novel approaches accelerated required processes and approvals while maintaining regulatory, human subjects, and institutional protections. Credibility: Outcomes from the processes described here are compared with processes outlined in the research and regulatory literature and with processes that have been used in previous multisite research collaborations. Conclusion and Discussion: Research, regulatory, and administrative staff are essential contributors to the success of multi-institutional collaborations. Their flexibility, creativity, and effective communication skills can lead to the development of efficient approaches to achieving the necessary oversight for these complex projects. Elements of these specific strategies can be adapted and used by other research networks. Other efforts in these areas should be evaluated and shared. The processes that help develop a “learning research system” play an important and complementary role in sustaining multi-institutional research collaborations. PMID:25848593

  1. Organic solar cell exploratory research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yalenty, S. J.

    1975-01-01

    Principles governing the photovoltaic effect in organic materials on the molecular level are studied and applied to the design and fabrication of laboratory devices having a photovoltaic organic polymer film as their key element. Progress to date has been in three areas: (1) materials synthesis; (2) apparatus development; and (3) ultra-thin film fabrication.

  2. 27 CFR 478.145 - Research organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Research organizations. 478..., Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.145 Research organizations. The provisions of § 478.98 with respect to the... rifles shall not apply to the sale or delivery of such devices and weapons to any research...

  3. Status and future directions for advanced accelerator research - conventional and non-conventional collider concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between advanced accelerator research and future directions for particle physics is discussed. Comments are made about accelerator research trends in hadron colliders, muon colliders, and e{sup +}3{sup {minus}} linear colliders.

  4. The Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research Underground - CASPAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Wells, Doug; Wiescher, Michael

    2014-03-01

    An accelerator laboratory (CASPAR) to be installed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is being constructed by a collaboration lead by South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. The study of alpha induced reactions of astrophysical interest in a quasi-background free environment is the goal of the laboratory. Specifically, neutron producing reactions for the s-process will be investigated. This process is responsible for the nucleosynthesis of half of the the elements heavier than iron. An outline of CASPAR, its timeline and scientific goals will be presented.

  5. Space research with intact organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Robert W.; Haddy, Francis J.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of space exposure on intact organisms are briefly reviewed, and examples of future experiments that might provide new information on the role of gravity in the evolution of life are suggested. It is noted that long term experiments with intact plant and animals for studying gravitational thresholds will provide important new insights.

  6. Advance Organizer Research: One Step Further.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Hassan Hussein

    The purpose of this paper is to: (1) explore some possible explanations for the lack of empirical support of advance organizers; (2) suggest a plan for improving the empirical research on advance organizers; and (3) recommend some further investigations needed in the area of advance organizers. Some explanations for this lack of support are…

  7. 27 CFR 478.145 - Research organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Research organizations... Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.145 Research organizations. The provisions of § 478.98 with...-barreled rifles shall not apply to the sale or delivery of such devices and weapons to any...

  8. Particle acceleration in solar active regions being in the state of self-organized criticality.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahos, Loukas

    We review the recent observational results on flare initiation and particle acceleration in solar active regions. Elaborating a statistical approach to describe the spatiotemporally intermittent electric field structures formed inside a flaring solar active region, we investigate the efficiency of such structures in accelerating charged particles (electrons and protons). The large-scale magnetic configuration in the solar atmosphere responds to the strong turbulent flows that convey perturbations across the active region by initiating avalanche-type processes. The resulting unstable structures correspond to small-scale dissipation regions hosting strong electric fields. Previous research on particle acceleration in strongly turbulent plasmas provides a general framework for addressing such a problem. This framework combines various electromagnetic field configurations obtained by magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) or cellular automata (CA) simulations, or by employing a statistical description of the field’s strength and configuration with test particle simulations. We work on data-driven 3D magnetic field extrapolations, based on a self-organized criticality models (SOC). A relativistic test-particle simulation traces each particle’s guiding center within these configurations. Using the simulated particle-energy distributions we test our results against observations, in the framework of the collisional thick target model (CTTM) of solar hard X-ray (HXR) emission and compare our results with the current observations.

  9. International energy: Research organizations, 1986--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, P.; Jordan, S. )

    1991-03-01

    The International Energy: Research Organizations publication contains the standardized names of energy research organizations used in energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). This publication identifies current organizations doing research in all energy fields, standardizes the format for recording these organization names in bibliographic citations, assigns a numeric code to facilitate data entry, and identifies report number prefixes assigned by these organizations. These research organization names may be used in searching the databases Energy Science Technology'' on DIALOG and Energy'' on STN International. These organization names are also used in USDOE databases on the Integrated Technical Information System. Research organizations active in the past five years, as indicated by database records, were identified to form this publication. This directory includes approximately 34,000 organizations that reported energy-related literature from 1986 to 1990 and updates the DOE Energy Data Base: Corporate Author Entries.

  10. International energy: Research organizations, 1986 - 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, P.; Jordan, S.

    1991-03-01

    The International Energy: Research Organizations publication contains the standardized names of energy research organizations used in energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE), and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). This publication identifies current organizations doing research in all energy fields, standardizes the format for recording these organization names in bibliographic citations, assigns a numeric code to facilitate data entry, and identifies report number prefixes assigned by these organizations. These research organization names may be used in searching the databases Energy Science and Technology on DIALOG and Energy on STN International. These organization names are also used in USDOE databases on the Integrated Technical Information System. Research organizations active in the past five years, as indicated by database records, were identified to form this publication. This directory includes approximately 34,000 organizations that reported energy-related literature from 1986 to 1990 and updates the DOE Energy Data Base: Corporate Author Entries.

  11. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division annual report, fiscal year 1980, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Research during October 1979 to September 1980 is summarized. Areas covered include: accelerator operations; positron-electron project; stochastic beam cooling; high-field superconducting magnets; accelerator theory; neutral beam sources; and heavy ion fusion. (GHT)

  12. Proceedings of the workshop on prospects for research with radioactive beams from heavy ion accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1984-04-01

    The SuperHILAC Users Executive Committee organized a workshop on Prospects for Research with Radioactive Beams from Heavy Ion Accelerators. The main purpose of the workshop was to bring together a diverse group of scientists who had already done experients with radioactive beams or were interested in their use in the future. The topics of the talks ranged from general nuclear physics, astrophysics, production of radioactive beams and high energy projectile fragmentation to biomedical applications. This publication contains the abstracts of the talks given at the workshop and copies of the viewgraphs as they were supplied to the editor.

  13. ACCELERATED EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS USING MICROWAVE ENERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is part of an ongoing U.S. Environmental Protection Agency research program, carried out by the National Exposure Research Laboratory, Characterization Research Division-Las Vegas (formerly Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas), addresses new sample pr...

  14. NIST Accelerator Facilities And Programs In Support Of Industrial Radiation Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, F.B.; Desrosiers, M.F.; Hudson, L.T.; Coursey, B.M.; Bergstrom, P.M. Jr.; Seltzer, S.M.

    2003-08-26

    NIST's Ionizing Radiation Division maintains and operates three electron accelerators used in a number of applications including waste treatment and sterilization, radiation hardness testing, detector calibrations and materials modification studies. These facilities serve a large number of governmental, academic and industrial users as well as an active intramural research program. They include a 500 kV cascaded-rectifier accelerator, a 2.5 MV electron Van de Graaff accelerator and a 7 to 32 MeV electron linac, supplying beams ranging in energy from a few keV up to 32 MeV. In response to the recent anthrax incident, NIST along with the US Postal Service and the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) are working to develop protocols and testing procedures for the USPS mail sanitization program. NIST facilities and personnel are being employed in a series of quality-assurance measurements for both electron- and photon-beam sanitization. These include computational modeling, dose verification and VOC (volatile organic compounds) testing using megavoltage electron and photon sources.

  15. Organic vegetable weed control research in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lane Agriculture Research Center is operated by Oklahoma State University and the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Located in southeastern Oklahoma, 13 resident scientists work cooperatively to develop production practices for organic vegetable production. On...

  16. Organic crop production's top research priority: Pestiphytology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pestiphytology is the study of pest plants, commonly referred to as weeds. In a recent national survey, weed research was designated as the top research priority by organic producers. Manual weed control is a costly practice that can quickly decrease return on investment, while the absence of weed...

  17. SOLVENT-FREE ACCELERATED ORGANIC SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: A solvent-free approach for organic synthesis is described which involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) either in presence of a catalyst or catalyzed by the surfaces of inexpensive and recyclable mineral supports such as alumina, silica, clay, or...

  18. Research and development of capacitive transducer with linear acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobova, Natalia; Kochurina, Elena; Timoshenkov, Sergey; Chaplygin, Yuriy; Anchutin, Stepan; Kosolapov, Andrey

    2015-05-01

    Paper presents the study results and modeling of functional characteristics of the linear acceleration transducers, enabling sensors creation with the specified parameters. Sensing element made for linear acceleration transducer with torsion cruciform section has been proposed on the based design and technological principles. It allows minimizing the impact of cross-acceleration and gives the maximum of center mass displacement for high sensors sensitivity in the given dimensions. The range of measured acceleration from ± 0.2g to ± 50g was provided by changing the torsion bar thickness n = 34 ÷ 56 microns. The transducers frequency range of linear acceleration 100-150 Hz depends on the gas pressure P = 700-800Pa in which the sensor element was located. Methods converting displacement of sensing element in the sensor output have been provided. On their basis the linear acceleration transducers with analog output signal having a predetermined frequency range and high linearity of the transformation (nonlinearity 0.2-1.5%) was developed. Also the linear acceleration transducers with digital signal consuming little (no more than 850 μA), low noisy (standard deviation to 0.1mg/rt-Hz) and high sensitivity (up to 0.1mg) to the accelerations was made. Errors in manufacturing process of sensitive elements and operating environment temperature affect the changes in the characteristics of the linear acceleration transducers. It has been established that different plate thickness up to 3.6% leads to the scale factor error to 4.7%. Irreproducibility of depth anisotropic etching of silicon up to 6.6% introduces an error in the output signal of 2.9 ... 13.8mg.

  19. Space research on organs and tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.; Morey-Holton, Emily

    1992-01-01

    The effects of microgravity on various physiological systems are reviewed focusing on muscle, bone, cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurovestibular, liver, and endocrine systems. It is noted that certain alterations of organs and tissues caused by microgravity are not reproducible in earth-bound animal or human models. Thus space research on organs and tissues is essential for both validating the earth-bound models used in laboratories and studying the adaptations to weightlessness which cannot be mimicked on earth.

  20. Low-energy electron accelerators in industry and applied research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondelaers, W.

    1998-04-01

    The use of electron accelerators in industry involve a broad range of machines and applications. The major actual large-scale applications are crosslinking of wire and cable insulation, plastic films and foam, curing of coatings and rubbers, and sterilisation of medical products. The recent availability, at attractive costs, of electron accelerators with high beam power (up to 200 kW) covering an energy range up to 10 MeV, has created new possibilities for a substantial expansion of the application range. The actual position of electron accelerators in industry is reviewed, new emerging applications and novel opportunities for multipurpose facilities are described.

  1. Organization of an undergraduate research group

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.; Noteboom, E.

    1995-04-01

    Traditionally, research groups consist of senior physicists, staff members, and graduate students. The physics department at Creighton University has formed a Relativistic Heavy Ion physics research group consisting primarily of undergraduate students. Although senior staff and graduate students are actively involved, undergraduate research and the education of undergraduates is the focus of the group. The presentation, given by two undergraduate members of the group, will outline progress made in the group`s organization, discuss the benefits to the undergraduate group members, and speak to the balance which must be struck between education concerns and research goals.

  2. Energy research: accelerator builders eager to aid fusion work.

    PubMed

    Metz, W D

    1976-10-15

    Useful fusion energy may be generated by means of heavy ion accelerator driven implosions if the contraints dictated by the physics and economics of thermonuclear targets and reactors can be satisfied. PMID:17738040

  3. 50 years of research on particle acceleration in the heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, L. A.

    2015-09-01

    In 1965, and through the late 1960s, the heliosphere was considered to be a passive place, an impediment to the information on the galaxy contained in galactic cosmic ray observations, and on the Sun, from solar energetic particles. All this changed in the early 1970s with the discovery of the Anomalous Cosmic Rays (ACRs), and the subsequent acceptance that the ACRs are ionized interstellar neutral gas that is accelerated in the heliosphere by four orders of magnitude in energy. In the mid-1970s, Pioneer 10 & 11 observations provided direct evidence of acceleration. In 1977-78, diffusive shock acceleration was introduced, and subsequently developed in detail, providing compelling explanations for, e.g., the observed acceleration in co-rotating interaction regions, and a likely explanation for the acceleration of ACRs at the termination shock of the solar wind. In 2004 and 2008, the Voyagers crossed the termination shock, did not observe the acceleration of the ACRs, but did observe that low- energy particles, up to a few MeV/nucleon, had identical spectra downstream from the termination shock, a distribution function that is a power law in particle speed with a spectral index of -5. When Voyager 1 reached ∼120 AU, where the high-energy ACRs are at peak intensity, the ACR spectrum is also a -5 spectrum. Moreover, observations of suprathermal tails in the solar wind in the inner solar system have a -5 spectrum, often peaking downstream, but not at shocks. These observations led to the development of a new acceleration mechanism, the pump acceleration mechanism of Fisk & Gloeckler, which can account for all the observed -5 spectra.

  4. Essay: Robert H. Siemann As Leader of the Advanced Accelerator Research Department

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, Eric R.; Hogan, Mark J.; /SLAC

    2011-11-14

    Robert H. Siemann originally conceived of the Advanced Accelerator Research Department (AARD) as an academic, experimental group dedicated to probing the technical limitations of accelerators while providing excellent educational opportunities for young scientists. The early years of the Accelerator Research Department B, as it was then known, were dedicated to a wealth of mostly student-led experiments to examine the promise of advanced accelerator techniques. High-gradient techniques including millimeter-wave rf acceleration, beam-driven plasma acceleration, and direct laser acceleration were pursued, including tests of materials under rf pulsed heating and short-pulse laser radiation, to establish the ultimate limitations on gradient. As the department and program grew, so did the motivation to found an accelerator research center that brought experimentalists together in a test facility environment to conduct a broad range of experiments. The Final Focus Test Beam and later the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator provided unique experimental facilities for AARD staff and collaborators to carry out advanced accelerator experiments. Throughout the evolution of this dynamic program, Bob maintained a department atmosphere and culture more reminiscent of a university research group than a national laboratory department. His exceptional ability to balance multiple roles as scientist, professor, and administrator enabled the creation and preservation of an environment that fostered technical innovation and scholarship.

  5. Research proceedings on amphibian model organisms

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Lu-Sha; ZHAO, Lan-Ying; WANG, Shou-Hong; JIANG, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Model organisms have long been important in biology and medicine due to their specific characteristics. Amphibians, especially Xenopus, play key roles in answering fundamental questions on developmental biology, regeneration, genetics, and toxicology due to their large and abundant eggs, as well as their versatile embryos, which can be readily manipulated and developed in vivo. Furthermore, amphibians have also proven to be of considerable benefit in human disease research due to their conserved cellular developmental and genomic organization. This review gives a brief introduction on the progress and limitations of these animal models in biology and human disease research, and discusses the potential and challenge of Microhyla fissipes as a new model organism. PMID:27469255

  6. Research proceedings on amphibian model organisms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu-Sha; Zhao, Lan-Ying; Wang, Shou-Hong; Jiang, Jian-Ping

    2016-07-18

    Model organisms have long been important in biology and medicine due to their specific characteristics. Amphibians, especially Xenopus, play key roles in answering fundamental questions on developmental biology, regeneration, genetics, and toxicology due to their large and abundant eggs, as well as their versatile embryos, which can be readily manipulated and developed in vivo. Furthermore, amphibians have also proven to be of considerable benefit in human disease research due to their conserved cellular developmental and genomic organization. This review gives a brief introduction on the progress and limitations of these animal models in biology and human disease research, and discusses the potential and challenge of Microhyla fissipes as a new model organism. PMID:27469255

  7. Research on GPU Acceleration for Monte Carlo Criticality Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qi; Yu, Ganglin; Wang, Kan

    2014-06-01

    The Monte Carlo neutron transport method can be naturally parallelized by multi-core architectures due to the dependency between particles during the simulation. The GPU+CPU heterogeneous parallel mode has become an increasingly popular way of parallelism in the field of scientific supercomputing. Thus, this work focuses on the GPU acceleration method for the Monte Carlo criticality simulation, as well as the computational efficiency that GPUs can bring. The "neutron transport step" is introduced to increase the GPU thread occupancy. In order to test the sensitivity of the MC code's complexity, a 1D one-group code and a 3D multi-group general purpose code are respectively transplanted to GPUs, and the acceleration effects are compared. The result of numerical experiments shows considerable acceleration effect of the "neutron transport step" strategy. However, the performance comparison between the 1D code and the 3D code indicates the poor scalability of MC codes on GPUs.

  8. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1990--September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, induction acceleration, is being studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: (1) beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; (2) development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; (3) acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; (4) final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target.

  9. 75 FR 42471 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Accelerated Approval of Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Accelerated Approval of Proposed Rule Change Regarding Listing and Trading Shares of AdvisorShares WCM/BNY Mellon Focused Growth ADR ETF July 15, 2010. On June 16, 2010, NYSE...

  10. 78 FR 21996 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Granting Accelerated Approval...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Granting Accelerated Approval of a Proposed Rule Change To Adopt Chapter V, Section 3 Subparagraph (d)(iv) Regarding Obvious Error or Catastrophic Error Review April 8, 2013....

  11. 77 FR 27529 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Granting Accelerated Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... (April 6, 2012), 77 FR 22019 (April 12, 2012). In its filing with the Commission, ICC included statements...'' as the amount reported on Form 1-FR-FCM or FOCUS Report or as otherwise reported to the CFTC under... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Granting Accelerated Approval...

  12. 76 FR 16466 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Order Granting Accelerated Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Order Granting Accelerated Approval of Proposed Rule Change by EDGX Exchange, Inc. To Delete the Description of and All References to Step-Up Orders in EDGX Rules March 18, 2011. Pursuant...

  13. 76 FR 16468 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Order Granting Accelerated Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Order Granting Accelerated Approval of Proposed Rule Change by EDGA Exchange, Inc. To Delete the Description of and All References to Step-Up Orders in EDGA Rules March 18, 2011. Pursuant...

  14. Self organizing software research : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Osbourn, Gordon Cecil

    2004-01-01

    We have made progress in developing a new statistical mechanics approach to designing self organizing systems that is unique to SNL. The primary application target for this ongoing research has been the development of new kinds of nanoscale components and hardware systems. However, this research also enables an out of the box connection to the field of software development. With appropriate modification, the collective behavior physics ideas for enabling simple hardware components to self organize may also provide design methods for a new class of software modules. Our current physics simulations suggest that populations of these special software components would be able to self assemble into a variety of much larger and more complex software systems. If successful, this would provide a radical (disruptive technology) path to developing complex, high reliability software unlike any known today. This high risk, high payoff opportunity does not fit well into existing SNL funding categories, as it is well outside of the mainstreams of both conventional software development practices and the nanoscience research area that spawned it. This LDRD effort was aimed at developing and extending the capabilities of self organizing/assembling software systems, and to demonstrate the unique capabilities and advantages of this radical new approach for software development.

  15. Accelerator mass spectrometry as a bioanalytical tool for nutritional research

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J.S.; Turteltaub, K.W.

    1997-09-01

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry is a mass spectrometric method of detecting long-lived radioisotopes without regard to their decay products or half-life. The technique is normally applied to geochronology, but recently has been developed for bioanalytical tracing. AMS detects isotope concentrations to parts per quadrillion, quantifying labeled biochemicals to attomole levels in milligram- sized samples. Its advantages over non-isotopeic and stable isotope labeling methods are reviewed and examples of analytical integrity, sensitivity, specificity, and applicability are provided.

  16. Accelerated Districts--The Next Step. A Summary of Research and Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driver, Cyrus; And Others

    The National Center for the Accelerated Schools Project at Stanford University has recognized that district-level change is necessary if changes at accelerated schools are to gain permanence and become widespread. The Center has therefore initiated a research and development project to design a set of models on which districts can reconstitute…

  17. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1--September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification --both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target.

  18. Application of Accelerators in research and Industry: Proceedings of the fourteenth International Conference. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, J.L.; Morgan, I.

    1997-08-01

    The fourteenth International Conference on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry was held in November, 1996 in Texas, USA. The United States Department of Energy was one of the sponsors of this conference. The conference was widely attended by accelerator scientists throughout the world. The topics discussed included a wide range of applications spanning the fields from Art History to Zoology. An overview of the Design Project for the National spallation Neutron Source was presented in one of the plenary sessions, as was a summary of Accelerated Beams of Radioactive Ions. Accelerator based Atomic Physics had the most sessions. The subject of accelerator Technology covered topics such as new accelerators, beam handling systems, ion sources, detector, spectrometers, and magnets etc. Radioactive Beams and Nuclear Physics were also topics of several sessions. New Research Opportunities for Nuclear structure, Nuclear Astrophysics, Material Science, and the future facilities and applications of Accelerated Beams of Radioactive ions were discussed. These proceedings represent the papers presented at this exciting conference which summarized the State of the Art technology of Accelerator applications in research and Industry. These proceedings contain 341 papers, out of which, 99 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  19. A quasimechanism of melt acceleration in the thermal decomposition of crystalline organic solids

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, Bryan F

    2009-01-01

    It has been know for half a century that many crystalline organic solids undergo an acceleration in the rate of thermal decomposition as the melting temperature is approached. This acceleration terminates at the melting point, exhibiting an Arrhenius-like temperature dependence in the faster decomposition rate from the liquid phase. This observation has been modeled previously using various premelting behaviors based on e.g. freezing point depression induced by decomposition products or solvent impurities. These models do not, however, indicate a mechanism for liquid formation and acceleration which is an inherent function of the bulk thermodynamics of the molecule. Here we show that such an inherent thermodynamic mechanism for liquid formation exists in the form of the so-called quasi-liquid layer at the solid surface. We explore a kinetic mechanism which describes the acceleration of rate and is a function of the free energies of sublimation and vaporization. We construct a differential rate law from these thermodynamic free energies and a normalized progress variable. We further construct a reduced variable formulation of the model which is a simple function of the metastable liquid activity below the melting point, and show that it is applicable to the observed melt acceleration in several common organic crystalline solids. A component of the differential rate law, zero order in the progress variable, is shown to be proportional to the thickness of the quasiliquid layer predicted by a recent thermodynamic theory for this phenomenon. This work therefore serves not only to provide new insight into thermal decomposition in a broad class or organic crystalline solids, but also further validates the underlying thermodynamic nature of the phenomenon of liquid formation on the molecular surface at temperatures below the melting point.

  20. EuCARD2: enhanced accelerator research and development in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. EuCARD2 is an European research project which will be realized during 2013-2017 inside the EC FP7 framework. The project concerns the development and coordination of European Accelerator Research and Development. The project is particularly important, to a number of domestic laboratories, due to some plans to build large accelerator infrastructure in Poland. Large accelerator infrastructure of fundamental and applied research character stimulates around it the development and industrial applications as well as biomedical of advanced accelerators, material research and engineering, cryo-technology, mechatronics, robotics, and in particular electronics - like networked measurement and control systems, sensors, computer systems, automation and control systems. The paper presents a digest of the European project EuCARD2 which is Enhanced European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development. The paper presents a digest of the research results and assumptions in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, shown during the final fourth annual meeting of the EuCARD - European Coordination of Accelerator R&D, and the kick-off meeting of the EuCARD2. There are debated a few basic groups of accelerator systems components like: measurement - control networks of large geometrical extent, multichannel systems for large amounts of metrological data acquisition, precision photonic networks of reference time, frequency and phase distribution, high field magnets, superconducting cavities, novel beam collimators, etc. The paper bases on the following materials: Internet and Intranet documents combined with EuCARD2, Description of Work FP7 EuCARD-2 DoW-312453, 2013-02-13, and discussions and preparatory materials worked on by Eucard-2 initiators.

  1. Real-Time Data from the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) is to measure, with high accuracy, the low-frequency, low-magnitude acceleration levels onboard the space shuttle. The shuttle experiences acceleration from atmospheric drag, gravity gradient forces, shuttle rotations, crew activities, water/waste dumps, and shuttle attitude thrusters. The OARE instrument has successfully flown on five past shuttle missions and is scheduled for five upcoming microgravity science missions. The data collected by OARE will be utilized by microgravity scientists to better predict and analyze the influence and effects of the shuttle's on-orbit microgravity environment on experiments in materials, combustion, and fluids research.

  2. Accelerate!

    PubMed

    Kotter, John P

    2012-11-01

    The old ways of setting and implementing strategy are failing us, writes the author of Leading Change, in part because we can no longer keep up with the pace of change. Organizational leaders are torn between trying to stay ahead of increasingly fierce competition and needing to deliver this year's results. Although traditional hierarchies and managerial processes--the components of a company's "operating system"--can meet the daily demands of running an enterprise, they are rarely equipped to identify important hazards quickly, formulate creative strategic initiatives nimbly, and implement them speedily. The solution Kotter offers is a second system--an agile, networklike structure--that operates in concert with the first to create a dual operating system. In such a system the hierarchy can hand off the pursuit of big strategic initiatives to the strategy network, freeing itself to focus on incremental changes to improve efficiency. The network is populated by employees from all levels of the organization, giving it organizational knowledge, relationships, credibility, and influence. It can Liberate information from silos with ease. It has a dynamic structure free of bureaucratic layers, permitting a level of individualism, creativity, and innovation beyond the reach of any hierarchy. The network's core is a guiding coalition that represents each level and department in the hierarchy, with a broad range of skills. Its drivers are members of a "volunteer army" who are energized by and committed to the coalition's vividly formulated, high-stakes vision and strategy. Kotter has helped eight organizations, public and private, build dual operating systems over the past three years. He predicts that such systems will lead to long-term success in the 21st century--for shareholders, customers, employees, and companies themselves. PMID:23155997

  3. Organization of the 16th Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) Workshop by Stanford University

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhirong; Hogan, Mark

    2015-09-30

    Essentially all we know today and will learn in the future about the fundamental nature of matter is derived from probing it with directed beams of particles such as electrons, protons, neutrons, heavy ions, and photons. The resulting ability to “see” the building blocks of matter has had an immense impact on society and our standard of living. Over the last century, particle accelerators have changed the way we look at nature and the universe we live in and have become an integral part of the Nation’s technical infrastructure. Today, particle accelerators are essential tools of modern science and technology. The cost and capabilities of accelerators would be greatly enhanced by breakthroughs in acceleration methods and technology. For the last 32 years, the Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) Workshop has acted as the focal point for discussion and development of the most promising acceleration physics and technology. It is a particularly effective forum where the discussion is leveraged and promoted by the unique and demanding feature of the AAC Workshop: the working group structure, in which participants are asked to consider their contributions in terms of even larger problems to be solved. The 16th Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC2014) Workshop was organized by Stanford University from July 13 - 18, 2014 at the Dolce Hays Mansion in San Jose, California. The conference had a record 282 attendees including 62 students. Attendees came from 11 countries representing 66 different institutions. The workshop format consisted of plenary sessions in the morning with topical leaders from around the world presenting the latest breakthroughs to the entire workshop. In the late morning and afternoons attendees broke out into eight different working groups for more detailed presentations and discussions that were summarized on the final day of the workshop. In addition, there were student tutorial presentations on two afternoons to provide in depth education and

  4. Contract research organizations in oncology clinical research: Challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Daniel A; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Steensma, David P

    2016-05-15

    Contract research organizations (CROs) represent a multibillion dollar industry that is firmly embedded in the contemporary clinical trial process. Over the past 30 years, and especially within the last decade, the reach of CROs has extended to service all phases of drug trials in an increasingly global research environment. The presence of CROs is particularly noticeable in medical oncology because of the large number of investigational compounds developed to treat cancer that are currently undergoing testing in human subjects. Although limited data are available with which to objectively define the effects that CROs have had on the clinical trial process, with the expansion of these organizations, several reports have called into question whether ethical and professional standards in research conduct are at times secondary to economic considerations. CROs can add considerable value to the clinical trial process, but difficulty communicating with CRO representatives and time spent answering trivial data queries generated by CROs are current obstacles for study site personnel interacting with CROs. Further study of the effect of the CRO industry on the clinical trial process is needed to ensure efficient data collection and patient safety while collaboratively developing novel therapies in an expedited fashion. Cancer 2016;122:1476-82. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:27018651

  5. Accelerating the Development of Expertise: A Step-Change in Social Science Research Capacity Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Alison; Wallace, Mike

    2011-01-01

    It is argued that future research capacity building for the social sciences needs to incorporate methods to accelerate the acquisition by researchers of holistic expertise relevant to their roles as researchers and as developers of others. An agenda is presented, based on a model of learning that highlights missing elements of current provision,…

  6. Organic weed management in vegetables: Research, experiences, and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic farmers in a national survey ranked weed management as their greatest research need for organic crop production. Scientists from the Agriculture Research Service and Oklahoma State University have combined their efforts to conduct not only organic weed control research, but research involvi...

  7. Permafrost thawing in organic Arctic soils accelerated by ground heat production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Matthiesen, Henning; Møller, Anders Bjørn; Elberling, Bo

    2015-06-01

    Decomposition of organic carbon from thawing permafrost soils and the resulting release of carbon to the atmosphere are considered to represent a potentially critical global-scale feedback on climate change. The accompanying heat production from microbial metabolism of organic material has been recognized as a potential positive-feedback mechanism that would enhance permafrost thawing and the release of carbon. This internal heat production is poorly understood, however, and the strength of this effect remains unclear. Here, we have quantified the variability of heat production in contrasting organic permafrost soils across Greenland and tested the hypothesis that these soils produce enough heat to reach a tipping point after which internal heat production can accelerate the decomposition processes. Results show that the impact of climate changes on natural organic soils can be accelerated by microbial heat production with crucial implications for the amounts of carbon being decomposed. The same is shown to be true for organic middens with the risk of losing unique evidence of early human presence in the Arctic.

  8. NASA's Spaceflight Visual Impairment and Intracranial Hypertension Research Plan: An accelerated Research Collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, Christian; Fogarty, J.; Grounds, D.; Davis, J.

    2010-01-01

    To date six long duration astronauts have experienced in flight visual changes and post flight signs of optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal folds, hyperoptic shifts and or raised intracranial pressure. In some cases the changes were transient while in others they are persistent with varying degrees of visual impairment. Given that all astronauts exposed to microgravity experience a cephalad fluid shift, and that both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients have exhibited optic nerve sheath edema on MRI, there is a high probability that all astronauts develop in-flight idiopathic intracranial hypertension to some degree. Those who are susceptible, have an increased likelihood of developing treatment resistant papilledema resulting in visual impairment and possible long-term vision loss. Such an acquired disability would have a profound mission impact and would be detrimental to the long term health of the astronaut. The visual impairment and increased intracranial pressure phenomenon appears to have multiple contributing factors. Consequently, the working "physiological fault bush" with elevated intracranial pressure at its center, is divided into ocular effects, and CNS and other effects. Some of these variables have been documented and or measured through operational data gathering, while others are unknown, undocumented and or hypothetical. Both the complexity of the problem and the urgency to find a solution require that a unique, non-traditional research model be employed such as the Accelerated Research Collaboration(TM) (ARC) model that has been pioneered by the Myelin Repair Foundation. In the ARC model a single entity facilitates and manages all aspects of the basic, translational, and clinical research, providing expert oversight for both scientific and managerial efforts. The result is a comprehensive research plan executed by a multidisciplinary team and the elimination of stove-piped research. The ARC model emphasizes efficient and effective

  9. Computational Science Guides and Accelerates Hydrogen Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in using computational science to enhance hydrogen-related research and development in areas such as storage and photobiology. Work was performed by NREL's Chemical and Materials Science Center and Biosciences Center.

  10. Project development teams: a novel mechanism for accelerating translational research.

    PubMed

    Sajdyk, Tammy J; Sors, Thomas G; Hunt, Joe D; Murray, Mary E; Deford, Melanie E; Shekhar, Anantha; Denne, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    The trend in conducting successful biomedical research is shifting from individual academic labs to coordinated collaborative research teams. Teams of experienced investigators with a wide variety of expertise are now critical for developing and maintaining a successful, productive research program. However, assembling a team whose members have the right expertise requires a great deal of time and many resources. To assist investigators seeking such resources, the Indiana Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (Indiana CTSI) created the Project Development Teams (PDTs) program to support translational research on and across the Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indiana University, Purdue University, and University of Notre Dame campuses. PDTs are multidisciplinary committees of seasoned researchers who assist investigators, at any stage of research, in transforming ideas/hypotheses into well-designed translational research projects. The teams help investigators capitalize on Indiana CTSI resources by providing investigators with, as needed, mentoring and career development; protocol development; pilot funding; institutional review board, regulatory, and/or nursing support; intellectual property support; access to institutional technology; and assistance with biostatistics, bioethics, recruiting participants, data mining, engaging community health, and collaborating with other investigators.Indiana CTSI leaders have analyzed metrics, collected since the inception of the PDT program in 2008 from both investigators and team members, and found evidence strongly suggesting that the highly responsive teams have become an important one-stop venue for facilitating productive interactions between basic and clinical scientists across four campuses, have aided in advancing the careers of junior faculty, and have helped investigators successfully obtain external funds. PMID:25319172

  11. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. Annual report, October 1978-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    Topics covered include: Super HILAC and Bevalac operations; high intensity uranium beams line item; advanced high charge state ion source; 184-inch synchrocyclotron; VENUS project; positron-electron project; high field superconducting accelerator magnets; beam cooling; accelerator theory; induction linac drivers; RF linacs and storage rings; theory; neutral beam systems development; experimental atomic physics; neutral beam plasma research; plasma theory; and the Tormac project. (GHT)

  12. Accelerating cancer systems biology research through Semantic Web technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihui; Sagotsky, Jonathan; Taylor, Thomas; Shironoshita, Patrick; Deisboeck, Thomas S

    2013-01-01

    Cancer systems biology is an interdisciplinary, rapidly expanding research field in which collaborations are a critical means to advance the field. Yet the prevalent database technologies often isolate data rather than making it easily accessible. The Semantic Web has the potential to help facilitate web-based collaborative cancer research by presenting data in a manner that is self-descriptive, human and machine readable, and easily sharable. We have created a semantically linked online Digital Model Repository (DMR) for storing, managing, executing, annotating, and sharing computational cancer models. Within the DMR, distributed, multidisciplinary, and inter-organizational teams can collaborate on projects, without forfeiting intellectual property. This is achieved by the introduction of a new stakeholder to the collaboration workflow, the institutional licensing officer, part of the Technology Transfer Office. Furthermore, the DMR has achieved silver level compatibility with the National Cancer Institute's caBIG, so users can interact with the DMR not only through a web browser but also through a semantically annotated and secure web service. We also discuss the technology behind the DMR leveraging the Semantic Web, ontologies, and grid computing to provide secure inter-institutional collaboration on cancer modeling projects, online grid-based execution of shared models, and the collaboration workflow protecting researchers' intellectual property. PMID:23188758

  13. Clinical research in pediatric organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Azeka, Estela; Saavedra, Laura Castillo; Fregni, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation has greatly improved survival in children with end-stage disease, becoming one of the main treatment options in this population. Nonetheless, there are significant challenges associated with validating and optimizing the effects of these interventions in clinical trials. Therefore, we reviewed the main issues related to conducting clinical transplantation research in children. We divided these challenges into three different categories: (i) challenges related to surgical techniques and anesthetic procedures, (ii) challenges related to post-transplant care and (iii) challenges specific to a particular population group and disease type. Some of the observed burdens for clinical research in this field are related to the limitations of conducting studies with a placebo or sham procedure, determining the standard of care for a control group, low prevalence of cases, ethical concerns related to use of a placebo control group and lack of generalizability from animal studies and clinical trials conducted in adult populations. To overcome some of these barriers, it is necessary to utilize alternative clinical trial designs, such as observational studies or non-inferiority trials, and to develop multicenter collaborations to increase the recruitment rate. In conclusion, the lack of robust data related to pediatric transplantation remains problematic, and further clinical trials are needed to develop more efficacious and safer treatments. PMID:24860862

  14. Accelerating Cancer Systems Biology Research through Semantic Web Technology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhihui; Sagotsky, Jonathan; Taylor, Thomas; Shironoshita, Patrick; Deisboeck, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer systems biology is an interdisciplinary, rapidly expanding research field in which collaborations are a critical means to advance the field. Yet the prevalent database technologies often isolate data rather than making it easily accessible. The Semantic Web has the potential to help facilitate web-based collaborative cancer research by presenting data in a manner that is self-descriptive, human and machine readable, and easily sharable. We have created a semantically linked online Digital Model Repository (DMR) for storing, managing, executing, annotating, and sharing computational cancer models. Within the DMR, distributed, multidisciplinary, and inter-organizational teams can collaborate on projects, without forfeiting intellectual property. This is achieved by the introduction of a new stakeholder to the collaboration workflow, the institutional licensing officer, part of the Technology Transfer Office. Furthermore, the DMR has achieved silver level compatibility with the National Cancer Institute’s caBIG®, so users can not only interact with the DMR through a web browser but also through a semantically annotated and secure web service. We also discuss the technology behind the DMR leveraging the Semantic Web, ontologies, and grid computing to provide secure inter-institutional collaboration on cancer modeling projects, online grid-based execution of shared models, and the collaboration workflow protecting researchers’ intellectual property. PMID:23188758

  15. Radiation shielding and patient organ dose study for an accelerator- based BNCT Facility at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Costes, S.V.; Vujic, J.; Donahue, R.J.

    1996-10-24

    This study considers the radiation safety aspects of several designs discussed in a previous report of an accelerator-based source of neutrons, based on the [sup 7]Li(p,n) reaction, for a Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). determines the optimal radiation shield thicknesses for the patient treatment room. Since this is an experimental facility no moderator or reflector is considered in the bulk wall shield design. This will allow the flexibility of using any postulated moderator/reflector design and assumes sufficient shielding even in the absence of a moderator/reflector. In addition the accelerator is assumed to be capable of producing 100 mA of 2.5 MeV proton beam current. The addition of 1% and 2% [sup 10]B (by weight) to the concrete is also investigated. The second part of this paper determines the radiation dose to the major organs of a patient during a treatment. Simulations use the MIRD 5 anthropomorphic phantom to calculate organ doses from a 20 mA proton beam assuming various envisioned moderator/reflector in place. Doses are tabulated by component and for a given uniform [sup 10]B loading in all organs. These are presented in for a BeO moderator and for an Al/AlF[sub 3] moderator. Dose estimates for different [sup 10]B loadings may be scaled.

  16. A technology platform for translational research on laser driven particle accelerators for radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enghardt, W.; Bussmann, M.; Cowan, T.; Fiedler, F.; Kaluza, M.; Pawelke, J.; Schramm, U.; Sauerbrey, R.; Tünnermann, A.; Baumann, M.

    2011-05-01

    It is widely accepted that proton or light ion beams may have a high potential for improving cancer cure by means of radiation therapy. However, at present the large dimensions of electromagnetic accelerators prevent particle therapy from being clinically introduced on a broad scale. Therefore, several technological approaches among them laser driven particle acceleration are under investigation. Parallel to the development of suitable high intensity lasers, research is necessary to transfer laser accelerated particle beams to radiotherapy, since the relevant parameters of laser driven particle beams dramatically differ from those of beams delivered by conventional accelerators: The duty cycle is low, whereas the number of particles and thus the dose rate per pulse are high. Laser accelerated particle beams show a broad energy spectrum and substantial intensity fluctuations from pulse to pulse. These properties may influence the biological efficiency and they require completely new techniques of beam delivery and quality assurance. For this translational research a new facility is currently constructed on the campus of the university hospital Dresden. It will be connected to the department of radiooncology and host a petawatt laser system delivering an experimental proton beam and a conventional therapeutic proton cyclotron. The cyclotron beam will be delivered on the one hand to an isocentric gantry for patient treatments and on the other hand to an experimental irradiation site. This way the conventional accelerator will deliver a reference beam for all steps of developing the laser based technology towards clinical applicability.

  17. Publication Trends in Model Organism Research

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Michael R.; Ankeny, Rachel A.; Chen, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1990, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) gave some organisms special status as designated model organisms. This article documents publication trends for these NIH-designated model organisms over the past 40 years. We find that being designated a model organism by the NIH does not guarantee an increasing publication trend. An analysis of model and nonmodel organisms included in GENETICS since 1960 does reveal a sharp decline in the number of publications using nonmodel organisms yet no decline in the overall species diversity. We suggest that organisms with successful publication records tend to share critical characteristics, such as being well developed as standardized, experimental systems and being used by well-organized communities with good networks of exchange and methods of communication. PMID:25381363

  18. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility. Progress report, December 1, 1992--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E.J.; Marino, S.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) is based on a 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which is used to generate a variety of well-characterized radiation beams for research in radiobiology, radiological physics, and radiation chemistry. It is part of the Center for Radiological Research (CRR) - formerly the Radiological Research Laboratory of Columbia University, and its operation is supported as a National Facility by the US Department of Energy (DOE). As such, RARAF is available to all potential users on an equal basis and scientists outside the CRR are encouraged to submit proposals for experiments at RARAF. The operation of the Van de Graaff is supported by the DOE, but the research projects themselves must be supported separately. This report provides a listing and brief description of experiments performed at RARAF during the May 1, 1992 through April 30, 1993.

  19. Research program for the 660 MeV proton accelerator driven MOX-plutonium subcritical assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barashenkov, V. S.; Buttsev, V. S.; Buttseva, G. L.; Dudarev, S. Ju.; Polanski, A.; Puzynin, I. V.; Sissakian, A. N.

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the research program of the Experimental Accelerator Driven System (ADS), which employs a subcritical assembly and a 660 MeV proton accelerator operating in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna. Mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel (25% PuO2+75% UO2) designed for the BN-600 reactor use will be adopted for the core of the assembly. The present conceptual design of the experimental subcritical assembly is based on a core nominal unit capacity of 15 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient keff=0.945, energetic gain G=30, and accelerator beam power of 0.5 kW.

  20. NDCX-II, A New Induction Linear Accelerator for Warm Dense Matter Research

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, M.; Bieniosek, F.; Kwan, J.; Logan, G.; Waldron, W.; Barnard, J.J.; Friedman, A.; Sharp, B.; Gilson, E.; Davidson, R.

    2009-06-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL), a collaboration between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), is currently constructing a new induction linear accelerator, called Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment NDCX-II. The accelerator design makes effective use of existing components from LLNL's decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA), especially induction cells and Blumlein voltage sources that have been transferred to LBNL. We have developed an aggressive acceleration 'schedule' that compresses the emitted ion pulse from 500 ns to 1 ns in just 15 meters. In the nominal design concept, 30 nC of Li{sup +} are accelerated to 3.5 MeV and allowed to drift-compress to a peak current of about 30 A. That beam will be utilized for warm dense matter experiments investigating the interaction of ion beams with matter at high temperature and pressure. Construction of the accelerator will be complete within a period of approximately two and a half years and will provide a worldwide unique opportunity for ion-driven warm dense matter experiments as well as research related to novel beam manipulations for heavy ion fusion drivers.

