Science.gov

Sample records for accelerator science tokyo

  1. [Projects to accelerate the practical use of innovative medical devices to collaborate with TWIns, Center for Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Waseda University and School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo].

    PubMed

    Niimi, Shingo; Umezu, Mitsuo; Iseki, Hiroshi; Harada, Hiroshi Kasanuki Noboru; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Kitamori, Takehiko; Tei, Yuichi; Nakaoka, Ryusuke; Haishima, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Division of Medical Devices has been conducting the projects to accelerate the practical use of innovative medical devices to collaborate with TWIns, Center for Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Waseda University and School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo. The TWIns has been studying to aim at establishment of preclinical evaluation methods by "Engineering Based Medicine", and established Regulatory Science Institute for Medical Devices. School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo has been studying to aim at establishment of assessment methodology for innovative minimally invasive therapeutic devices, materials, and nanobio diagnostic devices. This report reviews the exchanges of personnel, the implement systems and the research progress of these projects.

  2. Liberal Arts and Engineering Science Education in the University of Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Takeo

    We will discuss the connectivity of educational systems in the College of Arts and Sciences and the Faculty of Engineering in the University of Tokyo. Students entering the University of Tokyo are enrolled for the first two years in the College of Arts and Sciences, since specialized instruction should be erected on top of broad knowledge and understanding. The University is offering several new types of lecture such as Global Focus on Knowledge (Lecture series where leading scholars in several fields overview sciences mainly for freshmen) in order to lead freshmen into the broad and systematic “structuring of knowledge” . The Faculty of Engineering also tries several new series of (teaching) courses, for example, Knowledge Structuring, Engineering Minimum Lecture Series, MONOZUKURI Experiment, English Language Lessons etc., together with Electrical Syllabi System with MIMASearch.

  3. Using a Mobile Phone Tour to Visit the Ueno Zoological Gardens and the National Science Museum in Tokyo, Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arita-Kikutani, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Japanese mobile phones are increasingly being used as multimedia players. In response to this, some museums in Japan have introduced mobile phone audiovisual guides. This paper presents a trial run of a cross-institutional mobile phone audiovisual guide tour at Ueno Zoological Gardens and the National Science Museum in Tokyo, Japan.…

  4. Accelerator Science: Why RF?

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-12-21

    Particle accelerators can fire beams of subatomic particles at near the speed of light. The accelerating force is generated using radio frequency technology and a whole lot of interesting features. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it all works.

  5. Science and Technology of Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valerio Lizarraga, Cristhian; Castilla Loaeza, Alejandro; Guillermo Cantón, Gerardo; Duarte, Carlos; Chavez Valenzuela, Daniel; Hernández Chahín, Karim; Cuna, Humberto Maury; Medina Medrano, Luis; Reyes Herrera, Juan; Sosa Güitrón, Salvador; Valdivia García, Alan; Rendón, Bruce Yee

    2016-10-01

    The Mexican Particle Accelerator Community (CMAP) was created in 2015 and currently its members participate in different experiments around the world. Using their expertise, they are working in the development of the particle accelerators area in Mexico. This paper provides a summary of the research done by its members and presents the preliminary design of an electron linear particle accelerator (eLINAC). This proposal will be the first accelerator designed and created in Mexico.

  6. Accelerator Science: Proton vs. Electron

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-10-19

    Particle accelerators are one of the most powerful ways to study the fundamental laws that govern the universe. However, there are many design considerations that go into selecting and building a particular accelerator. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the pros and cons of building an accelerator that collides pairs of protons to one that collides electrons.

  7. Accelerator Science: Circular vs. Linear

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-12-14

    Particle accelerator are scientific instruments that allow scientists to collide particles together at incredible energies to study the secrets of the universe. However, there are many manners in which particle accelerators can be constructed. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the pros and cons of circular and linear accelerators.

  8. Accelerator Science: Circular vs. Linear

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-11-10

    Particle accelerator are scientific instruments that allow scientists to collide particles together at incredible energies to study the secrets of the universe. However, there are many manners in which particle accelerators can be constructed. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the pros and cons of circular and linear accelerators.

  9. Accelerator Science: Proton vs. Electron

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-10-11

    Particle accelerators are one of the most powerful ways to study the fundamental laws that govern the universe. However, there are many design considerations that go into selecting and building a particular accelerator. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the pros and cons of building an accelerator that collides pairs of protons to one that collides electrons.

  10. Accelerator science in medical physics.

    PubMed

    Peach, K; Wilson, P; Jones, B

    2011-12-01

    The use of cyclotrons and synchrotrons to accelerate charged particles in hospital settings for the purpose of cancer therapy is increasing. Consequently, there is a growing demand from medical physicists, radiographers, physicians and oncologists for articles that explain the basic physical concepts of these technologies. There are unique advantages and disadvantages to all methods of acceleration. Several promising alternative methods of accelerating particles also have to be considered since they will become increasingly available with time; however, there are still many technical problems with these that require solving. This article serves as an introduction to this complex area of physics, and will be of benefit to those engaged in cancer therapy, or who intend to acquire such technologies in the future.

  11. Accelerator science in medical physics

    PubMed Central

    Peach, K; Wilson, P; Jones, B

    2011-01-01

    The use of cyclotrons and synchrotrons to accelerate charged particles in hospital settings for the purpose of cancer therapy is increasing. Consequently, there is a growing demand from medical physicists, radiographers, physicians and oncologists for articles that explain the basic physical concepts of these technologies. There are unique advantages and disadvantages to all methods of acceleration. Several promising alternative methods of accelerating particles also have to be considered since they will become increasingly available with time; however, there are still many technical problems with these that require solving. This article serves as an introduction to this complex area of physics, and will be of benefit to those engaged in cancer therapy, or who intend to acquire such technologies in the future. PMID:22374548

  12. Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Scott; Bleuel, Darren; Johnson, Micah; Rusnak, Brian; Soltz, Ron; Tonchev, Anton

    2016-05-05

    The Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS) will generate intense photon and neutron beams to address important gaps in the study of radionuclide science that directly impact Stockpile Stewardship, Nuclear Forensics, and Nuclear Material Detection. The co-location of MeV-scale neutral and photon sources with radiochemical analytics provides a unique facility to meet current and future challenges in nuclear security and nuclear science.

  13. Accelerator Science: Luminosity vs. Energy

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-09-28

    In the world of high energy physics there are several parameters that are important when one constructs a particle accelerator. Two crucial ones are the energy of the beam and the luminosity, which is another word for the number of particles in the beam. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the differences and the pros and cons. He even works in an unexpected sporting event.

  14. Accelerator Science: Luminosity vs. Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-09-19

    In the world of high energy physics there are several parameters that are important when one constructs a particle accelerator. Two crucial ones are the energy of the beam and the luminosity, which is another word for the number of particles in the beam. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the differences and the pros and cons. He even works in an unexpected sporting event.

  15. ASTER Images Tokyo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the city of Tokyo was acquired on March 22, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    This false color infrared image covers an area 60 km wide and 75 km long in three bands of the short wavelength infrared region, with a spatial resolution of 15 m. It shows part of the Tokyo metropolitan area extending south to Yokohama; included are the Ginza District, Haneda airport and the Imperial Palace. To the west, Tokyo is hemmed in by mountains, covered with forests (displayed in red); on the southeast, Tokyo Bay is one of the world's great harbors.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change

  16. Accelerator R&D: Research for Science - Science for Society

    SciTech Connect

    The HEP Accelerator R&D Task Force: N.R. Holtkamp,S. Biedron, S.V. Milton, L. Boeh, J.E. Clayton, G. Zdasiuk, S.A. Gourlay, M.S. Zisman,R.W. Hamm, S. Henderson, G.H. Hoffstaetter, L. Merminga, S. Ozaki, F.C. Pilat, M. White

    2012-07-01

    In September 2011 the US Senate Appropriations Committee requested a ten-year strategic plan from the Department of Energy (DOE) that would describe how accelerator R&D today could advance applications directly relevant to society. Based on the 2009 workshop 'Accelerators for America's Future' an assessment was made on how accelerator technology developed by the nation's laboratories and universities could directly translate into a competitive strength for industrial partners and a variety of government agencies in the research, defense and national security sectors. The Office of High Energy Physics, traditionally the steward for advanced accelerator R&D within DOE, commissioned a task force under its auspices to generate and compile ideas on how best to implement strategies that would help fulfill the needs of industry and other agencies, while maintaining focus on its core mission of fundamental science investigation.

  17. Commnity Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation: Advancing Computational Science for Future Accelerators and Accelerator Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Spentzouris, Panagiotis; Cary, John; Mcinnes, Lois Curfman; Mori, Warren; Ng, Cho; Ng, Esmond; Ryne, Robert; /LBL, Berkeley

    2008-07-01

    The design and performance optimization of particle accelerators is essential for the success of the DOE scientific program in the next decade. Particle accelerators are very complex systems whose accurate description involves a large number of degrees of freedom and requires the inclusion of many physics processes. Building on the success of the SciDAC1 Accelerator Science and Technology project, the SciDAC2 Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS) is developing a comprehensive set of interoperable components for beam dynamics, electromagnetics, electron cooling, and laser/plasma acceleration modeling. ComPASS is providing accelerator scientists the tools required to enable the necessary accelerator simulation paradigm shift from high-fidelity single physics process modeling (covered under SciDAC1) to high-fidelity multi-physics modeling. Our computational frameworks have been used to model the behavior of a large number of accelerators and accelerator R&D experiments, assisting both their design and performance optimization. As parallel computational applications, the ComPASS codes have been shown to make effective use of thousands of processors.

  18. Commnity Petascale Project for Accelerator Science And Simulation: Advancing Computational Science for Future Accelerators And Accelerator Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Spentzouris, Panagiotis; Cary, John; Mcinnes, Lois Curfman; Mori, Warren; Ng, Cho; Ng, Esmond; Ryne, Robert; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-10-21

    The design and performance optimization of particle accelerators are essential for the success of the DOE scientific program in the next decade. Particle accelerators are very complex systems whose accurate description involves a large number of degrees of freedom and requires the inclusion of many physics processes. Building on the success of the SciDAC-1 Accelerator Science and Technology project, the SciDAC-2 Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS) is developing a comprehensive set of interoperable components for beam dynamics, electromagnetics, electron cooling, and laser/plasma acceleration modelling. ComPASS is providing accelerator scientists the tools required to enable the necessary accelerator simulation paradigm shift from high-fidelity single physics process modeling (covered under SciDAC1) to high-fidelity multiphysics modeling. Our computational frameworks have been used to model the behavior of a large number of accelerators and accelerator R&D experiments, assisting both their design and performance optimization. As parallel computational applications, the ComPASS codes have been shown to make effective use of thousands of processors.

  19. Accelerators for Discovery Science and Security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, A. M. M.; Bluem, H. P.; Jarvis, J. D.; Park, J. H.; Rathke, J. W.; Schultheiss, T. J.

    2015-05-01

    Several Advanced Energy Systems (AES) accelerator projects that span applications in Discovery Science and Security are described. The design and performance of the IR and THz free electron laser (FEL) at the Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft in Berlin that is now an operating user facility for physical chemistry research in molecular and cluster spectroscopy as well as surface science, is highlighted. The device was designed to meet challenging specifications, including a final energy adjustable in the range of 15-50 MeV, low longitudinal emittance (<50 keV-psec) and transverse emittance (<20 π mm-mrad), at more than 200 pC bunch charge with a micropulse repetition rate of 1 GHz and a macropulse length of up to 15 μs. Secondly, we will describe an ongoing effort to develop an ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) source that is scheduled for completion in 2015 with prototype testing taking place at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). This tabletop X-band system will find application in time-resolved chemical imaging and as a resource for drug-cell interaction analysis. A third active area at AES is accelerators for security applications where we will cover some top-level aspects of THz and X-ray systems that are under development and in testing for stand-off and portal detection.

  20. Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation: Advancing Computational Science for Future Accelerators and Accelerator Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Spentzouris, P.; Cary, J.; McInnes, L.C.; Mori, W.; Ng, C.; Ng, E.; Ryne, R.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-11-14

    The design and performance optimization of particle accelerators are essential for the success of the DOE scientific program in the next decade. Particle accelerators are very complex systems whose accurate description involves a large number of degrees of freedom and requires the inclusion of many physics processes. Building on the success of the SciDAC-1 Accelerator Science and Technology project, the SciDAC-2 Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS) is developing a comprehensive set of interoperable components for beam dynamics, electromagnetics, electron cooling, and laser/plasma acceleration modelling. ComPASS is providing accelerator scientists the tools required to enable the necessary accelerator simulation paradigm shift from high-fidelity single physics process modeling (covered under SciDAC1) to high-fidelity multiphysics modeling. Our computational frameworks have been used to model the behavior of a large number of accelerators and accelerator R&D experiments, assisting both their design and performance optimization. As parallel computational applications, the ComPASS codes have been shown to make effective use of thousands of processors. ComPASS is in the first year of executing its plan to develop the next-generation HPC accelerator modeling tools. ComPASS aims to develop an integrated simulation environment that will utilize existing and new accelerator physics modules with petascale capabilities, by employing modern computing and solver technologies. The ComPASS vision is to deliver to accelerator scientists a virtual accelerator and virtual prototyping modeling environment, with the necessary multiphysics, multiscale capabilities. The plan for this development includes delivering accelerator modeling applications appropriate for each stage of the ComPASS software evolution. Such applications are already being used to address challenging problems in accelerator design and optimization. The ComPASS organization

  1. Ultrafast science using Laser Wakefield Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Alec G. R.

    2016-10-01

    Recent progress in laser wakefield acceleration has led to the emergence of a new generation of electron and X-ray sources that may have considerable benefits for ultrafast science. Laser wakefield acceleration provides radiation pulses that have femtosecond duration and intrinsic synchronisation with the laser source, allowing for pump-probe measurements with unprecedented temporal resolution. These pulses can be used to study ultrafast dynamical phenomena in plasma and dense material, such as transient magnetic fields, rapidly evolving plasma dynamics and crystal lattice oscillations. In this talk, I will review recent experiments in laser wakefield acceleration and energetic photon generation using the laser systems HERCULES and Lambda-Cubed at the University of Michigan and their use for capturing the dynamics of laser-pumped samples. Studies of the electron beam hosing instability and the generation of annular phase space distributions increase X-ray flux while maintaining its femtosecond duration. Single-shot, spectrally resolved absorption measurements in laser pumped foils can be made on ultrafast timescales using this broadband photon source. Ultrafast electron radiography is able to temporally resolve relativistically expanding magnetic fields in high-intensity laser-solid interactions and the evolution of electric fields in low density plasma. Time-resolved electron diffraction captures structural dynamics in crystalline silicon. I will also discuss the technological needs for and potential impact of such revolutionary compact radiation sources for ultrafast science in the future. US Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Award Number FA9550-12-1-0310, the US National Science Foundation Grants No. 1054164, 0935197, 1535628 and 0810979, US Department of Energy Grant No. DE-NA0002372 and Army Research Office Grant No. W911NF1.

  2. Science Highlight: Researchers Demonstrate 'Accelerator on a Chip'

    SciTech Connect

    2013-01-01

    In an advance that could dramatically shrink particle accelerators for science and medicine, researchers at DOE's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory used a laser to accelerate electrons at a rate 10 times higher than conventional technology in a nanostructured glass chip smaller than a grain of rice. This technique uses ultrafast lasers to drive the accelerator. (This achievement was reported in Nature, 27 Sept 2013)

  3. Accelerating Science Driven System Design With RAMP

    SciTech Connect

    Wawrzynek, John

    2015-05-01

    Researchers from UC Berkeley, in collaboration with the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, are engaged in developing an Infrastructure for Synthesis with Integrated Simulation (ISIS). The ISIS Project was a cooperative effort for “application-driven hardware design” that engages application scientists in the early parts of the hardware design process for future generation supercomputing systems. This project served to foster development of computing systems that are better tuned to the application requirements of demanding scientific applications and result in more cost-effective and efficient HPC system designs. In order to overcome long conventional design-cycle times, we leveraged reconfigurable devices to aid in the design of high-efficiency systems, including conventional multi- and many-core systems. The resulting system emulation/prototyping environment, in conjunction with the appropriate intermediate abstractions, provided both a convenient user programming experience and retained flexibility, and thus efficiency, of a reconfigurable platform. We initially targeted the Berkeley RAMP system (Research Accelerator for Multiple Processors) as that hardware emulation environment to facilitate and ultimately accelerate the iterative process of science-driven system design. Our goal was to develop and demonstrate a design methodology for domain-optimized computer system architectures. The tangible outcome is a methodology and tools for rapid prototyping and design-space exploration, leading to highly optimized and efficient HPC systems.

  4. International Symposium on Space Technology and Science, 17th, Tokyo, Japan, May 20-25, 1990, Proceedings. Vols. 1 & 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriki, Kyoichi

    Various papers on space technology and science are presented. The general topics addressed include: national space programs; propulsion; materials and structure, flight dynamics and astrodynamics; fluid dynamics; thermal environment and thermochemistry; electronic components and devices; computer and data systems; guidance, navigation, and control; robotics; systems engineering. Also discussed are: space transportation systems; spacecraft systems; space station and manned flight; balloons; satellite communications and broadcasting; lunar and planetary exploration; space science; earth observations; space medicine; space biology; microgravity; space industrialization; space law and international cooperation.

  5. The Influence of Accelerator Science on Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haussecker, Enzo F.; Chao, Alexander W.

    2011-06-01

    We evaluate accelerator science in the context of its contributions to the physics community. We address the problem of quantifying these contributions and present a scheme for a numerical evaluation of them. We show by using a statistical sample of important developments in modern physics that accelerator science has influenced 28% of post-1938 physicists and also 28% of post-1938 physics research. We also examine how the influence of accelerator science has evolved over time, and show that on average it has contributed to a physics Nobel Prize-winning research every 2.9 years.

  6. Berkeley Lab Computing Sciences: Accelerating Scientific Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, John A

    2008-12-12

    Scientists today rely on advances in computer science, mathematics, and computational science, as well as large-scale computing and networking facilities, to increase our understanding of ourselves, our planet, and our universe. Berkeley Lab's Computing Sciences organization researches, develops, and deploys new tools and technologies to meet these needs and to advance research in such areas as global climate change, combustion, fusion energy, nanotechnology, biology, and astrophysics.

  7. Accelerator Science: Collider vs. Fixed Target

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-09-07

    Particle physics experiments employ high energy particle accelerators to make their measurements. However there are many kinds of particle accelerators with many interesting techniques. One important dichotomy is whether one takes a particle beam and have it hit a stationary target of atoms, or whether one takes two counter rotating beams of particles and smashes them together head on. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the pros and cons of these two powerful methods of exploring the rules of the universe.

  8. Accelerator Science: Collider vs. Fixed Target

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-09-21

    Particle physics experiments employ high energy particle accelerators to make their measurements. However there are many kinds of particle accelerators with many interesting techniques. One important dichotomy is whether one takes a particle beam and have it hit a stationary target of atoms, or whether one takes two counter rotating beams of particles and smashes them together head on. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the pros and cons of these two powerful methods of exploring the rules of the universe.

  9. The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator at Fermilab: Science Program

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, Philippe; Harms, Elvin; Henderson, Stuart; Leibfritz, Jerry; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Shiltsev, Vladimir; Valishev, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) currently in commissioning phase at Fermilab is foreseen to support a broad range of beam-based experiments to study fundamental limitations to beam intensity and to develop novel approaches to particle-beam generation, acceleration and manipulation. ASTA incorporates a superconducting radiofrequency (SCRF) linac coupled to a flexible high-brightness photoinjector. The facility also includes a small-circumference storage ring capable of storing electrons or protons. This report summarizes the facility capabilities, and provide an overview of the accelerator-science researches to be enabled.

  10. Accelerator science and technology in Europe 2008-2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    European Framework Research Projects have recently added a lot of meaning to the building process of the ERA - the European Research Area. Inside this, the accelerator technology plays an essential role. Accelerator technology includes large infrastructure and intelligent, modern instrumentation embracing mechatronics, electronics, photonics and ICT. During the realization of the European research and infrastructure project FP6 CARE 2004-2008 (Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe), concerning the development of large accelerator infrastructure in Europe, it was decided that a scientific editorial series of peer-reviewed monographs from this research area will be published in close relation with the projects. It was a completely new and quite brave idea to combine a kind of a strictly research publisher with a transient project, lasting only four or five years. Till then nobody did something like that. The idea turned out to be a real success. The publications now known and valued in the accelerator world, as the (CERN-WUT) Editorial Series on Accelerator Science and Technology, is successfully continued in already the third European project EuCARD2 and has logistic guarantees, for the moment, till the 2017, when it will mature to its first decade. During the realization of the European projects EuCARD (European Coordination for Accelerator R&D 2009-2013 and TIARA (Test Infrastructure of Accelerator Research Area in Europe) there were published 18 volumes in this series. The ambitious plans for the nearest years is to publish, hopefully, a few tens of new volumes. Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. The paper presents a digest of the research results in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, published in the monographs of the European Framework Projects (FP) on accelerator technology. The succession of CARE, Eu

  11. Accelerator science and technology in Europe: EuCARD 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2012-05-01

    Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. The paper presents a digest of the research results in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, shown during the third annual meeting of the EuCARD - European Coordination of Accelerator Research and Development. The conference concerns building of the research infrastructure, including in this advanced photonic and electronic systems for servicing large high energy physics experiments. There are debated a few basic groups of such systems like: measurement - control networks of large geometrical extent, multichannel systems for large amounts of metrological data acquisition, precision photonic networks of reference time, frequency and phase distribution.

  12. Advances in Parallel Electromagnetic Codes for Accelerator Science and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Kwok; Candel, Arno; Ge, Lixin; Kabel, Andreas; Lee, Rich; Li, Zenghai; Ng, Cho; Rawat, Vineet; Schussman, Greg; Xiao, Liling; /SLAC

    2011-02-07

    Over a decade of concerted effort in code development for accelerator applications has resulted in a new set of electromagnetic codes which are based on higher-order finite elements for superior geometry fidelity and better solution accuracy. SLAC's ACE3P code suite is designed to harness the power of massively parallel computers to tackle large complex problems with the increased memory and solve them at greater speed. The US DOE supports the computational science R&D under the SciDAC project to improve the scalability of ACE3P, and provides the high performance computing resources needed for the applications. This paper summarizes the advances in the ACE3P set of codes, explains the capabilities of the modules, and presents results from selected applications covering a range of problems in accelerator science and development important to the Office of Science.

  13. Extraordinary tools for extraordinary science: the impact of SciDAC on accelerator science and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryne, Robert D.

    2006-09-01

    Particle accelerators are among the most complex and versatile instruments of scientific exploration. They have enabled remarkable scientific discoveries and important technological advances that span all programs within the DOE Office of Science (DOE/SC). The importance of accelerators to the DOE/SC mission is evident from an examination of the DOE document, ''Facilities for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook.'' Of the 28 facilities listed, 13 involve accelerators. Thanks to SciDAC, a powerful suite of parallel simulation tools has been developed that represent a paradigm shift in computational accelerator science. Simulations that used to take weeks or more now take hours, and simulations that were once thought impossible are now performed routinely. These codes have been applied to many important projects of DOE/SC including existing facilities (the Tevatron complex, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider), facilities under construction (the Large Hadron Collider, the Spallation Neutron Source, the Linac Coherent Light Source), and to future facilities (the International Linear Collider, the Rare Isotope Accelerator). The new codes have also been used to explore innovative approaches to charged particle acceleration. These approaches, based on the extremely intense fields that can be present in lasers and plasmas, may one day provide a path to the outermost reaches of the energy frontier. Furthermore, they could lead to compact, high-gradient accelerators that would have huge consequences for US science and technology, industry, and medicine. In this talk I will describe the new accelerator modeling capabilities developed under SciDAC, the essential role of multi-disciplinary collaboration with applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and other IT experts in developing these capabilities, and provide examples of how the codes have been used to support DOE/SC accelerator projects.

  14. Extraordinary Tools for Extraordinary Science: The Impact ofSciDAC on Accelerator Science&Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, Robert D.

    2006-08-10

    Particle accelerators are among the most complex and versatile instruments of scientific exploration. They have enabled remarkable scientific discoveries and important technological advances that span all programs within the DOE Office of Science (DOE/SC). The importance of accelerators to the DOE/SC mission is evident from an examination of the DOE document, ''Facilities for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook''. Of the 28 facilities listed, 13 involve accelerators. Thanks to SciDAC, a powerful suite of parallel simulation tools has been developed that represent a paradigm shift in computational accelerator science. Simulations that used to take weeks or more now take hours, and simulations that were once thought impossible are now performed routinely. These codes have been applied to many important projects of DOE/SC including existing facilities (the Tevatron complex, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider), facilities under construction (the Large Hadron Collider, the Spallation Neutron Source, the Linac Coherent Light Source), and to future facilities (the International Linear Collider, the Rare Isotope Accelerator). The new codes have also been used to explore innovative approaches to charged particle acceleration. These approaches, based on the extremely intense fields that can be present in lasers and plasmas, may one day provide a path to the outermost reaches of the energy frontier. Furthermore, they could lead to compact, high-gradient accelerators that would have huge consequences for US science and technology, industry, and medicine. In this talk I will describe the new accelerator modeling capabilities developed under SciDAC, the essential role of multi-disciplinary collaboration with applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and other IT experts in developing these capabilities, and provide examples of how the codes have been used to support DOE/SC accelerator projects.

  15. Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Warren B. Mori

    2013-02-01

    The UCLA Plasma Simulation Group is a major partner of the "Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation. This is the final technical report. We include an overall summary, a list of publications and individual progress reports for each years. During the past five years we have made tremendous progress in enhancing the capabilities of OSIRIS and QuickPIC, in developing new algorithms and data structures for PIC codes to run on GPUS and many future core architectures, and in using these codes to model experiments and in making new scientific discoveries. Here we summarize some highlights for which SciDAC was a major contributor.

  16. Accelerators: Sparking Innovation and Transdisciplinary Team Science in Disparities Research.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Carol R; Shameer, Khader; Gabrilove, Janice; Atreja, Ashish; Shepard, Peggy; Goytia, Crispin N; Smith, Geoffrey W; Dudley, Joel; Manning, Rachel; Bickell, Nina A; Galvez, Maida P

    2017-02-23

    Development and implementation of effective, sustainable, and scalable interventions that advance equity could be propelled by innovative and inclusive partnerships. Readied catalytic frameworks that foster communication, collaboration, a shared vision, and transformative translational research across scientific and non-scientific divides are needed to foster rapid generation of novel solutions to address and ultimately eliminate disparities. To achieve this, we transformed and expanded a community-academic board into a translational science board with members from public, academic and private sectors. Rooted in team science, diverse board experts formed topic-specific "accelerators", tasked with collaborating to rapidly generate new ideas, questions, approaches, and projects comprising patients, advocates, clinicians, researchers, funders, public health and industry leaders. We began with four accelerators-digital health, big data, genomics and environmental health-and were rapidly able to respond to funding opportunities, transform new ideas into clinical and community programs, generate new, accessible, actionable data, and more efficiently and effectively conduct research. This innovative model has the power to maximize research quality and efficiency, improve patient care and engagement, optimize data democratization and dissemination among target populations, contribute to policy, and lead to systems changes needed to address the root causes of disparities.

  17. Implementation Science to Accelerate Clean Cooking for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Joshua; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Bruce, Nigel; Chambers, David; Graham, Jay; Jack, Darby; Kline, Lydia; Masera, Omar; Mehta, Sumi; Mercado, Ilse Ruiz; Neta, Gila; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Puzzolo, Elisa; Petach, Helen; Punturieri, Antonello; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Sage, Michael; Sturke, Rachel; Shankar, Anita; Sherr, Kenny; Smith, Kirk; Yadama, Gautam

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Clean cooking has emerged as a major concern for global health and development because of the enormous burden of disease caused by traditional cookstoves and fires. The World Health Organization has developed new indoor air quality guidelines that few homes will be able to achieve without replacing traditional methods with modern clean cooking technologies, including fuels and stoves. However, decades of experience with improved stove programs indicate that the challenge of modernizing cooking in impoverished communities includes a complex, multi-sectoral set of problems that require implementation research. The National Institutes of Health, in partnership with several government agencies and the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, has launched the Clean Cooking Implementation Science Network that aims to address this issue. In this article, our focus is on building a knowledge base to accelerate scale-up and sustained use of the cleanest technologies in low- and middle-income countries. Implementation science provides a variety of analytical and planning tools to enhance effectiveness of clinical and public health interventions. These tools are being integrated with a growing body of knowledge and new research projects to yield new methods, consensus tools, and an evidence base to accelerate improvements in health promised by the renewed agenda of clean cooking. PMID:28055947

  18. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  19. Accelerating Translational Research through Open Science: The Neuro Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Gold, E. Richard

    2016-01-01

    Translational research is often afflicted by a fundamental problem: a limited understanding of disease mechanisms prevents effective targeting of new treatments. Seeking to accelerate research advances and reimagine its role in the community, the Montreal Neurological Institute (Neuro) announced in the spring of 2016 that it is launching a five-year experiment during which it will adopt Open Science—open data, open materials, and no patenting—across the institution. The experiment seeks to examine two hypotheses. The first is whether the Neuro’s Open Science initiative will attract new private partners. The second hypothesis is that the Neuro’s institution-based approach will draw companies to the Montreal region, where the Neuro is based, leading to the creation of a local knowledge hub. This article explores why these hypotheses are likely to be true and describes the Neuro’s approach to exploring them. PMID:27932848

  20. Plasma Wakefield Acceleration and FACET - Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test Beams at SLAC

    ScienceCinema

    Andrei Seryi

    2016-07-12

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is one of the most promising approaches to advancing accelerator technology. This approach offers a potential 1,000-fold or more increase in acceleration over a given distance, compared to existing accelerators.  FACET, enabled by the Recovery Act funds, will study plasma acceleration, using short, intense pulses of electrons and positrons. In this lecture, the physics of plasma acceleration and features of FACET will be presented.  

  1. ASP2012: Fundamental Physics and Accelerator Sciences in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darve, Christine

    2012-02-01

    Much remains to be done to improve education and scientific research in Africa. Supported by the international scientific community, our initiative has been to contribute to fostering science in sub-Saharan Africa by establishing a biennial school on fundamental subatomic physics and its applications. The school is based on a close interplay between theoretical, experimental, and applied physics. The lectures are addressed to students or young researchers with at least a background of 4 years of university formation. The aim of the school is to develop capacity, interpret, and capitalize on the results of current and future physics experiments with particle accelerators; thereby spreading education for innovation in related applications and technologies, such as medicine and information science. Following the worldwide success of the first school edition, which gathered 65 students for 3-week in Stellenbosch (South Africa) in August 2010, the second edition will be hosted in Ghana from July 15 to August 4, 2012. The school is a non-profit organization, which provides partial or full financial support to 50 of the selected students, with priority to Sub-Saharan African students.

  2. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    This study is conducted as part of the research subject "Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Water Hazard Assessed Using Regional Climate Scenarios in the Tokyo Region' (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention; PI: Koji Dairaku) of Research Program on Climate Change Adaptation (RECCA) and was supported by the SOUSEI Program, funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Government of Japan

  3. Microgravity acceleration measurement and environment characterization science (17-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) is a general purpose instrumentation system designed to measure the accelerations onboard the Shuttle Orbiter and Shuttle/Spacelab vehicles. These measurements are used to support microgravity experiments and investigation into the microgravity environment of the vehicle. Acceleration measurements can be made at locations remote from the SAMS main instrumentation unit by the use of up to three remote triaxial sensor heads. The prime objective for SAMS on the International Microgravity Lab (IML-1) mission will be to measure the accelerations experienced by the Fluid Experiment System (FES). The SAMS acceleration measurements for FES will be complemented by low level, low frequency acceleration measurements made by the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) installed on the shuttle. Secondary objectives for SAMS will be to measure accelerations at several specific locations to enable the acceleration transfer function of the Spacelab module to be analyzed. This analysis effort will be in conjunction with similar measurements analyses on other Spacelab missions.

  4. Accelerating and democratizing science through cloud-based services.

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.

    2011-05-01

    Many businesses today save time and money, and increase their agility, by outsourcing mundane IT tasks to cloud providers. The author argues that similar methods can be used to overcome the complexities inherent in increasingly data-intensive, computational, and collaborative scientific research. He describes Globus Online, a system that he and his colleagues are developing to realize this vision. he scientific community today has unprecedented opportunities to effect transformational change in how individuals and teams engage in discovery. The driving force is a set of interrelated new capabilities that, when harnessed, can enable dramatic acceleration in the discovery process: greater availability of massive data, exponentially faster computers, ultra-high-speed networks, and deep interdisciplinary collaboration. The opportunity - and challenge - is to make these capabilities accessible not just to a few 'big science' projects but to every researcher at every level. Here, I argue that the key to seizing this opportunity is embracing software delivery methods that haven't been widely adopted in research, notably software as a service (SaaS) - a technology that forms an important part of what people refer to as the cloud. I also describe projects in the Computation Institute at the University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory that aim to realize this vision, focusing initially on data movement and management.

  5. Computational Materials Science and Chemistry: Accelerating Discovery and Innovation through Simulation-Based Engineering and Science

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, George; Glotzer, Sharon; McCurdy, Bill; Roberto, Jim

    2010-07-26

    This report is based on a SC Workshop on Computational Materials Science and Chemistry for Innovation on July 26-27, 2010, to assess the potential of state-of-the-art computer simulations to accelerate understanding and discovery in materials science and chemistry, with a focus on potential impacts in energy technologies and innovation. The urgent demand for new energy technologies has greatly exceeded the capabilities of today's materials and chemical processes. To convert sunlight to fuel, efficiently store energy, or enable a new generation of energy production and utilization technologies requires the development of new materials and processes of unprecedented functionality and performance. New materials and processes are critical pacing elements for progress in advanced energy systems and virtually all industrial technologies. Over the past two decades, the United States has developed and deployed the world's most powerful collection of tools for the synthesis, processing, characterization, and simulation and modeling of materials and chemical systems at the nanoscale, dimensions of a few atoms to a few hundred atoms across. These tools, which include world-leading x-ray and neutron sources, nanoscale science facilities, and high-performance computers, provide an unprecedented view of the atomic-scale structure and dynamics of materials and the molecular-scale basis of chemical processes. For the first time in history, we are able to synthesize, characterize, and model materials and chemical behavior at the length scale where this behavior is controlled. This ability is transformational for the discovery process and, as a result, confers a significant competitive advantage. Perhaps the most spectacular increase in capability has been demonstrated in high performance computing. Over the past decade, computational power has increased by a factor of a million due to advances in hardware and software. This rate of improvement, which shows no sign of abating, has

  6. Big Machines and Big Science: 80 Years of Accelerators at Stanford

    SciTech Connect

    Loew, Gregory

    2008-12-16

    Longtime SLAC physicist Greg Loew will present a trip through SLAC's origins, highlighting its scientific achievements, and provide a glimpse of the lab's future in 'Big Machines and Big Science: 80 Years of Accelerators at Stanford.'

  7. Can Low-Cost Support Programmes with Coaching Accelerate Doctoral Completion in Health Science Faculty Academics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geber, Hilary; Bentley, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Career development for full-time Health Sciences academics through to doctoral studies is a monumental task. Many academics have difficulty completing their studies in the minimum time as well as publishing after obtaining their degree. As this problem is particularly acute in the Health Sciences, the PhD Acceleration Programme in Health Sciences…

  8. Science opportunities at high power accelerators like APT

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents applications of high power RF proton linear accelerators to several fields. Radioisotope production is an area in which linacs have already provided new isotopes for use in medical and industrial applications. A new type of spallation neutron source, called a long-pulse spallation source (LPSS), is discussed for application to neutron scattering and to the production and use of ultra-cold neutrons (UCN). The concept of an accelerator-driven, transmutation of nuclear waste system, based on high power RF linac technology, is presented along with its impact on spent nuclear fuels.

  9. Rare isotope accelerator project in Korea and its application to high energy density sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, M.; Chung, Y. S.; Kim, S. K.; Lee, B. J.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.

    2014-01-01

    As a national science project, the Korean government has recently established the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) with the goal of conducting world-class research in basic sciences. One of the core facilities for the IBS will be the rare isotope accelerator which can produce high-intensity rare isotope beams to investigate the fundamental properties of nature, and also to support a broad research program in material sciences, medical and biosciences, and future nuclear energy technologies. The construction of the accelerator is scheduled to be completed by approximately 2017. The design of the accelerator complex is optimized to deliver high average beam current on targets, and to maximize the production of rare isotope beams through the simultaneous use of Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) and In-Flight Fragmentation (IFF) methods. The proposed accelerator is, however, not optimal for high energy density science, which usually requires very high peak currents on the target. In this study, we present possible beam-plasma experiments that can be done within the scope of the current accelerator design, and we also investigate possible future extension paths that may enable high energy density science with intense pulsed heavy ion beams.

  10. High Performance Computing Modeling Advances Accelerator Science for High-Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Amundson, James; Macridin, Alexandru; Spentzouris, Panagiotis

    2014-07-28

    The development and optimization of particle accelerators are essential for advancing our understanding of the properties of matter, energy, space, and time. Particle accelerators are complex devices whose behavior involves many physical effects on multiple scales. Therefore, advanced computational tools utilizing high-performance computing are essential for accurately modeling them. In the past decade, the US Department of Energy's SciDAC program has produced accelerator-modeling tools that have been employed to tackle some of the most difficult accelerator science problems. The authors discuss the Synergia framework and its applications to high-intensity particle accelerator physics. Synergia is an accelerator simulation package capable of handling the entire spectrum of beam dynamics simulations. Our authors present Synergia's design principles and its performance on HPC platforms.

  11. High Performance Computing Modeling Advances Accelerator Science for High-Energy Physics

    DOE PAGES

    Amundson, James; Macridin, Alexandru; Spentzouris, Panagiotis

    2014-07-28

    The development and optimization of particle accelerators are essential for advancing our understanding of the properties of matter, energy, space, and time. Particle accelerators are complex devices whose behavior involves many physical effects on multiple scales. Therefore, advanced computational tools utilizing high-performance computing are essential for accurately modeling them. In the past decade, the US Department of Energy's SciDAC program has produced accelerator-modeling tools that have been employed to tackle some of the most difficult accelerator science problems. The authors discuss the Synergia framework and its applications to high-intensity particle accelerator physics. Synergia is an accelerator simulation package capable ofmore » handling the entire spectrum of beam dynamics simulations. Our authors present Synergia's design principles and its performance on HPC platforms.« less

  12. ISEES: an institute for sustainable software to accelerate environmental science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. B.; Schildhauer, M.; Fox, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    Software is essential to the full science lifecycle, spanning data acquisition, processing, quality assessment, data integration, analysis, modeling, and visualization. Software runs our meteorological sensor systems, our data loggers, and our ocean gliders. Every aspect of science is impacted by, and improved by, software. Scientific advances ranging from modeling climate change to the sequencing of the human genome have been rendered possible in the last few decades due to the massive improvements in the capabilities of computers to process data through software. This pivotal role of software in science is broadly acknowledged, while simultaneously being systematically undervalued through minimal investments in maintenance and innovation. As a community, we need to embrace the creation, use, and maintenance of software within science, and address problems such as code complexity, openness,reproducibility, and accessibility. We also need to fully develop new skills and practices in software engineering as a core competency in our earth science disciplines, starting with undergraduate and graduate education and extending into university and agency professional positions. The Institute for Sustainable Earth and Environmental Software (ISEES) is being envisioned as a community-driven activity that can facilitate and galvanize activites around scientific software in an analogous way to synthesis centers such as NCEAS and NESCent that have stimulated massive advances in ecology and evolution. We will describe the results of six workshops (Science Drivers, Software Lifecycles, Software Components, Workforce Development and Training, Sustainability and Governance, and Community Engagement) that have been held in 2013 to envision such an institute. We will present community recommendations from these workshops and our strategic vision for how ISEES will address the technical issues in the software lifecycle, sustainability of the whole software ecosystem, and the critical

  13. Particle Accelerator Applications: Ion and Electron Irradiation in Materials Science, Biology and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Luis

    2010-09-01

    Although the developments of particle accelerators are devoted to basic study of matter constituents, since the beginning these machines have been applied with different purposes in many areas also. Today particle accelerators are essential instruments for science and technology. This work presents an overview of the main application for direct particle irradiation with accelerator in material science, biology and medicine. They are used for material synthesis by ion implantation and charged particle irradiation; to make coatings and micromachining; to characterize broad kind of samples by ion beam analysis techniques; as mass spectrometers for atomic isotopes determination. In biomedicine the accelerators are applied for the study of effects by charged particles on cells. In medicine the radiotherapy by electron irradiation is widely used, while hadrontherapy is still under development. Also, they are necessary for short life radioisotopes production required in radiodiagnostic.

  14. Particle Accelerator Applications: Ion and Electron Irradiation in Materials Science, Biology and Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Luis

    2010-09-10

    Although the developments of particle accelerators are devoted to basic study of matter constituents, since the beginning these machines have been applied with different purposes in many areas also. Today particle accelerators are essential instruments for science and technology. This work presents an overview of the main application for direct particle irradiation with accelerator in material science, biology and medicine. They are used for material synthesis by ion implantation and charged particle irradiation; to make coatings and micromachining; to characterize broad kind of samples by ion beam analysis techniques; as mass spectrometers for atomic isotopes determination. In biomedicine the accelerators are applied for the study of effects by charged particles on cells. In medicine the radiotherapy by electron irradiation is widely used, while hadrontherapy is still under development. Also, they are necessary for short life radioisotopes production required in radiodiagnostic.

  15. Impact of SciDAC on accelerator projects across the office of science through electromagnetic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, K.; Folwell, N.; Ge, L.; Guetz, A.; Ivanov, V.; Kabel, A.; Kowalski, M.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Ng, C.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.; Xiao, L.; Collaborators, ISICs/SAPP

    2005-01-01

    Electromagnetic Modelling led by SLAC is a principal component of the "Advanced Computing for 21st Century Accelerator Science and Technology" SciDAC project funded through the Office of High Energy Physics. This large team effort comprises three other national laboratories (LBNL, LLNL, SNL) and six universities (CMU, Columbia, RPI, Stanford, UC Davis and U of Wisconsin) with the goal to develop a set of parallel electromagnetic codes based on unstructured grids to target challenging problems in accelerators, and solve them to unprecedented realism and accuracy. Essential to the code development are the collaborations with the ISICs/SAPP in eigensolvers, meshing, adaptive refinement, shape optimization and visualization (see "Achievements in ISICs/SAPP Collaborations for Electromagnetic Modelling of Accelerators"). Supported by these advances in computational science, we have successfully performed the large-scale simulations that have impacted important accelerator projects across the Office of Science (SC) including the Positron Electron Project (PEP) -II, Next Linear Collider (NLC) and the International Linear Collider (ILC) in High Energy Physics (HEP), the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) in Nuclear Physics (NP) and the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) in Basic Energy Science (BES).

  16. Beam Position Monitor and Energy Analysis at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, David Juarez

    2015-08-01

    Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility has produced its first beam with an energy of 20 MeV. This energy is obtained by the acceleration at the Electron Gun and the Capture Cavity 2 (CC2). When fully completed, the accelerator will consist of a photoinjector, one International Liner Collider (ILC)-type cryomodule, multiple accelerator R&D beamlines, and a downstream beamline to inject 300 MeV electrons into the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA). We calculated the total energy of the beam and the corresponding energy to the Electron Gun and CC2. Subsequently, a Beam Position Monitors (BPM) error analysis was done, to calculate the device actual resolution.

  17. Accelerators: Sparking Innovation and Transdisciplinary Team Science in Disparities Research

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Carol R.; Shameer, Khader; Gabrilove, Janice; Atreja, Ashish; Shepard, Peggy; Goytia, Crispin N.; Smith, Geoffrey W.; Dudley, Joel; Manning, Rachel; Bickell, Nina A.; Galvez, Maida P.

    2017-01-01

    Development and implementation of effective, sustainable, and scalable interventions that advance equity could be propelled by innovative and inclusive partnerships. Readied catalytic frameworks that foster communication, collaboration, a shared vision, and transformative translational research across scientific and non-scientific divides are needed to foster rapid generation of novel solutions to address and ultimately eliminate disparities. To achieve this, we transformed and expanded a community-academic board into a translational science board with members from public, academic and private sectors. Rooted in team science, diverse board experts formed topic-specific “accelerators”, tasked with collaborating to rapidly generate new ideas, questions, approaches, and projects comprising patients, advocates, clinicians, researchers, funders, public health and industry leaders. We began with four accelerators—digital health, big data, genomics and environmental health—and were rapidly able to respond to funding opportunities, transform new ideas into clinical and community programs, generate new, accessible, actionable data, and more efficiently and effectively conduct research. This innovative model has the power to maximize research quality and efficiency, improve patient care and engagement, optimize data democratization and dissemination among target populations, contribute to policy, and lead to systems changes needed to address the root causes of disparities. PMID:28241508

  18. Accelerating Science Impact through Big Data Workflow Management and Supercomputing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Ryabinkin, E.; Wenaus, T.