  1. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) half-year report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification --both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; and final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target.

  2. Artificial intelligence research in particle accelerator control systems for beam line tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Pieck, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Tuning particle accelerators is time consuming and expensive, with a number of inherently non-linear interactions between system components. Conventional control methods have not been successful in this domain and the result is constant and expensive monitoring of the systems by human operators. This is particularly true for the start-up and conditioning phase after a maintenance period or an unexpected fault. In turn, this often requires a step-by-step restart of the accelerator. Surprisingly few attempts have been made to apply intelligent accelerator control techniques to help with beam tuning, fault detection, and fault recovery problems. The reason for that might be that accelerator facilities are rare and difficult to understand systems that require detailed expert knowledge about the underlying physics as well as months if not years of experience to understand the relationship between individual components, particularly if they are geographically disjoint. This paper will give an overview about the research effort in the accelerator community that has been dedicated to the use of artificial intelligence methods for accelerator beam line tuning.

  3. Organic Research Activities of the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic research is a vital and ongoing part of the overall ARS research portfolio and occurs at approximately 20 % of ARS research locations across the United States. The vision for ARS organic agriculture research is to help the organic industry overcome the challenges it faces related to producti...

  4. Increases in dissolved organic carbon accelerate loss of toxic Al in Adirondack lakes recovering from acidification.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Dukett, James E; Houck, Nathan; Snyder, Phil; Capone, Sue

    2013-07-01

    Increasing pH and decreasing Al in surface waters recovering from acidification have been accompanied by increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and associated organic acids that partially offset pH increases and complicate assessments of recovery from acidification. To better understand the processes of recovery, monthly chemistry from 42 lakes in the Adirondack region, NY, collected from 1994 to 2011, were used to (1) evaluate long-term changes in DOC and associated strongly acidic organic acids and (2) use the base-cation surplus (BCS) as a chemical index to assess the effects of increasing DOC concentrations on the Al chemistry of these lakes. Over the study period, the BCS increased (p < 0.01) and concentrations of toxic inorganic monomeric Al (IMAl) decreased (p < 0.01). The decreases in IMAl were greater than expected from the increases in the BCS. Higher DOC concentrations that increased organic complexation of Al resulted in a decrease in the IMAl fraction of total monomeric Al from 57% in 1994 to 23% in 2011. Increasing DOC concentrations have accelerated recovery in terms of decreasing toxic Al beyond that directly accomplished by reducing atmospheric deposition of strong mineral acids. PMID:23751119

  5. Increases in dissolved organic carbon accelerate loss of toxic Al in Adirondack lakes recovering from acidification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Dukett, James E; Houck, Nathan; Snyder, Phillip; Capone, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing pH and decreasing Al in surface waters recovering from acidification have been accompanied by increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and associated organic acids that partially offset pH increases and complicate assessments of recovery from acidification. To better understand the processes of recovery, monthly chemistry from 42 lakes in the Adirondack region, NY, collected from 1994 to 2011, were used to (1) evaluate long-term changes in DOC and associated strongly acidic organic acids and (2) use the base-cation surplus (BCS) as a chemical index to assess the effects of increasing DOC concentrations on the Al chemistry of these lakes. Over the study period, the BCS increased (p < 0.01) and concentrations of toxic inorganic monomeric Al (IMAl) decreased (p < 0.01). The decreases in IMAl were greater than expected from the increases in the BCS. Higher DOC concentrations that increased organic complexation of Al resulted in a decrease in the IMAl fraction of total monomeric Al from 57% in 1994 to 23% in 2011. Increasing DOC concentrations have accelerated recovery in terms of decreasing toxic Al beyond that directly accomplished by reducing atmospheric deposition of strong mineral acids.

  6. FAIR - An International Accelerator Facility for Research with Ions and Antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, Walter

    2005-06-08

    An overview is given on the international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI, its science motivation and goals, the facility lay-out and characteristics, the accelerator design challenges, the schedule for construction, and the international interest/participation in the project.

  7. Rice disease research in organic production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic rice production has increased significantly in the U. S. with 35,000 acres currently under production. Texas organic rice acreage has been increasing steadily over the last 10 years with acreage in 2009 reaching 16,000, accounting for approximately 10% of the total Texas rice acreage. Contro...

  8. Activist Research and Organizing: Blurring the Boundaries, Challenging the Binaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choudry, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    This article draws from ongoing research into the practices and processes of activist researchers. It discusses social relations of knowledge production located outside of academia with/in social movement milieus. Focusing on the politics of research in people's organizations and social movement organizations in the Philippines, it builds on…

  9. Priority research areas to accelerate the development of practical ultraconductive copper conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dominic F.; Burwell, Malcolm; Stillman, H.

    2015-09-01

    This report documents the findings at an Ultraconductive Copper Strategy Meeting held on March 11, 2015 in Washington DC. The aim of this meeting was to bring together researchers of ultraconductive copper in the U.S. to identify and prioritize critical non-proprietary research activities that will enhance the understanding in the material and accelerate its development into practical conductors. Every effort has been made to ensure that the discussion and findings are accurately reported in this document.

  10. Collaboration in a Multidisciplinary, Distributed Research Organization: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duysburgh, Pieter; Naessens, Kris; Konings, Wim; Jacobs, An

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration has become a main characteristic of academic research today. New forms of research organizations, colaboratories, have come to the fore, with distributed research centres as their most complex example. In this study, we aim to provide some insight into the collaboration strategies of researchers in their daily researching activities…

  11. BESTIA - The next generation ultra-fast CO2 laser for advanced accelerator research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorelsky, Igor V.; Babzien, Markus; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Skaritka, John; Polyanskiy, Mikhail N.

    2016-09-01

    Over the last two decades, BNL's ATF has pioneered the use of high-peak power CO2 lasers for research in advanced accelerators and radiation sources. Our recent developments in ion acceleration, Compton scattering, and IFELs have further underscored the benefits from expanding the landscape of strong-field laser interactions deeper into the mid-infrared (MIR) range of wavelengths. This extension validates our ongoing efforts in advancing CO2 laser technology, which we report here. Our next-generation, multi-terawatt, femtosecond CO2 laser will open new opportunities for studying ultra-relativistic laser interactions with plasma in the MIR spectral domain, including new regimes in the particle acceleration of ions and electrons.

  12. The COBRA accelerator pulsed-power driver for Cornell/Sandia ICF research

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Ingwersen, P.; Bennett, L.F.; Boyes, J.D.; Anderson, D.E.; Greenly, J.B.; Sudan, R.N.; Hammer, D.A.

    1995-07-01

    This paper introduces and describes the new Cornell Beam Research Accelerator, COBRA, the result of a three and one-half year collaboration. The flexible 4 to 5-MV, 100 to 250-kA, 46-ns pulse width accelerator is based on a four-cavity Inductive Voltage Adder (IVA) design. In addition to being a mix of new and existing components, COBRA is unique in the sense that each cavity is driven by a single pulse forming line, and the IVA output polarity may be reversed by rotating the cavities 1800 about their vertical axis. Our tests with negative high voltage on the inner MITL stalk indicate that the vacuum power flow has established reasonable azimuthal symmetry within about 2 ns (or 0.6 m) after the cavity output cap. Preliminary results with the accelerator, single cavity, and MITL are presented alone, with the design details and circuit model predictions.

  13. STS-40 orbital acceleration research experiment flight results during a typical sleep period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James R.

    1992-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), an electrostatic accelerometer package with complete on-orbit calibration capabilities was flown aboard Shuttle on STS-40. The instrument is designed to measure and record the Shuttle aerodynamic acceleration environment from the free molecule flow regime through the rarefied flow transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Because of its sensitivity, the OARE instrument detects aerodynamic behavior of the Shuttle while in low-earth orbit. A 2-h orbital time period on day seven of the mission, when the crew was asleep and other spacecraft activities were at a minimum, was examined. Examination of the model with the flight data shows the instrument to be sensitive to all major expected low-frequency acceleration phenomena; however, some erratic instrument bias behavior persists in two axes. In these axes, the OARE data can be made to match a comprehensive atmospheric-aerodynamic model by making bias adjustments and slight liner corrections for drift.

  14. BESTIA - the next generation ultra-fast CO2 laser for advanced accelerator research

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pogorelsky, Igor V.; Babzien, Markus; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Skaritka, John; Polyanskiy, Mikhail N.

    2015-12-02

    Over the last two decades, BNL’s ATF has pioneered the use of high-peak power CO2 lasers for research in advanced accelerators and radiation sources. In addition, our recent developments in ion acceleration, Compton scattering, and IFELs have further underscored the benefits from expanding the landscape of strong-field laser interactions deeper into the mid-infrared (MIR) range of wavelengths. This extension validates our ongoing efforts in advancing CO2 laser technology, which we report here. Our next-generation, multi-terawatt, femtosecond CO2 laser will open new opportunities for studying ultra-relativistic laser interactions with plasma in the MIR spectral domain, including new regimes in the particlemore » acceleration of ions and electrons.« less

  15. The surface quasiliquid melt acceleration and the role of thermodynamic phase in the thermal decomposition of crystalline organic explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, Bryan F

    2010-01-01

    We show that melt acceleration in the thermal decomposition of crystalline organic solids is a manifestation of the surface quasiliquid phase. We derive a single universal rate law for melt acceleration that is a simple function of the metastable liquid activity below the melting point, and has a zero order term proportional to the quasiliquid thickness. We argue that the underlying mechanisms of this model will provide a molecular definition for the stability of the class of secondary explosives.

  16. Self-organizing map (SOM) of space acceleration measurement system (SAMS) data.

    PubMed

    Sinha, A; Smith, A D

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, space acceleration measurement system (SAMS) data have been classified using self-organizing map (SOM) networks without any supervision; i.e., no a priori knowledge is assumed regarding input patterns belonging to a certain class. Input patterns are created on the basis of power spectral densities of SAMS data. Results for SAMS data from STS-50 and STS-57 missions are presented. Following issues are discussed in details: impact of number of neurons, global ordering of SOM weight vectors, effectiveness of a SOM in data classification, and effects of shifting time windows in the generation of input patterns. The concept of 'cascade of SOM networks' is also developed and tested. It has been found that a SOM network can successfully classify SAMS data obtained during STS-50 and STS-57 missions. PMID:11543426

  17. Self-organizing map (SOM) of space acceleration measurement system (SAMS) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, A.; Smith, A. D.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, space acceleration measurement system (SAMS) data have been classified using self-organizing map (SOM) networks without any supervision; i.e., no a priori knowledge is assumed regarding input patterns belonging to a certain class. Input patterns are created on the basis of power spectral densities of SAMS data. Results for SAMS data from STS-50 and STS-57 missions are presented. Following issues are discussed in details: impact of number of neurons, global ordering of SOM weight vectors, effectiveness of a SOM in data classification, and effects of shifting time windows in the generation of input patterns. The concept of 'cascade of SOM networks' is also developed and tested. It has been found that a SOM network can successfully classify SAMS data obtained during STS-50 and STS-57 missions.

  18. Space Acceleration Measurement System-II: Microgravity Instrumentation for the International Space Station Research Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station opens for business in the year 2000, and with the opening, science investigations will take advantage of the unique conditions it provides as an on-orbit laboratory for research. With initiation of scientific studies comes a need to understand the environment present during research. The Space Acceleration Measurement System-II provides researchers a consistent means to understand the vibratory conditions present during experimentation on the International Space Station. The Space Acceleration Measurement System-II, or SAMS-II, detects vibrations present while the space station is operating. SAMS-II on-orbit hardware is comprised of two basic building block elements: a centralized control unit and multiple Remote Triaxial Sensors deployed to measure the acceleration environment at the point of scientific research, generally within a research rack. Ground Operations Equipment is deployed to complete the command, control and data telemetry elements of the SAMS-II implementation. Initially, operations consist of user requirements development, measurement sensor deployment and use, and data recovery on the ground. Future system enhancements will provide additional user functionality and support more simultaneous users.

  19. PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) has been used in a variety of industrial processes and consumer products. The most commonly studied PFCs include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but there are many more compounds in this c...

  20. Research Summaries for Teachers, Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolbier, William R., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Proposes that the concept of neighboring group participation (NGP) be introduced in undergraduate organic chemistry. Discusses the requirements for NGP with respect to electron availability, kinetics, and steric factors. Finally, the author presents the controversy over bridged ions, particularly phenonium ions in the solvolyses of beta-pheylethyl…

  1. (CHINA) PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) has been used in a variety of industrial processes and consumer products. The most commonly studied PFCs include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but there are many more compounds in this c...

  2. ORGANIC AEROSOL SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbonaceous material is a major component of ambient PM at all locations in the U.S. and it is composed of two major classes: organic carbon (OC, composed of hundreds of individual compounds) and elemental carbon (EC, also referred to as soot, black carbon, or light adsorbing ca...

  3. UCLA accelerator research and development. Progress report, [November 1, 1991--July 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, D.B.

    1992-09-01

    This progress report covers work supported by the above DOE grant over the period November 1, 1991 to July 31, 1992. The work is a program of experimental and theoretical studies in advanced particle accelerator research and development for high energy physics applications. The program features research at particle beam facilities in the United States and includes research on novel high power sources, novel focussing systems (e.g. plasma lens), beam monitors, novel high brightness, high current gun systems, and novel flavor factories in particular the {phi} Factory.

  4. Expatriate Training in International Nongovernmental Organizations: A Model for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Wei-Wen

    2005-01-01

    In light of the massive tsunami relief efforts that were still being carried out by humanitarian organizations around the world when this article went to press, this article points out a lack of human resources development research in international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) and proposes a conceptual model for future empirical research.…

  5. Space research on organs and tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.; Morey-Holton, Emily

    1993-01-01

    Studies in space on various physiological systems have and will continue to provide valuable information on how they adapt to reduced gravitational conditions, and how living in a 1 g (gravity) environment has guided their development. Muscle and bone are the most notable tissues that respond to unweighting caused by lack of gravity. The function of specific muscles and bones relates directly to mechanical loading, so that removal of 'normal forces' in space, or in bedridden patients, causes dramatic loss of tissue mass. The cardiovascular system is also markedly affected by reduced gravity. Adaptation includes decreased blood flow to the lower extremities, thus decreasing the heart output requirement. Return to 1 g is associated with a period of reconditioning due to the deconditioning that occurs in space. Changes in the cardiovascular system are also related to responses of the kidney and certain endocrine (hormone-producing) organs. Changes in respiratory function may also occur, suggesting an effect on the lungs, though this adaptation is poorly understood. The neurovestibular system, including the brain and organs of the inner ear, must adapt to the disorientation caused by lack of gravity. Preliminary findings have been reported for liver. Additionally, endocrine organs responsible for release of hormones such as insulin, growth hormone, glucocorticoids, and thyroid hormone may respond to spaceflight.

  6. Ultrasensitive detection of inhaled organic aerosol particles by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Parkhomchuk, E V; Gulevich, D G; Taratayko, A I; Baklanov, A M; Selivanova, A V; Trubitsyna, T A; Voronova, I V; Kalinkin, P N; Okunev, A G; Rastigeev, S A; Reznikov, V A; Semeykina, V S; Sashkina, K A; Parkhomchuk, V V

    2016-09-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was shown to be applicable for studying the penetration of organic aerosols, inhaled by laboratory mice at ultra-low concentration ca. 10(3) cm(-3). We synthesized polystyrene (PS) beads, composed of radiocarbon-labeled styrene, for testing them as model organic aerosols. As a source of radiocarbon we used methyl alcohol with radioactivity. Radiolabeled polystyrene beads were obtained by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of synthesized (14)C-styrene initiated by K2S2O8 in aqueous media. Aerosol particles were produced by pneumatic spraying of diluted (14)C-PS latex. Mice inhaled (14)C-PS aerosol consisting of the mix of 10(3) 225-nm particles per 1 cm(3) and 5·10(3) 25-nm particles per 1 cm(3) for 30 min every day during five days. Several millions of 225-nm particles deposited in the lungs and slowly excreted from them during two weeks of postexposure. Penetration of particles matter was also observed for liver, kidneys and brain, but not for a heart. PMID:27281540

  7. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility. Progress report, December 1, 1993--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E.J.; Marino, S.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document begins with a general description of the facility to include historical and up-to-date aspects of design and operation. A user`s guide and a review of research using the facility follows. Next the accelerator utilization and operation and the development of the facilities is given. Personnel currently working at the facility are listed. Lastly, recent publications and literature cited are presented.

  8. NEEDED RESEARCH ON DIFFUSION WITHIN EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JAIN, NEMI C.; ROGERS, EVERETT M.

    IN SPITE OF THE VOLUME OF RESEARCH ATTENTION DEVOTED TO THE DIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS, RELATIVELY LITTLE EMPHASIS HAS BEEN PLACED UPON DIFFUSION WITHIN ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES. METHODOLOGICALLY, RELATIONAL ANALYSIS IN WHICH THE UNIT OF ANALYSIS IS A TWO-PERSON INTERACTING PAIR, A MULTIPLE PERSON COMMUNICATION CHAIN, OR CLIQUES OR SUBSYSTEMS IS…

  9. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH FOR ORGANIC AIR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of the U.S. EPA's pollution prevention (P2) research in three areas: (1) Surface Coating, such as wood furniture finishing, printing, and the use of adhesives and radiation-cured coatings; (2) Solvent Cleaning, such as vapor degreasing, process equipme...

  10. International energy: Research organizations, 1988--1992. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, P.; Jordan, S.

    1993-06-01

    This publication contains the standardized names of energy research organizations used in energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the US DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear organization names recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries are also included in the ETDE Energy Database. Therefore, these organization names are cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This publication identifies current organizations doing research in all energy fields, standardizes the format for recording these organization names in bibliographic citations, assigns a numeric code to facilitate data entry, and identifies report number prefixes assigned by these organizations. These research organization names may be used in searching the databases ``Energy Science & Technology`` on DIALOG and ``Energy`` on STN International. These organization names are also used in USDOE databases on the Integrated Technical Information System. Research organizations active in the past five years, as indicated by database records, were identified to form this publication. This directory includes approximately 31,000 organizations that reported energy-related literature from 1988 to 1992 and updates the DOE Energy Data Base: Corporate Author Entries.

  11. Accelerator research studies. Final report, June 1, 1994--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy has completed the third year of its three-year funding cycle and an additional one-year, no-cost extension. The program consisted of the following three tasks: Task A -- Study of the transport and longitudinal compression of intense, high-brightness beams; Task B -- Study of high-brightness beam generation in pseudospark devices; Task C -- Study of a gyroklystron high-power microwave source for linear colliders. The research carried out for each task and progress made is reported.

  12. ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) source for the HHIRF (Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility) tandem accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Alton, G.D.; Dowling, D.T.; Haynes, D.L.; Jones, C.M.; Juras, R.C.; Lane, S.N.; Meigs, M.J.; Mills, G.D.; Mosko, S.W.; Tatum, B.A.

    1990-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance, ECR, ion source technology has developed rapidly since the original pioneering work of R. Geller and his group at Grenoble in the early 1970s. These ion sources are capable of producing intense beams of highly charged positive ions and are used extensively for cyclotron injection, linac injection, and atomic physics research. In this paper, the advantages of using an ECR heavy-ion source in the terminal of the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) 25-MV tandem accelerator is discussed. A possible ECR system for installation in the HHIRF tandem terminal is described.

  13. Accelerator research studies. Final report, June 1, 1991--May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy is currently in the third year of its three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: Task A -- Study of the transport and longitudinal compression of intense, high-brightness beams; Task B -- Study of high-brightness beam generation in pseudospark devices; Task C -- Study of a gyroklystron high-power microwave source for linear colliders. The research for each task is detailed in this report.

  14. Research Planning and Organization. Fact Sheets on Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish Inst., Stockholm.

    This paper describes the organization and planning for research and development in Sweden, particularly the role of higher education. A section on policies notes that the state has overall responsibility to fund basic research and the training of research workers. Issues receiving particular attention include environmental problems and new…

  15. Managing the future: the Special Virus Leukemia Program and the acceleration of biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Robin Wolfe

    2014-12-01

    After the end of the Second World War, cancer virus research experienced a remarkable revival, culminating in the creation in 1964 of the United States National Cancer Institute's Special Virus Leukemia Program (SVLP), an ambitious program of directed biomedical research to accelerate the development of a leukemia vaccine. Studies of cancer viruses soon became the second most highly funded area of research at the Institute, and by far the most generously funded area of biological research. Remarkably, this vast infrastructure for cancer vaccine production came into being before a human leukemia virus was shown to exist. The origins of the SVLP were rooted in as much as shifts in American society as laboratory science. The revival of cancer virus studies was a function of the success advocates and administrators achieved in associating cancer viruses with campaigns against childhood diseases such as polio and leukemia. To address the urgency borne of this new association, the SVLP's architects sought to lessen the power of peer review in favor of centralized Cold War management methods, fashioning viruses as "administrative objects" in order to accelerate the tempo of biomedical research and discovery. PMID:25459347

  16. 78 FR 21982 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Order Granting Accelerated Approval of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Order Granting Accelerated Approval of a Proposed Rule Change To Adopt Chapter V, Section 3 Subparagraph (d)(iv) Regarding Obvious Error or Catastrophic Error Review April 8, 2013....

  17. 76 FR 80989 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Order Granting Accelerated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Order Granting Accelerated Approval of a Proposed Rule Amendment to NYSE Amex Rule 452 and Corresponding Section 723 of the Company Guide and Amex Rule 577 Relating...

  18. ORGANIC AGRICULTURE: INNOVATIONS IN ORGANIC MARKETING, TECHNOLOGY, AND RESEARCH - INTRODUCTION TO THE PROCEEDINGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Additional research and education is needed to provide the U.S. organic agricultural sector with the tools necessary to meet growing consumer demand for organic products. The papers presented at the USDA Organic Agriculture Workshop, held on October 6-7, 2005, identified key obstacles and explored n...

  19. STS-40 orbital acceleration research experiment flight results during a typical sleep period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Nicholson, J. Y.; Ritter, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), an electrostatic accelerometer package with complete on-orbit calibration capabilities, was flown for the first time aboard the Space Shuttle on STS-40. This is also the first time an accelerometer package with nano-g sensitivity and a calibration facility has flown aboard the Space Shuttle. The instrument is designed to measure and record the Space Shuttle aerodynamic acceleration environment from the free molecule flow regime through the rarified flow transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Because of its sensitivity, the OARE instrument defects aerodynamic behavior of the Space Shuttle while in low-earth orbit. A 2-hour orbital time period on day seven of the mission, when the crew was asleep and other spacecraft activities were at a minimum, was examined. During the flight, a 'trimmed-mean' filter was used to produce high quality, low frequency data which was successfully stored aboard the Space Shuttle in the OARE data storage system. Initial review of the data indicated that, although the expected precision was achieved, some equipment problems occurred resulting in uncertain accuracy. An acceleration model which includes aerodynamic, gravity-gradient, and rotational effects was constructed and compared with flight data. Examination of the model with the flight data shows the instrument to be sensitive to all major expected low frequency acceleration phenomena; however, some erratic instrument bias behavior persists in two axes. In these axes, the OARE data can be made to match a comprehensive atmospheric-aerodynamic model by making bias adjustments and slight linear corrections for drift. The other axis does not exhibit these difficulties and gives good agreement with the acceleration model.

  20. Accelerator research studies. Technical progress report, June 1, 1991--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the first year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams, TASK B, Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams; TASK C, Study of a Gyroklystron High-power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders. In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks.

  1. Accelerator research studies. Technical progress report, June 1, 1992--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the second year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, ``Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams,`` (P.I., M. Reiser); TASK B, ``Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams,`` (Co-P.I.`s, W.W. Destler, M. Reiser, M.J. Rhee, and C.D. Striffler); TASK C, ``Study of a Gyroklystron High-Power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders,`` (Co-P.I.`s, V.L. Granatstein, W. Lawson, M. Reiser, and C.D. Striffler). In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks.

  2. Research Mediation in Education: A Typology of Research Brokering Organizations that Exist across Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Amanda Mae

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the increasingly prominent role of research brokering organizations (RBOs) in strengthening connections between education research, policy and practice across Canada. This paper is organized in three sections. First, it provides a literature review of research mediation--exploring terminology, models and empirical work (albeit…

  3. Accelerating Research Productivity in Social Work Programs: Perspectives on NIH's Postdoctoral T32 Research Training Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthieu, Monica M.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.; Pena, Juan B.; Scott, Lionel D., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of four social work researchers who pursued an alternative career path immediately following their doctorate in social work by accepting a postdoctoral training fellowship funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). As schools of social work look for creative ways to build research capacity, this…

  4. Accelerating Progress in Eating Disorders Prevention: A Call for Policy Translation Research and Training.

    PubMed

    Austin, S Bryn

    2016-01-01

    The public health burden of eating disorders is well documented, and over the past several decades, researchers have made important advances in the prevention of eating disorders and related problems with body image. Despite these advances, however, several critical limitations to the approaches developed to date leave the field far from achieving the large-scale impact that is needed. This commentary provides a brief review of what achievements in prevention have been made and identifies the gaps that limit the potential for greater impact on population health. A plan is then offered with specific action steps to accelerate progress in high-impact prevention, most compellingly by promoting a shift in priorities to policy translation research and training for scholars through the adoption of a triggers-to-action framework. Finally, the commentary provides an example of the application of the triggers-to-action framework as practiced at the Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders, a program based at the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health and Boston Children's Hospital. Much has been achieved in the nearly 30 years of research carried out for the prevention of eating disorders and body image problems, but several critical limitations undermine the field's potential for meaningful impact. Through a shift in the field's priorities to policy translation research and training with an emphasis on macro-environmental influences, the pace of progress in prevention can be accelerated and the potential for large-scale impact substantially improved. PMID:25880718

  5. Person-Organization Fit and Research on Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngs, Peter; Pogodzinski, Ben; Grogan, Erin; Perrone, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Research from industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology indicates that outside of K-12 education, employees' sense of fit with their organizations is often associated with job satisfaction, performance, commitment, and retention. Person-organization (P-O) fit has been conceptualized as the degree of congruence between an…

  6. Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC), Oak Ridge Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, David; Jardine, Philip; Gu, Baohua; Parker, Jack; Brandt, Craig; Holladay, Susan; Wolfe, Amy; Bogle, Mary Anna; Lowe, Kenneth; Hyder, Kirk

    2006-06-01

    The Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge (Fig. 1), Tennessee supports the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) goal of understanding the complex physical, chemical, and biological properties of contaminated sites for new solutions to environmental remediation and long-term stewardship. In particular, the FRC provides the opportunity for researchers to conduct studies that promote the understanding of the processes that influence the transport and fate of subsurface contaminants, the effectiveness and long-term consequences of existing remediation options, and the development of improved remediation strategies. It offers a series of contaminated sites around the former S-3 Waste Disposal Ponds and uncontaminated sites in which investigators and students conduct field research or collect samples for laboratory analysis. FRC research also spurs the development of new and improved characterization and monitoring tools. Site specific knowledge gained from research conducted at the FRC also provides the DOE-Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM) the critical scientific knowledge needed to make cleanup decisions for the S-3 Ponds and other sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR).

  7. Design studies and commissioning plans for plasma acceleration research station experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Mete, O.; Xia, G.; Hanahoe, K.; Dover, M.; Wigram, M.; Wright, J.; Zhang, J.; Smith, J.

    2015-10-15

    Plasma acceleration research station is an electron beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration test stand proposed for CLARA facility in Daresbury Laboratory. In this paper, the interaction between the electron beam and the plasma is numerically characterised via 2D numerical studies by using VSIM code. The wakefields induced by a single bunch travelling through the plasma were found to vary from 200 MV/m to 3 GV/m for a range of bunch length, bunch radius, and plasma densities. Energy gain for the particles populating the bunch tail through the wakefields driven by the head of the bunch was demonstrated. After determining the achievable field for various beams and plasma configurations, a reference setting was determined for further studies. Considering this reference setting, the beam quality studies were performed for a two-bunch acceleration case. The maximum energy gain as well as the energy spread mitigation by benefiting from the beam loading was investigated by positioning the witness and driver bunches with respect to each other. Emittance growth mechanisms were studied considering the beam-plasma and beam-wakefield interactions. Eventually, regarding the findings, the initial commissioning plans and the aims for the later stages were summarised.

  8. Heavy ion fusion accelerator research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1987-September 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to access the suitabilty of heavy ion accelerators as iginiters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accerelator techonolgy, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawerence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the vadidation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. The papers in this report that address these goals are: MBE-4 mechanical progress, alignment of MBE-4, a compact energy analyzer for MBE-4, Cs/sup +/ injector modeling with the EGUN code, an improved emittance scanning system for HIFAR, 2-MV injector, carbon arc source development, beam combining in ILSE, emittance growth due to transverse beam combining in ILSE - particle simulation results, achromatic beam combiner for ILSE, additional elements for beam merging, quadrupole magnet design for ILSE, and waveforms and longitudinal beam-parameters for ILSE.

  9. Design studies and commissioning plans for plasma acceleration research station experimental program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mete, O.; Xia, G.; Hanahoe, K.; Dover, M.; Wigram, M.; Wright, J.; Zhang, J.; Smith, J.

    2015-10-01

    Plasma acceleration research station is an electron beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration test stand proposed for CLARA facility in Daresbury Laboratory. In this paper, the interaction between the electron beam and the plasma is numerically characterised via 2D numerical studies by using VSIM code. The wakefields induced by a single bunch travelling through the plasma were found to vary from 200 MV/m to 3 GV/m for a range of bunch length, bunch radius, and plasma densities. Energy gain for the particles populating the bunch tail through the wakefields driven by the head of the bunch was demonstrated. After determining the achievable field for various beams and plasma configurations, a reference setting was determined for further studies. Considering this reference setting, the beam quality studies were performed for a two-bunch acceleration case. The maximum energy gain as well as the energy spread mitigation by benefiting from the beam loading was investigated by positioning the witness and driver bunches with respect to each other. Emittance growth mechanisms were studied considering the beam-plasma and beam-wakefield interactions. Eventually, regarding the findings, the initial commissioning plans and the aims for the later stages were summarised.

  10. Accelerator-based research activities at “Centro Nacional de Aceleradores”, Seville (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Respaldiza, M. A.; Ager, F. J.; Carmona, A.; Ferrer, J.; García-León, M.; García-López, J.; García-Orellana, I.; Gómez-Tubío, B.; Morilla, Y.; Ontalba, M. A.; Ortega-Feliu, I.

    2008-05-01

    In February 1998, almost 10 years ago, the set-up of the first IBA (ion beam analysis) facility in Spain took place with the arrival of a 3 MV tandem accelerator [J. García-López, F.J. Ager, M. Barbadillo-Rank, F.J. Madrigal, M.A. Ontalba, M.A. Respaldiza, M.D. Ynsa, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 161-163 (2000) 1137]. Since then, an intensive research program using IBA techniques has been carried out. Subsequently, a cyclotron for 18 MeV protons has been also installed at the "Centro Nacional de Aceleradores" (CNA), devoted mainly to isotope production for PET (positron emission tomography) techniques, but possibly applied to material analysis and damage studies on a dedicated beam line. Moreover, a 1 MV tandem has been recently installed for AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) 14C dating and environmental research with other isotopes. In the present paper we describe the new facilities and the developments of the 3 MV tandem beam lines occurred during the past years, as well as some examples of the most recent research activities in our Center in the fields of Material Science, Archaeometry, Biomedicine and Environment.

  11. [Organization of clinical research: in general and visceral surgery].

    PubMed

    Schneider, M; Werner, J; Weitz, J; Büchler, M W

    2010-04-01

    The structural organization of research facilities within a surgical university center should aim at strengthening the department's research output and likewise provide opportunities for the scientific education of academic surgeons. We suggest a model in which several independent research groups within a surgical department engage in research projects covering various aspects of surgically relevant basic, translational or clinical research. In order to enhance the translational aspects of surgical research, a permanent link needs to be established between the department's scientific research projects and its chief interests in clinical patient care. Importantly, a focus needs to be placed on obtaining evidence-based data to judge the efficacy of novel diagnostic and treatment concepts. Integration of modern technologies from the fields of physics, computer science and molecular medicine into surgical research necessitates cooperation with external research facilities, which can be strengthened by coordinated support programs offered by research funding institutions. PMID:20237748

  12. Building a common pediatric research terminology for accelerating child health research.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Michael G; Bailey, L Charles; Forrest, Christopher B; Padula, Michael A; Hirschfeld, Steven

    2014-03-01

    Longitudinal observational clinical data on pediatric patients in electronic format is becoming widely available. A new era of multi-institutional data networks that study pediatric diseases and outcomes across disparate health delivery models and care settings are also enabling an innovative collaborative rapid improvement paradigm called the Learning Health System. However, the potential alignment of routine clinical care, observational clinical research, pragmatic clinical trials, and health systems improvement requires a data infrastructure capable of combining information from systems and workflows that historically have been isolated from each other. Removing barriers to integrating and reusing data collected in different settings will permit new opportunities to develop a more complete picture of a patient's care and to leverage data from related research studies. One key barrier is the lack of a common terminology that provides uniform definitions and descriptions of clinical observations and data. A well-characterized terminology ensures a common meaning and supports data reuse and integration. A common terminology allows studies to build upon previous findings and to reuse data collection tools and data management processes. We present the current state of terminology harmonization and describe a governance structure and mechanism for coordinating the development of a common pediatric research terminology that links to clinical terminologies and can be used to align existing terminologies. By reducing the barriers between clinical care and clinical research, a Learning Health System can leverage and reuse not only its own data resources but also broader extant data resources. PMID:24534404

  13. Building a Common Pediatric Research Terminology for Accelerating Child Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, L. Charles; Forrest, Christopher B.; Padula, Michael A.; Hirschfeld, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal observational clinical data on pediatric patients in electronic format is becoming widely available. A new era of multi-institutional data networks that study pediatric diseases and outcomes across disparate health delivery models and care settings are also enabling an innovative collaborative rapid improvement paradigm called the Learning Health System. However, the potential alignment of routine clinical care, observational clinical research, pragmatic clinical trials, and health systems improvement requires a data infrastructure capable of combining information from systems and workflows that historically have been isolated from each other. Removing barriers to integrating and reusing data collected in different settings will permit new opportunities to develop a more complete picture of a patient’s care and to leverage data from related research studies. One key barrier is the lack of a common terminology that provides uniform definitions and descriptions of clinical observations and data. A well-characterized terminology ensures a common meaning and supports data reuse and integration. A common terminology allows studies to build upon previous findings and to reuse data collection tools and data management processes. We present the current state of terminology harmonization and describe a governance structure and mechanism for coordinating the development of a common pediatric research terminology that links to clinical terminologies and can be used to align existing terminologies. By reducing the barriers between clinical care and clinical research, a Learning Health System can leverage and reuse not only its own data resources but also broader extant data resources. PMID:24534404

  14. RESEARCH FOR THE TREATMENT OF ORGANICS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Drinking Water Research Division uses a three tiered approach to research. The first step is bench-scale, where the chemical behavior of the organic contaminant can be investigated in a closely controlled environment. The next level, pilot...

  15. Tyrannosaur paleobiology: new research on ancient exemplar organisms.

    PubMed

    Brusatte, Stephen L; Norell, Mark A; Carr, Thomas D; Erickson, Gregory M; Hutchinson, John R; Balanoff, Amy M; Bever, Gabe S; Choiniere, Jonah N; Makovicky, Peter J; Xu, Xing

    2010-09-17

    Tyrannosaurs, the group of dinosaurian carnivores that includes Tyrannosaurus rex and its closest relatives, are icons of prehistory. They are also the most intensively studied extinct dinosaurs, and thanks to large sample sizes and an influx of new discoveries, have become ancient exemplar organisms used to study many themes in vertebrate paleontology. A phylogeny that includes recently described species shows that tyrannosaurs originated by the Middle Jurassic but remained mostly small and ecologically marginal until the latest Cretaceous. Anatomical, biomechanical, and histological studies of T. rex and other derived tyrannosaurs show that large tyrannosaurs could not run rapidly, were capable of crushing bite forces, had accelerated growth rates and keen senses, and underwent pronounced changes during ontogeny. The biology and evolutionary history of tyrannosaurs provide a foundation for comparison with other dinosaurs and living organisms. PMID:20847260

  16. The contribution of organization theory to nursing health services research.

    PubMed

    Mick, Stephen S; Mark, Barbara A

    2005-01-01

    We review nursing and health services research on health care organizations over the period 1950 through 2004 to reveal the contribution of nursing to this field. Notwithstanding this rich tradition and the unique perspective of nursing researchers grounded in patient care production processes, the following gaps in nursing research remain: (1) the lack of theoretical frameworks about organizational factors relating to internal work processes; (2) the need for sophisticated methodologies to guide empirical investigations; (3) the difficulty in understanding how organizations adapt models for patient care delivery in response to market forces; (4) the paucity of attention to the impact of new technologies on the organization of patient care work processes. Given nurses' deep understanding of the inner workings of health care facilities, we hope to see an increasing number of research programs that tackle these deficiencies. PMID:16360704

  17. Adult Education and Aging: Perspectives on Research at a Private Independent Research Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ-Eft, Darlene

    As part of a symposium on challenges and problems of adult education researchers in different settings, recent research activities at one private independent research organization were examined. Three projects of the American Instituties for Research (AIR) were reviewed, all relating to adult development and aging. The first examined career…

  18. Innovation through Initiatives -- A Framework for Building New Capabilities in Public Sector Research Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Geffen, Charlette A.; Judd, Kathleen S.

    2004-12-01

    The accelerating pace of change in science and technology has resulted in new attention to the process of identifying and developing ideas that ultimately lead to new scientific capabilities and business opportunities for an organization. The need to refresh research programs and capabilities is as important in federally funded laboratories as it is for industry. This paper explores the critical success factors for new initiatives at a federal laboratory, and building on lessons learned through this study and in private industry, identifies a more systematic process that could potentially improve the effectiveness of these initiatives in achieving results.

  19. The proton injector for the accelerator facility of antiproton and ion research (FAIR)

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, C. Kester, O.; Chauvin, N.; Delferriere, O.

    2014-02-15

    The new international accelerator facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany, is one of the largest research projects worldwide and will provide an antiproton production rate of 7 × 10{sup 10} cooled pbars per hour. This is equivalent to a primary proton beam current of 2 × 10{sup 16} protons per hour. For this request a high intensity proton linac (p-linac) will be built with an operating rf-frequency of 325 MHz to accelerate a 35 mA proton beam at 70 MeV, using conducting crossed-bar H-cavities. The repetition rate is 4 Hz with beam pulse length of 36 μs. The microwave ion source and low energy beam transport developed within a joint French-German collaboration GSI/CEA-SACLAY will serve as an injector of the compact proton linac. The 2.45 GHz ion source allows high brightness ion beams at an energy of 95 keV and will deliver a proton beam current of 100 mA at the entrance of the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) within an acceptance of 0.3π mm mrad (norm., rms)

  20. The healthy organization construct: A review and research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Raya, Rampalli Prabhakara; Panneerselvam, Sivapragasam

    2013-01-01

    Work plays an important role in one's life for many reasons. It provides us with economic, social, and personal satisfaction and accounts for a substantial percentage of our waking hours. But in today's knowledge-driven economy, organization of work has been changing at a warp speed as a consequence of economic, social and technological aspects of changes brought down by globalization and liberalization worldwide. While this situation has eliminated some risks of the earlier industrial era, it is introducing others. In such a dynamic business environment, where can business leaders and managers find competitive advantage? It lies in balancing people and performance goals. This is the line of approach for healthy organization research that examines organizational context with regard to: People, work organization, management practices, employee wellbeing and performance. The healthy organization concept proposes that along with the profits, employee's well being should also be an important goal for organizations. In this paper, the researcher undertakes an extensive review of literature in the mainstream business literature and establishes the agenda for healthy organization research among other research paradigms. PMID:24872666

  1. The healthy organization construct: A review and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Raya, Rampalli Prabhakara; Panneerselvam, Sivapragasam

    2013-09-01

    Work plays an important role in one's life for many reasons. It provides us with economic, social, and personal satisfaction and accounts for a substantial percentage of our waking hours. But in today's knowledge-driven economy, organization of work has been changing at a warp speed as a consequence of economic, social and technological aspects of changes brought down by globalization and liberalization worldwide. While this situation has eliminated some risks of the earlier industrial era, it is introducing others. In such a dynamic business environment, where can business leaders and managers find competitive advantage? It lies in balancing people and performance goals. This is the line of approach for healthy organization research that examines organizational context with regard to: People, work organization, management practices, employee wellbeing and performance. The healthy organization concept proposes that along with the profits, employee's well being should also be an important goal for organizations. In this paper, the researcher undertakes an extensive review of literature in the mainstream business literature and establishes the agenda for healthy organization research among other research paradigms. PMID:24872666

  2. Advances in Plexcore active layer technology systems for organic photovoltaics: roof-top and accelerated lifetime analysis of high performance organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, Darin W.; Vaidya, Swanand; Li, Sergey; Mathai, Mathew; Woodworth, Brian; Sheina, Elena; Williams, Shawn; Hammond, Troy

    2007-09-01

    We report NREL-certified efficiencies and initial lifetime data for organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells based on Plexcore PV photoactive layer and Plexcore HTL-OPV hole transport layer technology. Plexcore PV-F3, a photoactive layer OPV ink, was certified in a single-layer OPV cell at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at 5.4%, which represents the highest official mark for a single-layer organic solar cell. We have fabricated and measured P3HT:PCBM solar cells with a peak efficiency of 4.4% and typical efficiencies of 3 - 4% (internal, NREL-calibrated measurement) with P3HT manufactured at Plextronics by the Grignard Metathesis (GRIM) method. Outdoor and accelerated lifetime testing of these devices is reported. Both Plexcore PV-F3 and P3HT:PCBM-based OPV cells exhibit >750 hours of outdoor roof-top, non-accelerated lifetime with less than 8% loss in initial efficiency for both active layer systems when exposed continuously to the climate of Western Pennsylvania. These devices are continuously being tested to date. Accelerated testing using a high-intensity (1000W) metal-halide lamp affords shorter lifetimes; however, the true acceleration factor is still to be determined.

  3. Deceased Donor Intervention Research: A Survey of Transplant Surgeons, Organ Procurement Professionals, and Institutional Review Board Members.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, J R; Feng, S; Johansson, A C; Glazier, A K; Abt, P L

    2016-01-01

    Innovative deceased donor intervention strategies have the potential to increase the number and quality of transplantable organs. Yet there is confusion over regulatory and legal requirements, as well as ethical considerations. We surveyed transplant surgeons (n = 294), organ procurement organization (OPO) professionals (n = 83), and institutional review board (IRB) members (n = 317) and found wide variations in their perceptions about research classification, risk assessment for donors and organ transplant recipients, regulatory oversight requirements, and informed consent in the context of deceased donor intervention research. For instance, when presented with different research scenarios, IRB members were more likely than transplant surgeons and OPO professionals to feel that study review and oversight were necessary by the IRBs at the investigator, donor, and transplant center hospitals. Survey findings underscore the need to clarify ethical, legal, and regulatory requirements and their application to deceased donor intervention research to accelerate the pace of scientific discovery and facilitate more transplants. PMID:26484950

  4. Acceleration Tolerance: Effect of Exercise, Acceleration Training; Bed Rest and Weightlessness Deconditioning. A Compendium of Research (1950-1996)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, J. L.; McKenzie, M. A.; Stad, N. J.; Barnes, P. R.; Jackson, C. G. R.; Ghiasvand, F.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    This compendium includes abstracts and annotations of clinical observations and of more basic studies involving physiological mechanisms concerning interaction of acceleration, training and deconditioning. If the author's abstract or summary was appropriate, it was included. In other cases a more detailed annotation of the paper was prepared under the subheadings Purpose, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Author and keyword indices are provided, plus an additional selected bibliography of related work and of those papers received after the volume was prepared for publication. This volume includes material published from 1950-1996.