    2016-02-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the the history of science, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. To manage the workflow for all data processing on hundreds of data centers the PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis)Workload Management System is used. An ambitious program to expand PanDA to all available computing resources, including opportunistic use of commercial and academic clouds and Leadership Computing Facilities (LCF), is realizing within BigPanDA and megaPanDA projects. These projects are now exploring how PanDA might be used for managing computing jobs that run on supercomputers including OLCF's Titan and NRC-KI HPC2. The main idea is to reuse, as much as possible, existing components of the PanDA system that are already deployed on the LHC Grid for analysis of physics data. The next generation of PanDA will allow many data-intensive sciences employing a variety of computing platforms to benefit from ATLAS experience and proven tools in highly scalable processing.

  19. Mathematics and science acceleration in grade eight: School leaders' perceptions and satisfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Kenneth

    Shifts in attitudes regarding academic program accessibility to provide the most rigorous academic opportunities to all students will not occur smoothly without departmental level leaders who believe in the potential benefits of accelerating larger numbers of students. Without the support and the belief of the department level leadership, practices such as open enrollment and universal acceleration that target school equity will be doomed to failure. This study was conducted using a questionnaire developed by the researcher called the Perceptions of Acceleration and Leadership Survey. The survey was distributed to all math and science department leaders within a suburban region of New York. The survey sought to determine how the perceptions of acceleration, job satisfaction, self-efficacy, and role longevity for the department level leaders are impacted by their personal demographics, professional characteristics, and community characteristics. The study did not reveal any statistically significant differences among department level leaders' personal, professional, and community characteristics with respect to perceptions of acceleration. There were significant differences for job satisfaction, self-efficacy, and role longevity for several intervening and independent variables within the study. Statistically significant correlations were found between beliefs in college preparation and perceptions of acceleration as well as relationships with the community and perceptions of acceleration. The results indicate the importance of hiring department leaders who recognize the potential for accelerating more students, hiring more ethnically diverse candidates for these leadership positions, affording department level leaders with significant professional development, and evaluation of administrative structures to maximize student success.

  20. Accelerating development of a predictive science of climate.

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, John B; Jones, Phil

    2007-01-01

    Climate change and studies of its implications are front page news. Could the heat waves of July 2006 in Europe and the US be caused by global warming? Are increased incidences of strong tropical storms and hurricanes like Katrina to be expected? Will coastal cities be flooded due to sea level rise? The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) which archives all weather data for the nation reports that global surface temperatures have increased at a rate near 0.6 C over the last century but that the trend is three times larger since 1976 [Easterling, 2006]. Will this rate continue or will climate change be even more abrupt? Stepping back from the flurry of questions, scientists must take a systematic approach and develop a predictive framework. With responsibility for advising on energy and technology strategies, the Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research has chosen to bolster the science of climate in order to get the story straight on the factors that cause climate change and the role of carbon loading from fossil fuel use.

  1. New science-based endpoints to accelerate oncology drug development.

    PubMed

    Kelloff, Gary J; Sigman, Caroline C

    2005-03-01

    Although several new oncology drugs have reached the market, more than 80% of drugs for all indications entering clinical development do not get marketing approval, with many failing late in development often in Phase III trials, because of unexpected safety issues or difficulty determining efficacy, including confounded outcomes. These factors contribute to the high costs of oncology drug development and clearly show the need for faster, more cost-effective strategies for evaluating oncology drugs and better definition of patients who will benefit from treatment. Remarkable advances in the understanding of neoplastic progression at the cellular and molecular levels have spurred the discovery of molecularly targeted drugs. This progress along with advances in imaging and bioassay technologies are the basis for describing and evaluating new biomarker endpoints as well as for defining other biomarkers for identifying patient populations, potential toxicity, and providing evidence of drug effect and efficacy. Definitions and classifications of these biomarkers for use in oncology drug development are presented in this paper. Science-based and practical criteria for validating biomarkers have been developed including considerations of mechanistic plausibility, available methods and technology, and clinical feasibility. New promising tools for measuring biomarkers have also been developed and are based on genomics and proteomics, direct visualisation by microscopy (e.g., confocal microscopy and computer-assisted image analysis of cellular features), nanotechnologies, and direct and remote imaging (e.g., fluorescence endoscopy and anatomical, functional and molecular imaging techniques). The identification and evaluation of potential surrogate endpoints and other biomarkers require access to and analysis of large amounts of data, new technologies and extensive research resources. Further, there is a requirement for a convergence of research, regulatory and drug developer

  2. Little Tokyo: Yet Another Chapter of Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuman, Dwight

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the history and current status of the long-time Southern California community base of Japanese Americans, Los Angeles' Little Tokyo district. Focuses on the role that Los Angeles' urban renewal agency, the Community Redevelopment Agency, has played in that community. (Author/JM)

  3. TOPICAL REVIEW: The science and technology of superconducting cavities for accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padamsee, Hasan

    2001-04-01

    Rapid advances in the performance of superconducting cavities have made RF superconductivity a key technology for accelerators that fulfil a variety of physics needs: high-energy particle physics, nuclear physics, neutron spallation sources and free-electron lasers. New applications are forthcoming for frontier high-energy physics accelerators, radioactive beams for nuclear astrophysics, next-generation light sources, intense proton accelerators for neutron and muon sources. There are now nearly one kilometre of superconducting cavities installed in accelerators around the world, providing more than 5 GV of acceleration. The most recent installation of 20 m for a free-electron laser realized an average gradient a factor of four higher than existing applications. Improved understanding of the physics of RF superconductivity, together with advances in technology, are responsible for the spectacular increases in performance. RF superconductivity is a mature science going well beyond technological know-how and trial-and-error approaches to genuine understanding of the underlying physics. Research continues to push performance levels towards the theoretical limit, which is another factor of two higher than the levels yet achieved.

  4. Grid Operation at Tokyo Tier-2 Centre for ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Isobe, Tadaaki; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Ueda, Ikuo

    International Centre for Elementary Particle Physics, the University of Tokyo, has been involved in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid since 2003. After extensive R&D experience of the PC computing farm, disk and tape storage systems, network technology and the integration of these components, it is now operating a regional centre for the ATLAS data analysis. The regional centre includes an ATLAS Tier-2 site which is running the gLite middleware developed by the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) project. One of the biggest challenges at the regional centre is efficient data transfer between the Tier-2 site in Tokyo and other sites, in particular the associated Tier-1 site in France, because the large round trip time due to the long distance makes it difficult to transfer data at a high rate. We have been studying to achieve a good performance of the data transfer, and some results of network tests and ATLAS data transfer are described. Hardware and software components and the operational experience are also reported in this article.

  5. Accelerated Integrated Science Sequence: Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Science for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulsh, Lisa S.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous reports cite the need to improve the quality of undergraduate STEM education in order to attract and train a diverse pool of talented students prepared to meet the scientific and technological challenges of the 21st century. A growing body of research reveals that the nature and quality of science instruction in introductory college…

  6. Requirements and Development of an Acceleration Measurement System for International Space Station Microgravity Science Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    The International Space Station is being developed by NASA and international partners as a versatile user platform to allow long term on-orbit investigations of a variety of scientific and technology arenas. In particular, scientific studies are planned within a research class known as microgravity science in areas such as biotechnology, combustion, fluid physics, and materials sciences. An acceleration measurement system is in development to aid such research conducted in the on-orbit conditions of apparent weightlessness. This system provides a general purpose acceleration measurement capability in support of these payloads and investigators. Such capability allows for systematic study of scientific phenomena by obtaining information regarding the local accelerations present during experiment operations. Preparations for implementing this flight measurement system involves two distinct stages: requirements development prior to initiating the design activity, and the design activity itself. This paper defines the requirements definition approach taken, provides an overview of the results of the requirements phase, and outlines the initial design considerations being addressed for this measurement system. Some preliminary engineering approaches are also described.

  7. The Machine Protection System for the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jinyuan; Warner, Arden; Liu, Ning; Neswold, Richard; Carmichael, Linden

    2015-11-15

    The Machine Protection System (MPS) for the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility (FAST) has been implemented and tested. The system receives signals from several subsystems and devices which conveys the relevant status needed to the safely operate the accelerator. Logic decisions are made based on these inputs and some predefined user settings which in turn controls the gate signal to the laser of the photo injector. The inputs of the system have a wide variety of signal types, encoding methods and urgencies for which the system is designed to accommodate. The MPS receives fast shutdown (FSD) signals generated by the beam loss system and inhibits the beam or reduces the beam intensity within a macropulse when the beam losses at several places along the accelerator beam line are higher than acceptable values. TTL or relay contact signals from the vacuum system, toroids, magnet systems etc., are chosen with polarities that ensure safe operation of the accelerator from unintended events such as cable disconnection in the harsh industrial environment of the experimental hall. A RS422 serial communication scheme is used to interface the operation permit generator module and a large number of movable devices each reporting multi-bit status. The system also supports operations at user defined lower beam levels for system conunissioning. The machine protection system is implemented with two commercially available off-the-shelf VMEbus based modules with on board FPGA devices. The system is monitored and controlled via the VMEbus by a single board CPU

  8. Variations of 129I in the atmospheric fallout of Tokyo, Japan: 1963-2003.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Chiaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Uchida, Yuka; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Aoyama, Michio; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2012-11-01

    Atmospheric fallout samples collected from Tokyo between 1963 and 2003 were analyzed using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in order to determine (129)I/(127)I ratios and to examine the deposition rate of (129)I and its secular variation in Tokyo. The (129)I/(127)I ratios in the atmosphere during 1963-1977 ranged from 1 × 10(-8) to 2 × 10(-8). This is roughly 4 orders of magnitude higher than pre-atomic levels, possibly due to atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The calculated monthly atmospheric deposition rates of (129)I differed from those produced by nuclear fallout of (90)Sr and (137)Cs, indicating that the variations in (129)I deposition are not influenced exclusively by either nuclear bomb testing or by the Chernobyl accident. After 1978, high (129)I depositions (up to 0.13 mBq/m(2)/month) were observed. The (129)I depositions started to increase markedly at the latter half of the 1970s. The secular variation of the estimated annual (129)I deposition in Tokyo showed a close relationship between the annual atmospheric discharge of (129)I from the Tokai Reprocessing plant. Therefore, the atmospheric fallout collected from Tokyo after the late 1970s is influenced primary by the (129)I discharge from the Tokai Reprocessing plant.

  9. Education for Earthquake Disaster Prevention in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year

  10. Simulation of Cascaded Longitudinal-Space-Charge Amplifier at the Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (Fast) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Halavanau, A.; Piot, P.

    2015-12-01

    Cascaded Longitudinal Space Charge Amplifiers (LSCA) have been proposed as a mechanism to generate density modulation over a board spectral range. The scheme has been recently demonstrated in the optical regime and has confirmed the production of broadband optical radiation. In this paper we investigate, via numerical simulations, the performance of a cascaded LSCA beamline at the Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (FAST) facility to produce broadband ultraviolet radiation. Our studies are carried out using elegant with included tree-based grid-less space charge algorithm.

  11. The ASP at 125: Advancing Science Literacy in an Age of Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Jim

    2014-01-01

    On February 7, 2014, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific will celebrate its 125th birthday and a century and a quarter of advancing astronomy and astronomy/science education during a period of revolutionary change in our understanding of the universe. In keeping with both the retrospective and forward-looking nature of such milestones, the presenter will: 1) share highlights of the Society’s work in supporting the communication of astronomy research through its professional publications, and creating innovative astronomy education and public outreach projects and networks to advance student, teacher and public understanding of astronomy and science; 2) report on current NASA- and NSF-funded efforts and on plans going forward; 3) and solicit input from the assembled community on how the ASP can best serve its various constituencies and the cause of science education, communication and literacy at a time when both the universe and life on Earth are accelerating at unprecedented rates. Birthdays are for celebrating; come celebrate with us as we rededicate ourselves to a mission of advancing science literacy through astronomy.

  12. How To Write Good Science Books for Children & Youths. Asian Cultural Center Training Course on Book Production in Asia and the Pacific (25th, Tokyo, Japan, October 30-November 16, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Cultural Centre for UNESCO, Tokyo (Japan).

    It is of critical importance in the Asia/Pacific region to produce quality science books which are attractive and interesting for children and youths and which can also stimulate their interest in science and provide them with accurate scientific knowledge in an easily understandable way. This publication is a report of a training course on book…

  13. Advances in Climate Informatics: Accelerating Discovery in Climate Science with Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteleoni, C.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the scientific consensus on climate change, drastic uncertainties remain. The climate system is characterized by complex phenomena that are imperfectly observed and even more imperfectly simulated. Climate data is Big Data, yet the magnitude of data and climate model output increasingly overwhelms the tools currently used to analyze them. Computational innovation is therefore needed. Machine learning is a cutting-edge research area at the intersection of computer science and statistics, focused on developing algorithms for big data analytics. Machine learning has revolutionized scientific discovery (e.g. Bioinformatics), and spawned new technologies (e.g. Web search). The impact of machine learning on climate science promises to be similarly profound. The goal of the novel interdisciplinary field of Climate Informatics is to accelerate discovery in climate science with machine learning, in order to shed light on urgent questions about climate change. In this talk, I will survey my research group's progress in the emerging field of climate informatics. Our work includes algorithms to improve the combined predictions of the IPCC multi-model ensemble, applications to seasonal and subseasonal prediction, and a data-driven technique to detect and define extreme events.

  14. High brightness gamma-ray production at Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalcea, D.; Jacobson, B.; Murokh, A.; Piot, P.; Ruan, J.

    2017-03-01

    Electron beams with energies of the order of a few 100's of MeV and low transverse emittance, in combination with powerful infrared lasers, allow for the production of high quality gamma rays through Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS). At Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility, a 300 MeV beam will be used to generate gamma rays with maximum photon energies of up to ˜1.5 MeV and brightness of the order of 1021 photons/[s-(mm-mrad)2- 0.1%BW]. Due to the low electron-beam transverse emittance, the relative bandwidth of the scattered radiation is expected to be ≤ 1%. A key challenge toward the production of high radiation dose and brightness is to enhance the energy of the infrared 3 ps laser pulses to the joule level. In this contribution, we present the plans for the experimental setup, along with comprehensive numerical simulations of the ICS process.

  15. Accelerating the design of biomimetic materials by integrating RNA-seq with proteomics and materials science.

    PubMed

    Guerette, Paul A; Hoon, Shawn; Seow, Yiqi; Raida, Manfred; Masic, Admir; Wong, Fong T; Ho, Vincent H B; Kong, Kiat Whye; Demirel, Melik C; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Amini, Shahrouz; Tay, Gavin Z; Ding, Dawei; Miserez, Ali

    2013-10-01

    Efforts to engineer new materials inspired by biological structures are hampered by the lack of genomic data from many model organisms studied in biomimetic research. Here we show that biomimetic engineering can be accelerated by integrating high-throughput RNA-seq with proteomics and advanced materials characterization. This approach can be applied to a broad range of systems, as we illustrate by investigating diverse high-performance biological materials involved in embryo protection, adhesion and predation. In one example, we rapidly engineer recombinant squid sucker ring teeth proteins into a range of structural and functional materials, including nanopatterned surfaces and photo-cross-linked films that exceed the mechanical properties of most natural and synthetic polymers. Integrating RNA-seq with proteomics and materials science facilitates the molecular characterization of natural materials and the effective translation of their molecular designs into a wide range of bio-inspired materials.

  16. The Family Medicine Accelerated Track at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center.

    PubMed

    Jones, Betsy Goebel; Berk, Steven L

    2016-02-01

    Meeting Texas' future health care needs will be challenging, including the goal for a physician workforce more balanced toward primary care. To help expand the primary care physician workforce, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center (TTUHSC) School of Medicine developed the Family Medicine Accelerated Track (FMAT), a three-year curriculum that culminates in the MD degree and links medical students to family medicine residency programs at TTUHSC campuses in Lubbock, Amarillo, or the Permian Basin (Odessa and Midland). Twenty current family medicine residents are graduates of the FMAT program, and 30 medical students are enrolled in the program, which is charting a path for curricular innovation in medical education that will be increasingly competency-based.

  17. Development of a PYTHON-based emittance calculator at Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, A. T.

    Beam emittance is an important characteristic describing charged particle beams. In linear accelerators (linac), it is critical to characterize the beam phase space parameters and, in particular, to precisely measure transverse beam emittance. The quadrupole scan (quad-scan) is a well-established technique used to characterize transverse beam parameters in four-dimensional phase space, including beam emittance. A computational algorithm with PYTHON scripts has been developed to estimate beam parameters, in particular beam emittance, using the quad-scan technique in the electron linac at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility. This script has been implemented in conjunction with an automated quad-scan tool (also written in PYTHON) and has decreased the time it takes to perform a single quad-scan from an hour to a few minutes. From the experimental data, the emittance calculator quickly delivers several results including: geometrical and normalized transverse emittance, Courant-Snyder parameters, and plots of the beam size versus quadrupole field strength, among others. This paper will discuss the details of the techniques used, the results from several quad-scans preformed at FAST during the electron injector commissioning, and the PYTHON code used to obtain the results.

  18. Characteristics of power demand in Tokyo

    SciTech Connect

    Meguro, Kimiro; Yamazaki, Fumio; Katayama, Tsuneo; Soejima, Michiyo

    1995-12-31

    Modern societies suffer functional damage due to power outage when natural disasters strike. As the first step for developing a new methodology for estimating the effects of power outage on city functions considering the characteristics of the area, and time and duration of outage, a database is made which consists of regional characteristics and electric power demand in the Tokyo metropolis using geographic information system (GIS). Power demand is examined as a function of time, season and region. With a statistical technique, four elemental load curves of residential, office, industrial and entertainment components are calculated. Assuming that every load curve is a combination of the four elemental curves, the contribution rate of the four elements in each area is calculated. Then the areas could be classified based on the contribution rate.

  19. Astrometry course at University of Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, T.

    2008-07-01

    The astrometry course at Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, is reviewed as an example of educational efforts for top-class students, the possible candidates of professional astronomers, in Japan. The method of teaching is unique in the sense that it gives lectures by using incomplete text books both as MS Powerpoint slides posted at a web site, http://chiron.mtk.nao.ac.jp/~toshio/education.html, and as printed materials in the form of self-study notebooks. Also there are self-study notebooks on the related issues; the courses of relativistic astrometry, of rotational motions, of numerical astronomy, and of orbital motions, the last of which is under development.

  20. High Voltage Hall Accelerator Propulsion System Development for NASA Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John; Mathers, Alex

    2013-01-01

    NASA Science Mission Directorates In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is sponsoring the development of a 3.8 kW-class engineering development unit Hall thruster for implementation in NASA science and exploration missions. NASA Glenn Research Center and Aerojet are developing a high fidelity high voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAc) thruster that can achieve specific impulse magnitudes greater than 2,700 seconds and xenon throughput capability in excess of 300 kilograms. Performance, plume mappings, thermal characterization, and vibration tests of the HiVHAc engineering development unit thruster have been performed. In addition, the HiVHAc project is also pursuing the development of a power processing unit (PPU) and xenon feed system (XFS) for integration with the HiVHAc engineering development unit thruster. Colorado Power Electronics and NASA Glenn Research Center have tested a brassboard PPU for more than 1,500 hours in a vacuum environment, and a new brassboard and engineering model PPU units are under development. VACCO Industries developed a xenon flow control module which has undergone qualification testing and will be integrated with the HiVHAc thruster extended duration tests. Finally, recent mission studies have shown that the HiVHAc propulsion system has sufficient performance for four Discovery- and two New Frontiers-class NASA design reference missions.

  1. Social, not physical, infrastructure: the critical role of civil society after the 1923 Tokyo earthquake.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Daniel P

    2012-07-01

    Despite the tremendous destruction wrought by catastrophes, social science holds few quantitative assessments of explanations for the rate of recovery. This article illuminates four factors-damage, population density, human capital, and economic capital-that are thought to explain the variation in the pace of population recovery following disaster; it also explores the popular but relatively untested factor of social capital. Using time-series, cross-sectional models and propensity score matching, it tests these approaches using new data from the rebuilding of 39 neighbourhoods in Tokyo after its 1923 earthquake. Social capital, more than earthquake damage, population density, human capital, or economic capital, best predicts population recovery in post-earthquake Tokyo. These findings suggest new approaches for research on social capital and disasters as well as public policy avenues for handling catastrophes.

  2. A Simple but Powerful Heuristic Method for Accelerating k-Means Clustering of Large-Scale Data in Life Science.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Kazuki; Morishita, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    K-means clustering has been widely used to gain insight into biological systems from large-scale life science data. To quantify the similarities among biological data sets, Pearson correlation distance and standardized Euclidean distance are used most frequently; however, optimization methods have been largely unexplored. These two distance measurements are equivalent in the sense that they yield the same k-means clustering result for identical sets of k initial centroids. Thus, an efficient algorithm used for one is applicable to the other. Several optimization methods are available for the Euclidean distance and can be used for processing the standardized Euclidean distance; however, they are not customized for this context. We instead approached the problem by studying the properties of the Pearson correlation distance, and we invented a simple but powerful heuristic method for markedly pruning unnecessary computation while retaining the final solution. Tests using real biological data sets with 50-60K vectors of dimensions 10-2001 (~400 MB in size) demonstrated marked reduction in computation time for k = 10-500 in comparison with other state-of-the-art pruning methods such as Elkan's and Hamerly's algorithms. The BoostKCP software is available at http://mlab.cb.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~ichikawa/boostKCP/.

  3. UCLA Final Technical Report for the "Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation”.

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Warren

    2015-08-14

    The UCLA Plasma Simulation Group is a major partner of the “Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation”. This is the final technical report. We include an overall summary, a list of publications, progress for the most recent year, and individual progress reports for each year. We have made tremendous progress during the three years. SciDAC funds have contributed to the development of a large number of skeleton codes that illustrate how to write PIC codes with a hierarchy of parallelism. These codes cover 2D and 3D as well as electrostatic solvers (which are used in beam dynamics codes and quasi-static codes) and electromagnetic solvers (which are used in plasma based accelerator codes). We also used these ideas to develop a GPU enabled version of OSIRIS. SciDAC funds were also contributed to the development of strategies to eliminate the Numerical Cerenkov Instability (NCI) which is an issue when carrying laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) simulations in a boosted frame and when quantifying the emittance and energy spread of self-injected electron beams. This work included the development of a new code called UPIC-EMMA which is an FFT based electromagnetic PIC code and to new hybrid algorithms in OSIRIS. A new hybrid (PIC in r-z and gridless in φ) algorithm was implemented into OSIRIS. In this algorithm the fields and current are expanded into azimuthal harmonics and the complex amplitude for each harmonic is calculated separately. The contributions from each harmonic are summed and then used to push the particles. This algorithm permits modeling plasma based acceleration with some 3D effects but with the computational load of an 2D r-z PIC code. We developed a rigorously charge conserving current deposit for this algorithm. Very recently, we made progress in combining the speed up from the quasi-3D algorithm with that from the Lorentz boosted frame. SciDAC funds also contributed to the improvement and speed up of the quasi-static PIC

  4. Mutagenicities of Bangkok and Tokyo river waters.

    PubMed

    Kusamran, W R; Wakabayashi, K; Oguri, A; Tepsuwan, A; Nagao, M; Sugimura, T

    1994-11-01

    Samples of water from the Chao Phraya river and some connected canals in Bangkok, Thailand, and from the Sumida and Ara rivers in Tokyo, Japan, were tested for mutagenicity using blue rayon to adsorb the mutagens. The samples from the Chao Phraya river and connected canals at sites located 50-150 km from the river mouth taken in May 1993 showed a mutagenicity of 87-1213 revertants per 0.05 g blue rayon extract towards S. typhimurium YG1024 in the presence of S9 mix. Samples from most sites taken in December 1993, which follows the rainy season, showed a lower mutagenicity than those taken in May, possibly due to dilution by the larger volume of water in the river and canals in December. Water samples from the Sumida river were collected in July 1993 and February 1994, and those from the Ara river in January 1994. Mutagenicity of samples from all sites of the Sumida and Ara rivers, which were located 2-30 and 2-20 km, respectively, from the river mouth was also clearly detected in the presence of S9 mix and did not differ much, being 155-748 revertants of YG1024 per 0.05 g blue rayon extract. These results demonstrated that the water in all three rivers contained some frameshift mutagens.

  5. Groundwater pollution by perfluorinated surfactants in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Kuroda, Keisuke; Sato, Nobuyuki; Fukushi, Tetsuo; Takizawa, Satoshi; Takada, Hideshige

    2009-05-15

    Perfluorinated surfactants (PFSs) in groundwater were analyzed to reveal their distribution and sources. Sixteen groundwater and spring samples were collected from the Tokyo metropolitan area, and nine PFSs, including perfluorooctane-sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A column test using artificial street runoff was also performed to study their behavior. PFSs were detected in all groundwater samples, some at concentrations comparable to those in wastewater and street runoff, suggesting widespread contamination of groundwater by PFSs. In particular, PFOS -was more abundant in groundwater than in rivers, wastewater, and street runoff. This was attributed to its production from the degradation of its precursors, as supported by the column test. The occurrence of short-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in groundwater was also consistent with the results of the column test, showing that limited amounts of short-chain PFCAs were removed by soil, as the efficiency of removal increased with the chain length. We evaluated the contributions of PFCAs from wastewater and surface runoff to groundwater by using two indicators, the long/(short + long) ratio and the even(even + odd) ratio. Both ratios showed good agreement in their calculated contributions in heavily contaminated groundwater where breakthroughs likely occurred. Wastewater and surface runoff contributed to 54-86% and 16-46% of PFCAs, respectively, in groundwater.

  6. High Brightness Gamma-Ray Production at Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalcea, Daniel; Jacobson, B.; Murokh, A.; Piiot, P.; Ruan, J.

    2016-10-10

    Electron beams with energies of the order of a few 100’s of MeV and low transverse emittance, in combination with powerful infrared lasers, allow for the production of high quality gamma rays through Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS). At Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility, a 300 MeV beam will be used to generate gamma rays with maximum photon energies of up to ∼ 1.5 MeV and brightness of the order of 1021 photons/[s-(mm-mrad)2- 0.1%BW]. Due to the low electron-beam transverse emittance, the relative bandwidth of the scattered radiation is expected to be ≤ 1%. A key challenge toward the production of high radiation dose and brightness is to enhance the energy of the infrared 3 ps laser pulses to the joule level. In this contribution, we present the plans for the experimental setup, along with comprehensive numerical simulations of the ICS process.

  7. Enculturating science: Community-centric design of behavior change interactions for accelerating health impact.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Aarti; Ghosh, Amit Kumar; Samphel, Rigzin; Yadav, Ranjanaa; Yeung, Diana; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Despite significant advancements in the scientific evidence base of interventions to improve newborn survival, we have not yet been able to "bend the curve" to markedly accelerate global rates of reduction in newborn mortality. The ever-widening gap between discovery of scientific best practices and their mass adoption by families (the evidence-practice gap) is not just a matter of improving the coverage of health worker-community interactions. The design of the interactions themselves must be guided by sound behavioral science approaches such that they lead to mass adoption and impact at a large scale. The main barrier to the application of scientific approaches to behavior change is our inability to "unbox" the "black box" of family health behaviors in community settings. The authors argue that these are not black boxes, but in fact thoughtfully designed community systems that have been designed and upheld, and have evolved over many years keeping in mind a certain worldview and a common social purpose. An empathetic understanding of these community systems allows us to deconstruct the causal pathways of existing behaviors, and re-engineer them to achieve desired outcomes. One of the key reasons for the failure of interactions to translate into behavior change is our failure to recognize that the content, context, and process of interactions need to be designed keeping in mind an organized community system with a very different worldview and beliefs. In order to improve the adoption of scientific best practices by communities, we need to adapt them to their culture by leveraging existing beliefs, practices, people, context, and skills. The authors present a systems approach for community-centric design of interactions, highlighting key principles for achieving intrinsically motivated, sustained change in social norms and family health behaviors, elucidated with progressive theories from systems thinking, management sciences, cross-cultural psychology, learning

  8. Accelerator mass spectrometry in the biomedical sciences: applications in low-exposure biomedical and environmental dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felton, J. S.; Turteltaub, K. W.; Vogel, J. S.; Balhorn, R.; Gledhill, B. L.; Southon, J. R.; Caffee, M. W.; Finkel, R. C.; Nelson, D. E.; Proctor, I. D.; Davis, J. C.

    1990-12-01

    We are utilizing accelerator mass spectrometry as a sensitive detector for tracking the disposition of radioisotopically labeled molecules in the biomedical sciences. These applications have shown the effectiveness of AMS as a tool to quantify biologically important molecules at extremely low levels. For example, AMS is being used to determine the amount of carcinogen covalently bound to animal DNA (DNA adduct) at levels relevent to human exposure. Detection sensitivities are 1 carcinogen molecule bound in 1011 to 1012 DNA bases, depending on the specific activity of the radiolabeled carcinogen. Studies have been undertaken in our laboratory utilizing heterocyclic amine food-borne carcinogens and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent environmental carcinogen, to study the metabolism of carcinogens at low doses. In addition, AMS is being used to detect the presence of rare proteins (mutant forms of protamine) in human sperm. Approximately l per 106 sperm analyzed contain the rare form of the protamine. Protamine isolated from this small number of cells is being analyzed by AMS, following 14C labeling. Thus, AMS can be used to verify the identity of an extremely small amount of biological material. Furthermore, an additional improvement of 2 orders of magnitude in the sensitivity of biomédical tracer studies is suggested by preliminary work with bacterial hosts depleted in radiocarbon. Other problems in the life sciences where detection sensitivity or sample sizes are limitations should also benefit from AMS. Studies are underway to measure the molecular targeting of cancer chemotherapeutics in human tissue and to pursue applications for receptor biology. We are also applying other candidate isotopes, such as 3H (double labeling with 14C) and 41Ca (bone absorption) to problems in biology. The detection of 36Cl and 26Al have applications for determination of human neutron exposure and understanding neurological toxicity, respectively. The results

  9. Large-Scale Calculations for Material Sciences Using Accelerators to Improve Time- and Energy-to-Solution

    DOE PAGES

    Eisenbach, Markus

    2017-01-01

    A major impediment to deploying next-generation high-performance computational systems is the required electrical power, often measured in units of megawatts. The solution to this problem is driving the introduction of novel machine architectures, such as those employing many-core processors and specialized accelerators. In this article, we describe the use of a hybrid accelerated architecture to achieve both reduced time to solution and the associated reduction in the electrical cost for a state-of-the-art materials science computation.

  10. Construction and Test of a 10 Kv Ion Accelerator in the Faculty of Science of U.N.A.M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, B. E.; Yousif, F. B.; López-Patiaño, J.

    A low energy accelerator was constructed in the Faculty of Science of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) for atomic and molecular experiments in the energy range 1.0 - 10.0 keV. We present a general description as well as results of experiments performed by undergraduate and graduate physics students in different stages of the construction. Experiments include characterization of the velocity filter, identification of hydrogen ions and TOF spectra.

  11. Community Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, John R.; Cowan, Benjamin M.; Veitzer, S. A.

    2016-03-04

    Tech-X participated across the full range of ComPASS activities, with efforts in the Energy Frontier primarily through modeling of laser plasma accelerators and dielectric laser acceleration, in the Intensity Frontier primarily through electron cloud modeling, and in Uncertainty Quantification being applied to dielectric laser acceleration. In the following we present the progress and status of our activities for the entire period of the ComPASS project for the different areas of Energy Frontier, Intensity Frontier and Uncertainty Quantification.

  12. Prospects for an Accelerator Program in Mexico Focused on Photon Science

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Hernandez-Garcia, Mauro Napsuciale

    2011-05-01

    Recent interest in developing an accelerator-based light source in Mexico has driven several actions by the Division of Particles and Fields in Mexico, and by the electron accelerator community in the United States. We report on activities over the past two years that are very encouraging and offer a variety of possibilities to start the development of an accelerator program in Mexico. A suggested path towards this goal that would eventually lead to building, commissioning and operating a third or fourth generation light source will also be presented

  13. Final Report for "Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulations".

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, J. R.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Stoltz, P. H.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Cowan, B.; Schwartz, B. T.; Bell, G.; Paul, K.; Veitzer, S.

    2013-04-19

    This final report describes the work that has been accomplished over the past 5 years under the Community Petascale Project for Accelerator and Simulations (ComPASS) at Tech-X Corporation. Tech-X had been involved in the full range of ComPASS activities with simulation of laser plasma accelerator concepts, mainly in collaboration with LOASIS program at LBNL, simulation of coherent electron cooling in collaboration with BNL, modeling of electron clouds in high intensity accelerators, in collaboration with researchers at Fermilab and accurate modeling of superconducting RF cavity in collaboration with Fermilab, JLab and Cockcroft Institute in the UK.

  14. Three-dimensional behaviour of photochemical pollutants covering the Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Itsushi; Wakamatsu, Shinji; Suzuki, Makoto; Ogawa, Yasushi

    The spatial distribution and transport process of photochemical pollutants covering the Tokyo Metropolitan Area in Japan were investigated from 31 July to 2 August 1979. In the experiment, the vertical profiles of pollutants were observed using four instrumented aircraft. This paper mainly considers the transport process of the polluted air mass using three-dimensional trajectory analysis in which the wind field was determined by objective analysis techniques from pilot-balloon observation data. In the Tokyo Metropolitan Area the sea-land breeze circulation is an important factor in photochemical oxidant formation inland when the geostrophic wind is weak. The night-time radiation inversion which persists into the early morning prevents the dispersion of primary pollutants emitted from the big coastal industrial zones around Tokyo Bay. These pollutants are then advected by the land breeze to the Sagami Bay area which acts as storage tank. Conversion of such pollutants results in a high O 3 air mass inland with the penetration of the sea breeze. The sea breeze layer is thermally stable and inhibits vertical mixing of NO x. On the other hand, at the front of the sea breeze zone, a highly turbulent area transports the NO x to 1000-1500 m above mean sea level. Polluted air masses, with O 3 concentration exceeding 100 ppb, were observed at 500-1000 m on both 31 July and 1 August 1979. The maximum O 3 concentration on the 2nd day exceeded that on the 1st day. These high O 3 air masses contained aged pollutant and were entrained into the mixing layer as the depth of the mixing layer increased. This accelerated the formation rate of secondary pollutants. These early morning, high O 3 concentrations, and the storage capacity of the Sagami Bay area, are important factors in the time scale of air pollution phenomena in this region.

  15. Recent developments of ion sources for life-science studies at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Kitagawa, A.; Drentje, A. G.; Fujita, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Fukushima, K.; Shiraishi, N.; Suzuki, T.; Takahashi, K.; Takasugi, W.; Biri, S.; Rácz, R.; Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y.

    2016-02-15

    With about 1000-h of relativistic high-energy ion beams provided by Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, about 70 users are performing various biology experiments every year. A rich variety of ion species from hydrogen to xenon ions with a dose rate of several Gy/min is available. Carbon, iron, silicon, helium, neon, argon, hydrogen, and oxygen ions were utilized between 2012 and 2014. Presently, three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) and one Penning ion source are available. Especially, the two frequency heating techniques have improved the performance of an 18 GHz ECRIS. The results have satisfied most requirements for life-science studies. In addition, this improved performance has realized a feasible solution for similar biology experiments with a hospital-specified accelerator complex.

  16. Emittance study of a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the Rare Isotope Science Project superconducting linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Bum-Sik Hong, In-Seok; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jin, Hyunchang; Choi, Sukjin; Kim, Yonghwan

    2016-02-15

    A 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is being developed for use as an injector for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project. Beam extraction from the ECR ion source has been simulated using the KOBRA3-INP software. The simulation software can calculate charged particle trajectories in three dimensional complex magnetic field structures, which in this case are formed by the arrangement of five superconducting magnets. In this study, the beam emittance is simulated to understand the effects of plasma potential, mass-to-charge ratio, and spatial distribution. The results of these simulations and their comparison to experimental results are presented in this paper.

  17. Accelerating target discovery using pre-competitive open science-patients need faster innovation more than anyone else.

    PubMed

    Low, Eric; Bountra, Chas; Lee, Wen Hwa

    2016-01-01

    We are experiencing a new era enabled by unencumbered access to high quality data through the emergence of open science initiatives in the historically challenging area of early stage drug discovery. At the same time, many patient-centric organisations are taking matters into their own hands by participating in, enabling and funding research. Here we present the rationale behind the innovative partnership between the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC)-an open, pre-competitive pre-clinical research consortium and the research-focused patient organisation Myeloma UK to create a new, comprehensive platform to accelerate the discovery and development of new treatments for multiple myeloma.

  18. Emittance study of a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the Rare Isotope Science Project superconducting linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Park, Bum-Sik; Hong, In-Seok; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jin, Hyunchang; Choi, Sukjin; Kim, Yonghwan

    2016-02-01

    A 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is being developed for use as an injector for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project. Beam extraction from the ECR ion source has been simulated using the KOBRA3-INP software. The simulation software can calculate charged particle trajectories in three dimensional complex magnetic field structures, which in this case are formed by the arrangement of five superconducting magnets. In this study, the beam emittance is simulated to understand the effects of plasma potential, mass-to-charge ratio, and spatial distribution. The results of these simulations and their comparison to experimental results are presented in this paper.

  19. PREFACE: International Symposium on Vacuum Science & Technology and its Application for Accelerators (IVS 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, V. S.; Pal, Gautam

    2012-11-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970 to promote vacuum science and technology in academic, industrial and R&D institutions in India. IVS is a member society of the International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique and Applications (IUVSTA). It has organized International and national symposia, short term courses and workshops on different aspects of Vacuum Science and Technology at regular intervals. So far 27 National symposia, 4 International Symposia and 47 courses have been organized at various locations in India. There has been an active participation from R&D establishments, universities and Indian industries during all these events. In view of the current global situation and emerging trends in vacuum technology, the executive committee of the IVS suggested to us that we organize an International Symposium at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata from 15-17 February 2012. At the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre we have a large number of high vacuum systems used in the K130 Cyclotron and K500 Superconducting Cyclotron. Also a large cryogenic system using LHe plant is in operation for cryopanels and a superconducting magnet for K-500 Cyclotron. The main areas covered at the symposium were the production and measurement of vacuums, leak detection, design and development of large vacuum systems, vacuum metallurgy, vacuum materials and the application of high vacuums in cyclotrons, LINACS and other accelerators. This symposium provided an opportunity for interaction between active researchers and technologists and allowed them to review the current situation, report recent experimental results, share the available expertise and consider the future R&D efforts needed in this area. Keeping the industrial significance of vacuum technology in mind, an exhibition of the vacuum related equipment, accessories, products etc by various suppliers and manufactures was organized alongside the symposium. Participation by a large number of exhibitors

  20. A significant net sink for CO2 in Tokyo Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Atsushi; Maeda, Yosaku; Kanda, Jota

    2017-03-01

    Most estuaries and inland waters are significant source for atmospheric CO2 because of input of terrestrial inorganic carbon and mineralization of terrestrially supplied organic carbon. In contrast to most coastal waters, some estuaries with small freshwater discharge are weak source or sometimes sink for CO2. Extensive surveys of pCO2 in Tokyo Bay showed that the overall bay acts as a strong net sink for atmospheric CO2. Although small area was a consistent source for CO2, active photosynthesis driven by nutrient loading from the land overwhelmed the CO2 budget in the bay. Here we show a comprehensive scheme with a border where air-sea CO2 flux was ±0 between nearshore waters emitting CO2 and offshore waters absorbing CO2. The border in Tokyo Bay was extremely shifted toward the land-side. The shift is characteristic of highly urbanized coastal waters with an extensive sewage treatment system in the catchment area. Because highly urbanized coastal areas worldwide are expected to quadruple by 2050, coastal waters such as Tokyo Bay are expected to increase as well. Through extrapolation of Tokyo Bay data, CO2 emission from global estuaries would be expected to decrease roughly from the current 0.074 PgC year‑1 to 0.014 PgC year‑1 in 2050.

  1. Teachers' Perceptions of School Libraries: Comparisons from Tokyo and Honolulu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuriko

    2000-01-01

    Discusses and compares results of a survey of teacher's perceptions of school libraries in Tokyo, Japan and in Honolulu, Hawaii that showed differences in policies, availability of trained school library personnel, and in the nature of school library development. Copies of the questionnaires used are appended. (Author/LRW)

  2. Global warming and urbanization affect springwater temperatures in Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, H.

    2014-02-01

    Due to global warming and urbanization, air temperature in Tokyo has risen 1.6 degrees in the past 30-40 years which has also affected springwater temperatures. From 2005, we have proceeded with the observations of springs in Tokyo metropolis, Japan which had been conducted by Environment of Tokyo from the end of the 1980s to 2001. In the rainy season (October) and dry season (February), we have observed springwater temperatures in 25 springs. The field surveys have revealed that most springwater temperatures has steadly risen in the past 30 years. As of February 2013, water temperatures of 19/11 springs have risen with 5% level in the rainy/dry season. As of February 2006, water temperatures of 10/13 springs have risen with 5% level in the rainy/dry season, i.e., 9/2 springs have acquired/lost the significance as of February 2013. One possible reason is the recent hot summer/cold winter in Tokyo.

  3. A significant net sink for CO2 in Tokyo Bay.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Atsushi; Maeda, Yosaku; Kanda, Jota

    2017-03-13

    Most estuaries and inland waters are significant source for atmospheric CO2 because of input of terrestrial inorganic carbon and mineralization of terrestrially supplied organic carbon. In contrast to most coastal waters, some estuaries with small freshwater discharge are weak source or sometimes sink for CO2. Extensive surveys of pCO2 in Tokyo Bay showed that the overall bay acts as a strong net sink for atmospheric CO2. Although small area was a consistent source for CO2, active photosynthesis driven by nutrient loading from the land overwhelmed the CO2 budget in the bay. Here we show a comprehensive scheme with a border where air-sea CO2 flux was ±0 between nearshore waters emitting CO2 and offshore waters absorbing CO2. The border in Tokyo Bay was extremely shifted toward the land-side. The shift is characteristic of highly urbanized coastal waters with an extensive sewage treatment system in the catchment area. Because highly urbanized coastal areas worldwide are expected to quadruple by 2050, coastal waters such as Tokyo Bay are expected to increase as well. Through extrapolation of Tokyo Bay data, CO2 emission from global estuaries would be expected to decrease roughly from the current 0.074 PgC year(-1) to 0.014 PgC year(-1) in 2050.

  4. Maturational Rate of Tokyo Children with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Gunilla W.; Katoda, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    Comparison of growth rates and menarcheal age for groups of boys and girls, ages 6 to 15, in Tokyo (Japan) found that children with mental retardation had a smaller growth spurt during puberty but did not differ in maturational rate defined by age at pubertal height spurt or age at menarche. (Author/DB)

  5. A significant net sink for CO2 in Tokyo Bay

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Atsushi; Maeda, Yosaku; Kanda, Jota

    2017-01-01

    Most estuaries and inland waters are significant source for atmospheric CO2 because of input of terrestrial inorganic carbon and mineralization of terrestrially supplied organic carbon. In contrast to most coastal waters, some estuaries with small freshwater discharge are weak source or sometimes sink for CO2. Extensive surveys of pCO2 in Tokyo Bay showed that the overall bay acts as a strong net sink for atmospheric CO2. Although small area was a consistent source for CO2, active photosynthesis driven by nutrient loading from the land overwhelmed the CO2 budget in the bay. Here we show a comprehensive scheme with a border where air-sea CO2 flux was ±0 between nearshore waters emitting CO2 and offshore waters absorbing CO2. The border in Tokyo Bay was extremely shifted toward the land-side. The shift is characteristic of highly urbanized coastal waters with an extensive sewage treatment system in the catchment area. Because highly urbanized coastal areas worldwide are expected to quadruple by 2050, coastal waters such as Tokyo Bay are expected to increase as well. Through extrapolation of Tokyo Bay data, CO2 emission from global estuaries would be expected to decrease roughly from the current 0.074 PgC year−1 to 0.014 PgC year−1 in 2050. PMID:28287153

  6. Space acceleration measurement system description and operations on the First Spacelab Life Sciences Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, Richard; Finley, Brian D.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) project and flight units are briefly described. The SAMS operations during the STS-40 mission are summarized, and a preliminary look at some of the acceleration data from that mission are provided. The background and rationale for the SAMS project is described to better illustrate its goals. The functions and capabilities of each SAMS flight unit are first explained, then the STS-40 mission, the SAMS's function for that mission, and the preparation of the SAMS are described. Observations about the SAMS operations during the first SAMS mission are then discussed. Some sample data are presented illustrating several aspects of the mission's microgravity environment.

  7. Tradeoffs in Acceleration and Initialization of Superparameterized Global Atmospheric Models for MJO and Climate Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M. S.; Bretherton, C. S.; DeMott, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    New trade-offs are discussed in the cloud superparameterization approach to explicitly representing deep convection in global climate models. Intrinsic predictability tests show that the memory of cloud-resolving-scale organization is not critical for producing desired modes of organized convection such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). This has implications for the feasibility of data assimilation and real-world initialization for superparameterized weather forecasting. Climate simulation sensitivity tests demonstrate that 400% acceleration of cloud superparameterization is possible by restricting the 32-128 km scale regime without deteriorating the realism of the simulated MJO but the number of cloud resolving model grid columns is discovered to constrain the efficiency of vertical mixing, with consequences for the simulated liquid cloud climatology. Tuning opportunities for next generation accelerated superparameterized climate models are discussed.