  5. Clinical trials and contract research organizations in India.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Shoibal

    2012-06-01

    Economics and demography are driving drug development to the developing world. India needs this opportunity to build research skills required to combat its enormous disease burden. A variety of global and local contract research organizations (CROs) that specialize in the execution of research to develop health care products operate in India today. CROs assure quality and compliance to regulations while coordinating with tertiary providers such as a site management organization and the central laboratory. Back room operations to manage, analyze, and report data form a bulk of the employment generated by clinical research, absorbing programmers, data managers, biostatisticians,and medical writers. Despite rapid growth and strong potential, India remains a minor contributor to global pharmaceutical research because of policy stagnation, regulatory gaps, and misinformed controversies in the media. PMID:22727008

  6. Research Integrity and Research Ethics in Professional Codes of Ethics: Survey of Terminology Used by Professional Organizations across Research Disciplines.

    PubMed

    Komić, Dubravka; Marušić, Stjepan Ljudevit; Marušić, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Professional codes of ethics are social contracts among members of a professional group, which aim to instigate, encourage and nurture ethical behaviour and prevent professional misconduct, including research and publication. Despite the existence of codes of ethics, research misconduct remains a serious problem. A survey of codes of ethics from 795 professional organizations from the Illinois Institute of Technology's Codes of Ethics Collection showed that 182 of them (23%) used research integrity and research ethics terminology in their codes, with differences across disciplines: while the terminology was common in professional organizations in social sciences (82%), mental health (71%), sciences (61%), other organizations had no statements (construction trades, fraternal social organizations, real estate) or a few of them (management, media, engineering). A subsample of 158 professional organizations we judged to be directly involved in research significantly more often had statements on research integrity/ethics terminology than the whole sample: an average of 10.4% of organizations with a statement (95% CI = 10.4-23-5%) on any of the 27 research integrity/ethics terms compared to 3.3% (95% CI = 2.1-4.6%), respectively (P<0.001). Overall, 62% of all statements addressing research integrity/ethics concepts used prescriptive language in describing the standard of practice. Professional organizations should define research integrity and research ethics issues in their ethics codes and collaborate within and across disciplines to adequately address responsible conduct of research and meet contemporary needs of their communities. PMID:26192805

  7. Research Integrity and Research Ethics in Professional Codes of Ethics: Survey of Terminology Used by Professional Organizations across Research Disciplines

    PubMed Central

    Komić, Dubravka; Marušić, Stjepan Ljudevit; Marušić, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Professional codes of ethics are social contracts among members of a professional group, which aim to instigate, encourage and nurture ethical behaviour and prevent professional misconduct, including research and publication. Despite the existence of codes of ethics, research misconduct remains a serious problem. A survey of codes of ethics from 795 professional organizations from the Illinois Institute of Technology’s Codes of Ethics Collection showed that 182 of them (23%) used research integrity and research ethics terminology in their codes, with differences across disciplines: while the terminology was common in professional organizations in social sciences (82%), mental health (71%), sciences (61%), other organizations had no statements (construction trades, fraternal social organizations, real estate) or a few of them (management, media, engineering). A subsample of 158 professional organizations we judged to be directly involved in research significantly more often had statements on research integrity/ethics terminology than the whole sample: an average of 10.4% of organizations with a statement (95% CI = 10.4-23-5%) on any of the 27 research integrity/ethics terms compared to 3.3% (95% CI = 2.1–4.6%), respectively (P<0.001). Overall, 62% of all statements addressing research integrity/ethics concepts used prescriptive language in describing the standard of practice. Professional organizations should define research integrity and research ethics issues in their ethics codes and collaborate within and across disciplines to adequately address responsible conduct of research and meet contemporary needs of their communities. PMID:26192805

  8. Medical research and multidisciplinary applications with laser-accelerated beams: the ELIMED netwotk at ELI-Beamlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramontana, A.; Anzalone, A.; Candiano, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Korn, G.; Licciardello, T.; Maggiore, M.; Manti, L.; Margarone, D.; Musumarra, A.; Perozziello, F.; Pisciotta, P.; Raffaele, L.; Romano, F.; Romano, F. P.; Stancampiano, C.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Torrisi, L.; Tudisco, S.

    2014-04-01

    Laser accelerated proton beams represent nowadays an attractive alternative to the conventional ones and they have been proposed in different research fields. In particular, the interest has been focused in the possibility of replacing conventional accelerating machines with laser-based accelerators in order to develop a new concept of hadrontherapy facilities, which could result more compact and less expensive. With this background the ELIMED (ELIMED: ELI-Beamlines MEDical applications) research project has been launched by LNS-INFN researchers (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, IT) and ASCR-FZU researchers (Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic-Fyzikální ústar, Prague, Cz), within the pan-European ELI-Beamlines facility framework. Its main purposes are the demonstration of future applications in hadrontherapy of optically accelerated protons and the realization of a laser-accelerated ion transport beamline for multidisciplinary applications. Several challenges, starting from laser-target interaction and beam transport development, up to dosimetric and radiobiological issues, need to be overcome in order to reach the final goals. The design and the realization of a preliminary beam handling and dosimetric system and of an advanced spectrometer for high energy (multi-MeV) laser-accelerated ion beams will be shortly presented in this work.

  9. Issues for Simulation of Galactic Cosmic Ray Exposures for Radiobiological Research at Ground-Based Accelerators.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y; Rusek, Adam; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2015-01-01

    For radiobiology research on the health risks of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) ground-based accelerators have been used with mono-energetic beams of single high charge, Z and energy, E (HZE) particles. In this paper, we consider the pros and cons of a GCR reference field at a particle accelerator. At the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), we have proposed a GCR simulator, which implements a new rapid switching mode and higher energy beam extraction to 1.5 GeV/u, in order to integrate multiple ions into a single simulation within hours or longer for chronic exposures. After considering the GCR environment and energy limitations of NSRL, we performed extensive simulation studies using the stochastic transport code, GERMcode (GCR Event Risk Model) to define a GCR reference field using 9 HZE particle beam-energy combinations each with a unique absorber thickness to provide fragmentation and 10 or more energies of proton and (4)He beams. The reference field is shown to well represent the charge dependence of GCR dose in several energy bins behind shielding compared to a simulated GCR environment. However, a more significant challenge for space radiobiology research is to consider chronic GCR exposure of up to 3 years in relation to simulations with animal models of human risks. We discuss issues in approaches to map important biological time scales in experimental models using ground-based simulation, with extended exposure of up to a few weeks using chronic or fractionation exposures. A kinetics model of HZE particle hit probabilities suggests that experimental simulations of several weeks will be needed to avoid high fluence rate artifacts, which places limitations on the experiments to be performed. Ultimately risk estimates are limited by theoretical understanding, and focus on improving knowledge of mechanisms and development of experimental models to improve this understanding should remain the highest priority for space radiobiology research. PMID:26090339

  10. Issues for Simulation of Galactic Cosmic Ray Exposures for Radiobiological Research at Ground-Based Accelerators

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Rusek, Adam; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2015-01-01

    For radiobiology research on the health risks of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) ground-based accelerators have been used with mono-energetic beams of single high charge, Z and energy, E (HZE) particles. In this paper, we consider the pros and cons of a GCR reference field at a particle accelerator. At the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), we have proposed a GCR simulator, which implements a new rapid switching mode and higher energy beam extraction to 1.5 GeV/u, in order to integrate multiple ions into a single simulation within hours or longer for chronic exposures. After considering the GCR environment and energy limitations of NSRL, we performed extensive simulation studies using the stochastic transport code, GERMcode (GCR Event Risk Model) to define a GCR reference field using 9 HZE particle beam–energy combinations each with a unique absorber thickness to provide fragmentation and 10 or more energies of proton and 4He beams. The reference field is shown to well represent the charge dependence of GCR dose in several energy bins behind shielding compared to a simulated GCR environment. However, a more significant challenge for space radiobiology research is to consider chronic GCR exposure of up to 3 years in relation to simulations with animal models of human risks. We discuss issues in approaches to map important biological time scales in experimental models using ground-based simulation, with extended exposure of up to a few weeks using chronic or fractionation exposures. A kinetics model of HZE particle hit probabilities suggests that experimental simulations of several weeks will be needed to avoid high fluence rate artifacts, which places limitations on the experiments to be performed. Ultimately risk estimates are limited by theoretical understanding, and focus on improving knowledge of mechanisms and development of experimental models to improve this understanding should remain the highest priority for space radiobiology research. PMID:26090339

  11. Development of an H- ion source for Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex upgradea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkoshi, K.; Namekawa, Y.; Ueno, A.; Oguri, H.; Ikegami, K.

    2010-02-01

    A cesium (Cs) free H- ion source driven with a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) filament was adopted as an ion source for the first stage of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). At present, the maximum H- ion current produced by the ion source is 38 mA, using which J-PARC can produce a proton beam power of 0.6 MW by accelerating it with the 181 MeV linac and the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron. In order to satisfy the beam power of 1 MW required for the second stage of the J-PARC in the near future, we have to increase the ion current to more than 60 mA. Therefore, we have started to develop a Cs-seeded ion source by adding an external Cs-seeding system to a J-PARC test ion source that has a structure similar to that of the J-PARC ion source except for the fact that the plasma chamber is slightly larger. As a result, a H- ion current of more than 70 mA was obtained from the ion source using a tungsten filament instead of a LaB6 filament with a low arc discharge power of 15 kW (100 V, 150 A).

  12. Intercampus institute for research at particle accelerators. Final report, March 15, 1992--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-22

    This is the final report to the DOE for the Intercampus Institute for Research at Particle Accelerators, or IIRPA, at least for the San Diego branch. Over the years that DOE supported IIRPA, we were told that yearly reports (and the final report) were not necessary because the previous year`s summary in our annual request for funds constituted those reports. Therefore, it has taken some effort, and a corresponding long time, to put something together, after the fact. The IIRPA was born as an idea that arose during discussions at the 1974 PEP summer study, and began to be funded by DoE during the early stages of PEP detector design and construction. The intent was for the members of the Institute to be responsible for the PEP-9 Facility; all of the PEP experiments were supposed to be facilities, rather than just experimental setups for a particular group or research goal. IIRPA was approved as a Multicampus Research Unit (MRU) in 1977 by the University of California, and it was active on the UCD, UCSB and UCSD campuses for 10 years. This report concentrates on the period of time when the Directorship of IIRPA was once again at the San Diego campus, 1989 to 1995. The collection of yearly reports consisting of research in different areas of particle physics, make up this report in the appendices.

  13. Collaborative Research: Simulation of Beam-Electron Cloud Interactions in Circular Accelerators Using Plasma Models

    SciTech Connect

    Katsouleas, Thomas; Decyk, Viktor

    2009-10-14

    Final Report for grant DE-FG02-06ER54888, "Simulation of Beam-Electron Cloud Interactions in Circular Accelerators Using Plasma Models" Viktor K. Decyk, University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 The primary goal of this collaborative proposal was to modify the code QuickPIC and apply it to study the long-time stability of beam propagation in low density electron clouds present in circular accelerators. The UCLA contribution to this collaborative proposal was in supporting the development of the pipelining scheme for the QuickPIC code, which extended the parallel scaling of this code by two orders of magnitude. The USC work was as described here the PhD research for Ms. Bing Feng, lead author in reference 2 below, who performed the research at USC under the guidance of the PI Tom Katsouleas and the collaboration of Dr. Decyk The QuickPIC code [1] is a multi-scale Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code. The outer 3D code contains a beam which propagates through a long region of plasma and evolves slowly. The plasma response to this beam is modeled by slices of a 2D plasma code. This plasma response then is fed back to the beam code, and the process repeats. The pipelining is based on the observation that once the beam has passed a 2D slice, its response can be fed back to the beam immediately without waiting for the beam to pass all the other slices. Thus independent blocks of 2D slices from different time steps can be running simultaneously. The major difficulty was when particles at the edges needed to communicate with other blocks. Two versions of the pipelining scheme were developed, for the the full quasi-static code and the other for the basic quasi-static code used by this e-cloud proposal. Details of the pipelining scheme were published in [2]. The new version of QuickPIC was able to run with more than 1,000 processors, and was successfully applied in modeling e-clouds by our collaborators in this proposal [3-8]. Jean-Luc Vay at Lawrence Berkeley

  14. Big Data and Comparative Effectiveness Research in Radiation Oncology: Synergy and Accelerated Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Trifiletti, Daniel M.; Showalter, Timothy N.

    2015-01-01

    Several advances in large data set collection and processing have the potential to provide a wave of new insights and improvements in the use of radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The era of electronic health records, genomics, and improving information technology resources creates the opportunity to leverage these developments to create a learning healthcare system that can rapidly deliver informative clinical evidence. By merging concepts from comparative effectiveness research with the tools and analytic approaches of “big data,” it is hoped that this union will accelerate discovery, improve evidence for decision making, and increase the availability of highly relevant, personalized information. This combination offers the potential to provide data and analysis that can be leveraged for ultra-personalized medicine and high-quality, cutting-edge radiation therapy. PMID:26697409

  15. Mount Aragats as a stable electron accelerator for atmospheric high-energy physics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, Ashot; Hovsepyan, Gagik; Mnatsakanyan, Eduard

    2016-03-01

    Observation of the numerous thunderstorm ground enhancements (TGEs), i.e., enhanced fluxes of electrons, gamma rays, and neutrons detected by particle detectors located on the Earth's surface and related to the strong thunderstorms above it, helped to establish a new scientific topic—high-energy physics in the atmosphere. Relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) are believed to be a central engine initiating high-energy processes in thunderstorm atmospheres. RREAs observed on Mount Aragats in Armenia during the strongest thunderstorms and simultaneous measurements of TGE electron and gamma-ray energy spectra proved that RREAs are a robust and realistic mechanism for electron acceleration. TGE research facilitates investigations of the long-standing lightning initiation problem. For the last 5 years we were experimenting with the "beams" of "electron accelerators" operating in the thunderclouds above the Aragats research station. Thunderstorms are very frequent above Aragats, peaking in May-June, and almost all of them are accompanied with enhanced particle fluxes. The station is located on a plateau at an altitude 3200 asl near a large lake. Numerous particle detectors and field meters are located in three experimental halls as well as outdoors; the facilities are operated all year round. All relevant information is being gathered, including data on particle fluxes, fields, lightning occurrences, and meteorological conditions. By the example of the huge thunderstorm that took place at Mount Aragats on August 28, 2015, we show that simultaneous detection of all the relevant data allowed us to reveal the temporal pattern of the storm development and to investigate the atmospheric discharges and particle fluxes.

  16. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division annual report, October 1981-September 1982. Fiscal year 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.K.; Bouret, C.

    1983-05-01

    This report covers the activities of LBL's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division (AFRD) during 1982. In nuclear physics, the Uranium Beams Improvement Project was concluded early in the year, and experimentation to exploit the new capabilities began in earnest. Technical improvement of the Bevalac during the year centered on a heavy-ion radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) as part of the local injector upgrade, and we collaborated in studies of high-energy heavy-ion collision facilities. The Division continued its collaboration with Fermilab to design a beam-cooling system for the Tevatron I proton-antiprotron collider and to engineer the needed cooling components for the antiproton. The high-field magnet program set yet another record for field strength in an accelerator-type dipole magnet (9.2 T at 1.8 K). The Division developed the design for the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a 1.3-GeV electron storage ring designed explicitly (with low beam emittance and 12 long straight sections) to generate high-brilliance synchrotron light from insertion devices. The Division's Magnetic Fusion Energy group continued to support major experiments at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and General Atomic Co. by developing positive-ion-based neutral-beam injectors. Progress was made toward converting our major source-test facility into a long-pulse national facility, the Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility, which was completed on schedule and within budget in 1983. Heavy Ion Fusion research focused on planning, theoretical studies, and beam-transport experiments leading toward a High Temperature Experiment - a major test of this promising backup approach to fusion energy.

  17. Research on radiation detectors, boiling transients, and organic lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The accomplishments of a space projects research facility are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) a study of radiation resistant semiconductor devices, (2) synthesis of high temperature organic lubricants, (3) departure from phase equilibrium during boiling transients, (4) effects of neutron irradiation on defect state in tungsten, and (5) determination of photon response function of NE-213 liquid scintillation detectors.

  18. Graphic Organizers in Reading Instruction: Research Findings and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xiangying; Grabe, William

    2007-01-01

    As an instructional tool, graphic organizers (GOs) have been highly recommended and used in contemporary classrooms. Over the past decade, a number of concerns have been raised about claims for the effectiveness of GOs. These concerns involve the inconsistent research results on student improvements, the limitation in generalizability from…

  19. University-Based Research Centers: Characteristics, Organization, and Administrative Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa, Creso M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the characteristics and organizational issues associated with university-based research centers. The first section sketches general characteristics and functions of centers. The second section examines major issues concerning the organization of centers, including funding and sustainability, center autonomy, and relations with…

  20. Procedure of practical exercise with students on the pathogenic effect of accelerations on the organism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyrtyshnikov, I. M.; Tarasenko, L. M.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of acceleration alone and coupled with administration of either aminazine (chlorpromazine- a sedative) or caffeine (a stimulant) on the development of kinetoses in mice were studied. The problem is presented as a method to teach students and to demonstrate the role of the nervous factor in the development of kinetosis.

  1. DNASU plasmid and PSI:Biology-Materials repositories: resources to accelerate biological research

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Catherine Y.; Park, Jin G.; Sharma, Amit; Hunter, Preston; Surapaneni, Padmini; Sedillo, Casey; Field, James; Algar, Rhys; Price, Andrea; Steel, Jason; Throop, Andrea; Fiacco, Michael; LaBaer, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    The mission of the DNASU Plasmid Repository is to accelerate research by providing high-quality, annotated plasmid samples and online plasmid resources to the research community through the curated DNASU database, website and repository (http://dnasu.asu.edu or http://dnasu.org). The collection includes plasmids from grant-funded, high-throughput cloning projects performed in our laboratory, plasmids from external researchers, and large collections from consortia such as the ORFeome Collaboration and the NIGMS-funded Protein Structure Initiative: Biology (PSI:Biology). Through DNASU, researchers can search for and access detailed information about each plasmid such as the full length gene insert sequence, vector information, associated publications, and links to external resources that provide additional protein annotations and experimental protocols. Plasmids can be requested directly through the DNASU website. DNASU and the PSI:Biology-Materials Repositories were previously described in the 2010 NAR Database Issue (Cormier, C.Y., Mohr, S.E., Zuo, D., Hu, Y., Rolfs, A., Kramer, J., Taycher, E., Kelley, F., Fiacco, M., Turnbull, G. et al. (2010) Protein Structure Initiative Material Repository: an open shared public resource of structural genomics plasmids for the biological community. Nucleic Acids Res., 38, D743–D749.). In this update we will describe the plasmid collection and highlight the new features in the website redesign, including new browse/search options, plasmid annotations and a dynamic vector mapping feature that was developed in collaboration with LabGenius. Overall, these plasmid resources continue to enable research with the goal of elucidating the role of proteins in both normal biological processes and disease. PMID:24225319

  2. 76 FR 28988 - Medicare Program; Accelerated Development Sessions for Accountable Care Organizations-June 20, 21...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Sessions for Accountable Care Organizations--June 20, 21, and 22, 2011 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare... functions of an Accountable Care Organization (ACO) and ways to build their organization's capacity to succeed as an ACO. This 3-day, in-person ADS is to help new ACOs deliver better care and reduce costs....

  3. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  4. KEK digital accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwashita, T.; Adachi, T.; Takayama, K.; Leo, K. W.; Arai, T.; Arakida, Y.; Hashimoto, M.; Kadokura, E.; Kawai, M.; Kawakubo, T.; Kubo, Tomio; Koyama, K.; Nakanishi, H.; Okazaki, K.; Okamura, K.; Someya, H.; Takagi, A.; Tokuchi, A.; Wake, M.

    2011-07-01

    The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA) is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006. The existing 40 MeV drift tube linac and rf cavities have been replaced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source embedded in a 200 kV high-voltage terminal and induction acceleration cells, respectively. A DA is, in principle, capable of accelerating any species of ion in all possible charge states. The KEK-DA is characterized by specific accelerator components such as a permanent magnet X-band ECR ion source, a low-energy transport line, an electrostatic injection kicker, an extraction septum magnet operated in air, combined-function main magnets, and an induction acceleration system. The induction acceleration method, integrating modern pulse power technology and state-of-art digital control, is crucial for the rapid-cycle KEK-DA. The key issues of beam dynamics associated with low-energy injection of heavy ions are beam loss caused by electron capture and stripping as results of the interaction with residual gas molecules and the closed orbit distortion resulting from relatively high remanent fields in the bending magnets. Attractive applications of this accelerator in materials and biological sciences are discussed.

  5. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division annual report, October 1980-September 1981. Fiscal year, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.K.; Thomson, H.A.

    1982-04-01

    Major accomplishments during fiscal year 1981 are presented. During the Laboratory's 50th anniversary celebrations, AFRD and the Nuclear Science Division formally dedicated the new (third) SuperHILAC injector that adds ions as heavy as uranium to the ion repertoire at LBL's national accelerator facilities. The Bevalac's new multiparticle detectors (the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System and the GSI-LBL Plastic Ball/Plastic Wall) were completed in time to take data before the mid-year shutdown to install the new vacuum liner, which passed a milestone in-place test with flying colors in September. The Bevalac biomedical program continued patient treatment with neon beams aimed at establishing a complete data base for a dedicated biomedical accelerator, the design of which NCI funded during the year. Our program to develop alternative Isabelle superconducting dipole magnets, which DOE initiated in FY80, proved the worth of a new magnet construction technique and set a world record - 7.6 Tesla at 1.8 K - with a model magnet in our upgraded test facility. Final test results at LBL were obtained by the Magnetic Fusion Energy Group on the powerful neutral beam injectors developed for Princeton's TFTR. The devices exceeded the original design requirements, thereby completing the six-year, multi-million-dollar NBSTF effort. The group also demonstrated the feasibility of efficient negative-ion-based neutral beam plasma heating for the future by generating 1 A of negative ions at 34 kV for 7 seconds using a newly developed source. Collaborations with other research centers continued, including: (1) the design of LBL/Exxon-dedicated beam lines for the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory; (2) beam cooling tests at Fermilab and the design of a beam cooling system for a proton-antiproton facility there; and (3) the development of a high-current betatron for possible application to a free electron laser.

  6. The ethics of pharmaceutical research funding: a social organization approach.

    PubMed

    Gray, Garry C

    2013-01-01

    This paper advances a social organization approach to examining unethical behavior. While unethical behaviors may stem in part from failures in individual morality or psychological blind spots, they are both generated and performed through social interactions among individuals and groups. To illustrate the value of a social organization approach, a case study of a medical school professor's first experience with pharmaceutical-company-sponsored research is provided in order to examine how funding arrangements can constrain research integrity. The case illustrates three significant ways that institutional corruption can occur in the research process. First, conflicts of norms between pharmaceutical companies, universities, and affiliated teaching hospitals can result in compromises and self-censorship. Second, normal behavior is shaped through routine interactions. Unethical behaviors can be (or can become) normal behaviors when they are produced and reproduced through a network of social interactions. Third, funding arrangements can create networks of dependency that structurally distort the independence of the academic researcher in favor of the funder's interests. More broadly, the case study demonstrates how the social organization approach deepens our understanding of the practice of ethics. PMID:24088153

  7. Woody plant encroachment into grasslands leads to accelerated erosion of previously stable organic carbon from dryland soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puttock, Alan; Dungait, Jennifer A. J.; Macleod, Christopher J. A.; Bol, Roland; Brazier, Richard E.

    2014-12-01

    Drylands worldwide are experiencing rapid and extensive environmental change, concomitant with the encroachment of woody vegetation into grasslands. Woody encroachment leads to changes in both the structure and function of dryland ecosystems and has been shown to result in accelerated soil erosion and loss of soil nutrients. Covering 40% of the terrestrial land surface, dryland environments are of global importance, both as a habitat and a soil carbon store. Relationships between environmental change, soil erosion, and the carbon cycle are uncertain. There is a clear need to further our understanding of dryland vegetation change and impacts on carbon dynamics. Here two grass-to-woody ecotones that occur across large areas of the southwestern United States are investigated. This study takes a multidisciplinary approach, combining ecohydrological monitoring of structure and function and a dual-proxy biogeochemical tracing approach using the unique natural biochemical signatures of the vegetation. Results show that following woody encroachment, not only do these drylands lose significantly more soil and organic carbon via erosion but that this includes significant amounts of legacy organic carbon which would previously have been stable under grass cover. Results suggest that these dryland soils may not act as a stable organic carbon pool, following encroachment and that accelerated erosion of carbon, driven by vegetation change, has important implications for carbon dynamics.

  8. Mixed-field GCR Simulations for Radiobiological Research using Ground Based Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Rusek, Adam; Cucinotta, Francis

    Space radiation is comprised of a large number of particle types and energies, which have differential ionization power from high energy protons to high charge and energy (HZE) particles and secondary neutrons produced by galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Ground based accelerators such as the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are used to simulate space radiation for radiobiology research and dosimetry, electronics parts, and shielding testing using mono-energetic beams for single ion species. As a tool to support research on new risk assessment models, we have developed a stochastic model of heavy ion beams and space radiation effects, the GCR Event-based Risk Model computer code (GERMcode). For radiobiological research on mixed-field space radiation, a new GCR simulator at NSRL is proposed. The NSRL-GCR simulator, which implements the rapid switching mode and the higher energy beam extraction to 1.5 GeV/u, can integrate multiple ions into a single simulation to create GCR Z-spectrum in major energy bins. After considering the GCR environment and energy limitations of NSRL, a GCR reference field is proposed after extensive simulation studies using the GERMcode. The GCR reference field is shown to reproduce the Z and LET spectra of GCR behind shielding within 20 percents accuracy compared to simulated full GCR environments behind shielding. A major challenge for space radiobiology research is to consider chronic GCR exposure of up to 3-years in relation to simulations with cell and animal models of human risks. We discuss possible approaches to map important biological time scales in experimental models using ground-based simulation with extended exposure of up to a few weeks and fractionation approaches at a GCR simulator.

  9. Mixed-field GCR Simulations for Radiobiological Research Using Ground Based Accelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Rusek, Adam; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2014-01-01

    Space radiation is comprised of a large number of particle types and energies, which have differential ionization power from high energy protons to high charge and energy (HZE) particles and secondary neutrons produced by galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Ground based accelerators such as the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are used to simulate space radiation for radiobiology research and dosimetry, electronics parts, and shielding testing using mono-energetic beams for single ion species. As a tool to support research on new risk assessment models, we have developed a stochastic model of heavy ion beams and space radiation effects, the GCR Event-based Risk Model computer code (GERMcode). For radiobiological research on mixed-field space radiation, a new GCR simulator at NSRL is proposed. The NSRL-GCR simulator, which implements the rapid switching mode and the higher energy beam extraction to 1.5 GeV/u, can integrate multiple ions into a single simulation to create GCR Z-spectrum in major energy bins. After considering the GCR environment and energy limitations of NSRL, a GCR reference field is proposed after extensive simulation studies using the GERMcode. The GCR reference field is shown to reproduce the Z and LET spectra of GCR behind shielding within 20% accuracy compared to simulated full GCR environments behind shielding. A major challenge for space radiobiology research is to consider chronic GCR exposure of up to 3-years in relation to simulations with cell and animal models of human risks. We discuss possible approaches to map important biological time scales in experimental models using ground-based simulation with extended exposure of up to a few weeks and fractionation approaches at a GCR simulator.

  10. Pre-design of MYRRHA, A Multipurpose Accelerator Driven System for Research and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'hondt, P.; Abderrahim, H. Aït; Kupschus, P.; Malambu, E.; Aoust, Th.; Benoit, Ph.; Sobolev, V.; Van Tichelen, K.; Arien, B.; Vermeersch, F.; Jongen, Y.; Ternier, S.; Vandeplassche, D.

    2003-08-01

    One of the main SCK•CEN research facility, namely BR2, is nowadays arriving at an age of 40 years just like the major materials testing reactors (MTR) in the world and in Europe (i.e. BR2 (B-Mol), HFR (EU-Petten), OSIRIS (F-Saclay), R2 (S-Studsvik)). The MYRRHA facility in planning has been conceived as potentially replacing BR2 and to be a fast spectrum facility complementary to the thermal spectrum RJH (Réacteur Jules Horowitz) facility, in planning in France. This situation would give Europe a full research capability in terms of nuclear R&D. Furthermore, the disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from industrial nuclear energy production has still to find a fully satisfactory solution, especially in terms of environmental and social acceptability. Scientists are looking for ways to drastically reduce (by a factor of 100 or more) the radio-toxicity of the High Level Waste (HLW) to be stored in a deep geological repository. This can be achieved via burning of minor actinides (MA) and to a less extent of long-lived fission products (LLFP) in Accelerator Driven Systems. The MYRRHA project contribution will be in helping to demonstrate the ADS concept at reasonable power level and the demonstration of the technological feasibility of MA and LLFP transmutation under real conditions.

  11. Pre-design of MYRRHA, A Multipurpose Accelerator Driven System for Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    D'hondt, P.; Abderrahim, H. Aiet; Kupschus, P.; Malambu, E.; Aoust, Th.; Benoit, Ph.; Sobolev, V.; Tichelen, K. van; Arien, B.; Vermeersch, F.; Jongen, Y.; Ternier, S.; Vandeplassche, D.

    2003-08-26

    One of the main SCKCEN research facility, namely BR2, is nowadays arriving at an age of 40 years just like the major materials testing reactors (MTR) in the world and in Europe (i.e. BR2 (B-Mol), HFR (EU-Petten), OSIRIS (F-Saclay), R2 (S-Studsvik)). The MYRRHA facility in planning has been conceived as potentially replacing BR2 and to be a fast spectrum facility complementary to the thermal spectrum RJH (Reacteur Jules Horowitz) facility, in planning in France. This situation would give Europe a full research capability in terms of nuclear R and D. Furthermore, the disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from industrial nuclear energy production has still to find a fully satisfactory solution, especially in terms of environmental and social acceptability. Scientists are looking for ways to drastically reduce (by a factor of 100 or more) the radio-toxicity of the High Level Waste (HLW) to be stored in a deep geological repository. This can be achieved via burning of minor actinides (MA) and to a less extent of long-lived fission products (LLFP) in Accelerator Driven Systems. The MYRRHA project contribution will be in helping to demonstrate the ADS concept at reasonable power level and the demonstration of the technological feasibility of MA and LLFP transmutation under real conditions.

  12. CCAP and FMRFamide-like peptides accelerate the contraction rate of the antennal accessory pulsatile organs (auxiliary hearts) of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Suggs, Julia M; Jones, Talitha H; Murphree, Steven C; Hillyer, Julián F

    2016-08-01

    Insects rely on specialized accessory pulsatile organs (APOs), also known as auxiliary hearts, to propel hemolymph into their antennae. In most insects, this is accomplished via the pulsations of a pair of ampulla located in the head, each of which propels hemolymph across an antenna via an antennal vessel. Once at the distal end of the appendage, hemolymph returns to the head via the antennal hemocoel. Although the structure of the antennal hearts has been elucidated in various insect orders, their hormonal modulation has only been studied in cockroaches and other hemimetabolous insects within the superorder Polyneoptera, where proctolin and FMRFamide-like peptides accelerate the contraction rate of these auxiliary hearts. Here, we assessed the hormonal modulation of the antennal APOs of mosquitoes, a group of holometabolous (Endopterygota) insects within the order Diptera. We show that crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), FMRFamide and SALDKNFMRFamide increase the contraction rate of the antennal APOs and the heart of Anopheles gambiae Both antennal hearts are synchronously responsive to these neuropeptides, but their contractions are asynchronous with the contraction of the heart. Furthermore, we show that these neuropeptides increase the velocity and maximum acceleration of hemolymph within the antennal space, suggesting that each contraction is also more forceful. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that hormones of a holometabolous insect modulate the contraction dynamics of an auxiliary heart, and the first report that shows that the hormones of any insect accelerate the velocity of hemolymph in the antennal space. PMID:27247317

  13. Quality Assurance Plan for Field Activities at the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC), Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.C.

    2002-02-28

    The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has established a Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program Field Research Center (FRC) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research. The FRC is located in Bear Creek Valley within the Y-12 Plant area of responsibility on DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. The NABIR program is a long-term effort designed to increase the understanding of fundamental biogeochemical processes that would allow the use of bioremediation approaches for cleaning up DOE's contaminated legacy waste sites. The FRC provides a site for investigators in the NABIR program to conduct research and obtain samples related to in situ bioremediation. The FRC is integrated with existing and future laboratory and field research and provides a means of examining the biogeochemical processes that influence bioremediation under controlled small-scale field conditions. This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) documents the quality assurance protocols for field and laboratory activities performed by the FRC staff. It supplements the requirements in the ORNL Nuclear Quality Assurance Program and the ESD Quality Assurance Program. The QAP addresses the requirements in Title 10 CFR, Part 830 Subpart A, ''Quality Assurance Requirements'', using a graded approach appropriate for Research and Development projects based on guidance from ''Implementation Guide for Quality Assurance Programs for Basic and Applied Research'' (DOE-ER-STD-6001-92). It also supports the NABIR FRC Management Plan (Watson and Quarles 2000a) which outlines the overall procedures, roles and responsibilities for conducting research at the FRC. The QAP summarizes the organization, work activities, and qualify assurance and quality control protocols that will be used to generate scientifically defensible data at the FRC. The QAP pertains to field measurements and sample collection conducted by the

  14. Recent progress in artificial organ research at Tohoku University.

    PubMed

    Yambe, Tomoyuki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Tanaka, Akira; Abe, Ken-ichi; Kawano, Satoyuki; Matsuki, Hidetoshi; Maruyama, Shigenao; Amae, Shintato; Wada, Naoshi; Kamiyama, Takamichi; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Luo, Run; Hayashi, Junko; Kovalev, Yuri A; X D Sha, Dan; Nanka, Shunsuke; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Mibiki, Yoshiyuki; Shibata, Mune-ichi; Nitta, Shin-ichi

    2003-01-01

    Tohoku University has developed various artificial organs over the last 30 years. Pneumatic driven ventricular assist devices with a silicone ball valve have been designed by the flow visualization method, and clinical trials have been performed in Tohoku University Hospital. On the basis of these developments, a pneumatic driven total artificial heart has been developed and an animal experimental evaluation was conducted. The development of artificial organs in Tohoku University has now progressed to the totally implantable type using the transcutaneous energy transmission system with amorphous fibers for magnetic shielding. Examples of implantable systems include a vibrating flow pump for ventricular assist device, an artificial myocardium by the use of shape memory alloy with Peltier elements, and an artificial sphincter for patients with a stoma. An automatic control system for artificial organs had been developed for the ventricular assist devices including a rotary blood pump to avoid suction and to maintain left and right heart balance. Based upon the technology of automatic control algorithm, a new diagnostic tool for evaluating autonomic nerve function has been developed as a branch of artificial organ research and this new machine has been tested in Tohoku University Hospital. Tohoku University is following a variety of approaches aimed at innovation in artificial organs and medical engineering fields. PMID:12534706

  15. Age-dependent changes in lipid peroxide levels in peripheral organs, but not in brain, in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Matsugo, S; Kitagawa, T; Minami, S; Esashi, Y; Oomura, Y; Tokumaru, S; Kojo, S; Matsushima, K; Sasaki, K

    2000-01-01

    The tissue concentration of lipid peroxides was determined in the brain, heart, liver, lung and kidney of accelerated senescence-prone (SAMP-8) and -resistant (SAMR-1) mice at 3, 6 and 9 months of age by a method involving chemical derivatization and high performance liquid chromatography. The level of lipid peroxides in the brain did not show an age-dependent change, but at each age the brain level of lipid peroxides was significantly higher in SAMP-8 than in SAMR-1. In contrast, the lipid peroxide levels in the peripheral organs showed increases with aging in both strains, and they were significantly higher in SAMP-8 than in SAMR-1 at both 3 and 6 months of age (except at 3 months of age in the kidney). These results suggest that increased oxidative stress in the brain and peripheral organs is a cause of the senescence-related degeneration and impairments seen in SAMP-8. PMID:10643812

  16. Induction of apoptosis accelerates reactivation of latent HSV-1 in ganglionic organ cultures and replication in cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Du, Te; Zhou, Guoying; Roizman, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses replicate at the portal of entry into the body and are transported retrograde to sensory neurons in which they can establish a silent, latent infection characterized by the expression of a noncoding latency-associated transcript and a set of microRNAs. At the portal of entry into the body and in cell culture a viral protein, VP16, recruits cellular proteins that initiate a sequential derepression of several kinetic classes of viral genes. Earlier studies have shown that upon reactivation of latent virus in ganglionic organ cultures all genes are derepressed at once, thus obviating the need for VP16 to initiate sequential derepression of viral genes. One hypothesis that could explain the data is that the massive reactivation of all classes of viral genes is the consequence of activation of an apoptotic pathway. Here we show that two proapoptotic drugs, dexamethasone and 2[[3-(2,3-dichlorophenoxy)propyl]amino]-ethanol, each accelerates viral gene expression in ganglionic organ cultures. We also show that in cultured cells apoptosis induced by dexamethasone accelerates viral gene expression and accumulation of infectious virus. The results are surprising in light of the relatively large number of viral proteins that independently block apoptosis induced by viral gene products or exogenous agents. The results suggest that the virus may rely on apoptosis to exit from latency but that apoptosis may be detrimental for virus replication or spread at the portal of entry into the body. PMID:22908263

  17. A curated and standardized adverse drug event resource to accelerate drug safety research

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Juan M.; Evans, Lee; Vanguri, Rami S.; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Ryan, Patrick B.; Shah, Nigam H.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) during the post-marketing phase is one of the most important goals of drug safety surveillance. Spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) data, which are the mainstay of traditional drug safety surveillance, are used for hypothesis generation and to validate the newer approaches. The publicly available US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) data requires substantial curation before they can be used appropriately, and applying different strategies for data cleaning and normalization can have material impact on analysis results. We provide a curated and standardized version of FAERS removing duplicate case records, applying standardized vocabularies with drug names mapped to RxNorm concepts and outcomes mapped to SNOMED-CT concepts, and pre-computed summary statistics about drug-outcome relationships for general consumption. This publicly available resource, along with the source code, will accelerate drug safety research by reducing the amount of time spent performing data management on the source FAERS reports, improving the quality of the underlying data, and enabling standardized analyses using common vocabularies. PMID:27193236

  18. Heavy ion fusion accelerator research (HIFAR) half-year report: October 1, 1986-March 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    For this report we have collected the papers presented by the HIFAR group at the IEEE Particle Accelerator Conference held in Washington, DC, on March 16-19, 1987, which essentially coincides with the end of the reporting period. In addition, we report on research to determine the cause of the failures of Re-X insulator that are used as the high-voltage feed-through for the electrostatic quadrupoles on MBE-4. This report contains papers on the following topics: LBL multiple beam experiments, pulsers for the induction linac experiment (MBE-4), HIF insulator failure, experimental measurement of emittance growth in mismatched space-charge dominated beams, the effect of nonlinear forces on coherently oscillating space-charge dominated beams, space-charge effects in a bending magnet system, transverse combining of nonrelativistic beams in a multiple beam induction linac, comparison of electric and magnetic quadrupole focusing for the low energy end of an induction-linac-ICF driver. Eight individual papers have been indexed separately. (LSP)

  19. A curated and standardized adverse drug event resource to accelerate drug safety research.

    PubMed

    Banda, Juan M; Evans, Lee; Vanguri, Rami S; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Ryan, Patrick B; Shah, Nigam H

    2016-01-01

    Identification of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) during the post-marketing phase is one of the most important goals of drug safety surveillance. Spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) data, which are the mainstay of traditional drug safety surveillance, are used for hypothesis generation and to validate the newer approaches. The publicly available US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) data requires substantial curation before they can be used appropriately, and applying different strategies for data cleaning and normalization can have material impact on analysis results. We provide a curated and standardized version of FAERS removing duplicate case records, applying standardized vocabularies with drug names mapped to RxNorm concepts and outcomes mapped to SNOMED-CT concepts, and pre-computed summary statistics about drug-outcome relationships for general consumption. This publicly available resource, along with the source code, will accelerate drug safety research by reducing the amount of time spent performing data management on the source FAERS reports, improving the quality of the underlying data, and enabling standardized analyses using common vocabularies. PMID:27193236

  20. Taking Control of Castleman Disease: Leveraging Precision Medicine Technologies to Accelerate Rare Disease Research

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Samantha Kass; Jayanthan, Raj K.; Mitchell, Grant W.; Carreras Tartak, Jossie A.; Croglio, Michael P.; Suarez, Alexander; Liu, Amy Y.; Razzo, Beatrice M.; Oyeniran, Enny; Ruth, Jason R.; Fajgenbaum, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Castleman disease (CD) is a rare and heterogeneous disorder characterized by lymphadenopathy that may occur in a single lymph node (unicentric) or multiple lymph nodes (multicentric), the latter typically occurring secondary to excessive proinflammatory hypercytokinemia. While a cohort of multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) cases are caused by Human Herpes Virus-8 (HHV-8), the etiology of HHV-8 negative, idiopathic MCD (iMCD), remains unknown. Breakthroughs in “omics” technologies that have facilitated the development of precision medicine hold promise for elucidating disease pathogenesis and identifying novel therapies for iMCD. However, in order to leverage precision medicine approaches in rare diseases like CD, stakeholders need to overcome several challenges. To address these challenges, the Castleman Disease Collaborative Network (CDCN) was founded in 2012. In the past 3 years, the CDCN has worked to transform the understanding of the pathogenesis of CD, funded and initiated genomics and proteomics research, and united international experts in a collaborative effort to accelerate progress for CD patients. The CDCN’s collaborative structure leverages the tools of precision medicine and serves as a model for both scientific discovery and advancing patient care. PMID:26604862

  1. Environmental Assessment for Selection and Operation of the Proposed Field Research Centers for the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-04-18

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), within the Office of Science (SC), proposes to add a Field Research Center (FRC) component to the existing Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. The NABIR Program is a ten-year fundamental research program designed to increase the understanding of fundamental biogeochemical processes that would allow the use of bioremediation approaches for cleaning up DOE's contaminated legacy waste sites. An FRC would be integrated with the existing and future laboratory and field research and would provide a means of examining the fundamental biogeochemical processes that influence bioremediation under controlled small-scale field conditions. The NABIR Program would continue to perform fundamental research that might lead to promising bioremediation technologies that could be demonstrated by other means in the future. For over 50 years, DOE and its predecessor agencies have been responsible for the research, design, and production of nuclear weapons, as well as other energy-related research and development efforts. DOE's weapons production and research activities generated hazardous, mixed, and radioactive waste products. Past disposal practices have led to the contamination of soils, sediments, and groundwater with complex and exotic mixtures of compounds. This contamination and its associated costs and risks represents a major concern to DOE and the public. The high costs, long duration, and technical challenges associated with remediating the subsurface contamination at DOE sites present a significant need for fundamental research in the biological, chemical, and physical sciences that will contribute to new and cost-effective solutions. One possible low-cost approach for remediating the subsurface contamination of DOE sites is through the use of a technology known as bioremediation. Bioremediation has been defined as the use of microorganisms to biodegrade or

  2. Ultra-Stable Organic Fluorophores for Single-Molecule Research

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qinsi; Juette, Manuel F.; Jockusch, Steffen; Wasserman, Michael R.; Zhou, Zhou; Altman, Roger B.; Blanchard, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence provides a mechanism for achieving contrast in biological imaging that enables investigations of molecular structure, dynamics, and function at high spatial and temporal resolution. Small-molecule organic fluorophores have proven essential for such efforts and are widely used in advanced applications such as single-molecule and super-resolution microscopy. Yet, organic fluorophores, like all fluorescent species, exhibit instabilities in their emission characteristics, including blinking and photobleaching that limit their utility and performance. Here, we review the photophysics and photochemistry of organic fluorophores as they pertain to mitigating such instabilities, with a specific focus on the development of stabilized fluorophores through derivatization. Self-healing organic fluorophores, wherein the triplet state is intramolecularly quenched by a covalently attached protective agent, exhibit markedly improved photostabilities. We discuss the potential for further enhancements towards the goal of developing “ultra-stable” fluorophores spanning the visible spectrum and how such fluorophores are likely to impact the future of single-molecule research. PMID:24177677

  3. Simulation of launch and re-entry acceleration profiles for testing of Shuttle and unmanned microgravity research payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassanto, J. M.; Ziserman, H. I.; Chapman, D. K.; Korszun, Z. R.; Todd, D. K.

    1988-01-01

    A procedure was developed for the simulation of the launch and reentry acceleration profiles of the Space Shuttle (3.3 and 1.7 g maximum, respectively) and of two versions of NASA's proposed materials research Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) (8 and 4 g maximum, respectively). With a 7-m centrifuge, the time dependence of five different acceleration episodes was simulated for payload masses up to 59 kg. Test results obtained for the Materials Dispersion Apparatus, a commercial low-cost payload device, are presented.

  4. Induction accelerators and free-electron lasers at LLNL: Beam Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, R.J.

    1989-02-15

    Linear induction accelerators have been developed to produce pulses of charged particles at voltages exceeding the capabilities of single-stage, diode-type accelerators and at currents too high rf accelerators. In principle, one can accelerate charged particles to arbitrarily high voltages using a multistage induction machine. The advent of magnetic pulse power systems makes sustained operation at high repetition rates practical, and high-average-power capability is very likely to open up many new applications of induction machines. In Part A of this paper, we survey the US induction linac technology, emphasizing electron machines. We also give a simplified description of how induction machines couple energy to the electron beam to illustrate many general issues that designers of high-brightness and high-average-power induction linacs must consider. We give an example of the application of induction accelerator technology to the relativistic klystron, a power source for high-gradient accelerators. In Part B we address the application of LIAs to free-electron lasers. The multikiloampere peak currents available from linear induction accelerators make high-gain, free-electron laser amplifier configurations feasible. High extraction efficiencies in a single mass of the electron beam are possible if the wiggler parameters are appropriately ''tapered'', as recently demonstrated at millimeter wavelengths on the 4-MeV ELF facility. Key issues involved in extending the technology to shorter wavelengths and higher average powers are described. Current FEL experiments at LLNL are discussed. 5 refs., 16 figs.

  5. European research on cell and organ transplantation: towards novel opportunities?

    PubMed

    Goldman, Michel; Wood, Kathryn

    2007-12-01

    Recent developments in basic and translational immunology open new exciting perspectives for clinical cell and organ transplantation, including the development of novel immunosuppressive agents, new diagnostic tools and validation of biomarkers for the prediction of rejection as well as the induction of tolerance. With respect to tolerance, a number of hurdles still need to be overcome before immunosuppressive drugs can be safely minimized or withdrawn in solid organ transplant recipients. Indeed, the human immune system appears more resistant to tolerance induction than expected from experimental studies in animals. Furthermore, the basic ethical principle 'primum non-nocere' prevents the implementation of clinical protocols endowed with a significant risk for graft and/or patient survival. With this background, the European Commission recently launched several initiatives to tackle unmet needs in transplantation medicine. Herein, we focus attention on the ongoing collaborative effort across the European Union aiming at identifying the current priorities requiring better integration of resources dedicated to transplantation research. PMID:17803662

  6. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) half-year report, October 1, 1985-March 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: (1) beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; (2) development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple beam hardware, at affordable costs; (3) acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification - both new features in a linac - without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; (4) fianl bunching, transport, and accurate focussing on a small target.

  7. The Project Data Sphere Initiative: Accelerating Cancer Research by Sharing Data

    PubMed Central

    Reeder-Hayes, Katherine E.; Corty, Robert W.; Basch, Ethan; Milowsky, Mathew I.; Dusetzina, Stacie B.; Bennett, Antonia V.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In this paper, we provide background and context regarding the potential for a new data-sharing platform, the Project Data Sphere (PDS) initiative, funded by financial and in-kind contributions from the CEO Roundtable on Cancer, to transform cancer research and improve patient outcomes. Given the relatively modest decline in cancer death rates over the past several years, a new research paradigm is needed to accelerate therapeutic approaches for oncologic diseases. Phase III clinical trials generate large volumes of potentially usable information, often on hundreds of patients, including patients treated with standard of care therapies (i.e., controls). Both nationally and internationally, a variety of stakeholders have pursued data-sharing efforts to make individual patient-level clinical trial data available to the scientific research community. Potential Benefits and Risks of Data Sharing. For researchers, shared data have the potential to foster a more collaborative environment, to answer research questions in a shorter time frame than traditional randomized control trials, to reduce duplication of effort, and to improve efficiency. For industry participants, use of trial data to answer additional clinical questions could increase research and development efficiency and guide future projects through validation of surrogate end points, development of prognostic or predictive models, selection of patients for phase II trials, stratification in phase III studies, and identification of patient subgroups for development of novel therapies. Data transparency also helps promote a public image of collaboration and altruism among industry participants. For patient participants, data sharing maximizes their contribution to public health and increases access to information that may be used to develop better treatments. Concerns about data-sharing efforts include protection of patient privacy and confidentiality. To alleviate these concerns, data sets are

  8. Methods in plant foliar volatile organic compounds research.

    PubMed

    Materić, Dušan; Bruhn, Dan; Turner, Claire; Morgan, Geraint; Mason, Nigel; Gauci, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Plants are a major atmospheric source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These secondary metabolic products protect plants from high-temperature stress, mediate in plant-plant and plant-insect communication, and affect our climate globally. The main challenges in plant foliar VOC research are accurate sampling, the inherent reactivity of some VOC compounds that makes them hard to detect directly, and their low concentrations. Plant VOC research relies on analytical techniques for trace gas analysis, usually based on gas chromatography and soft chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Until now, these techniques (especially the latter one) have been developed and used primarily by physicists and analytical scientists, who have used them in a wide range of scientific research areas (e.g., aroma, disease biomarkers, hazardous compound detection, atmospheric chemistry). The interdisciplinary nature of plant foliar VOC research has recently attracted the attention of biologists, bringing them into the field of applied environmental analytical sciences. In this paper, we review the sampling methods and available analytical techniques used in plant foliar VOC research to provide a comprehensive resource that will allow biologists moving into the field to choose the most appropriate approach for their studies. PMID:26697273

  9. Methods in plant foliar volatile organic compounds research1

    PubMed Central

    Materić, Dušan; Bruhn, Dan; Turner, Claire; Morgan, Geraint; Mason, Nigel; Gauci, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Plants are a major atmospheric source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These secondary metabolic products protect plants from high-temperature stress, mediate in plant–plant and plant–insect communication, and affect our climate globally. The main challenges in plant foliar VOC research are accurate sampling, the inherent reactivity of some VOC compounds that makes them hard to detect directly, and their low concentrations. Plant VOC research relies on analytical techniques for trace gas analysis, usually based on gas chromatography and soft chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Until now, these techniques (especially the latter one) have been developed and used primarily by physicists and analytical scientists, who have used them in a wide range of scientific research areas (e.g., aroma, disease biomarkers, hazardous compound detection, atmospheric chemistry). The interdisciplinary nature of plant foliar VOC research has recently attracted the attention of biologists, bringing them into the field of applied environmental analytical sciences. In this paper, we review the sampling methods and available analytical techniques used in plant foliar VOC research to provide a comprehensive resource that will allow biologists moving into the field to choose the most appropriate approach for their studies. PMID:26697273

  10. BESTIA - the next generation ultra-fast CO2 laser for advanced accelerator research

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelsky, Igor V.; Babzien, Markus; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Skaritka, John; Polyanskiy, Mikhail N.

    2015-12-02

    Over the last two decades, BNL’s ATF has pioneered the use of high-peak power CO2 lasers for research in advanced accelerators and radiation sources. In addition, our recent developments in ion acceleration, Compton scattering, and IFELs have further underscored the benefits from expanding the landscape of strong-field laser interactions deeper into the mid-infrared (MIR) range of wavelengths. This extension validates our ongoing efforts in advancing CO2 laser technology, which we report here. Our next-generation, multi-terawatt, femtosecond CO2 laser will open new opportunities for studying ultra-relativistic laser interactions with plasma in the MIR spectral domain, including new regimes in the particle acceleration of ions and electrons.

  11. 76 FR 66931 - Medicare Program; Accountable Care Organization Accelerated Development Learning Sessions; Center...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... improve the capabilities of provider organizations to coordinate the care of a population of Medicare... improve beneficiaries' quality outcomes and reduce the growth of Medicare expenditures. Completion of the... to build capacity needed to achieve better care for individuals, better population health, and...

  12. Does Accelerated Soil Organic Matter Decomposition in the Presence of Plants Increase Plant N Availability?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant roots can increase microbial activity and soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition via rhizosphere priming effects. It is virtually unknown how differences in the priming effect among plant species and soil type affect N mineralization and plant uptake. In a greenhouse experiment, we tested whe...

  13. 76 FR 50224 - Medicare Program; Accountable Care Organization Accelerated Development Learning Sessions; Center...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... Federal Register (76 FR 28988). Each participating team should consist of two to four senior-level leaders... the opportunity to learn about core functions of an ACO and ways to build their organization's... at https://acoregister.rti.org/ . Click on ``contact us'' to send questions or comments via...

  14. Research for the Fluid Field of the Centrifugal Compressor Impeller in Accelerating Startup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaozhu; Chen, Gang; Zhu, Changyun; Qin, Guoliang

    2013-03-01

    In order to study the flow field in the impeller in the accelerating start-up process of centrifugal compressor, the 3-D and 1-D transient accelerated flow governing equations along streamline in the impeller of the centrifugal compressor are derived in detail, the assumption of pressure gradient distribution is presented, and the solving method for 1-D transient accelerating flow field is given based on the assumption. The solving method is achieved by programming and the computing result is obtained. It is obtained by comparison that the computing method is met with the test result. So the feasibility and effectiveness for solving accelerating start-up problem of centrifugal compressor by the solving method in this paper is proven.

  15. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1985-September 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    The heavy ion accelerator is profiled. Energy losses, currents, kinetic energy, beam optics, pulse models and mechanical tolerances are included in the discussion. In addition, computational efforts and an energy analyzer are described. 37 refs., 27 figs. (WRF)

  16. Research methods for parameters of accelerated low-energy proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystritsky, V. M.; Dudkin, G. N.; Kyznetsov, S. I.; Nechaev, B. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Philippov, A. V.; Sadovsky, A. B.; Varlachev, V. A.; Zvaygintsev, O. A.

    2015-07-01

    To study the pd-reaction cross-section it is necessary to know the main parameters of the accelerated hydrogen ion beam with a high accuracy. These parameters include: the energy ion dispersion; the content of neutrals; the ratio of atomic and molecular ions of hydrogen in the flux of accelerated particles. This work is aimed at development of techniques and the measurement of the above mentioned parameters of the low-energy proton beam.

  17. Experimental Research on the Laser Cyclotron Auto-Resonance Accelerator “LACARA”

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, T C

    2008-11-11

    The Laser Cyclotron Auto-Resonant Accelerator LACARA has successfully operated this year. Results are summarized, an interpretation of operating data is provided in the body of the report, and recommendations are made how the experiment should be carried forward. The Appendix A contains a description of the LACARA apparatus, currently installed at the Accelerator Test Facility, Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report summarizes the project, extending over three grant-years.

  18. Report of the Subpanel on Accelerator Research and Development of the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Accelerator R and D in the US High Energy Physics (HEP) program is reviewed. As a result of this study, some shift in priority, particularly as regards long-range accelerator R and D, is suggested to best serve the future needs of the US HEP program. Some specific new directions for the US R and D effort are set forth. 18 figures, 5 tables. (RWR)

  19. LLNL/UC (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)/(University of California) AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) facility and research program

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.C.; Proctor, I.D.; Southon, J.R.; Caffee, M.W.; Heikkinen, D.W.; Roberts, M.L.; Moore, T.L.; Turteltaub, K.W.; Nelson, D.E.; Loyd, D.H.; Vogel, J.S.

    1990-04-18

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California (UC) now have in operation a large AMS spectrometer built as part of a new multiuser laboratory centered on an FN tandem. AMS measurements are expected to use half of the beam time of the accelerator. LLNL use of AMS is in research on consequences of energy usage. Examples include global warming, geophysical site characterization, radiation biology and dosimetry, and study of mutagenic and carcinogenic processes. UC research activities are in clinical applications, archaeology and anthropology, oceanography, and geophysical and geochemical research. Access is also possible for researchers outside the UC system. The technological focus of the laboratory is on achieving high rates of sample through-put, unattended operation, and advances in sample preparation methods. Because of the expected growth in the research programs and the other obligations of the present accelerator, we are designing a follow-on dedicated facility for only AMS and microprobe analysis that will contain at least two accelerators with multiple spectrometers. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Interesting experimental results in Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex H- ion-source development (invited).

    PubMed

    Ueno, A; Oguri, H; Ikegami, K; Namekawa, Y; Ohkoshi, K

    2010-02-01

    The following interesting experimental results observed in Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) H(-) ion-source developments are reviewed. It was proven that almost all of H(-) ions were produced with surface reactions in cesium (Cs)-free J-PARC H(-) ion-sources. The world's most intense class H(-) ion current of 38 mA in Cs-free ion sources for a high-energy linac was attained by an optimal shape and high temperature of the plasma electrode (PE), usage of a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB(6)) filament, and a newly devised high-power constant-current pulsed-arc power supply indispensable for it. It was also proven that the H(-) ion current could be increased to more than 40 mA by optimizing LaB(6)-filament shape. The surface elemental analysis of the PE after operation with a LaB(6)-filament showed that it was coated by boron (B) 95.5%, lanthanum (La) 2.5%, and oxygen (O) 1.9%. The H(-) ion current decreased by about 20% when a tungsten (W) filament was used instead of a LaB(6)-filament. The H(-) ion current could not be increased by seeding cesium (Cs) if the LaB(6)-filament was used. On the other hand, it was increased to more than 70 mA with much lower arc current of 150 A if Cs was seeded when a W-filament was used. PMID:20192389

  1. Progress towards the development of transient ram accelerator simulation as part of the U.S. Air Force Armament Directorate Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, N.; York, B. J.; Dash, S. M.; Drabczuk, R.; Rolader, G. E.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the development of an advanced CFD simulation capability in support of the U.S. Air Force Armament Directorate's ram accelerator research initiative. The state-of-the-art CRAFT computer code has been specialized for high fidelity, transient ram accelerator simulations via inclusion of generalized dynamic gridding, solution adaptive grid clustering, high pressure thermochemistry, etc. Selected ram accelerator simulations are presented which serve to exhibit the CRAFT code's capabilities and identify some of the principal research/design issues.

  2. Enhanced anaerobic fermentation with azo dye as electron acceptor: simultaneous acceleration of organics decomposition and azo decolorization.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Zhang, Jingxin; Chen, Shuo; Afzal, Shahzad

    2014-10-01

    Accumulation of hydrogen during anaerobic processes usually results in low decomposition of volatile organic acids (VFAs). On the other hand, hydrogen is a good electron donor for dye reduction, which would help the acetogenic conversion in keeping low hydrogen concentration. The main objective of the study was to accelerate VFA composition through using azo dye as electron acceptor. The results indicated that the azo dye serving as an electron acceptor could avoid H2 accumulation and accelerate anaerobic digestion of VFAs. After adding the azo dye, propionate decreased from 2400.0 to 689.5mg/L and acetate production increased from 180.0 to 519.5mg/L. It meant that the conversion of propionate into acetate was enhanced. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that the abundance of propionate-utilizing acetogens with the presence of azo dye was greater than that in a reference without azo dye. The experiments via using glucose as the substrate further demonstrated that the VFA decomposition and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal increased by 319.7mg/L and 23.3% respectively after adding the azo dye. Therefore, adding moderate azo dye might be a way to recover anaerobic system from deterioration due to the accumulation of H2 or VFAs. PMID:25288539

  3. Organization of Biomedical Data for Collaborative Scientific Research: A Research Information Management System

    PubMed Central

    Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L.

    2010-01-01

    Biomedical researchers often work with massive, detailed and heterogeneous datasets. These datasets raise new challenges of information organization and management for scientific interpretation, as they demand much of the researchers’ time and attention. The current study investigated the nature of the problems that researchers face when dealing with such data. Four major problems identified with existing biomedical scientific information management methods were related to data organization, data sharing, collaboration, and publications. Therefore, there is a compelling need to develop an efficient and user-friendly information management system to handle the biomedical research data. This study evaluated the implementation of an information management system, which was introduced as part of the collaborative research to increase scientific productivity in a research laboratory. Laboratory members seemed to exhibit frustration during the implementation process. However, empirical findings revealed that they gained new knowledge and completed specified tasks while working together with the new system. Hence, researchers are urged to persist and persevere when dealing with any new technology, including an information management system in a research laboratory environment. PMID:20543892

  4. Burkitt lymphoma research in East Africa: highlights from the 9th African organization for research and training in cancer conference held in Durban, South Africa in 2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A one-day workshop on Burkitt lymphoma (BL) was held at the 9th African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC) conference in 2013 in Durban, South Africa. The workshop featured 15 plenary talks by delegates representing 13 institutions that either fund or implement research on BL targeting AORTIC delegates primarily interested in pediatric oncology. The main outcomes of the meeting were improved sharing of knowledge and experience about ongoing epidemiologic BL research, BL treatment in different settings, the role of cancer registries in cancer research, and opportunities for African scientists to publish in scientific journals. The idea of forming a consortium of BL to improve coordination, information sharing, accelerate discovery, dissemination, and translation of knowledge and to build capacity, while reducing redundant efforts was discussed. Here, we summarize the presentations and discussions from the workshop. PMID:25686906

  5. Fungal decomposition of terrestrial organic matter accelerated Early Jurassic climate warming

    PubMed Central

    Pieńkowski, Grzegorz; Hodbod, Marta; Ullmann, Clemens V.

    2016-01-01

    Soils – constituting the largest terrestrial carbon pool - are vulnerable to climatic warming. Currently existing uncertainties regarding carbon fluxes within terrestrial systems can be addressed by studies of past carbon cycle dynamics and related climate change recorded in sedimentary successions. Here we show an example from the Early Jurassic (early Toarcian, c. 183 mya) marginal-marine strata from Poland, tracking the hinterland response to climatic changes through a super-greenhouse event. In contrast to anoxia-related enhanced carbon storage in coeval open marine environments, Total Organic Carbon (TOC) concentrations in the Polish successions are substantially reduced during this event. Increasing temperature favoured fungal-mediated decomposition of plant litter – specifically of normally resistant woody tissues. The associated injection of oxidized organic matter into the atmosphere corresponds to abrupt changes in standing vegetation and may have contributed significantly to the amplified greenhouse climate on Earth. The characteristic Toarcian signature of multiple warm pulses coinciding with rapidly decreasing carbon isotope ratios may in part be the result of a radical reduction of the terrestrial carbon pool as a response to climate change. PMID:27554210

  6. Fungal decomposition of terrestrial organic matter accelerated Early Jurassic climate warming.

    PubMed

    Pieńkowski, Grzegorz; Hodbod, Marta; Ullmann, Clemens V

    2016-01-01

    Soils - constituting the largest terrestrial carbon pool - are vulnerable to climatic warming. Currently existing uncertainties regarding carbon fluxes within terrestrial systems can be addressed by studies of past carbon cycle dynamics and related climate change recorded in sedimentary successions. Here we show an example from the Early Jurassic (early Toarcian, c. 183 mya) marginal-marine strata from Poland, tracking the hinterland response to climatic changes through a super-greenhouse event. In contrast to anoxia-related enhanced carbon storage in coeval open marine environments, Total Organic Carbon (TOC) concentrations in the Polish successions are substantially reduced during this event. Increasing temperature favoured fungal-mediated decomposition of plant litter - specifically of normally resistant woody tissues. The associated injection of oxidized organic matter into the atmosphere corresponds to abrupt changes in standing vegetation and may have contributed significantly to the amplified greenhouse climate on Earth. The characteristic Toarcian signature of multiple warm pulses coinciding with rapidly decreasing carbon isotope ratios may in part be the result of a radical reduction of the terrestrial carbon pool as a response to climate change. PMID:27554210

  7. The prisoner as model organism: malaria research at Stateville Penitentiary.

    PubMed

    Comfort, Nathaniel

    2009-09-01

    In a military-sponsored research project begun during the Second World War, inmates of the Stateville Penitentiary in Illinois were infected with malaria and treated with experimental drugs that sometimes had vicious side effects. They were made into reservoirs for the disease and they provided a food supply for the mosquito cultures. They acted as secretaries and technicians, recording data on one another, administering malarious mosquito bites and experimental drugs to one another, and helping decide who was admitted to the project and who became eligible for early parole as a result of his participation. Thus, the prisoners were not simply research subjects; they were deeply constitutive of the research project. Because a prisoner's time on the project was counted as part of his sentence, and because serving on the project could shorten one's sentence, the project must be seen as simultaneously serving the functions of research and punishment. Michel Foucault wrote about such 'mixed mechanisms' in his Discipline and punish. His shining example of such a 'transparent' and subtle style of punishment was the panopticon, Jeremy Bentham's architectural invention of prison cellblocks arrayed around a central guard tower. Stateville prison was designed on Bentham's model; Foucault featured it in his own discussion. This paper, then, explores the power relations in this highly idiosyncratic experimental system, in which the various roles of model organism, reagent, and technician are all occupied by sentient beings who move among them fluidly. This, I argue, created an environment in the Stateville hospital wing more panoptic than that in the cellblocks. Research and punishment were completely interpenetrating, and mutually reinforcing. PMID:19720327

  8. The prisoner as model organism: malaria research at Stateville Penitentiary

    PubMed Central

    Comfort, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    In a military-sponsored research project begun during the Second World War, inmates of the Stateville Penitentiary in Illinois were infected with malaria and treated with experimental drugs that sometimes had vicious side effects. They were made into reservoirs for the disease and they provided a food supply for the mosquito cultures. They acted as secretaries and technicians, recording data on one another, administering malarious mosquito bites and experimental drugs to one another, and helping decide who was admitted to the project and who became eligible for early parole as a result of his participation. Thus, the prisoners were not simply research subjects; they were deeply constitutive of the research project. Because a prisoner’s time on the project was counted as part of his sentence, and because serving on the project could shorten one’s sentence, the project must be seen as simultaneously serving the functions of research and punishment. Michel Foucault wrote about such ‘mixed mechanisms’ in his Discipline and punish. His shining example of such a ‘transparent’ and subtle style of punishment was the panopticon, Jeremy Bentham’s architectural invention of prison cellblocks arrayed around a central guard tower. Stateville prison was designed on Bentham’s model; Foucault featured it in his own discussion. This paper, then, explores the power relations in this highly idiosyncratic experimental system, in which the various roles of model organism, reagent, and technician are all occupied by sentient beings who move among them fluidly. This, I argue, created an environment in the Stateville hospital wing more panoptic than that in the cellblocks. Research and punishment were completely interpenetrating, and mutually reinforcing. PMID:19720327

  9. Simulation of launch and re-entry acceleration profiles for testing of shuttle and unmanned microgravity research payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassanto, J. M.; Ziserman, H. I.; Chapman, D. K.; Korszun, Z. R.; Todd, P.

    Microgravity experiments designed for execution in Get-Away Special canisters, Hitchhiker modules, and Reusable Re-entry Satellites will be subjected to launch and re-entry accelerations. Crew-dependent provisions for preventing acceleration damage to equipment or products will not be available for these payloads during flight; therefore, the effects of launch and re-entry accelerations on all aspects of such payloads must be evaluated prior to flight. A procedure was developed for conveniently simulating the launch and re-entry acceleration profiles of the Space Shuttle (3.3 and 1.7 × g maximum, respectively) and of two versions of NASA's proposed materials research Re-usable Re-entry Satellite (8 × g maximum in one case and 4 × g in the other). By using the 7 m centrifuge of the Gravitational Plant Physiology Laboratory in Philadelphia it was found possible to simulate the time dependence of these 5 different acceleration episodes for payload masses up to 59 kg. A commercial low-cost payload device, the “Materials Dispersion Apparatus” of Instrumentation Technology Associates was tested for (1) integrity of mechanical function, (2) retention of fluid in its compartments, and (3) integrity of products under simulated re-entry g-loads. In particular, the sharp rise from 1 g to maximum g-loading that occurs during re-entry in various unmanned vehicles was successfully simulated, conditions were established for reliable functioning of the MDA, and crystals of 5 proteins suspended in compartments filled with mother liquor were subjected to this acceleration load.

  10. Senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM): a biogerontological resource in aging research.

    PubMed

    Takeda, T

    1999-01-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM), consisting of 14 senescence-prone inbred strains (SAMP) and 4 senescence-resistant inbred strains (SAMR) has been under development since 1970 through the selective inbreeding of AKR/J strain mice donated by the Jackson laboratory in 1968, based on the data of the grading score of senescence, life span, and pathologic phenotypes. The characteristic feature of aging common to all SAMP and SAMR mice is accelerated senescence and normal aging, respectively. Furthermore, SAMP and SAMR strains manifest various pathobiological phenotypes which include such neurobiological phenotypes as deficits in learning and memory, emotional disorders, abnormal circadian rhythms, brain atrophy, hearing impairment, etc., and are often characteristic enough to differentiate the strains. Various efforts are currently being made using the SAM model to clarify the underlying mechanisms in accelerated senescence as well as the etiopathogenic mechanisms in age-associated pathobiologies. Genetic background and significance of SAM development are discussed. PMID:10537019

  11. The application of electrostatic accelerators in research and industry—A summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, G. A.; Klody, G. M.

    1997-02-01

    The applications of electrostatic accelerators span fields from art history to zoology. The applications fit into two main groups, materials analysis and materials modification. Materials analysis includes routine use of Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) for quality control in semiconductor manufacturing and other areas. Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) is used in fields from art history through the environmental sciences. X-ray imaging using 5 MeV dc electron beams and Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) for plastic explosive and drug detection provide promise in the area of security. Accelerator based mass spectrometry (AMS) is having a profound effect on a wide variety of fields which rely on counting extremely rare isotopes in small samples. Accelerators used for materials modification continue to have a significant economic impact in the field of semiconductors. Fabrication of virtually all semiconductor devices now relies on ion implantation with ion beam energies ranging from a few kilovolts to several MeV.

  12. Technology evaluation of man-rated acceleration test equipment for vestibular research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taback, I.; Kenimer, R. L.; Butterfield, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    The considerations for eliminating acceleration noise cues in horizontal, linear, cyclic-motion sleds intended for both ground and shuttle-flight applications are addressed. the principal concerns are the acceleration transients associated with change in direction-of-motion for the carriage. The study presents a design limit for acceleration cues or transients based upon published measurements for thresholds of human perception to linear cyclic motion. The sources and levels for motion transients are presented based upon measurements obtained from existing sled systems. The approaches to a noise-free system recommends the use of air bearings for the carriage support and moving-coil linear induction motors operating at low frequency as the drive system. Metal belts running on air bearing pulleys provide an alternate approach to the driving system. The appendix presents a discussion of alternate testing techniques intended to provide preliminary type data by means of pendulums, linear motion devices and commercial air bearing tables.

  13. Solar Technology Acceleration Center (SolarTAC): Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-259

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, W.

    2011-10-01

    This agreement allowed NREL to serve as an advisor on SolarTAC - a collaborative effort between Xcel Energy, NREL, and the University of Colorado at Boulder. The collaboration was formed to accelerate pre-commercial and early commercial solar energy technologies to the marketplace. Through this CRADA, NREL participated in the deployment of solar energy generation technologies and related solar equipment for research, testing, validation, and demonstration purposes.

  14. Finite difference method accelerated with sparse solvers for structural analysis of the metal-organic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guda, A. A.; Guda, S. A.; Soldatov, M. A.; Lomachenko, K. A.; Bugaev, A. L.; Lamberti, C.; Gawelda, W.; Bressler, C.; Smolentsev, G.; Soldatov, A. V.; Joly, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Finite difference method (FDM) implemented in the FDMNES software [Phys. Rev. B, 2001, 63, 125120] was revised. Thorough analysis shows, that the calculated diagonal in the FDM matrix consists of about 96% zero elements. Thus a sparse solver would be more suitable for the problem instead of traditional Gaussian elimination for the diagonal neighbourhood. We have tried several iterative sparse solvers and the direct one MUMPS solver with METIS ordering turned out to be the best. Compared to the Gaussian solver present method is up to 40 times faster and allows XANES simulations for complex systems already on personal computers. We show applicability of the software for metal-organic [Fe(bpy)3]2+ complex both for low spin and high spin states populated after laser excitation.

  15. Driving with Bioptic Telescopes: Organizing a Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Being a licensed driver in the U. S. and many other countries facilitates health and well-being. Based on the vision standards in most states, individuals with worse than 20/40 visual acuity who desire licensure are denied through the usual licensure application process. However, over 40 states have bioptic telescope licensing programs where applicants can gain licensure contingent on meeting specific requirements. In spite of the existence of the bioptic telescope and these licensing programs since the 1970s, there has been little rigorous scientific study of this topic. Here I offer an organizing perspective for a research agenda on driving with bioptic telescopes, with the long term practical goal being to provide an evidence basis for licensure policies and training programs. PMID:22863791

  16. Research Performances of Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) Members

    PubMed Central

    Khoubnasabjafari, Maryam; Sadeghifar, Eliza; Khalili, Majid; Ansarin, Khalil; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Scientometric analysis of academic institutions provides useful information for policy makers, international and national organizations to invest in the research fields of the institutions to gain more outputs with less cost. The objectives of this work were to report a scientometric analysis of Islamic states considering a number of indicators. Methods The number of articles and patents published by members of organization of Islamic conference were extracted from ScopusTM along with the top journals, authors, document type, universities, language of the publications and subjects. Results The analyses of data revealed that Turkey is the leading country followed by Iran, Egypt, Malaysia and Nigeria when total numbers of indexed articles in ScopusTM are considered. When the articles of 2006-2010 are considered the ranks are Turkey, Iran, Malaysia, Egypt and Pakistan. Conclusion the increased pattern was observed for scientific performances of OIC members however, more investments are required to fill the gap between OIC members and the leading countries. PMID:23678449

  17. 78 FR 40746 - Urban Indian Education and Research Organization Cooperative Agreement Program; Office of Urban...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Urban Indian Education and Research Organization Cooperative... Statutory Authority The Indian Health Service (IHS) is accepting competitive cooperative agreement applications for the Urban Indian Education and Research Organization Cooperative Agreement Program...

  18. Accelerator Research Studies. Annual report for June 1, 2003 - May 31, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shea, P. G.; Reiser, M.; Granatstein, V. L.; Lawson, W.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R.

    2004-01-23

    The report provides a summary progress on three tasks: Task A: Study of the Physics of Space-Charge Dominated Beams for Advanced Accelerator Applications; Task B: Studies of High-Power Gyroklystrons and Application to Linear Colliders; and, Task C: Theory and Simulation of the Physics Space-Charge Dominated Beams

  19. Prototype of a test bench for applied research on Extracted beams of the nuclotron accelerator complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldin, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Bradnova, V.; Butenko, A. V.; Fedorov, A. N.; Kudashkin, I. V.

    2016-05-01

    The results of the development and testing of elements of a test bench for investigating the impact of accelerated particle beams on biological objects, electronics, and other targets are presented. The systems for beam monitoring and target positioning were tested on extracted argon beams in the framework of experiments on studying the radiation hardness of electronic components.

  20. Research and development for electropolishing of Nb for ILC accelerator cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Michael J.

    2009-09-21

    The objectives of this project are to 1, Expand the scientific and technological understanding of the effect of post-treatment (electropolish, buffered chemical polish, low-temperature baking) on the surface of niobium; 2, Relate the knowledge to the performance of niobium superconducting radiofrequency accelerator cavities; and, 3, Thereby design and demonstrate an electropolish process that can be applied to complete cavities.

  1. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1977-1980. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Pirruccello, M.C.; Tobias, C.A.

    1980-11-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers presented in this progress report. This report is a major review of studies with accelerated heavy ions carried out by the Biology and Medicine Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory from 1977 to 1980. (KRM)

  2. Accelerator research studies. Final report, June 1, 1990--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The program consisted of the following three tasks: TASK A, ``Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams,`` TASK B, ``Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams,`` and TASK C, ``Study of a Gyroklystron High-Power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders.``

  3. Enhancement of Fenton oxidation for removing organic matter from hypersaline solution by accelerating ferric system with hydroxylamine hydrochloride and benzoquinone.

    PubMed

    Peng, Siwei; Zhang, Weijun; He, Jie; Yang, Xiaofang; Wang, Dongsheng; Zeng, Guisheng

    2016-03-01

    Fenton oxidation is generally inhibited in the presence of a high concentration of chloride ions. This study investigated the feasibility of using benzoquinone (BQ) and hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HA) as Fenton enhancers for the removal of glycerin from saline water under ambient temperature by accelerating the ferric system. It was found that organics removal was not obviously affected by chloride ions of low concentration (less than 0.1mol/L), while the mineralization rate was strongly inhibited in the presence of a large amount of chloride ions. In addition, ferric hydrolysis-precipitation was significantly alleviated in the presence of HA and BQ, and HA was more effective in reducing ferric ions into ferrous ions than HA, while the H2O2 decomposition rate was higher in the BQ-Fenton system. Electron spin resonance analysis revealed that OH production was reduced in high salinity conditions, while it was enhanced after the addition of HA and BQ (especially HA). This study provided a possible solution to control and alleviate the inhibitory effect of chloride ions on the Fenton process for organics removal. PMID:26969046

  4. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for purification and extraction of silicone passive samplers used for the monitoring of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, Berit; Kraus, Uta R; Theobald, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    Silicone passive samplers have gained an increasing attention as single-phased, practical and robust samplers for monitoring of organic contaminants in the aquatic environment in recent years. However, analytical challenges arise in routine application during the extraction of analytes as silicone oligomers are co-extracted and interfere severely during chemical analyses (e.g. gas chromatographic techniques). In this study, we present a fast, practical pre-cleaning method for silicone passive samplers applying accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for the removal of silicone oligomers prior to the water deployment (hexane/dichloromethane, 100 °C, 70 min). ASE was also shown to be a very fast (10 min) and efficient extraction method for non-polar contaminants (non-exposed PRC recoveries 66-101 %) sampled by the silicone membrane. For both applications, temperature, extraction time and the solvent used for ASE have been optimized. Purification of the ASE extract was carried out by silica gel and high-pressure liquid size exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC). The silicone oligomer content was checked by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) in order to confirm the absence of the silicone oligomers prior to analysis of passive sampler extracts. The established method was applied on real silicone samplers from the North- and Baltic Sea and showed no matrix effects during analysis of organic pollutants. Internal laboratory standard recoveries were in the same range for laboratory, transport and exposed samplers (85-126 %). PMID:26289330

  5. Adaptation of the autotrophic acetogen Sporomusa ovata to methanol accelerates the conversion of CO2 to organic products.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Höglund, Daniel; Koza, Anna; Bonde, Ida; Zhang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Acetogens are efficient microbial catalysts for bioprocesses converting C1 compounds into organic products. Here, an adaptive laboratory evolution approach was implemented to adapt Sporomusa ovata for faster autotrophic metabolism and CO2 conversion to organic chemicals. S. ovata was first adapted to grow quicker autotrophically with methanol, a toxic C1 compound, as the sole substrate. Better growth on different concentrations of methanol and with H2-CO2 indicated the adapted strain had a more efficient autotrophic metabolism and a higher tolerance to solvent. The growth rate on methanol was increased 5-fold. Furthermore, acetate production rate from CO2 with an electrode serving as the electron donor was increased 6.5-fold confirming that the acceleration of the autotrophic metabolism of the adapted strain is independent of the electron donor provided. Whole-genome sequencing, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies revealed that the molecular mechanisms responsible for the novel characteristics of the adapted strain were associated with the methanol oxidation pathway and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of acetogens along with biosynthetic pathways, cell wall components, and protein chaperones. The results demonstrate that an efficient strategy to increase rates of CO2 conversion in bioprocesses like microbial electrosynthesis is to evolve the microbial catalyst by adaptive laboratory evolution to optimize its autotrophic metabolism. PMID:26530351

  6. Adaptation of the autotrophic acetogen Sporomusa ovata to methanol accelerates the conversion of CO2 to organic products

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Höglund, Daniel; Koza, Anna; Bonde, Ida; Zhang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Acetogens are efficient microbial catalysts for bioprocesses converting C1 compounds into organic products. Here, an adaptive laboratory evolution approach was implemented to adapt Sporomusa ovata for faster autotrophic metabolism and CO2 conversion to organic chemicals. S. ovata was first adapted to grow quicker autotrophically with methanol, a toxic C1 compound, as the sole substrate. Better growth on different concentrations of methanol and with H2-CO2 indicated the adapted strain had a more efficient autotrophic metabolism and a higher tolerance to solvent. The growth rate on methanol was increased 5-fold. Furthermore, acetate production rate from CO2 with an electrode serving as the electron donor was increased 6.5-fold confirming that the acceleration of the autotrophic metabolism of the adapted strain is independent of the electron donor provided. Whole-genome sequencing, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies revealed that the molecular mechanisms responsible for the novel characteristics of the adapted strain were associated with the methanol oxidation pathway and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of acetogens along with biosynthetic pathways, cell wall components, and protein chaperones. The results demonstrate that an efficient strategy to increase rates of CO2 conversion in bioprocesses like microbial electrosynthesis is to evolve the microbial catalyst by adaptive laboratory evolution to optimize its autotrophic metabolism. PMID:26530351

  7. Research on effect of ginkgo aglucone flavone to human body organs and immune function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiong

    2014-07-01

    Ginkgo aglucone flavone is a kind of effective natural antioxidant. Lots of researches show that ginkgo aglucone flavone has various biological activities and it is of great importance to antioxidant, anti-aging, free radial scavenging and immunoregulation. However, researches on effect of ginkgo aglucone flavone to immune function are rare so far. Thus, it is important to go into the effect of ginkgo aglucone flavone to immune function. We can find out more effective measurement that resist immunosuppression through research and provide referable science activity form and suggestion of sports nutrition supplements. It can guide people to improve habitus through supports and establish important basis for new area development of folium ginkgo extract. This paper aims to discuss the effect of ginkgo aglucone flavone to human body organs and immune function. Patients with ginkgo aglucone flavone indications are selected for experiment. Their peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets and content of serum immunoglobin is detected before and two weeks after drug use. The result shows that specific ratio of T lymphocyte subsets CD3 and CD4 and the content of serum IgG significantly increase after pharmacy of patients. It can be concluded that ginkgo aglucone flavone have acceleration on immune system function. PMID:25016273

  8. Acceleration of cellulose and organic matter decomposition as a result of earthworms effect on soil microbial community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Khomyakov, Nikita; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Myachina, Olga; Byzov, Boris; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2010-05-01

    The biotic activity of earthworms alters soil carbon turnover 1) indirectly by the disturbance of soil structure which increases the availability of organic matter; or 2) directly changing the structure of soil microbial community which is mainly in the dormant state in undisturbed soil. The activation of soil microorganisms by earthworms can strongly change the turnover of native soil organic matter (SOM), i.e. cause priming effects (PE). The effects of earthworms on mineralization of SOM and plant residues during PE induced by the input of available organic substances remains unclear. Our study aimed to evaluate how the microbial community modified by earthworms alters the decomposition of SOM and 14C-cellulose added to soil. Two-factorial experiment to assess the interactive effect of 1) earthworms Aporrectodea caliginosa and of 2) 14C-uniformly labeled cellulose on soil organic matter mineralization was carried out during 30 days incubation. The following variables were determined: 1) dynamics of CO2 evolution; 2) 14CO2 originated from the added cellulose; 3) microbial biomass C and 14C by fumigation-extraction; 4) specific growth rates of microorganisms by the kinetics of substrate induced respiration and 5) activities of extracellular enzymes (β-glucosidase, chitinase, cellobiogidrolase and xylanase) with fluorogenically labeled substrates. The experimental design allowed us to distinguish the contribution of different microbial communities to priming-effects, i.e. soil microbial community activated by cellulose; earthworms and their own microbial community; soil microbial community changed by earthworms. Maximal intensity of CO2 and 14CO2 efflux as well as of enzyme activities was observed between 5th and 15th days after cellulose application. Contribution of earthworms to total soil respiration (calculated as difference between CO2 efflux from soil with and without earthworms) amounted up to 60%. Earthworms accelerated SOM decomposition for 50% while

  9. Use of organic solderability preservatives on solderability retention of copper after accelerated aging

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, C.L.; Sorensen, N.R.; Lucero, S.J.

    1997-02-01

    Organic solderability preservatives (OSP`s) have been used by the electronics industry for some time to maintain the solderability of circuit boards and components. Since solderability affects both manufacturing efficiency and product reliability, there is significant interest in maintaining good solder wettability. There is often a considerable time interval between the initial fabrication of a circuit board or component and its use at the assembly level. Parts are often stored under a variety of conditions, in many cases not well controlled. Solder wettability can deteriorate during storage, especially in harsh environments. This paper describes the ongoing efforts at Sandia National Laboratories to quantify solder watability on bare and aged copper surfaces. Benzotriazole and imidazole were applied to electronic grade copper to retard aging effects on solderability. The coupons were introduced into Sandia`s Facility for Atmospheric Corrosion Testing (FACT) to simulate aging in a typical indoor industrial environment. H{sub 2}S, NO{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2} mixed gas was introduced into the test cell and maintained at 35{degrees}C and 70% relative humidity for test periods of one day to two weeks. The OSP`s generally performed better than bare Cu, although solderability diminished with increasing exposure times.