  8. The Legacy of the Tevatron in the Area of Accelerator Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Stephen D.; Shiltsev, Vladimir D.

    2013-10-01

    For more than 25 years, the Tevatron was the highest-energy accelerator in the world. It provided the first access to particle collisions beyond 1 TeV and achieved an ultimate performance that was a factor of 400 beyond the original design goals. This article reviews the many formidable challenges that were overcome, and the knowledge gained, in building, operating, and improving the Tevatron during its lifetime. These challenges included the first operation of an accelerator based on superconducting magnets; production of antiprotons in sufficient numbers to support a usable luminosity; management of beam-beam, intrabeam, and other collective effects; novel manipulations of the beam longitudinal phase space; and development and application of a wide variety of innovative technologies. These achievements established the legacy of the Tevatron as the progenitor of all subsequently constructed high-energy hadron colliders.

  9. Absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Hosoda, M; Fukushi, M; Furukawa, M; Tokonami, S

    2015-11-01

    The monitoring of absorbed dose rate in air has been carried out continually at various locations in metropolitan Tokyo after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. While the data obtained before the accident are needed to more accurately assess the effects of radionuclide contamination from the accident, detailed data for metropolitan Tokyo obtained before the accident have not been reported. A car-borne survey of the absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was carried out during August to September 2003. The average absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was 49±6 nGy h(-1). The absorbed dose rate in air in western Tokyo was higher compared with that in central Tokyo. Here, if the absorbed dose rate indoors in Tokyo is equivalent to that outdoors, the annual effective dose would be calculated as 0.32 mSv y(-1).

  10. Accelerated Integrated Science Sequence (AISS): An Introductory Biology, Chemistry, and Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis-Roberts, Kathleen L.; Edwalds-Gilbert, Gretchen; Landsberg, Adam S.; Copp, Newton; Ulsh, Lisa; Drew, David E.

    2009-01-01

    A new interdisciplinary, introductory science course was offered for the first time during the 2007-2008 school year. The purpose of the course is to introduce students to the idea of working at the intersections of biology, chemistry, and physics and to recognize interconnections between the disciplines. Interdisciplinary laboratories are a key…

  11. Lead pollution in Tokyo--the pigeon reflects its amelioration

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, G.; Seki, H.; Minowa, K.; Ohsawa, M.; Mizoguchi, I; Sugimori, F.

    1981-10-01

    To monitor lead pollution in the Tokyo metropolitan area, we checked the feral pigeon Columba livia var. blood lead levels and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activities (ALA-D) of the erythrocytes over the period from 1971 to 1980. The pigeons gave much more magnified pictures of lead pollution than atmospheric lead concentrations indicated, even after addition of tetraethyl lead to the regular gasoline was totally banned in 1975. Since the biological half-life of lead in the pigeon was determined to be relatively short, this was considered mainly due to their habit of ingesting gizzard stones polluted with lead. The amelioration of lead pollution, reflected in the pigeons in downtown Tokyo, was observed with a few years of lag time after the improvement of the atmospheric lead concentration was first noted.

  12. Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2011-10-24

    Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

  13. Potential for rooftop photovoltaics in Tokyo to replace nuclear capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, B. L.; Smith, T. A.; Deinert, M. R.

    2013-03-01

    In 2010, nuclear power accounted for 27% of electricity production in Japan. The March 2011 disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi power station resulted in the closure of all of Japan’s nuclear power plants and it remains an open question as to how many will reopen. Even before the loss of nuclear capacity, there were efforts in Japan to foster the use of renewable energy, including large scale solar power. Nuclear power plants in Japan provided more than just base-load by storing energy in large scale pumped hydroelectric storage systems, which was then released to provide some peaking capacity. If this storage were instead coupled to current generation rooftop solar systems in Tokyo, the combined system could help to meet peak requirements while at the same time providing ˜26.5% of the electricity Tokyo used to get from nuclear output, and do so 91% of the time. Data from a study of rooftop space and a 34 yr data set of average daily irradiance in the Tokyo metropolitan area were used. Using pumped hydroelectric storage with 5.6 times this rooftop area could completely provide for TEPCO’s nuclear capacity.

  14. Airborne pollen and suicide mortality in Tokyo, 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Stickley, Andrew; Sheng Ng, Chris Fook; Konishi, Shoko; Koyanagi, Ai; Watanabe, Chiho

    2017-05-01

    Prior research has indicated that pollen might be linked to suicide mortality although the few studies that have been undertaken to date have produced conflicting findings and been limited to Western settings. This study examined the association between the level of airborne pollen and suicide mortality in Tokyo, Japan in the period from 2001 to 2011. The daily number of suicide deaths was obtained from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, with pollen data being obtained from the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health. A time-stratified case-crossover study was performed to examine the association between different levels of pollen concentration and suicide mortality. During the study period there were 5185 male and 2332 female suicides in the pollen season (February to April). For men there was no association between airborne pollen and suicide mortality. For women, compared to when there was no airborne pollen, the same-day (lag 0) pollen level of 30 to <100 grains per cm(2) was associated with an approximately 50% increase in the odds for suicide (e.g. 30 to <50 grains per cm(2): odds ratio 1.574, 95% confidence interval 1.076-2.303, p=0.020). The estimates remained fairly stable after adjusting for air pollutants and after varying the cut-points that defined the pollen levels. Our results indicate that pollen is associated with female suicide mortality in Tokyo.

  15. Social acceleration and the network effect: a defence of social 'science fiction' and network determinism.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Robert

    2010-06-01

    This essay is a response to Judy Wajcman's essay 'Life in the fast lane? Towards a sociology of technology and time' (2008: 59-77). In that article Wajcman argued that recent developments in the sociology of temporal change had been marked by a tendency in social theory towards a form of 'science fiction'--a sociological theorizing, she maintains, that bears no real relation to actual, empirically provable developments in the field and should therefore be viewed as not contributing to 'a richer analysis of the relationship between technology and time' (2008: 61). This reply argues that as Wajcman suggests in her essay, there is indeed an 'urgent need for increased dialogue to connect social theory with detailed empirical studies' (2008: 59) but that the most fruitful way to proceed would not be through a constraining of 'science fiction' social theorizing but, rather, through its expansion--and more, that 'science fiction' should take the lead in the process. This essay suggests that the connection between social theory and empirical studies would be strengthened by a wider understanding of the function of knowledge and research in the context of what is termed 'true originality' and 'routine originality'. The former is the domain of social theory and the latter resides within traditional sociological disciplines. It is argued that both need each other to advance our understanding of society, especially in the context of the fast-changing processes of technological development. The example of 'technological determinism' is discussed as illustrative of how 'routine originality' can harden into dogma without the application of 'true originality' to continually question (sometimes through ideas that may appear to border on 'science fiction') comfortable assumptions that may have become 'routine' and shorn of their initial 'originality'.

  16. Development of a Screening Scale for High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders Using the Tokyo Child Development Schedule and Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Mayo; Tachimori, Hisateru; Saito, Mari; Koyama, Tomonori; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compile a screening scale for high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), using the Tokyo Child Development Schedule (TCDS) and Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale (TABS). The 72 participants (IQ greater than or equal to 70) were divided into 3 groups after IQ matching depending on their diagnoses: i.e., PDD,…

  17. Tokyo Metropolitan Earthquake Preparedness Project - A Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, H.

    2010-12-01

    Munich Re once ranked that Tokyo metropolitan region, the capital of Japan, is the most vulnerable area for earthquake disasters, followed by San Francisco Bay Area, US and Osaka, Japan. Seismologists also predict that Tokyo metropolitan region may have at least one near-field earthquake with a probability of 70% for the next 30 years. Given this prediction, Japanese Government took it seriously to conduct damage estimations and revealed that, as the worst case scenario, if a7.3 magnitude earthquake under heavy winds as shown in the fig. 1, it would kill a total of 11,000 people and a total of direct and indirect losses would amount to 112,000,000,000,000 yen(1,300,000,000,000, 1=85yen) . In addition to mortality and financial losses, a total of 25 million people would be severely impacted by this earthquake in four prefectures. If this earthquake occurs, 300,000 elevators will be stopped suddenly, and 12,500 persons would be confined in them for a long time. Seven million people will come to use over 20,000 public shelters spread over the impacted area. Over one millions temporary housing units should be built to accommodate 4.6 million people who lost their dwellings. 2.5 million people will relocate to outside of the damaged area. In short, an unprecedented scale of earthquake disaster is expected and we must prepare for it. Even though disaster mitigation is undoubtedly the best solution, it is more realistic that the expected earthquake would hit before we complete this business. In other words, we must take into account another solution to make the people and the assets in this region more resilient for the Tokyo metropolitan earthquake. This is the question we have been tackling with for the last four years. To increase societal resilience for Tokyo metropolitan earthquake, we adopted a holistic approach to integrate both emergency response and long-term recovery. There are three goals for long-term recovery, which consists of Physical recovery, Economic

  18. NINR Centers of Excellence: A logic model for sustainability, leveraging resources and collaboration to accelerate cross-disciplinary science

    PubMed Central

    Dorsey, Susan G.; Schiffman, Rachel; Redeker, Nancy S.; Heitkemper, Margaret; McCloskey, Donna Jo; Weglicki, Linda S.; Grady, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    The NINR Centers of Excellence program is a catalyst enabling institutions to develop infrastructure and administrative support for creating cross-disciplinary teams that bring multiple strategies and expertise to bear on common areas of science. Centers are increasingly collaborative with campus partners and reflect an integrated team approach to advance science and promote the development of scientists in these areas. The purpose of this paper is to present a NINR Logic Model for Center Sustainability. The components of the logic model were derived from the presentations and robust discussions at the 2013 NINR Center Directors’ meeting focused on best practices for leveraging resources and collaboration as methods to promote center sustainability. Collaboration through development and implementation of cross-disciplinary research teams is critical to accelerate the generation of new knowledge for solving fundamental health problems. Sustainability of centers as a long-term outcome beyond the initial funding can be enhanced by thoughtful planning of inputs, activities, and leveraging resources across multiple levels. PMID:25085328

  19. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Development (1) Various Policies Based On Reports by CST 90FE0124A Tokyo PROMETHEUS in Japanese Concerning the material science and technology field, Mar...multilayer packing device and a 90FE0124B Tokyo PROMETHEUS in Japanese static pressure compression process, and simultaneously Mar-Apr 90 pp 4-5, 12-13...Introduction of FGM Development Project 90FE0124C Tokyo PROMETHEUS in Japanese Mar-Apr 90 pp 3-4, 14-22 In FY87, the project with the title, "Research

  20. A new tomographic image on the Philippine Sea Slab beneath Tokyo - Implication to seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan region -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Sato, H.; Kasahara, K.; Kimura, H.; Honda, R.

    2012-12-01

    In central Japan, the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo metropolitan region. Devastating M8-class earthquakes occurred on the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate (SPS), examples of which are the Genroku earthquake of 1703 (magnitude M=8.0) and the Kanto earthquake of 1923 (M=7.9), which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions although it is smaller than the megathrust type M8-class earthquakes. This great earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. The M7+ earthquakes may occur either on the upper surface or intra slab of PSP. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates the next great M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (1 trillion US$) economic loss at worst case if it occur beneath northern Tokyo bay with M7.3. However, the estimate is based on a source fault model by conventional studies about the PSP geometry. To evaluate seismic hazard due to the great quake we need to clarify the geometry of PSP and also the Pacific palate (PAP) that subducs beneath PSP. We identify those plates with use of seismic tomography and available deep seismic reflection profiling and borehole data in southern Kanto area. We deployed about 300 seismic stations in the greater Tokyo urban region under the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We obtain clear P- and S- wave velocity (Vp and Vs) tomograms which show a clear image of PSP and PAP. A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 kilometer beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the distribution of seismicity (Ishida, 1992). This shallower plate geometry changes estimations of strong ground motion for seismic hazards analysis within the Tokyo

  1. Optimizing scan parameters for antibody microarray experiments: accelerating robust systems diagnostics for life sciences.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qiang; Sivanandam, Thamil Mani

    2014-06-01

    Microarray experiments are a centerpiece of postgenomics life sciences and the current efforts to develop systems diagnostics for personalized medicine. The majority of antibody microarray experiments are fluorescence-based, which utilizes a scanner to convert target signals into image files for subsequent quantification. Certain scan parameters such as the laser power and photomultiplier tube gain (PMT) can influence the readout of fluorescent intensities and thus may affect data quantitation. To date, however, there is no consensus of how to determine the optimal settings of microarray scanners. Here we show that different settings of the laser power and PMT not only affect the signal intensities but also the accuracy of antibody microarray experiments. More importantly, we demonstrate an experimental approach using two fluorescent dyes to determine optimal settings of scan parameters for microarray experiments. These measures provide added quality control of microarray experiments, and thus help to improve the accuracy of quantitative outcome in microarray experiments in the above contexts.

  2. An Attempt of International Liberal Arts Education for Nurturing “Global Engineers” at Tokyo Institute of Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohara, Kayoko; Kawamoto, Shishin; Kusakabe, Osamu

    Engineering students are increasingly expected to perform as “global engineers” to lead the society as opinion leaders in finding proper directions for science and engineering developments. The Tokyo Institute of Technology is offering “the knowledge, thinking ability, and skills as the basis for its students to play active roles as international leaders reaching across the boundaries of professional areas.” This new trial, including overseas internship programmes, is unique as it tries to provide “international liberal arts education that is capable of answering the needs of engineering students.”

  3. Citizen Science Program Shows Urban Areas Have Lower Occurrence of Frog Species, but Not Accelerated Declines.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Martin J; Scheele, Ben C; Ikin, Karen; Hoefer, Anke Maria; Beaty, R Matthew; Evans, Murray; Osborne, Will; Hunter, David; Rayner, Laura; Driscoll, Don A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influence of landscape change on animal populations is critical to inform biodiversity conservation efforts. A particularly important goal is to understand how urban density affects the persistence of animal populations through time, and how these impacts can be mediated by habitat provision; but data on this question are limited for some taxa. Here, we use data from a citizen science monitoring program to investigate the effect of urbanization on patterns of frog species richness and occurrence over 13 years. Sites surrounded by a high proportion of bare ground (a proxy for urbanization) had consistently lower frog occurrence, but we found no evidence that declines were restricted to urban areas. Instead, several frog species showed declines in rural wetlands with low-quality habitat. Our analysis shows that urban wetlands had low but stable species richness; but also that population trajectories are strongly influenced by vegetation provision in both the riparian zone and the wider landscape. Future increases in the extent of urban environments in our study area are likely to negatively impact populations of several frog species. However, existing urban areas are unlikely to lose further frog species in the medium term. We recommend that landscape planning and management focus on the conservation and restoration of rural wetlands to arrest current declines, and the revegetation of urban wetlands to facilitate the re-expansion of urban-sensitive species.

  4. Citizen Science Program Shows Urban Areas Have Lower Occurrence of Frog Species, but Not Accelerated Declines

    PubMed Central

    Westgate, Martin J.; Scheele, Ben C.; Ikin, Karen; Hoefer, Anke Maria; Beaty, R. Matthew; Evans, Murray; Osborne, Will; Hunter, David; Rayner, Laura; Driscoll, Don A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influence of landscape change on animal populations is critical to inform biodiversity conservation efforts. A particularly important goal is to understand how urban density affects the persistence of animal populations through time, and how these impacts can be mediated by habitat provision; but data on this question are limited for some taxa. Here, we use data from a citizen science monitoring program to investigate the effect of urbanization on patterns of frog species richness and occurrence over 13 years. Sites surrounded by a high proportion of bare ground (a proxy for urbanization) had consistently lower frog occurrence, but we found no evidence that declines were restricted to urban areas. Instead, several frog species showed declines in rural wetlands with low-quality habitat. Our analysis shows that urban wetlands had low but stable species richness; but also that population trajectories are strongly influenced by vegetation provision in both the riparian zone and the wider landscape. Future increases in the extent of urban environments in our study area are likely to negatively impact populations of several frog species. However, existing urban areas are unlikely to lose further frog species in the medium term. We recommend that landscape planning and management focus on the conservation and restoration of rural wetlands to arrest current declines, and the revegetation of urban wetlands to facilitate the re-expansion of urban-sensitive species. PMID:26580412

  5. Critical Issues in Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesaka, M.; Hosokai, T.

    2004-10-01

    Updated achievements and critical issues in plasma accelerators are summarized. As to laser plasma accelerators, we cover the results of plasma cathodes by U.Michigan, LBNL, LOA and U.Tokyo. Although many new results of accelerated electrons have been reported, the electrons do not yet form a bunch with narrow energy spread. Several injection schemes and measurements to verify ultrashort bunch (tens fs) with narrow energy spread, low emittance and many charges are planned. E-162 experiments by UCLA / USC / SLAC and a newly proposed experiment on density transition trapping are introduced for electron beam driven plasma accelerators. Their main purpose is realization of GeV plasma accelerator, but application to pump-and-probe analysis for investigation of ultrafast quantum phenomena is also promising.

  6. The Tokyo subway sarin attack--lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Okumura, T; Hisaoka, T; Yamada, A; Naito, T; Isonuma, H; Okumura, S; Miura, K; Sakurada, M; Maekawa, H; Ishimatsu, S; Takasu, N; Suzuki, K

    2005-09-01

    The sarin gas attack in the Tokyo subway system is reviewed from a clinical toxicology perspective. Based on the lessons learned from this attack, the following areas should be addressed on a global scale. First, an adequate supply of protective equipment is required, including level B protective equipment with a pressure demand breathing apparatus. In addition, a system should be established that enables a possible cause to be determined based on symptoms, physical findings, general laboratory tests, and a simple qualitative analysis for poisonous substances. If an antidote is needed, the system should enable it to be administered to the victims as quickly as possible. Preparation for a large-scale chemical attack by terrorists requires the prior establishment of a detailed decontamination plan that utilizes not only mass decontamination facilities but also public facilities in the area. A system should be established for summarizing, evaluating, and disseminating information on poisonous substances. Finally, a large-scale scientific investigation of the Tokyo sarin attack should be conducted to examine its long-term and subclinical effects and the effects of exposure to asymptomatic low levels of sarin.

  7. The Thirteenth International Conference on Endothelin (ET-13), Tokyo, 2013.

    PubMed

    Emoto, Noriaki; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2014-11-24

    The Thirteenth International Conference on Endothelin (ET-13) was held from September 8-11, 2013 in Tokyo, Japan chaired by Noriaki Emoto, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Japan, and Takashi Miyauchi, University of Tsukuba, Japan and held on the Tokyo Campus of Tsukuba University. The International Conferences on Endothelin were launched in December of 1988 shortly after the discovery of endothelin and organized by Sir John Vane, laureate of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982, as the Conference Chair at The William Harvey Research Institute, London. Since then, the conference has been held every two years alternating between North America, Europe and Asia. In 2013, the conference was again held in Asia and also marked the 25th anniversary of the discovery of endothelin at University of Tsukuba. The 25th anniversary of the discovery of endothelin was celebrated by almost 300 attendees from 25 different countries, the largest number of delegates in the recent history of the conference. Conference delegates who traveled to Japan were from Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Korean Republic, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, and from Vietnam. In this article we summarize the conference highlights, its speakers, and some of the festivities related to the celebration of the 25th anniversary of the discovery of endothelin.

  8. Circadian Variation in Suicide Attempts in Tokyo from 1978 to 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motohashi, Yutaka

    1990-01-01

    Analyzed circadian variations in suicide attempts in Tokyo from 1978 to 1985 from records of Ambulance Service of Tokyo. Findings showed significant circadian variation in suicide attempts which seemed to be associated with endogenous rhythms, such as mood, and daily variation in social activities. Established peak time for suicide attempts as…

  9. Will Progress in Science and Technology Avert or Accelerate Global Collapse? A Critical Analysis and Policy Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Huesemann, Joyce A.

    2008-12-01

    Industrial society will move towards collapse if its total environmental impact (I), expressed either in terms of energy and materials use or in terms of pollution, increases with time, i.e., dI/dt > 0. The traditional interpretation of the I=PAT equation reflects the optimistic belief that technological innovation, particularly improvements in eco-efficiency, will significantly reduce the technology (T) factor, and thereby result in a corresponding decline in impact (I). Unfortunately, this interpretation of the I=PAT equation ignores the effects of technical change on the other two factors: population (P) and per capita affluence (A). A more heuristic formulation of this equation is I=P(T)∙A(T)∙T in which the dependence of P and A on T is apparent. From historical evidence, it is clear that technological revolutions (tool-making, agricultural, and industrial) have been the primary driving forces behind successive population explosions, and that modern communication and transportation technologies have been employed to transform a large proportion of the world’s inhabitants into consumers of material- and energy-intensive products and services. In addition, factor analysis from neoclassical growth theory and the rebound effect provide evidence that science and technology have played a key role in contributing to rising living standards. While technological change has thus contributed to significant increases in both P and A, it has at the same time brought about considerable eco-efficiency improvements. Unfortunately, reductions in the T-factor have generally not been sufficiently rapid to compensate for the simultaneous increases in both P and A. As a result, total impact, in terms of energy production, mineral extraction, land-use and CO2 emissions, has in most cases increased with time, indicating that industrial society is nevertheless moving towards collapse. The belief that continued and even accelerated scientific research and technological innovation

  10. Impact on ambient dose rate in metropolitan Tokyo from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Van Le, Tan; Arai, Moeko; Saito, Kyoko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    A car-borne survey was made in metropolitan Tokyo, Japan, in December 2014 to estimate external dose. This survey was conducted for all municipalities of Tokyo and the results were compared with measurements done in 2003. The ambient dose rate measured in the whole area of Tokyo in December 2014 was 60 nGy h(-1) (23-142 nGy h(-1)), which was 24% higher than the rate in 2003. Higher dose rates (>70 nGy h(-1)) were observed on the eastern and western ends of Tokyo; furthermore, the contribution ratio from artificial radionuclides ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) to ambient dose rate in eastern Tokyo was twice as high as that of western Tokyo. Based on the measured ambient dose rate, the effective dose rate after the accident was estimated to be 0.45 μSv h(-1) in Tokyo. This value was 22% higher than the value before the accident as of December 2014.

  11. Laser acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  12. Accelerator Science and Technology in Canada — From the Microtron to TRIUMF, Superconducting Cyclotrons and the Canadian Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craddock, M. K.; Laxdal, R. E.

    As elsewhere, accelerators in Canada have evolved from modest beginnings to major facilities such as TRIUMF (currently with the highest-power driver for rare isotope beam production) and the third generation Canadian Light Source. Highlights along the way include construction of the first microtron, the first racetrack microtron and the first superconducting cyclotron (to which list might have been added the first pulse stretcher ring, had it been funded sooner). This article will summarize the history of accelerators in Canada, documenting both the successes and the near-misses. Besides the research accelerators, a thriving commercial sector has developed, manufacturing small cyclotrons and linacs, beam line components and superconducting rf cavities.

  13. Accelerator Science and Technology in Canada -- From the Microtron to TRIUMF, Superconducting Cyclotrons and the Canadian Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craddock, M. K.; Laxdal, R. E.

    As elsewhere, accelerators in Canada have evolved from modest beginnings to major facilities such as TRIUMF (currently with the highest-power driver for rare isotope beam production) and the third generation Canadian Light Source. Highlights along the way include construction of the first microtron, the first racetrack microtron and the first superconducting cyclotron (to which list might have been added the first pulse stretcher ring, had it been funded sooner). This article will summarize the history of accelerators in Canada, documenting both the successes and the near-misses. Besides the research accelerators, a thriving commercial sector has developed, manufacturing small cyclotrons and linacs, beam line components and superconducting rf cavities.

  14. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  15. Meteorologists from the University of Tokyo: Their Exodus to the United States Following World War II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, John M.

    1993-07-01

    The emigration of 11 young Japanese meteorologists to the United States following World War II is investigated. Their move is examined with the benefit of a historical backdrop that includes a study of the socioeconomic conditions in Japan and the education that they received at the University of Tokyo. Oral histories and letters of reminiscence from these scientists are used with standard source material to reconstruct the conditions of postwar Japan. The principal results of the study are that 1) these scientists were among the intellectual elite, because of the rigorous screening process in the Japanese educational system; 2) their scientific education was fundamentally grounded in traditional physics and a wide range of geophysical sciences; 3) they all experienced austere living conditions and poor job prospects in the war-torn Japanese economy; and 4) they made a strong scientific connection with U.S. researchers in the areas of numerical experimentation and numerical weather prediction, which facilitated their move to the United States.

  16. Effects of Road Traffic Noise on Inhabitants of Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, T.; Osada, Y.; Kawaguchi, T.; Hoshiyama, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Yamamoto, K.

    1997-08-01

    A questionnaire-based study was performed in an area of about 16 ha near a main road in Tokyo to elucidate any relations between road traffic noise and the effects of this noise among women living on both sides of the road. Questions concerned annoyance, sleep disturbance, interference with daily activities, health-related symptoms and disease histories. 366 inhabitants were analyzed. Dose-response relationships were found in high reported responses to noisiness, annoyance, dissatisfaction with the nearby environment and interference with listening to TV, conversation and reading. It was also found that the number of high responses to questions increases clearly at noise levels above 70 dB(A),Leq(24h), with regard to interference with thinking and sleep disturbance (waking during the night), fatigue, headache, gastroenteric disorders, loss of appetite, depression and irritation. Furthermore, there was an increase in reports of disease histories with noise above 70 dB(A) for climacteric disturbances, and at noise above 65 dB(A) for deafness, heart disease and hypercholestrolemia. These all suggest that noise may be related to the health status of inhabitants living in areas with heavy road traffic. A noise level of 65 dB(A) or 70 dB(A) inLeq(24h)was the critical point above which respondents indicated increased effects on health and reports of disease increased.

  17. Deep seismic reflection profiling of the subduction megathrust across the Sagimi trough and Tokyo bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Takaya; Abe, Susumu; Saito, Hideo; Kawanaka, Taku; Hirata, Naoshi

    2010-05-01

    Beneath the metropolitan Tokyo, the Philippine Sea plate, in particular the fore arc portion of the Izu-Bonin island arc, has been subducted. Subduction megathrust beneath Tokyo generated M-8 class earthquakes, such as the 1923 Kanto (M7.9) and 1703 Genroku (M8.0) earthquakes. Due to the buyant subduction of the Izu-Bonin arc, the megathrust lies very shallow part of the crust. The Kozu-Matsuda fault, probable spray fault from the megathrust, emerged at the surface. In 2009, we acquired the deep seismic reflection data across the toe of the thrust system to reveal the connectivity of the probable spray fault to the megathrust. Together with the deep seismic section acquired in 2003, we show a 120-km-long deep seismic reflection profile from the front to 30 km in depth and discuss the geometry and characteristics of the thrust system. We performed deep seismic profiling across the Sagami trough for a 70-km-long seismic line in September 2009, using two ships for offshore seismic data acquisition: a gun-ship with a 3020 cu. inch air-gun and a cable-ship with a 2-km-long, streamer cable and a 480 cu. inch air-gun. The seismic signals were recorded at Miura and Izu peninsulas located both ends of the seismic line. At both sides of the onshore line, off-line recorders were deployed along total 20-km-long seismic lines at a 50m interval. Seismic reflection data were acquired by different offset of ships making large-offset gathers. The northeast end of the seismic line connected with the 2003 Tokyo bay seismic line (Sato et al., 2005: Science). The obtained seismic sections portray the detailed geometry of the spray faults, suggesting an emergent thrust with 4 km thick landward dipping strata. It merges to the megathrust at 6-7 sec (TWT). Judging from the geometry of fault-related fold in the trough fill sediments, the tip of the megathrust is located at 3 sec (TWT) beneath the trough axis. According to the co-seismic crustal deformation, the slip of the 1923 Kanto

  18. Child Development in Okinawa Compared with Tokyo and Denver, and the Implications for Developmental Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueda, Reiko

    1978-01-01

    Developmental differences in the Denver Developmental Screening Test items were demonstrated between samples of children from Okinawa (n=615) and Tokyo (n=1171), who were 16 days to 6 years old. Journal availability: see EC 112 661. (Author)

  19. Development of evaluation metod of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2012-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. In particular, the Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of climate change adaptation strategy. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published "Statistics of flood", which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. Based on these flood data, we constructed a flood database system for Tokyo metropolitan area for the period from 1961 to 2008 by using ArcGIS software.Based on these flood data , we created flood risk curve, representing the relation ship between damage and exceedbability of flood for the period 1976-2008. Based on the flood risk cruve, we aim to evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause of regional difference in flood risk at Tokyo metropolitan area by considering effect of socio-economic change and climate change

  20. Heavy-ion injector based on an electron cyclotron ion source for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, In-Seok Kim, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Choi, Suk-Jin; Park, Bum-Sik; Jin, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Hye-Jin; Heo, Jeong-Il; Kim, Deok-Min; Jang, Ji-Ho

    2016-02-15

    The injector for the main driver linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea, has been developed to allow heavy ions up to uranium to be delivered to the inflight fragmentation system. The critical components of the injector are the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and matching systems for low and medium energy beams. We have built superconducting magnets for the ECR ion source, and a prototype with one segment of the RFQ structure, with the aim of developing a design that can satisfy our specifications, demonstrate stable operation, and prove results to compare the design simulation.

  1. Heavy-ion injector based on an electron cyclotron ion source for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project.

    PubMed

    Hong, In-Seok; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Choi, Suk-Jin; Park, Bum-Sik; Jin, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Hye-Jin; Heo, Jeong-Il; Kim, Deok-Min; Jang, Ji-Ho

    2016-02-01

    The injector for the main driver linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea, has been developed to allow heavy ions up to uranium to be delivered to the inflight fragmentation system. The critical components of the injector are the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and matching systems for low and medium energy beams. We have built superconducting magnets for the ECR ion source, and a prototype with one segment of the RFQ structure, with the aim of developing a design that can satisfy our specifications, demonstrate stable operation, and prove results to compare the design simulation.

  2. Biodosimetry of restoration workers for the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station accident.

    PubMed

    Suto, Yumiko; Hirai, Momoki; Akiyama, Miho; Kobashi, Gen; Itokawa, Masanari; Akashi, Makoto; Sugiura, Nobuyuki

    2013-10-01

    The biological dose of nuclear workers engaged in emergency response tasks at Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station was estimated in the present study. As the national core center for radiation emergency medical preparedness in Japan, the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) received all individuals who were suspected of being overexposed to acute radiation. In the course of health examinations at NIRS, biological dosimetry was performed by the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA). Twelve individuals were examined from 21 March-1 July 2011. The results indicated that the estimated exposure doses for all individuals were lower than 30 mGy, with the mean value of about 101 mGy. These results by DCA were in accordance with those obtained by physical dosimetry based on personal dosimeter recording assessment. The results corroborate the fact that no acute radiation syndrome was observed among the workers examined.

  3. The University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory 6.5m Telescope: enclosure design and wind analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Masahiro; Sako, Shigeyuki; Uchida, Takanori; Araya, Ryou; Kim, Koui; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Doi, Mamoru; Kohno, Kotaro; Miyata, Takashi; Motohara, Kentaro; Tanaka, Masuo; Minezaki, Takeo; Morokuma, Tomoki; Tamura, Yoichi; Tanabé, Toshihiko; Kato, Natsuko; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Takahashi, Hidenori; Aoki, Tsutomu; Soyano, Takao; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi

    2016-07-01

    We present results on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations as well as the wind tunnel experiments for the observation facilities of the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory 6.5m Telescope being constructed at the summit of Co. Chajnantor in northern Chile. Main purpose of this study starting with the baseline design reported in 2014 is to analyze topographic effect on the wind behavior, and to evaluate the wind pressure, the air turbulence, and the air change (ventilation) efficiency in the enclosure. The wind velocity is found to be accelerated by a factor of 1.2 to reach the summit (78 m sec-1 expected at a maximum), and the resulting wind pressure (3,750 N m-2) is used for the framework design of the facilities. The CFD data reveals that the open space below the floor of the facilities works efficiently to drift away the air turbulence near the ground level which could significantly affect the dome seeing. From comparisons of the wind velocity field obtained from the CFD simulation for three configurations of the ventilation windows, we find that the windows at a level of the telescope secondary mirror have less efficiency of the air change than those at lower levels. Considering the construction and maintenance costs, and operation procedures, we finally decide to allocate 13 windows at a level of the observing floor, 12 at a level of the primary mirror, and 2 at the level of the secondary mirror. The opening area by those windows accounts for about 14% of the total interior surface of the enclosure. Typical air change rate of 20-30 per hour is expected at the wind velocity of 1 m sec-1.

  4. Accelerator Technology Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-04-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1991, the Accelerator Technology (AT) division continued fulfilling its mission to pursue accelerator science and technology and to develop new accelerator concepts for application to research, defense, energy, industry, and other areas of national interest. This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; (Phi) Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  5. Classification of M~7 earthquakes in Tokyo Metropolitan area since 1885 - The 1894 Meiji Tokyo and 1895 Ibaraki-ken Nambu earthquakes -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murotani, S.; Ishibe, T.; Satake, K.; Shimazaki, K.

    2011-12-01

    S-P times on old seismograms and seismic intensity distributions indicate that the 1894 Meiji Tokyo earthquake (M7.0) occurred within the subducting Philippine Sea plate (PHS), while the 1895 Ibaraki-ken Nambu earthquake (M7.2) was deeper and occurred within the subducting Pacific plate (PAC). The Tokyo Metropolitan area is situated in a tectonically complex region; the PHS subducts from south, while the PAC subducts from east below PHS. Thus, various types of earthquakes occur in this region. They are classified into: shallow crustal earthquakes, intraplate (slab) earthquakes within PHS or PAC, and interplate earthquakes between continental plate and PHS, and between PHS and PAC. The probability of large earthquakes with magnitude (M)~7 is high; Earthquake Research Committee in Japan calculated the probability of occurrence during the next 30 years as 70 %, based on the fact that five M~7 earthquakes (the 1894 Meiji Tokyo, 1895 and 1921 Ibaraki-ken Nambu, 1922 Uraga Channel, and 1987 Chiba-ken Toho-oki earthquakes) occurred since 1885. However, types of these earthquakes except for the 1987 earthquake are not well known due to low quality of data. It is important to classify these earthquakes into above-described intraplate or interplate earthquakes. Seismometer observations started around 1880 in Japan. For both the 1894 and 1895 earthquakes, the disk-type seismograph had been used at the University of Tokyo and the drum-type seismograph had been used at Central Meteorological Observatory (CMO) stations of Tokyo and Utsunomiya. We digitized those records and restored those from Circular to Cartesian coordinates, although their instrumental responses are not known. Furthermore, because the arm of disk-type seismograph was triggered by the first motion of earthquake, the P-wave first motion might be missed. As a result, S-P times read from multiple instruments at the same location (e.g., University of Tokyo campus) are variable. The Meiji Tokyo earthquake occurred

  6. Accelerating the development of formal thinking in middle and high school students II: Postproject effects on science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayer, Michael; Adey, Philip S.

    A one-year lag was found between the effect of an intervention intended to promote formal operational thinking in students initially 11 or 12 years of age and the appearance of substantial science achievement in the experimental groups. A one-year lag was also reported on cognitive development: Whereas at the end of the two-year intervention the experimental groups were up to 0.9 ahead of the control groups, one year later the differential on Piagetian measures had disappeared, but the experimentals now showed better science achievement of even greater magnitude. Although the control groups showed normal distribution both on science achievement and cognitive development, the experimental groups showed bi- or trimodal distribution. Between one-half and one-quarter of the students involved in the experiment in different groups showed effects of the order of 2 both on cognitive development and science achievement; some students appeared unaffected (compared with the controls), and others demonstrated modest effects on science achievement. An age/gender interaction is reported: the most substantial effects were found in boys initially aged 12+ and girls initially 11+. The only group to show no effects was boys initially aged 11+. It is suggested that the intervention methods may have favored the abstract analytical learning style as described by Cohen 1986.

  7. Dissolved platinum in rainwater, river water and seawater around Tokyo Bay and Otsuchi Bay in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashio, Asami Suzuki; Obata, Hajime; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Tsutsumi, Makoto; Ferrer i Santos, Antoni; Gamo, Toshitaka

    2016-10-01

    Platinum, among the rarest elements in the earth's crust, is now widely used in various products such as catalytic converters in automobiles and anticancer drugs. Consequently, the concentration of Pt in urban aquatic environments might be increasing. However, little is known about the distributions and geochemical cycles of Pt in aquatic environments because its overall concentration remains low. In this study, we examined dissolved Pt in river water and seawater around Tokyo Bay and Otsuchi Bay (Iwate Prefecture, Japan) and rainwater in the Tokyo area. To determine sub-picomolar levels of dissolved Pt, we used isotope-dilution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) after column preconcentration with an anion exchange resin. We observed seasonal variation in the dissolved Pt concentrations in Tokyo rainwater in 2002; higher concentrations were found from January to March, which might be related to the pH of rainwaters. At the source of the Arakawa River in the greater Tokyo area, the dissolved Pt concentration was found to be similar to that in rainwater. Further downstream, the dissolved Pt concentration increased sharply, which seemingly reflects the anthropogenic input of Pt into the river. In a rural area in Japan (Otsuchi Bay), the dissolved Pt concentrations were lower than in Tokyo Bay. In this area, a sharp increase in dissolved Pt concentrations was observed in a high salinity region. Contrasting Pt distribution patterns between urban and rural areas indicate that strong anthropogenic Pt sources exist in urban estuaries and that geochemical processes within estuaries affect the Pt distribution.

  8. Establishment and current status of patient community at Tokyo Dental College.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Murakami, Satoshi; Hirata, Soichiro; Sugihara, Naoki; Mochizuki, Riuji; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Kawada, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    The "Dental students training to address the needs of each individual patient: enhancement of ability to make a comprehensive diagnosis and treatment plans with high ethical standards and good communication skills", project launched at Tokyo Dental College was adopted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology as part of its "Program for Promoting University Education and Student Support, Theme A: Program for Promoting University Education Reform" in 2009. One of the main goals of this subject is "the establishment of Patient Community". Patient Community members allowed students to gain a more realistic experience of clinical practice than simulated patients. The Patient Community consists of patients and members of the parents' association who have agreed to cooperate for the advancement of dental education, becoming involved in dental student education through Communication Studies, which are held for first- to fourth-year students. Patient Community members were recruited at the open lectures (15 times, between July 10, 2010 and November 30, 2011). The Patient Community comprised 24 members, including 8 men and 16 women by November 30, 2011. The cumulative number of attendees in Communication Studies (I-IV, 6 times) was 35, including 13 men and 22 women. Fourteen people applied for admission on the day of the open lecture. Seven people signed up between 1 and 7 days after the open lecture. On the other hand, only 3 people applied within 8 to 9 days after the open lecture. However, interestingly, the ratio of the attendance for Communication Studies by Patient Community members who applied 8 to 9 days after the open lecture was higher than that of members who applied for admission on the day of the open lecture. Since the number of Patient Community members is insufficient for the purposes of the Patient Community, it is necessary to think about how recruitment methods can be made more effective and how such open lectures should be

  9. Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  10. An in situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science on magnetic fusion devices.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Zachary S; Barnard, Harold S; Lanza, Richard C; Sorbom, Brandon N; Stahle, Peter W; Whyte, Dennis G

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a novel particle accelerator-based diagnostic that nondestructively measures the evolution of material surface compositions inside magnetic fusion devices. The diagnostic's purpose is to contribute to an integrated understanding of plasma-material interactions in magnetic fusion, which is severely hindered by a dearth of in situ material surface diagnosis. The diagnostic aims to remotely generate isotopic concentration maps on a plasma shot-to-shot timescale that cover a large fraction of the plasma-facing surface inside of a magnetic fusion device without the need for vacuum breaks or physical access to the material surfaces. Our instrument uses a compact (~1 m), high-current (~1 milliamp) radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator to inject 0.9 MeV deuterons into the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at MIT. We control the tokamak magnetic fields--in between plasma shots--to steer the deuterons to material surfaces where the deuterons cause high-Q nuclear reactions with low-Z isotopes ~5 μm into the material. The induced neutrons and gamma rays are measured with scintillation detectors; energy spectra analysis provides quantitative reconstruction of surface compositions. An overview of the diagnostic technique, known as accelerator-based in situ materials surveillance (AIMS), and the first AIMS diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is given. Experimental validation is shown to demonstrate that an optimized deuteron beam is injected into the tokamak, that low-Z isotopes such as deuterium and boron can be quantified on the material surfaces, and that magnetic steering provides access to different measurement locations. The first AIMS analysis, which measures the relative change in deuterium at a single surface location at the end of the Alcator C-Mod FY2012 plasma campaign, is also presented.

  11. Citizen Science International Pellet Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohrenwend, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Like Tokyo, other cities, both small and large, typically have numerous universities with dedicated faculties of scientists. By using portals such as Citizen Science and SciStarter, teachers can reach beyond the four walls of their classroom. The incredible experience of forging a relationship with a local scientist can easily begin via a cordial…

  12. Comparative study of the aerobic, heterotrophic bacterial flora of Chesapeake Bay and Tokyo Bay.

    PubMed Central

    Austin, B; Garges, S; Conrad, B; Harding, E E; Colwell, R R; Simidu, U; Taga, N

    1979-01-01

    A comparative study of the bacterial flora of the water of Chesapeake Bay and Tokyo Bay was undertaken to assess similarities and differences between the autochthonous flora of the two geographical sites and to test the hypothesis that, given similarities in environmental parameters, similar bacterial populations will be found, despite extreme geographic distance between locations. A total of 195 aerobic, heterotrophic bacterial strains isolated from Chesapeake Bay and Tokyo Bay water were examined for 115 biochemical, cultural, morphological, nutritional, and physiological characters. The data were analyzed by the methods of numerical taxonomy. From sorted similarity matrices, 77% of the isolates could be grouped into 30 phena and presumptively identified as Acinetobacter-Moraxella, Caulobacter, coryneforms, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio spp. Vibrio and Acinetobacter species were found to be common in the estuarine waters of Chesapeake Bay, whereas Acinetobacter-Moraxella and Caulobacter predominated in Tokyo Bay waters, at the sites sampled in the study. PMID:453838

  13. University of Tokyo DIMM: a portable DIMM for site testing at Atacama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motohara, Kentaro; Doi, Mamoru; Soyano, Takao; Tanaka, Masuo; Kohno, Kotaro; Miyata, Takashi; Takato, Naruhisa; Uraguchi, Fumihiro

    2004-07-01

    University of Tokyo is now planning to construct a new 6.5m telescope on a peak at Chajnantor region of Atacama, Chile. This project is called "Tokyo Atacama Observatory" (TAO), and site testing is now under progress. As a part of this site testing, we have developed a portable DIMM system which is called a "University of Tokyo DIMM" (UT-DIMM) to measure seeing. The system mostly consists of inexpensive commercial products, which are a MEADE 12 inch telescope, a video-rate CCD camera with an electronic shutter, a Linux based PC, and so on. It has thrifty power consumption and can be operated for one whole night only with a single DC-12V battery for an automobile. In this paper, we describe the instrument, report the current status, and explain its future plans.

  14. [Mercury concentration of fish in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea area].

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Kashima, Y; Matsui, M; Okabe, T; Doi, R

    2001-07-01

    Total mercury in the muscles of three fish species was analyzed in fish caught in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea areas, Sagami Bay and Choshi. Tokyo Bay is a semi-closed sea area surrounded by Tokyo, Kanagawa and Chiba prefectures. Sagami Bay and Choshi are open to the Pacific Ocean. A total of 412 fish consisting of northern whiting (Sillago japonica), flatfish (Limanda yokohamae) and sardine (Sardinops melanosticta) were caught in these areas over a 6 months period from November 1998 to April 1999. Total mercury concentration ranged from 0.008-0.092 microgram/g (wet wt.) in northern whiting, 0.006-0.065 microgram/g in flatfish and 0.001-0.045 microgram/g in sardine. All concentrations were below the restriction limit of fish mercury in Japan, 0.4 microgram/g of total mercury concentration. A significant correlation was found between mercury concentrations and body length or body weight in northern whiting and flatfish, irrespective of the sea area. A correlation was also found between mercury concentration in fish and their feeding habits: among the 3 species caught in the same area, crustacean feeding northern whiting had the highest, polychaete feeding flatfish moderate, and plankton feeding sardine had the lowest mercury concentration. In a comparison of mercury concentration in the same species caught in different sea areas, a higher concentration was noted in fish caught in the semi-closed sea area of Tokyo Bay, than in fish caught in the open sea areas of Sagami Bay and Choshi. This difference was most marked in fish caught at the bottom of Tokyo Bay and we considered that the mercury concentration of seawater and sediment in these areas was the cause of mercury accumulation in fish. These findings suggest that improved water quality control and environmental monitoring is necessary in semi-closed sea areas such as Tokyo Bay.

  15. A Brief Test of the Tokyo Sokushin VSE-355G3 Strong Motion Velocity Seismometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutt, Charles R.; Evans, John R.; Yokoi, Isamu

    2008-01-01

    The VSE-355G3 seismometer is a broadband seismometer (called a 'servo velocity meter' by Tokyo Sokushin) with a specified clip level of 2 m/s and a flat response to earth velocity from 0.008 Hertz (Hz) to 70 Hz. Mr. Yokoi and Mr. Kurahashi of Tokyo Sokushin shipped one instrument to the U. S. Geological Survey's Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL) for testing in early September 2007. They gave a presentation on this instrument and some of their other products to the authors and others on September 6, 2007. Testing of the VSE-355G3, Serial Number 70520, commenced on Friday, September 7, 2007.

  16. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, White Paper on Science & Technology 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    registrations indicate an overall improvement In. quality of patents obtained by Japanese applicants In the United States. (Figure 11) 11 Figure 11 Changes...JPRS-JST-92-005 26 FEBRUARY 1992 FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE .JPRS Report- Science & Technology Japan WHITE PAPER ON SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY...JST-92-005 26 FEBRUARY 1992 SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY JAPAN WHITE PAPER ON SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 1991 43070001 Tokyo WHITE PAPER ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

  17. Section 7.3. accelerator facilities. Technology review of accelerator facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, Joseph

    New initiatives in basic science, accelerator engineering and market development, continue to stimulate applications of electron accelerators. Contributions from scientific experts in each of these segments have been assimulated to reflect the present status of accelerator technology in radiation processing.

  18. 77 FR 56909 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Tokyo 1955-70: A New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Tokyo 1955-70: A New Avant-Garde... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Tokyo 1955-70: A New Avant-Garde,''...

  19. Factors Contributing to Plate Waste among Elementary School Children in Tokyo, Japan: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abe, Keina; Akamatsu, Rie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the aspects of the Theory of Planned Behavior with the greatest relevance to plate waste (PW) among elementary school children in Tokyo, Japan. Methods: A total of 111 fifth- and sixth-grade students at an elementary school in Tokyo, Japan responded to a self-report questionnaire. The…

  20. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  1. Accelerators for research and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.

    1990-06-01

    The newest particle accelerators are almost always built for extending the frontiers of research, at the cutting edge of science and technology. Once these machines are operating and these technologies mature, new applications are always found, many of which touch our lives in profound ways. The evolution of accelerator technologies will be discussed, with descriptions of accelerator types and characteristics. The wide range of applications of accelerators will be discussed, in fields such as nuclear science, medicine, astrophysics and space-sciences, power generation, airport security, materials processing and microcircuit fabrication. 13 figs.

  2. PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Teng, L.C.

    1960-01-19

    ABS>A combination of two accelerators, a cyclotron and a ring-shaped accelerator which has a portion disposed tangentially to the cyclotron, is described. Means are provided to transfer particles from the cyclotron to the ring accelerator including a magnetic deflector within the cyclotron, a magnetic shield between the ring accelerator and the cyclotron, and a magnetic inflector within the ring accelerator.

  3. Simulation of instrumental intensities in the Tokyo Metropolitan area using a 3D attenuation structure model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panayotopoulos, Y.; Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Kasahara, K.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years the development of dense seismic networks in Japan has enabled high quality observations of instrumental intensities. However, the distribution of intensities of historical earthquakes can only be retrieved by the damage reports on historical documents. Their epicenter and magnitude can be roughly estimated from the intensity distribution, assuming that seismic intensity decays with distance. This approximation is not always accurate, since the amplitude of short period ground motion decays with focal distance and is affected by the 3D attenuation structure along the path and in addition displays frequency dependence. In order to estimate the location and size of a large historical earthquake, we need to accurately simulate the seismic intensity distribution, accounting for non linear attenuation of seismic waves along the path. The instrumental seismic intensities inside the Kanto basin observed at the Tokyo Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) and Hi-net stations display unusual distribution patterns, with peak intensities observed several km away from the epicenter rather than at the stations closer to it. In order to understand the source of this intensity distribution, we estimated the theoretical instrumental intensities using a 3D attenuation structure and compare it to the observed intensity distribution. We first estimated a 3D attenuation structure using the spectral decay of seismic waves, by fitting the observed seismic wave spectrum to a theoretical spectrum using an ω2 model. The obtained model suggests Qs values of 50˜100 inside the Kanto basin and low Qs values < 300 in the area where the Philippine Sea plate meets the upper part of the Pacific plate. We then use an ω2 model in order to estimate the source acceleration spectrum of several earthquakes occurring below the Kanto basin at depths ranging 30~80 km. Our simulation shows that earthquakes occurring on the Pacific plate pass through the low Qs area inside the

  4. Compton scattering monochromatic X-ray source based on X-band multi-bunch linac at the University of Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, F.; Uesaka, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Natsui, T.; Hashimoto, E.; Woo, L. K.; Yamamoto, T.; Urakawa, J.; Yoshida, M.; Higo, T.; Fukuda, S.; Kaneko, N.; Nose, H.; Sakae, H.; Nakamura, N.; Yamamoto, M.

    2009-09-01

    We are currently developing a compact monochromatic X-ray source based on laser-electron Compton scattering for the purpose of medical applications at the University of Tokyo. To realize remarkably compact-, high-intensity- and highly stable system, we adopt an X-band (11.424 GHz) multi-bunch linear accelerator (linac) and reliable Q-switch Nd:YAG laser. The injector of the system consists of a 3.5-cell X-band thermionic cathode RF-gun and an alpha magnet. So far, we have continued high-power experiment and beam generation on X-band thermionic cathode RF-gun. However, breakdown was frequently occurred at coaxial structure around the thermionic cathode. In order to resolve the breakdown, we adopt a choke structure around the thermionic cathode. In this paper, the details of Compton scattering X-ray source the University of Tokyo, the experimental results of the X-ray generation, and upgrade of the X-band thermionic cathode RF-gun will be presented.

  5. Mobile Learning for Expanding Educational Opportunities Workshop Report (Tokyo, Japan, May 16-20, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meleisea, Ellie, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The International Workshop on Mobile Learning for Expanding Educational Opportunities was held 16-20 May 2005 in Tokyo, Japan. Jointly organized by the Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI) and UNESCO, speakers came from both the private and public sector. The key objective was to highlight the benefits of m-learning; and to provide specific…

  6. [How do we cure the medical divide between northern Tohoku district and Tokyo?].

    PubMed

    Fukaura, Hikoaki

    2010-11-01

    What is required to provide high quality medical service to anybody, anytime and anywhere? We have investigated health care in neurology as provided by national health insurance in Aomori, Akita and Iwate prefectures compared to health care in Tokyo. We have conducted hearing surveillance to patients and doctors. Most of the patients have to drive to hospital for more than 100 kms as there is no licensed neurologist in their neighborhood and public transportation is poor. There are only a few medical facilities that can satisfy their needs even in prefectural cities. Neurologists who work alone at general hospitals face difficulties as they cannot consult with other neurologist about diagnosis and treatment and have rare opportunity to attend academic conferences. A licensed neurologist at northern Tohoku district has to be in charge of a half of Tokyo 23 districts area and twice as many people as Tokyo. We have concluded that medical divide due to the more or less of quantity of selection exists between northern Tohoku and Tokyo. How do we cure this medical divide? Creating a new framework of patients transporting system, increasing the number of doctors who work at general hospitals and opening satellite clinics at regional towns should be considered.

  7. Dissecting Analogical Leveling Quantitatively: The Case of the Innovative Potential Suffix in Tokyo Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Kenjiro

    1993-01-01

    Analogical leveling in progress of a potential suffix in Tokyo Japanese is analyzed within a quantitative model. The phenomenon is shown to be controlled by five factors: sociological variable complex, verb stem length, verb conjugation pattern, the following inflectional form, and embeddedness of the clause containing the suffix. (Contains 70…

  8. The Medical Library and Media Center of Keio University in Tokyo: report on a visit.

    PubMed Central

    Accart, J P

    1995-01-01

    The Medical Library and Media Center at Keio University in Tokyo offers many facilities to its users: access to medical information within a large catalog of monographs and journals, online searching and CD-ROM databases, and a dynamic interlibrary loan service. This article is a report of a professional visit to the library on September 30, 1993. PMID:7703947

  9. Water systems and urban sanitation: a historical comparison of Tokyo and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Otaki, Yurina; Otaki, Masahiro; Sakura, Osamu

    2007-06-01

    The importance of a water supply and sewage treatment for urban sanitation is recognized in the modern world. Their contributions to public health have not, however, been well demonstrated by historical data, especially in Asian cities. In this research, we focused on the Asian cities of Tokyo and Singapore, which both developed significantly in the 20th century. We analysed their development processes statistically to determine what the key elements for the protection of urban sanitation have been. Although both cities constructed modern water supply systems at almost same time (Tokyo in 1898 and Singapore in 1878), and similarly modern wastewater treatment systems (Tokyo in 1922 and Singapore in 1913), the prevalence of water-borne diseases in Tokyo was more serious than it was in Singapore, in spite of Singapore's high infant mortality rate. The main reason for this was the differences in the systems of night-soil transport. We found that the water supply system in itself was not enough to resolve all urban sanitation problems, and appropriate night-soil removal was also crucial. In addition, historical trends and water consumption vary by city, so the appropriate technology and system are also different according to the unique characteristics and needs of each.

  10. The CIRP International Workshop on Concurrent Engineering for Product Realization (1st) Held in Tokyo, Japan on June 27 - 28, 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    Director of RPI Design Research Center) - - H. Yoshikawa (Japan, Vice President of University of Tokyo, Chairman of Scientific committee/Japan IMS...A, SF-02150 ESPOO Finland Tel.+358-0451-3315 Fax.+358-0351-3318, 3293 Prof. Eiji Arai Dept. Precision Machinery Engineering Tokyo Metropolitan...Fax 518-276-2702 Professor Hiroyuki Yoshikawa Department of Precision Machinery Engineering The University of Tokyo Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113

  11. Two long-term slow slip events around Tokyo Bay found by GNSS observation during 1996-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Yabe, Suguru

    2017-03-01

    Slow slip events (SSEs) with durations ranging from days to more than a decade have been observed in plate subduction zones around the world. In the Kanto district in Japan, several SSEs have been identified based on geodetic observations. However, none of these events have had durations largely exceeding a year. In this study, we show that long-term SSEs with durations longer than 3 years occurred before the year 2000 and after 2007 on the upper interface of the Philippine Sea Plate at depths of 30-40 km. The fault model determined by inversion of global navigation satellite system data is located northeast of Tokyo Bay, where a seismic gap and low seismic wave velocities were detected by seismological observations. Moreover, the acceleration periods of the fault slip corresponded well with increases in the background seismicity for shallower earthquakes. The slip history was also temporally correlated with the long-term shear stress changes governed mainly by non-tidal variations in the ocean bottom pressure. However, the predicted slip from the long-term stress change was too small to reproduce the observed slow slips. To prove the causal relationship between the SSEs and the external stress change, more advanced modeling is necessary to confirm whether such a small slip can trigger an SSE.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Linda E., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and…

  13. Integrating Science and Management - Evaluation of a Collaborative Model to Accelerate the Transition of Sea Level Rise Research Results into Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, D.; DeLorme, D.; Lewitus, A.

    2015-12-01

    The development and implementation of applied research programs that maximize stakeholder collaboration and utility is a well-documented struggle for funding agencies. In 2007, NOAA initiated multi-year stakeholder engagement process to develop a regional-scale, inter-disciplinary research project that resulted in a novel approach to accelerate the application of research results into management. This process culminated in a 2009 federal funding opportunity and resultant 6-year Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise-Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM) project focused on the dynamic integration of biological models (wetlands and oysters) with inundation and storm surge models at three National Estuarine Research Reserves in Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi. The project implemented a co-management approach between a traditional principle investigator (PI) and newly created applications co-PI that led a management advisory committee. Our goal was to provide the dedicated funding and infrastructure necessary to ensure the initial relevancy of the proposed project results, to guide ongoing research efforts, and to aid the efficient incorporation of key scientific results and tools into direct management application. As the project nears completion in 2016 and modeling applications reach maturity, this presentation will discuss the programmatic approach that resulted in EESLR-NGOM as well as an evaluation of nearly 6-years of collaborative science. This evaluation will focus on the funding agency perspective, with an emphasis on assessing the pros and cons of project implementation to establish lessons-learned for related collaborative science efforts. In addition, with increased attention in the Gulf of Mexico on projected sea level rise impacts to coastal ecosystem restoration and management, a core benchmark for this evaluation will be the use of project models and tools by coastal managers and planners at local, state, and/or federal agencies.

  14. Living donor liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma at the University of Tokyo Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Togashi, Junichi; Akamastu, Nobuhisa; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is an established treatment not only for those with end-stage liver disease but for those with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) developing in cirrhotic liver. The aim of this study was to present a single-center experience of LDLT for HCC at the University of Tokyo Hospital, Japan. Methods Among 573 liver transplant recipients from January 1996 until the end of 2015, 139 patients have been indicated LDLT for the treatment of HCC, and were the subjects of the present study. We use the expanded criteria for HCC as follows; the number of tumor should be five or less, and the maximum diameter of the tumor should be 5 cm or less, without the distant metastasis nor the vascular invasion (Tokyo criteria, 5-5 rule). We also focused on the identification of the incidental intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and combined hepatocellular carcinoma/cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CC) in liver explants. Results The overall 1-, 5-, and 10-year recurrence-free and patient survival rates were 95%, 91%, and 91%, 91%, and 80%, 78%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cumulative recurrence rate was 5%, 6%, and 6% for within Milan, 0%, 8%, and 8% for beyond Milan/within Tokyo, and 33%, 50%, and 50% for beyond Tokyo, respectively, demonstrating the significantly impaired outcome of those beyond Tokyo criteria (P<0.001). The high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) value (≥400 ng/mL), the high des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) value (≥200 mAU/mL) and beyond the Tokyo criteria were proved to be significant predictors for the HCC recurrence, but the size or the type of the partial graft was not associated. Incidental ICC and cHCC-CC were found in one and two patients, respectively, with the size of less than 2 cm in all cases. ICC was not detected in preoperative evaluation but cHCC-CCs were misdiagnosed as HCC preoperatively. All three patients were alive without recurrence with a follow-up period of 2 to 14 years. Conclusions The present results

  15. Prevalence and contamination levels of listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods in Tokyo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    SHIMOJIMA, Yukako; IDA, Miki; NAKAMA, Akiko; NISHINO, Yukari; FUKUI, Rie; KURODA, Sumiyo; HIRAI, Akihiko; KAI, Akemi; SADAMASU, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed prevalence and contamination levels of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods between 2000 and 2012 in Tokyo. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 52 (1.7%) out of 2,980 samples. Comparing the prevalence in the study period, 2.2% were positive in the former period (2000–2005) and 1.2% in the latter (2006–2012). Using the most probable number (MPN) technique, 32 samples were contaminated with fewer than 0.3 L. monocytogenes/g, 10 samples with 0.3–1.0/g and 4 samples with more than 1.0/g (the maximum was 2.3/g). The most common serovar was 1/2a, followed by 1/2b, 4b and 1/2c. We revealed that ready-to-eat foods in Tokyo were contaminated with L. monocytogenes, although the contamination levels were low. PMID:27000951

  16. Seasonal variations in concentration and composition of dissolved organic carbon in Tokyo Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, A.; Yamamoto-Kawai, M.; Kanda, J.

    2014-07-01

    Concentrations of recalcitrant and bioavailable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and their seasonal variations were investigated at three stations in Tokyo Bay, Japan, and in two freshwater sources flowing into the bay to evaluate the significance of DOC degradation for the carbon budget in coastal waters and carbon export to the open ocean. Recalcitrant DOC (RDOC) was differentiated from bioavailable DOC (BDOC) as a remnant of DOC after 150 days of bottle incubation. On average, RDOC accounted for 78% of the total DOC in Shibaura sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent, 67% in the upper Arakawa River water, 66% in the lower Arakawa River water, and 78% in surface bay water. RDOC concentrations were higher than BDOC at all stations. In freshwater environments, RDOC concentrations were almost constant throughout the year. In the bay, RDOC was higher during spring and summer than during autumn and winter. The relative abundance of RDOC in the bay derived from phytoplankton, terrestrial, and open oceanic waters was estimated to be 9%, 33%, and 58%, respectively, by multiple regression analysis of RDOC, salinity, and chl a. In addition, comparison with previous data from 1972 revealed that concentrations of RDOC and BDOC have decreased by 33% and 74% at freshwater sites and 39% and 76% at Tokyo Bay, while the ratio of RDOC to DOC has increased. The change in DOC concentration and composition was probably due to increased amounts of sewage treatment plant effluent entering the system. Tokyo Bay exported DOC, mostly RDOC, to the open ocean because of remineralization of BDOC.

  17. Modeling and predicting urban growth pattern of the Tokyo metropolitan area based on cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yaolong; Zhao, Junsan; Murayama, Yuji

    2008-10-01

    The period of high economic growth in Japan which began in the latter half of the 1950s led to a massive migration of population from rural regions to the Tokyo metropolitan area. This phenomenon brought about rapid urban growth and urban structure changes in this area. Purpose of this study is to establish a constrained CA (Cellular Automata) model with GIS (Geographical Information Systems) to simulate urban growth pattern in the Tokyo metropolitan area towards predicting urban form and landscape for the near future. Urban land-use is classified into multi-categories for interpreting the effect of interaction among land-use categories in the spatial process of urban growth. Driving factors of urban growth pattern, such as land condition, railway network, land-use zoning, random perturbation, and neighborhood interaction and so forth, are explored and integrated into this model. These driving factors are calibrated based on exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA), spatial statistics, logistic regression, and "trial and error" approach. The simulation is assessed at both macro and micro classification levels in three ways: visual approach; fractal dimension; and spatial metrics. Results indicate that this model provides an effective prototype to simulate and predict urban growth pattern of the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  18. 3-D simulation of urban warming in Tokyo and proposal of air-cooled city project

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, T.S.; Yamada, Noboru

    1999-07-01

    Recent computer projection of the urban warming in Tokyo metropolitan area around the year 2030 showed the authors that the urban temperature near Otemachi, heart of Tokyo, will exceed 43{+-}2 degree Celsius (110 degree Fahrenheit) at 6 p.m. in the summer. In the present paper, modeling and 3-D simulation results of urban warming in the Tokyo metropolitan area were presented and discussed. Furthermore, the effect of the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions was discussed by using a newly developed 3-D simulation code. Finally, the authors proposed a new concept; cool-air ventilated city project, which alleviates the urban warming, air pollution, and urban discomfort. In this project, the urban outdoor and indoor spaces are ventilated by clean cooled-air, which is produced in the rural or mountainous regions located far away from the urban area. Water of a huge reservoir is cooled below 4 degree Celsius in winter by utilizing sky radiation cooling and will be kept until the summer for indoor and outdoor space cooling. In this study, the feasibility of this system was discussed.

  19. Seasonal variations in concentration and lability of dissolved organic carbon in Tokyo Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, A.; Yamamoto-Kawai, M.; Kanda, J.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of recalcitrant and bioavailable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and their seasonal variations were investigated at three stations in Tokyo Bay, Japan, and in two freshwater sources flowing into the bay. On average, recalcitrant DOC (RDOC), as a remnant of DOC after 150 days of bottle incubation, accounted for 78% of the total DOC in Shibaura sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent, 67% in the upper Arakawa River water, 66% in the lower Arakawa River water, and 78% in surface bay water. Bioavailable DOC (BDOC) concentrations, defined as DOC minus RDOC, were lower than RDOC at all stations. In freshwater environments, RDOC concentrations were almost constant throughout the year. In the bay, RDOC was higher during spring and summer than in autumn and winter because of freshwater input and biological production. The relative concentration of RDOC in the bay derived from phytoplankton, terrestrial, and open-oceanic waters was estimated to be 8-10, 21-32, and 59-69%, respectively, based on multiple regression analysis of RDOC, salinity, and chl a. In addition, comparison with previous data from 1972 revealed that concentrations of RDOC and BDOC have decreased by 33 and 74% at freshwater sites and 39 and 76% in Tokyo Bay, while the ratio of RDOC to DOC has increased. The change in DOC concentration and composition was probably due to increased amounts of STP effluent entering the system. Tokyo Bay exported mostly RDOC to the open ocean because of the remineralization of BDOC.

  20. High degree of mitochondrial haplotype diversity in the Japanease common toad Bufo japonicus in urban Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Hase, Kazuko; Shimada, Masakazu; Nikoh, Naruo

    2012-10-01

    The Japanese common toad Bufo japonicus is widely distributed across mainland Japan and is classified into two subspecies, B. japonicus japonicus and B. japonicus formosus, in the western and eastern regions, respectively. To investigate the genetic diversity of B. japonicus at the breeding pond (local population) level, we sequenced 831 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (Cyt b) from 75 individuals collected from nine ponds in urban Tokyo and the surrounding area. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses revealed high mtDNA haplotype diversity (Hd, 0.716 (mean) ± 0.230 (SD)) within local populations (breeding ponds). Most local populations had multiple haplotypes of the mitochondrial Cyt b gene, and seven of the 18 haplotypes were identified in two or more local populations. These results indicate that mitochondrial gene flow had occurred across different breeding sites. We also identified five haplotypes that belonged to the western clade and correspond to B. japonicus japonicus. Our results provide genetic evidence that B. japonicus japonicus was introduced artificially from Western Japan to Tokyo, where it occupied the natural habitat of B. japonicus formosus. The urban Tokyo area was found to represent an admixed population consisting of both native and non-native B. japonicus subspecies.

  1. Forecasting probabilistic seismic shaking for greater Tokyo from 400 years of intensity observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bozkurt, S.B.; Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.

    2007-01-01

    The long recorded history of earthquakes in Japan affords an opportunity to forecast seismic shaking exclusively from past shaking. We calculate the time-averaged (Poisson) probability of severe shaking by using more than 10,000 intensity observations recorded since AD 1600 in a 350 km-wide box centered on Tokyo. Unlike other hazard-assessment methods, source and site effects are included without modeling, and we do not need to know the size or location of any earthquake nor the location and slip rate of any fault. The two key assumptions are that the slope of the observed frequency-intensity relation at every site is the same, and that the 400-year record is long enough to encompass the full range of seismic behavior. Tests we conduct here suggest that both assumptions are sound. The resulting 30-year probability of IJMA ??? 6 shaking (??? PGA ??? 0.4 g or MMI ??? IX) is 30%-40% in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama, and 10% 15% in Chiba and Tsukuba. This result means that there is a 30% chance that 4 million people will be subjected to IJMA ??? 6 shaking during an average 30-year period. We also produce exceedance maps of PGA for building-code regulations, and calculate short-term hazard associated with a hypothetical catastrophe bond. Our results resemble an independent assessment developed from conventional seismic hazard analysis for greater Tokyo. ?? 2007, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  2. Accelerator on a Chip: How It Works

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-30

    In an advance that could dramatically shrink particle accelerators for science and medicine, researchers used a laser to accelerate electrons at a rate 10 times higher than conventional technology in a nanostructured glass chip smaller than a grain of rice.

  3. Future accelerators (?)

    SciTech Connect

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  4. Innovation in Extraterrestrial Service Systems - A Challenge for Service Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergner, David

    2010-01-01

    This presentation was prepared at the invitation of Professor Yukio Ohsawa, Department of Systems Innovation, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, for delivery at the International Workshop on Innovating Service Systems, sponsored by the Japanese Society of Artificial Intelligence (JSAI) as part of the JSAI Internation Symposium on AI, 2010. It offers several challenges for Service Science and Service Innovation. the goal of the presentation is to stimulate thinking about how service systems viII evolve in the future, as human society advances from its terrestrial base toward a permanent presence in space. First we will consider the complexity of the International Space Station (ISS) as it is today, with particular emphasis of its research facilities, and focus on a current challenge - to maximize the utilization of ISS research facilities for the benefit of society. After briefly reviewing the basic principles of Service Science, we will discuss the potential application of Service Innovation methodology to this challenge. Then we viII consider how game-changing technologies - in particular Synthetic Biology - could accelerate the pace of sociocultural evolution and consequently, the progression of human society into space. We will use this provocative vision to advance thinking about how the emerging field of Service Science, Management, and Engineering (SSME) might help us anticipate and better handle the challenges of this inevitable evolutionary process.

  5. Accelerators for America's Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Mei

    2016-03-01

    Particle accelerator, a powerful tool to energize beams of charged particles to a desired speed and energy, has been the working horse for investigating the fundamental structure of matter and fundermental laws of nature. Most known examples are the 2-mile long Stanford Linear Accelerator at SLAC, the high energy proton and anti-proton collider Tevatron at FermiLab, and Large Hadron Collider that is currently under operation at CERN. During the less than a century development of accelerator science and technology that led to a dazzling list of discoveries, particle accelerators have also found various applications beyond particle and nuclear physics research, and become an indispensible part of the economy. Today, one can find a particle accelerator at almost every corner of our lives, ranging from the x-ray machine at the airport security to radiation diagnostic and therapy in hospitals. This presentation will give a brief introduction of the applications of this powerful tool in fundermental research as well as in industry. Challenges in accelerator science and technology will also be briefly presented

  6. Social Experiments in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities(TOMACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakatani; Nakamura, Isao; MIsumi, Ryohei; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Introduction TOMACS research project has been started since 2010 July in order to develop the elementary technologies which are required for the adaptation of societies to future global warming impacts that cannot be avoided by the reduction of greenhouse gases. In collaboration with related government institutions, local governments, private companies, and residents, more than 25 organizations and over 100 people are participated. TOMACS consists of the following three research themes: Theme 1: Studies on extreme weather with dense meteorological observations Theme 2: Development of the extreme weather early detection and prediction system Theme 3: Social experiments on extreme weather resilient cities Theme 1 aims to understand the initiation, development, and dissipation processes of convective precipitation in order to clarify the mechanism of localized heavy rainfall which are potential causes of flooding and landslides. Theme 2 aims to establish the monitoring and prediction system of extreme phenomena which can process real-time data from dense meteorological observation networks, advanced X-band radar network systems and predict localized heavy rainfalls and strong winds. Through social experiments, theme 3 aims to establish a method to use information obtained by the monitoring system of extreme phenomena to disaster prevention operations in order to prevent disasters and reduce damage. Social Experiments Toyo University is the core university for the social experiments accomplishment. And following organizations are participating in this research theme: NIED, the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection (TMRIEP), University of Tokyo, Tokyo Fire Department (TFD), Edogawa Ward in Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City and Minamiashigara City in Kanagawa, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, Obayashi Corporation, and Certified and Accredited Meteorologists of Japan(CAMJ). The social experiments have carried out

  7. Enuresis and Hyperactivity-Inattention in Early Adolescence: Findings from a Population-Based Survey in Tokyo (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey)

    PubMed Central

    Kanata, Sho; Koike, Shinsuke; Ando, Shuntaro; Nishida, Atsushi; Usami, Satoshi; Yamasaki, Syudo; Morimoto, Yuko; Toriyama, Rie; Fujikawa, Shinya; Sugimoto, Noriko; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Furukawa, Toshiaki A.; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Mariko; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2016-01-01

    Background Enuresis (9% at age 9.5) negatively affects children’s psychosocial status. Clinically-diagnosed enuresis (2% at the age) is associated with hyperactivity-inattention, and common neural bases have been postulated to underlie this association. It is, however, unclear whether this association is applicable to enuresis overall among the general population of early adolescents when considered comorbid behavioral problems. We aimed to examine whether enuresis correlates with hyperactivity-inattention after controlling for the effects of other behavioral problems. Methods Participants were 4,478 children (mean age 10.2 ± 0.3 years old) and their parents from the Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey (T-EAS), a population-representative cross-sectional study conducted in Tokyo, Japan conducted from 2012 to 2015. Children’s enuresis and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity-inattention (as measured by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire), were examined using parent-reporting questionnaires. Multivariate linear regression was used to explore whether enuresis predicts hyperactivity-inattention. Results The hyperactivity-inattention score was significantly higher in the enuretic group than the non-enuretic group (enuretic: M (SD) = 3.8 (2.3), non-enuretic: M (SD) = 3.0 (2.1), Hedge’s g = 0.39, p < .001). This association remained significant even after controlling for other behavioral problems and including sex, age, intelligence quotient (IQ), low birth weight and parents’ education (β = .054 [95% CI: .028–.080], p < .001). Conclusions Enuresis was independently associated with hyperactivity-inattention in early adolescents among general population even when other behavioral problems were considered. These results suggest that, as with clinically-diagnosed cases, enuresis may predict need for screening and psychosocial support for hyperactivity-inattention. PMID:27414399

  8. COMPASS Accelerator Design Technical Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Nanni, Emilio; Dolgashev, Valery; Tantawi, Sami; Neilson, Jeff

    2016-03-14

    This report is a survey of technical options for generating a MeV-class accelerator for space based science applications. The survey was performed focusing on the primary technical requirements of the accelerator in the context of a satellite environment with its unique challenges of limited electrical power (PE), thermal isolation, dimensions, payload requirement and electrical isolation.

  9. Geographically explicit urban land use change scenarios for Mega cities: a case study in Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata, Y.; Bagan, H.; Seya, H.; Nakamichi, K.

    2010-12-01

    In preparation for the IPCC 5th assessment report, the international modeling community is developing four Representative Concentration Paths employing the scenarios developed by four different Integrated Assessment Models. These RCPs will be employed as an input to climate models, such as Earth System Models. In these days, the importance of assessment of not only global but also local (city/zone level) impacts of global change has gradually been recognized, thereby downscaling climate models are one of the urgent problems to be solved. Needless to say, reliable downscaling requires spatially high resolution land use change scenarios. So far, there has been proposed a lot of methods for constructing land use change scenarios with considering economic behavior of human, such as agent-based model (e.g., Parker et al., 2001), and land use transport (LUT) model (e.g., Anas and Liu, 2007). The latter approach in particular has widely been applied to actual urban/transport policy; hence modeling the interaction between them is very important for creating reliable land use change scenarios. However, the LUT models are usually built based on the zones of cities/municipalities whose spatial resolutions are too low to derive sensible parameters of the climate models. Moreover, almost all of the works which attempt to build spatially high resolution LUT model employs very small regions as the study area. The objective of this research is deriving various input parameters to climate models such as population density, fractional green vegetation cover, and anthropogenic heat emission with spatially high resolution land use change scenarios constructed with LUT model. The study area of this research is Tokyo metropolitan area, which is the largest urban area in the world (United Nations., 2010). Firstly, this study employs very high ground resolution zones composed of micro districts around 1km2. Secondly, the research attempt to combine remote sensing techniques and LUT models

  10. Large electrostatic accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators.

  11. Carbonaceous aerosol and its characteristics observed in Tokyo and south Kanto region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minoura, Hiroaki; Morikawa, Tazuko; Mizohata, Akira; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko

    2012-12-01

    Due to enforcing vehicle emission reduction requirements in Japan, particulate matter (PM) concentration, especially elemental carbon (EC) concentration in roadside atmosphere, obviously decreased in the last decade. In spite of the previous vehicle emission reduction, EC concentration was not shown a clear decrease, recently. To achieve the PM2.5 environmental standard, measurements based on emission source contribution are desirable. However, source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol was ambiguous because chemical components are complicated, and the components change through photochemical reaction. The goal of this study is to determine source apportionment for carbonaceous aerosols. Examination of PM2.5 was performed in south Kanto including Tokyo in the summer of 2008 and the winter of 2009. Emissions from the industrial area around Tokyo Bay and the agricultural northern area showed transportation and accumulation due to the seasonal prevailing wind. The emissions formed a geographical distribution due to photochemical reactions. The characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol were obtained using carbon profile analysis and carbon isotope analysis, including the source information such as fossil fuel emission origin, vegetation origin, and combustion product, photochemical reaction product, etc. Soot-EC was found as a substance with fossil fuel origin which did not contain biomass combustion matter, and since it is stable, there was no observed difference by site and a uniform concentration was observed in winter. It became apparent from the carbon isotope analysis using 14C that the carbon from the biomass origin involved 29% in total carbon in the summer, and 48% in winter even at Kudan of central Tokyo.

  12. Aflatoxin contamination in foods and foodstuffs in Tokyo: 1986-1990.

    PubMed

    Tabata, S; Kamimura, H; Ibe, A; Hashimoto, H; Iida, M; Tamura, Y; Nishima, T

    1993-01-01

    Aflatoxins were determined in 3054 samples of foods or foodstuffs, including cereals, nuts, beans, spices, dairy products, dry fruits, and edible oil. Samples were collected in Tokyo from 1986 to 1990. Aflatoxins were found in rice products, adlay, corn, crude sugar, peanut products, pistachio nuts, brazil nuts, sesame products, butter beans, white pepper, red pepper, paprika, nutmeg, and mixed spices. The highest incidence of aflatoxin contamination was observed in nutmeg (80%), and the highest level of aflatoxin B1 was observed in pistachio nuts (1382 ppb).

  13. Flight Model Development of Tokyo Tech Nano-Satellite Cute-1.7 + APD II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashida, Hiroki; Nishida, Junichi; Omagari, Kuniyuki; Fujiwara, Ken; Konda, Yasumi; Yamanaka, Tomio; Tanaka, Yohei; Maeno, Masaki; Fujihashi, Kota; Inagawa, Shinichi; Miura, Yoshiyuki; Matunaga, Saburo

    The Laboratory for Space Systems at the Tokyo Institute of Technology has developed the nano-satellite Cute-1.7+APD. The satellite was launched by JAXA M-V-8 rocket on February 22, 2006 and operated for about a month. A successor to the Cute-1.7+APD was developed and is named Cute-1.7+APD II. This new satellite is based on its predecessor but has some modifications. In this paper an overview of the Cute-1.7 series and flight model development of Cute-1.7+APD II are introduced.

  14. The impact of volcanic gases from Miyake island on the chemical constituents in precipitation in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tomoaki; Iwase, Tamami; Ueda, Hideko; Suda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Shigeru; Dokiya, Yukiko; Fushimi, Katsuhiko; Hosoe, Morikazu

    2005-04-01

    The volcano on Miyake Island first erupted in July 2000 and continuous emission of volcanic gas from the collapsed caldera has been observed from the middle of August 2000. The large volcanic emission of SO2 had a strong influence on Tokyo metropolitan area, which is located approximately 150 km north of Miyake Island. We measured major ions in precipitation and dry deposition samples which had been collected at five sampling sites (Yokohama, Kashiwa, Fujisawa, Yokosuka, and Hachioji) in the Tokyo metropolitan area for 12 years since 1990. We have evaluated quantitatively the impact of the volcanic SO2 gas emitted from Miyake Island on the Tokyo metropolitan area by comparing depositional ionic constituents in the volcanic degassing period (from September 2000 to August 2001) with those in the normal period of the past 10 years (September 1990 to August 2000). nss-SO4(2-) concentrations in precipitation at the sampling sites in the Tokyo metropolitan area were 59.5-77.0 microeq/L during the degassing period, and 33.3-44.1 microeq/L during the normal period, respectively. The difference of nss-SO4(2-) concentrations between the two periods was statistically significant. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the concentrations of the other major ions (NH4+, nss-Ca2+, Cl-, and NO3-) between the two periods. The impact of volcanic degassing from Miyake Island on the ionic concentrations in the precipitation of the Tokyo metropolitan area was seen only in the H+ and nss-SO4(2-) concentrations. The annual wet deposition amount of volcanic nss-SO4(2-) into the Tokyo metropolitan area has been quantitatively estimated. The annual wet deposition amounts were calculated as 701+/-277 Meq/year (22.4+/-8.9 kt SO2/year) on the total area of the Tokyo metropolitan area (14,000 km2). The wet deposition amount of nss-SO4(2-) corresponds to only 0.15% of the total annual amount of volcanic SO2 (15 Mt/year) emitted from Miyake Island from September 2000 to August

  15. Epidemiological characteristics of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in the 2012-2013 epidemics in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugishita, Yoshiyuki; Shimatani, Naotaka; Katow, Shigetaka; Takahashi, Takuri; Hori, Narumi

    2015-01-01

    A large rubella outbreak has been observed since June 2012 in Tokyo, Japan, and a rapid increase in the number of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) cases have also been reported in Japan since October 2012. All the clinically diagnosed and laboratory-confirmed rubella cases reported in Tokyo from January 2012 to December 2013 and all the laboratory-confirmed CRS cases from January 2012 to March 2014 were analyzed. In total, 4,116 rubella cases were reported in Tokyo. Of these, 77.2% (n=3,176) were male; the highest number of cases occurred in males aged 35-39 years and in females aged 20-24 years. Complications included arthralgia/arthritis (19.4%), thrombocytopenic purpura (0.5%), hepatic dysfunction (0.3%), and encephalitis (0.1%). The circulating rubella virus in Tokyo was genotype 2B. The most possible site of transmission was the workplace. Because of the rubella epidemic, 16 CRS cases were reported in Tokyo from March 2013 to February 2014. Domestic infection with rubella was proven for all mothers of 16 cases. This situation suggests that Japan is still working to achieve rubella elimination.

  16. Dioxin-like compounds in pine needles around Tokyo Bay, Japan in 1999.

    PubMed

    Hanari, Nobuyasu; Horii, Yuichi; Okazawa, Tsuyoshi; Falandysz, Jerzy; Bochentin, Ilona; Orlikowska, Anna; Puzyn, Tomasz; Wyrzykowska, Barbara; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2004-04-01

    Pine needle samples collected at ten spatially distant sites around Tokyo Bay in 1999 indicated a widespread lower troposphere pollution with ultra-trace dioxin-like compounds such as chlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), -furans (PCDFs), non-ortho- and mono-ortho-chlorobiphenyls (pPCBs), and -naphthalenes (PCNs). Elevated concentration of planar PCBs and the total PCNs were found at the sites which are located innermost to the Bay, suggesting the regional importance of the evaporative nature of the source of pollution by those compounds over this vast area. The concentrations and profiles for PCDDs and PCDFs remained largely uniform. An exception was the site near the town of Tateyama in the Chiba Prefecture, which is the southernmost but also relatively separate from the inner Bay. The site near Tateyama showed somehow background contamination with all compound groups and highly different profiles of PCNs. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the data matrix has revealed that around the Tokyo Bay, apart from the evaporative emission sources for PCNs and PCBs, combustion related processes also play an important role as sources of the ambient air contamination not only with PCDDs/Fs but also with chloronaphthalenes and planar chlorobiphenyls.

  17. Influence of Surface-Based Stable Layer Development on Asian Dust Behaviour Over Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunematsu, Nobumitsu; Iwai, Hironori; Ishii, Shoken; Yasui, Motoaki; Murayama, Yasuhiro; Mizutani, Kohei

    2009-05-01

    The relationship between local meteorological fields and the behaviour of airborne Asian dust that arrived in the Tokyo metropolitan area on 1 April 2007 with the passage of a synoptic-scale cold front has been investigated through Doppler lidar observations, experiments using a regional atmospheric numerical model, and analyses of surface and upper-air meteorological observations. Results of the Doppler lidar observations showed that the Asian dust passed above the metropolitan area with strong south-westerly winds with speeds of 15-26 m s-1. Meteorological fields reproduced by the numerical experiments showed the development of a surface-based stable layer in the metropolitan area caused by nocturnal radiational cooling near the ground surface and south-westerly warm air advection at upper levels. The blocking effect of the mountainous region located to the west of the metropolitan area induced an area of stagnant air inside the metropolitan area and promoted the stable layer development. Although strong downdrafts prevailed in the upper air, the airborne Asian dust did not spread to the ground when the stable layer was formed. These results strongly indicate that the developed stable layer prevented strong downdrafts from spreading to the ground, acting as an obstacle to the transport of the Asian dust particles from the upper air towards the ground. This is considered to be one of the main causes of the low appearance frequency of Asian dust phenomena near the ground in the Tokyo metropolitan area and eastern Japan.

  18. Histologic changes in thyroid glands from great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) in Tokyo Bay, Japan: possible association with environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Saita, E; Hayama, S; Kajigaya, H; Yoneda, K; Watanabe, G; Taya, K

    2004-10-01

    We compared morphologic changes in thyroid glands of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from the Tokyo Bay and Lake Biwa areas in Japan with presence of residues of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs). Prominent morphologic changes in thyroid glands included increased density of small follicles and increased number of epithelial cells surrounding follicular lumens. The extent of morphologic changes in the thyroid gland was higher in cormorants captured from Tokyo Bay than in those captured from Lake Biwa. Increased thyroid change in cormorants from the Tokyo Bay area was associated with significantly higher levels of PCDFs and Co-PCBs. Thus, we suggest that morphologic changes in thyroid glands from the cormorants are associated with increased levels of dioxin contamination in Japan.

  19. An Annotated Bibliography of Accelerated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, GNA

    2007-01-01

    A rich narrative-style bibliography of accelerated learning (reviewing six articles published between 1995-2003). Articles reviewed include: (1) Accelerative learning and the Emerging Science of Wholeness (D. D. Beale); (2) Effective Teaching in Accelerated Learning Programs (D. Boyd); (3) A Critical Theory Perspective on Accelerated Learning (S.…

  20. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, S.A.

    1958-05-27

    An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.

  1. Investigation of using shrinking method in construction of Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences Electron Linear Accelerator TW-tube (IPM TW-Linac tube)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, F.; Abbasi Davani, F.

    2015-06-01

    Due to Iran's growing need for accelerators in various applications, IPM's electron Linac project has been defined. This accelerator is a 15 MeV energy S-band traveling-wave accelerator which is being designed and constructed based on the klystron that has been built in Iran. Based on the design, operating mode is π /2 and the accelerating chamber consists of two 60cm long tubes with constant impedance and a 30cm long buncher. Amongst all construction methods, shrinking method is selected for construction of IPM's electron Linac tube because it has a simple procedure and there is no need for large vacuum or hydrogen furnaces. In this paper, different aspects of this method are investigated. According to the calculations, linear ratio of frequency alteration to radius change is 787.8 MHz/cm, and the maximum deformation at the tube wall where disks and the tube make contact is 2.7μ m. Applying shrinking method for construction of 8- and 24-cavity tubes results in satisfactory frequency and quality factor. Average deviations of cavities frequency of 8- and 24-cavity tubes to the design values are 0.68 MHz and 1.8 MHz respectively before tune and 0.2 MHz and 0.4 MHz after tune. Accelerating tubes, buncher, and high power couplers of IPM's electron linac are constructed using shrinking method.

  2. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Jr., Joseph P.; Devaney, Howard F.; Hake, Lewis W.

    1982-08-17

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  3. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P. Jr.; Devaney, H.F.; Hake, L.W.

    1979-08-29

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  4. ION ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Bell, J.S.

    1959-09-15

    An arrangement for the drift tubes in a linear accelerator is described whereby each drift tube acts to shield the particles from the influence of the accelerating field and focuses the particles passing through the tube. In one embodiment the drift tube is splii longitudinally into quadrants supported along the axis of the accelerator by webs from a yoke, the quadrants. webs, and yoke being of magnetic material. A magnetic focusing action is produced by energizing a winding on each web to set up a magnetic field between adjacent quadrants. In the other embodiment the quadrants are electrically insulated from each other and have opposite polarity voltages on adjacent quadrants to provide an electric focusing fleld for the particles, with the quadrants spaced sufficienily close enough to shield the particles within the tube from the accelerating electric field.

  5. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  6. Evaluation of DEM generation based on Interferometric SAR using TanDEM-X data in Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avtar, Ram; Yunus, Ali P.; Kraines, Steven; Yamamuro, Masumi

    This study is focused on the evaluation of a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for Tokyo, Japan from data collected by the recently launched TerraSAR add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements (TanDEM-X), satellite of the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The aim of the TanDEM-X mission is to use Interferometric SAR techniques to generate a consistent high resolution global DEM dataset. In order to generate an accurate global DEM using TanDEM-X data, it is important to evaluate the accuracy at different sites around the world. Here, we report our efforts to generate a high-resolution DEM of the Tokyo metropolitan region using TanDEM-X data. We also compare the TanDEM-X DEM with other existing DEMs for the Tokyo region. Statistical techniques were used to calculate the elevation differences between the TanDEM-X DEM and the reference data. Two high-resolution LiDAR DEMs are used as independent reference data. The vertical accuracy of the TanDEM-X DEM evaluated using the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) is considerably higher than the existing global digital elevation models. However, the local area DEM generated by Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI DEM) showed the highest accuracy among all non-LiDAR DEM's. The vertical accuracy in terms of RMSE estimated using the 2 m LiDAR as reference is 3.20 m for TanDEM-X, 2.44 m for the GSI, 7.00 m for SRTM DEM and 10.24 m for ASTER-GDEM. We also compared the accuracy of TanDEM-X with the other DEMs for different types of land cover classes. The results show that the absolute elevation error of TanDEM-X is higher for urban and vegetated areas, likewise to those observed for other global DEM's. This is probably because the radar signals used by TanDEM-X tend to measure the first reflective surface that is encountered, which is often the top of the buildings or canopy. Hence, the TanDEM-X based DEM is more akin to a Digital Surface Model (DSM).