  10. A porous proton-relaying metal-organic framework material that accelerates electrochemical hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Hod, Idan; Deria, Pravas; Bury, Wojciech; Mondloch, Joseph E; Kung, Chung-Wei; So, Monica; Sampson, Matthew D; Peters, Aaron W; Kubiak, Cliff P; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    The availability of efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts is of high importance for solar fuel technologies aimed at reducing future carbon emissions. Even though Pt electrodes are excellent HER electrocatalysts, commercialization of large-scale hydrogen production technology requires finding an equally efficient, low-cost, earth-abundant alternative. Here, high porosity, metal-organic framework (MOF) films have been used as scaffolds for the deposition of a Ni-S electrocatalyst. Compared with an MOF-free Ni-S, the resulting hybrid materials exhibit significantly enhanced performance for HER from aqueous acid, decreasing the kinetic overpotential by more than 200 mV at a benchmark current density of 10 mA cm(-2). Although the initial aim was to improve electrocatalytic activity by greatly boosting the active area of the Ni-S catalyst, the performance enhancements instead were found to arise primarily from the ability of the proton-conductive MOF to favourably modify the immediate chemical environment of the sulfide-based catalyst. PMID:26365764

  11. A porous proton-relaying metal-organic framework material that accelerates electrochemical hydrogen evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Hod, Idan; Deria, Pravas; Bury, Wojciech; Mondloch, Joseph E.; Kung, Chung-Wei; So, Monica; Sampson, Matthew D.; Peters, Aaron W.; Kubiak, Cliff P.; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2015-09-14

    The availability of efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts is of high importance for solar fuel technologies aimed at reducing future carbon emissions. Even though Pt electrodes are excellent HER electrocatalysts, commercialization of large-scale hydrogen production technology requires finding an equally efficient, low-cost, earth-abundant alternative. Here, high porosity, metal-organic framework (MOF) films have been used as scaffolds for the deposition of a Ni-S electrocatalyst. Compared with an MOF-free Ni-S, the resulting hybrid materials exhibit significantly enhanced performance for HER from aqueous acid, decreasing the kinetic overpotential by more than 200 mV at a benchmark current density of 10 mA cm−2. In conclusion, although the initial aim was to improve electrocatalytic activity by greatly boosting the active area of the Ni-S catalyst, the performance enhancements instead were found to arise primarily from the ability of the proton-conductive MOF to favourably modify the immediate chemical environment of the sulfide-based catalyst.

  12. A porous proton-relaying metal-organic framework material that accelerates electrochemical hydrogen evolution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hod, Idan; Deria, Pravas; Bury, Wojciech; Mondloch, Joseph E.; Kung, Chung-Wei; So, Monica; Sampson, Matthew D.; Peters, Aaron W.; Kubiak, Cliff P.; Farha, Omar K.; et al

    2015-09-14

    The availability of efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts is of high importance for solar fuel technologies aimed at reducing future carbon emissions. Even though Pt electrodes are excellent HER electrocatalysts, commercialization of large-scale hydrogen production technology requires finding an equally efficient, low-cost, earth-abundant alternative. Here, high porosity, metal-organic framework (MOF) films have been used as scaffolds for the deposition of a Ni-S electrocatalyst. Compared with an MOF-free Ni-S, the resulting hybrid materials exhibit significantly enhanced performance for HER from aqueous acid, decreasing the kinetic overpotential by more than 200 mV at a benchmark current density of 10 mA cm−2. In conclusion, althoughmore » the initial aim was to improve electrocatalytic activity by greatly boosting the active area of the Ni-S catalyst, the performance enhancements instead were found to arise primarily from the ability of the proton-conductive MOF to favourably modify the immediate chemical environment of the sulfide-based catalyst.« less

  13. A porous proton-relaying metal-organic framework material that accelerates electrochemical hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hod, Idan; Deria, Pravas; Bury, Wojciech; Mondloch, Joseph E.; Kung, Chung-Wei; So, Monica; Sampson, Matthew D.; Peters, Aaron W.; Kubiak, Cliff P.; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2015-09-01

    The availability of efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts is of high importance for solar fuel technologies aimed at reducing future carbon emissions. Even though Pt electrodes are excellent HER electrocatalysts, commercialization of large-scale hydrogen production technology requires finding an equally efficient, low-cost, earth-abundant alternative. Here, high porosity, metal-organic framework (MOF) films have been used as scaffolds for the deposition of a Ni-S electrocatalyst. Compared with an MOF-free Ni-S, the resulting hybrid materials exhibit significantly enhanced performance for HER from aqueous acid, decreasing the kinetic overpotential by more than 200 mV at a benchmark current density of 10 mA cm-2. Although the initial aim was to improve electrocatalytic activity by greatly boosting the active area of the Ni-S catalyst, the performance enhancements instead were found to arise primarily from the ability of the proton-conductive MOF to favourably modify the immediate chemical environment of the sulfide-based catalyst.

  14. A porous proton-relaying metal-organic framework material that accelerates electrochemical hydrogen evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hod, Idan; Deria, Pravas; Bury, Wojciech; Mondloch, Joseph E.; Kung, Chung-Wei; So, Monica; Sampson, Matthew D.; Peters, Aaron W.; Kubiak, Cliff P.; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    The availability of efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts is of high importance for solar fuel technologies aimed at reducing future carbon emissions. Even though Pt electrodes are excellent HER electrocatalysts, commercialization of large-scale hydrogen production technology requires finding an equally efficient, low-cost, earth-abundant alternative. Here, high porosity, metal-organic framework (MOF) films have been used as scaffolds for the deposition of a Ni-S electrocatalyst. Compared with an MOF-free Ni-S, the resulting hybrid materials exhibit significantly enhanced performance for HER from aqueous acid, decreasing the kinetic overpotential by more than 200 mV at a benchmark current density of 10 mA cm−2. Although the initial aim was to improve electrocatalytic activity by greatly boosting the active area of the Ni-S catalyst, the performance enhancements instead were found to arise primarily from the ability of the proton-conductive MOF to favourably modify the immediate chemical environment of the sulfide-based catalyst. PMID:26365764

  15. Accelerating Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Analysis of Soil Organic Matter with Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normand, A. E.; Smith, A. N.; Long, J. R.; Reddy, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    13C magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR) has become an essential tool for discerning the chemical composition of soil organic matter (SOM). However, the technique is limited due to the inherent insensitivity of NMR resulting in long acquisition times, especially for low carbon (C) soil. The pursuits of higher magnetic fields or concentrating C with hydrofluoric acid are limited solutions for signal improvement. Recent advances in dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) have addressed the insensitivity of NMR. DNP utilizes the greater polarization of an unpaired electron in a given magnetic field and transfers that polarization to an NMR active nucleus of interest via microwave irradiation. Signal enhancements of up to a few orders of magnitude have been achieved for various DNP experiments. In this novel study, we conduct DNP 13C cross-polarization (CP) MAS ssNMR experiments of SOM varying in soil C content and chemical composition. DNP signal enhancements reduce the experiment run time allowing samples with low C to be analyzed in hours rather than days. We compare 13C CP MAS ssNMR of SOM with multiple magnetic field strengths, hydrofluoric acid treatment, and novel DNP approaches. We also explore DNP surface enhanced NMR Spectroscopy (SENP) to determine the surface chemistry of SOM. The presented results and future DNP MAS ssNMR advances will lead to further understanding of the nature and processes of SOM.

  16. CMO: Cruise Metadata Organizer for JAMSTEC Research Cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, K.; Saito, H.; Hanafusa, Y.; Vanroosebeke, A.; Kitayama, T.

    2011-12-01

    JAMSTEC's Data Research Center for Marine-Earth Sciences manages and distributes a wide variety of observational data and samples obtained from JAMSTEC research vessels and deep sea submersibles. Generally, metadata are essential to identify data and samples were obtained. In JAMSTEC, cruise metadata include cruise information such as cruise ID, name of vessel, research theme, and diving information such as dive number, name of submersible and position of diving point. They are submitted by chief scientists of research cruises in the Microsoft Excel° spreadsheet format, and registered into a data management database to confirm receipt of observational data files, cruise summaries, and cruise reports. The cruise metadata are also published via "JAMSTEC Data Site for Research Cruises" within two months after end of cruise. Furthermore, these metadata are distributed with observational data, images and samples via several data and sample distribution websites after a publication moratorium period. However, there are two operational issues in the metadata publishing process. One is that duplication efforts and asynchronous metadata across multiple distribution websites due to manual metadata entry into individual websites by administrators. The other is that differential data types or representation of metadata in each website. To solve those problems, we have developed a cruise metadata organizer (CMO) which allows cruise metadata to be connected from the data management database to several distribution websites. CMO is comprised of three components: an Extensible Markup Language (XML) database, an Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) software, and a web-based interface. The XML database is used because of its flexibility for any change of metadata. Daily differential uptake of metadata from the data management database to the XML database is automatically processed via the EAI software. Some metadata are entered into the XML database using the web

  17. The organic research network project on the central coast of California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California organic agriculture industry has grown in size and consumer acceptance despite a very limited scientific research base. The Organic Research Network Project, funded by USDA-Organic Agriculture Research and Extension Initiative (USDA-OREI) program in 2004 (S.R. Gliessman, P.I.), was de...

  18. Formation of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing light-absorbing compounds accelerated by evaporation of water from secondary organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tran B.; Lee, Paula B.; Updyke, Katelyn M.; Bones, David L.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) generated from the ozonolysis of d-limonene were subjected to dissolution, evaporation, and re-dissolution in the presence and absence of ammonium sulfate (AS). Evaporation with AS at pH 4-9 produced chromophores that were stable with respect to hydrolysis and had a distinctive absorption band at 500 nm. Evaporation accelerated the rate of chromophore formation by at least three orders of magnitude compared to the reaction in aqueous solution, which produced similar compounds. Absorption spectroscopy and high-resolution nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) mass spectrometry experiments suggested that the molar fraction of the chromophores was small (<2%), and that they contained nitrogen atoms. Although the colored products represented only a small fraction of SOA, their large extinction coefficients (>105 L mol-1 cm-1 at 500 nm) increased the effective mass absorption coefficient of the residual organics in excess of 103 cm2 g-1 - a dramatic effect on the optical properties from minor constituents. Evaporation of SOA extracts in the absence of AS resulted in the production of colored compounds only when the SOA extract was acidified to pH ˜ 2 with sulfuric acid. These chromophores were produced by acid-catalyzed aldol condensation, followed by a conversion into organosulfates. The presence of organosulfates was confirmed by high resolution mass spectrometry experiments. Results of this study suggest that evaporation of cloud or fog droplets containing dissolved organics leads to significant modification of the molecular composition and serves as a potentially important source of light-absorbing compounds.

  19. Formation of Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing Compounds Accelerated by Evaporation of Water from Secondary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Tran B.; Lee, Paula B.; Updyke, Katelyn M.; Bones, David L.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey

    2012-01-14

    Aqueous extracts of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) generated from the ozonolysis of dlimonene were subjected to dissolution, evaporation, and re-dissolution in the presence and absence of ammonium sulfate (AS). Evaporation with AS at pH 4-9 produced chromophores that were stable with respect to hydrolysis and had a distinctive absorption band at 500 nm. Evaporation accelerated the rate of chromophore formation by at least three orders of magnitude compared to the reaction in aqueous solution, which produced similar compounds. Absorption spectroscopy and high-resolution nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) mass spectrometry experiments suggested that the molar fraction of the chromophores was small (< 2%), and that they contained nitrogen atoms. Although the colored products represented only a small fraction of SOA, their large extinction coefficients (>10{sup 5} L mol{sup -1} cm{sup -1} at 500 nm) increased the effective mass absorption coefficient of the residual organics in excess of 10{sup 3} cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} - a dramatic effect on the optical properties from minor constituents. Evaporation of SOA extracts in the absence of AS resulted in the production of colored compounds only when the SOA extract was acidified to pH {approx} 2 with sulfuric acid. These chromophores were produced by acid-catalyzed aldol condensation, followed by a conversion into organosulfates. The presence of organosulfates was confirmed by high resolution mass spectrometry experiments. Results of this study suggest that evaporation of cloud or fog droplets containing dissolved organics leads to significant modification of the molecular composition and serves as a potentially important source of light-absorbing compounds.

  20. Using Patterns for Multivariate Monitoring and Feedback Control of Linear Accelerator Performance: Proof-of-Concept Research

    SciTech Connect

    Cordes, Gail Adele; Van Ausdeln, Leo Anthony; Velasquez, Maria Elena

    2002-04-01

    The report discusses preliminary proof-of-concept research for using the Advanced Data Validation and Verification System (ADVVS), a new INEEL software package, to add validation and verification and multivariate feedback control to the operation of non-destructive analysis (NDA) equipment. The software is based on human cognition, the recognition of patterns and changes in patterns in time-related data. The first project applied ADVVS to monitor operations of a selectable energy linear electron accelerator, and showed how the software recognizes in real time any deviations from the optimal tune of the machine. The second project extended the software method to provide model-based multivariate feedback control for the same linear electron accelerator. The projects successfully demonstrated proof-of-concept for the applications and focused attention on the common application of intelligent information processing techniques.

  1. A 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator as a tool for planetary and impact physics research

    SciTech Connect

    Mocker, Anna; Bugiel, Sebastian; Srama, Ralf; Auer, Siegfried; Baust, Guenter; Matt, Guenter; Otto, Katharina; Colette, Andrew; Drake, Keith; Kempf, Sascha; Munsat, Tobin; Shu, Anthony; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Fiege, Katherina; Postberg, Frank; Gruen, Eberhard; Heckmann, Frieder; Helfert, Stefan; Hillier, Jonathan; Mellert, Tobias; and others

    2011-09-15

    Investigating the dynamical and physical properties of cosmic dust can reveal a great deal of information about both the dust and its many sources. Over recent years, several spacecraft (e.g., Cassini, Stardust, Galileo, and Ulysses) have successfully characterised interstellar, interplanetary, and circumplanetary dust using a variety of techniques, including in situ analyses and sample return. Charge, mass, and velocity measurements of the dust are performed either directly (induced charge signals) or indirectly (mass and velocity from impact ionisation signals or crater morphology) and constrain the dynamical parameters of the dust grains. Dust compositional information may be obtained via either time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the impact plasma or direct sample return. The accurate and reliable interpretation of collected spacecraft data requires a comprehensive programme of terrestrial instrument calibration. This process involves accelerating suitable solar system analogue dust particles to hypervelocity speeds in the laboratory, an activity performed at the Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg, Germany. Here, a 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator electrostatically accelerates charged micron and submicron-sized dust particles to speeds up to 80 km s{sup -1}. Recent advances in dust production and processing have allowed solar system analogue dust particles (silicates and other minerals) to be coated with a thin conductive shell, enabling them to be charged and accelerated. Refinements and upgrades to the beam line instrumentation and electronics now allow for the reliable selection of particles at velocities of 1-80 km s{sup -1} and with diameters of between 0.05 {mu}m and 5 {mu}m. This ability to select particles for subsequent impact studies based on their charges, masses, or velocities is provided by a particle selection unit (PSU). The PSU contains a field programmable gate array, capable of monitoring in real time the particles' speeds and

  2. A 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator as a tool for planetary and impact physics research.

    PubMed

    Mocker, Anna; Bugiel, Sebastian; Auer, Siegfried; Baust, Günter; Colette, Andrew; Drake, Keith; Fiege, Katherina; Grün, Eberhard; Heckmann, Frieder; Helfert, Stefan; Hillier, Jonathan; Kempf, Sascha; Matt, Günter; Mellert, Tobias; Munsat, Tobin; Otto, Katharina; Postberg, Frank; Röser, Hans-Peter; Shu, Anthony; Sternovsky, Zoltán; Srama, Ralf

    2011-09-01

    Investigating the dynamical and physical properties of cosmic dust can reveal a great deal of information about both the dust and its many sources. Over recent years, several spacecraft (e.g., Cassini, Stardust, Galileo, and Ulysses) have successfully characterised interstellar, interplanetary, and circumplanetary dust using a variety of techniques, including in situ analyses and sample return. Charge, mass, and velocity measurements of the dust are performed either directly (induced charge signals) or indirectly (mass and velocity from impact ionisation signals or crater morphology) and constrain the dynamical parameters of the dust grains. Dust compositional information may be obtained via either time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the impact plasma or direct sample return. The accurate and reliable interpretation of collected spacecraft data requires a comprehensive programme of terrestrial instrument calibration. This process involves accelerating suitable solar system analogue dust particles to hypervelocity speeds in the laboratory, an activity performed at the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik in Heidelberg, Germany. Here, a 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator electrostatically accelerates charged micron and submicron-sized dust particles to speeds up to 80 km s(-1). Recent advances in dust production and processing have allowed solar system analogue dust particles (silicates and other minerals) to be coated with a thin conductive shell, enabling them to be charged and accelerated. Refinements and upgrades to the beam line instrumentation and electronics now allow for the reliable selection of particles at velocities of 1-80 km s(-1) and with diameters of between 0.05 μm and 5 μm. This ability to select particles for subsequent impact studies based on their charges, masses, or velocities is provided by a particle selection unit (PSU). The PSU contains a field programmable gate array, capable of monitoring in real time the particles' speeds and charges, and

  3. A 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator as a tool for planetary and impact physics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocker, Anna; Bugiel, Sebastian; Auer, Siegfried; Baust, Günter; Colette, Andrew; Drake, Keith; Fiege, Katherina; Grün, Eberhard; Heckmann, Frieder; Helfert, Stefan; Hillier, Jonathan; Kempf, Sascha; Matt, Günter; Mellert, Tobias; Munsat, Tobin; Otto, Katharina; Postberg, Frank; Röser, Hans-Peter; Shu, Anthony; Sternovsky, Zoltán; Srama, Ralf

    2011-09-01

    Investigating the dynamical and physical properties of cosmic dust can reveal a great deal of information about both the dust and its many sources. Over recent years, several spacecraft (e.g., Cassini, Stardust, Galileo, and Ulysses) have successfully characterised interstellar, interplanetary, and circumplanetary dust using a variety of techniques, including in situ analyses and sample return. Charge, mass, and velocity measurements of the dust are performed either directly (induced charge signals) or indirectly (mass and velocity from impact ionisation signals or crater morphology) and constrain the dynamical parameters of the dust grains. Dust compositional information may be obtained via either time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the impact plasma or direct sample return. The accurate and reliable interpretation of collected spacecraft data requires a comprehensive programme of terrestrial instrument calibration. This process involves accelerating suitable solar system analogue dust particles to hypervelocity speeds in the laboratory, an activity performed at the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik in Heidelberg, Germany. Here, a 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator electrostatically accelerates charged micron and submicron-sized dust particles to speeds up to 80 km s-1. Recent advances in dust production and processing have allowed solar system analogue dust particles (silicates and other minerals) to be coated with a thin conductive shell, enabling them to be charged and accelerated. Refinements and upgrades to the beam line instrumentation and electronics now allow for the reliable selection of particles at velocities of 1-80 km s-1 and with diameters of between 0.05 μm and 5 μm. This ability to select particles for subsequent impact studies based on their charges, masses, or velocities is provided by a particle selection unit (PSU). The PSU contains a field programmable gate array, capable of monitoring in real time the particles' speeds and charges, and is

  4. Investigation of carbohydrate and protein metabolism in the digestive organs of the rabbit under the combined influence of vibration, acceleration and irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuy, R. I.

    1975-01-01

    During spaceflight, the organism is subjected to the influence of various extremal factors such as acceleration, vibration, irradiation, etc. The study of the influence of these factors on metabolism, especially carbohydrate and protein metabolism, in young rabbits is of great significance in simulation experiments. Dynamic factors and irradiation, depending on dose and duration, lead to reduced RNA and protein metabolism.

  5. Responses to rotating linear acceleration vectors considered in relation to a model of the otolith organs. [human oculomotor response to transverse acceleration stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, A. J.; Barnes, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Human subjects were exposed to a linear acceleration vector that rotated in the transverse plane of the skull without angular counterrotation. Lateral eye movements showed a sinusoidal change in slow phase velocity and an asymmetry or bias in the same direction as vector rotation. A model is developed that attributes the oculomotor response to otolithic mechanisms. It is suggested that the bias component is the manifestation of torsion of the statoconial plaque relative to the base of the utricular macula and that the sinusoidal component represents the translational oscillation of the statoconia. The model subsumes a hypothetical neural mechanism which allows x- and y-axis accelerations to be resolved. Derivation of equations of motion for the statoconial plaque in torsion and translation, which take into account forces acting in shear and normal to the macula, yield estimates of bias and sinusoidal components that are in qualitative agreement with the diverse experimental findings.

  6. Experimental research on the feature of an x-ray Talbot-Lau interferometer versus tube accelerating voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng-Hao; Margie, P. Olbinado; Atsushi, Momose; Hua-Jie, Han; Hu, Ren-Fang; Wang, Zhi-Li; Gao, Kun; Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Pei-Ping; Wu, Zi-Yu

    2015-06-01

    X-ray Talbot-Lau interferometer has been used most widely to perform x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a conventional low-brilliance x-ray source, and it yields high-sensitivity phase and dark-field images of samples producing low absorption contrast, thus bearing tremendous potential for future clinical diagnosis. In this work, by changing the accelerating voltage of the x-ray tube from 35 kV to 45 kV, x-ray phase-contrast imaging of a test sample is performed at each integer value of the accelerating voltage to investigate the characteristic of an x-ray Talbot-Lau interferometer (located in the Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Japan) versus tube voltage. Experimental results and data analysis show that within a range this x-ray Talbot-Lau interferometer is not sensitive to the accelerating voltage of the tube with a constant fringe visibility of ˜ 44%. This x-ray Talbot-Lau interferometer research demonstrates the feasibility of a new dual energy phase-contrast x-ray imaging strategy and the possibility to collect a refraction spectrum. Project supported by the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB825800), the Science Fund for Creative Research Groups, China (Grant No. 11321503), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11179004, 10979055, 11205189, and 11205157), and the Japan-Asia Youth Exchange Program in Science (SAKURA Exchange Program in Science) Administered by the Japan Science and Technology Agency.

  7. Multidisciplinary "Boot Camp" Training in Cellular Bioengineering to Accelerate Research Immersion for REU Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shreiber, David I.; Moghe, Prabhas V.; Roth, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) sites widely serve as the first major research gateway for undergraduates seeking a structured research experience. Given their lack of prior research skills, and the highly compressed duration of the REU programs, these students frequently encounter barriers to a seamless transition into a new…

  8. Research Update: Electrical monitoring of cysts using organic electrochemical transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Huerta, M.; Rivnay, J.; Ramuz, M.; Hama, A.; Owens, R. M.

    2015-03-01

    Organotypic three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models have the potential to act as surrogate tissues in vitro, both for basic research and for drug discovery/toxicology. 3D cultures maintain not only 3D architecture but also cell-cell and cell extracellular matrix interactions, particularly when grown in cysts or spheroids. Characterization of cell cultures grown in 3D formats, however, provides a significant challenge for cell biologists due to the incompatibility of these structures with commonly found optical or electronic monitoring systems. Electronic impedance spectroscopy is a cell culture monitoring technique with great potential; however, it has not been possible to integrate 3D cultures with commercially available systems to date. Cyst-like 3D cultures are particularly challenging due to their small size and difficulty in manipulation. Herein, we demonstrate isolation of cyst-like 3D cultures by capillarity and subsequent integration with the organic electrochemical transistor for monitoring the integrity of these structures. We show not only that this versatile device can be adapted to the cyst format for measuring resistance and, therefore, the quality of the cysts, but also can be used for quantitative monitoring of the effect of toxic compounds on cells in a 3D format. The ability to quantitatively predict effects of drugs on 3D cultures in vitro has large future potential for the fields of drug discovery and toxicology.

  9. Corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry with orthogonal acceleration time of flight mass spectrometry for monitoring of volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Sabo, Martin; Matejčík, Štefan

    2012-06-19

    We demonstrate the application of corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry with orthogonal acceleration time of flight mass spectrometry (CD IMS-oaTOF) for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) monitoring. Two-dimensional (2D) IMS-oaTOF spectra of VOCs were recorded in nearly real time. The corona discharge atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source was operated in positive mode in nitrogen and air. The CD ion source generates in air H(3)O(+)(H(2)O)(n) and NO(+). The NO(+) offers additional possibility for selective ionization and for an increase of the sensitivity of monoaromatic compounds. In addition to H(3)O(+)(H(2)O)(n) and NO(+), we have carried out ionization of VOCs using acetone as dopant gas ((CH(3))(2)COH(+)). Sixteen model VOCs (tetrahydrofuran, butanol, n-propanol, iso-propano, acetone, methanol, ethanol, toluene, benzene, amomnia, dioxan, triethylamine, acetonitrile, formaldehyde, m-xylene, 2,2,2-trifluoroethylamine) were tested using these ionization techniques. PMID:22594852

  10. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1986-September 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    Activities are reported on MBE-4, the four-beam proof-of-principle ion induction linear accelerator with the capability of beam-current amplification. Mechanical aspects of MBE-4, quadrupole insulator performance, and pulsers are discussed. The computer code, SLID, has been used to help understand the longitudinal beam dynamics in MBE-4. A computer-controlled emittance scanning system is in use in MBE-4. A systematic effort is under way to discover and correct all the defects peculiar to the low energy part of the linac design code. (LEW)

  11. Research proposal for development of an electron stripper using a thin liquid lithium film for rare isotope accelerator.

    SciTech Connect

    Momozaki, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-03-06

    Hydrodynamic instability phenomena in a thin liquid lithium film, which has been proposed for the first stripper in the driver linac of Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), were discussed. Since it was considered that film instability could significantly impair the feasibility of the liquid lithium film stripper concept, potential issues and research tasks in the RIA project due to these instability phenomena were raised. In order to investigate these instability phenomena, a research proposal plan was developed. In the theoretical part of this research proposal, a use of the linear stability theory was suggested. In the experimental part, it was pointed out that the concept of Reynolds number and Weber number scaling may allow conducting a preliminary experiment using inert simulants, hence reducing technical difficulty, complexity, and cost of the experiments. After confirming the thin film formation in the preliminary experiment using simulants, demonstration experiments using liquid lithium were proposed.

  12. The Organization and Management of Interdisciplinary Research, A Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Philip H.

    1982-01-01

    A discussion of the state of interdisciplinary research (IDR) in academia, government, and industry in North America and Europe focuses on current issues and themes, organizational structure, researchers, input-output processes, the process of IDR, outputs, and future research needs. Descriptive research on IDR and normative research for…

  13. Certified organic farming research and demonstration project by Oklahoma State University and USDA's Agricultural Research Service at Lane, Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2003, Oklahoma State University and USDA, Agricultural Research Service, South Central Agricultural Research Laboratory received organic certification for 8 acres at the Lane Agricultural Center, Lane, OK. The certified organic land was used to develop a cooperative project with a diversity of a...

  14. Organizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a specific…

  15. Combining Youth Organizing and Youth Participatory Action Research to Strengthen Student Voice in Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Tom; Christens, Brian D.; Lin, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Community organizing efforts employ different types of research as they seek to address community issues. This chapter details the evolving use of research in a youth organizing effort in San Bernardino, CA that has addressed issues in schools, the educational system, and the broader community. We examine the youth organizers' use of organizing…

  16. Accelerating Translation of Physical Activity and Cancer Survivorship Research into Practice: Recommendations for a More Integrated and Collaborative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Siobhan M.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Perna, Frank M.; Glasgow, Russell E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has been deemed safe and effective in reducing many negative side effects of treatment for cancer survivors and promoting better overall health. However, most of this research has focused on highly controlled randomized trials and little of this research has been translated into care or policy for survivors. The purpose of the present paper is to present a research agenda for the field to accelerate the dissemination and implementation of empirically-supported physical activity interventions into care. We provide rationale for the role of basic, behavioral, clinical implementation and population scientists in moving this science forward and call for a more coordinated effort across different phases of research. In addition, we provide key strategies and examples for ongoing and future studies using the RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy/Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance) framework and pose recommendations for collaborations between researchers and stakeholders to enhance the integration of this research into policy and practice. Overall, we recommend that physical activity and cancer survivorship research employ additional study designs, include relevant stakeholders and be more collaborative, integrated, contextual, and representative in terms of both setting and participants. PMID:24599577

  17. Research on acceleration method of reactor physics based on FPGA platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.; Yu, G.; Wang, K.

    2013-07-01

    The physical designs of the new concept reactors which have complex structure, various materials and neutronic energy spectrum, have greatly improved the requirements to the calculation methods and the corresponding computing hardware. Along with the widely used parallel algorithm, heterogeneous platforms architecture has been introduced into numerical computations in reactor physics. Because of the natural parallel characteristics, the CPU-FPGA architecture is often used to accelerate numerical computation. This paper studies the application and features of this kind of heterogeneous platforms used in numerical calculation of reactor physics through practical examples. After the designed neutron diffusion module based on CPU-FPGA architecture achieves a 11.2 speed up factor, it is proved to be feasible to apply this kind of heterogeneous platform into reactor physics. (authors)

  18. Accelerator development for the NRL (Naval Research Laboratory) free-electron-laser program. Final report, July 1981-April 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lucey, R.; Putnam, S.

    1988-06-01

    Included in the report are descriptions of the final assembly and operation of the Linear Induction Accelerator(LIA), installation and testing of a new accelerating gap in the five-core stage of the accelerator to operate at 150 kV, and the moving of and modifications of the charging and firing controls for remote operation of the accelerator.

  19. 21 CFR 312.52 - Transfer of obligations to a contract research organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer of obligations to a contract research... and Investigators § 312.52 Transfer of obligations to a contract research organization. (a) A sponsor... research organization. Any such transfer shall be described in writing. If not all obligations...

  20. On Organizing Educational Research Communication in Europe: Past Experiences and Possible Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblad, Sverker

    2015-01-01

    In this note I will comment on the development of the European Educational Research Association (EERA) as a European educational research organization and the current situation. In doing so I will put forward a few matters concerning the social and intellectual organization of the EERA and the visibility of educational research in Europe.

  1. Issues of obtaining and maintaining "organic certification" at the Lane, OK research center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists from Oklahoma State University and USDA/ARS at the Lane, OK Research and Extension Center have been implementing "organic" research for several years on land that was not "certified organic" when the study began. To enhance the credibility of the results of the research it was decided tha...

  2. Accelerating the paradigm shift toward inclusion of pregnant women in drug research: Ethical and regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    White, Amina

    2015-11-01

    Although there has been long-standing reluctance to include pregnant women as clinical trial participants, increasing recognition of profound gaps in research on the safety and efficacy of drugs often prescribed to pregnant women calls into question the practice of routinely excluding them. This article presents compelling reasons for including pregnant women in clinical research, highlights certain regulatory barriers to the inclusion of pregnant women, and proposes that professional societies with expertise in obstetrics and maternal-fetal medicine can be instrumental in hastening the paradigm shift from the systematic exclusion of pregnant women in research to a one of responsible and fair inclusion. PMID:26385413

  3. Successfully accelerating translational research at an academic medical center: The University of Michigan-Coulter Translational Research Partnership Program.

    PubMed Central

    Pienta, Kenneth J.

    2010-01-01

    Translational research encompasses the effective movement of new knowledge and discoveries into new approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. There are many roadblocks to successful bench to bedside research, but few have received as much recent attention as the “valley of death”. The valley of death refers to the lack of funding and support for research that moves basic science discoveries into diagnostics, devices, and treatments in humans, and is ascribed to be the result of companies unwilling to fund research development that may not result in a drug or device that will be utilized in the clinic and conversely, the fact that researchers have no access to the funding needed to carry out preclinical and early clinical development to demonstrate potential efficacy in humans. The valley of death also exists because bridging the translational gap is dependent on successfully managing an additional four risks: Scientific, Intellectual Property, Market, and Regulatory. The University of Michigan (UM) has partnered with the Wallace H. Coulter Foundation (CF) to create a model providing an infrastructure to overcome these risks. This model is easily adoptable to other academic medical centers. PMID:21167009

  4. Successfully accelerating translational research at an academic medical center: the University of Michigan-Coulter translational research partnership program.

    PubMed

    Pienta, Kenneth J

    2010-12-01

    Translational research encompasses the effective movement of new knowledge and discoveries into new approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. There are many roadblocks to successful bench to bedside research, but few have received as much recent attention as the "valley of death". The valley of death refers to the lack of funding and support for research that moves basic science discoveries into diagnostics, devices, and treatments in humans, and is ascribed to be the result of companies unwilling to fund research development that may not result in a drug or device that will be utilized in the clinic and conversely, the fact that researchers have no access to the funding needed to carry out preclinical and early clinical development to demonstrate potential efficacy in humans. The valley of death also exists because bridging the translational gap is dependent on successfully managing an additional four risks: scientific, intellectual property, market, and regulatory. The University of Michigan (UM) has partnered with the Wallace H. Coulter Foundation (CF) to create a model providing an infrastructure to overcome these risks. This model is easily adoptable to other academic medical centers (AMCs). PMID:21167009

  5. Research-study of a self-organizing computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, M. R.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that a self organizing system has two main components: an organizable physical part, and a programing part. This report presents the organizable part in the form of a programable hardware and its programing language.

  6. A proposal to protect privacy of health information while accelerating comparative effectiveness research.

    PubMed

    Peddicord, Douglas; Waldo, Ann B; Boutin, Marc; Grande, Tina; Gutierrez, Luis

    2010-11-01

    Current laws, practices, and concerns about privacy inhibit access to health data for research. Barriers include inconsistent Institutional Review Board policies and complicated and costly procedures to obtain the consent of patients for release of their information. To realize the promise of comparative effectiveness research, it is essential to develop a new policy framework that will allow and encourage the use of health information in all forms--fully identifiable, partially anonymized, and deidentified. We propose that health data be made available for information-based research under a so-called research safe harbor. The arrangement would include strict data security controls, standards, and practices to be promulgated by the secretary of health and human services, and an annual third-party audit to ensure compliance. PMID:21041752

  7. A 12 GHZ 50 MW Klystron for Support of Accelerator Research

    SciTech Connect

    Sprehn, Daryl; Haase, Andrew; Jensen, Aaron; Jongewaard, Erik; Nantista, Christopher; Vlieks, Arnold; /SLAC

    2011-05-31

    A 12 GHz 50MW X-band klystron is under development at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Klystron Department. The klystron will be fabricated to support programs currently underway at three European Labs; CERN, PSI, and INFN Trieste. The choice of frequency selection was due to the CLIC RF frequency changing from 30 GHz to the European X-band frequency of 11.99 GHz in 2008. Since the Klystron Department currently builds 50MW klystrons at 11.424 GHz known collectively as the XL4 klystrons, it was deemed cost-effective to utilize many XL4 components by leaving the gun, electron beam transport, solenoid magnet and collector unchanged. To realize the rf parameters required, the rf cavities and rf output hardware were necessarily altered. Some improvements to the rf design have been made to reduce operating gradients and increase reliability. Changes in the multi-cell output structure, waveguide components, and the window will be discussed along with testing of the devices. Five klystrons known as XL5 klystrons are scheduled for production over the next two years.

  8. First high-power model of the annular-ring coupled structure for use in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Yoshishige

    2012-01-01

    A prototype cavity for the annular-ring coupled structure (ACS) for use in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) linac has been developed to confirm the feasibility of achieving the required performance. This prototype cavity is a buncher module, which includes ten accelerating cells in total. The ACS cavity is formed by the silver brazing of ACS half-cell pieces stacked in a vacuum furnace. The accelerating cell of the ACS is surrounded by a coupling cell. We, therefore, tuned the frequencies of the accelerating and coupling cells by an ultraprecision lathe before brazing, taking into account the frequency shift due to brazing. The prototype buncher module was successfully conditioned up to 600 kW, which corresponds to an accelerating field that is higher than the designed field of 4.1MV/m by 30%. We describe the frequency-tuning results for the prototype buncher module and its high-power conditioning.

  9. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

    2014-11-05

    Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

  10. Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium: Accelerating Evidence-Based Practice of Genomic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Green, Robert C; Goddard, Katrina A B; Jarvik, Gail P; Amendola, Laura M; Appelbaum, Paul S; Berg, Jonathan S; Bernhardt, Barbara A; Biesecker, Leslie G; Biswas, Sawona; Blout, Carrie L; Bowling, Kevin M; Brothers, Kyle B; Burke, Wylie; Caga-Anan, Charlisse F; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Chung, Wendy K; Clayton, Ellen W; Cooper, Gregory M; East, Kelly; Evans, James P; Fullerton, Stephanie M; Garraway, Levi A; Garrett, Jeremy R; Gray, Stacy W; Henderson, Gail E; Hindorff, Lucia A; Holm, Ingrid A; Lewis, Michelle Huckaby; Hutter, Carolyn M; Janne, Pasi A; Joffe, Steven; Kaufman, David; Knoppers, Bartha M; Koenig, Barbara A; Krantz, Ian D; Manolio, Teri A; McCullough, Laurence; McEwen, Jean; McGuire, Amy; Muzny, Donna; Myers, Richard M; Nickerson, Deborah A; Ou, Jeffrey; Parsons, Donald W; Petersen, Gloria M; Plon, Sharon E; Rehm, Heidi L; Roberts, J Scott; Robinson, Dan; Salama, Joseph S; Scollon, Sarah; Sharp, Richard R; Shirts, Brian; Spinner, Nancy B; Tabor, Holly K; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Veenstra, David L; Wagle, Nikhil; Weck, Karen; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Wilhelmsen, Kirk; Wolf, Susan M; Wynn, Julia; Yu, Joon-Ho

    2016-06-01

    Despite rapid technical progress and demonstrable effectiveness for some types of diagnosis and therapy, much remains to be learned about clinical genome and exome sequencing (CGES) and its role within the practice of medicine. The Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research (CSER) consortium includes 18 extramural research projects, one National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) intramural project, and a coordinating center funded by the NHGRI and National Cancer Institute. The consortium is exploring analytic and clinical validity and utility, as well as the ethical, legal, and social implications of sequencing via multidisciplinary approaches; it has thus far recruited 5,577 participants across a spectrum of symptomatic and healthy children and adults by utilizing both germline and cancer sequencing. The CSER consortium is analyzing data and creating publically available procedures and tools related to participant preferences and consent, variant classification, disclosure and management of primary and secondary findings, health outcomes, and integration with electronic health records. Future research directions will refine measures of clinical utility of CGES in both germline and somatic testing, evaluate the use of CGES for screening in healthy individuals, explore the penetrance of pathogenic variants through extensive phenotyping, reduce discordances in public databases of genes and variants, examine social and ethnic disparities in the provision of genomics services, explore regulatory issues, and estimate the value and downstream costs of sequencing. The CSER consortium has established a shared community of research sites by using diverse approaches to pursue the evidence-based development of best practices in genomic medicine. PMID:27181682

  11. Acceleration Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    1993-01-01

    Work to support the NASA MSFC Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP) was performed. Four tasks (analysis development, analysis research, analysis documentation, and acceleration analysis) were addressed by parallel projects. Work concentrated on preparation for and implementation of near real-time SAMS data analysis during the USMP-1 mission. User support documents and case specific software documentation and tutorials were developed. Information and results were presented to microgravity users. ACAP computer facilities need to be fully implemented and networked, data resources must be cataloged and accessible, future microgravity missions must be coordinated, and continued Orbiter characterization is necessary.

  12. Research of nickel nanoparticles toxicity with use of Aquatic Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgaleva, T.; Morgalev, Yu; Gosteva, I.; Morgalev, S.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of nanoparticles with the particle size Δ50=5 nm on the test function of aquatic organisms was analyzed by means of biotesting methods with the use of a complex of test-organisms representing general trophic levels. The dependence of an infusoria Paramecium caudatum chemoattractant-elicited response, unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris Beijer growth rate, Daphnia magna Straus mortality and trophic activity and Danio rerio fish kill due to nNi disperse system concentration, is estimated. It is determined that the release of chlorella into cultivated environment including nNi as a feed for daphnias raises the death rate of entomostracans. The minimal concentration, whereby an organism response to the effect of nNi is registered, depends on the type of test organism and the analysed test function. L(E)C20 is determined for all the organisms used in bioassays. L(E)C50 is estimated for Paramecium caudatum (L(E)C50 = 0.0049 mg/l), for Chlorella vulgaris Beijer (L(E)C50 = 0.529 mg/l), for Daphnia m. S (L(E)C50 > 100 mg/l) and for fish Danio rerio (L(E)C50 > 100 mg/l). According to the Globally Harmonized System hazard substance evaluation criteria and Commission Directive 93/67/EEC, nNi belongs to the “acute toxicity 1” category of toxic substances.

  13. Accelerating the Whiteshell Laboratories Decommissioning Through the Implementation of a Projectized and Delivery-Focused Organization - 13074

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, Brian; Mellor, Russ; Michaluk, Craig

    2013-07-01

    Whiteshell Laboratories (WL) is a nuclear research site in Canada that was commissioned in 1964 by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. It covers a total area of approximately 4,375 hectares (10,800 acres) and includes the main campus site, the Waste Management Area (WMA) and outer areas of land identified as not used for or impacted by nuclear development or operations. The WL site employed up to 1100 staff. Site activities included the successful operation of a 60 MW organic liquid-cooled research reactor from 1965 to 1985, and various research programs including reactor safety research, small reactor development, fuel development, biophysics and radiation applications, as well as work under the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. In 1997, AECL made a business decision to discontinue research programs and operations at WL, and obtained government concurrence in 1998. The Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP) was established in 2006 by the Canadian Government to remediate nuclear legacy liabilities in a safe and cost effective manner, including the WL site. The NLLP is being implemented by AECL under the governance of a Natural Resources Canada (NRCan)/AECL Joint Oversight Committee (JOC). Significant progress has since been made, and the WL site currently holds the only Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) nuclear research site decommissioning license in Canada. The current decommissioning license is in place until the end of 2018. The present schedule planned for main campus decommissioning is 30 years (to 2037), followed by institutional control of the WMA until a National plan is implemented for the long-term management of nuclear waste. There is an impetus to advance work and complete decommissioning sooner. To accomplish this, AECL has added significant resources, reorganized and moved to a projectized environment. This presentation outlines changes made to the organization, the tools implemented to foster projectization, and the benefits

  14. Accelerating Struggling Readers' Progress: A Comparative Analysis of Expert Opinion and Current Research Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Smith, John A.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we review the findings of Rona Flippo's (1998) "Expert Study" within the comparative context of recently published reading research reports such as the National Reading Panel report (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000) and Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998).…

  15. Accelerating Translational Research by Clinically Driven Development of an Informatics Platform–A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Abugessaisa, Imad; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Tsipras, Giorgos; Lindblad, Staffan; Sandin, Charlotta; Nikamo, Pernilla; Ståhle, Mona; Malmström, Vivianne; Klareskog, Lars; Tegnér, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Translational medicine is becoming increasingly dependent upon data generated from health care, clinical research, and molecular investigations. This increasing rate of production and diversity in data has brought about several challenges, including the need to integrate fragmented databases, enable secondary use of patient clinical data from health care in clinical research, and to create information systems that clinicians and biomedical researchers can readily use. Our case study effectively integrates requirements from the clinical and biomedical researcher perspectives in a translational medicine setting. Our three principal achievements are (a) a design of a user-friendly web-based system for management and integration of clinical and molecular databases, while adhering to proper de-identification and security measures; (b) providing a real-world test of the system functionalities using clinical cohorts; and (c) system integration with a clinical decision support system to demonstrate system interoperability. We engaged two active clinical cohorts, 747 psoriasis patients and 2001 rheumatoid arthritis patients, to demonstrate efficient query possibilities across the data sources, enable cohort stratification, extract variation in antibody patterns, study biomarker predictors of treatment response in RA patients, and to explore metabolic profiles of psoriasis patients. Finally, we demonstrated system interoperability by enabling integration with an established clinical decision support system in health care. To assure the usefulness and usability of the system, we followed two approaches. First, we created a graphical user interface supporting all user interactions. Secondly we carried out a system performance evaluation study where we measured the average response time in seconds for active users, http errors, and kilobits per second received and sent. The maximum response time was found to be 0.12 seconds; no server or client errors of any kind were detected

  16. Organizing for Interdisciplinary Research in a University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cravens, David W.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    University administrators should study the various organizational approaches used for managing interdisciplinary research (IDR) in their institutions. More aggressive, innovative approaches to IDR management should be adopted. Available from: the Society of Research Administrators, 2855 East Coast Highway, Suite 225, Corona del Mar, CA 92625.…

  17. Classroom Organization and Management: What Does Research Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigro, Kirk A.