  7. Fluctuation patterns of groundwater levels in Tokyo caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Akira; Ishihara, Shigeyuki; Amaguchi, Hideo; Takasaki, Tadakatsu

    2016-04-01

    The hourly groundwater levels have been observed at 42 sites in Tokyo Metropolis since 1952. The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred at 14:46 JST on March 11, 2011. It was the strongest earthquake on record with a magnitude of 9.0 (Mw) and large fluctuations of unconfined and confined groundwater levels were observed at 102 observation wells in Tokyo, around 400 km away from the epicenter. Abrupt rises and sharp drawdowns of groundwater levels were observed right after the earthquake for most of the wells, although some did not show a change. In this study, taking full advantage of the unique rare case data from the dense groundwater monitoring network in Tokyo, we investigate the fluctuation patterns of unconfined and confined groundwater levels caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake. The groundwater level data used in this study consist of one month time series in March 2011 with one-hour interval. The fluctuation patterns of groundwater levels caused by the earthquake were identified using Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). The SOM, developed by Kohonen, can project high-dimensional, complex target data onto a two-dimensional regularly arranged map in proportion to the degree of properties. In general, the objective of the SOM application is to obtain useful and informative reference vectors. These vectors can be acquired after iterative updates through the training of the SOM. Design of the SOM structure, selection of a proper initialization method, and data transformation methods were carried out in the SOM application process. The reference vectors obtained from the SOM application were fine-tuned using cluster analysis methods. The optimal number of clusters was selected by the Davies-Bouldin index (DBI) using the k-means algorithm. Using the optimal number of cluster, a final fine-tuning cluster analysis was carried out by Ward's method. As a result, the fluctuation patterns of the confined and unconfined groundwater level were classified into eight clusters

  8. 77 FR 75450 - Request for Information (RFI): Use of National Science Foundation Overseas Offices in Paris...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... Request for Information (RFI): Use of National Science Foundation Overseas Offices in Paris, Tokyo... investigating the function of the three National Science Foundation overseas offices, this RFI seeks to solicit... NSF overseas offices (e.g. as a Principal Investigator (PI), Co-PI, postdoctoral researcher,...

  9. [Outcomes of Infection Control Team Inspections at the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University].

    PubMed

    Sunakawa, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Okihata, Rie; Tsuruoka, Hiromi; Yamada, Yuichi; Adachi, Toshiko; Izumi, Yuichi

    2015-07-01

    In the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, an infection control team (ICT) has been formed to inspect each diagnosis department of clinics and wards in order to identify problems regarding nosocomial infection control. In this study, we analyzed the inspection reports and highlighted the following serious problems: 1) inadequate hygienic hand-washing for out- and in-patient treatment, 2) incomplete wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE) by dental health care workers, 3) necessity of environmental improvement in the clinics, and 4) cross-infection risk induced by. the continuous use of treatment devices without appropriate disinfection. The ICT provided feedback to the inspected departments, suggesting solutions to problems regarding nosocomial infection control. In order to enhance infection control in our hospital, dental healthcare practitioners must make further efforts on nosocomial infection control and prevention, and act according to their position by continuously educating students and enlightening hospital staff about the importance of infection control.

  10. Daily time budgets of long-distance commuting workers in Tokyo megalopolis.

    PubMed

    Umezaki, M; Ishimaru, H; Ohtsuka, R

    1999-01-01

    In Tokyo Megalopolis, long-distance commuting between residences in the suburbs and work places in the centre of the city was examined. Using a questionnaire, heads of household in two suburbs were asked about the influences of long commuting hours on their daily time budgets. The results showed that on workdays, the workers who spent longer commuting rose and left home for work earlier, and came back home and retired later; accordingly, both time spent on in-home activities on workdays and hours slept on the day before a workday were shorter. Comparison of time budgets between the subjects who work 5 and 6 days per week revealed more vulnerable influences of long commuting hours in the former than the latter. The expected health consequences of these findings are discussed from a biosocial/human ecological viewpoint.

  11. Alexithymic traits as predictors of difficulties with adjustment in an outpatient cohort of expatriates in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Fukunishi, I; Berger, D; Wogan, J; Kuboki, T

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether alexithymic characteristics, which are thought to be related to poor coping with stress, would be associated with variables thought to reflect adjustment to life abroad. The subjects were 56 expatriates living in Tokyo, Japan. The Expatriate Adaptation Inventory, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Social Support Questionnaire of the Stress and Coping Inventory were given to the subjects. Scores on alexithymia were significantly associated with dissatisfaction with life abroad, higher satisfaction with life in one's home country prior to departure, and higher ratings on the perception of poor social support. An alexithymia variable, difficulty identifying feelings, was a significant predictor of dissatisfaction with life abroad and satisfaction with life in the home country. The results suggest that, because alexithymia was associated with lower satisfaction with life abroad and higher satisfaction in the home country prior to departure, it may be a predictor of adjustment difficulties when individuals live abroad. Empirical confirmation is needed.

  12. Mass psychogenic systemic illness in school children in relation to the Tokyo photochemical smog

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, S.; Honma, T.

    1986-05-01

    To clarify the pathogenic mechanism of epidemics with acute systemic neurobehavioral illness associated with photochemical air pollution in Japan, we re-examined our past records in sixteen junior high school children, and compared them with major epidemics that occurred in 1970-1972 during which time Japanese society faced a new and unusual type of air pollution (Tokyo smog). Dysfunction of alveolar-arterial gas exchange, together with respiratory alkalosis, was newly found in these children, who suffered from chest discomfort, ocular irritation, emotional distress, tetany, and unconsciousness. It was concluded that anxiety reaction, precipitated by the physical effects of photochemical oxidants and athletic performance, possibly led to many outbreaks of mass psychogenic systemic illness (hyperventilation syndrome) among school children.

  13. Legionella thermalis sp. nov., isolated from hot spring water in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Naoto; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Inoue, Hiroaki; Agata, Kunio; Edagawa, Akiko; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Masafumi; Furuhata, Katsunori

    2016-03-01

    Strain L-47(T) of a novel bacterial species belonging to the genus Legionella was isolated from a sample of hot spring water from Tokyo, Japan. The 16S rRNA gene sequences (1477 bp) of this strain (accession number AB899895) had less than 95.0% identity with other Legionella species. The dominant fatty acids of strain L-47(T) were a15:0 (29.6%) and the major ubiquinone was Q-12 (71.1%). It had a guanine-plus-cytosine content of 41.5 mol%. The taxonomic description of Legionella thermalis sp. nov. is proposed to be type strain L-47(T) (JCM 30970(T)  = KCTC 42799(T)).

  14. Urban effects on low-level clouds around the Tokyo metropolitan area on clear summer days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Tadao; Kimura, Fujio

    2004-03-01

    The frequency distribution of low-level clouds was estimated around the Tokyo metropolitan area on summer days without regional-scale cloud cover using NOAA satellite images from 1200 to 1500 LST during an 11-year period. The urban area is determined by the NDVI obtained by the same satellite. The low-level cloud frequency is higher over this large urban area than over rural areas in the early afternoon, especially over the radially extending urban areas along major highways or railways from the metropolis. We can conclude that the frequency of the low-level clouds is enhanced over the urban area, since the cloud frequency is negatively well correlated with the NDVI and their peaks fit well within a shift of about 2 km. The frequency of low-level clouds, however, is quite low in the coastal zone, even in the urban area, because of sea breezes.

  15. Classification of magnitude 7 earthquakes which occurred after 1885 in Tokyo Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibe, T.; Satake, K.; Shimazaki, K.; Nishiyama, A.

    2010-12-01

    Tokyo Metropolitan area is situated in tectonically complex region; both the Pacific (PAC) and Philippine Sea (PHS) plates are subducting from east and south, respectively, beneath the Kanto region. As a result, various types of earthquakes occur in this region; i.e., shallow crustal earthquakes, intraplate (slab) earthquakes within PHS, within PAC, and interplate earthquakes between continental plate and PHS, and between PHS and PAC. Among these, the largest earthquakes are Kanto earthquakes (M~8) occurring between the continental plate and PHS. The average recurrence interval is estimated to be 200 - 400 years (Earthq. Res. Comm., 2004), and hence, urgency of the next Kanto earthquake is thought to be low considering the lapse time (~87 yrs.) from the most recent Kanto earthquake in 1923. However, urgency of the other types of earthquakes with M~7 is high; Earthq. Res. Comm. (2004) calculated the probability of occurrence during the next 30 years as 70 %, based on the facts that five M~7 earthquakes (i.e., the 1894 Meiji-Tokyo, 1895 and 1921 Ibaraki-Ken-Nanbu, 1922 Uraga channel and 1987 Chiba-Ken Toho-Oki earthquakes) occurred since 1885. However, types of earthquakes are not well known especially for the 1894 Meiji-Tokyo and 1895 Ibaragi-Ken-Nanbu earthquakes due to low quality of data. Thus, it is important to classify these earthquakes into above-described intraplate or interplate earthquakes and to estimate their occurrence frequency. Ishibe et al. (2009a, 2009b) compiled previous studies and data for these five earthquakes. In this study, we report the preliminary result of focal depth and mechanism for the 1895 and 1921 Ibaraki-Ken-Nanbu earthquakes. The epicenter of the 1895 Ibaraki-Ken-Nanbu earthquake (M 7.2; Utsu, 1979) is discussed by various studies (e.g., Usami, 1973; Ishibashi, 1975; Katsumata, 1975; Utsu, 1979). However, few studies have discussed the hypocentral depth. The hypocentral depth is estimated to be 75 ~ 85 km using S-P time at Tokyo

  16. Strong capping inversion over the Tokyo metropolitan area associated with airborne Asian dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunematsu, Nobumitsu; Sakai, Tetsu; Nagai, Tomohiro

    2006-10-01

    Lidar measurements in the Tokyo metropolitan area showed that the optical thickness of airborne Asian dust rapidly increased on the morning of April 28, 2005, owing to the arrival of a thick Asian dust layer (ADL), which settled on the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Radiosonde measurements showed that atmospheric temperature in the lower troposphere increased considerably after the arrival of the ADL to the extent that the increment rate reached 12 K/day. Strong capping inversion (CI) was thus formed between the ADL and the PBL with the maximum rate of 0.1 K/m. It was mainly caused by the appearance of a deep isentropic layer that well corresponded to the ADL, indicating that the Asian dust-laden heated and well-mixed air layer led to the temperature increment and consequently induced the CI. The CI inhibited the PBL evolution and caused a higher aerosol concentration in the PBL in the metropolitan area.

  17. Isolation and identification of arabinose mycolates of Cell Wall Skeleton (CWS) derived from Mycobacterium bovis BCG Tokyo 172 (SMP-105).

    PubMed

    Uenishi, Yuko; Kusunose, Naoto; Yano, Ikuya; Sunagawa, Makoto

    2010-03-01

    A unique hydrolysis method using a two-layer solution, consisting of diluted hydrochloric acid and toluene was developed to isolate whole arabinose mycolates from the cell wall skeleton of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Tokyo 172 (SMP-105) in order to reveal its pivotal role in enhancing immune responses against tumors.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Tokyovirus, a Member of the Family Marseilleviridae Isolated from the Arakawa River of Tokyo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Marseilleviridae family are large DNA viruses with icosahedral particles that infect Acanthamoeba cells. This report presents a new Marseilleviridae family member discovered in a water/soil sample from a river in Tokyo, named Tokyovirus, with genome size of 370 to 380 kb. PMID:27284144

  19. Tracing cohesive sediment transportation at river mouths around Tokyo, Japan by Cesium originated from Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    koibuchi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Sediment transport at river mouths, which consists of suspended-load and bed-load, has not been fully understood, since bed-load transport of cohesive sand is difficult to observe. Especially, the impact of sediment transport on the total amount of fine-grained cohesive sediment has not been elucidated. Cesium-134 and cesium-137 were spread from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) after the earthquake of March 11 of 2011, and attached to the fine-grained sand on the land. The contaminated sand flowed into the river mouths through the rivers possibly due to the complex physical processes in estuarine areas. To evaluate the fine-grained sediment transport around Tokyo and Tokyo Bay, field observations were carried out utilizing radionuclide originated from FDNPP as an effective tracer. The cohesive sediment transport at three different river mouths around Tokyo was successfully quantified. The cohesive sediment transport deposited in the estuary was found to be greatly dependent on the land use, geometry, river discharge and salinity. In addition,the transport driven by the rainfall was minute, and its behavior was quite different from suspended solids. Although further field observations of radionuclide are necessary, it is clear that fine-grained sediment in the bay from rivers already settled on the river mouth by aggregation. The settled sand will not move even in rainfall events. Consequently, the transport of radionuclide to the Pacific Ocean may not occur.; Cesium distribution around Tokyo Bay ; Cesium Concentration in Edogawa river

  20. Significance of rises in urinary bicarbonate contents and pH related with increased atmospheric carbon dioxide in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, A; Kazuka, M; Yashima, K; Niiyama, K; Muro, D

    1997-09-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration was measured at several locations in Tokyo, for two weeks, in December, 1995 and 1996, and was found to be increased up to 550 ppm, while it was shown by us to be 450 ppm in December, 1994. These results demonstrate that atmospheric carbon dioxide is steadily increasing at faster rates in Tokyo than we expect, though it has been considered that the atmospheric carbon dioxide is still as much as 350 ppm. Bicarbonate concentration and pH of urine of 13 medical students in Tokyo were also measured for the same period in December of 1995 and 1996, and were found to be significantly increased compared with the values that were reported in the past. Furthermore, urinary bicarbonate and pH were extensively increased, when 4 and 5 students made 3-hour car trip in two different cars with all windows closed, where carbon dioxide was increased up to about 5000 ppm within 1 hour. These results support our previous hypothesis that the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide may be reflected by the increase of urinary bicarbonate and pH. Our results also suggest that the environmental situation is being seriously aggravated in Tokyo, year by year, in terms of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  1. Visions for the future of particle accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    The ambitions of accelerator based science, technology and applications far exceed the present accelerator possibilities. Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. The paper presents a digest of the research results and visions for the future in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, shown during the final fourth annual meeting of the EuCARD - European Coordination of Accelerator Research and Development. The conference concerns building of the research infrastructure, including advanced photonic and electronic systems for servicing large high energy physics experiments. There are debated a few basic groups of such systems like: measurement - control networks of large geometrical extent, multichannel systems for large amounts of metrological data acquisition, precision photonic networks of reference time, frequency and phase distribution. The main subject is however the vision for the future of particle accelerators and next generation light sources.

  2. Long-term trend of chemical constituents in precipitation in Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, from 1990 to 2002.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tomoaki; Iwase, Tamami; Ueda, Hideko; Suda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Shigeru; Dokiya, Yukiko; Fushimi, Katsuhiko; Hosoe, Morikazu

    2005-03-01

    In order to understand the actual status and mechanism of acid rain, it is important to know the pH of precipitation and its chemical constituents on a continuous and regular basis over a wide area. This study examines acid rain over a wide area using an observational network in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, and analyzes the major chemical constituents of every precipitation sample. Precipitation was collected continuously for a period of 12 years from June 1990 to May 2002 at several sampling sites in the Tokyo metropolitan area, and its pH and chemical constituent concentrations were measured. The average pH ranged from 4.23 to 4.62, clearly indicating acidification of precipitation over the entire Tokyo metropolitan area. A time-trend model was applied to describe temporal variations of chemical constituent concentrations, including annual change rate, seasonal variation, and precipitation effects. Seasonal and annual trends for the past 12 years were examined with the model, using the least squares method. Nonsea salt (nss)-Ca2+ shows a maximum value in early spring, a seasonality probably caused by calcium-rich particles in airborne yellow dust from Asia. Slightly decreasing annual trends of nss-SO4(2-) may correspond to the recent decreasing trend of atmospheric SO2 gas concentrations in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The annual trends of NO3-, NH4+, and nss-Ca2+ show a large site-to-site difference. The increasing NO3-, NH4+, and nss-Ca2+ concentrations at inland suburban sites may be caused by increases in their local sources such as vehicle traffic and municipal waste incineration. The annual change rate of H+ is slightly negative or almost zero at every site, so the acidification of precipitation has not become worse since 1990 over the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  3. Regional Characterization of Tokyo Metoropolitan area using a highly-dense seismic netwok(MeSO-net)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Ishikawa, M.; Ishibe, T.; Kimura, H.; Honda, R.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a dense seismic network, MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network), since 2007 in the greater Tokyo urban region under the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area (FY2007-FY2011) and Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters (FY2012-FY2016)( Hirata et al., 2009). So far we have acquired more than 120TB continuous seismic data form MeSO-net which consists of about 300 seismic stations. Using MeSO-net data, we obtain clear P- and S- wave velocity tomograms (Nakagawa et al., 2010) and Qp, Qs tomograms (Panayotopoulos et al., 2014) which show a clear image of Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) and PAcific Plate (PAP). A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 km beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the distribution of seismicity (Ishida, 1992). This shallower plate geometry changes estimations of strong ground motion for seismic hazards analysis within the Tokyo region. Based on elastic wave velocities of rocks and minerals, we interpreted the tomographic images as petrologic images. Tomographic images revealed the presence of two stepwise velocity increase of the top layer of the subducting PSP slab. Because strength of the serpentinized peridotite is not large enough for brittle fracture, if the area is smaller than previously estimated, a possible area of the large thrust fault on the upper surface of PSP can be larger than previously thought. Change of seismicity rate after the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake suggests change of stressing rate in greater Tokyo. Quantitative analysis of MeSO-net data shows significant increase of rate of earthquakes that have a fault orientation favorable to increasing Coulomb stress after the Tohoku-oki event.

  4. Acceleration Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    1993-01-01

    Work to support the NASA MSFC Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP) was performed. Four tasks (analysis development, analysis research, analysis documentation, and acceleration analysis) were addressed by parallel projects. Work concentrated on preparation for and implementation of near real-time SAMS data analysis during the USMP-1 mission. User support documents and case specific software documentation and tutorials were developed. Information and results were presented to microgravity users. ACAP computer facilities need to be fully implemented and networked, data resources must be cataloged and accessible, future microgravity missions must be coordinated, and continued Orbiter characterization is necessary.

  5. Progress of Laser-Driven Plasma Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2007-07-11

    There is a great interest worldwide in plasma accelerators driven by ultra-intense lasers which make it possible to generate ultra-high gradient acceleration and high quality particle beams in a much more compact size compared with conventional accelerators. A frontier research on laser and plasma accelerators is focused on high energy electron acceleration and ultra-short X-ray and Tera Hertz radiations as their applications. These achievements will provide not only a wide range of sciences with benefits of a table-top accelerator but also a basic science with a tool of ultrahigh energy accelerators probing an unknown extremely microscopic world.Harnessing the recent advance of ultra-intense ultra-short pulse lasers, the worldwide research has made a tremendous breakthrough in demonstrating high-energy high-quality particle beams in a compact scale, so called ''dream beams on a table top'', which represents monoenergetic electron beams from laser wakefield accelerators and GeV acceleration by capillary plasma-channel laser wakefield accelerators. This lecture reviews recent progress of results on laser-driven plasma based accelerator experiments to quest for particle acceleration physics in intense laser-plasma interactions and to present new outlook for the GeV-range high-energy laser plasma accelerators.

  6. Particle acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

  7. Plasma accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui; Barnes, Cris W.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.

  8. Accelerated Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the accelerated associate degree program at Ivy Tech Community College (Indiana) in which low-income students will receive an associate degree in one year. The three-year pilot program is funded by a $2.3 million grant from the Lumina Foundation for Education in Indianapolis and a $270,000 grant from the Indiana Commission…

  9. ACCELERATION INTEGRATOR

    DOEpatents

    Pope, K.E.

    1958-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved acceleration integrator and more particularly to apparatus of this nature which is gyrostabilized. The device may be used to sense the attainment by an airborne vehicle of a predetermined velocitv or distance along a given vector path. In its broad aspects, the acceleration integrator utilizes a magnetized element rotatable driven by a synchronous motor and having a cylin drical flux gap and a restrained eddy- current drag cap deposed to move into the gap. The angular velocity imparted to the rotatable cap shaft is transmitted in a positive manner to the magnetized element through a servo feedback loop. The resultant angular velocity of tae cap is proportional to the acceleration of the housing in this manner and means may be used to measure the velocity and operate switches at a pre-set magnitude. To make the above-described dcvice sensitive to acceleration in only one direction the magnetized element forms the spinning inertia element of a free gyroscope, and the outer housing functions as a gimbal of a gyroscope.

  10. Statistical analysis of seismicity rate change in the Tokyo Metropolitan area due to the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibe, T.; Sakai, S.; Shimazaki, K.; Satake, K.; Tsuruoka, H.; Nakagawa, S.; Hirata, N.

    2012-12-01

    We examined a relationship between the Coulomb Failure Function (ΔCFF) due to the Tohoku earthquake (March 11, 2011; MJMA 9.0) and the seismicity rate change in Tokyo Metropolitan area following March 2011. Because of large variation in focal mechanism in the Kanto region, the receiver faults for the ΔCFF were assumed to be two nodal planes of small (M ≥ 2.0) earthquakes which occurred before and after the Tohoku earthquake. The seismicity rate changes, particularly the rate increase, are well explained by ΔCFF due to the gigantic thrusting, while some other possible factors (e.g., dynamic stress changes, excess of fluid dehydration) may also contribute the rate changes. Among 30,746 previous events provided by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (M ≥ 2.0, July 1979 - July 2003), we used as receiver faults, almost 16,000 events indicate significant increase in ΔCFF, while about 8,000 events show significant decrease. Positive ΔCFF predicts seismicity rate increase in southwestern Ibaraki and northern Chiba prefectures where intermediate-depth earthquakes occur, and in shallow crust of the Izu-Oshima and Hakone regions. In these regions, seismicity rates significantly increased after the Tohoku earthquake. The seismicity has increased since March 2011 with respect to the Epidemic Type of Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model (Ogata, 1988), indicating that the rate change was due to the stress increase by the Tohoku earthquake. The activated seismicity in the Izu and Hakone regions rapidly decayed following the Omori-Utsu formula, while the increased rate of seismicity in the southwestern Ibaraki and northern Chiba prefectures is still continuing. We also calculated ΔCFF due to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake for the focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes between April 2008 and October 2011 recorded on the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net). The ΔCFF values for the earthquakes after March 2011 show more

  11. Particle Accelerators in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuang; Fang, Shouxian

    As the special machines that can accelerate charged particle beams to high energy by using electromagnetic fields, particle accelerators have been widely applied in scientific research and various areas of society. The development of particle accelerators in China started in the early 1950s. After a brief review of the history of accelerators, this article describes in the following sections: particle colliders, heavy-ion accelerators, high-intensity proton accelerators, accelerator-based light sources, pulsed power accelerators, small scale accelerators, accelerators for applications, accelerator technology development and advanced accelerator concepts. The prospects of particle accelerators in China are also presented.

  12. Compact accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    2007-02-06

    A compact linear accelerator having at least one strip-shaped Blumlein module which guides a propagating wavefront between first and second ends and controls the output pulse at the second end. Each Blumlein module has first, second, and third planar conductor strips, with a first dielectric strip between the first and second conductor strips, and a second dielectric strip between the second and third conductor strips. Additionally, the compact linear accelerator includes a high voltage power supply connected to charge the second conductor strip to a high potential, and a switch for switching the high potential in the second conductor strip to at least one of the first and third conductor strips so as to initiate a propagating reverse polarity wavefront(s) in the corresponding dielectric strip(s).

  13. The University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory 6.5m telescope: project overview and current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshii, Y.; Doi, M.; Kohno, K.; Miyata, T.; Motohara, K.; Kawara, K.; Tanaka, M.; Minezaki, T.; Sako, S.; Morokuma, T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanabe, T.; Takahashi, H.; Konishi, M.; Kamizuka, T.; Kato, N.; Aoki, T.; Soyano, T.; Tarusawa, K.; Handa, T.; Koshida, S.; Bronfman, L.; Ruiz, M. T.; Hamuy, M.; Garay, G.

    2016-07-01

    The University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory Project is to construct a 6.5m infrared telescope at the summit of Co. Chajnantor (5640m altitude) in northern Chile, promoted by the University of Tokyo. Thanks to the dry climate (PWV 0.5mm) and the high altitude, it will achieve excellent performance in the NIR to MIR wavelengths. The telescope has two Nasmyth foci where the facility instruments are installed and two folded-Cassegrain foci for carry-in instruments. All these four foci can be switched by rotating a tertiary mirror. The final focal ratio is 12.2 and the telescope foci have large field-of-view of 25° in diameter. We adopted the 6.5m light-weighted borosilicate honeycomb primary mirror and its support system that are developed by Steward Observatory Richard F. Caris Mirror Lab. The dome enclosure has the shape of carousel, and large ventilation windows with shutters control the wind to flush heat inside the dome. The operation building with control room, aluminizing chamber and maintenance facilities is located at the side of the dome. Two cameras, SWIMS for spectroscopy and imaging in the near-infrared and MIMIZUKU in the mid-infrared, are being developed as the first-generation facility instruments. The operation of the telescope will be remotely carried out from a base facility at San Pedro de Atacama, 50km away from the summit. The construction of the telescope is now underway. Fabrication of the telescope mount has almost finished, and the pre-assembly has been carried out in Japan. The primary, secondary, and tertiary mirrors and their cells have been also fabricated, as well as their cells and support systems. Fabrication of the enclosure is now underway, and their pre-assembly in Japan will be carried out in 2016. Construction of the base facility at San Pedro de Atacama has been already completed in 2014, and operated for the activities in Atacama. The telescope is now scheduled to see the first light at the beginning of 2018.

  14. Comparison of carbonaceous aerosols in Tokyo before and after implementation of diesel exhaust restrictions.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naomichi; Muramoto, Atsushi; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shibata, Ken; Endo, Michio; Endo, Osamu; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Goto, Sumio; Yoneda, Minoru; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2007-09-15

    We compared the status of carbonaceous aerosols in Tokyo before and after the implementation of a diesel vehicle regulation intended to reduce the quantity of particulate carbon from diesel engines in one of the largest scale ever attempts at vehicle exhaust control. Radiocarbon (14C) in elemental carbon (EC) and total carbon (TC) were analyzed to identify fossil fuel carbonaceous particles emitted from diesel-powered vehicles. One-sided paired-month t-tests showed no distinct difference in the absolute concentrations of particles in terms of total mass (19.5 to 18.0 microg m(-3); p = 0.321), EC (3.6 to 3.3 microg m(-3); p = 0.272), and TC (6.3 to 6.2 microg m(-3); p = 0.418) for the finest particles (d(a) < 1.1 microm) after the implementation of the regulation. The ratios of the concentrations of the chemical constituents were, however, altered after the regulation. EC/TC was significantly decreased from 56.7% to 50.2% (p = 0.039). Although it was not statistically significant, the percentage of fossil carbon in EC also decreased (67.8% to 63.8%; p = 0.104). Since EC is predominantly of combustion origin, the observed decrease was likely due to the decrease in fossil EC emissions from diesel-powered vehicles. The decrease in EC/TC after the implementation of the regulation was also likely to have resulted from attachment to diesel vehicle exhaust systems of particulate filters as required as part of the regulation by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. The EC/TC of fossil carbon of the finest particles decreased from 66.2% to 55.2% (p = 0.066), but EC/TC of biomass carbon did not decrease but rose slightly from 43.6% to 44.5% (p > 0.5). Thus, the relative ratios of components of carbonaceous aerosol particles, such as 14C, could provide a better understanding of the atmospheric pollution status, despite short-term fluctuations, than do measurements of absolute concentrations.

  15. BICEP's acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Contaldi, Carlo R.

    2014-10-01

    The recent Bicep2 [1] detection of, what is claimed to be primordial B-modes, opens up the possibility of constraining not only the energy scale of inflation but also the detailed acceleration history that occurred during inflation. In turn this can be used to determine the shape of the inflaton potential V(φ) for the first time — if a single, scalar inflaton is assumed to be driving the acceleration. We carry out a Monte Carlo exploration of inflationary trajectories given the current data. Using this method we obtain a posterior distribution of possible acceleration profiles ε(N) as a function of e-fold N and derived posterior distributions of the primordial power spectrum P(k) and potential V(φ). We find that the Bicep2 result, in combination with Planck measurements of total intensity Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, induces a significant feature in the scalar primordial spectrum at scales k∼ 10{sup -3} Mpc {sup -1}. This is in agreement with a previous detection of a suppression in the scalar power [2].

  16. APPLICATION OF STEEL PIPE PILE LOADING TESTS TO DESIGN VERIFICATION OF FOUNDATION OF THE TOKYO GATE BRIDGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitou, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Kusakabe, Osamu; Kiyomiya, Osamu; Yoneyama, Haruo; Kawakami, Taiji

    Steel sheet pipe pile foundations with large diameter steel pipe sheet pile were used for the foundation of the main pier of the Tokyo Gateway bridge. However, as for the large diameter steel pipe pile, the bearing mechanism including a pile tip plugging effect is still unclear due to lack of the practical examinations even though loading tests are performed on Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway. In the light of the foregoing problems, static pile loading tests both vertical and horizontal directions, a dynamic loading test, and cone penetration tests we re conducted for determining proper design parameters of the ground for the foundations. Design parameters were determined rationally based on the tests results. Rational design verification was obtained from this research.

  17. Highlighting the history of Japanese radio astronomy. 3: Early solar radio research at the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Masato; Orchiston, Wayne; Akabane, Kenji; Enome, Shinzo; Hayashi, Masa; Kaifu, Norio; Nakamura, Tsuko; Tsuchiya, Atsushi

    2014-03-01

    The radio astronomy group at the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory was founded in 1948 immediately after WWII, and decided to put its main research efforts into solar radio astronomy. The first radio telescope was completed in 1949 and started routine observations at 200 MHz. Since then, the group has placed its emphasis on observations at meter and decimeter wavelengths, and has constructed various kinds of radio telescopes and arrays operating at frequencies ranging from 60 to 800 MHz. In addition, radio telescopes operating at 3, 9.5 and 17 GMHz were constructed. In parallel with the observationally-based research, theoretical research on solar radio emission also was pursued. In this paper, we review the instrumental, observational and theoretical developments in solar radio astronomy at the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory in the important period from 1949 through to the 1960s.

  18. [Textbook of surgery by W. Schultze, used at the Tokyo Medical Academy in the early Meiji era].

    PubMed

    Koseki, T

    1993-06-01

    Wilhelm Schultze, Professor of Surgery of the Tokyo Medical Academy, wrote "Vortraege der Allgemeine Chirurgie" for the benefit of his students in about 1880. The author examined this book and concluded that it was based upon "Lehrbuch der Chirurgie und Operationslehre" by Prof. Adolf Bardeleben, his teacher at the Charité in Berlin. Schultze's textbook was translated into Japanese and published by G. Yamazaki and U. Ishiguro, his students at the Tokyo Medical Academy, in 1884. This version was widely used as a textbook in many medical schools at that time, as well as S. Sato's translation of "Die Allgemeine Chirurgische Pathologie und Therapie" written by Prof. Theodor Billroth. The author found and introduced two different Japanese versions of Schultze's textbook printed without permission.

  19. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  20. Surgical periodontal therapy at Tokyo Dental College Suidobashi Hospital: a statistical profile in 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Hiroki; Ota, Kei; Ida, Atsushi; Fujinami, Koushu; Furusawa, Masahiro; Makiishi, Takemi; Nikaido, Masahiko; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Saito, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the profile of surgical periodontal therapy performed at the Suidobashi Hospital of Tokyo Dental College, during the period of April 2010 through March 2011. A total of 112 periodontal surgeries in 69 patients (mean age: 51.4 years; 28 men and 41 women) were registered for the data analysis. The surgical interventions performed by 17 dentists comprised 79 cases of open flap debridement, 27 cases of periodontal regenerative therapy with enamel matrix derivative and 6 cases of periodontal plastic surgery. Eighty percent of the surgical sites were in the molar region and 41 cases had furcation involvement. In these patients, an improvement in oral hygiene status was observed prior to surgery: the mean plaque score of 45% at initial visit was significantly reduced to 31% after initial periodontal therapy (p<0.01). At sites that subsequently received open flap debridement or periodontal regenerative therapy, the mean probing depth and clinical attachment level after initial therapy was 6.4 mm and 7.6 mm, respectively. These values were significantly lower than those at initial visit (p<0.01). Lower prevalence of sites with positive bleeding on probing was observed after initial therapy. The initial periodontal therapy performed was considered to be effective in improving the periodontal condition of the sites prior to surgery. More effort, however, is indicated in improvement of patient oral hygiene status.

  1. Development and status of e-Learning program at Tokyo Dental College.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Satoshi; Kawada, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the development and current status of an e-Learning system (hereafter, referred to as "ELS") at Tokyo Dental College. The ELS was developed to promote self-study. In order to achieve this, all new students were encouraged to use a notebook PC, and an intramural IT environment providing full, wireless LAN Web access was established. One key aspect of the ELS is the inclusion of a series of organically integrated lectures. This system represents a new departure in the development of fully technology-integrated dental education, providing a program which allows the student to select "unified themes" which incorporate those tackled in the standard curriculum as "systematic subjects". Integrated learning is further enhanced, as the system contains "topic spaces" which allow access to all related topics and information throughout the entire system in order to support cross-sectional learning by each student. The system was developed based on the following 2 criteria: 1) there must be relevance to the standard syllabus; and 2) the contents must be relevant to problem-based training. The results have indicated that the ELS is effective and helpful to the students, and there are plans to expand the contents of the system. Further refinements of the system should make it even easier to use for both students and teachers.

  2. Tokyo story. A British nurse is setting up an infection control service in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nevill, Michael

    Tokyo is an amazing capital city, just as you would expect: tall buildings, bright lights, overcrowded and fast paced. Japan was a bit of a culture shock at first, but things have settled down since I learned a few key Japanese phrases for such questions as 'Can I have... ?' and 'Where is... ?' There are many places to visit in this city of almost 15 million people. Getting around is straightforward, as there is an efficient underground system with the station names in English as well as Japanese. The trains are on time and fully air-conditioned, but during rush hours it can get very uncomfortable with so many people squashed inside the carriages. The food ranges from inexpensive pavement cafes serving batter-fried octopus to exclusive sushi restaurants. Every type of food is available in the many restaurants, but I enjoy trying traditional Japanese dishes. The food is always fresh, well presented and tasty. Some of the more unusual dishes include raw horse, raw eggs, sea urchins and live fish. I have been taken to a karaoke bar by my work colleagues and it was great, but very different from what I had expected. You only sing to the people you are with and there are a number of rooms in the bar, depending on how many of you there are, which reduces the public humiliation factor.

  3. Spatiotemporal dynamics of urban green spaces and human-wildlife conflicts in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Tetsuro; Numata, Shinya

    2016-08-02

    Although urban green spaces are increasingly important both for humans and wildlife, an increase in urban green spaces may also increase human-wildlife conflicts in urban areas. However, few studies have examined the relationship between the size of green spaces and the level of conflicts with wildlife in multiple taxa, including invertebrates and vertebrates. To better understand current pest statistics and predict changes that will occur as the area of green spaces increases, we analysed a dataset compiling the number of pest consultations in 53 metropolitan districts in Tokyo over a 20-year period and its relationships with the area of green space. Stinging insects (e.g., wasps) made up over 50% of pest consultations, followed (in order) by rats and other nuisance animals (e.g., snakes). The number of consultations per unit population did not correlate, or was even negatively correlated, with the proportions of green spaces (mainly forest) for many indoor pests, but did positively correlate for some outdoor pests, such as wasps and snakes. Therefore, wasps and snakes can increase when urban green spaces increase. Because even minor nuisances are relevant for urban lifestyles, considerations of ways to minimise conflicts with wildlife are critical for urban green space management.

  4. Spatiotemporal dynamics of urban green spaces and human–wildlife conflicts in Tokyo

    PubMed Central

    Hosaka, Tetsuro; Numata, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Although urban green spaces are increasingly important both for humans and wildlife, an increase in urban green spaces may also increase human–wildlife conflicts in urban areas. However, few studies have examined the relationship between the size of green spaces and the level of conflicts with wildlife in multiple taxa, including invertebrates and vertebrates. To better understand current pest statistics and predict changes that will occur as the area of green spaces increases, we analysed a dataset compiling the number of pest consultations in 53 metropolitan districts in Tokyo over a 20-year period and its relationships with the area of green space. Stinging insects (e.g., wasps) made up over 50% of pest consultations, followed (in order) by rats and other nuisance animals (e.g., snakes). The number of consultations per unit population did not correlate, or was even negatively correlated, with the proportions of green spaces (mainly forest) for many indoor pests, but did positively correlate for some outdoor pests, such as wasps and snakes. Therefore, wasps and snakes can increase when urban green spaces increase. Because even minor nuisances are relevant for urban lifestyles, considerations of ways to minimise conflicts with wildlife are critical for urban green space management. PMID:27481578

  5. Insomnia as a sequela of sarin toxicity several years after exposure in Tokyo subway trains.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Tomoyuki; Katsumata, Masao; Suzuki, Hiroko; Li, Qing; Inagaki, Hirofumi; Nakadai, Ari; Shimizu, Takako; Hirata, Kimiko; Hirata, Yukiyo

    2005-06-01

    More than 5,000 passengers on Tokyo subway trains were injured with toxic chemicals including the nerve gas "sarin" on March 20, 1995. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of sarin exposure on insomnia in a cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire concerning sleep-related items was distributed to victims of sarin exposure in October and November, 2003. Questionnaires were completed by 161 of the 163 participants (98.8%), who were selected from 1,500 subjects. Among them, the authors selected 75 women 30 to 69 years of age. Control participants were collected from inhabitants living in Maebachi City, Gunma Prefecture, Japan. For the younger exposed group (under 50 yr. of age), percentages of poor sleep, difficulty falling asleep, intermittent awakening, early morning awakening, a feeling of light overnight sleep, and insomnia were significantly higher than those for the control group. In contrast, the older exposed group (ages 50 to 69 years) had significantly higher prevalence of poor sleep, a feeling of light overnight sleep, and early morning awakening for the exposed group when compared with the control group. The high prevalence of insomnia and insomnia-related factors for victims especially under 50 years of age suggests a need for research on sleep quality after sarin exposure. Although posttraumatic stress disorder is assumed to be a psychological effect of exposure to a toxic substance, a cause-and-effect relationship has not been established.

  6. Numerical estimation of inflow flux of floating natural macro-debris into Tokyo Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, T.; Hinata, H.; Nihei, Y.

    2013-12-01

    We numerically estimated the inflow flux of terrestrial grass, which is the main floating macro-debris, into Tokyo Bay from April 2008 to March 2009 based on a two-way particle-tracking model and an inverse method applying a Lagrange multiplier. In the estimation, we used surface current velocities derived by high-frequency ocean radar and the quantity of grass collected by clean-up vessels which are operated daily in the bay. At least 2115 m3 yr-1 of the grass flowed into the bay annually, and the contribution of a flood event to the inflow flux of grass was larger than that of the inflow flux of freshwater. We show that 39% of the annual inflow flux of grass into the bay was collected, and 61% flowed out of the bay or sank to the seabed. The numerical estimation in this study will be useful to establish a system for predicting patches of floating macro-debris in the bay, and to evaluate the effects of river development or clean-up along river banks and flood plains in the upper reaches.

  7. Biomagnification and debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a coastal ecosystem in Tokyo Bay.

    PubMed

    Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Yamada, Toshiko; Matsuo, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Tsuchiya, Kotaro; Takada, Hideshige

    2013-04-01

    By field sampling and laboratory experiments we compared the mechanisms by which polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are biomagnified. We measured PBDEs and PCBs, together with stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes as an index of trophic level, in low-trophic-level organisms collected from a coastal area in Tokyo Bay. PBDEs were biomagnified to a lesser degree than PCBs. The more hydrophobic congeners of each were biomagnified more. However, the depletion of BDE congeners BDE99 and BDE153 from fish was suggested. To study congener-specific biotransformation of halogenated compounds, we conducted an in vitro experiment using hepatic microsomes of two species of fish and five BDE congeners (BDE47, 99, 100, 153, and 154) and five CB congeners with the same substitution positions as the PBDEs. BDE99 and 153 were partially debrominated, but BDE47 and 154 were not debrominated. This congener-specific debromination is consistent with the field results. Both in vitro and field results suggested selective debromination at the meta position. The CB congeners were not transformed in vitro. This result is also consistent with the field results, that PCBs were more biomagnified than PBDEs. We conclude that metabolizability is an important factor in the biomagnification of chemicals, but other factors must be responsible for the lower biomagnification of PBDEs in natural ecosystems.

  8. Contamination, distribution and pathogenicity of Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs from sandpits in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Macuhova, K; Akao, N; Fujinami, Y; Kumagai, T; Ohta, N

    2013-09-01

    The contamination, distribution and pathogenicity of Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs in sandpits in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, are described. A total of 34 sandpits were examined, 14 of which were contaminated with T. cati eggs, as assessed by the floatation method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Two naturally contaminated sandpits were investigated to determine the vertical and horizontal distribution of eggs, and an inverse relationship between the sand depth and number of eggs was observed. To examine the pathogenicity of the eggs, three ICR mice were inoculated with 300 eggs, which were recovered from sandpits. The mice exhibited eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and IgG antibody production in the sera after 3 weeks of infection. Most migrating larvae were recovered from carcasses, although three were found in the brains of two infected mice. These three larvae were determined to be T. canis by PCR, revealing that not only T. cati, but also T. canis eggs could be found in sandpits and, further, that eggs recovered from sandpits have the ability to invade a paratenic host.

  9. The spatial diffusion of norovirus epidemics over three seasons in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Inaida, S; Shobugawa, Y; Matsuno, S; Saito, R; Suzuki, H

    2015-02-01

    We studied the spatial trend of norovirus (NoV) epidemics using sentinel gastroenteritis surveillance data for patients aged <15 years (n = 140) in the Tokyo area for the 2006-2007 to 2008-2009 seasons utilizing the kriging method of geographical information system (GIS). This is the first study of the spreading pattern of NoV epidemics using sentinel surveillance data. Correlations of sentinel cases between the seasons and with demographic data were examined to identify the trend and related factors. A similar pattern of diffusion was observed over the seasons, and its mean correlation between seasons was significantly high. A higher number of cases were found in the peripheral area, which surrounds the most populated central area, and showed a correlation with the ratio of the children population (r = 0·321, P < 0·01) and the ratio of residents in larger families (r = 0·263, P < 0·01). While NoV susceptibility remained, the results suggest a transmission route in the local community as a possible epidemic factor. Prevention with focus on the peripheral area is desirable.

  10. INVESTIGATION OF EXISTING POLICIES CONTRIBUTION TO PROMOTING CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION -A CASE STUDY IN TOKYO-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijioka, Yasuaki; Oka, Kazutaka; Takano, Saneyuki; Yoshikawa, Minoru; Ichihashi, Arata

    The impacts of global warming are already appearing in various regions of the world. Therefore, in addition to strongly promoting mitigation policies, it is an urgent need to study and implement adaptation policies from a long-term perspective in preparation for some possible negative impacts. The Japanese Government has long promoted various countermeasures for disaster prevention, environmental management, food production and protection of the nation's health. These counterm easures are considered to have potential effects asclimate change adaptation. This study investigated to what extent the existing policies for Tokyo can contribute to its climate change adaptation on the basis of comprehensively organizing targeted fields an dindicators in which adaptation policies should be taken. Research results indicated that the existing policies could be useful as climate change adaptation in many fields and indicators. Furthermore, the present problems were clarified accompanied with implementation of climate change adaptation at the municipalities' level, and solutions were proposed on how to use scientific knowledge to solve the problems.

  11. Evolution from education to practical use in University of Tokyo's nano-satellite activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakasuka, Shinichi; Sako, Nobutada; Sahara, Hironori; Nakamura, Yuya; Eishima, Takashi; Komatsu, Mitsuhito

    2010-04-01

    The paper overviews recent nano-satellite development activities of University of Tokyo, Intelligent Space Systems Laboratory (ISSL). Development of real satellites and actually launching them provides excellent materials for space engineering education as well as project management, which is rather difficult to teach in usual class lectures. In addition, it may lead to a new way of space development with its cheap and quick access to space. Two educational CubeSats were launched successfully in 2003 and 2005, and they have been surviving in space more than 5 years, which showed that the COTS (commercial off the shelf) can be reliably used in space if the system is designed appropriately. Based on the experiences and technologies obtained in CubeSat projects, ISSL initiated practical applications of nano-satellite, starting with PRISM, 8 kg remote sensing satellite aiming for 30 m ground resolution and Nano-JASMINE, 20 kg astrometry satellite, which will be launched in 2009 and 2010, respectively. In order to support these kinds of student-oriented activities in Japan, University Space Engineering Consortium (UNISEC) was founded in 2002 by the author's group, which has had large effect of further facilitating students' space-related activities in Japan. Significance and history of such activities are reviewed briefly, followed by the objectives and future vision of such nano-satellite activities.