    This paper looks at effective schools research as it relates to classroom management in participating schools associated with Michigan's Upper Peninsula Effective Schools Professional Development Program--a staff development program based on effective schools research and designed to bring about school improvement. Effective schools research…

  18. Metaphor Foundations in Creativity Research: Boundary vs. Organism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Seana

    2009-01-01

    Two metaphors explicitly or implicitly used in the conceptualization of creativity are examined and compared. The boundary metaphor describes creativity in terms of crossing or pushing out a frontier. This metaphor underlies studies that emphasize creativity as a moment--an "aha!" experience or a sharp break from tradition. The organism metaphor…

  19. Charter Management Organizations: Innovations, Opportunities, and Challenges. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Reinventing Public Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades, charter management organizations (CMOs) have become a significant force in the public K-12 charter school landscape. CMOs, nonprofit entities that directly manage public charter schools, are meant to meld the benefits of school districts--including economies of scale, collaboration among similar schools, and support…

  20. Research Report for the Organizing for Diversity Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betsinger, Alicia M.; Garcia, Shernaz B.; Guerra, Patricia L.

    This report describes the Organizing for Diversity Project, which generated professional development modules to prepare teachers to work more effectively with diverse students. Prototype modules were developed in collaboration with teacher volunteers, then field tested. The final 11 modules, which included 33 hours of training, were designed for…

  1. Harnessing person-generated health data to accelerate patient-centered outcomes research: the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America PCORnet Patient Powered Research Network (CCFA Partners).

    PubMed

    Chung, Arlene E; Sandler, Robert S; Long, Millie D; Ahrens, Sean; Burris, Jessica L; Martin, Christopher F; Anton, Kristen; Robb, Amber; Caruso, Thomas P; Jaeger, Elizabeth L; Chen, Wenli; Clark, Marshall; Myers, Kelly; Dobes, Angela; Kappelman, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    The Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America Partners Patient-Powered Research Network (PPRN) seeks to advance and accelerate comparative effectiveness and translational research in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Our IBD-focused PCORnet PPRN has been designed to overcome the major obstacles that have limited patient-centered outcomes research in IBD by providing the technical infrastructure, patient governance, and patient-driven functionality needed to: 1) identify, prioritize, and undertake a patient-centered research agenda through sharing person-generated health data; 2) develop and test patient and provider-focused tools that utilize individual patient data to improve health behaviors and inform health care decisions and, ultimately, outcomes; and 3) rapidly disseminate new knowledge to patients, enabling them to improve their health. The Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America Partners PPRN has fostered the development of a community of citizen scientists in IBD; created a portal that will recruit, retain, and engage members and encourage partnerships with external scientists; and produced an efficient infrastructure for identifying, screening, and contacting network members for participation in research. PMID:26911821

  2. Organization level research in scientometrics: a plea for an explicit pragmatic approach.

    PubMed

    Hardeman, Sjoerd

    2013-03-01

    The general aim of this paper is to come to terms with the organization and organization level research in scientometrics. Most of the debate on the issues that revolve organization level research in scientometrics is technical. As such, most contributions presume a clear understanding of what constitutes the organization in the first place. To our opinion however, such "a-priorism" is at least awkward, given that even in specialist fields there is no clear understanding of what constitutes the organization. The main argument of this paper holds that performing organization level research in scientometrics can only proceed by taking a pragmatic stance on the constitution of the organization. As such, we argue that performing organization level research in scientometrics (i) requires both authoritative "objective" and non-authoritative "subjective" background knowledge, (ii) involves non-logic practices that can be more or less theoretically informed, and (iii) depends crucially upon the general aim of the research endeavor in which the organization is taken as a basic unit of analysis. To our opinion a pragmatic stance on organization level research in scientometrics is a viable alternative to both overly positivist and overly relativist approaches as well as that it might render the relation between scientometrics and science policy more productive. PMID:23419790

  3. Development of a cryogenic load frame for the neutron diffractometer at Takumi in Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Xinzhe; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Ogitsu, Toru; Yamamoto, Akira; Sugano, Michinaka; Harjo, Stefanus; Aizawa, Kazuya; Abe, Jun; Gong, Wu; Iwahashi, Takaaki; Hemmi, Tsutomu; Umeno, Takahiro

    2013-06-15

    To prepare for projects such as the Large Hadron Collider upgrade, International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and Demonstration reactor, it is important to form a clear understanding of stress-strain properties of the materials that make up superconducting magnets. Thus, we have been studying the mechanical properties of superconducting wires using neutron diffraction measurements. To simulate operational conditions such as temperature, stress, and strain, we developed a cryogenic load frame for stress-strain measurements of materials using a neutron diffractometer at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) Takumi beam line. The maximum load that can be applied to a sample using an external driving machine is 50 kN. Using a Gifford-MacMahon cryocooler, samples can be measured down to temperatures below 10 K when loaded. In the present paper, we describe the details of the cryogenic load frame with its test results by using type-304 stainless steel wire.

  4. Development of a cryogenic load frame for the neutron diffractometer at Takumi in Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xinzhe; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Harjo, Stefanus; Hemmi, Tsutomu; Umeno, Takahiro; Ogitsu, Toru; Yamamoto, Akira; Sugano, Michinaka; Aizawa, Kazuya; Abe, Jun; Gong, Wu; Iwahashi, Takaaki

    2013-06-01

    To prepare for projects such as the Large Hadron Collider upgrade, International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and Demonstration reactor, it is important to form a clear understanding of stress-strain properties of the materials that make up superconducting magnets. Thus, we have been studying the mechanical properties of superconducting wires using neutron diffraction measurements. To simulate operational conditions such as temperature, stress, and strain, we developed a cryogenic load frame for stress-strain measurements of materials using a neutron diffractometer at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) Takumi beam line. The maximum load that can be applied to a sample using an external driving machine is 50 kN. Using a Gifford-MacMahon cryocooler, samples can be measured down to temperatures below 10 K when loaded. In the present paper, we describe the details of the cryogenic load frame with its test results by using type-304 stainless steel wire. PMID:23822332

  5. Accelerating Exploration Through the Sharing of Best Practices in Research Partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nall, Mark; Casas, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes the formation of an international panel of space related public/private partnerships for the purposes of sharing best practices among members. The exploration and development of space is too costly to be conducted by governments alone. Private industry has a significant role in creating needed technologies, and developing commercial space infrastructure, thereby allowing sustainable exploration to take place. Public/private partnerships between government and industry are key to fostering industrial participation in space. The spacefaring nations have, or are developing these partnerships. Those organizations forming these partnerships can benefit from sharing among each other best practices and lessons learned. In this way the common goal of space exploration and development can be more effectively pursued.

  6. 48 CFR 35.015 - Contracts for research with educational institutions and nonprofit organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING 35.015 Contracts for research with educational institutions and nonprofit organizations. (a... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contracts for research with educational institutions and nonprofit organizations. 35.015 Section 35.015 Federal...

  7. Intel Xeon Phi accelerated Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Goddard microphysics scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielikainen, J.; Huang, B.; Huang, A. H.-L.

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is a numerical weather prediction system designed to serve both atmospheric research and operational forecasting needs. The WRF development is a done in collaboration around the globe. Furthermore, the WRF is used by academic atmospheric scientists, weather forecasters at the operational centers and so on. The WRF contains several physics components. The most time consuming one is the microphysics. One microphysics scheme is the Goddard cloud microphysics scheme. It is a sophisticated cloud microphysics scheme in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The Goddard microphysics scheme is very suitable for massively parallel computation as there are no interactions among horizontal grid points. Compared to the earlier microphysics schemes, the Goddard scheme incorporates a large number of improvements. Thus, we have optimized the Goddard scheme code. In this paper, we present our results of optimizing the Goddard microphysics scheme on Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) hardware. The Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor is the first product based on Intel MIC architecture, and it consists of up to 61 cores connected by a high performance on-die bidirectional interconnect. The Intel MIC is capable of executing a full operating system and entire programs rather than just kernels as the GPU does. The MIC coprocessor supports all important Intel development tools. Thus, the development environment is one familiar to a vast number of CPU developers. Although, getting a maximum performance out of MICs will require using some novel optimization techniques. Those optimization techniques are discussed in this paper. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of Goddard microphysics scheme on Xeon Phi 7120P by a factor of 4.7×. In addition, the optimizations reduced the Goddard microphysics scheme's share of the total WRF processing time from 20.0 to 7.5%. Furthermore, the same optimizations

  8. Model Organisms in G Protein-Coupled Receptor Research.

    PubMed

    Langenhan, Tobias; Barr, Maureen M; Bruchas, Michael R; Ewer, John; Griffith, Leslie C; Maiellaro, Isabella; Taghert, Paul H; White, Benjamin H; Monk, Kelly R

    2015-09-01

    The study of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has benefited greatly from experimental approaches that interrogate their functions in controlled, artificial environments. Working in vitro, GPCR receptorologists discovered the basic biologic mechanisms by which GPCRs operate, including their eponymous capacity to couple to G proteins; their molecular makeup, including the famed serpentine transmembrane unit; and ultimately, their three-dimensional structure. Although the insights gained from working outside the native environments of GPCRs have allowed for the collection of low-noise data, such approaches cannot directly address a receptor's native (in vivo) functions. An in vivo approach can complement the rigor of in vitro approaches: as studied in model organisms, it imposes physiologic constraints on receptor action and thus allows investigators to deduce the most salient features of receptor function. Here, we briefly discuss specific examples in which model organisms have successfully contributed to the elucidation of signals controlled through GPCRs and other surface receptor systems. We list recent examples that have served either in the initial discovery of GPCR signaling concepts or in their fuller definition. Furthermore, we selectively highlight experimental advantages, shortcomings, and tools of each model organism. PMID:25979002

  9. Model Organisms in G Protein–Coupled Receptor Research

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Maureen M.; Bruchas, Michael R.; Ewer, John; Griffith, Leslie C.; Maiellaro, Isabella; Taghert, Paul H.; White, Benjamin H.

    2015-01-01

    The study of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) has benefited greatly from experimental approaches that interrogate their functions in controlled, artificial environments. Working in vitro, GPCR receptorologists discovered the basic biologic mechanisms by which GPCRs operate, including their eponymous capacity to couple to G proteins; their molecular makeup, including the famed serpentine transmembrane unit; and ultimately, their three-dimensional structure. Although the insights gained from working outside the native environments of GPCRs have allowed for the collection of low-noise data, such approaches cannot directly address a receptor’s native (in vivo) functions. An in vivo approach can complement the rigor of in vitro approaches: as studied in model organisms, it imposes physiologic constraints on receptor action and thus allows investigators to deduce the most salient features of receptor function. Here, we briefly discuss specific examples in which model organisms have successfully contributed to the elucidation of signals controlled through GPCRs and other surface receptor systems. We list recent examples that have served either in the initial discovery of GPCR signaling concepts or in their fuller definition. Furthermore, we selectively highlight experimental advantages, shortcomings, and tools of each model organism. PMID:25979002

  10. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center: A Collaborative Model for Accelerating Research into Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Lapenta, W.; Jedlovec, G.; Dodge, J.; Bradshaw, T.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, Alabama was created to accelerate the infusion of NASA earth science observations, data assimilation and modeling research into NWS forecast operations and decision-making. The principal focus of experimental products is on the regional scale with an emphasis on forecast improvements on a time scale of 0-24 hours. The SPoRT Center research is aligned with the regional prediction objectives of the US Weather Research Program dealing with 0-1 day forecast issues ranging from convective initiation to 24-hr quantitative precipitation forecasting. The SPoRT Center, together with its other interagency partners, universities, and the NASA/NOAA Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation, provides a means and a process to effectively transition NASA Earth Science Enterprise observations and technology to National Weather Service operations and decision makers at both the global/national and regional scales. This paper describes the process for the transition of experimental products into forecast operations, current products undergoing assessment by forecasters, and plans for the future.

  11. A review of organizations influencing radio frequency allocations to deep space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The charters and functions of various national and international scientific organizations were examined to identify those which have a direct or indirect influence on the allocation of radio frequencies for use in deep space research. Those organizations identified as having the ability to influence frequency allocations are described. A brief description of each organization is provided, and the members who are influential specifically in frequency allocations are listed. The interrelations between the organizations and how they influence allocations are explained.

  12. Montana Organization for Research in Energy (MORE) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bromenshenk, Jerry

    1999-12-31

    MORE is a consortium of educational, governmental, and industrial partners in cooperation with the state's Tribal colleges. Formed in 1994, the objectives are to develop and promote energy-related research and education in the state of Montana and the Northwestern region. Specifically, they set out to: (1) promote collaboration and cooperation among Montana's Colleges and Universities; (2) maximize use of existing personnel and resources; (3) foster partnerships with industries, state agencies, and tribal nations; and (4) enhance energy research and training. The 1st Implementation Grant consisted of Management and Coordination, Human Outreach, and two Research Clusters Petroleum Reservoir Characterization and Wind Energy. Overall, they consider this program to have been highly successful. That conclusion was mirrored by the DOE site reviewers, and by invitations from Dr. Matesh Varma, the DOE/EPSCoR National Program Director, to present their programs and outcomes as models for other states the National DOE/EPSCoR meetings.

  13. Rapid acceleration of ferrous iron/peroxymonosulfate oxidation of organic pollutants by promoting Fe(III)/Fe(II) cycle with hydroxylamine.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jing; Ma, Jun; Chen, Liwei; Li, Xuchun; Guan, Yinghong; Xie, Pengchao; Pan, Chao

    2013-10-15

    The reaction between ferrous iron (Fe(II)) with peroxymonosulfate (PMS) generates reactive oxidants capable of degrading refractory organic contaminants. However, the slow transformation from ferric iron (Fe(III)) back to Fe(II) limits its widespread application. Here, we added hydroxylamine (HA), a common reducing agent, into Fe(II)/PMS process to accelerate the transformation from Fe(III) to Fe(II). With benzoic acid (BA) as probe compound, the addition of HA into Fe(II)/PMS process accelerated the degradation of BA rapidly in the pH range of 2.0-6.0 by accelerating the key reactions, including the redox cycle of Fe(III)/Fe(II) and the generation of reactive oxidants. Both sulfate radicals and hydroxyl radicals were considered as the primary reactive oxidants for the degradation of BA in HA/Fe(II)/PMS process with the experiments of electron spin resonance and alcohols quenching. Moreover, HA was gradually degraded to N2, N2O, NO2 (−), and NO3 (−), while the environmentally friendly gas of N2 was considered as its major end product in the process. The present study might provide a promising idea based on Fe(II)/PMS process for the rapid degradation of refractory organic contaminants in water treatment. PMID:24033112

  14. Key Problems in Organizing and Structuring University Research in Vietnam: The Lack of an Effective Research "Behaviour Formalization" System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Lan; Meek, Vincent Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Structure and organization seems to be at the root of many of the questions raised about institutional behaviour; however, with respect to research on university capacity building, few studies have examined research organizational problems, particularly in developing countries. This study investigates academic reactions to the structure and…

  15. On the Societal Nature of Praxis and Organic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2016-01-01

    In its focus on social practices, the feature article presents an interesting theoretical framework for rethinking not only where and how knowing and learning in science education exhibit themselves but also we might change our own research practice. The framework is not new to me, as I have advocated it explicitly for more than 15 years. But over…

  16. A Research-Based Laboratory Course in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Thomas A.; Tracy, Henry J.; Prudente, Caryn

    2006-01-01

    The development, implementation, evolution, and evaluation of a research-based laboratory course which was created as an alternative to more traditional laboratory instruction is described. The course was able to engage the students in devising and executing their own experiments, the satisfaction of determining the outcomes of those experiments,…

  17. Invertebrates as model organisms for research on aging biology

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Mahadev; Ram, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Invertebrate model systems, such as nematodes and fruit flies, have provided valuable information about the genetics and cellular biology involved in aging. However, limitations of these simple, genetically tractable organisms suggest the need for other model systems, some of them invertebrate, to facilitate further advances in the understanding of mechanisms of aging and longevity in mammals, including humans. This paper introduces 10 review articles about the use of invertebrate model systems for the study of aging by authors who participated in an ‘NIA-NIH symposium on aging in invertebrate model systems’ at the 2013 International Congress for Invertebrate Reproduction and Development. In contrast to the highly derived characteristics of nematodes and fruit flies as members of the superphylum Ecdysozoa, cnidarians, such as Hydra, are more ‘basal’ organisms that have a greater number of genetic orthologs in common with humans. Moreover, some other new model systems, such as the urochordate Botryllus schlosseri, the tunicate Ciona, and the sea urchins (Echinodermata) are members of the Deuterostomia, the same superphylum that includes all vertebrates, and thus have mechanisms that are likely to be more closely related to those occurring in humans. Additional characteristics of these new model systems, such as the recent development of new molecular and genetic tools and a more similar pattern to humans of regeneration and stem cell function suggest that these new model systems may have unique advantages for the study of mechanisms of aging and longevity. PMID:26241448

  18. Microwave and accelerator research. Final report on Grant DE-FG02-92ER40731

    SciTech Connect

    Nation, John A.

    2002-09-01

    This report summarizes the main technical objectives and accomplishments during the life of the grant, and concludes with data on publications describing the research. The main activity was the development of very high power microwave sources, initially in X-band, and recent initial work on a Ka band TWT amplifier. There was additional activity on ferroelectric emitters. Highlights include the following: (1) The development of a relatively broad band microwave source yielding approx. 75 MW power at a power efficiency of 54% and an energy conversion efficiency of 43%. (2) The development of a ferroelectric cathode electron gun which yielded a beam current of up to 350 A at 500 kV. The device was shown to operate satisfactorily at a low repetition rate, limited by the available power supplies. The final beam power obtained exceeds that achieved elsewhere by several orders of magnitude. The gun development achieved was shown to give an electron beam suitable for high power X-band microwave sources with the demonstration of a 5-MW tunable X-band TWT single-stage amplifier. (3) Work was initiated on a Ka-Band TWT amplifier. Gains of over 30 dB were achieved at peak output powers of about 4 MW. Appendices include two submitted papers: Symmetric and asymmetric mode interaction in high-power traveling wave amplifiers: experiments and theory and High power microwave generation using a ferroelectric cathode electron gun.

  19. Rotterdam: main port for organ transplantation research in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Kwekkeboom, Jaap; van der Laan, Luc J W; Betjes, Michiel G H; Manintveld, Olivier C; Hoek, Rogier A S; Cransberg, Karlien; de Bruin, Ron W F; Dor, Frank J M F; de Jonge, Jeroen; Boor, Patrick P C; van Gent, Rogier; van Besouw, Nicole M; Boer, Karin; Litjens, Nicolle H R; Hesselink, Dennis A; Hoogduijn, Martin J; Massey, Emma; Rowshani, Ajda T; van de Wetering, Jacqueline; de Jong, Huib; Hendriks, Rudi W; Metselaar, Herold J; van Gelder, Teun; Weimar, Willem; IJzermans, Jan N M; Baan, Carla C

    2014-10-01

    This overview describes the full spectrum of current pre-clinical and clinical kidney-, liver-, heart- and lung transplantation research performed in Erasmus MC - University Medical Centre in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. An update is provided on the development of a large living donor kidney transplantation program and on optimization of kidney allocation, including the implementation of a domino kidney-donation program. Our current research efforts to optimize immunosuppressive regimens and find novel targets for immunosuppressive therapy, our recent studies on prevention of ischemia-reperfusion-induced graft injury, our newest findings on stimulation of tissue regeneration, our novel approaches to prevent rejection and viral infection, and our latest insights in the regulation of allograft rejection, are summarized. PMID:25240732

  20. Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  1. Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-05

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  2. The preparation of accelerator targets by the evaporation of acetate-organic solutions in the presence of NH/sub 3/ gas

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, S.Y.; Ghiorso, A.; Hoffman, D.C.

    1987-03-01

    The chemical methods described in this paper have been developed for preparation of isotopic targets for bombardment by accelerator-produced ions. Three systems are compared: nitrate-, chloride-, and acetate-organic solutions. The best method was found to be the metallic acetate-organic solution system, evaporated onto the substrate in the presence of ammonia gas. A detailed procedure is given for this method. The targets obtained by the acetate-organic solution system are uniform and adherent. The hydroxide forms fine crystals of good quality for target thicknesses from a few ..mu..g/cm/sup 2/ to several mg/cm/sup 2/. Thicknesses up to 5 mg/cm/sup 2/ of Eu as the oxide were obtained by this method. The process is simple and fast. 18 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Improving Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Health: National Organizations Leading Community Research Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Weir, Rosy Chang; Ro, Margeurite; Ko, Kathy Lim; Panapasa, Sela; Bautista, Roxanna; Asato, Lloyd; Chung, Corina; Cabllero, Jeffery; Islam, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Background Functionally, many CBPR projects operate through a model of academic partners providing research expertise and community partners playing a supporting role. Objectives To demonstrate how national umbrella organizations deeply rooted in communities, cognizant of community needs, and drawing on the insights and assets of community partners, can lead efforts to address health disparities affecting their constituents through research. Methods Case studies of two Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander national organizations Results Strategically engaging a diverse range of partners and securing flexible funding mechanisms that support research were important facilitators. Main challenges included limited interest of local community organizations whose primary missions as service or health care providers may deprioritize research. Conclusions Efforts to make research relevant to the work of community partners and to instill the value of research in community partners, as well as flexible funding mechanisms, may help to promote community-driven research. PMID:22643786

  4. Representative benthic bioindicator organisms for use in radiation effects research: Culture of Neanthes arenaceodentata (Polychaeta)

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, F.L.; Knezovich, J.P.; Martinelli, R.E. )

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a comprehensive synthesis of information pertaining to the selection and maintenance of bioindicator organisms for use in radiation-effects research. The focus of this report is on the benthic polychaete, Neanthes arenaceodentata, a species that has been used successfully at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and other institutions to define the impacts of radiation and chemical toxicants on aquatic organisms. In this document, the authors provide a rationale for the selection of this organism, a description of its reproductive biology, and a description of the conditions that are required for the maintenance and rearing of the organism for use in toxicological research.

  5. A Framework of Operating Models for Interdisciplinary Research Programs in Clinical Service Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gillian; Currie, Melissa; Smith, Linda; Servais, Michelle; McDougall, Janette

    2008-01-01

    A framework of operating models for interdisciplinary research programs in clinical service organizations is presented, consisting of a "clinician-researcher" skill development model, a program evaluation model, a researcher-led knowledge generation model, and a knowledge conduit model. Together, these models comprise a tailored, collaborative…

  6. Novel High Efficient Organic Photovoltaic Materials: Final Summary of Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Sam

    2002-01-01

    The objectives and goals of this project were to investigate and develop high efficient, lightweight, and cost effective materials for potential photovoltaic applications, such as solar energy conversion or photo detector devices. Specifically, as described in the original project proposal, the target material to be developed was a block copolymer system containing an electron donating (or p-type) conjugated polymer block coupled to an electron withdrawing (or n-type) conjugated polymer block through a non-conjugated bridge unit. Due to several special requirements of the targeted block copolymer systems, such as electron donating and withdrawing substituents, conjugated block structures, processing requirement, stability requirement, size controllability, phase separation and self ordering requirement, etc., many traditional or commonly used block copolymer synthetic schemes are not suitable for this system. Therefore, the investigation and development of applicable and effective synthetic protocols became the most critical and challenging part of this project. During the entire project period, and despite the lack of a proposed synthetic polymer postdoctoral research associate due to severe shortage of qualified personnel in the field, several important accomplishments were achieved in this project and are briefly listed and elaborated. A more detailed research and experimental data is listed in the Appendix.

  7. Tardigrades as a Potential Model Organism in Space Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jönsson, K. Ingemar

    2007-10-01

    Exposure of living organisms to open space requires a high level of tolerance to desiccation, cold, and radiation. Among animals, only anhydrobiotic species can fulfill these requirements. The invertebrate phylum Tardigrada includes many anhydrobiotic species, which are adapted to survive in very dry or cold environmental conditions. As a likely by-product of the adaptations for desiccation and freezing, tardigrades also show a very high tolerance to a number of other, unnatural conditions, including exposure to ionizing radiation. This makes tardigrades an interesting candidate for experimental exposure to open space. This paper reviews the tolerances that make tardigrades suitable for astrobiological studies and the reported radiation tolerance in other anhydrobiotic animals. Several studies have shown that tardigrades can survive γ-irradiation well above 1 kilogray, and desiccated and hydrated (active) tardigrades respond similarly to irradiation. Thus, tolerance is not restricted to the dry anhydrobiotic state, and I discuss the possible involvement of an efficient, but yet undocumented, mechanism for DNA repair. Other anhydrobiotic animals (Artemia, Polypedium), when dessicated, show a higher tolerance to γ-irradiation than hydrated animals, possibly due to the presence of high levels of the protective disaccharide trehalose in the dry state. Tardigrades and other anhydrobiotic animals provide a unique opportunity to study the effects of space exposure on metabolically inactive but vital metazoans.

  8. On the societal nature of praxis and organic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2016-03-01

    In its focus on social practices, the feature article presents an interesting theoretical framework for rethinking not only where and how knowing and learning in science education exhibit themselves but also we might change our own research practice. The framework is not new to me, as I have advocated it explicitly for more than 15 years. But over time it became apparent to me that some particularities of participation in practice may be grounded more strongly in an orientation towards the societal nature of any human praxis. In this forum contribution, I present a theoretical approach built on societal-historical activity theory that also takes activism as a major category for theorizing participation. This approach not only covers the extent of the social practice framework but also allows us to make thematic the production of inequity and restrictions to access science and engineering that are characteristic of many societies.

  9. YALINA facility a sub-critical Accelerator- Driven System (ADS) for nuclear energy research facility description and an overview of the research program (1997-2008).

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Smith, D. L.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-04-28

    The YALINA facility is a zero-power, sub-critical assembly driven by a conventional neutron generator. It was conceived, constructed, and put into operation at the Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus located in Minsk-Sosny, Belarus. This facility was conceived for the purpose of investigating the static and dynamic neutronics properties of accelerator driven sub-critical systems, and to serve as a neutron source for investigating the properties of nuclear reactions, in particular transmutation reactions involving minor-actinide nuclei. This report provides a detailed description of this facility and documents the progress of research carried out there during a period of approximately a decade since the facility was conceived and built until the end of 2008. During its history of development and operation to date (1997-2008), the YALINA facility has hosted several foreign groups that worked with the resident staff as collaborators. The participation of Argonne National Laboratory in the YALINA research programs commenced in 2005. For obvious reasons, special emphasis is placed in this report on the work at YALINA facility that has involved Argonne's participation. Attention is given here to the experimental program at YALINA facility as well as to analytical investigations aimed at validating codes and computational procedures and at providing a better understanding of the physics and operational behavior of the YALINA facility in particular, and ADS systems in general, during the period 1997-2008.

  10. Work organization research at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

    PubMed

    Rosenstock, L

    1997-01-01

    For 25 years, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has conducted and sponsored laboratory, field, and epidemiological studies that have helped define the role of work organization factors in occupational safety and health. Research has focused on the health effects of specific job conditions, occupational stressors in specific occupations, occupational difference in the incidence of stressors and stress-related disorders, and intervention strategies. NIOSH and the American Psychological Association have formalized the concept of occupational health psychology and developed a postdoctoral training program. The National Occupational Research Agenda recognizes organization of work as one of 21 national occupational safety and health research priority areas. Future research should focus on industries, occupations, and populations at special risk; the impact of work organization on overall health; the identification of healthy organization characteristics; and the development of intervention strategies. PMID:9552275

  11. Tumor-Associated Glycans and Their Role in Gynecological Cancers: Accelerating Translational Research by Novel High-Throughput Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Pochechueva, Tatiana; Jacob, Francis; Fedier, Andre; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola

    2012-01-01

    Glycans are important partners in many biological processes, including carcinogenesis. The rapidly developing field of functional glycomics becomes one of the frontiers of biology and biomedicine. Aberrant glycosylation of proteins and lipids occurs commonly during malignant transformation and leads to the expression of specific tumor-associated glycans. The appearance of aberrant glycans on carcinoma cells is typically associated with grade, invasion, metastasis and overall poor prognosis. Cancer-associated carbohydrates are mostly located on the surface of cancer cells and are therefore potential diagnostic biomarkers. Currently, there is increasing interest in cancer-associated aberrant glycosylation, with growing numbers of characteristic cancer targets being detected every day. Breast and ovarian cancer are the most common and lethal malignancies in women, respectively, and potential glycan biomarkers hold promise for early detection and targeted therapies. However, the acceleration of research and comprehensive multi-target investigation of cancer-specific glycans could only be successfully achieved with the help of a combination of novel high-throughput glycomic approaches. PMID:24957768

  12. Microwave and accelerator research

    SciTech Connect

    Nation, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes work carried out on DOE grant number DE-FG02- 92ER40731 during the period June 1, 1992 to the present. The report provides a brief summary of the program objectives, summarizes the main accomplishments and concludes with listings of conference and refereed publications.

  13. Accelerator and electrodynamics capability review

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Kevin W

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.

  14. A SURVEY ON RESEARCH NEEDS ON PERSONAL SAMPLERS FOR TOXIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A survey is presented on the research and development needs for personal monitoring devices for toxic organic compounds in the ambient atmosphere. This survey includes a description of organic compounds and their ambient concentrations, individual compounds of high priority, a su...

  15. Perceptual Organization in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: Empirical Research and Theoretical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhlhaas, Peter J.; Silverstein, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    The research into perceptual organization in schizophrenia spectrum disorders has found evidence for and against a perceptual organization deficit and has interpreted the data from within several different theoretical frameworks. A synthesis of this evidence, however, reveals that this body of work has produced reliable evidence for deficits in…

  16. 75 FR 58400 - Donor Management Research: Improvements in Clinical Management of Deceased Organ Donors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ...The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Division of Transplantation, is soliciting input, feedback, and suggestions from researchers and interested parties within the organ donation and transplant community regarding guidance for a possible grant or contract that focuses on improvements in clinical management of deceased organ donors. Given the continued imbalance between the......

  17. Environment Health & Safety Research Program. Organization and 1979-1980 Publications

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    This document was prepared to assist readers in understanding the organization of Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and the organization and functions of the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program Office. Telephone numbers of the principal management staff are provided. Also included is a list of 1979 and 1980 publications reporting on work performed in the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program, as well as a list of papers submitted for publication.

  18. PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Teng, L.C.

    1960-01-19

    ABS>A combination of two accelerators, a cyclotron and a ring-shaped accelerator which has a portion disposed tangentially to the cyclotron, is described. Means are provided to transfer particles from the cyclotron to the ring accelerator including a magnetic deflector within the cyclotron, a magnetic shield between the ring accelerator and the cyclotron, and a magnetic inflector within the ring accelerator.

  19. [Virtual organization in the digital age of radiology - principle and solution for radiologic research?].

    PubMed

    Leppek, R; Krass, S; Bourquain, H; Lang, M; Wein, B; Mildenberger, P; Schaller, S; Klose, K J; Peitgen, H-O

    2003-11-01

    The research project "VICORA - Virtual Institute for Computer-Assisted Radiology", funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, was initiated in the year 2000. Its virtual organization brings together physical science, engineering, information technology, clinical radiology and the medical technology industry. In the German radiology research domain VICORA serves as a model for interdisciplinary collaboration for the changing radiology paradigm illustrated by a "radiologycube". The project does not only aim at scientific goals but also considers the infrastructure, components and human resource management within a virtual organization. The common rapid prototyping platform ILAB 4 ensures user-friendly and time-efficient software that assists with the routine radiology work-flow including full DICOM functionality. By offering a new work environment and collaborative culture based on telematics and knowledge exchange in radiology research, VICORA overcomes limitations of traditional research organization. PMID:14610709

  20. Challenges facing translational research organizations in China: a qualitative multiple case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Translational medicine is attracting much attention worldwide and many translational research organizations (TROs) have been established. In China, translational medicine has developed rapidly, but faces many challenges. This study was aimed at exploring these challenges faced by emerging TROs in China. Method A qualitative, multiple case study approach was used to assess the challenges faced by TROs in China. Data were collected between May and August 2012. Results Eight cases were identified. Overall, four themes that characterized TROs in China emerged from analyses: 1. objectives, organizer, and funding resources, 2. participating partners and research teams, 3. management, and 4. achievements. All TROs had objectives related to translating basic discovery to clinic treatment and cultivating translational researchers. In terms of organizer and funding resources, 7 out of 8 TROs were launched only by universities and/or hospitals, and funded mostly through research grants. As for participating partners and multidisciplinary research teams, all but one of the TROs only involved biomedical research institutions who were interested in translational research, and characterized as clinical research centers; 7 out of 8 TROs involved only researchers from biomedicine and clinical disciplines and none involved disciplines related to education, ethnicity, and sociology, or engaged the community. Current management of the TROs were generally nested within the traditional research management paradigms, and failed to adapt to the tenets of translational research. Half of the TROs were at developmental stages defined as infrastructure construction and recruitment of translational researchers. Conclusions TROs in China face the challenge of attracting sustainable funding sources, widening multidisciplinary cooperation, cultivating multi-disciplinary translational researchers and adapting current research management to translational research. Greater emphasis should

  1. Using Research to Enhance Staff Development: A Collaboration between a State Education Agency and an Independent Research Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappa, Joseph B.; Brown, Patricia P.

    In 1981, TDR Associates, a private, independent research organization in Newton, Massachusetts, began a two and one-half year study of "Knowledge Utilization and School Improvement Through Staff Initiated Inservice Programs." This study was funded by a grant from the National Institute of Education and conducted under an arrangement with the…

  2. Consulting, Mediating, Conducting, and Supporting: How Community-Based Organizations Engage with Research to Influence Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue; Evans, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Grounded in critical policy theories and democratic conceptions of research, case studies of three community-based organizations, one in Canada and two in the U.S., were analyzed to determine if and how the groups engaged with research in their efforts to influence education policy. The findings demonstrate that the community-based organizations…

  3. Between the Local and the Global: Organized Research Units and International Collaborations in the Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa, Creso M.; Oleksiyenko, Anatoly

    2011-01-01

    Organized research units--also known as centers, institutes, and laboratories--are increasingly prominent in the university. This paper examines how ORUs emerge to promote global agendas and international collaborations in an academic health center in North America. The roles these units play in helping researchers work across institutional and…

  4. Educational Leaders' Doctoral Research That Informed Strategies to Steer Their Organizations towards Cultural Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taysum, Alison

    2016-01-01

    This research generates new knowledge about how 24 educational leaders in the USA and England used their doctoral research to build narrative capital to inform strategies to steer their organizations towards cultural alignment. Cultural alignment prevents forms of segregation rooted in nation-states' wider historiography of education segregation…

  5. University Interdisciplinary Research Organizations in the Process of Collaborative Innovation: Advantages, Difficulties and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bi Ying; Yang, Liansheng

    2015-01-01

    Under the background of collaborative innovation, interdisciplinary research organizations due to its structural advantages should actively target frontier science and the great needs of national development, key research and strategic issues of solving the country's need, prospective issues in the frontier of science and technology and major…

  6. Directory of Human Sciences Research Organizations and Professional Associations in South Africa. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Berg, Henda, Ed.; Prinsloo, Roelf, Ed.; Pienaar, Drienie, Ed.

    This directory is intended to be a comprehensive reference source for identifying research organizations and institutions, and for promoting research cooperation and facilitating networking. This second edition provides a broad background to the development of the human sciences as well as an overview of existing and emerging science and…

  7. Positive Deviance during Organization Change: Researchers' Social Construction of Expanded University Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Claire Euline

    2013-01-01

    Many universities have expanded from teaching only to include research goals, requiring shifts in organization behavior. An exploratory case study method was used to examine these dynamics among positive deviant researchers at the University of Technology, Jamaica (UTech), the single case examined, from a social construction perspective. As a…

  8. State Organization of Research and Development. A Case Study: Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Irwin; And Others

    This report documents study efforts to obtain information regarding the organization and performance of research and development in Pennsylvania State departments and agencies. Departmental procedures for determining research priorities, performers, project administration, and information dissemination were examined; and the relationship of these…

  9. Metalloprotease Peptide Inhibitors: A Semester-Long Organic Synthetic Research Project for the Introductory Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontrello, Jason K.

    2015-01-01

    A semester-long research project to synthesize unique compounds designed after published metalloprotease peptide inhibitors is presented. The research project encompasses a set of nine organic chemistry reactions traditionally taught in the second semester lab course, and the procedures are derived from scientific literature. The two principle…

  10. Crisis in Amateur Sports Organizations Viewed by Change Agent Research (CAR).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmette, Ann Marie; Moriarty, Dick

    The Sports Institute for Research Through Change Agent Research (SIR/CAR) provides a service whereby organizations through an audit and feedback system prognosticate and identify problems in order to avoid situations discordant with their organizational goals and objectives. This document reports the organizational crisis that faced the Windsor…

  11. Does organic farming reduce environmental impacts?--a meta-analysis of European research.

    PubMed

    Tuomisto, H L; Hodge, I D; Riordan, P; Macdonald, D W

    2012-12-15

    Organic farming practices have been promoted as, inter alia, reducing the environmental impacts of agriculture. This meta-analysis systematically analyses published studies that compare environmental impacts of organic and conventional farming in Europe. The results show that organic farming practices generally have positive impacts on the environment per unit of area, but not necessarily per product unit. Organic farms tend to have higher soil organic matter content and lower nutrient losses (nitrogen leaching, nitrous oxide emissions and ammonia emissions) per unit of field area. However, ammonia emissions, nitrogen leaching and nitrous oxide emissions per product unit were higher from organic systems. Organic systems had lower energy requirements, but higher land use, eutrophication potential and acidification potential per product unit. The variation within the results across different studies was wide due to differences in the systems compared and research methods used. The only impacts that were found to differ significantly between the systems were soil organic matter content, nitrogen leaching, nitrous oxide emissions per unit of field area, energy use and land use. Most of the studies that compared biodiversity in organic and conventional farming demonstrated lower environmental impacts from organic farming. The key challenges in conventional farming are to improve soil quality (by versatile crop rotations and additions of organic material), recycle nutrients and enhance and protect biodiversity. In organic farming, the main challenges are to improve the nutrient management and increase yields. In order to reduce the environmental impacts of farming in Europe, research efforts and policies should be targeted to developing farming systems that produce high yields with low negative environmental impacts drawing on techniques from both organic and conventional systems. PMID:22947228

  12. Research on High Reliability Organizations: Implications for School Effects Research, Policy, and Educational Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringfield, Sam

    Current theorizing in education, as in industry, is largely devoted to explaining trial-and-error, failure-tolerant, low-reliability organizations. This article examines changing societal demands on education and argues that effective responses to those demands require new and different organizational structures. Schools must abandon industrial…

  13. Implosion dynamics and radiation characteristics of wire-array Z pinches on the Cornell Beam Research Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, R. D.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Greenly, J. B.; Kusse, B. R.; Douglass, J. D.; Knapp, P. F.; Bell, K. S.; Blesener, I. C.; Chalenski, D. A.

    2009-01-15

    Experimental results are presented that characterize the implosion dynamics and radiation output of wire-array Z pinches on the 1-MA, 100-ns rise-time Cornell Beam Research Accelerator (COBRA) [J. B. Greenly et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 073501 (2008)]. The load geometries investigated include 20-mm-tall cylindrical arrays ranging from 4 to 16 mm in diameter, and consisting of 8, 16, or 32 wires of either tungsten, aluminum, or Invar (64% iron, 36% nickel). Diagnostics fielded include an optical streak camera, a time-gated extreme-ultraviolet framing camera, a laser shadowgraph system, time-integrated pinhole cameras, an x-ray wide-band focusing spectrograph with spatial resolution, an x-ray streak camera, a load voltage monitor, a Faraday cup, a bolometer, silicon diodes, and diamond photoconducting detectors. The data produced by the entire suite of diagnostics are analyzed and presented to provide a detailed picture of the overall implosion process and resulting radiation output on COBRA. The highest x-ray peak powers (300-500 GW) and total energy yields (6-10 kJ) were obtained using 4-mm-diameter arrays that stagnated before peak current. Additional findings include a decrease in soft x-ray radiation prior to stagnation as the initial wire spacing was changed from 1.6 mm to 785 {mu}m, and a timing correlation between the onset of energetic electrons, hard x-ray generation, and the arrival of trailing current on axis - a correlation that is likely due to the formation of micropinches. The details of these and other findings are presented and discussed.

  14. Ames Culture Chamber System: Enabling Model Organism Research Aboard the international Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the genetic, physiological, and behavioral effects of spaceflight on living organisms and elucidating the molecular mechanisms that underlie these effects are high priorities for NASA. Certain organisms, known as model organisms, are widely studied to help researchers better understand how all biological systems function. Small model organisms such as nem-atodes, slime mold, bacteria, green algae, yeast, and moss can be used to study the effects of micro- and reduced gravity at both the cellular and systems level over multiple generations. Many model organisms have sequenced genomes and published data sets on their transcriptomes and proteomes that enable scientific investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptations of these organisms to space flight.