  12. Spatiotemporal dynamics of urban green spaces and human–wildlife conflicts in Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, Tetsuro; Numata, Shinya

    2016-08-01

    Although urban green spaces are increasingly important both for humans and wildlife, an increase in urban green spaces may also increase human–wildlife conflicts in urban areas. However, few studies have examined the relationship between the size of green spaces and the level of conflicts with wildlife in multiple taxa, including invertebrates and vertebrates. To better understand current pest statistics and predict changes that will occur as the area of green spaces increases, we analysed a dataset compiling the number of pest consultations in 53 metropolitan districts in Tokyo over a 20-year period and its relationships with the area of green space. Stinging insects (e.g., wasps) made up over 50% of pest consultations, followed (in order) by rats and other nuisance animals (e.g., snakes). The number of consultations per unit population did not correlate, or was even negatively correlated, with the proportions of green spaces (mainly forest) for many indoor pests, but did positively correlate for some outdoor pests, such as wasps and snakes. Therefore, wasps and snakes can increase when urban green spaces increase. Because even minor nuisances are relevant for urban lifestyles, considerations of ways to minimise conflicts with wildlife are critical for urban green space management.

  13. The Tokyo Declaration: toward a global partnership in population and development.

    PubMed

    1994-06-01

    Population is a global issue which greatly affects the social, economic, and cultural development of all nations. Since population factors play a decisive role in all human endeavors, especially in safeguarding the environment and pursuing sustainable development, they are of vital concern to both developed and developing countries. More is known now than ever before about what is needed to slow population growth, alleviate poverty, enhance women's status, combat gender inequalities, abolish illiteracy, and reduce infant, child, and maternal mortality. A strong political commitment and the mobilization of popular support for effective action are called for. Almost all developing countries have national population policies and programs aimed at integrating population into development strategies and meeting the rapidly increasing demand for family planning information and services. Participants of the Meeting of Eminent Persons on Population and Development in Tokyo, Japan, January 26-27, 1994, issued a declaration under the auspices of the UN Population Fund, the United Nations University, and the Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The text of the declaration is presented in sections on population and sustainable development, women's role in decision making, reproductive health and family planning, population distribution and migration, South-South cooperation, from commitment to action, the 1994 International Conference of Population and Development, resource mobilization, and a call to action.

  14. Time trends of perfluorinated compounds from the sediment core of Tokyo Bay, Japan (1950s-2004).

    PubMed

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Tamada, Masafumi; Kanai, Yutaka; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2010-03-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were detected in sediment core samples collected in Tokyo Bay to reveal their time trends. The core sample deposited during 1950s-2004 was divided into two- to three-year intervals and the concentrations of 24 types of PFCs were determined. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) decreased gradually from the early 1990s and its precursor decreased rapidly in the late 1990s, whereas perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increased rapidly. The observed trends were regarded as a reflection of the shift from perfluorooctyl sulfonyl fluoride (PFOSF)-based products to telomer-based products after the phaseout of PFOSF-based products in 2001. The branched isomers of perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) were detected in the sample with its ratio of linear-isomer/branched-isomer concentrations decreasing. In this study, we revealed that the sediment core can serve as a tool for reconstructing the past pollution trend of PFCs and can provide interesting evidence concerning their environmental dynamics and time trend.

  15. [A study of Kyokan Gijuku: a supplement to the history of syphilis testing in Tokyo].

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Atsuo; Higuchi, Teruo

    2009-09-01

    The testing and treatment of licensed prostitutes for syphilis in the Tokyo area began around February 1872 (Meiji 5) within the Yoshiwara red-light district, surprisingly enough from the request of the brothels themselves. In 1876 (Meiji 9), an ordinance for the testing of licensed prostitutes for syphilis was passed, making testing and treatment mandatory, but little research has been done on the changes this brought about within the district in the intervening period. It is this interval of time that we have undertaken to examine, making use not only of laws, ordinances, and other public documents, but also manners and customs, incidents within the district, and sources from the hygiene police, among other materials. The results of our research into the four-and-a-half-year period beginning in May 1871 (Meiji 4) lead us to surmise that, due to three disastrous conflagrations, the district hit an economic dead end, and its syphilis testing activities were swallowed up by an officialdom bent on strengthening the hygienic police. Some of the physicians at the Kyokan Gijuku showed a subjective concern with syphilis testing at the Yoshiwara in its early stages, but they never carried out systematic education on the subject within the school.

  16. Moving Toward a Globally Harmonized Volcanic Ash Forecast System: Anchorage and Tokyo VAAC Best Practices on Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osiensky, J. M.; Moore, D.; Igarashi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Since the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010, there has been an increased awareness on the need for better collaboration between the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs). Work through the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) International Airways Volcano Watch Operations Group (IAVWOPSG) and International Airways Volcano Task Force (IAVTF) brought increased awareness and focus to this challenge. A VAAC Best Practices group was formed out of these larger meetings and focused on VAAC specific issues of importance. Collaboration was one of the topics under consideration. Some ideas and procedures for an effective, yet easy, method for the VAACs to collaborate have been discussed. Implementation has been mainly on a VAAC to VAAC basis, however a more consolidated process needs to be developed and agreed upon between all VAACs in order to successfully move toward harmonization. Collaboration procedures and tools are being considered. The National Weather Service (NWS) Alaska Region has been looking at collaborative software to help the VAACs identify the presence of ash and forecast the plume both in the horizontal and vertical. Having an interactive graphical interface within the forecast operation may help to ensure consistency across VAAC boundaries. Existing chat software within NWS is being investigated to allow Tokyo and Anchorage VAAC to "chat" about forecast issues in real time. This capability is being tested through scenarios. The Anchorage and Tokyo VAACs participated in a series of meetings in Tokyo in March 2014. Collaboration was a major topic of discussion. This paper will outline some of the efforts being undertaken between the Anchorage and Tokyo VAACs as a result of these meetings and subsequent dialogue.

  17. Total OH reactivity measurements within a suburban Tokyo forest in late summer 2012 during the AQUAS-TAMA campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Y.; Jones, C. E.; Yamasaki, S.; Kato, S.; Minejima, C.; Yoshino, A.; Hatakeyama, S.; Matsuda, K.; Kajii, Y. J.

    2013-12-01

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) is known to play a central role in initiating the oxidation of a number of atmospheric species. We have developed an OH reactivity measurement system using a laser pump probe technique and have previously deployed this instrument at urban and suburban sites across Tokyo, as well as within a remote forest in Colorado, US. Based upon these measurements of OH reactivity, we confirmed the existence of unknown reactive species at each location. To investigate the interaction between urban / suburban emissions and forest air, the AQUAS-TAMA (Air QUAlity Study in TAMA hills) field campaign was carried out at Field Museum of Tama hills (FM-Tama) during September 20th - October 4th, 2012 and total OH reactivity was measured continuously throughout this period. The FM-Tama experimental forest site is operated by Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, and is located within a suburban forest ~30 km west of the center of Tokyo. Since FM-Tama is surrounded by residential areas and several major roads, the site is subjected to considerable anthropogenic emissions. The total OH reactivity was about 3-30 s-1, comparable with the OH reactivity measured in suburban areas of Tokyo. Diurnal variation of OH reactivity was observed, with OH reactivity higher during the daytime. In addition to the measurement of OH reactivity, trace species such as CO, NOx, O3, SO2, and VOCs, including biogenic VOCs, were analyzed. From the calculation of OH reactivity based on the analysis of the observed trace species, about 31% of measured OH reactivity may be attributed to anthropogenic VOCs, and 14% from isoprene. However, about 26% of the measured OH reactivity was the result of missing OH sinks.

  18. NIH/NSF accelerate biomedical research innovations

    Cancer.gov

    A collaboration between the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health will give NIH-funded researchers training to help them evaluate their scientific discoveries for commercial potential, with the aim of accelerating biomedical in

  19. Contributions of vehicular emissions and secondary formation to nitrous acid concentrations in ambient urban air in Tokyo in the winter.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yoshihiro; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Saito, Shinji; Hoshi, Junya; Ueno, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-15

    Nitrous acid (HONO) plays an important role in the formation of OH radicals, which are involved in photochemical oxidation. HONO concentrations in ambient air at urban sites have previously been measured, but very few studies have been performed in central Tokyo. In this study, HONO concentrations in ambient air in southeast central Tokyo (near Tokyo Bay) in winter were determined by incoherent cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy. The O3, NO, NO2, and SO2 concentrations were simultaneously determined. The NO concentrations were used to classify the parts of the study period into types I (high pollution), II (medium pollution), and III (low pollution). The maximum HONO concentrations in the type I, II, and III periods were 7.1, 4.5, and 3.0ppbv, respectively. These concentrations were comparable to concentrations previously found in other Asian megacities. The mean HONO concentration varied diurnally, and HONO was depleted between 00:00 and 03:00 each day. The sampling site is surrounded by roads with high traffic loads, but vehicular emissions were estimated to contribute <10% of the HONO concentrations. Two positive and negative relative humidity dependences of the HONO to NO2 ratio were confirmed, implying the existence of the two different secondary formation process of HONO. The NO2 to HONO conversion rates at night in the type I, II, and III periods were 6.3×10(-3), 7.6×10(-3), and 4.2×10(-3)h(-1), respectively.

  20. Trophic dilution of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) in the pelagic marine food web of Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Powell, David E; Suganuma, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Keiji; Nakamura, Tsutomu; Ninomiya, Kouzo; Matsumura, Kozaburo; Omura, Naoki; Ushioka, Satoshi

    2017-02-01

    Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS), specifically octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6), were evaluated in the pelagic marine food web of Tokyo Bay, Japan. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners that are "legacy" chemicals known to bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms and biomagnify across aquatic food webs were used as a benchmark chemical (CB-180) to calibrate the sampled food web and as a reference chemical (CB-153) to validate the results. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were calculated from slopes of ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression models and slopes of bootstrap regression models, which were used as robust alternatives to the OLS models. Various regression models were developed that incorporated benchmarking to control bias associated with experimental design, food web dynamics, and trophic level structure. There was no evidence from any of the regression models to suggest biomagnification of cVMS in Tokyo Bay. Rather, the regression models indicated that trophic dilution of cVMS, not trophic magnification, occurred across the sampled food web. Comparison of results for Tokyo Bay to results from other studies indicated that bioaccumulation of cVMS was not related to type of food web (pelagic vs demersal), environment (marine vs freshwater), species composition, or location. Rather, results suggested that differences between study areas was likely related to food web dynamics and variable conditions of exposure resulting from non-uniform patterns of organism movement across spatial concentration gradients.

  1. Tracing Sediment Transport at River Mouths in Tokyo Bay using Cesium Originated from Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    koibuchi, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of sediment transport on the total amount of fine-grained cohesive sediment has not been elucidated at estuaries. Cesium134 and cesium137 were spread from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) after the earthquake of March 11 of 2011, and attached to the fine-grained sand on the land. The contaminated sand flowed into the river mouths through the rivers possibly due to the complex physical processes in estuarine areas. To evaluate the fine-grained sediment transport around Tokyo Bay, field observations were carried out utilizing the sediment core of radionuclides originated from FDNPP as an effective tracer. The cohesive sediment transport at three different river mouths around Tokyo was successfully quantified every 3 months. The cohesive sediment transport deposited in the estuary was found to be dependent on the land use, geometry, river discharge and salinity. As a result, most of a sediment transport occurred in 2011. This sediment accumulated near the river mouth depending on the river discharge at rain fall events. Each flux of sediment was shown by this observation results including run-off from water shed, flux of rivers and stocks in rivers and the bay. Spatial distributions of radionuclide in Tokyo Bay Time series of surface radio-nuclide in Arakawa-river.

  2. Impact accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vongierke, H. E.; Brinkley, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The degree to which impact acceleration is an important factor in space flight environments depends primarily upon the technology of capsule landing deceleration and the weight permissible for the associated hardware: parachutes or deceleration rockets, inflatable air bags, or other impact attenuation systems. The problem most specific to space medicine is the potential change of impact tolerance due to reduced bone mass and muscle strength caused by prolonged weightlessness and physical inactivity. Impact hazards, tolerance limits, and human impact tolerance related to space missions are described.

  3. Accelerator and electrodynamics capability review

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Kevin W

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.

  4. Decreasing trends of suspended particulate matter and PM2.5 concentrations in Tokyo, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kunio; Homma, Junichi; Tamura, Kenji; Inoue, Mariko; Karita, Kanae; Yano, Eiji

    2013-06-01

    In Tokyo, the annual average suspended particulate matter (SPM) and PM2.5 concentrations have decreased in the past two decades. The present study quantitatively evaluated these decreasing trends using data from air-pollution monitoring stations. Annual SPM and PM2.5 levels at 83 monitoring stations and hourly SPM and PM2.5 levels at four monitoring stations in Tokyo, operated by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, were used for analysis, together with levels of co-pollutants and meteorological conditions. Traffic volume in Tokyo was calculated from the total traveling distance of vehicles as reported by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism. High positive correlations between SPM levels and nitrogen oxide levels, sulfur dioxide levels, and traffic volume were determined. The annual average SPM concentration declined by 62.6%from 59.4 microg/m3 in 1994 to 22.2 microg/m3 in 2010, and PM2.5 concentration also declined by 49.8% from 29.3 microg/m3 in 2001 to 14.7 microg/m3 in 2010. Likewise, the frequencies of hourly average SPM and PM2.5 concentrations exceeding the daily guideline values have significantly decreased since 2001 and the hourly average SPM or PM2.5 concentrations per traffic volume for each time period have also significantly decreased since 2001. However SPM and PM2.5 concentrations increased at some monitoring stations between 2004 and 2006 and from 2009 despite strengthened environmental regulations and improvements in vehicle engine performance. The annual average SPM and PM2.5 concentrations were positively correlated with traffic volumes and in particular with the volume of diesel trucks. These results suggest that the decreasing levels of SPM and PM2.5 in Tokyo may be attributable to decreased traffic volumes, along with the effects of stricter governmental regulation and improvements to vehicle engine performance, including the fitting of devices for exhaust emission reduction.

  5. Shallow subsurface control on earthquake damage patterns: first results from a 3D geological voxel model study (Tokyo Lowland, Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafleu, Jan; Busschers, Freek; Tanabe, Susumu

    2016-04-01

    The Tokyo Lowland is situated in a Neogene sedimentary basin near the triple junction of the North American, Pacific, and Philippine tectonic plates. The basin is filled with Neogene and Quaternary sediments up to a thickness of 3 km. In the upper 70 m of the basin, thick sequences of soft Holocene sediments occur which are assumed to have played a key role in the spatial variation of damage intensity during the 1923 Kanto earthquake (Magnitude 7.9 to 8.3). Historical records show this earthquake destroyed large parts of the Tokyo urban area which in that time was largely made up by wooden houses. Although the epicentre was 70 km to the southwest of Tokyo, severe damage occurred north of the city centre, presumably due to ground motion amplification in the soft Holocene sediments in the shallow subsurface. In order to assess the presumed relation between the damage pattern of the 1923 earthquake and the occurrence of soft Holocene sediments in the shallow subsurface, we constructed a 3D geological voxel model of the central part of the Tokyo Lowland. The model was constructed using a methodology originally developed for the lowlands of the Netherlands. The modelling workflow basically consists of three steps. First, some 10,000 borehole descriptions (gathered for geomechanical purposes), were subdivided into geological units that have uniform sediment characteristics, using both lithological and geomechanical (N-value) criteria. Second, 2D bounding surfaces were constructed, representing tops and bases of the geological units. These surfaces were used to place each voxel (100 by 100 by 1 m) within the correct geological unit. The N-values and lithological units in the borehole descriptions were subsequently used to perform a 3D stochastic interpolation of N-value and lithological class within each geological unit. Using a vertical voxel stack analysis, we were able to create a map showing the accumulated thickness of soft muds in the Holocene succession. A

  6. Japan Report, Science and Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Commuter Market (AEROSPACE JAPAN-WEEKLY, 3 Nov 86) MHI Fostering MU-300 Sales to ASDF for FC-X (AEROSPACE JAPAN-WEEKLY, 3 Nov 86) Next Japan Air...Available (AEROSPACE JAPAN-WEEKLY, 10 Nov 86) 22 Briefs GD Implies Twin-Engined F-16 for FS-X 23 ASDF To Modernize C-l Transport 23 SH-60J To Be...the National Land Agency. /13046 CSO: 4307/008 AEROSPACE SCIENCES MHI FOSTERING MU-300 SALES TO ASDF FOR FC-X Tokyo AEROSPACE JAPAN

  7. Materials Testing for an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Molten Salt Fission System: A look at the Materials Science of Molten Salt Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sooby, Elizabeth; Balachandran, Shreyas; Foley, David; Hartwig, Karl; McIntyre, Peter; Phongikaroon, Supathorn; Pogue, Nathaniel; Simpson, Michael; Tripathy, Prabhat

    2011-10-01

    For an accelerator-driven subcritical molten salt fission core to survive its 50+ year fuel life, the primary vessel, heat exchanger, and various internal components must be made of materials that resist corrosion and radiation damage in a high-temperature environment, (500-800 C). An experimental study of the corrosion behavior of candidate metals in contact with molten salt is being conducted at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies. Initial experiments have been run on Nb, Ta, Ni, two zirconium alloys, Hastelloy-N, and a series of steel alloys to form a base line for corrosion in both chloride and bromide salt. Metal coupons were immersed in LiCl-KCl or LiBr-KBr at 700 C in an inert-atmosphere. Salt samples were extracted on a time schedule over a 24-hr period. The samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to determine concentrations of metals from corrosion. Preliminary results will be presented.

  8. The role of Alfvénic turbulence in the acceleration of the fast solar wind: "linkage" science with Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolla, Laurent; Rodriguez, Luciano; Zhukov, Andrei; Verdini, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    One of the key points of the Solar Orbiter mission will be the joint observations by remote sensing and in situ instruments: the remote sensing instruments will observe the sources of the solar wind that will later be measured in situ at the spacecraft (or at Solar Probe Plus). This is an opportunity to elucidate the role of MHD waves and turbulence in the acceleration of the fast solar wind. Using spectro-imagers (SPICE) or EUV imagers (EUI), various observables of the plasma can be measured remotely in coronal holes: electron temperature and density, element abundances, Doppler velocities and especially ion temperatures, non-thermal velocity and amplitude of MHD waves in solar features, the latter three being different manifestations of the MHD wave spectrum and its effects. We present some preliminary results on correlations of such remote sensing observables with in-situ measurement at 1 AU, as one may expect on the base of currently available observations (Hinode/EIS, SDO/AIA, and Wind).

  9. Expanding the Partnership of Researchers, Teachers and Parents Through Science Museum Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, K.; Hoette, V.

    2008-06-01

    The Science Museum of Tokyo brings science and the general public together through an international collaboration of institutes, universities, and K-12 projects. These include the live science show ``UNIVERSE'', a ``live observing'' program with Hands-On Universe (HOU), Internet telescopes and the constellation cameras i-CAN. We are expanding these activities into formal education in an after-school program. We model partnerships between educators, researchers, university students, teachers and parents to create informal and formal education programs.

  10. Accelerator system and method of accelerating particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirz, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator system and method that utilize dust as the primary mass flux for generating thrust are provided. The accelerator system can include an accelerator capable of operating in a self-neutralizing mode and having a discharge chamber and at least one ionizer capable of charging dust particles. The system can also include a dust particle feeder that is capable of introducing the dust particles into the accelerator. By applying a pulsed positive and negative charge voltage to the accelerator, the charged dust particles can be accelerated thereby generating thrust and neutralizing the accelerator system.

  11. Contributions of regional and intercontinental transport to surface ozone in Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitomi, M.; Wild, O.; Akimoto, H.

    2011-04-01

    Japan lies downwind of the Asian continent and for much of the year air quality is directly influenced by emissions of ozone precursors over these heavily-populated and rapidly-industrializing regions. This study examines the extent to which oxidant transport from regional and distant anthropogenic sources influences air quality in Japan in springtime, when these contributions are largest. We find that European and North American contributions to surface ozone over Japan in spring are persistent, averaging 3.5±1.1 ppb and 2.8±0.5 ppb respectively, and are greatest in cold continental outflow conditions following the passage of cold fronts. Contributions from China are larger, 4.0±2.8 ppb, and more variable, as expected for a closer source region, and are generally highest near cold fronts preceding the influence of more distant sources. The stratosphere provides a varying but ever-present background of ozone of about 11.2±2.5 ppb during spring. Local sources over Japan and Korea have a relatively small impact on mean ozone, 2.4±7.6 ppb, but this masks a strong diurnal signal, and local sources clearly dominate during episodes of high daytime ozone. By examining the meteorological mechanisms that favour transport from different source regions, we demonstrate that while maximum foreign influence generally does not occur at the same time as the greatest buildup of oxidants from local sources, it retains a significant influence under these conditions. It is thus clear that while meteorological boundaries provide some protection from foreign influence during oxidant outbreaks in Tokyo, these distant sources still make a substantial contribution to exceedance of the Japanese ozone air quality standard in springtime.

  12. Contributions of regional and intercontinental transport to surface ozone in the Tokyo area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitomi, M.; Wild, O.; Akimoto, H.

    2011-08-01

    Japan lies downwind of the Asian continent and for much of the year air quality is directly influenced by emissions of ozone precursors over these heavily-populated and rapidly-industrializing regions. This study examines the extent to which oxidant transport from regional and distant anthropogenic sources influences air quality in Japan in springtime, when these contributions are largest. We find that European and North American contributions to surface ozone over Japan in spring are persistent, averaging 3.5±1.1 ppb and 2.8±0.5 ppb respectively, and are greatest in cold continental outflow conditions following the passage of cold fronts. Contributions from China are larger, 4.0±2.8 ppb, and more variable, as expected for a closer source region, and are generally highest near cold fronts preceding the influence of more distant sources. The stratosphere provides a varying but ever-present background of ozone of about 11.2±2.5 ppb during spring. Local sources over Japan and Korea have a relatively small impact on mean ozone, 2.4±7.6 ppb, but this masks a strong diurnal signal, and local sources clearly dominate during episodes of high daytime ozone. By examining the meteorological mechanisms that favour transport from different source regions, we demonstrate that while maximum foreign influence generally does not occur at the same time as the greatest buildup of oxidants from local sources, it retains a significant influence under these conditions. It is thus clear that while meteorological boundaries provide some protection from foreign influence during oxidant outbreaks in Tokyo, these distant sources still make a substantial contribution to exceedance of the Japanese ozone air quality standard in springtime.

  13. Older Adults Looking for a Job through Employment Support System in Tokyo

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kuraoka, Masataka; Koike, Takashi; Kobayashi, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study This study aims to clarify the job seeking process of the elderly people through the local employment support facility known as the Active Senior Employment Support Center (ASESC)”AKUTIBU SINIA SHUGYO SIEN SENTAA” in the Tokyo metropolitan area, and evaluate the performance as a complement to the national support systems. Methods We conducted 6 waves of longitudinal mail surveys over 38 weeks to 235 older job seekers (146 males and 89 females, average age 63.7, SD 5.6), who visited two ASESCs for the first time, to clarify their living situation, health condition, and changes in their job seeking process. Results These older job seekers tended to be at a relatively low education level and on low income, as well as tended to seek jobs for earning living expenses rather than for well-being. Half of them found employment in 35.0 days; however, 23.8% couldn’t find any job in 38 weeks, especially those who were younger and with higher education. Implications ASESCs are functioning to assist older job seekers who are mainly seeking jobs for earning living expenses, which can be attained in a short time span and enable them to earn some money. These facilities are expected to be consulting services, not only for employment support but also for general living, because it is important to maintain contact with people who are at risk of social isolation, serious financial difficulty, or suicide. We consider it very helpful to encourage and re-activate these mismatched people, by supporting them to engage in highly contributional services to our society and the next generation, such as providing child-care support or daily life support, the demands for which are rapidly increasing due to recent governmental policies. PMID:27442115

  14. Investigating sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in aquifers in Tokyo using multiple tracers.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Murakami, Michio; Oguma, Kumiko; Takada, Hideshige; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2014-08-01

    We employed a multi-tracer approach to investigate sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in urban groundwater, based on 53 groundwater samples taken from confined aquifers and unconfined aquifers in Tokyo. While the median concentrations of groundwater PFAAs were several ng/L, the maximum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 990 ng/L), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 1800 ng/L) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA, 620 ng/L) in groundwater were several times higher than those of wastewater and street runoff reported in the literature. PFAAs were more frequently detected than sewage tracers (carbamazepine and crotamiton), presumably owing to the higher persistence of PFAAs, the multiple sources of PFAAs beyond sewage (e.g., surface runoff, point sources) and the formation of PFAAs from their precursors. Use of multiple methods of source apportionment including principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid ratio analysis highlighted sewage and point sources as the primary sources of PFAAs in the most severely polluted groundwater samples, with street runoff being a minor source (44.6% sewage, 45.7% point sources and 9.7% street runoff, by PCA-MLR). Tritium analysis indicated that, while young groundwater (recharged during or after the 1970s, when PFAAs were already in commercial use) in shallow aquifers (<50 m depth) was naturally highly vulnerable to PFAA pollution, PFAAs were also found in old groundwater (recharged before the 1950s, when PFAAs were not in use) in deep aquifers (50-500 m depth). This study demonstrated the utility of multiple uses of tracers (pharmaceuticals and personal care products; PPCPs, tritium) and source apportionment methods in investigating sources and pathways of PFAAs in multiple aquifer systems.

  15. Assessment of groundwater pollution in Tokyo using PPCPs as sewage markers.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Murakami, Michio; Oguma, Kumiko; Muramatsu, Yuki; Takada, Hideshige; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2012-02-07

    While the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in groundwater has typically been reported in bank filtration sites, irrigated fields, septic tanks, and sewage disposal practices, fewer studies have been conducted in highly urbanized areas, where infiltration of treated or untreated sewage is not supposed to be a source of groundwater recharge. Furthermore, little is known about the occurrence of various kinds of PPCPs in relation to microbial indicators in groundwater from different types of aquifers. Thus, we examined the city-wide occurrence of selected PPCPs (diethyltoluamide, crotamiton, ethenzamide, propyphenazone, carbamazepine, and caffeine) and E. coli in 50 groundwaters from unconfined aquifers (<30 m in depth) and confined aquifers (up to 500 m in depth) in Tokyo, where unintended groundwater contamination could take place due to decrepit sewer networks. PPCPs were detected in unconfined aquifers and springs (23/34 samples, 68%), and in confined aquifers (7/16 samples, 44%). Compared with published results for sewage influents, concentrations of PPCPs, excluding caffeine, were generally 1-2 orders of magnitude lower, while in some samples concentrations were quite comparable. The high occurrence rate of PPCPs, even in confined aquifers, indicated that such aquifers are not always protected from pollution by sewage near the land surface. Among the PPCPs analyzed, carbamazepine and crotamiton were most frequently detected, which would appear to be owing to their high persistence, combined with the high concentration of crotamiton in sewage. Crotamiton was detected in all four E. coli-positive groundwaters, and thus may potentially serve as a precautionary indicator of E. coli contamination. Using carbamazepine as a sewage marker, we estimated that 0.8%-1.7% of the dry-weather flow of sewage was leaking out into the unconfined aquifers.

  16. Characteristics of Sudden Bath-Related Death Investigated by Medical Examiners in Tokyo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hikiji, Wakako; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Abe, Nobuyuki; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2015-01-01

    Background Sudden bath-related deaths occur frequently in Japan, particularly among elderly people. However, the precise mechanism of bath-related death remains uncertain, and effective prevention strategies have not been established. Methods Cases of bath-related deaths (n = 3289) were selected from all cases handled by the Tokyo Medical Examiner’s Office from 2009 to 2011 (N = 41 336). The ages and occurrence dates were examined, and major autopsy findings, including toxicological analysis, were evaluated for the autopsied cases (n = 550). Results Most cases occurred in individuals older than 60 years of age during winter. Analysis of autopsy findings revealed water inhalation signs in many cases (n = 435, 79.1%). Circulatory system diseases constituted more than half of the pathological findings regarding factors that may have contributed significantly to death (n = 300, 54.5%), and cardiac lesions were the most common pathological finding (n = 250, 45.5%). However, approximately one-third of the cases exhibited no remarkable pathological findings (n = 198, 36.0%). A quarter of all cases involved blood ethanol levels that exceeded 0.5 mg/mL (n = 140). Conclusions The results suggested that drowning plays an important role in the final process of bath-related death. Circulatory system diseases may be the primary underlying pathology; however, there were variations in the medical histories and pathologies of cases of bath-related death. From a preventive perspective, family members should pay attention to elderly people with circulatory system diseases during bathing, particularly in winter. Additionally, the notion that ill or inebriated individuals should not take baths should be reinforced. PMID:25503827

  17. Progression of Tokyo Guidelines and Japanese Guidelines for management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Mayumi, Toshihiko; Someya, Kazuki; Ootubo, Hiroki; Takama, Tatsuo; Kido, Takashi; Kamezaki, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takada, Tadahiro

    2013-12-01

    The Japanese Guidelines for management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis were published in 2005 as the first practical guidelines presenting diagnostic and severity assessment criteria for these diseases. After the Japanese version, the Tokyo Guidelines (TG07) were reported in 2007 as the first international practical guidelines. There were some differences between the two guidelines, and some weak points in TG07 were pointed out, such as low sensitivity for diagnosis and the presence of divergence between severity assessment and clinical judgment for acute cholangitis. Therefore, revisions were started to not only make them up to date but also concurrent with the same diagnostic and severity assessment criteria. The Revision Committee for the revision of TG07 (TGRC) performed validation studies of TG07 and new diagnostic and severity assessment criteria of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis. These were retrospective multi-institutional studies that collected cases of acute cholangitis, cholecystitis, and non-inflammatory biliary disease. TGRC held 35 meetings as well as international email exchanges with co-authors abroad and held three International Meetings. Through these efforts, TG13 improved the diagnostic sensitivity for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis, and presented criteria with extremely low false positive rates. Furthermore, severity assessment criteria adapted for clinical use, flowcharts, and many new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities were presented. The world's first management bundles of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis were also presented. The revised Japanese version was published with the same content as TG13. An electronic application of TG13 that can help to diagnose and assess the severity of these diseases using the criteria of TG13 was made for free download.

  18. EDITORIAL: Laser and plasma accelerators Laser and plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Robert

    2009-02-01

    This special issue on laser and plasma accelerators illustrates the rapid advancement and diverse applications of laser and plasma accelerators. Plasma is an attractive medium for particle acceleration because of the high electric field it can sustain, with studies of acceleration processes remaining one of the most important areas of research in both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. The rapid advance in laser and accelerator technology has led to the development of terawatt and petawatt laser systems with ultra-high intensities and short sub-picosecond pulses, which are used to generate wakefields in plasma. Recent successes include the demonstration by several groups in 2004 of quasi-monoenergetic electron beams by wakefields in the bubble regime with the GeV energy barrier being reached in 2006, and the energy doubling of the SLAC high-energy electron beam from 42 to 85 GeV. The electron beams generated by the laser plasma driven wakefields have good spatial quality with energies ranging from MeV to GeV. A unique feature is that they are ultra-short bunches with simulations showing that they can be as short as a few femtoseconds with low-energy spread, making these beams ideal for a variety of applications ranging from novel high-brightness radiation sources for medicine, material science and ultrafast time-resolved radiobiology or chemistry. Laser driven ion acceleration experiments have also made significant advances over the last few years with applications in laser fusion, nuclear physics and medicine. Attention is focused on the possibility of producing quasi-mono-energetic ions with energies ranging from hundreds of MeV to GeV per nucleon. New acceleration mechanisms are being studied, including ion acceleration from ultra-thin foils and direct laser acceleration. The application of wakefields or beat waves in other areas of science such as astrophysics and particle physics is beginning to take off, such as the study of cosmic accelerators considered

  19. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Dwayne Miller, R. J.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-10-06

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30–50 MeVm-1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. As a result, these ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams.

  20. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    PubMed Central

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Dwayne Miller, R. J.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30–50 MeV m−1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. These ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams. PMID:26439410

  1. Acceleration modules in linear induction accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shao-Heng; Deng, Jian-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA) is a unique type of accelerator that is capable of accelerating kilo-Ampere charged particle current to tens of MeV energy. The present development of LIA in MHz bursting mode and the successful application into a synchrotron have broadened LIA's usage scope. Although the transformer model is widely used to explain the acceleration mechanism of LIAs, it is not appropriate to consider the induction electric field as the field which accelerates charged particles for many modern LIAs. We have examined the transition of the magnetic cores' functions during the LIA acceleration modules' evolution, distinguished transformer type and transmission line type LIA acceleration modules, and re-considered several related issues based on transmission line type LIA acceleration module. This clarified understanding should help in the further development and design of LIA acceleration modules.

  2. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    DOE PAGES

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; ...

    2015-10-06

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30–50 MeVm-1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton acceleratorsmore » with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. As a result, these ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams.« less

  3. A new 1649-1884 catalog of destructive earthquakes near Tokyo and implications for the long-term seismic process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grunewald, E.D.; Stein, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    In order to assess the long-term character of seismicity near Tokyo, we construct an intensity-based catalog of damaging earthquakes that struck the greater Tokyo area between 1649 and 1884. Models for 15 historical earthquakes are developed using calibrated intensity attenuation relations that quantitatively convey uncertainties in event location and magnitude, as well as their covariance. The historical catalog is most likely complete for earthquakes M ??? 6.7; the largest earthquake in the catalog is the 1703 M ??? 8.2 Genroku event. Seismicity rates from 80 years of instrumental records, which include the 1923 M = 7.9 Kanto shock, as well as interevent times estimated from the past ???7000 years of paleoseismic data, are combined with the historical catalog to define a frequency-magnitude distribution for 4.5 ??? M ??? 8.2, which is well described by a truncated Gutenberg-Richter relation with a b value of 0.96 and a maximum magnitude of 8.4. Large uncertainties associated with the intensity-based catalog are propagated by a Monte Carlo simulation to estimations of the scalar moment rate. The resulting best estimate of moment rate during 1649-2003 is 1.35 ?? 1026 dyn cm yr-1 with considerable uncertainty at the 1??, level: (-0.11, + 0.20) ?? 1026 dyn cm yr-1. Comparison with geodetic models of the interseismic deformation indicates that the geodetic moment accumulation and likely moment release rate are roughly balanced over the catalog period. This balance suggests that the extended catalog is representative of long-term seismic processes near Tokyo and so can be used to assess earthquake probabilities. The resulting Poisson (or time-averaged) 30-year probability for M ??? 7.9 earthquakes is 7-11%.

  4. Distribution characteristics of volatile methylsiloxanes in Tokyo Bay watershed in Japan: Analysis of surface waters by purge and trap method.

    PubMed

    Horii, Yuichi; Minomo, Kotaro; Ohtsuka, Nobutoshi; Motegi, Mamoru; Nojiri, Kiyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2017-05-15

    Surface waters including river water and effluent from sewage treatment plants (STPs) were collected from Tokyo Bay watershed, Japan, and analyzed for seven cyclic and linear volatile methylsiloxanes (VMSs), i.e., D3, D4, D5, D6, L3, L4, and L5 by an optimized purge and trap extraction method. The total concentrations of seven VMSs (ΣVMS) in river water ranged from <4.9 to 1700ng/L (mean: 220ng/L). The individual mean concentrations of cyclic VMSs in surface waters were; 10ng/L for D3, 13ng/L for D4, 180ng/L for D5, and 18ng/L for D6. The concentrations of ΣVMS determined in STP effluents varied widely from 99 to 2500ng/L and the individual mean concentrations were 21ng/L for D3, 27ng/L for D4, 540ng/L for D5, and 45ng/L for D6. D5, which is widely used in personal-care products, was found to be the most abundant compound in both river water and STP effluent. Linear VMSs were detected at much lower frequency and concentrations than those of cyclic VMSs. The measured concentrations of D4 were below the no-observed effect concentration (NOEC). The annual emission of ΣVMS through STPs into Tokyo Bay watershed was estimated at 2300kg. Our results indicate widespread distribution of VMSs in Tokyo Bay watershed and the influence of domestic wastewater discharges as a source of VMSs in the aquatic environment.

  5. Diagnostic for charging and damage of dielectrics in accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2014-12-01

    Particle accelerators for discovery science, industrial and medical applications employ dielectric elements that can be altered or seriously damaged by the accelerated particles. This project is to develop a diagnostic test to anticipate when these effects can be avoided, thereby increasing the reliability and lowering the cost of the accelerators.

  6. Numerical modeling of incised-valley deposits in Tokyo lowland for the last 13 kyrs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Y.; Syvitski, J. P.; Hutton, E. W.; Tanabe, S.

    2006-12-01

    A coupled-simulation by the hydrologic model HydroTrend and the stratigraphic model SedFlux is applied to the incised-valley-fill deposits in the Tokyo lowland for the last 13,000 years. The postglacial sediments supplied by paleo Tonegawa River have formed deltaic deposits controlled by eustatic sea-level rise after LGM. The effects of changes in sea level, climate, and morphology on the resultant architecture of the deposits are simulated and analyzed by the numerical models. Synthetic sediment flux from the paleo Tonegawa is computed by the hydrologic model HydroTrend. The model predicts variation in average rate of sediment production over geological time scale from changes in drainage area, precipitation, temperature and morphology. Random variation based on statistic climate data is added to the predicted average values to provide daily sediment discharge. The model prediction indicates that, despite 80% increase in drainage area in the past, competing effects of decreased precipitation resulted in relatively stable sediment discharge over the last 13,000 years. On the other hand, variation in daily sediment discharge shows drastic increase during infrequent storm events. Possible occurrence of hyperpycnal flows at the river mouth was indicated during such storms, which produced daily sediment load ten times larger than average yearly sediment discharge. The estimated sediment supply is used as input to the process-based forward-model 2D-SedFlux. SedFlux is able to simulate transport and deposition of sediments by such processes as river plume, bedload dumping and ocean storms with changing boundary conditions of sea level and basement morphology. The simulation is based on the initial paleo-morphology reconstructed from integrated core analysis from the area. 2D-SedFlux successfully predicts the formation of transgressive deposits and subsequent prograding delta deposits, and the results are comparable to general architecture of incised-valley fills in the

  7. A Dislodged Tectonic Block Wedged Beneath Tokyo, and Implications for the Enigmatic 1855 Ansei-Edo Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, S.; Stein, R. S.; Bozkurt, S. B.; Nakamura, R.

    2005-12-01

    On the basis of microearthquake distributions, seismic tomography, and seismic stress inversion, we argue that a dislodged block of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific (PAC), Philippine Sea (PHS) and Eurasian (EUR) plates beneath Tokyo at a depth of at depths of 40-100 km. We argue that the block controls much of Tokyos seismic behavior, including recent M~6 class earthquakes, and the 1855 M~7.2 Ansei-Edo shock as well. To illuminate the plate configuration and possible large earthquake sources, we examined 320,000 earthquakes recorded by NIED during 1979-2004 in a 3D GIS, from which we identify several new features of the Kanto triple junction. First, a 25-km-thick, 90 x 120-km-wide enclosed volume of seismicity with high seismic velocity lies between the PAC and the EUR beneath the Kanto Plain, which we interpret to be a lithospheric block dislodged from the descending PAC. Second, we find that the leading edge of the PHS lies at 35 km depth and abuts the southern margin of the block. Third, there is a pronounced bend to the double seismic zone defining the descending PAC slab, which closely parallels the sharp curvature of the volcanic front. Because of the bend, the PAC/EUR contact at shallow depth is nearly flat-lying, and undergoes episodic aseismic slip unaccompanied by large subduction earthquakes. We associate the corridor of active seismicity extending from upper Tokyo Bay for 100 km northward with the eastern edge of the dislodged block. Within this Kanto seismic corridor, eight M≥5.7 shocks have been recorded since 1985, and four M≥7 shocks have struck since 1603. We speculate the Ansei-Edo earthquake was an intermediate-depth (30-60 km) or deep (70-100 km) thrust interplate event on the upper or lower surface of the dislodged block, rather than being an intraplate or shallow crustal shock. The 1855 event, which devastated Edo (now Tokyo) and killed more than seven thousand people, is the only well-documented inland historical earthquake

  8. Liquefaction-fluidization induced land subsidence: impact of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on reclaimed land around Tokyo bay area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, A.; Furuno, K.; Kusuda, T.; Sakai, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Kazaoka, O.

    2015-11-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake caused major liquefaction-induced, ground deformation of the reclaimed land surrounding Tokyo Bay. In this area, liquefaction was visibly manifest by sand boils, ejection of sandy water, land subsidence and floating underground tanks. The level measurements show a correspondence between the degree of liquefaction-fluidization and the amount of subsidence. The strata most susceptible to liquefaction are hydraulically emplaced dredged fill and artificial strata on thick uncompacted Holocene deposits. On the other hand, the phenomena of seismic isolation coursed by liquefaction had saved the single-family houses from collapse.

  9. Progress on plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.

    1986-05-01

    Several plasma accelerator concepts are reviewed, with emphasis on the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator (PBWA) and the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator (PWFA). Various accelerator physics issues regarding these schemes are discussed, and numerical examples on laboratory scale experiments are given. The efficiency of plasma accelerators is then revealed with suggestions on improvements. Sources that cause emittance growth are discussed briefly.

  10. Acceleration mapping on Consort 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, Robert J.

    1994-09-01

    The Consort 5 rocket carrying a set of commercial low-gravity experiments experienced a significant side thrust from an apparent burn-through of the second-stage motor just prior to cut-off. The resulting angular momentum could not be removed by the attitude rate control system, thus the payload was left in an uncontrollable rocking/tumbling mode. Although the primary low-gravity emphasis mission requirements could not be met, it was hoped that some science could be salvaged by mapping the acceleration field over the vehicle so that each investigator could correlate his or her results with the acceleration environment at his or her experiment location. This required some detective work to obtain the body rates and moment of inertia ratios required to solve the full set of Euler equations for a tri-axial rigid body. The techniques for acceleration mapping described in this paper may be applicable to other low-gravity emphasis missions.

  11. Educating and Training Accelerator Scientists and Technologists for Tomorrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, William; Chattopadhyay, Swapan; Seryi, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Accelerator science and technology is inherently an integrative discipline that combines aspects of physics, computational science, electrical and mechanical engineering. As few universities offer full academic programs, the education of accelerator physicists and engineers for the future has primarily relied on a combination of on-the-job training supplemented with intensive courses at regional accelerator schools. This article describes the approaches being used to satisfy the educational curiosity of a growing number of interested physicists and engineers.

  12. Educating and Training Accelerator Scientists and Technologists for Tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    Barletta, William A.; Chattopadhyay, Swapan; Seryi, Andrei

    2012-07-01

    Accelerator science and technology is inherently an integrative discipline that combines aspects of physics, computational science, electrical and mechanical engineering. As few universities offer full academic programs, the education of accelerator physicists and engineers for the future has primarily relied on a combination of on-the-job training supplemented with intense courses at regional accelerator schools. This paper describes the approaches being used to satisfy the educational interests of a growing number of interested physicists and engineers.

  13. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Grames, Joseph; Higinbotham, Douglas; Montgomery, Hugh

    2010-09-08

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in Newport News, Virginia, USA, is one of ten national laboratories under the aegis of the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). It is managed and operated by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC. The primary facility at Jefferson Lab is the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) as shown in an aerial photograph in Figure 1. Jefferson Lab was created in 1984 as CEBAF and started operations for physics in 1995. The accelerator uses superconducting radio-frequency (srf) techniques to generate high-quality beams of electrons with high-intensity, well-controlled polarization. The technology has enabled ancillary facilities to be created. The CEBAF facility is used by an international user community of more than 1200 physicists for a program of exploration and study of nuclear, hadronic matter, the strong interaction and quantum chromodynamics. Additionally, the exceptional quality of the beams facilitates studies of the fundamental symmetries of nature, which complement those of atomic physics on the one hand and of high-energy particle physics on the other. The facility is in the midst of a project to double the energy of the facility and to enhance and expand its experimental facilities. Studies are also pursued with a Free-Electron Laser produced by an energy-recovering linear accelerator.

  14. [Civil engineering education at the Imperial College of Engineering in Tokyo: an analysis based on Ayahiko Ishibashi's memoirs].

    PubMed

    Wada, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    The Imperial College of Engineering (ICE or Kobu-Daigakko) in Tokyo, founded in 1873 under the auspices of the Ministry of Public Works, was one of the most prominent modern institutions of engineering education in early Meiji Japan. Previous studies have revealed that the ICE offered large scale practical training programs at enterprises of the Ministry, which sometimes lasted several months, and praised their ideal combination of theory and practice. In reality, it has been difficult to evaluate the quality of education at the ICE mainly because of scarcity of sources. ICE students published a collection of memoirs for alumni members, commemorating the fiftieth-year of the history of the Tokyo Imperial University. Drawing on the previously neglected collection of students' memoires, this paper appraises the education of civil engineering offered by the ICE. The paper also compares this collection with other official records of the college, and confirms it as a reliable source, even though it contains some minor errors. The author particularly uses the memoirs by Ayahiko Ishibashi, one of the first graduates from its civil engineering course, who left sufficient reminiscences on education that he received. This paper, as a result, illustrates that the main practical training for the students of civil engineering was limited to designing process, including surveying. Furthermore, practical training that Ishibashi received at those enterprises often lacked a plan, and its effectiveness was questionable.