  15. Making Organisms Model Human Behavior: Situated Models in North-American Alcohol Research, 1950-onwards

    PubMed Central

    Leonelli, Sabina; Ankeny, Rachel A.; Nelson, Nicole C.; Ramsden, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Argument We examine the criteria used to validate the use of nonhuman organisms in North-American alcohol addiction research from the 1950s to the present day. We argue that this field, where the similarities between behaviors in humans and non-humans are particularly difficult to assess, has addressed questions of model validity by transforming the situatedness of non-human organisms into an experimental tool. We demonstrate that model validity does not hinge on the standardization of one type of organism in isolation, as often the case with genetic model organisms. Rather, organisms are viewed as necessarily situated: they cannot be understood as a model for human behavior in isolation from their environmental conditions. Hence the environment itself is standardized as part of the modeling process; and model validity is assessed with reference to the environmental conditions under which organisms are studied. PMID:25233743

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells accelerate intra-aneurysmal tissue organization after treatment with SDF-1α-coated coils.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuyuan; Lu, Ziming; Chen, Chengwei; Cui, Xubo; Liu, Yaqi; Zheng, Tao; Jiang, Xiaodan; Zeng, Chi; Quan, Daping; Wang, Qiujing

    2016-04-01

    Recurrences of aneurysms remain the major drawback of detachable coils for the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. The aim of the present study is to develop new modified coils, coating the surface of platinum coils with silk fibroin (SF) consisting of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), and evaluate its acceleration of organization of cavities and reduction of lumen size in a rat aneurysm model. The morphological characteristics of SDF-1α-coated coils were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fifty experimental aneurysms were created and randomly divided into five groups: three groups were embolized with SDF-1α-coated coils (8 mm) and two of these groups need transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs); one group was embolized with bare coils (8 mm) and another group severed as control. After coil implantation for 14 or 28 days, the coils were harvested and histological analysis was performed. SEM photographs showed that SF/SDF-1α-coated coils have uniform size and a thin film compared with bare coils. In the group treated with SDF-1α-coated coils, tissue organization was accelerated and the proliferation of α-smooth muscle actin positive cells was promoted in the aneurysmal sac. Compared with unmodified coils, on day 28, tissue organization was significantly greater in the group treated with SDF-1α-coated coils and MSC or EPC transplantation. These results suggest that SDF-1α-coated coils with MSC or EPC transplantation may be beneficial in the aneurysm healing and endothelialization at the orifice of embolized aneurysm. PMID:27125512

  17. Xenotransplantation of Cells, Tissues, Organs and the German Research Foundation Transregio Collaborative Research Centre 127.

    PubMed

    Reichart, Bruno; Guethoff, Sonja; Brenner, Paolo; Poettinger, Thomas; Wolf, Eckhard; Ludwig, Barbara; Kind, Alexander; Mayr, Tanja; Abicht, Jan-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human organ transplantation is the therapy of choice for end-stage organ failure. However, the demand for organs far exceeds the donation rate, and many patients die while waiting for a donor. Clinical xenotransplantation using discordant species, particularly pigs, offers a possible solution to this critical shortfall. Xenotransplantation can also increase the availability of cells, such as neurons, and tissues such as cornea, insulin producing pancreatic islets and heart valves. However, the immunological barriers and biochemical disparities between pigs and primates (human) lead to rejection reactions despite the use of common immunosuppressive drugs. These result in graft vessel destruction, haemorrhage, oedema, thrombus formation, and transplant loss. Our consortium is pursuing a broad range of strategies to overcome these obstacles. These include genetic modification of the donor animals to knock out genes responsible for xenoreactive surface epitopes and to express multiple xenoprotective molecules such as the human complement regulators CD46, 55, 59, thrombomodulin and others. We are using (new) drugs including complement inhibitors (e.g. to inhibit C3 binding), anti-CD20, 40, 40L, and also employing physical protection methods such as macro-encapsulation of pancreatic islets. Regarding safety, a major objective is to assure that possible infections are not transmitted to recipients. While the aims are ambitious, recent successes in preclinical studies suggest that xenotransplantation is soon to become a clinical reality. PMID:26306448

  18. Papers arising from IAEA Coordinated Research Project "Utilization of ion accelerators for studying and modelling of radiation induced defects in semiconductors and insulators" (F11016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittone, Ettore; Breese, Mark; Simon, Aliz

    2016-04-01

    Within the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, activities are carried out to assist and advise IAEA Member States in assessing their needs for capacity building, research and development in nuclear sciences. Support is also provided to Member States' activities geared towards deriving benefits in fields such as (i) advanced materials for nuclear applications, (ii) application of accelerators and associated instrumentation, and (iii) nuclear, atomic and molecular data. One of the means that the IAEA uses to deliver its programme is Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) which are very effective in stimulating international research and scientific interaction among the Member States.

  19. Accelerating Ocean Energy to the Marketplace – Environmental Research at the U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; Cada, G. F.; Roberts, Jesse; Bevelhimer, Mark

    2010-10-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) has mobilized its National Laboratories to address the broad range of environmental effects of ocean and river energy development. The National Laboratories are using a risk-based approach to set priorities among environmental effects, and to direct research activities. Case studies will be constructed to determine the most significant environmental effects of ocean energy harvest for tidal systems in temperate estuaries, for wave energy installations in temperate coastal areas, wave installations in sub-tropical waters, and riverine energy installations in large rivers. In addition, the National Laboratories are investigating the effects of energy removal from waves, tides and river currents using numerical modeling studies. Laboratory and field research is also underway to understand the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), acoustic noise, toxicity from anti-biofouling coatings, effects on benthic habitats, and physical interactions with tidal and wave devices on marine and freshwater organisms and ecosystems. Outreach and interactions with stakeholders allow the National Laboratories to understand and mitigate for use conflicts and to provide useful information for marine spatial planning at the national and regional level.

  20. Practice-Based Knowledge Discovery for Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Organizing Framework

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Robert J.; Bakken, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Electronic health information systems can increase the ability of health-care organizations to investigate the effects of clinical interventions. The authors present an organizing framework that integrates outcomes and informatics research paradigms to guide knowledge discovery in electronic clinical databases. They illustrate its application using the example of hospital acquired pressure ulcers (HAPU). The Knowledge Discovery through Informatics for Comparative Effectiveness Research (KDI-CER) framework was conceived as a heuristic to conceptualize study designs and address potential methodological limitations imposed by using a single research perspective. Advances in informatics research can play a complementary role in advancing the field of outcomes research including CER. The KDI-CER framework can be used to facilitate knowledge discovery from routinely collected electronic clinical data. PMID:25278645

  1. Applications of compact accelerator-driven neutron sources: An updated assessment from the perspective of materials research in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Andreani, C.; Anderson, I. S.; Carpenter, J. M.; Festa, G.; Gorini, G.; Loong, C. -K.; Senesi, R.

    2014-12-24

    In 2005 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna published a report [1] on ‘Development Opportunities of Small and Medium Scale Accelerator Driven Neutron Sources’ which summarized the prospect of smaller sources in supporting the large spallation neutron sources for materials characterization and instrumentation, a theme advocated by Bauer, Clausen, Mank, and Mulhauser in previous publications [2-4]. In 2010 the Union for Compact Accelerator-driven Neutron Sources (UCANS) was established [5], galvanizing cross-disciplinary collaborations on new source and neutronics development and expanded applications based on both slow-neutron scattering and other neutron-matter interactions of neutron energies ranging from 10⁻⁶ to 10² MeV [6]. Here, we first cover the recent development of ongoing and prospective projects of compact accelerator-driven neutron sources (CANS) but concentrate on prospective accelerators currently proposed in Italy. Two active R&D topics, irradiation effects on electronics and cultural heritage studies, are chosen to illustrate the impact of state-of-the-art CANS on these programs with respect to the characteristics and complementarity of the accelerator and neutronics systems as well as instrumentation development.

  2. Applications of compact accelerator-driven neutron sources: An updated assessment from the perspective of materials research in Italy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Andreani, C.; Anderson, I. S.; Carpenter, J. M.; Festa, G.; Gorini, G.; Loong, C. -K.; Senesi, R.

    2014-12-24

    In 2005 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna published a report [1] on ‘Development Opportunities of Small and Medium Scale Accelerator Driven Neutron Sources’ which summarized the prospect of smaller sources in supporting the large spallation neutron sources for materials characterization and instrumentation, a theme advocated by Bauer, Clausen, Mank, and Mulhauser in previous publications [2-4]. In 2010 the Union for Compact Accelerator-driven Neutron Sources (UCANS) was established [5], galvanizing cross-disciplinary collaborations on new source and neutronics development and expanded applications based on both slow-neutron scattering and other neutron-matter interactions of neutron energies ranging from 10⁻⁶ to 10²more » MeV [6]. Here, we first cover the recent development of ongoing and prospective projects of compact accelerator-driven neutron sources (CANS) but concentrate on prospective accelerators currently proposed in Italy. Two active R&D topics, irradiation effects on electronics and cultural heritage studies, are chosen to illustrate the impact of state-of-the-art CANS on these programs with respect to the characteristics and complementarity of the accelerator and neutronics systems as well as instrumentation development.« less

  3. InterMOD: integrated data and tools for the unification of model organism research.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Julie; Karra, Kalpana; Moxon, Sierra A T; Vallejos, Andrew; Motenko, Howie; Wong, J D; Aleksic, Jelena; Balakrishnan, Rama; Binkley, Gail; Harris, Todd; Hitz, Benjamin; Jayaraman, Pushkala; Lyne, Rachel; Neuhauser, Steven; Pich, Christian; Smith, Richard N; Trinh, Quang; Cherry, J Michael; Richardson, Joel; Stein, Lincoln; Twigger, Simon; Westerfield, Monte; Worthey, Elizabeth; Micklem, Gos

    2013-01-01

    Model organisms are widely used for understanding basic biology, and have significantly contributed to the study of human disease. In recent years, genomic analysis has provided extensive evidence of widespread conservation of gene sequence and function amongst eukaryotes, allowing insights from model organisms to help decipher gene function in a wider range of species. The InterMOD consortium is developing an infrastructure based around the InterMine data warehouse system to integrate genomic and functional data from a number of key model organisms, leading the way to improved cross-species research. So far including budding yeast, nematode worm, fruit fly, zebrafish, rat and mouse, the project has set up data warehouses, synchronized data models, and created analysis tools and links between data from different species. The project unites a number of major model organism databases, improving both the consistency and accessibility of comparative research, to the benefit of the wider scientific community. PMID:23652793

  4. The Relationship between Research Method and Visual Display: A Study of Conference Proceedings in the Field of Knowledge Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Alon

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: "Research method" refers to how to conduct research, how to measure progress, and what constitutes success. Visualisation has become the platform for communicating research findings according to Friedman and Smiraglia. Knowledge organization aims to organize knowledge and many researchers employ visualisation in their…

  5. Determination of ultra-trace organic acids in Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) by accelerated solvent extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuiliang; Fan, China Q; Wang, Ping

    2015-02-15

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE)-solid-phase extraction (SPE)-liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ASE-SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS) methodology was developed for the extraction, cleanup and quantification of ultra-trace organic acids in Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) tissues. The separation was carried out on a Bio-Rad Aminex HPX-87H sulfonic column with an eluent containing 5 mmol L(-1) H₂SO₄ at a flow rate of 0.5 mL min(-1). A linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) source was operated in negative ion mode, and the six organic acids were eluted within 20 min. ASE extraction, SPE cleanup and LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis conditions were optimized to obtain reliable information about plant organic acid composition. Selective reaction monitoring (SRM) was employed for quantitative measurement. Intra-day precisions averaged 6.7%, and inter-day precisions were 2.1-10.7% for organic acid measurements in the pine samples. External standard calibration curves were linear over the range of 16.5-5000 ng L(-1), and detection limits based on a signal-to-noise ratio of three were at 0.5-5.0 ng L(-1). The results obtained showed the sensibility of the method was better than that of previously described HPLC methodology, and had no significant matrix effect. The proposed ASE-SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS method is sensitive and reliable for the determination of ultra-trace organic acids in plant samples, despite the presence of the particularly complex matrix. PMID:25594951

  6. Recent US target-physics-related research in heavy-ion inertial fusion: target gains and constraints on accelerator design

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1982-03-09

    Inertial-fusion targets were designed for use with heavy-ion accelerators as drivers in fusion energy power plants. In the interest of providing inputs for understanding the trade-offs among accelerator designs, an initial survey was carried out regarding target gain versus parameters of relevance. This was done in two stages, firstly target gain was related to the beam energy, power, focal radius, and ion range. Secondly, a more comprehensive discussion was made by posing target gain constraints on the beam-occupied phase-space volume of the linacs. This latter discussion had included some rather simplified models of accelerator final focus and beam transport in near-vacuum fusion reaction chambers. Some further analyses of the basic assumptions of this summary are also described.

  7. Space Acceleration Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This training video, presented by the Lewis Research Center's Space Experiments Division, gives a background and detailed instructions for preparing the space acceleration measurement system (SAMS) for use. The SAMS measures, conditions, and records forces of low gravity accelerations, and is used to determine the effect of these forces on various experiments performed in microgravity. Inertial sensors are used to measure positive and negative acceleration over a specified frequency range. The video documents the SAMS' uses in different configurations during shuttle missions.

  8. Organized out-of-school activities and peer relationships: theoretical perspectives and previous research.

    PubMed

    Fredricks, Jennifer A; Simpkins, Sandra D

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this volume is to show how organized activities provide an ideal setting for developing a deeper understanding of peer relations, as well as offering a context for a more positive study of peers. The chapters in this volume focus on youth 10 to 18 years of age. In this introductory chapter we first describe the reasons why organized activities, like sports, arts, and school clubs, are ideal settings to examine peer processes. Next, we describe the theoretical and empirical research related to two questions: (1) how do peers influence organized activity participation and (2) how does organized activity participation influence peer relations. We organize this review around three themes outlined in the broader peer relations literature: (1) peer groups, (2) peer relationships, and (3) peer interactions. PMID:23766093

  9. Biochar accelerates organic matter degradation and enhances N mineralisation during composting of poultry manure without a relevant impact on gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, M; Alburquerque, J A; Sánchez-Monedero, M A; Roig, A; Cayuela, M L

    2015-09-01

    A composting study was performed to assess the impact of biochar addition to a mixture of poultry manure and barley straw. Two treatments: control (78% poultry manure + 22% barley straw, dry weight) and the same mixture amended with biochar (3% dry weight), were composted in duplicated windrows during 19 weeks. Typical monitoring parameters and gaseous emissions (CO2, CO, CH4, N2O and H2S) were evaluated during the process as well as the agronomical quality of the end-products. Biochar accelerated organic matter degradation and ammonium formation during the thermophilic phase and enhanced nitrification during the maturation phase. Our results suggest that biochar, as composting additive, improved the physical properties of the mixture by preventing the formation of clumps larger than 70 mm. It favoured microbiological activity without a relevant impact on N losses and gaseous emissions. It was estimated that biochar addition at 3% could reduce the composting time by 20%. PMID:26038333

  10. Self-Organizing Hierarchical Particle Swarm Optimization with Time-Varying Acceleration Coefficients for Economic Dispatch with Valve Point Effects and Multifuel Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polprasert, Jirawadee; Ongsakul, Weerakorn; Dieu, Vo Ngoc

    2011-06-01

    This paper proposes a self-organizing hierarchical particle swarm optimization (SPSO) with time-varying acceleration coefficients (TVAC) for solving economic dispatch (ED) problem with non-smooth functions including multiple fuel options (MFO) and valve-point loading effects (VPLE). The proposed SPSO with TVAC is the new approach optimizer and good performance for solving ED problems. It can handle the premature convergence of the problem by re-initialization of velocity whenever particles are stagnated in the search space. To properly control both local and global explorations of the swarm during the optimization process, the performance of TVAC is included. The proposed method is tested in different ED problems with non-smooth cost functions and the obtained results are compared to those from many other methods in the literature. The results have revealed that the proposed SPSO with TVAC is effective in finding higher quality solutions for non-smooth ED problems than many other methods.

  11. Using non-human primates to benefit humans: research and organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David; Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido

    2014-11-01

    Emerging biotechnology may soon allow the creation of genetically human organs inside animals, with non-human primates (henceforth simply "primates") and pigs being the best candidate species. This prospect raises the question of whether creating organs in primates in order to then transplant them into humans would be more (or less) acceptable than using them for research. In this paper, we examine the validity of the purported moral distinction between primates and other animals, and analyze the ethical acceptability of using primates to create organs for human use. PMID:24807743

  12. Steps to strengthen ethics in organizations: research findings, ethics placebos, and what works.

    PubMed

    Pope, Kenneth S

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that many organizations overlook needs and opportunities to strengthen ethics. Barriers can make it hard to see the need for stronger ethics and even harder to take effective action. These barriers include the organization's misleading use of language, misuse of an ethics code, culture of silence, strategies of justification, institutional betrayal, and ethical fallacies. Ethics placebos tend to take the place of steps to see, solve, and prevent problems. This article reviews relevant research and specific steps that create change. PMID:25602131

  13. Introduction to the special issue on "psychological research and practice in organ transplantation".

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, J R

    1996-12-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of articles in this Special Issue on "Psychological Research and Practice in Organ Transplantation." The articles provide empirical information on the psychological adaptation of transplant candidates and recipients, as well as addressing the myriad ethical and clinical issues evident in the field of organ transplantation. Heart, liver, lung, kidney, and bone marrow transplantation for children and adults has increased in frequency in recent years, and the articles address the need for more sophisticated and comprehensive assessment of psychological concomitants. The Guest Editor's "Top Ten" list of research needs which transplantation psychologists might further address is discussed in this article. PMID:24226841

  14. [AFNET. A translational research network develops into an academic research organization].

    PubMed

    Kirchhof, Paulus; Goette, Andreas; Näbauer, Michael; Schotten, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts" (Aristotle).Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia and affects 1-2 % of the population in developed countries, especially the elderly. We expect that the prevalence of AF will double in the next few decades. The last decades have seen important improvements in the management of atrial fibrillation, but many questions remain regarding the optimal diagnosis and management of the condition. The German Atrial Fibrillation NETwork (AFNET) was one of three cardiovascular competence networks in medicine funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research between 2003-2014. AFNET has contributed to the understanding of atrial fibrillation, and AFNET-led studies have led to improved clinical practices and practice guidelines in Germany and in Europe. This work has been expanded and is continuing in the AFNET association (AFNET e. V.). The AFNET association, founded in 2010 and continuing to this day, has developed into a small but fully formed academic research organisation that conducts investigator-initiated clinical trials as the responsible sponsor in Germany, Europe, and beyond. The AFNET association currently cooperates with EHRA (The European Heart Rhythm Association), ESC (The European Society of Cardiology) and DZHK (The German Centre for Cardiovascular Research) and receives funding from the European Union to generate evidence that can in the future lead to better prevention and management of AF. PMID:26979716

  15. Reciprocal capacity building for collaborative disability research between disabled people's organizations, communities and higher education institutions.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Theresa; Joubert, Robin

    2011-12-01

    This paper focuses on the reciprocal capacity building that occurred through collaborative research between occupational therapy departments from six higher education institutions in South Africa, community-based organizations and a disabled people's organization on disabled youth and their livelihoods. The authors aimed to identify principles for collaboration and capacity building from the pilot phase and first phase of the main study. Occupational therapy departments place students in communities for service learning experience, but little collaboration with disabled people's organizations and communities in research processes occurs that could enrich such partnerships and inform relevant curriculum development. Secondary data from different sources including a transcript of a focus-group interview with the researchers in the pilot phase, workshop reports, and transcripts of free-writing exercises done by researchers were analysed thematically, both inductively and deductively. Two themes are explored: first, reciprocal building of organizational capacity and, second, generating collaborative relationships. The principles that were identified are integral to the strengths and challenges faced when multiple organizations work together over a wide geographical area on a complex research topic that also builds capacity reciprocally. PMID:21073368

  16. Plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, R.D.; Chen, P.

    1986-03-01

    In this paper we discuss plasma accelerators which might provide high gradient accelerating fields suitable for TeV linear colliders. In particular we discuss two types of plasma accelerators which have been proposed, the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator and the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator. We show that the electric fields in the plasma for both schemes are very similar, and thus the dynamics of the driven beams are very similar. The differences appear in the parameters associated with the driving beams. In particular to obtain a given accelerating gradient, the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator has a higher efficiency and a lower total energy for the driving beam. Finally, we show for the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator that one can accelerate high quality low emittance beams and, in principle, obtain efficiencies and energy spreads comparable to those obtained with conventional techniques.

  17. Radioprotectors and Radiomitigators for Improving Radiation Therapy: The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Gateway for Accelerating Clinical Translation.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Pataje G S; Narayanan, Deepa; Hallett, Kory; Bernhard, Eric J; Ahmed, Mansoor M; Evans, Gregory; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Weingarten, Michael; Coleman, C Norman

    2015-09-01

    Although radiation therapy is an important cancer treatment modality, patients may experience adverse effects. The use of a radiation-effect modulator may help improve the outcome and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients undergoing radiation therapy either by enhancing tumor cell killing or by protecting normal tissues. Historically, the successful translation of radiation-effect modulators to the clinic has been hindered due to the lack of focused collaboration between academia, pharmaceutical companies and the clinic, along with limited availability of support for such ventures. The U.S. Government has been developing medical countermeasures against accidental and intentional radiation exposures to mitigate the risk and/or severity of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) and the delayed effects of acute radiation exposures (DEARE), and there is now a drug development pipeline established. Some of these medical countermeasures could potentially be repurposed for improving the outcome of radiation therapy and HRQOL of cancer patients. With the objective of developing radiation-effect modulators to improve radiotherapy, the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Development Center at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), supported by the Radiation Research Program (RRP), provided funding to companies from 2011 to 2014 through the SBIR contracts mechanism. Although radiation-effect modulators collectively refer to radioprotectors, radiomitigators and radiosensitizers, the focus of this article is on radioprotection and mitigation of radiation injury. This specific SBIR contract opportunity strengthened existing partnerships and facilitated new collaborations between academia and industry. In this commentary, we assess the impact of this funding opportunity, outline the review process, highlight the organ/site-specific disease needs in the clinic for the development of radiation-effect modulators, provide a general understanding of a framework for gathering

  18. Radioprotectors and Radiomitigators for Improving Radiation Therapy: The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Gateway for Accelerating Clinical Translation

    PubMed Central

    Prasanna, Pataje G. S.; Narayanan, Deepa; Hallett, Kory; Bernhard, Eric J.; Ahmed, Mansoor M.; Evans, Gregory; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Weingarten, Michael; Coleman, C. Norman

    2015-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is an important cancer treatment modality, patients may experience adverse effects. The use of a radiation-effect modulator may help improve the outcome and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients undergoing radiation therapy either by enhancing tumor cell killing or by protecting normal tissues. Historically, the successful translation of radiation-effect modulators to the clinic has been hindered due to the lack of focused collaboration between academia, pharmaceutical companies and the clinic, along with limited availability of support for such ventures. The U.S. Government has been developing medical countermeasures against accidental and intentional radiation exposures to mitigate the risk and/or severity of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) and the delayed effects of acute radiation exposures (DEARE), and there is now a drug development pipeline established. Some of these medical countermeasures could potentially be repurposed for improving the outcome of radiation therapy and HRQOL of cancer patients. With the objective of developing radiation-effect modulators to improve radiotherapy, the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Development Center at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), supported by the Radiation Research Program (RRP), provided funding to companies from 2011 to 2014 through the SBIR contracts mechanism. Although radiation-effect modulators collectively refer to radioprotectors, radiomitigators and radiosensitizers, the focus of this article is on radioprotection and mitigation of radiation injury. This specific SBIR contract opportunity strengthened existing partnerships and facilitated new collaborations between academia and industry. In this commentary, we assess the impact of this funding opportunity, outline the review process, highlight the organ/site-specific disease needs in the clinic for the development of radiation-effect modulators, provide a general understanding of a framework for gathering

  19. J-PARC Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Yoshishige

    2008-02-21

    The Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is under construction in Tokai site. The linac beam commissioning started last fall, while the beam commissioning of the 3-GeV Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) will start this fall. The status of the J-PARC accelerator is reported with emphasis on the technical development accomplished for the J-PARC.

  20. White Mountain Research Station: 25 years of high-altitude research. [organization and functions of test facility for high altitude research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.

    1973-01-01

    The organization and functions of a test facility for conducting research projects at high altitudes are discussed. The projects conducted at the facility include the following: (1) bird physiology, (2) cardiorespiratory physiology, (3) endocrinological studies, (4) neurological studies, (5) metabolic studies, and (6) geological studies.

  1. Whole-organism concentration ratios for plutonium in wildlife from past US nuclear research data.

    PubMed

    Johansen, M P; Kamboj, S; Kuhne, W W

    2013-12-01

    Whole-organism concentration ratios (CRwo-media) for plutonium (Pu) in wildlife were calculated using data from the broad range of organism types and environmental settings of the US nuclear research program. Original sources included site-specific reports and scientific journal articles typically from 1960s to 80s research. Most of the calculated CRwo-media values are new to existing data sets, and, for some wildlife categories, serve to fill gaps or add to sparse data including those for terrestrial reptile; freshwater bird, crustacean and zooplankton; and marine crustacean and zooplankton. Ratios of Pu concentration in the whole-organism to that in specific tissues and organs are provided here for a range of freshwater and marine fish. The CRwo-media values in fish living in liquid discharge ponds were two orders of magnitude higher than those for similar species living in lakes receiving Pu from atmospheric fallout, suggesting the physico-chemical form of the source Pu can dominate over other factors related to transfer, such as organism size and feeding behavior. Small rodent data indicated one to two order of magnitude increases when carcass, pelt, and gastrointestinal tract were included together in the whole-organism calculation compared to that for carcass alone. Only 4% of Pu resided in the carcass of small rodents compared to 75% in the gastrointestinal tract and 21% in the pelt. PMID:22939266

  2. Whole-Organism Concentration Ratios for Plutonium in Wildlife from Past US Nuclear Research Data

    SciTech Connect

    johansen, M.; Kamboj; Kuhne, W.

    2012-07-26

    Whole-organism concentration ratios (CR{sub wo-media}) for plutonium (Pu) in wildlife were calculated using data from the broad range of organism types and environmental settings of the US nuclear research program. Original sources included site-specific reports and scientific journal articles typically from 1960s to 80s research. Most of the calculated CR{sub wo-media} values are new to existing data sets, and, for some wildlife categories, serve to fill gaps or add to sparse data including those for terrestrial reptile; freshwater bird, crustacean and zooplankton; and marine crustacean and zooplankton. Ratios of Pu concentration in the whole-organism to that in specific tissues and organs are provided here for a range of freshwater and marine fish. The CR{sub wo-media} values in fish living in liquid discharge ponds were two orders of magnitude higher than those for similar species living in lakes receiving Pu from atmospheric fallout, suggesting the physico-chemical form of the source Pu can dominate over other factors related to transfer, such as organism size and feeding behavior. Small rodent data indicated one to two order of magnitude increases when carcass, pelt, and gastrointestinal tract were included together in the whole-organism calculation compared to that for carcass alone. Only 4% of Pu resided in the carcass of small rodents compared to 75% in the gastrointestinal tract and 21% in the pelt.

  3. Connecting scientific research and classroom instruction: Developing authentic problem sets for the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.

    Reform efforts in science education have called for instructional methods and resources that mirror the practice of science. Little research and design methods have been documented in the literature for designing such materials. The purpose of this study was to develop problems sets for sophomore-level organic chemistry instruction. This research adapted an instructional design methodology from the science education literature for the creation of new curricular problem sets. The first phase of this study was to establish an understanding of current curricular problems in sophomore-level organic chemistry instruction. A sample of 792 problems was collected from four organic chemistry courses. These problems were assessed using three literature reported problem typologies. Two of these problem typologies have previously been used to understand general chemistry problems; comparisons between general and organic chemistry problems were thus made. Data from this phase was used to develop a set of five problems for practicing organic chemists. The second phase of this study was to explore practicing organic chemists' experiences solving problems in the context of organic synthesis research. Eight practicing organic chemists were interviewed and asked to solve two to three of the problems developed in phase one of this research. These participants spoke of three problem types: project level, synthetic planning, and day-to-day. Three knowledge types (internal knowledge, knowledgeable others, and literature) were used in solving these problems in research practice and in the developed problems. A set of guiding factors and implications were derived from this data and the chemistry education literature for the conversion of the problems for practicing chemists to problems for undergraduate students. A subsequent conversion process for the five problems occurred. The third, and last phase, of this study was to explore undergraduate students' experiences solving problems in

  4. Increasing Research Capacity in Ontario Child Welfare Organizations: A Unique University-Child Welfare Agency Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Barbara; Trocmé, Nico; Van Wert, Melissa; Budau, Krista; Ballantyne, Mary; Lwin, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the successes and challenges of a unique knowledge mobilization initiative that was funded through the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. This initiative focused on promoting knowledge mobilization by increasing the capacity of child welfare organizations in Ontario to conduct…

  5. Duane Webster's Contribution to Organization Development in Academic and Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    Duane Webster is a visionary leader who, throughout his career, has had a significant impact on the improvement of libraries and librarianship. His work to establish the Association of Research Library's (ARL) Office of Management Studies (OMS) and its several organizational improvement programs laid the foundation for organization development in…

  6. Uncovering the Images and Meanings of International Organizations (IOs) in Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahjahan, Riyad A.; Madden, Meggan

    2015-01-01

    Employing Stuart Hall's concept of representation, we examine how international organizations (IOs) are presented in the higher education literature. This paper examines how IOs, such as the World Bank, OECD, and UNESCO, are conceptualized and represented by higher education researchers. We focus on three main representations of IOs in the higher…

  7. Towards Communication and Learning Based Leadership: Observations in Finnish Public Research Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saari, Eveliina; Talja, Heli

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Management systems designed for the purposes of the industrial era are not sufficient to rise to the challenge of knowledge-creating organizations. This paper seeks to analyse how the motives and aims of top management and knowledge workers differ from each other. In order to avoid confrontation between managerialism and research work…

  8. How Youth Get Engaged: Grounded-Theory Research on Motivational Development in Organized Youth Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Nickki Pearce; Larson, Reed

    2011-01-01

    For youth to benefit from many of the developmental opportunities provided by organized programs, they need to not only attend but become psychologically engaged in program activities. This research was aimed at formulating empirically based grounded theory on the processes through which this engagement develops. Longitudinal interviews were…

  9. Research into Learning to Learn through the Assessment of Quality and Organization of Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Beno

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the problem of learning to learn from the perspective of research on the organization and quality of students' knowledge. This approach is based on the assumption that students' learning competencies can be studied through the analysis of the outcomes of schooling. The article synthesizes findings of a long-term research…

  10. Better Together: Research Findings on the Relationship between Racial Justice Organizations and LGBT Communities. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Rinku; Wessler, Seth; Apollon, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    In partnership with the Arcus Foundation, the Applied Research Center (ARC) has undertaken a study of the relationship between racial justice organizations and lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) constituencies and issues, with the understanding that communities of color themselves, including their LGBT members, have a good deal at stake in…

  11. A Review of Research on the Application of Goal Setting in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Gary P.; Yukl, Gary A.

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-seven studies on goal setting were reviewed to evaluate the practical feasibility of goal setting in organizations and to evaluate Locke's theories of goal setting. The organizational research reviewed provides strong support for Locke's proposition that specific goals increase performance and that difficult goals, if accepted, result in…

  12. Education and Research Related to Organic Waste Management at Agricultural Engineering Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliva, Montserrat; Bernat, Carles; Gil, Emilio; Martinez, Xavier; Pujol, Miquel; Sabate, Josep; Valero, Jordi

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of the Agriculture Engineering School of Barcelona (ESAB), where undergraduate students were involved in field research experiments on organic waste use in agricultural systems. Design/methodology/approach: The paper outlines how the formation of professionals oriented to work for…

  13. Category Organization in Children's Recall: A Critique of Past and Present Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Garrett

    This paper examines several recent lines of research concerning category clustering and describes an alternative to the standard category clustering procedure used to study recall organization in younger children. The specific issue considered is the age at which children first show evidence of spontaneous category clustering in their free-recall.…

  14. 78 FR 70560 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Morgridge Institute for Research PSO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... and primary activity is to conduct activities to improve patient safety and the quality of health care... quality and safety of health care delivery. The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Final Rule (Patient... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations:...

  15. Monitoring Scientific Developments from a Dynamic Perspective: Self-Organized Structuring To Map Neural Network Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyons, E. C. M.; van Raan, A. F. J.

    1998-01-01

    Using bibliometric mapping techniques, authors developed a methodology of self-organized structuring of scientific fields which was applied to neural network research. Explores the evolution of a data generated field structure by monitoring the interrelationships between subfields, the internal structure of subfields, and the dynamic features of…

  16. The Organization and Functions of Research and Evaluation in a Large Urban School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, William J.

    The purpose, organization, and functions of research and evaluation in a large urban school district are discussed in light of several major issues in educational evaluation. Major issues include methods of assuring the credibility of evaluation information, the establishment and maintenance of meaningful reporting cycles, the recruitment and…

  17. Using Green Chemistry Principles as a Framework to Incorporate Research into the Organic Laboratory Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Nancy E.; Gurney, Rich; Soltzberg, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Despite the accepted pedagogical value of integrating research into the laboratory curriculum, this approach has not been widely adopted. The activation barrier to this change is high, especially in organic chemistry, where a large number of students are required to take this course, special glassware or setups may be needed, and dangerous…

  18. 8 CFR 316.20 - American institutions of research, public international organizations, and designations under the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false American institutions of research, public international organizations, and designations under the International Immunities Act. 316.20 Section 316.20 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR NATURALIZATION § 316.20...

  19. APPRECIATIVE INQUIRY IN THE OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: IMPROVING THE COLLABRATIVE CAPACITY OF ORGANIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the use of appreciative inquiry (AI), a growing practice in organization development in the Office of Research and Development (ORD) of the Environmental Protection Agency. AI is a strength-based approach to change that induces innovation and collaboration t...

  20. Intellectual assets management and transfer in food science sector in Indian research and development organizations.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikram; Chakraborty, Kajal

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the food science sector has gained importance since the society is focusing on high-quality and safety foods. With a specific end goal to meet this societal need, the research and development organizations in India have adopted innovative technical and research processes, which gave more accentuation on intellectual assessment in food processing industry. The global Intellectual Property regime in food science sector had witnessed an increment in the number of patents filed and granted during 2006-2010. Ever since there has been a gradual increase in the number of patents applied mainly in food processing industries by research organizations related to food sciences, for example, those working under the aegis of ICAR and CSIR in India. In this study, a review has been done on the intellectual assets generated by ICAR and other national research organizations in India, in the food science sector. Emphasis has been given on the global relevance of these assets, modes of IP protection and technology transfer mechanisms followed by different public and private organizations. PMID:27407182

  1. Space research with intact organisms: The role of Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Robert W.; Haddy, Francis J.

    1993-01-01

    The study of intact organisms has provided biologists with a good working knowledge of most of the common organisms that have evolved in the 1 g environment of Earth. Reasonably accurate predictions can be made about organismal responses to most stimuli on Earth. To extend this knowledge to life without gravity, we must have access to the space environment for prolonged periods. Space Station Freedom will provide a facility with which to begin this type of research. Spaceflight research to date has been limited to relatively short-term exposures that have been informative but incomplete. This paper provides a brief background of known changes that have occurred in intact organisms in the space environment and proposes the kinds of experiments that are needed to expand our knowledge of life on Earth and in space.

  2. Monte Carlo Modeling of Fast Sub-critical Assembly with MOX Fuel for Research of Accelerator-Driven Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polanski, A.; Barashenkov, V.; Puzynin, I.; Rakhno, I.; Sissakian, A.

    It is considered a sub-critical assembly driven with existing 660 MeV JINR proton accelerator. The assembly consists of a central cylindrical lead target surrounded with a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel (PuO2 + UO2) and with reflector made of beryllium. Dependence of the energetic gain on the proton energy, the neutron multiplication coefficient, and the neutron energetic spectra have been calculated. It is shown that for subcritical assembly with a mixed-oxide (MOX) BN-600 fuel (28%PuO 2 + 72%UO2) with effective density of fuel material equal to 9 g/cm 3 , the multiplication coefficient keff is equal to 0.945, the energetic gain is equal to 27, and the neutron flux density is 1012 cm˜2 s˜x for the protons with energy of 660 MeV and accelerator beam current of 1 uA.

  3. Researcher Roles and the Organization of Interdisciplinary Groups. R&D for Higher Education, 1980:7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tornebohm, HaKan; And Others

    Perspectives on interdisciplinary research are considered in terms of project planning, the choice of problem-solving approach, the research field, project organization, informal organization, and integration of knowledge. Interdisciplinary studies were investigaged through following a number of research projects by means of field trips,…

  4. Angular velocities, angular accelerations, and coriolis accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.

    1975-01-01

    Weightlessness, rotating environment, and mathematical analysis of Coriolis acceleration is described for man's biological effective force environments. Effects on the vestibular system are summarized, including the end organs, functional neurology, and input-output relations. Ground-based studies in preparation for space missions are examined, including functional tests, provocative tests, adaptive capacity tests, simulation studies, and antimotion sickness.

  5. MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACUTE CARE RESEARCH ORGANIZATION (MACRO): IF YOU BUILD IT THEY WILL COME

    PubMed Central

    Early, Barbara J.; Huang, David T.; Callaway, Clifton; Zenati, Mazen; Angus, Derek C.; Gunn, Scott; Yealy, Donald M.; Unikel, Daniel; Billiar, Timothy R.; Peitzman, Andrew B.; Sperry, Jason L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical research will increasingly play a core role in the evolution and growth of acute care surgery (ACS) program development across the country. What constitutes an efficient and effective clinical research infrastructure in the current fiscal and academic environment remains obscure. We sought to characterize the effects of implementation of a multidisciplinary acute care research organization (MACRO) at a busy tertiary referral university setting. Methods In 2008, to minimize redundancy, cost, and maximize existing resources promoting acute care research, MACRO was created unifying clinical research infrastructure between the Departments of Critical Care Medicine, Emergency Medicine and Surgery. Over the time periods 2008–2012 we performed a retrospective analysis and determined volume of clinical studies, patient enrollment for both observational (OBS) and interventional (INTV) trials, and staff growth since MACROs origination and characterized changes over time. Results From 2008 to 2011, the volume of patients enrolled in clinical studies which MACRO facilitates has significantly increased over 300%. The % of INTV/OBS trials has remained stable over the same time period (50–60%). Staff has increased from 6 coordinators to 10 with an additional 15 research associates allowing 24/7 service. With this significant growth, MACRO has become financially self-sufficient and additional outside departments now seek MACROs services. Conclusions Appropriate organization of acute care clinical research infrastructure minimizes redundancy and can promote sustainable, efficient growth in the current academic environment. Further studies are required to determine if similar models can be successful at other ACS programs. PMID:23778448

  6. Characterization of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 6 (SAMP6) as an animal model for brain research.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Kimie; Takahashi, Eiki

    2014-01-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) was developed by selective breeding of the AKR/J strain, based on a graded score for senescence, which led to the development of both senescence-accelerated prone (SAMP), and senescence-accelerated resistant (SAMR) strains. Among the SAMP strains, SAMP6 is well characterized as a model of senile osteoporosis, but its brain and neuronal functions have not been well studied. We therefore decided to characterize the central nervous system of SAMP6, in combination with different behavioral tests and analysis of its biochemical and pharmacological properties. Multiple behavioral tests revealed higher motor activity, reduced anxiety, anti-depressant activity, motor coordination deficits, and enhanced learning and memory in SAMP6 compared with SAMR1. Biochemical and pharmacological analyses revealed several alterations in the dopamine and serotonin systems, and in long-term potentiation (LTP)-related molecules. In this review, we discuss the possibility of using SAMP6 as a model of brain function. PMID:24521858

  7. How Work–Family Research Can Finally Have an Impact in Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Baltes, Boris B.; Matthews, Russell A.

    2011-01-01

    Although work–family research has mushroomed over the past several decades, an implementation gap persists in putting work–family research into practice. Because of this, work–family researchers have not made a significant impact in improving the lives of employees relative to the amount of research that has been conducted. The goal of this article is to clarify areas where implementation gaps between work–family research and practice are prevalent, discuss the importance of reducing these gaps, and make the case that both better and different research should be conducted. We recommend several alternative but complementary actions for the work–family researcher: (a) work with organizations to study their policy and practice implementation efforts, (b) focus on the impact of rapid technological advances that are blurring work–family boundaries, (c) conduct research to empower the individual to self-manage the work–family interface, and (d) engage in advocacy and collaborative policy research to change institutional contexts and break down silos. Increased partnerships between industrial–organizational (I–O) psychology practitioners and researchers from many industries and disciplines could break down silos that we see as limiting development of the field. PMID:22247737

  8. Realizing Our Potential in Biobanking: Disease Advocacy Organizations Enliven Translational Research.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Kelly A; Terry, Sharon F; Gold, Dana; Horn, Elizabeth J; Schwartz, Mary; Stuart, Molly; Vernon, Suzanne D

    2016-08-01

    Biobanks are increasingly powerful tools used in translational research, and disease advocacy organizations (DAOs) are making their presence known as research drivers and partners. We examined DAO approaches to biobanking to inform how the enterprise of biobanking can grow and become even more impactful in human health. In this commentary, we outline overarching approaches from successful DAO biobanks. These lessons learned suggest principles that can create a more participant-centric approach and illustrate the key roles DAOs can play as partners in research initiatives. DAO approaches to biobanking for translational research include the following: be outcome driven; forge alliances that are unexpected-build bridges to enhance translation; come ready for success; be nimble, flexible, and adaptable; and remember that people matter. Each of these principles led to particular practices that have increased the translational impact of biobank collections. The research practices discussed can inform partnerships in all sectors going forward. PMID:27058463

  9. General physiology, experimental psychology, and evolutionism. Unicellular organisms as objects of psychophysiological research, 1877-1918.

    PubMed

    Schloegel, Judy Johns; Schmidgen, Henning

    2002-12-01

    This essay aims to shed new light on the relations between physiology and psychology in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by focusing on the use of unicellular organisms as research objects during that period. Within the frameworks of evolutionism and monism advocated by Ernst Haeckel, protozoa were perceived as objects situated at the borders between organism and cell and individual and society. Scholars such as Max Verworn, Alfred Binet, and Herbert Spencer Jennings were provoked by these organisms to undertake experimental investigations situated between general physiology and psychology that differed from the physiological psychology advocated by Wilhelm Wundt. Some of these investigations sought to locate psychological properties in the molecular structure of protoplasm; others stressed the existence of organic and psychological individuality in protozoa. In the following decades, leading philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche, Charles Sanders Peirce, and Henri Bergson, as well as psychological researchers like Sigmund Freud, integrated the results of these investigations into their reflections on such problems as the nature of the will, the structure of the ego, and the holistic nature of the reactions of organisms to their environment. PMID:12664793

  10. Informed consent in research to improve the number and quality of deceased donor organs.

    PubMed

    Rey, Michael M; Ware, Lorraine B; Matthay, Michael A; Bernard, Gordon R; McGuire, Amy L; Caplan, Arthur L; Halpern, Scott D

    2011-02-01

    Improving the management of potential organ donors in the intensive care unit could meet an important public health goal by increasing the number and quality of transplantable organs. However, randomized clinical trials are needed to quantify the extent to which specific interventions might enhance organ recovery and outcomes among transplant recipients. Among several barriers to conducting such studies are the absence of guidelines for obtaining informed consent for such studies and the fact that deceased organ donors are not covered by extant federal regulations governing oversight of research with human subjects. This article explores the underexamined ethical issues that arise in the context of donor management studies and provides ethical guidelines and suggested regulatory oversight mechanisms to enable such studies to be conducted ethically. We conclude that both the respect that is traditionally accorded to the prior wishes of the dead and the possibility of postmortem harm support a role for surrogate consent of donors in such randomized controlled trials. Furthermore, although recipients will often be considered human subjects under federal regulations, several ethical arguments support waiving requirements for recipient consent in donor management randomized controlled trials. Finally, we suggest that new regulatory mechanisms, perhaps linked to existing regional and national organ donation and transplantation infrastructures, must be established to protect patients in donor management studies while limiting unnecessary barriers to the conduct of this important research. PMID:20975549

  11. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  12. Faith-based perspectives on the use of chimeric organisms for medical research.

    PubMed

    Degeling, Chris; Irvine, Rob; Kerridge, Ian

    2014-04-01

    Efforts to advance our understanding of neurodegenerative diseases involve the creation chimeric organisms from human neural stem cells and primate embryos--known as prenatal chimeras. The existence of potential mentally complex beings with human and non-human neural apparatus raises fundamental questions as to the ethical permissibility of chimeric research and the moral status of the creatures it creates. Even as bioethicists find fewer reasons to be troubled by most types of chimeric organisms, social attitudes towards the non-human world are often influenced by religious beliefs. In this paper scholars representing eight major religious traditions provide a brief commentary on a hypothetical case concerning the development and use of prenatal human-animal chimeric primates in medical research. These commentaries reflect the plurality and complexity within and between religious discourses of our relationships with other species. Views on the moral status and permissibility of research on neural human animal chimeras vary. The authors provide an introduction to those who seek a better understanding of how faith-based perspectives might enter into biomedical ethics and public discourse towards forms of biomedical research that involves chimeric organisms. PMID:24293125

  13. "Pleiades Visions" for organ solo: A composition supported by documented research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, Matthew Robert

    Pleiades Visions is a three-movement work for organ solo inspired by indigenous music and mythology associated with the Pleiades (Seven Sisters) star cluster. Three cultural groups are represented in Pleiades Visions. The first movement, entitled "Uluru," draws from Australian Aboriginal music and mythology. The second movement, entitled "...life on other worlds," is based loosely on a Quechan (Yuman) Indian song. The concluding movement, entitled "Mauna Kea," is inspired by the opening lines of the Kumulipo, a creation chant of the Native Hawaiian culture. The source material for Pleiades Visions was identified through research incorporating techniques from the fields of cultural astronomy and ethnomusicology. This research represents a new line of inquiry for both fields. This document situates Pleiades Visions in the context of the organ literature, and suggests that Pleiades Visions might be the first organ work with a cultural astronomy inspiration. It also describes the research undergirding Pleiades Visions, demonstrates the manner in which that research informed the composition of the work, and addresses issues surrounding the use of indigenous source material in a culturally sensitive manner.

  14. Basic concept for an accelerator-driven subcritical system to be used as a long-pulse neutron source for Condensed Matter research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivanco, R.; Ghiglino, A.; de Vicente, J. P.; Sordo, F.; Terrón, S.; Magán, M.; Perlado, J. M.; Bermejo, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    A model for an accelerator-driven subcritical system to be operated as a source of cold neutrons for Condensed Matter research is developed at the conceptual level. Its baseline layout relies upon proven accelerator, spalattion target and fuel array technologies, and consists in a proton accelerator able to deliver some 67.5 mA of proton beam with kinetic energy 0.6 GeV, a pulse length of 2.86 ms, and repetition rate of 14 Hz. The particle beam hits a target of conventional design that is surrounded by a multiplicative core made of fissile/fertile material, composed by a subcritical array of fuel bars made of aluminium Cermet cooled by light water poisoned with boric acid. Relatively low enriched uranium is chosen as fissile material. An optimisation of several parameters is carried out, using as components of the objective function several characteristics pertaining the cold neutron pulse. The results show that the optimal device will deliver up to 80% of the cold neutron flux expected for some of the ongoing projects using a significantly lower proton beam power than that managed in such projects. The total power developed within the core rises up to 22.8 MW, and the criticality range shifts to a final keff value of around 0.9 after the 50 days cycle.

  15. Promising ethical arguments for product differentiation in the organic food sector. A mixed methods research approach.

    PubMed

    Zander, Katrin; Stolz, Hanna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    Ethical consumerism is a growing trend worldwide. Ethical consumers' expectations are increasing and neither the Fairtrade nor the organic farming concept covers all the ethical concerns of consumers. Against this background the aim of this research is to elicit consumers' preferences regarding organic food with additional ethical attributes and their relevance at the market place. A mixed methods research approach was applied by combining an Information Display Matrix, Focus Group Discussions and Choice Experiments in five European countries. According to the results of the Information Display Matrix, 'higher animal welfare', 'local production' and 'fair producer prices' were preferred in all countries. These three attributes were discussed with Focus Groups in depth, using rather emotive ways of labelling. While the ranking of the attributes was the same, the emotive way of communicating these attributes was, for the most part, disliked by participants. The same attributes were then used in Choice Experiments, but with completely revised communication arguments. According to the results of the Focus Groups, the arguments were presented in a factual manner, using short and concise statements. In this research step, consumers in all countries except Austria gave priority to 'local production'. 'Higher animal welfare' and 'fair producer prices' turned out to be relevant for buying decisions only in Germany and Switzerland. According to our results, there is substantial potential for product differentiation in the organic sector through making use of production standards that exceed existing minimum regulations. The combination of different research methods in a mixed methods approach proved to be very helpful. The results of earlier research steps provided the basis from which to learn - findings could be applied in subsequent steps, and used to adjust and deepen the research design. PMID:23207189

  16. A Research Module for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory: Multistep Synthesis of a Fluorous Dye Molecule.

    PubMed

    Slade, Michael C; Raker, Jeffrey R; Kobilka, Brandon; Pohl, Nicola L B

    2014-01-14

    A multi-session research-like module has been developed for use in the undergraduate organic teaching laboratory curriculum. Students are tasked with planning and executing the synthesis of a novel fluorous dye molecule and using it to explore a fluorous affinity chromatography separation technique, which is the first implementation of this technique in a teaching laboratory. Key elements of the project include gradually introducing students to the use of the chemical literature to facilitate their searching, as well as deliberate constraints designed to force them to think critically about reaction design and optimization in organic chemistry. The project also introduces students to some advanced laboratory practices such as Schlenk techniques, degassing of reaction mixtures, affinity chromatography, and microwave-assisted chemistry. This provides students a teaching laboratory experience that closely mirrors authentic synthetic organic chemistry practice in laboratories throughout the world. PMID:24501431

  17. Becoming a Learning Organization: New Directions in Science Education Research at the National Science Foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaley, Judith A.; Olds, Barbara M.; Earle, Janice

    2005-06-01

    The Education and Human Resources (EHR) Directorate at the National Science Foundation has been examining its role in supporting the development of new approaches to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education. This article explores what it means to be scientifically literate, what it takes to become a learning organization, how the EHR Directorate is working towards becoming such an organization through rigorous self-study, and how EHR can best manage its large portfolio of awards that support investigations in STEM education to enhance their collective value to researchers, policymakers and educators. Several elements of the self-study process are described, and the implications for the Directorate as well as for the field of researchers in science education are explored.

  18. Accelerator Mass Spectrometric (AMS) Measurements of Plutonium Activity Concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu Atom Ratios In Soil Extracts Supplied by the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring & Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R

    2005-02-28

    Plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) and plutonium-239+240 ({sup 239+240}Pu) activities concentrations and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios are reported for a series of chemically purified soil extracts received from the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring & Research Center (CEMRC) in New Mexico. Samples were analyzed without further purification at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). This report also includes a brief description of the AMS system and internal laboratory procedures used to ensure the quality and reliability of the measurement data.

  19. Steps to Strengthen Ethics in Organizations: Research Findings, Ethics Placebos, and What Works

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that many organizations overlook needs and opportunities to strengthen ethics. Barriers can make it hard to see the need for stronger ethics and even harder to take effective action. These barriers include the organization’s misleading use of language, misuse of an ethics code, culture of silence, strategies of justification, institutional betrayal, and ethical fallacies. Ethics placebos tend to take the place of steps to see, solve, and prevent problems. This article reviews relevant research and specific steps that create change. PMID:25602131

  20. An action research study; cultural differences impact how manufacturing organizations receive continuous improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattman, Braden R.

    National culture and organizational culture impact how continuous improvement methods are received, implemented and deployed by suppliers. Previous research emphasized the dominance of national culture over organizational culture. The countries studied included Poland, Mexico, China, Taiwan, South Korea, Estonia, India, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan. The research found that Canada was most receptive to continuous improvement, with China being the least receptive. The study found that organizational culture was more influential than national culture. Isomorphism and benchmarking is driving continuous-improvement language and methods to be more universally known within business. Business and management practices are taking precedence in driving change within organizations.

  1. Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    This is a list of aerospace organizations and other groups that provides educators with assistance and information in specific areas. Both government and nongovernment organizations are included. (Author/SA)

  2. Organization and use of a Software/Hardware Avionics Research Program (SHARP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karmarkar, J. S.; Kareemi, M. N.

    1975-01-01

    The organization and use is described of the software/hardware avionics research program (SHARP) developed to duplicate the automatic portion of the STOLAND simulator system, on a general-purpose computer system (i.e., IBM 360). The program's uses are: (1) to conduct comparative evaluation studies of current and proposed airborne and ground system concepts via single run or Monte Carlo simulation techniques, and (2) to provide a software tool for efficient algorithm evaluation and development for the STOLAND avionics computer.

  3. An effective method of UV-oxidation of dissolved organic carbon in natural waters for radiocarbon analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yuejun; Ge, Tiantian; Wang, Xuchen

    2015-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurement of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a very powerful tool to study the sources, transformation and cycling of carbon in the ocean. The technique, however, remains great challenges for complete and successful oxidation of sufficient DOC with low blanks for high precision carbon isotopic ratio analysis, largely due to the overwhelming proportion of salts and low DOC concentrations in the ocean. In this paper, we report an effective UV-Oxidation method for oxidizing DOC in natural waters for radiocarbon analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The UV-oxidation system and method show 95%±4% oxidation efficiency and high reproducibility for DOC in both river and seawater samples. The blanks associated with the method was also low (about 3 µg C) that is critical for 14C analysis. As a great advantage of the method, multiple water samples can be oxidized at the same time so it reduces the sample processing time substantially compared with other UV-oxidation method currently being used in other laboratories. We have used the system and method for 14C studies of DOC in rivers, estuaries, and oceanic environments and have received promise results.

  4. Relative characterization of rosemary samples according to their geographical origins using microwave-accelerated distillation, solid-phase microextraction and Kohonen self-organizing maps.

    PubMed

    Tigrine-Kordjani, N; Chemat, F; Meklati, B Y; Tuduri, L; Giraudel, J L; Montury, M

    2007-09-01

    For centuries, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been used to prepare essential oils which, even now, are highly valued due to their various biological activities. Nevertheless, it has been noted that these activities often depend on the origin of the rosemary plant and the method of extraction. Since both of these quality parameters can greatly influence the chemical composition of rosemary oil, an original analytical method was developed where "dry distillation" was coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and then a data mining technique using the Kohonen self-organizing map algorithm was applied to the data obtained. This original approach uses the newly described microwave-accelerated distillation technique (MAD) and HS-SPME; neither of these techniques require external solvent and so this approach provides a novel "green" chemistry sampling method in the field of biological matrix analysis. The large data set obtained was then treated with a rarely used chemometric technique based on nonclassical statistics. Applied to 32 rosemary samples collected at the same time from 12 different sites in the north of Algeria, this method highlighted a strong correlation between the volatile chemical compositions of the samples and their origins, and it therefore allowed the samples to be grouped according to geographical distribution. Moreover, the method allowed us to identify the constituents that exerted the most influence during classification. PMID:17646972

  5. Research-based-decision-making in Canadian health organizations: a behavioural approach.

    PubMed

    Jbilou, Jalila; Amara, Nabil; Landry, Réjean

    2007-06-01

    Decision making in Health sector is affected by a several elements such as economic constraints, political agendas, epidemiologic events, managers' values and environment... These competing elements create a complex environment for decision making. Research-Based-Decision-Making (RBDM) offers an opportunity to reduce the generated uncertainty and to ensure efficacy and efficiency in health administrations. We assume that RBDM is dependant on decision makers' behaviour and the identification of the determinants of this behaviour can help to enhance research results utilization in health sector decision making. This paper explores the determinants of RBDM as a personal behaviour among managers and professionals in health administrations in Canada. From the behavioural theories and the existing literature, we build a model measuring "RBDM" as an index based on five items. These items refer to the steps accomplished by a decision maker while developing a decision which is based on evidence. The determinants of RBDM behaviour are identified using data collected from 942 health care decision makers in Canadian health organizations. Linear regression is used to model the behaviour RBDM. Determinants of this behaviour are derived from Triandis Theory and Bandura's construct "self-efficacy." The results suggest that to improve research use among managers in Canadian governmental health organizations, strategies should focus on enhancing exposition to evidence through facilitating communication networks, partnerships and links between researchers and decision makers, with the key long-term objective of developing a culture that supports and values the contribution that research can make to decision making in governmental health organizations. Nevertheless, depending on the organizational level, determinants of RBDM are different. This difference has to be taken into account if RBDM adoption is desired. Decision makers in Canadian health organizations (CHO) can help to build

  6. Government-promoted collective research and development in Japan: Analyses of the organization through case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.

    1990-06-01

    A study was commissioned by the Energy Conservation and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to better understand the strategies used for cooperative and joint-venture research and development (R D) overseas. The study evaluates the organization and management of several different types of cooperative R D programs in Japan that are sponsored under the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) Program, Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology (ERATO) Program, and the Key Technology Center (KTC) Program. The ERATO Program grew out of a concern over revising the government's approach to supporting research and technology development. The program was initiated to address what was regarded as a lack of creativity in areas at the forefront of science. The program recruits young researchers and allows them flexibility to explore multi-disciplinary areas at the forefront of science. It has been organized to allow for individual creativity but at the same time to benefit from the combined knowledge of an assembly of researchers. Because the plan is such a radical departure from conventional Japanese philosophy, it has met with certain bureaucratic obstacles. Visits to four ERATO projects are described. The third program, the KTC Program, focuses on getting private firms to venture into risky areas of advanced technology to pave the way for future industries. Its goal is to encourage a shift of resources in the private sector toward areas that are considered essential for the competitive development of future industries. The principal philosophy behind the KTC is that the private sector is in the best position to identify promising technical challenges and to weigh their commercial potential against research uncertainties. Three KTC research joint ventures are briefly described. 13 refs., 9 figs., 35 tabs.

  7. Basic Electropolishing Process Research and Development in Support of Improved Reliable Performance SRF Cavities for the Future Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    H. Tian, C.E. Reece,M.J. Kelley

    2009-05-01

    Future accelerators require unprecedented cavity performance, which is strongly influenced by interior surface nanosmoothness. Electropolishing is the technique of choice to be developed for high-field superconducting radiofrequency cavities. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and related techniques point to the electropolishing mechanism of Nb in a sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid electrolyte of controlled by a compact surface salt film under F- diffusion-limited mass transport control. These and other findings are currently guiding a systematic characterization to form the basis for cavity process optimization, such as flowrate, electrolyte composition and temperature. This integrated analysis is expected to provide optimum EP parameter sets for a controlled, reproducible and uniform surface leveling for Nb SRF cavities.

  8. Energy Management of People in Organizations: A Review and Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Schippers, Michaéla C; Hogenes, René

    2011-06-01

    Although energy is a concept that is implied in many motivational theories, is hardly ever explicitly mentioned or researched. The current article first relates theories and research findings that were thus far not explicitly related to energy. We describe theories such as flow, subjective well-being, engagement and burn-out, and make the link with energy more explicit. Also, we make a first link between personality characteristics and energy, and describe the role of leadership in unleashing followers' energy. Following, we identify how the topic of energy management can be profitably incorporated in research from a scientific as well as a practitioner viewpoint. Finally, we describe several interventions to enhance energy in individuals and organizations. PMID:21743775

  9. Results From the Data & Democracy Initiative to Enhance Community-Based Organization Data and Research Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Carroll-Scott, Amy; Toy, Peggy; Wyn, Roberta; Zane, Jazmin I.; Wallace, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. In an era of community-based participatory research and increased expectations for evidence-based practice, we evaluated an initiative designed to increase community-based organizations’ data and research capacity through a 3-day train-the-trainer course on community health assessments. Methods. We employed a mixed method pre–post course evaluation design. Various data sources collected from 171 participants captured individual and organizational characteristics and pre–post course self-efficacy on 19 core skills, as well as behavior change 1 year later among a subsample of participants. Results. Before the course, participants reported limited previous experience with data and low self-efficacy in basic research skills. Immediately after the course, participants demonstrated statistically significant increases in data and research self-efficacy. The subsample reported application of community assessment skills to their work and increased use of data 1 year later. Conclusions. Results suggest that an intensive, short-term training program can achieve large immediate gains in data and research self-efficacy in community-based organization staff. In addition, they demonstrate initial evidence of longer-term behavior change related to use of data and research skills to support their community work. PMID:22594748

  10. The Use of Research Evidence in Two International Organizations' Recommendations about Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Steven J.; Lavis, John N.; Bennett, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the extent to which research evidence informs the development of recommendations by international organizations. Methods: We identified specific World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank recommendations on five topics (contracting, healthcare financing, health human resources, tuberculosis control and tobacco control), catalogued the related systematic reviews and assessed the recommendations to determine their consistency with the systematic reviews that were available at the time of their formulation. Findings: Only two of the eight publications examined were found to cite systematic reviews, and only five of 14 WHO and two of seven World Bank recommendations were consistent with both the direction and nature of effect claims from systematic reviews. Ten of 14 WHO and five of seven World Bank recommendations were consistent with the direction of effect claims only. Conclusion: WHO and the World Bank – working with donor agencies and national governments – can improve their use of (or at least, their reporting about their use of) research evidence. Decision-makers and clinicians should critically evaluate the quality and local applicability of recommendations from any source, including international organizations, prior to their implementation. PMID:20676252

  11. Research-retreat-recovery: A potential model for organization and completion of research projects. Experience from a neurosurgery department in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Godil, Saniya Siraj; Kazim, Syed Faraz; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad

    2010-01-01

    Background: In the current era of biomedical research, it is imperative that every research study at an institution is properly organized, and frequently audited to streamline efforts and maintain standards. Recently, a research retreat was organized by the Section of Neurosurgery at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, and following that a recovery team was made with the aim of recovering “lost in translation” research projects. In the realm of our experience, the current model is being proposed as a means for organization of departmental research. Methods: The “research” component of the model comprised compilation of an abstract book of all research work done within the section during the last five years. The “retreat” component of the model was intended with objectives of analysis of past research and generation of fresh ideas. The “recovery” component of the model was accomplished by formation of a research recovery team with the aim of recovering unfinished, and/or unpublished research projects. Results: The abstract book comprised 103 abstracts: 52.4% original research studies, 12.6% review articles, and 34.9% case report/series. Only 8.7% abstracts were of basic science research whereas the remaining 91.3% were clinical research papers. Only 34% had been published in an article form in a biomedical research journal (51.4% in international journals and 48.6% in national journals); remaining papers were either in submission/preparation process or had been abandoned. As part of research recovery, 29.4% projects were recovered within 12 weeks of the retreat component. Conclusion: We conclude that the model of “research-retreat-recovery” is highly successful in the context of neurosurgery departments in developing countries without a proper research unit, and can result in better organization of departmental research, recovery of unfinished projects, and initiation of new research studies. PMID:21125010

  12. Accelerated Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of Accelerated Reader, a system of computerized testing and record-keeping that supplements the regular classroom reading program. Accelerated Reader's primary goal is to increase literature-based reading practice. The program offers a computer-aided reading comprehension and management program intended to motivate…

  13. Solid-organ transplantation in older adults: current status and future research.

    PubMed

    Abecassis, M; Bridges, N D; Clancy, C J; Dew, M A; Eldadah, B; Englesbe, M J; Flessner, M F; Frank, J C; Friedewald, J; Gill, J; Gries, C; Halter, J B; Hartmann, E L; Hazzard, W R; Horne, F M; Hosenpud, J; Jacobson, P; Kasiske, B L; Lake, J; Loomba, R; Malani, P N; Moore, T M; Murray, A; Nguyen, M-H; Powe, N R; Reese, P P; Reynolds, H; Samaniego, M D; Schmader, K E; Segev, D L; Shah, A S; Singer, L G; Sosa, J A; Stewart, Z A; Tan, J C; Williams, W W; Zaas, D W; High, K P

    2012-10-01

    An increasing number of patients older than 65 years are referred for and have access to organ transplantation, and an increasing number of older adults are donating organs. Although short-term outcomes are similar in older versus younger transplant recipients, older donor or recipient age is associated with inferior long-term outcomes. However, age is often a proxy for other factors that might predict poor outcomes more strongly and better identify patients at risk for adverse events. Approaches to transplantation in older adults vary across programs, but despite recent gains in access and the increased use of marginal organs, older patients remain less likely than other groups to receive a transplant, and those who do are highly selected. Moreover, few studies have addressed geriatric issues in transplant patient selection or management, or the implications on health span and disability when patients age to late life with a transplanted organ. This paper summarizes a recent trans-disciplinary workshop held by ASP, in collaboration with NHLBI, NIA, NIAID, NIDDK and AGS, to address issues related to kidney, liver, lung, or heart transplantation in older adults and to propose a research agenda in these areas. PMID:22958872

  14. Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, William

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) is an ongoing study of the small forces (vibrations and accelerations) on the ISS that result from the operation of hardware, crew activities, as well as dockings and maneuvering. Results will be used to generalize the types of vibrations affecting vibration-sensitive experiments. Investigators seek to better understand the vibration environment on the space station to enable future research.

  15. The theory of bipolar disorder as an illness of accelerated aging: implications for clinical care and research.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Lucas Bortolotto; Costa, Leonardo Gazzi; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Swardfager, Walter; Belangero, Síntia Iole; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; McIntyre, Roger S; Bauer, Moisés E; Brietzke, Elisa

    2014-05-01

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) has been conceptualized as both a cyclic and a progressive disorder. Mechanisms involved in neuroprogression in BD remain largely unknown although several non-mutually exclusive models have been proposed as explanatory frameworks. In the present paper, we propose that the pathophysiological changes observed in BD (e.g. brain structural alterations, cognitive deficits, oxidative stress imbalance, amyloid metabolism, immunological deregulation, immunosenescence, neurotrophic deficiencies and telomere shortening) converge on a model of accelerated aging (AA). Aging can be understood as a multidimensional process involving physical, neuropsychological, and social changes, which can be highly variable between individuals. Determinants of successful aging (e.g environmental and genetic factors), may also confer differential vulnerability to components of BD pathophysiology and contribute to the clinical presentation of BD. Herein we discuss how the understanding of aging and senescence can contribute to the search for new and promising molecular targets to explain and ameliorate neuroprogression in BD. We also present the strengths and limitations of this concept. PMID:24548785

  16. Connecting biology and organic chemistry introductory laboratory courses through a collaborative research project.

    PubMed

    Boltax, Ariana L; Armanious, Stephanie; Kosinski-Collins, Melissa S; Pontrello, Jason K

    2015-01-01

    Modern research often requires collaboration of experts in fields, such as math, chemistry, biology, physics, and computer science to develop unique solutions to common problems. Traditional introductory undergraduate laboratory curricula in the sciences often do not emphasize connections possible between the various disciplines. We designed an interdisciplinary, medically relevant, project intended to help students see connections between chemistry and biology. Second term organic chemistry laboratory students designed and synthesized potential polymer inhibitors or inducers of polyglutamine protein aggregation. The use of novel target compounds added the uncertainty of scientific research to the project. Biology laboratory students then tested the novel potential pharmaceuticals in Huntington's disease model assays, using in vitro polyglutamine peptide aggregation and in vivo lethality studies in Drosophila. Students read articles from the primary literature describing the system from both chemical and biological perspectives. Assessment revealed that students emerged from both courses with a deeper understanding of the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry and a heightened interest in basic research. The design of this collaborative project for introductory biology and organic chemistry labs demonstrated how the local interests and expertise at a university can be drawn from to create an effective way to integrate these introductory courses. Rather than simply presenting a series of experiments to be replicated, we hope that our efforts will inspire other scientists to think about how some aspect of authentic work can be brought into their own courses, and we also welcome additional collaborations to extend the scope of the scientific exploration. PMID:26148149

  17. Organics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. Occupational exposure to complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds in ambient air: desorption from activated charcoal using accelerated solvent extraction can replace carbon disulfide?

    PubMed

    Fabrizi, Giovanni; Fioretti, Marzia; Rocca, Lucia Mainero

    2013-01-01

    A desorption study of 57 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been conducted by use of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Different solvents were tested to extract activated charcoal tubes with the objective of replacing carbon disulfide, used in official methods, because of its highly toxic health and environmental effects. Extraction conditions, for example temperature and number of cycles, were investigated and optimized. The definitive extraction procedure selected was use of acetone at 150 °C and two consecutive extraction cycles at a pressure of 1,500 psi. Considering a sample volume of 0.005 Nm(3), corresponding to a sampling time of 8 h at a flow rate of 0.01 L min(-1), the method was validated over the concentration range 65-26,300 μg Nm(-3). The lowest limit of quantification was 6 μg Nm(-3), and recovery for the 93 % of analytes ranged from 65 to 102 %. For most of the compounds, relative standard deviations were less than 15 % for inter and intra-day precision. Uncertainty of measurement was also determined: the relative expanded uncertainty was always below 29.6 %, except for dichlorodifluoromethane. This work shows that use of friendlier solvent, for example acetone, coupled with use of ASE, can replace use of CS(2) for chemical removal of VOCs from activated charcoal. ASE has several advantages over traditional solvent-extraction methods, including shorter extraction time, minimum sample manipulation, high reproducibility, and less extraction discrimination. No loss of sensitivity occurs and there is also a salutary effect on bench workers' health and on the smell of laboratory air. PMID:22968683

  19. The influence of organic production on food quality - research findings, gaps and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Załęcka, Aneta; Bügel, Susanne; Paoletti, Flavio; Kahl, Johannes; Bonanno, Adriana; Dostalova, Anne; Rahmann, Gerold

    2014-10-01

    Although several meta-analysis studies have been published comparing the quality of food derived from organic and non-organic origin, it is still not clear if food from organic production per se can guarantee product-related added value to consumers. This paper aims to summarize the status quo in order to identify research gaps and suggest future research challenges. Organic food is described according to a quality model already published. The influence of organic production on food quality is structured in primary production and processing. Furthermore, organic food authentication is discussed. Organic food seems to contain fewer pesticide residues and statistically more selected health-related compounds such as polyphenols in plant products and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and meat products, but the health relevance for consumers is not clear yet. Comparing food from organic origin with so called 'conventional' food seems not to be appropriate, because 'conventional' is not defined. In organic food quality research a system approach is needed from which systemic markers can be selected. Research on the impact of processing technologies on the quality according to organic principles seems of high relevance, since most of the food is processed. PMID:24436145

  20. Empowering Change Agents in Hierarchical Organizations: Participatory Action Research in Prisons.

    PubMed

    Penrod, Janice; Loeb, Susan J; Ladonne, Robert A; Martin, Lea M

    2016-06-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) approaches harness collaborative partnerships to stimulate change in defined communities. The purpose of this article is to illustrate key methodological strategies used in the application of PAR methods in the particularly challenging environment of a hierarchical organization. A study designed to promote sustainable, insider-generated system-level changes in the provision of end-of-life (EOL) care in the restrictive setting of six state prisons is used as an exemplar of the application of three cardinal principles of PAR. First, development of a collaborative network with active partnership between outsider academic researchers and insider co-researchers began with careful attention to understanding the culture and processes of prisons and gaining the support of organizational leadership, using qualitative data gathering and trust-building. During the implementation phase, promoting co-ownership of change in EOL care through the co-construction of knowledge and systems to enhance sustainable change required carefully-orchestrated strategies to maximize the collaborative spirit of the project. Co-researchers were empowered to examine their worlds and capture opportunities for change using new leadership skills role-modeled by the research team. Third, their local knowledge of the barriers inherent in the contextual reality of prisons was translated into achievable system change by production of a toolkit of formalized and well-rehearsed change strategies that collaborative teams were empowered to enact within their hierarchical prison environment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27028096

  1. MaizeGDB: The Maize Model Organism Database for Basic, Translational, and Applied Research

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Carolyn J.; Harper, Lisa C.; Schaeffer, Mary L.; Sen, Taner Z.; Seigfried, Trent E.; Campbell, Darwin A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2001 maize became the number one production crop in the world with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reporting over 614 million tonnes produced. Its success is due to the high productivity per acre in tandem with a wide variety of commercial uses. Not only is maize an excellent source of food, feed, and fuel, but also its by-products are used in the production of various commercial products. Maize's unparalleled success in agriculture stems from basic research, the outcomes of which drive breeding and product development. In order for basic, translational, and applied researchers to benefit from others' investigations, newly generated data must be made freely and easily accessible. MaizeGDB is the maize research community's central repository for genetics and genomics information. The overall goals of MaizeGDB are to facilitate access to the outcomes of maize research by integrating new maize data into the database and to support the maize research community by coordinating group activities. PMID:18769488

  2. Proceedings of the Indo-U.S. bilateral workshop on accelerating botanicals/biologics agent development research for cancer chemoprevention, treatment, and survival

    PubMed Central

    B. Kumar, Nagi; Dhurandhar, Medha; Aggarwal, Bharat; Anant, Shrikant; Daniel, Kenyon; Deng, Gary; Djeu, Julie; Dou, Jinhui; Hawk, Ernest; Jayaram, B.; Jia, Libin; Joshi, Rajendra; Kararala, Madhuri; Karunagaran, Devarajan; Kucuk, Omer; Kumar, Lalit; Malafa, Mokenge; Samathanam, G. J.; Sarkar, Fazlul; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Singh, Rana P.; Srivastava, Anil; White, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    With the evolving evidence of the promise of botanicals/biologics for cancer chemoprevention and treatment, an Indo-U.S. collaborative Workshop focusing on “Accelerating Botanicals Agent Development Research for Cancer Chemoprevention and Treatment” was conducted at the Moffitt Cancer Center, 29–31 May 2012. Funded by the Indo-U.S. Science and Technology Forum, a joint initiative of Governments of India and the United States of America and the Moffitt Cancer Center, the overall goals of this workshop were to enhance the knowledge (agents, molecular targets, biomarkers, approaches, target populations, regulatory standards, priorities, resources) of a multinational, multidisciplinary team of researcher's to systematically accelerate the design, to conduct a successful clinical trials to evaluate botanicals/biologics for cancer chemoprevention and treatment, and to achieve efficient translation of these discoveries into the standards for clinical practice that will ultimately impact cancer morbidity and mortality. Expert panelists were drawn from a diverse group of stakeholders, representing the leadership from the National Cancer Institute's Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM), NCI Experimental Therapeutics (NExT), Food and Drug Administration, national scientific leadership from India, and a distinguished group of population, basic and clinical scientists from the two countries, including leaders in bioinformatics, social sciences, and biostatisticians. At the end of the workshop, we established four Indo-U.S. working research collaborative teams focused on identifying and prioritizing agents targeting four cancers that are of priority to both countries. Presented are some of the key proceedings and future goals discussed in the proceedings of this workshop. PMID:24279005

  3. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, David M.; Sampayan, Stephen; Slenes, Kirk; Stoller, H. M.

    2009-11-10

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  4. Space station capability for research in rotational hypogravity. [to study human physiological responses to rotational acceleration stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, G.

    1973-01-01

    Certain capabilities provided in preliminary designs of orbital space stations for research in rotational hypogravity are outlined. Also indicated are alternative configurations that are being considered. Principal addresses are members of an international community of physiologists whose work in earth oriented, as well as space oriented, physiology can be supported through observation under the background environment of null gravity. Their participation in originating and devising advanced experiments and in developing requirements is expected to enhance final design of the selected space station and to make the research program more meaningful.

  5. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, S.A.

    1958-05-27

    An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.

  6. 7 CFR 1486.201 - Under what conditions may research and consultant organizations, individuals, or any other for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Under what conditions may research and consultant..., Applications, and Funding § 1486.201 Under what conditions may research and consultant organizations, individuals, or any other for-profit entity apply to the program? (a) Proposals from research and...

  7. 7 CFR 1486.201 - Under what conditions may research and consultant organizations, individuals, or any other for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Under what conditions may research and consultant..., Applications, and Funding § 1486.201 Under what conditions may research and consultant organizations, individuals, or any other for-profit entity apply to the program? (a) Proposals from research and...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC MATTER IN SOIL AND AQUIFER SOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The focus of this work was the evaluation of analytical methods to determine and characterize fractions of subsurface organic matter. Major fractions of total organic carbon (TOC) include: particulate organic carbon (POC) in aquifer material, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ...

  9. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P. Jr.; Devaney, H.F.; Hake, L.W.

    1979-08-29

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  10. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Jr., Joseph P.; Devaney, Howard F.; Hake, Lewis W.

    1982-08-17

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  11. ION ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Bell, J.S.

    1959-09-15

    An arrangement for the drift tubes in a linear accelerator is described whereby each drift tube acts to shield the particles from the influence of the accelerating field and focuses the particles passing through the tube. In one embodiment the drift tube is splii longitudinally into quadrants supported along the axis of the accelerator by webs from a yoke, the quadrants. webs, and yoke being of magnetic material. A magnetic focusing action is produced by energizing a winding on each web to set up a magnetic field between adjacent quadrants. In the other embodiment the quadrants are electrically insulated from each other and have opposite polarity voltages on adjacent quadrants to provide an electric focusing fleld for the particles, with the quadrants spaced sufficienily close enough to shield the particles within the tube from the accelerating electric field.

  12. Microfluidic organ-on-chip technology for blood-brain barrier research

    PubMed Central

    van der Helm, Marinke W; van der Meer, Andries D; Eijkel, Jan C T; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes I

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Organs-on-chips are a new class of microengineered laboratory models that combine several of the advantages of current in vivo and in vitro models. In this review, we summarize the advances that have been made in the development of organ-on-chip models of the blood-brain barrier (BBBs-on-chips) and the challenges that are still ahead. The BBB is formed by specialized e3ndothelial cells and separates blood from brain tissue. It protects the brain from harmful compounds from the blood and provides homeostasis for optimal neuronal function. Studying BBB function and dysfunction is important for drug development and biomedical research. Microfluidic BBBs-on-chips enable real-time study of (human) cells in an engineered physiological microenvironment, for example incorporating small geometries and fluid flow as well as sensors. Examples of BBBs-on-chips in literature already show the potential of more realistic microenvironments and the study of organ-level functions. A key challenge in the field of BBB-on-chip development is the current lack of standardized quantification of parameters such as barrier permeability and shear stress. This limits the potential for direct comparison of the performance of different BBB-on-chip models to each other and existing models. We give recommendations for further standardization in model characterization and conclude that the rapidly emerging field of BBB-on-chip models holds great promise for further studies in BBB biology and drug development. PMID:27141422

  13. A possible biomedical facility at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).

    PubMed

    Dosanjh, M; Jones, B; Myers, S

    2013-05-01

    A well-attended meeting, called "Brainstorming discussion for a possible biomedical facility at CERN", was held by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics on 25 June 2012. This was concerned with adapting an existing, but little used, 78-m circumference CERN synchrotron to deliver a wide range of ion species, preferably from protons to at least neon ions, with beam specifications that match existing clinical facilities. The potential extensive research portfolio discussed included beam ballistics in humanoid phantoms, advanced dosimetry, remote imaging techniques and technical developments in beam delivery, including gantry design. In addition, a modern laboratory for biomedical characterisation of these beams would allow important radiobiological studies, such as relative biological effectiveness, in a dedicated facility with standardisation of experimental conditions and biological end points. A control photon and electron beam would be required nearby for relative biological effectiveness comparisons. Research beam time availability would far exceed that at other facilities throughout the world. This would allow more rapid progress in several biomedical areas, such as in charged hadron therapy of cancer, radioisotope production and radioprotection. The ethos of CERN, in terms of open access, peer-reviewed projects and governance has been so successful for High Energy Physics that application of the same to biomedicine would attract high-quality research, with possible contributions from Europe and beyond, along with potential new funding streams. PMID:23549990

  14. Working for a not-for-Profit Research and Development Organization in the Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKague, h L

    2001-12-01

    The Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) is an independent not-for-profit applied engineering and physical sciences research and development organization. This means that SwRI owes no allegiance to organizations other than its clients. As a not-for-profit organization, SwRI reinvests its net income into the organization to improve, strengthen, and expand facilities and to support internal research and development projects. Located in San Antonio, Texas, on 1200 acres, SwRI employs nearly 2800 staff and occupies nearly 2,000,000 square feet of office space. Its business is about equally divided between commercial and government clients, most of whom have specific scientific and technical problems that need to be solved in a timely, cost-effective manner. Governmental clients include local, state, and federal agencies and foreign governments. Commercial clients include local, national, and international businesses. Earth science disciplines at SwRI include geology, geophysics, hydrology, geochemistry, rock mechanics, mining engineering, and natural hazard assessment. Our overall approach is to systematically examine client problems and develop solutions that may include field work, laboratory work, numerical modeling, or some combination of these approaches. This method of problem solving places a strong emphasis on interdisciplinary teamwork. The work environment at SwRI strikes a balance among the freedom to attack technically important problems, consistent support to professional development, and a strong commitment to meeting client's deadlines and goals. Real problems with real consequences are routinely solved on a tight schedule. The diversity of clients gives exposure to an extraordinarily wide range of problems. Successful employees have sound technical backgrounds, are flexible in accommodating varying clients needs, bring creativity and energy to problem solving and applications of technologies, can work on multiple tasks in parallel, and can communicate

  15. Lexical processing and organization in bilingual first language acquisition: Guiding future research.

    PubMed

    DeAnda, Stephanie; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    A rich body of work in adult bilinguals documents an interconnected lexical network across languages, such that early word retrieval is language independent. This literature has yielded a number of influential models of bilingual semantic memory. However, extant models provide limited predictions about the emergence of lexical organization in bilingual first language acquisition (BFLA). Empirical evidence from monolingual infants suggests that lexical networks emerge early in development as children integrate phonological and semantic information. These findings tell us little about the interaction between 2 languages in early bilingual memory. To date, an understanding of when and how languages interact in early bilingual development is lacking. In this literature review, we present research documenting lexical-semantic development across monolingual and bilingual infants. This is followed by a discussion of current models of bilingual language representation and organization and their ability to account for the available empirical evidence. Together, these theoretical and empirical accounts inform and highlight unexplored areas of research and guide future work on early bilingual memory. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26866430

  16. Lexical Processing and Organization in Bilingual First Language Acquisition: Guiding Future Research

    PubMed Central

    DeAnda, Stephanie; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    A rich body of work in adult bilinguals documents an interconnected lexical network across languages, such that early word retrieval is language independent. This literature has yielded a number of influential models of bilingual semantic memory. However, extant models provide limited predictions about the emergence of lexical organization in bilingual first language acquisition (BFLA). Empirical evidence from monolingual infants suggests that lexical networks emerge early in development as children integrate phonological and semantic information. These findings tell us little about the interaction between two languages in the early bilingual memory. To date, an understanding of when and how languages interact in early bilingual development is lacking. In this literature review, we present research documenting lexical-semantic development across monolingual and bilingual infants. This is followed by a discussion of current models of bilingual language representation and organization and their ability to account for the available empirical evidence. Together, these theoretical and empirical accounts inform and highlight unexplored areas of research and guide future work on early bilingual memory. PMID:26866430

  17. Drosophotoxicology: An Emerging Research Area for Assessing Nanoparticles Interaction with Living Organisms.

    PubMed

    Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Ratiu, Attila Cristian; Popa, Marcela; Ecovoiu, Alexandru Al

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of nanotechnology allowed the fabrication of a wide range of different nanomaterials, raising many questions about their safety and potential risks for the human health and environment. Most of the current nanotoxicology research is not standardized, hampering any comparison or reproducibility of the obtained results. Drosophotoxicology encompasses the plethora of methodological approaches addressing the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a choice organism in toxicology studies. Drosophila melanogaster model offers several important advantages, such as a relatively simple genome structure, short lifespan, low maintenance cost, readiness of experimental manipulation comparative to vertebrate models from both ethical and technical points of view, relevant gene homology with higher organisms, and ease of obtaining mutant phenotypes. The molecular pathways, as well as multiple behavioral and developmental parameters, can be evaluated using this model in lower, medium or high throughput type assays, allowing a systematic classification of the toxicity levels of different nanomaterials. The purpose of this paper is to review the current research on the applications of Drosophila melanogaster model for the in vivo assessment of nanoparticles toxicity and to reveal the huge potential of this model system to provide results that could enable a proper selection of different nanostructures for a certain biomedical application. PMID:26907252

  18. Drosophotoxicology: An Emerging Research Area for Assessing Nanoparticles Interaction with Living Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Ratiu, Attila Cristian; Popa, Marcela; Ecovoiu, Alexandru Al.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of nanotechnology allowed the fabrication of a wide range of different nanomaterials, raising many questions about their safety and potential risks for the human health and environment. Most of the current nanotoxicology research is not standardized, hampering any comparison or reproducibility of the obtained results. Drosophotoxicology encompasses the plethora of methodological approaches addressing the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a choice organism in toxicology studies. Drosophila melanogaster model offers several important advantages, such as a relatively simple genome structure, short lifespan, low maintenance cost, readiness of experimental manipulation comparative to vertebrate models from both ethical and technical points of view, relevant gene homology with higher organisms, and ease of obtaining mutant phenotypes. The molecular pathways, as well as multiple behavioral and developmental parameters, can be evaluated using this model in lower, medium or high throughput type assays, allowing a systematic classification of the toxicity levels of different nanomaterials. The purpose of this paper is to review the current research on the applications of Drosophila melanogaster model for the in vivo assessment of nanoparticles toxicity and to reveal the huge potential of this model system to provide results that could enable a proper selection of different nanostructures for a certain biomedical application. PMID:26907252

  19. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  20. Biomedical accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Vogel, John S.

    1995-05-01

    Ultrasensitive SIMS with accelerator based spectrometers has recently begun to be applied to biomedical problems. Certain very long-lived radioisotopes of very low natural abundances can be used to trace metabolism at environmental dose levels ( [greater-or-equal, slanted] z mol in mg samples). 14C in particular can be employed to label a myriad of compounds. Competing technologies typically require super environmental doses that can perturb the system under investigation, followed by uncertain extrapolation to the low dose regime. 41Ca and 26Al are also used as elemental tracers. Given the sensitivity of the accelerator method, care must be taken to avoid contamination of the mass spectrometer and the apparatus employed in prior sample handling including chemical separation. This infant field comprises the efforts of a dozen accelerator laboratories. The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has been particularly active. In addition to collaborating with groups further afield, we are researching the kinematics and binding of genotoxins in-house, and we support innovative uses of our capability in the disciplines of chemistry, pharmacology, nutrition and physiology within the University of California. The field can be expected to grow further given the numerous potential applications and the efforts of several groups and companies to integrate more the accelerator technology into biomedical research programs; the development of miniaturized accelerator systems and ion sources capable of interfacing to conventional HPLC and GMC, etc. apparatus for complementary chemical analysis is anticipated for biomedical laboratories.