  15. [An outbreak of epidemic louse-borne typhus in Tokyo 1914: a study on the prevention of epidemics].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Mikio

    2002-12-01

    In 1914, the third year of the Taisho era, a period of democracy and prosperity of Japan, Tokyo was attached by an outbreak of epidemic louse-borne typhus. The number of patients was 4,119 and number of deaths was 778 (mortality rate of 18.9%) in Tokyo and 7,309 patients had been suffering from typhus fever that year in Japan. Many possible causes of the outbreak were suspected by the Health Authority of the Home Office, but these were not confirmed. One of the most likely reasons is the poor and congested living conditions of seasonal construction workers. Laborers had moved from the northwest region of Japan where typhus fever had developed occasionally in those days. Some of the laborers probably brought pathogenic germs with lice. The main preventive method for epidemic louse-borne typhus was isolation of patients and disinfecting of the areas. Kitasato Shibasaburou proposed the improvement of residential conditions of workers to prevent the prevalence of disease, but the proposal was not accepted because of financial reasons of the government. Recurrence of the outbreak did not occur in the following years. However, a huge outbreak of typhus fever with 32,366 patients and 3,351 deaths, was documented in 1946, amidst the disordered conditions of Japan after World War II.

  16. GIS-based source identification and apportionment of diffuse water pollution: perfluorinated compound pollution in the Tokyo Bay basin.

    PubMed

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2011-11-01

    To efficiently reduce perfluorinated compound (PFC) pollution, it is important to have an understanding of PFC sources and their contribution to the pollution. In this study, source identification of diffuse water pollution by PFCs was conducted using a GIS-based approach. Major components of the source identification were collection of the monitoring data and preparation of the corresponding geographic information that was extracted from a constructed GIS database. The spatially distributed pollution factors were then explored by multiple linear regression analysis, after which they were visually expressed using GIS. Among the 35 PFC homologues measured in a survey of the Tokyo Bay basin, 18 homologues were analyzed. Pollution by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was explained well by the percentage of arterial traffic area in the basin, and the 84% variance of the measured PFOS concentration was explained by two geographic variables, arterial traffic area and population. Source apportionment between point and nonpoint sources was conducted based on the results of the analysis. The contribution of PFOS from nonpoint sources was comparable to that from point sources in several major rivers flowing into Tokyo Bay. Source identification and apportionment using the GIS-based approach was shown to be effective, especially for ubiquitous types of pollution, such as PFC pollution.

  17. Estimation of origins of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in size-fractionated road dust in Tokyo with multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Pengchai, P; Nakajima, F; Furumai, H

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the origins of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in size-fractionated road dust in Tokyo. First, seven categories of PAHs sources were defined: diesel vehicle exhaust, gasoline vehicle exhaust, tire, pavement, asphalt or bitumen, petroleum products excluding tire and asphalt, and combustion products except for those in vehicle engines. The 189 source data of 12-PAHs profiles were classified into 11 groups based on cluster analysis combined with principal component analysis. Next, 18 road dust samples were collected from eight streets in Tokyo and fractionated into four different particle-size-fractions: 0.1-45, 45-106, 106-250, and 250-2000 microm. In order to estimate the contributions of the classified source groups (S1-S11) to PAHs in the road dust, multiple regression analysis was performed with 12-PAH profile of the road dust as dependent variable and average 12-PAHs profiles of the 11 source groups as 11 explanatory variables. Diesel vehicle exhaust, tire and pavement were the major contributors of PAHs in the fractionated road dust. Although the estimated contributions of the 11 source groups varied among the particle-size-fractions, there was no clear and consistent relationship between particle size and the major PAH contributor.

  18. Pre-flight performance and radiation hardness of the Tokyo Tech pico-satellite Cute-1.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotoku, J.; Kataoka, J.; Kuramoto, Y.; Tsubuku, Y.; Yatsu, Y.; Sato, R.; Ikagawa, T.; Saito, T.; Kawai, N.; Konoue, K.; Miyashita, N.; Iai, M.; Omagari, K.; Kashiwa, M.; Yabe, H.; Imai, K.; Miyamoto; Fujiwara, K.; Masumoto, S.; Usuda, T.; Iljic, T.; Konda, A.; Sugita, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Matsuura, D.; Sagami, T.; Kajiwara, S.; Funaki, Y.; Matsunaga, S.; Shima, T.; Kishimoto, S.

    2006-09-01

    The Cute-1.7 was launched successfully in February 2006 as a piggyback satellite of the Astro-F mission. The Cute-1.7 dimensions are 10×10×20cm box with a total mass of 3.6 kg. It is the second pico-satellite to have been developed completely by students of the Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech.) after the successful launch of the CUTE-I in June 2003. The goals of the Cute-1.7 mission are two-fold: (1) to validate high-performance, commercially available products for the first time in space. We particularly use personal digital assistants (PDAs) as a main computer in orbit (2) to demonstrate new potential uses for small satellites in various space studies, as proposed by the “satellite-core” concept. For the Cute-1.7 mission, we will carry avalanche photo diodes (APDs) as a high-count particle monitor in low-Earth orbit. Here we present details of various ground tests and pre-flight performance of the Cute-1.7 immediately before the launch. Results of the Cute-1.7 mission will provide quick feedback for space applications of APDs in Japan's future X-ray astronomy mission NeXT.

  19. Prehospital management of sarin nerve gas terrorism in urban settings: 10 years of progress after the Tokyo subway sarin attack.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Yasuharu; Kikuchi, Makiko; Takahashi, Osamu; Stein, Gerald H

    2006-02-01

    Chemical agents have been used previously in wartime on numerous occasions, from World War I to the Gulf War. In 1994 and 1995, sarin nerve gas was used first in peacetime as a weapon of terrorism in Japan. The Tokyo subway sarin attack was the first large-scale disaster caused by nerve gas. A religious cult released sarin gas into subway commuter trains during morning rush hour. Twelve passengers died and about 5500 people were harmed. Sarin is a highly toxic nerve agent that can be fatal within minutes to hours. It causes the clinical syndrome of cholinergic hyperstimulation by inhibition of the crucial enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Therapy of nerve agent toxicity is divided into three categories, decontamination, respiratory support, and antidotes. All of these therapies may be given simultaneously. This article reviews toxicology and management of this acute chemical emergency. To help minimize the possible catastrophic impact on the public, we make several recommendations based on analysis of the Tokyo subway sarin attack and systematically review the current scientific literature.

  20. Seasonal models of herpangina and hand-foot-mouth disease to simulate annual fluctuations in urban warming in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Shindo, Nahoko; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2003-04-01

    In order to investigate the effects of global warming, we attempted to establish seasonal models to predict fluctuations in rates of herpangina (HA) and hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) associated with weather conditions and calendar months in Tokyo, Japan. Surveillance data tracking HA/HFMD incidences in Tokyo was retrieved from the Infectious Agents Surveillance Report, published by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Japan. From the Meteorological Agency, we obtained data for 54 weather condition parameters. The annual fluctuations in reported HA cases comprising start, peak, and end weeks almost exactly matched the model, although peak levels for each fluctuation did not always match in HFMD. Furthermore, for the HA model, 88% of the variations among observed HA cases were explained by the linear relationship with the seasonal parameters investigated, which was higher than the 64% observed for the HFMD model. The HA and HFMD models were applied to data from the years 1999 to 2002, and demonstrated correlations of 86% and 64%, respectively. These models predicted that warmer climate conditions would lead to an increased number of HA and HFMD cases. These results suggest that our seasonal models may quantify the dependency of infectious diseases on seasonal parameters and simulate the impact of global warming.

  1. Regional Characterization of Tokyo Metropolitan area using a highly-dense seismic network (MeSO-net)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Naoshi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Panayotopoulos, Yannis; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Ishibe, Takeo; Kimura, Hisanori; Honda, Ryou

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a dense seismic network, MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network), which consists of about 300 seismic stations, since 2007 in the greater Tokyo urban region(Hirata et al., 2009). Using MeSO-net data, we obtain P- and S- wave velocity tomograms (Nakagawa et al., 2010) and Qp, Qs tomograms (Panayotopoulos et al., 2014) which show a clear image of Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) and PAcific Plate (PAP). A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 km beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the hypocenter distribution (Ishida, 1992). Based on elastic wave velocities of rocks and minerals, we constructed a petrologic model. The Vp steps in subducting Izu forearc crust occurs at a depth of 30km (blueschist or greenschist to garnet amphibolite transformation) and a depth of 50km (garnet amphibolite to eclogite transformation). Both temperatures are estimated to be 500 and 600 degree C, respectively. The high Vp/Vs anomaly (>1.9) implies large amounts of fluid H2O released by garnet amphibolite to eclogite dehydration reactions. This study is supported by MEXT Japan under the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters.

  2. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, STA Research on Superconducting Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    1986 Laboratory Niobium/ 2 wo0 germanium20 t’ ’’ -- 260 10 • Niobiumltin 1911 - 00Interalloy metal Liquid1911 -- S °mD°und <-Ihel~iu m 0 Mercury J...Toichi Okada Professor Industrial Science Research Laboratory, Osaka University Koichi Kitazawa Professor Engineering, University of Tokyo Ken Sugiura...0 . Crystal structure 0 Nagnetism Thermodynamic property Optical property Ov Basic property experiment si . 0 04 ’ s Liquid •Jnitrogeno ’ tempera- W o

  3. ONR Tokyo Scientific Bulletin. Volume 4. Number 3, July-September 1979,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    accelerators for medical use, biological effects of high -energy radiation, electron spin resonance in molecules, Misbauer resonance in heme proteins...it particularly important to encourage a high level of scientific exchange. He pointed out that Japanese scientists cannot be present in great...energy-regime 0.01 ev < E < 10 ev; (2) measurement of integral rather than differential cross sections; (3) high sensitivity (cross sections of around

  4. Comparison of plasma levels of nutrient-related biomarkers among Japanese populations in Tokyo, Japan; São Paulo, Brazil; and Hawaii, USA

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Franke, Adrian A.; Hamada, Gerson Shigeaki; Miyajima, Nelson Tomio; Sharma, Sangita; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies of Japanese migrants have suggested that the increase in colorectal cancer rates occurring after migration is slower among Japanese Brazilians than Japanese Americans. We hypothesized that this difference may partly reflect differences in vegetable and fruit intake between populations. Methods Using data from validation studies of food frequency questionnaires being used in a comparative case-control study of colorectal adenoma in Tokyo, São Paulo, and Hawaii, plasma carotenoids, retinol, tocopherols, and coenzyme Q10 levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma levels were compared by analysis of covariance between 142 Japanese in Tokyo, 79 Japanese Brazilians in São Paulo, and 78 Japanese Americans in Hawaii. Results Overall, we found significantly lower plasma carotenoid levels, except for lycopene, and retinol levels in Japanese Americans than in Japanese in Tokyo and Japanese Brazilians. Plasma total carotenoids level was highest in Japanese Brazilians. Compared to mean level among Japanese Brazilians (1741.2 ng/mL), p for difference was 0.03 for Japanese in Tokyo (1514.4 ng/mL) and <0.01 for Japanese Americans (1257.7 ng/mL). Plasma lycopene and tocopherol levels did not substantially differ between the three populations. We also found significantly lower plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and total coenzyme Q10 levels in Japanese in Tokyo than in Japanese Americans and Japanese Brazilians. Conclusion Higher levels of plasma carotenoids among Japanese Brazilians than Japanese in Tokyo and Hawaii may contribute to the slower pace of increase in colorectal cancer rates observed in that population following migration. PMID:25633435

  5. Comparison of plasma levels of nutrient-related biomarkers among Japanese populations in Tokyo, Japan, São Paulo, Brazil, and Hawaii, USA.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Franke, Adrian A; Hamada, Gerson S; Miyajima, Nelson T; Sharma, Sangita; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies of Japanese migrants have suggested that the increase in colorectal cancer rates occurring after migration is slower among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese Americans. We hypothesized that this difference may partly reflect differences in vegetable and fruit intake between the populations. Using data from validation studies of food frequency questionnaires being used in comparative case-control studies of colorectal adenoma in Tokyo, São Paulo, and Hawaii, plasma carotenoid, retinol, tocopherol, and coenzyme Q10 levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma levels were compared by analysis of covariance between 142 Japanese in Tokyo, 79 Japanese Brazilians in São Paulo, and 78 Japanese Americans in Hawaii. Overall, we found significantly lower plasma carotenoid levels, except for lycopene levels, and retinol levels in Japanese Americans compared with Japanese in Tokyo and Japanese Brazilians. The plasma total carotenoid level was highest in Japanese Brazilians. Compared with the mean level among Japanese Brazilians (1741.2 ng/ml), P for difference was 0.03 among Japanese in Tokyo (1514.4 ng/ml) and less than 0.01 for Japanese Americans (1257.7 ng/ml). Plasma lycopene and tocopherol levels did not substantially differ between the three populations. We also found significantly lower plasma levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D and total coenzyme Q10 in Japanese in Tokyo than in Japanese Americans and Japanese Brazilians. Higher levels of plasma carotenoids among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese in Tokyo and Hawaii may have contributed to the slower pace of the increase in colorectal cancer rates observed in that population after migration.

  6. The United States Particle Accelerator School: Educating the next generation of accelerator scientists and engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Barletta, William A.; /MIT

    2008-09-01

    Only a handful of universities in the US offer any formal training in accelerator science. The United States Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) is National Graduate Educational Program that has developed a highly successful educational paradigm that, over the past twenty-years, has granted more university credit in accelerator / beam science and technology than any university in the world. Sessions are held twice annually, hosted by major US research universities that approve course credit, certify the USPAS faculty, and grant course credit. The USPAS paradigm is readily extensible to other rapidly developing, crossdisciplinary research areas such as high energy density physics.

  7. The United States Particle Accelerator School: Educating the Next Generation of Accelerator Scientists and Engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Barletta, William A.

    2009-03-10

    Only a handful of universities in the US offer any formal training in accelerator science. The United States Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) is National Graduate Educational Program that has developed a highly successful educational paradigm that, over the past twenty-years, has granted more university credit in accelerator/beam science and technology than any university in the world. Sessions are held twice annually, hosted by major US research universities that approve course credit, certify the USPAS faculty, and grant course credit. The USPAS paradigm is readily extensible to other rapidly developing, cross-disciplinary research areas such as high energy density physics.

  8. Increases in seismicity rate in the Tokyo Metropolitan area after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibe, T.; Satake, K.; Sakai, S.; Shimazaki, K.; Tsuruoka, H.; Nakagawa, S.; Hirata, N.

    2013-12-01

    Abrupt increases in seismicity rate have been observed in the Kanto region, where the Tokyo Metropolitan area is located, after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (M9.0) on March 11, 2011. They are well explained by the static increases in the Coulomb Failure Function (ΔCFF) imparted by the gigantic thrusting while some other possible factors (e.g., dynamic stress changes, excess of fluid dehydration, post-seismic slip) may also contribute the rate changes. Because of various types of earthquakes with different focal mechanisms occur in the Kanto region, the receiver faults for the calculation of ΔCFF were assumed to be two nodal planes of small earthquakes before and after the Tohoku earthquake. The regions where seismicity rate increased after the Tohoku earthquake well correlate with concentration on positive ΔCFF (i.e., southwestern Ibaraki and northern Chiba prefectures where intermediate-depth earthquakes occur, and in the shallow crust of western Kanagawa, eastern Shizuoka, and southeastern Yamanashi including the Izu and Hakone regions). The seismicity rate has increased since March 11, 2011 with respect to the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model (Ogata, 1988), suggesting that the rate increase was due to the stress increase by the Tohoku earthquake. Furthermore, the z-values immediately after the Tohoku earthquake show the minimum values during the recent 10 years, indicating significant increases in seismicity rate. At intermediate depth, abrupt increases in thrust faulting earthquakes are well consistent with the Coulomb stress increase. At shallow depth, the earthquakes with the T-axes of roughly NE-SW were activated probably due to the E-W extension of the overriding continental plate, and this is also well explained by the Coulomb stress increase. However, the activated seismicity in the Izu and Hakone regions rapidly decayed following the Omori-Utsu formula, while the increased rate of seismicity in the southwestern

  9. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, Structure, Properties of Al Amorphous Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS-JST-90-054 4 DECEMBER 1990 FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report-- Science & Technology Japan STRUCTURE , PROPERTIES OF AL...JPRS-JST-90-054 4 DECEMBER 1990 SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY JAPAN STRUCTURE . PROPERTIES OF AL AMORPHOUS ALLOYS 906C7531 Tokyo AL KEI AMORUFASU GOKIN NO KOZO...TO TOKUSEI in Japanese 6 Feb 90 pp 1-40 [Papers presented at the Symposium for Structure and Properties of Al Amorphous Alloys, held 6 Feb 90 in

  10. Future accelerator technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1986-05-01

    A general discussion is presented of the acceleration of particles. Upon this foundation is built a categorization scheme into which all accelerators can be placed. Special attention is devoted to accelerators which employ a wake-field mechanism and a restricting theorem is examined. It is shown how the theorem may be circumvented. Comments are made on various acceleration schemes.

  11. ACCELERATION AND THE GIFTED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GIBSON, ARTHUR R.; STEPHANS, THOMAS M.

    ACCELERATION OF PUPILS AND SUBJECTS IS CONSIDERED A MEANS OF EDUCATING THE ACADEMICALLY GIFTED STUDENT. FIVE INTRODUCTORY ARTICLES PROVIDE A FRAMEWORK FOR THINKING ABOUT ACCELERATION. FIVE PROJECT REPORTS OF ACCELERATED PROGRAMS IN OHIO ARE INCLUDED. ACCELERATION IS NOW BEING REGARDED MORE FAVORABLY THAN FORMERLY, BECAUSE METHODS HAVE BEEN…

  12. Laser driven ion accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2005-06-14

    A system and method of accelerating ions in an accelerator to optimize the energy produced by a light source. Several parameters may be controlled in constructing a target used in the accelerator system to adjust performance of the accelerator system. These parameters include the material, thickness, geometry and surface of the target.

  13. Laser driven ion accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2006-04-18

    A system and method of accelerating ions in an accelerator to optimize the energy produced by a light source. Several parameters may be controlled in constructing a target used in the accelerator system to adjust performance of the accelerator system. These parameters include the material, thickness, geometry and surface of the target.

  14. Enabling technologies for petascale electromagnetic accelerator simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Lie-Quan; Akcelik, Volkan; Chen, Sheng; Ge, Lixin; Prudencio, Ernesto; Schussman, Greg; Uplenchwar, Ravi; Ng, Cho; Ko, Kwok; Luo, Xiaojun; Shephard, Mark

    2007-07-01

    The SciDAC2 accelerator project at SLAC aims to simulate an entire three-cryomodule radio frequency (RF) unit of the International Linear Collider (ILC) main Linac. Petascale computing resources supported by advances in Applied Mathematics (AM) and Computer Science (CS) and INCITE Program are essential to enable such very large-scale electromagnetic accelerator simulations required by the ILC Global Design Effort. This poster presents the recent advances and achievements in the areas of CS/AM through collaborations.

  15. Enabling Technologies for Petascale Electromagnetic Accelerator Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Lie-Quan; Akcelik, Volkan; Chen, Sheng; Ge, Li-Xin; Prudencio, Ernesto; Schussman, Greg; Uplenchwar, Ravi; Ng, Cho; Ko, Kwok; Luo, Xiaojun; Shephard, Mark; /Rensselaer Poly.

    2007-11-09

    The SciDAC2 accelerator project at SLAC aims to simulate an entire three-cryomodule radio frequency (RF) unit of the International Linear Collider (ILC) main Linac. Petascale computing resources supported by advances in Applied Mathematics (AM) and Computer Science (CS) and INCITE Program are essential to enable such very large-scale electromagnetic accelerator simulations required by the ILC Global Design Effort. This poster presents the recent advances and achievements in the areas of CS/AM through collaborations.

  16. Exploring Accelerating Science Applications with FPGAs

    SciTech Connect

    Storaasli, Olaf O; Strenski, Dave

    2007-01-01

    FPGA hardware and tools (VHDL, Viva, MitrionC and CHiMPS) are described. FPGA performance is evaluated on two Cray XD1 systems (Virtex-II Pro 50 and Virtex-4 LX160) for human genome (DNA and protein) sequence comparisons for a computational biology code (FASTA). Scalable FPGA speedups of 50X (Virtex-II) and 100X (Virtex-4) over a 2.2 GHz Opteron were achieved. Coding and IO issues faced for human genome data are described.

  17. A new approach based on a covariance structure model to source apportionment of indoor fine particles in Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Masanori; Sato, Manabu; Konishi, Sadanori; Ono, Masaji

    A new receptor model is developed to estimate percent source contribution of indoor fine particles. Under the model, the covariance matrix of the elemental concentrations has a linear structure expressed as a weighted sum of known matrices and the percent contribution of each source is given by a function of the parameters involved. Given data, the percent source contributions are estimated using the information provided by the sample covariance matrix. Our approach makes it possible to selecta a set of sources that "best" describes the variation of the data. The standard errors of the percent source contribution estimates are evaluated by employing the bootstrap method. The proposed methods is applied to indoor air pollution data collected in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. Cigarette smoke, heavy oil combustion and diesel-powered automobiles were identified as important sources for both winter and summer data.

  18. Factors Affecting Initial Intimate Partner Violence-Specific Health Care Seeking in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akiko; Bybee, Deborah; Yoshihama, Mieko

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the factors affecting a women's initial intimate partner violence (IPV)-specific health care seeking event which refers to the first health care seeking as a result of IPV in a lifetime. Data were collected using the Life History Calendar method in the Tokyo metropolitan area from 101 women who had experienced IPV. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to assess the time to initial IPV-specific health care seeking. IPV-related injury was the most significant factor associated with increased likelihood of seeking IPV-specific health care seeking for the first time. In the presence of a strong effect of formal help seeking, physical and sexual IPV were no longer significantly related to initial IPV-specific health care seeking. The results suggest some victims of IPV may not seek health care unless they get injured. The timing of receiving health care would be important to ensure the health and safety of victims.

  19. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in victims of Tokyo subway attack: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Toshiyuki; Iwanami, Akira; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori; Kato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kato, Nobumasa

    2004-12-01

    Sarin gas was dispersed in a Tokyo subway in 1995. This study investigates the mental and somatic symptoms of the 34 victims 5 years after the attack. Structured interviews (Clinician-Administered Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder [CAPS] and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview) and self-rating questionnaires were used to assess the symptoms. Not only post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but also non-specific mental symptoms persisted in the victims at a high rate. A total of 11 victims were diagnosed with current or lifetime PTSD according to CAPS. Victims with PTSD showed higher anxiety levels and more visual memory impairment. A significant correlation between the total score of Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and CAPS was found, indicating that IES-R is a useful tool for evaluating PTSD.

  20. Design of enclosure and support facilities for the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory 6.5-m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, S.; Yoshii, Y.; Doi, M.; Kohno, K.; Miyata, T.; Motohara, K.; Kawara, K.; Tanaka, M.; Minezaki, Takeo; Morokuma, T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanabe, T.; Takahashi, H.; Konishi, M.; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Koshida, S.; Kato, Natsuko; Aoki, T.; Soyano, T.; Tarusawa, K.; Handa, T.; Bronfman, L.; Ruiz, M. T.; Hamuy, M.; Mendez, R.

    2014-07-01

    A basic design of enclosure and support facilities for the University of Tokyo Atacama observatory (TAO) 6.5-m telescope is described in this paper. The enclosure facility has a carousel shape with an open-space near the ground surface. The upper carousel rotates independently of the telescope. Horizontally opened slit doors, a dozen ventilation windows, wind and moon shields, and an overhead bridge-crane are equipped. For safety reasons, most of maintenance walkways are placed inside of the enclosure facility. An observation floor of the enclosure facility is connected to the support facility via a bridge for maintenance of observation instruments and a primary mirror of the telescope. Air inside of the enclosure and support facilities is exhausted to an underground tunnel.

  1. Disturbance of recruitment success of mantis shrimp in Tokyo Bay associated with effects of hypoxia on the early life history.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Keita; Tajima, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Takamichi; Ohata, Satoshi; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2014-08-30

    We investigated effects of severe hypoxia (dissolved oxygen <1 ml l(-1)) on recruitment of mantis shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria in Tokyo Bay. Ten-year field surveys were conducted to examine quantitative relationships in annual mean densities of larvae and juveniles, and spatial distribution of juveniles and severe hypoxia. There was no significant correlation between annual mean densities of larvae and juveniles, suggesting that mortality during larval or juvenile stages varies among years, which might have regulated abundance of young-of-the-year juveniles. Juvenile density was low in the severely hypoxic area, implying that hypoxia could affect survivals and spatial distribution of juveniles. Meanwhile, there are yearly fluctuations in juvenile density in normoxic areas of both northern and southern part of the bay. This evidence suggests that abundance of post-settled juveniles might have been determined by not only effects of hypoxia, but also other factors influencing mortality during the early life stages.

  2. [A survey on condition of outpatients at prosthodontics II, University Hospital, Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University].

    PubMed

    Sugawara, N; Shiozawa, I; Masuda, T; Takei, H; Tsuruta, J; Ogura, N; Hasegawa, S

    1998-06-01

    The number of dental patients who have medical illnesses is increasing at the hospital of the Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University. Although prosthodontic treatments are considered less invasive in all dental treatments, invasive procedures such as tooth extraction may be required occasionally. Therefore, it is necessary to treat patients in consideration of their condition. Under this situation, a clinical survey was conducted by health questionnaires answered by the patients who visited our clinic between October 1992 and March 1997. The number of patients whose illness was heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, nephritic disease, hepatitis, tuberculosis, hemodyscrasia, asthma, epilepsy, and so on during dental treatment was higher than the national average according to the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Dental psychosomatic diseases such as TMD and dental phobia were increased every year. These data reflect the contemporary disease structure in Japan characterized by the spreading of life-style related diseases and increase of neuropsychological and infectious diseases.

  3. Cherry blossom phenological data since the seventeenth century for Edo (Tokyo), Japan, and their application to estimation of March temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aono, Yasuyuki

    2015-04-01

    The changes in March mean temperatures in Edo (Tokyo), Japan, since the seventeenth century, were reconstructed using phenological data for the cherry blossoms of Prunus jamasakura deduced from old diaries and chronicles. The observations of the time of full blossoming and of cherry blossom viewing parties were acquired and used to construct a full-blossoming phenological data series for P. jamasakura. Phenological data from 207 of the years from 1601 to 1905 were used for this study. The reconstructed temperatures suggested the existence of two cold periods (the second half of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century), during which times the estimated March mean temperatures were about 4 °C and 5 °C, respectively. These two cold periods at Edo coincided with those reconstructed at Kyoto in previous studies. These cold periods coincided with two less extreme periods, the Maunder and Dalton minima, in the long-term solar variation cycle.

  4. Preparedness for the Spread of Influenza: Prohibition of Traffic, School Closure, and Vaccination of Children in the Commuter Towns of Tokyo

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Hidenori; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Kimura, Mikio; Shigematsu, Mika; Matsumoto, Masaaki; Kawachi, Shoji; Oshima, Masamichi; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    In Greater Tokyo, many people commute by train between the suburbs and downtown Tokyo for 1 to 2 h per day. The spread of influenza in the suburbs of Tokyo should be studied, including the role of commuters and the effect of government policies on the spread of disease. We analyzed the simulated spread of influenza in commuter towns along a suburban railroad, using the individual-based Monte Carlo method, and validated this analysis using surveillance data of the infection in the Tokyo suburbs. This simulation reflects the mechanism of the real spread of influenza in commuter towns. Three measures against the spread of influenza were analyzed: prohibition of traffic, school closure, and vaccination of school children. Prohibition of traffic was not effective after the introduction of influenza into the commuter towns, but, if implemented early, it was somewhat effective in delaying the epidemic. School closure delayed the epidemic and reduced the peak of the disease, but it was not as effective in decreasing the number of infected people. Vaccination of school children decreased the numbers not only of infected children but also of infected adults in the regional communities. PMID:18449643

  5. Risk assessment of TBT in the Japanese short-neck clam ( Ruditapes philippinarum) of Tokyo Bay using a chemical fate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiguchi, Fumio; Nakata, Kisaburo; Ito, Naganori; Okawa, Ken

    2006-12-01

    A risk assessment of Tributyltin (TBT) in Tokyo Bay was conducted using the Margin of Exposure (MOE) method at the species level using the Japanese short-neck clam, Ruditapes philippinarum. The assessment endpoint was defined to protect R. philippinarum in Tokyo Bay from TBT (growth effects). A No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) for this species with respect to growth reduction induced by TBT was estimated from experimental results published in the scientific literature. Sources of TBT in this study were assumed to be commercial vessels in harbors and navigation routes. Concentrations of TBT in Tokyo Bay were estimated using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, an ecosystem model and a chemical fate model. MOEs for this species were estimated for the years 1990, 2000, and 2007. Estimated MOEs for R. philippinarum for 1990, 2000, and 2007 were approximately 1-3, 10, and 100, respectively, indicating a declining temporal trend in the probability of adverse growth effects. A simplified software package called RAMTB was developed by incorporating the chemical fate model and the databases of seasonal flow fields and distributions of organic substances (phytoplankton and detritus) in Tokyo Bay, simulated by the hydrodynamic and ecological model, respectively.

  6. Collaborative Cultural Studies over The Internet: Learning Cultures with Virtual Partners. A Project between Baylor University and Tokyo Institute of Polytechnics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okubo, Masamichi; Kumahata, Hajime

    Since the fall semester of 1995, students at Baylor University (Waco, Texas) taking Japanese and students at Tokyo Institute of Polytechnics have had opportunities to communicate with each other and learn together in a real-world situation. Until the fall of 2000, the format limited them to e-mail communication; however other Internet tools are…

  7. Report of the Regional Consultation for Asia-Pacific Co-operative Programme in Reading Promotion and Book Development (APPREB) (Tokyo, Japan, November 20-21, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asia/Pacific Cultural Centre for UNESCO, Tokyo (Japan).

    The 1997 Regional Consultation for Asia-Pacific Cooperative Programme for Reading Promotion and Book Development (APPREB) held at Japan Publishers Building, Tokyo, Japan, on November 20-21, 1997, highlighted the vital areas where more intensive regional cooperation is required to promote books and reading in this time of drastic changes. Included…

  8. A high resolution 3D velocity model beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area by MeSO-net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.

    2015-12-01

    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes devastating mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating serious loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 23,000 fatalities and 95 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. We have launched the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions since 2012. We analyze data from the dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net), which has 296 seismic stations with spacing of 5 km (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and estimated the velocity structure and the upper boundary of PSP (Nakagawa et al., 2010). The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0) has activated seismicity also in Kanto region, providing better coverage of ray paths for tomographic analysis. We obtain much higher resolution velocity models from whole dataset observed by MeSO-net between 2008 and 2015. A detailed image of tomograms shows that PSP contacts Pacific plate at a depth of 50 km beneath northern Tokyo bay. A variation of velocity along the oceanic crust suggests dehydration reaction to produce seismicity in a slab, which may related to the M7+ earthquake. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters of MEXT, Japan and the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  9. ONR Tokyo Scientific Bulletin. Volume 2, Number 2. April-June 1977,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    roac iu of a sto rm , there is hardly any visible or severe radio noise warning of the existence of strong t ie l (I s with in the clouds , as...Sciences Section , National Scietice Foundation , and file Atmospheri c Sciences Program Code 465 of the Ot’fi ce of Naval I I...it i f l u c a m u i m o n files an t I f i n u e — s l u a r i n g s r s t eu i u and 21 t e r m n u m i a l s : m l l f i e th i m i f o 11

  10. Personal computers in accelerator control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderssen, P. S.

    1988-07-01

    The advent of the personal computer has created a popular movement which has also made a strong impact on science and engineering. Flexible software environments combined with good computational performance and large storage capacities are becoming available at steadily decreasing costs. Of equal importance, however, is the quality of the user interface offered on many of these products. Graphics and screen interaction is available in ways that were only possible on specialized systems before. Accelerator engineers were quick to pick up the new technology. The first applications were probably for controllers and data gatherers for beam measurement equipment. Others followed, and today it is conceivable to make personal computer a standard component of an accelerator control system. This paper reviews the experience gained at CERN so far and describes the approach taken in the design of the common control center for the SPS and the future LEP accelerators. The design goal has been to be able to integrate personal computers into the accelerator control system and to build the operator's workplace around it.

  11. Development of ΔE-E telescope ERDA with 40 MeV 35Cl7+ beam at MALT in the University of Tokyo optimized for analysis of metal oxynitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harayama, I.; Nagashima, K.; Hirose, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Sekiba, D.

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a compact ΔE-E telescope elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) system, for the first time at Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem Accelerator (MALT) in the University of Tokyo, which consists of a gas ionization chamber and solid state detector (SSD) for the quantitative analysis of light elements. The gas ionization chamber is designed to identify the recoils of O and N from metal oxynitrides thin films irradiated with 40 MeV 35Cl7+. The length of the electrodes along the beam direction is 50 mm optimized to sufficiently separate energy loss of O and N recoils in P10 gas at 6.0 × 103 Pa. The performance of the gas ionization chamber was examined by comparing the ERDA results on the SrTaO2N thin films with semi-empirical simulation and the chemical compositions previously determined by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). We also confirmed availability of the gas ionization chamber for identifying not only the recoils of O and N but also those of lithium, carbon and fluorine.

  12. Comparison of plasma levels of obesity-related biomarkers among Japanese populations in Tokyo, Japan, São Paulo, Brazil, and Hawaii, USA.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Le Marchand, Loïc; Franke, Adrian A; Hamada, Gerson Shigeaki; Miyajima, Nelson Tomio; Sharma, Sangita; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Although Japanese in Japan and the USA are high-risk populations for colorectal cancer, the prevalence of obesity, one of the established risk factors for this disease, is low in these populations compared with other high-risk populations. To understand this inconsistency, we compared plasma obesity-related biomarkers in cross-sectional studies carried out in Tokyo, São Paulo, and Hawaii. We measured plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-1, IGFBP-3, C-peptide, adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 by immunoassay and total C-reactive protein, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides using a clinical chemistry autoanalyzer. A total of 299 participants were included in the present analysis, comprising 142 Japanese in Tokyo, 79 Japanese Brazilians in São Paulo, and 78 Japanese Americans in Hawaii. We found significantly lower plasma levels of C-peptide and IGF-I in Japanese in Tokyo than in Japanese Americans, and lower levels of leptin and triglycerides and higher levels of adiponectin, IGFBP-3, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in Japanese in Tokyo than in the other two populations. We also observed a significantly higher plasma IGFBP-1 level in Japanese Brazilians, and lower plasma levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein in Japanese Americans than in the other two populations. We observed significant differences in obesity-related biomarkers between the three Japanese populations. If our results are confirmed, the risk of colorectal cancer predicted on the basis of these biomarkers would be lowest for Japanese in Tokyo, followed by Japanese Brazilians and Japanese Americans.

  13. History of hadron therapy accelerators.

    PubMed

    Degiovanni, Alberto; Amaldi, Ugo

    2015-06-01

    In the last 60 years, hadron therapy has made great advances passing from a stage of pure research to a well-established treatment modality for solid tumours. In this paper the history of hadron therapy accelerators is reviewed, starting from the first cyclotrons used in the thirties for neutron therapy and passing to more modern and flexible machines used nowadays. The technical developments have been accompanied by clinical studies that allowed the selection of the tumours which are more sensitive to this type of radiotherapy. This paper aims at giving a review of the origin and the present status of hadron therapy accelerators, describing the technological basis and the continuous development of this application to medicine of instruments developed for fundamental science. At the end the present challenges are reviewed.

  14. Start-to-end simulation with rare isotope beam for post accelerator of the RAON accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho

    2016-09-01

    The RAON accelerator for the Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) has been developed to create and accelerate various kinds of stable heavy ion beams and rare isotope beams for a wide range of science applications. In the RAON accelerator, the rare isotope beams generated by the Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) system will be transported through the post accelerator, namely, from the post Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) system and the post Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) to the superconducting linac (SCL3). The accelerated beams will be put to use in the low energy experimental hall or accelerated again by the superconducting linac (SCL2) in order to be used in the high energy experimental hall. In this paper, we will describe the results of the start-toend simulations with the rare isotope beams generated by the ISOL system in the post accelerator of the RAON accelerator. In addition, the error analysis and correction at the superconducting linac SCL3 will be presented.

  15. A century of modern dental education in Japan: the history of the Tokyo Dental College.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, N

    1993-11-01

    At the end of the revolution against the Tokugawa Shogun in 1868, the new Meiji government introduce Western medicine and science into Japan. Dental education, however, was neglected by the new regime. Dr. Kisai Takayama, a Samurai warrior turned dentist, realized this and established the first dental school in Japan in 1890. Meeting a definite need, the school expanded several times and introduced into the country standards which raised Japanese dental education to the level of that in the Western world. In 1990, the hundredth anniversary celebration of the school was held, following the completion of the school's magnificent new campus in 1981 and a new headquarters building in 1990.

  16. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

    ScienceCinema

    Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

    2016-07-12

    Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

  17. Peak acceleration limiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P.

    1972-01-01

    Device is described that limits accelerations by shutting off shaker table power very rapidly in acceleration tests. Absolute value of accelerometer signal is used to trigger electronic switch which terminates test and sounds alarm.

  18. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... equipment? How is safety ensured? What is this equipment used for? A linear accelerator (LINAC) is the ... Therapy (SBRT) . top of page How does the equipment work? The linear accelerator uses microwave technology (similar ...

  19. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

    2014-11-05

    Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

  20. Improved plasma accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  1. Production and applications of neutrons using particle accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Chichester, David L.

    2009-11-01

    Advances in neutron science have gone hand in hand with the development and of particle accelerators from the beginning of both fields of study. Early accelerator systems were developed simply to produce neutrons, allowing scientists to study their properties and how neutrons interact in matter, but people quickly realized that more tangible uses existed too. Today the diversity of applications for industrial accelerator-based neutron sources is high and so to is the actual number of instruments in daily use is high, and they serve important roles in the fields where they're used. This chapter presents a technical introduction to the different ways particle accelerators are used to produce neutrons, an historical overview of the early development of neutron-producing particle accelerators, a description of some current industrial accelerator systems, narratives of the fields where neutron-producing particle accelerators are used today, and comments on future trends in the industrial uses of neutron producing particle accelerators.

  2. Summary report of working group 3: Laser and high-gradient structure-based acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andonian, Gerard; Simakov, Evgenya

    2017-03-01

    High-gradient particle acceleration with reduced power demands is essential for miniaturization and cost reduction of future accelerators. Applications for compact accelerators span collider research for High Energy Physics, light source development for Basic Energy Sciences and National Security, and industrial accelerators for Energy and Environmental Applications. Working Group 3 discussed and surveyed the recent advances in achieving higher gradients and better acceleration efficiency in externally powered, structure-based accelerators. The topics covered in Working Group 3 included dielectric laser acceleration, millimeter-wave accelerators, breakdown phenomena, exotic topologies such as photonic band-gap structures, artificial materials, and nanostructures, and novel rf technology.

  3. Accelerators, Colliders, and Snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courant, Ernest D.

    2003-12-01

    The author traces his involvement in the evolution of particle accelerators over the past 50 years. He participated in building the first billion-volt accelerator, the Brookhaven Cosmotron, which led to the introduction of the "strong-focusing" method that has in turn led to the very large accelerators and colliders of the present day. The problems of acceleration of spin-polarized protons are also addressed, with discussions of depolarizing resonances and "Siberian snakes" as a technique for mitigating these resonances.

  4. Model experiments on climate change in the Tokyo metropolitan area using regional climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunematsu, N.; Dairaku, K.

    2011-12-01

    There is a possibility that the future atmospheric warming leads to more frequent heavy rainfall in the metropolitan area, thereby increasing the risk of floods. As part of REsearch Program on Climate Change Adaptation (RECCA) funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, we started numerical model experiments for investigating the vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in water hazard assessments in the metropolitan area by the use of regional climate scenarios. The model experiments adopt dynamical downscaling techniques. Future climate projections obtained from regional climate model simulations at 20 km horizontal grid spacing are downscaled into finer grids (less than 5 km resolutions) of Regional Atmospheric Modeling System Version 6.0 modified by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED-RAMS). Prior to performing the dynamical downscaling experiments, the NIED-RAMS model biases are evaluated by comparing long-term surface meteorological observations with results of the model simulations that are carried out by using the Japanese Re-Analysis (JRA) data and Japan Meteorological Agency Meso-Scale Model outputs as the initial and boundary conditions.

  5. Acceleration: It's Elementary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Acceleration is one tool for providing high-ability students the opportunity to learn something new every day. Some people talk about acceleration as taking a student out of step. In actuality, what one is doing is putting a student in step with the right curriculum. Whole-grade acceleration, also called grade-skipping, usually happens between…

  6. Angular Acceleration without Torque?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

  7. Accelerated test design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, P. P.

    1980-01-01

    The design of an accelerated life test program for electric batteries is discussed. A number of observations and suggestions on the procedures and objectives for conducting an accelerated life test program are presented. Equations based on nonlinear regression analysis for predicting the accelerated life test parameters are discussed.

  8. The charged particle accelerators subsystems modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averyanov, G. P.; Kobylyatskiy, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Presented web-based resource for information support the engineering, science and education in Electrophysics, containing web-based tools for simulation subsystems charged particle accelerators. Formulated the development motivation of Web-Environment for Virtual Electrophysical Laboratories. Analyzes the trends of designs the dynamic web-environments for supporting of scientific research and E-learning, within the framework of Open Education concept.

  9. Fiber Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, Andrew P.; /Reed Coll. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    One of the options for future particle accelerators are photonic band gap (PBG) fiber accelerators. PBG fibers are specially designed optical fibers that use lasers to excite an electric field that is used to accelerate electrons. To improve PBG accelerators, the basic parameters of the fiber were tested to maximize defect size and acceleration. Using the program CUDOS, several accelerating modes were found that maximized these parameters for several wavelengths. The design of multiple defects, similar to having closely bound fibers, was studied to find possible coupling or the change of modes. The amount of coupling was found to be dependent on distance separated. For certain distances accelerating coupled modes were found and examined. In addition, several non-periodic fiber structures were examined using CUDOS. The non-periodic fibers produced several interesting results and promised more modes given time to study them in more detail.

  10. High brightness electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, Richard L.; Carlsten, Bruce E.; Young, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of acclerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electons as the electrons enter the first cavity.

  11. The Future of Accelerator Physics. The Tamura Symposium Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, T.

    1996-04-01

    These proceedings represent the papers presented at the Tamura symposium on accelerator physics. The topics discussed include many novel ideas for future exploration, for example, 30TeV X 30TeV collider, Moebius accelerator, new magnets, new table{minus}top terawatt (T3) lasers, free space accelerators, advanced cooling of beams, including optical cooling,etc.. There were 30 papers presented at the symposium and 28 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  12. Acceleration in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.

    1993-12-31

    The origin of cosmic rays and applicable laboratory experiments are discussed. Some of the problems of shock acceleration for the production of cosmic rays are discussed in the context of astrophysical conditions. These are: The presumed unique explanation of the power law spectrum is shown instead to be a universal property of all lossy accelerators; the extraordinary isotropy of cosmic rays and the limited diffusion distances implied by supernova induced shock acceleration requires a more frequent and space-filling source than supernovae; the near perfect adiabaticity of strong hydromagnetic turbulence necessary for reflecting the accelerated particles each doubling in energy roughly 10{sup 5} to {sup 6} scatterings with negligible energy loss seems most unlikely; the evidence for acceleration due to quasi-parallel heliosphere shocks is weak. There is small evidence for the expected strong hydromagnetic turbulence, and instead, only a small number of particles accelerate after only a few shock traversals; the acceleration of electrons in the same collisionless shock that accelerates ions is difficult to reconcile with the theoretical picture of strong hydromagnetic turbulence that reflects the ions. The hydromagnetic turbulence will appear adiabatic to the electrons at their much higher Larmor frequency and so the electrons should not be scattered incoherently as they must be for acceleration. Therefore the electrons must be accelerated by a different mechanism. This is unsatisfactory, because wherever electrons are accelerated these sites, observed in radio emission, may accelerate ions more favorably. The acceleration is coherent provided the reconnection is coherent, in which case the total flux, as for example of collimated radio sources, predicts single charge accelerated energies much greater than observed.

  13. PREFACE: International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology, Joint AIRAPT-22 & HPCJ-50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viña, Luis; Tejedor, Carlos; Calleja, José M.

    2010-01-01

    The International Joint AIRAPT-22 & HPCJ-50 Conference was held in Odaiba, Tokyo, on 26-31 July 2009. About 480 scientists from 24 countries attended the conference and 464 papers, including 3 plenary lectures, 39 invited talks, and 156 oral presentations, were presented. It is my great pleasure to present this proceedings volume, which is based on the high quality scientific works presented at the conference. The International AIRAPT conference has been held every two years in various countries around the world since 1965, while High Pressure Conference of Japan (HPCJ) has been held annually since 1959 in various Japanese cities. Pressure is a fundamental parameter to control the property of matter. As a result, both AIRAPT and HPCJ have become highly multidisciplinary, and cover Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science, Earth and Planetary Sciences, Biosciences, Food Science, and Technology. Although each discipline has a unique target, they all have high-pressure research in common. This proceedings volume includes about 200 papers of state-of-the-art studies from numerous fields. I hope this proceedings volume provides excellent pieces of information in various fields to further advance high-pressure research. Conference logo Takehiko Yagi Conference Chairman Institute for Solid State Physics The University of Tokyo 7 December 2009 Conference photograph Participants at the conference venue, Tokyo International Exchange Center, Odaiba, Tokyo, Japan. Editor in Chief TAKEMURA Kenichi National Institute for Materials Science, Japan Editorial board Tadashi KONDO Osaka University, Japan Hitoshi MATSUKI The University of Tokushima, Japan Nobuyuki MATUBAYASI Kyoto University, Japan Yoshihisa MORI Okayama University of Science, Japan Osamu OHTAKA Osaka University, Japan Chihiro SEKINE Muroran Institute of Technology, Japan

  14. Biomedical research with heavy ions at the IMP accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang

    The main ion-beam acceleration facilities and research activities at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences are briefly introduced. Some of the biomedical research with heavy ions such as heavy-ion biological effect, basic research related to heavy-ion cancer therapy and radiation breeding at the IMP accelerators are presented.

  15. R&D of Accelerator Structures at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.W.; /SLAC

    2007-01-17

    The research activities for accelerator structures at SLAC are reviewed including the achievement via the main linac design for the Next Linear Collider (NLC), the program adjustment after the decision of the International Linear Collider (ILC) to be based on superconducting technology, and the work progress for the ILC, photon science at SLAC and basic accelerator structure studies.

  16. An introduction to acceleration mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    This paper discusses the acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic fields, i.e., by fields that are produced by the motion of other charged particles driven by some power source. The mechanisms that are discussed include: Ponderamotive Forces, Acceleration, Plasma Beat Wave Acceleration, Inverse Free Electron Laser Acceleration, Inverse Cerenkov Acceleration, Gravity Acceleration, 2D Linac Acceleration and Conventional Iris Loaded Linac Structure Acceleration. (LSP)

  17. Science and Science Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oravetz, David

    2005-01-01

    This article is for teachers looking for new ways to motivate students, increase science comprehension, and understanding without using the old standard expository science textbook. This author suggests reading a science fiction novel in the science classroom as a way to engage students in learning. Using science fiction literature and language…

  18. Schooling in Times of Acceleration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddeberg, Magdalena; Hornberg, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Modern societies are characterised by forms of acceleration, which influence social processes. Sociologist Hartmut Rosa has systematised temporal structures by focusing on three categories of social acceleration: technical acceleration, acceleration of social change, and acceleration of the pace of life. All three processes of acceleration are…

  19. Development and application of an underfloor air-conditioning system with improved outlets for a ``smart`` building in Tokyo

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunawa, Katashi; Iizuka, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Shinichi

    1995-12-31

    An underfloor air-conditioning system was developed and introduced into a high technology ``smart`` building in Tokyo. Experiments and numerical simulation studies were carried out prior to the introduction of the system, to preestimate its thermal comfort and energy saving effects. After the construction of the system, field measurement of the indoor environment and occupant surveys helped assess whether the system actually achieved its anticipated performance. The floor diffuser design was improved to prevent draft and local cooling of feet observed under the high cooling load condition. The results of these studies demonstrated that the indoor environment provided by the underfloor air-conditioning system with the improved type of outlet meets thermal comfort requirements recommended by ASHRAE Standard 55-92 and maintains good indoor air quality (IAQ). Moreover, these studies revealed that, compared with a conventional ceiling diffuser system, the underfloor air-conditioning system not only promotes exhaust heat removal with higher efficiency but also increases the use of natural energy. Possibilities to apply underfloor air-conditioning to task/ambient or personalized systems were also discussed. The studies suggest that the system should be considered as an appropriate choice available for air-conditioning systems in future smart buildings.

  20. Impact of the mobile phone on junior high-school students' friendships in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Sugiura, Hitomi

    2005-04-01

    The proportion of having keitai (Japanese mobile phone) has increased rapidly in young children. To research how junior high school students use their own keitai and to examine the impact of using it on their psychology, especially on their friendship, we recruited 651 students, grade 8, from five public junior high schools in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Each student participant completed a questionnaire that we had created. The response rates were 88.8% (n = 578) for participants. The proportion of having their own keitai was 49.3% (n = 285) and that of not having it was 50.7% (n = 293). We found that they used it much more frequently for e-mail than as a phone. Most of them exchanged e-mails between schoolmates, and more than a half of them exchanged e-mails more than 10 times a day. Sociable students estimated that their own keitai was useful for their friendship. But they experienced some insecurity or started staying up late at night engaged in e-mail exchanges, and they thought that they could not live without their own keitai. Our findings suggest that keitai having an e-mail function play a big part in the junior high-school students' daily life, and its impact on students' friendships, psychology, or health should be discussed among students to prevent keitai addiction.

  1. Radiocarbon-based source apportionment of black carbon (BC) in PM 10 aerosols from residential area of suburban Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Masao; Kumata, Hidetoshi; Koike, Yasuyo; Tsuzuki, Mikio; Uchida, Tatsuya; Fujiwara, Kitao; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2010-04-01

    The AMS technique was applied to analyse black carbon (BC), total organic carbon (TOC), and previously reported polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM 10 aerosols from a residential area, suburban Tokyo, to determine natural abundance of radiocarbon ( 14C), an ideal tracer to distinguish fossil fuel ( 14C-free) from modern biomass combustion sources of pyrolytic products. The 14C concentrations in BC, isolated using the CTO-375 method, were 42% and 30% pMC (in terms of percent Modern Carbon: pMC) in summer and winter, respectively. The 14C concentrations in BC were also compared with those of compound-class specific 14C content of PAHs previously reported for the same samples: they were 45% and 33% pMC in summer and winter, respectively. The 14C signals of BC were identical to those of high molecular weight (MW ⩾ 226, 5-6 rings) PAHs. The resemblance between 14C signals of BC and PAHs can be referred as a 'certificate' for the validity of the BC isolation method employed in this study. Also, it suggests that 14C-BC approach can be a surrogate for PAHs specific 14C analyses to monitor seasonal source variation of combustion-derived pyrolytic products. On the other hand, 14C contents of total organic carbon in 2004 were 61% and 42% pMC in summer and winter, respectively. This is likely attributed to higher contribution of plant activity in summer.

  2. Dissolved indium and rare earth elements in three Japanese rivers and Tokyo Bay: Evidence for anthropogenic Gd and In

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Lerche, Dorte; Alibo, Dia Sotto; Tsutsumi, Makoto

    2000-12-01

    New data on the dissolved (<0.04 μm) rare earth elements (REEs) and In in the Japanese Ara, Tama, and Tone river-estuaries and Tokyo Bay are presented. Unique shale-normalized REE patterns with a distinct positive Gd anomalies and a strong heavy-REE enrichment were seen throughout the data. The dissolved Gd anomaly is caused by local anthropogenic input mainly due to recent use of Gado-pentetic acid as a medical agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in hospitals. The heavy-REE enrichment may be attributed to fractionation during weathering and transport in the upstream of the rivers, and only partially to removal of light- and middle-REE enriched river colloids by the use of a new ultrafiltration technique. Dissolved In concentrations in the Japanese rivers are extraordinarily high as compared to those in the pristine Chao Phraya river of Thailand reported elsewhere (Nozaki et al., in press). Like Gd, the high dissolved In in the study area can also be ascribed to recent use of In-containing organic compound, In(DTPA) 2- in medical diagnosis. Thus, in the highly populated and industrialized area, dissolved heavy metal concentrations in rivers and estuaries may be significantly perturbed by human activities and the fate of those anthropogenic soluble substances in the marine environment needs to be investigated further.

  3. Isolation and characterization of benzo[a]pyrene-degrading bacteria from the Tokyo Bay area and Tama River in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okai, Masahiko; Kihara, Ikumi; Yokoyama, Yuto; Ishida, Masami; Urano, Naoto

    2015-09-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is one of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and has serious detrimental effects on human health and aquatic environments. In this study, we isolated nine bacterial strains capable of degrading BaP from the Tokyo Bay area and Tama River in Japan. The isolated bacteria belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, indicating that the BaP-degrading bacteria were widely present in the hydrosphere. ITB11, which shared 100% 16S rRNA identity with Mesoflavibacter zeaxanthinifaciens in the phylum Bacteroidetes, showed the highest degradation of BaP (approximately 86%) among the nine isolated strains after 42 days. Moreover, it was found that three of the nine isolated strains collectively removed 50-55% of BaP during the first 7 days. Growth measurement of M. zeaxanthinifaciens revealed that the strain utilized BaP as a sole carbon and energy source and salicylate acted only as an inducer of BaP degradation.

  4. Detection of the sarin hydrolysis product in formalin-fixed brain tissues of victims of the Tokyo subway terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Y; Nagao, M; Takatori, T; Niijima, H; Nakajima, M; Iwase, H; Kobayashi, M; Iwadate, K

    1998-06-01

    One of the hydrolysis products of sarin (isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) was detected in formalin-fixed brain tissues of victims poisoned in the Tokyo subway terrorist attack. Part of this procedure, used for the detection of sarin hydrolysis products in erythrocytes of sarin victims, has been described previously. The test materials were four individual cerebellums, which had been stored in formalin fixative for about 2 years. Sarin-bound acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was solubilized from these cerebellums, purified by immunoaffinity chromatography, and digested with trypsin. Then the sarin hydrolysis products bound to AChE were released by alkaline phosphatase digestion, subjected to trimethylsilyl derivatization (TMS), and detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Peaks at m/z 225 and m/z 240, which are indicative of TMS-methylphosphonic acid, were observed within the retention time range of authentic methylphosphonic acid. However, no isopropyl methylphosphonic acid was detected in the formalin-fixed cerebellums of these 4 sarin victims, probably because the isopropoxy group of isopropyl methylphosphonic acid underwent chemical hydrolysis during storage. This procedure will be useful for the forensic diagnosis of poisoning by protein-bound, highly toxic agents, such as sarin, which are easily hydrolysed. This appears to be the first time that intoxication by a nerve agent has been demonstrated by analyzing formalin-fixed brains obtained at autopsy.

  5. Spotting Epidemic Keystones by R0 Sensitivity Analysis: High-Risk Stations in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Yashima, Kenta; Sasaki, Akira

    2016-01-01

    How can we identify the epidemiologically high-risk communities in a metapopulation network? The network centrality measure, which quantifies the relative importance of each location, is commonly utilized for this purpose. As the disease invasion condition is given from the basic reproductive ratio R0, we have introduced a novel centrality measure based on the sensitivity analysis of this R0 and shown its capability of revealing the characteristics that has been overlooked by the conventional centrality measures. The epidemic dynamics over the commute network of the Tokyo metropolitan area is theoretically analyzed by using this centrality measure. We found that, the impact of countermeasures at the largest station is more than 1,000 times stronger compare to that at the second largest station, even though the population sizes are only around 1.5 times larger. Furthermore, the effect of countermeasures at every station is strongly dependent on the existence and the number of commuters to this largest station. It is well known that the hubs are the most influential nodes, however, our analysis shows that only the largest among the network plays an extraordinary role. Lastly, we also found that, the location that is important for the prevention of disease invasion does not necessarily match the location that is important for reducing the number of infected. PMID:27607239

  6. Identification of subjects for social responsibility education at universities and the present activity at the university of Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Karima, Risuke; Oshima, Yoshito; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The management of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has recently become a critical concern for companies in advanced countries. For universities, there is a requirement to contribute to the promotion of CSR, resulting in graduates who have sufficient cognition of and a good attitude towards CSR. In addition, universities have social responsibilities, which can be called "University Social Responsibility (USR)." On the basis of the concepts of the guidelines for CSR in the "Green Paper," which was presented by the European Committee (EC) in 2001, we provide a perspective here on what factors dictate the establishment of education programs for social responsibilities at universities. These factors include an outline of the concepts and the significance of CSR, social ethics and the morals of higher education and research, compliances, human resource management, human rights, safety and health in academic settings, and various concerns regarding environmental safety and preservation. Additionally, through the concept postulated here for social responsible education, in this paper, we introduce the present activity at the University of Tokyo (UT) in terms of the education program for CSR and USR, proposing that the future establishment of university-wide education programs based on the concept of CSR and the value of sustainability is required at UT.

  7. Pharmaceutical chemicals and endocrine disrupters in municipal wastewater in Tokyo and their removal during activated sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Norihide; Tanishima, Toshikatsu; Shinohara, Hiroyuki; Kiri, Kentaro; Takada, Hideshige

    2006-10-01

    We measured six acidic analgesics or anti-inflammatories (aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, fenoprofen, mefenamic acid), two phenolic antiseptics (thymol, triclosan), four amide pharmaceuticals (propyphenazone, crotamiton, carbamazepine, diethyltoluamide), three phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (nonylphenol, octylphenol, bisphenol A), and three natural estrogens (17beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol) in 24-h composite samples of influents and secondary effluents collected seasonally from five municipal sewage treatment plants in Tokyo. Aspirin was most abundant in the influent, with an average concentration of 7300 ng/L (n = 16), followed by crotamiton (921 ng/L), ibuprofen (669 ng/L), triclosan (511 ng/L), and diethyltoluamide (503 ng/L). These concentrations were 1 order of magnitude lower than those reported in the USA and Europe. This can be ascribed to lower consumption of the pharmaceuticals in Japan. Aspirin, ibuprofen, and thymol were removed efficiently during primary + secondary treatment (> 90% efficiency). On the other hand, amide-type pharmaceuticals, ketoprofen, and naproxen showed poor removal (< 50% efficiency), which is probably due to their lower hydrophobicity (logKow < 3). Because of the persistence of crotamiton during secondary treatment, crotamiton was most abundant among the target pharmaceuticals in the effluent. This is the first paper to report ubiquitous occurrence of crotamiton, a scabicide, in sewage. Because crotamiton is used worldwide and it is persistent during secondary treatment, it is a promising molecular marker of sewage and secondary effluent.

  8. Loss of genetic diversity at an MHC locus in the endangered Tokyo bitterling Tanakia tanago (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Kubota, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Katsutoshi

    2013-12-01

    Genetic diversity at a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B gene was examined for two wild and three captive populations of the endangered Tokyo bitterling Tanakia tanago. A specific primer set was first developed to amplify the MHC II B exon 2 locus. Using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequencing analysis, 16 DAB3 alleles were detected with 56 nucleotide substitutions in the 276-bp region. In the putative antigen-binding sites of exon 2, the rate of nonsynonymous substitutions was significantly higher than that of synonymous substitutions (dN/dS = 2.79), indicating positive selection on the retention of polymorphism. The population from the Handa Natural Habitat Conservation Area and that from the Tone River system exhibited low variation (one and three alleles, respectively), whereas the captive population that originated from a mix of three distinct populations had the highest amounts of variation (14 alleles). The levels of heterozygosity at the MHC varied considerably among populations and showed significant correlations with those at putative neutral microsatellite markers, suggesting that genetic drift following a bottleneck has affected MHC variability in some populations. Comparisons between endangered and non-endangered fish species in previous reports and the present results indicate that the number of MHC alleles per population is on average 70% lower in endangered species than non-endangered species. Considering the functional consequence of this locus, attention should be paid to captive and wild endangered fish populations in terms of further loss of MHC alleles.

  9. The University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory 6.5m Telescope: design of mirror coating system and its performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hidenori; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Doi, Mamoru; Kohno, Kotaro; Miyata, Takashi; Motohara, Kentaro; Tanaka, Masuo; Minezaki, Takeo; Morokuma, Tomoki; Sako, Shigeyuki; Tamura, Yoichi; Tanabé, Toshihiko; Konishi, Masahiro; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Kato, Natsuko; Aoki, Tsutomu; Soyano, Takao; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi

    2016-07-01

    The telescope of the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory has a primary mirror with a diameter in 6.5m. In order to fabricate the reflecting film initially on the mirror surface and to maintain its optical performance over a long period, we have a mirror-coating facility being installed at the summit of Co. Chajnantor (5,640m). The facility consists of a clean booth for stripping off the old film, a mirror coating chamber, and a cart with a lifter for handling the primary mirror. A conventional evaporation system with a metal pre-wetted filament array is adopted for achieving various optical requests. Among the many development items, the fabrication of the transportation and lifting cart has been already completed. It has efficient performance in load capacity (>60 tons) and maximum lifting height (1,750 mm). A cleaning machine having injection nozzles that can realize an efficient and safe cleaning sequence also been completed. A test of the evaporation system using dedicated filaments and filament boxes, which are customized to the TAO's requirements, has shown a uniform coating on a test mirror. An array pattern of the filaments has also been decided based on the coating tests to satisfy the optical specification of the telescope. A detailed design of the main chamber has been almost completed, it is only waiting for the production in the near future.

  10. Multi-aquifer pumping test to determine cutoff wall length for groundwater flow control during site excavation in Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Noriharu; Kohsaka, Nobuaki; Ishikawa, Akira

    2008-08-01

    Multi-aquifer pumping tests, using a multi-screen pumping well and multi-level piezometers, were carried out for groundwater flow control in a large-scale excavation site in Tokyo, Japan. The site was underlain by multi-layered confined aquifers. In the tests, pumping was carried out using a multi-aquifer pumping well in which a screen depth was chosen arbitrarily. Changes in groundwater pressure heads in each aquifer were measured at each screen position of the multi-aquifer pumping well. Hydraulic conductivity ( K) and specific storage ( S s) of not only aquifers, but also for low permeability layers between the aquifers, were estimated using the Cooper-Jacob method, and calibrated by a finite element method (FEM) groundwater model. Four different cutoff wall lengths were assumed for final excavation depth, and correlations among wall length, pumping discharge and drawdown at the back of the cutoff wall were obtained from simulations using the K and S s parameters in the FEM model. Then, the most suitable wall length was selected based on the simulated correlations considering environmental condition, construction period and cost of the cutoff wall.

  11. Population-level ecological risk assessment of planar polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) around Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Murata, Mariko; Masunaga, Shigeki; Nakanishi, Junko

    2003-10-01

    Assessment of population-level ecological risk posed by planar polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (p-PCAHs; including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxintike polychlorinated biphenyls) in sediment of Tokyo Bay (Japan) and rivers via fish ingestion to the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) population was conducted by means of a probabilistic approach. Population decline risk was used as an indicator of population-level effects and compared with other indicators of effects. The increment of egg mortality risk posed by current p-PCAH levels was estimated to be 11.7%. This risk was interpreted in terms of both the increase of the risk of population decline in a 10-year period on a recently abundant cormorant population, and the reduction in population growth rate (r). Population decline risks of 20% and below were estimated to be 16% for the reference population and 32% for the exposed population, whereas the reduction in r was estimated to be 10%. The risk expressed in terms of population viability is a more susceptible measure and a more easily understandable indicator than both egg mortality risk as an individual-level risk and the reduction in r. Translating the effects due to pollutants into the risk on population viability will make ecological risk assessment more conductive to risk management.

  12. Changes in growth and reproductive traits of dragonet Callionymus valenciennei in Tokyo Bay, concurrent with decrease in stock size.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Keita; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2014-02-01

    We examined changes in the growth and reproductive traits of dragonet Callionymus valenciennei concurrent with decrease in stock size in Tokyo Bay. Stock size in mid 2000s decreased to 14% of that recorded in early 1990s. The minimum standard length at which dragonet attain gonadal maturation was smaller in 2000s (4.8 cm) compared to that in 1990s (6.0 cm). In addition, timing of the onset of the first spawning became earlier in 2000s (starting from spring) than that in 1990s (from summer). We also found significant changes in growth for both sexes from 1990s to 2000s; growth of dragonet after they attained sexual maturation showed a significant decrease in 2000s against that in 1990s. Changes in the life history traits may reflect trade-off for allocating available energy resource to reproduction rather than to somatic growth under limited prey abundance for enhancing a chance for stock recovery. However, these changes in the life history traits might have not led to the resilience of the population due to negative effects of hypoxia on settlement of larvae from the spring spawning season.

  13. Marine integrons containing novel integrase genes, attachment sites, attI, and associated gene cassettes in polluted sediments from Suez and Tokyo Bays.

    PubMed

    Elsaied, Hosam; Stokes, Hatch W; Kitamura, Keiko; Kurusu, Yasurou; Kamagata, Yoichi; Maruyama, Akihiko

    2011-07-01

    In order to understand the structure and biological significance of integrons and associated gene cassettes in marine polluted sediments, metagenomic DNAs were extracted from sites at Suez and Tokyo Bays. PCR amplicons containing new integrase genes, intI, linked with novel gene cassettes, were recovered and had sizes from 1.8 to 2.5 kb. This approach uncovered, for the first time, the structure and diversity of both marine integron attachment site, attI, and the first gene cassette, the most efficiently expressed integron-associated gene cassette. The recovered 13 and 20 intI phylotypes, from Suez and Tokyo Bay samples, respectively, showed a highly divergence, suggesting a difference in integron composition between the sampling sites. Some intI phylotypes showed similarity with that from Geobacter metallireducens, belonging to Deltaproteobacteria, the dominant class in both sampling sites, as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Thirty distinct families of putative attI site, as determined by the presence of an attI-like simple site, were recovered. A total of 146 and 68 gene cassettes represented Suez and Tokyo Bay unsaturated cassette pools, respectively. Gene cassettes, including a first cassette, from both sampling sites encoded two novel families of glyoxalase/bleomycin antibiotic-resistance protein. Gene cassettes from Suez Bay encoded proteins similar to haloacid dehalogenases, protein disulfide isomerases and death-on-curing and plasmid maintenance system killer proteins. First gene cassettes from Tokyo Bay encoded a xenobiotic-degrading protein, cardiolipin synthetase, esterase and WD40-like β propeller protein. Many of the first gene cassettes encoded proteins with no ascribable function but some of them were duplicated and possessed signal functional sites, suggesting efficient adaptive functions to their bacterial sources. Thus, each sampling site had a specific profile of integrons and cassette types consistent with the hypothesis that the

  14. Uniformly accelerated black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letelier, Patricio S.; Oliveira, Samuel R.

    2001-09-01

    The static and stationary C metric are examined in a generic framework and their interpretations studied in some detail, especially those with two event horizons, one for the black hole and another for the acceleration. We find that (i) the spacetime of an accelerated static black hole is plagued by either conical singularities or a lack of smoothness and compactness of the black hole horizon, (ii) by using standard black hole thermodynamics we show that accelerated black holes have a higher Hawking temperature than Unruh temperature of the accelerated frame, and (iii) the usual upper bound on the product of the mass and acceleration parameters (<1/27) is just a coordinate artifact. The main results are extended to accelerated rotating black holes with no significant changes.

  15. The Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Sampayan, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    The Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), a class of induction accelerators, employs a novel insulating beam tube to impress a longitudinal electric field on a bunch of charged particles. The surface flashover characteristics of this tube may permit the attainment of accelerating gradients on the order of 100 MV/m for accelerating pulses on the order of a nanosecond in duration. A virtual traveling wave of excitation along the tube is produced at any desired speed by controlling the timing of pulse generating modules that supply a tangential electric field to the tube wall. Because of the ability to control the speed of this virtual wave, the accelerator is capable of handling any charge to mass ratio particle; hence it can be used for electrons, protons and any ion. The accelerator architectures, key technologies and development challenges will be described.

  16. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Fraser, J.S.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1985-05-20

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radiofrequency-powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  17. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Fraser, John S.; Sheffield, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radio frequency powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  18. ACCELERATION RESPONSIVE SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Chabrek, A.F.; Maxwell, R.L.

    1963-07-01

    An acceleration-responsive device with dual channel capabilities whereby a first circuit is actuated upon attainment of a predetermined maximum acceleration level and when the acceleration drops to a predetermined minimum acceleriltion level another circuit is actuated is described. A fluid-damped sensing mass slidably mounted in a relatively frictionless manner on a shaft through the intermediation of a ball bushing and biased by an adjustable compression spring provides inertially operated means for actuating the circuits. (AEC)

  19. The foxhole accelerating structure

    SciTech Connect

    Fernow, R.C.; Claus, J.

    1992-07-17

    This report examines some properties of a new type of open accelerating structure. It consists of a series of rectangular cavities, which we call foxholes, joined by a beam channel. The power for accelerating the particles comes from an external radiation source and enters the cavities through their open upper surfaces. Analytic and computer calculations are presented showing that the foxhole is a suitable structure for accelerating relativistic electrons.

  20. Stochastic characterization of the onset of and recovery from hypoxia in Tokyo Bay, Japan: Derived distribution analysis based on “strong wind” events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Keisuke; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Sato, Chizuru; Furukawa, Keita

    2010-12-01

    This paper uses derived distribution analysis to explore the process controls of the onset of and recovery from hypoxic conditions in Tokyo Bay, Japan. A conceptual, lumped model of dissolved oxygen (DO) dynamics in Tokyo Bay is proposed and, through comparison with a three-dimensional simulation model, is verified to have sufficient accuracy for the prediction of the onset of and recovery from hypoxia. This conceptual DO model was implemented in continuous simulation mode, with 14 years of wind data and data on streamflow entering the Tokyo Bay, and was used to identify and quantify the various process controls of the onset of and recovery from hypoxia. The underlying process controls were identified to be streamflow discharge, as well as duration and strength of both northeast "positive" winds and southwest "negative" winds. The analysis helped to isolate, in particular, the potential for rapid and strong recovery from hypoxia due to "strong negative winds", (i.e., negative winds that exceed a wind speed threshold of 10 m s-1) and the critical roles of the duration of these strong winds and the antecedent DO concentration on the strength of DO recovery. Motivated by these results, derived distribution analysis is adopted to predict the strength of DO recovery during periods of strong winds, using a simplified model of DO recovery, focused on isolated strong winds, that explicitly captures the effects of both wind duration and antecedent DO concentration.

  1. Particle acceleration in flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, Arnold O.; Kosugi, Takeo; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Benka, Steve G.; Chupp, Edward L.; Enome, Shinzo; Garcia, Howard; Holman, Gordon D.; Kurt, Victoria G.; Sakao, Taro

    1994-01-01

    Particle acceleration is intrinsic to the primary energy release in the impulsive phase of solar flares, and we cannot understand flares without understanding acceleration. New observations in soft and hard X-rays, gamma-rays and coherent radio emissions are presented, suggesting flare fragmentation in time and space. X-ray and radio measurements exhibit at least five different time scales in flares. In addition, some new observations of delayed acceleration signatures are also presented. The theory of acceleration by parallel electric fields is used to model the spectral shape and evolution of hard X-rays. The possibility of the appearance of double layers is further investigated.

  2. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Robert B.

    1986-01-01

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams into the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  3. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Robert B.

    1986-09-02

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams into the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  4. Accelerator-based BNCT.

    PubMed

    Kreiner, A J; Baldo, M; Bergueiro, J R; Cartelli, D; Castell, W; Thatar Vento, V; Gomez Asoia, J; Mercuri, D; Padulo, J; Suarez Sandin, J C; Erhardt, J; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Igarzabal, M; Minsky, D M; Herrera, M S; Capoulat, M E; Gonzalez, S J; del Grosso, M F; Gagetti, L; Suarez Anzorena, M; Gun, M; Carranza, O

    2014-06-01

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the (9)Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases.

  5. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    SciTech Connect

    Temkin, Richard

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  6. FFAGS for rapid acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Carol J. Johnstone and Shane Koscielniak

    2002-09-30

    When large transverse and longitudinal emittances are to be transported through a circular machine, extremely rapid acceleration holds the advantage that the beam becomes immune to nonlinear resonances because there is insufficient time for amplitudes to build up. Uncooled muon beams exhibit large emittances and require fast acceleration to avoid decay losses and would benefit from this style of acceleration. The approach here employs a fixed-field alternating gradient or FFAG magnet structure and a fixed frequency acceleration system. Acceptance is enhanced by the use only of linear lattice elements, and fixed-frequency rf enables the use of cavities with large shunt resistance and quality factor.

  7. Acceleration of polarized protons in circular accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.

    1980-09-12

    The theory of depolarization in circular accelerators is presented. The spin equation is first expressed in terms of the particle orbit and then converted to the equivalent spinor equation. The spinor equation is then solved for three different situations: (1) a beam on a flat top near a resonance, (2) uniform acceleration through an isolated resonance, and (3) a model of a fast resonance jump. Finally, the depolarization coefficient, epsilon, is calculated in terms of properties of the particle orbit and the results are applied to a calculation of depolarization in the AGS.

  8. Advanced Microgravity Acceleration Measurement Systems (AMAMS) Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sicker, Ronald J.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Microgravity Acceleration Measurement Systems (AMAMS) project is part of NASA s Instrument Technology Development program to develop advanced sensor systems. The primary focus of the AMAMS project is to develop microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for acceleration sensor systems to replace existing electromechanical sensor systems presently used to assess relative gravity levels aboard spacecraft. These systems are used to characterize both vehicle and payload responses to low-gravity vibroacoustic environments. The collection of microgravity acceleration data is useful to the microgravity life sciences, microgravity physical sciences, and structural dynamics communities. The inherent advantages of semiconductor-based systems are reduced size, mass, and power consumption, with enhanced long-term calibration stability.

  9. Physical Sciences 2007 Science & Technology Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A U

    2008-04-07

    The Physical Sciences Directorate applies frontier physics and technology to grand challenges in national security. Our highly integrated and multidisciplinary research program involves collaborations throughout Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the National Nuclear Security Administration, the Department of Energy, and with academic and industrial partners. The Directorate has a budget of approximately $150 million, and a staff of approximately 350 employees. Our scientists provide expertise in condensed matter and high-pressure physics, plasma physics, high-energy-density science, fusion energy science and technology, nuclear and particle physics, accelerator physics, radiation detection, optical science, biotechnology, and astrophysics. This document highlights the outstanding research and development activities in the Physical Sciences Directorate that made news in 2007. It also summarizes the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2007.

  10. The North American ALMA Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hibbard, J. E.; Staff, NAASC

    2010-01-01

    The North American ALMA Science Center at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, NRAO, in Charlottesville, Virginia, in partnership with the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics in Victoria, Canada, will support the North American community in their observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, ALMA. Our goal is to promote successful observations with ALMA for both novice users, with no experience in either interferometry or millimeter astronomy, and experts alike. We will describe the services that the Science Center will provide for the community, from education about the capabilities of ALMA, though proposal preparation to data analysis. The Science Center will host a website with a Helpdesk that includes FAQs and a growing knowledgebase of ALMA expertise, and will support extensive demos and tutorials on observation preparation and data reduction with ALMA. The Science Center also promotes science-themed meetings. The staff of the Science Center will provide expert assistance for observers at all stages of development and execution of their program. There are visitor and postdoc opportunities at the Science Center. The North American ALMA Science Center is one of three regional centers around the globe that will support ALMA observations. Our partners are the European ALMA Regional Center at ESO in Garching, Germany, and the East Asian ALMA Region Center in Tokyo, Japan.

  11. Scaling FFAG accelerator for muon acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Lagrange, JB.; Planche, T.; Mori, Y.

    2011-10-06

    Recent developments in scaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerators have opened new ways for lattice design, with straight sections, and insertions like dispersion suppressors. Such principles and matching issues are detailed in this paper. An application of these new concepts is presented to overcome problems in the PRISM project.

  12. Scaling FFAG accelerator for muon acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagrange, JB.; Planche, T.; Mori, Y.

    2011-10-01

    Recent developments in scaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerators have opened new ways for lattice design, with straight sections, and insertions like dispersion suppressors. Such principles and matching issues are detailed in this paper. An application of these new concepts is presented to overcome problems in the PRISM project.

  13. Angular velocities, angular accelerations, and coriolis accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.

    1975-01-01

    Weightlessness, rotating environment, and mathematical analysis of Coriolis acceleration is described for man's biological effective force environments. Effects on the vestibular system are summarized, including the end organs, functional neurology, and input-output relations. Ground-based studies in preparation for space missions are examined, including functional tests, provocative tests, adaptive capacity tests, simulation studies, and antimotion sickness.

  14. Induction linear accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birx, Daniel

    1992-03-01

    Among the family of particle accelerators, the Induction Linear Accelerator is the best suited for the acceleration of high current electron beams. Because the electromagnetic radiation used to accelerate the electron beam is not stored in the cavities but is supplied by transmission lines during the beam pulse it is possible to utilize very low Q (typically<10) structures and very large beam pipes. This combination increases the beam breakup limited maximum currents to of order kiloamperes. The micropulse lengths of these machines are measured in 10's of nanoseconds and duty factors as high as 10-4 have been achieved. Until recently the major problem with these machines has been associated with the pulse power drive. Beam currents of kiloamperes and accelerating potentials of megavolts require peak power drives of gigawatts since no energy is stored in the structure. The marriage of liner accelerator technology and nonlinear magnetic compressors has produced some unique capabilities. It now appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, peak currents in kiloamperes and gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, with power efficiencies approaching 50%. The nonlinear magnetic compression technology has replaced the spark gap drivers used on earlier accelerators with state-of-the-art all-solid-state SCR commutated compression chains. The reliability of these machines is now approaching 1010 shot MTBF. In the following paper we will briefly review the historical development of induction linear accelerators and then discuss the design considerations.

  15. Particle Acceleration in Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    2005-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma ray burst (GRBs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Fermi acceleration is the mechanism usually assumed for the acceleration of particles in astrophysical environments.

  16. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    SciTech Connect

    Lach, Joseph; /Fermilab

    2010-07-01

    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?

  17. Accelerators (3/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  18. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960`s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore`s Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail.

  19. Accelerators (4/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  20. Measuring Model Rocket Acceleration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Randy A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an experiment that measures the acceleration and velocity of a model rocket. Lift-off information is transmitted to a computer that creates a graph of the velocity. Discusses the analysis of the computer-generated data and differences between calculated and experimental velocity and acceleration of several rocket types. (MDH)

  1. Microscale acceleration history discriminators

    DOEpatents

    Polosky, Marc A.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

  2. Accelerators (5/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  3. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    SciTech Connect

    Lach, Joseph

    2010-07-29

    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?.

  4. TOPICS IN THE PHYSICS OF PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1984-07-01

    High energy physics, perhaps more than any other branch of science, is driven by technology. It is not the development of theory, or consideration of what measurements to make, which are the driving elements in our science. Rather it is the development of new technology which is the pacing item. Thus it is the development of new techniques, new computers, and new materials which allows one to develop new detectors and new particle-handling devices. It is the latter, the accelerators, which are at the heart of the science. Without particle accelerators there would be, essentially, no high energy physics. In fact. the advances in high energy physics can be directly tied to the advances in particle accelerators. Looking terribly briefly, and restricting one's self to recent history, the Bevatron made possible the discovery of the anti-proton and many of the resonances, on the AGS was found the {mu}-neutrino, the J-particle and time reversal non-invariance, on Spear was found the {psi}-particle, and, within the last year the Z{sub 0} and W{sup {+-}} were seen on the CERN SPS p-{bar p} collider. Of course one could, and should, go on in much more detail with this survey, but I think there is no need. It is clear that as better acceleration techniques were developed more and more powerful machines were built which, as a result, allowed high energy physics to advance. What are these techniques? They are very sophisticated and ever-developing. The science is very extensive and many individuals devote their whole lives to accelerator physics. As high energy experimental physicists your professional lives will be dominated by the performance of 'the machine'; i.e. the accelerator. Primarily you will be frustrated by the fact that it doesn't perform better. Why not? In these lectures, six in all, you should receive some appreciation of accelerator physics. We cannot, nor do we attempt, to make you into accelerator physicists, but we do hope to give you some insight into the

  5. Seismic imaging of the two subducting slabs underneath Tokyo Metropolitan area inferred from Ps single scattering analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonegawa, T.; Nishida, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Kasahara, K.; Tanada, T.; Obara, K.; Hirata, N.

    2009-12-01

    Metropolitan Seismic Observation Network (MeSO-net) has recently been deployed in the Kanto region, central part of Japan, by a project supported by MEXT, Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan area. The MeSO-net is comprised of approximately 400 stations with a station spacing of 2~5 km, which realizes the one of the most instrumented metropolitan area in the world. Each seismometer is installed at the bottom of 20-m deep borehole. Thus, this network is capable of observing high quality data even in the metropolitan area where artificial noises are considered to be very high. Two slabs, the Pacific slab and the Philippine Sea slab, are present underneath the Kanto region at depths of 0-200 km. The complexities of subsurface structure in the uppermost mantle have been investigated by several seismological approaches, such as tomography, receiver function, and earthquake locations. However, the quality and quantity of the data would be still insufficient to recover the subsurface structure including two slabs in this region. In this study, we tried to image them using teleseismic single scattered waves observed by the MeSO-net. The method used in this study was introduced by Bostock and co-workers, which enables us to image dipping layers well in addition to horizontal layers. Here, we used Ps single scattered waves with an assumption of the Born approximation in the scattering. The used frequency band is 0.1~1.0 Hz. We selected 30 teleseismic events that occurred between April 2008 and March 2009 with magnitudes of 6.3 or greater. The used velocity model is basically 1D JMA velocity model, but its shallow portion from 0 to 10 km depth is replaced by a 2D velocity model. This model is produced by another analysis using seismic interferometry, which precisely describes shallower structure including sedimentary layers. As a result, we show the clear oceanic crust of the Pacific slab at depths of 50~70 km. The oceanic Moho within the

  6. Hot Spot Cosmic Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    cosmic objects. Notes [1]: The new results are described in a research paper, "Particle Accelerators in the Hot Spots of Radio Galaxy 3C 445, Imaged with the VLT" by M. Almudena Prieto (ESO, Garching, Germany), Gianfranco Brunetti (Istituto de Radioastronomia del CNR, Bologna, Italy) and Karl-Heinz Mack (Istituto de Radioastronomia del CNR, Bologna, Italy; ASTRON/NFRA, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands; Radioastronomisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Germany), that recently appeared in the research journal Science (Vol. 298, pp. 193-195). [2]: When electrons - which are electrically charged - move through a magnetic field, they spiral along the lines of force. Electrons of high energy spiral very rapidly, at speeds near the speed of light. Under such conditions, the electrons emit highly polarized electromagnetic radiation. The intensity of this radiation is related to the strength of the magnetic field and the number and energy distribution of the electrons caught in this field. Many cosmic radio sources have been found to emit synchrotron radiation - one of the best examples is the famous Crab Nebula, depicted in ESO PR Photo 40f/99. ESO PR Photo 26/02 may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the US National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO).

  7. Long-term results of Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group trials for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 1984-1999.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, M; Ohara, A; Manabe, A; Kumagai, M; Shimada, H; Kikuchi, A; Mori, T; Saito, M; Akiyama, M; Fukushima, T; Koike, K; Shiobara, M; Ogawa, C; Kanazawa, T; Noguchi, Y; Oota, S; Okimoto, Y; Yabe, H; Kajiwara, M; Tomizawa, D; Ko, K; Sugita, K; Kaneko, T; Maeda, M; Inukai, T; Goto, H; Takahashi, H; Isoyama, K; Hayashi, Y; Hosoya, R; Hanada, R

    2010-02-01

    We report the long-term results of Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group's studies L84-11, L89-12, L92-13, and L95-14 for 1846 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, which were conducted between 1984 and 1999. The value of event-free survival (EFS)+/-s.e. was 67.2+/-2.2% at 10 years in L84-11, which was not improved in the following two studies, and eventually improved to 75.0+/-1.8% at 10 years in L95-14 study. The lower EFS of the L89-12 reflected a high rate of induction failure because of infection and delayed remission in very high-risk patients. The L92-13 study was characterized by short maintenance therapy; it resulted in poor EFS, particularly in the standard-risk (SR) group and boys. Females did significantly better than males in EFS in the early three studies. The gender difference was not significant in overall survival, partly because >60% of the males survived after the testicular relapse. Randomized studies in the former three protocols revealed that intermediate- or high-dose methotrexate therapy significantly reduced the testicular relapse rate. In the L95-14 study, gender difference disappeared in EFS. Contrary to the results of larger-scale studies, the randomized control study in the L95-14 reconfirmed with updated data that dexamethasone 8 mg/m(2) had no advantage over prednisolone 60 mg/m(2) in the SR and intermediate-risk groups. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was assigned to 100, 80, 44, and 44% of the patients in the studies, respectively. Isolated central nervous system relapse rates decreased to <2% in the last two trials. Secondary brain tumors developed in 12 patients at 8-22 years after cranial irradiation. Improvement of the remission induction rates and the complete omission of irradiation are currently main objectives in our studies.

  8. Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from foreign-born and Japan-born residents in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Kato-Miyazawa, M; Miyoshi-Akiyama, T; Kanno, Y; Takasaki, J; Kirikae, T; Kobayashi, N

    2015-03-01

    Sequences of the full genomes of 259 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, obtained from foreign-born and Japan-born patients in Tokyo, Japan, were determined, and a phylogenetic tree constructed by concatenated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequences. The 259 isolates were clustered into four clades: Lineage 2 (East Asian or "Beijing" genotype; n = 182, 70.3%), Lineage 4 (Euro-American, n = 46, 17.8%), Lineage 1 (Indo-Oceanic, n = 23, 8.9%), and Lineage 3 (East African-Indian, n = 8, 3.1%). Of the 259, 36 (13.9%) were resistant to at least one drug. There was no multi-drug-resistant isolate. Drug resistance was greater for the strains in Lineage 2 than the non-Lineage 2. The proportion of Lineage 2 isolates was significantly smaller in foreign-born (n = 43/91, 47.3%) than in Japan-born (n = 139/168, 82.7%) patients, whereas the proportion of Lineage 1 isolates was significantly larger in foreign-born (n = 19/91, 20.9%) than in Japan-born (n = 4/168, 2.4%) patients. We also found eight SNPs specific to the typical Beijing sub-genotype in Lineage 2, including 4 non-synonymous SNPs. Of the 259 isolates, 244 had strain-specific SNP(s) and small (1-30-bp) insertions and deletions (indels). The numbers of strain-specific SNPs and indels per isolate were significantly larger from foreign-born (median 89, range 0-520) than from Japan-born (median 23, range 0-415) (p 3.66E-15) patients. These results suggested that M. tuberculosis isolates from foreign-born patients had more genetic diversity than those from Japan-born patients.

  9. Lifestyle constraints, not inadequate nutrition education, cause gap between breakfast ideals and realities among Japanese in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Melby, Melissa K; Takeda, Wakako

    2014-01-01

    Japanese public health nutrition often promotes 'traditional' cuisine. In-depth interviews with 107 Japanese adults were conducted in Tokyo from 2009 to 2011, using free-listing methods to examine dietary ideals and realities to assess the extent to which realities reflect inadequate nutrition education or lifestyle constraints. Ideal-reality gaps were widest for breakfast. Most people reported Japanese ideals: rice and miso soup were prototypical foods. However, breakfast realities were predominantly western (bread-based). While those aged 40-59 were more likely to hold Japanese ideals (P=0.063), they were less likely to achieve them (P=0.007). All those reporting western ideals achieved them on weekdays, while only 64% of those with Japanese ideals achieved them (P<0.001). Partial correlations controlling for age and gender showed achievement of Japanese ideals were positively correlated with proportion of cooking-related housework, and negatively correlated with living standard and income. Ideal menu content was in line with current Japanese nutrition advice, suggesting that more nutrition education may not change dietary ideals or behavior. Participant-reported reasons for ideal-reality discordance demonstrate that work-life balance issues, especially lack of time and family structure/life rhythm, are the largest obstacles to the attainment of dietary ideals. People reporting 'no time' as a primary reason for ideal-reality gaps were less likely to achieve their Japanese ideals (odds ratio=0.212). Time realities of people's lives may undermine educational efforts promoting Japanese breakfasts. When dietary reality/behavior departs from guidelines, it is often assumed that people lack knowledge. If ideals are in line with dietary guidelines, then lack of knowledge is not the likely cause and nutrition education is not the optimal solution. By asking people about the reasons for gaps between their ideals and realities, we can identify barriers and design more

  10. A Summary of the Quasi-Steady Acceleration Environment on-Board STS-94 (MSL-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPherson, Kevin M.; Nati, Maurizio; Touboul, Pierre; Schuette, Andreas; Sablon, Gert

    1999-01-01

    The continuous free-fall state of a low Earth orbit experienced by NASA's Orbiters results in a unique reduced gravity environment. While microgravity science experiments are conducted in this reduced gravity environment, various accelerometer systems measure and record the microgravity acceleration environment for real-time and post-flight correlation with microgravity science data. This overall microgravity acceleration environment is comprised of quasi-steady, oscillatory, and transient contributions. The First Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) payload was dedicated to experiments studying various microgravity science disciplines, including combustion, fluid physics, and materials processing. In support of the MSL-1 payload, two systems capable of measuring the quasi-steady acceleration environment were flown: the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) and the Microgravity Measurement Assembly (MMA) system's Accelerometre Spatiale Triaxiale most evident in the quasi-steady acceleration regime. Utilizing such quasi-steady events, a comparison and summary of the quasi-steady acceleration environment for STS-94 will be presented

  11. Vacuum Beat Wave Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. I.; Hafizi, B.; Ting, A.; Burris, H. R.; Sprangle, P.; Esarey, E.; Ganguly, A.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    1997-11-01

    The Vacuum Beat Wave Accelerator (VBWA) is a particle acceleration scheme which uses the non-linear ponderomotive beating of two different frequency laser beams to accelerate electrons. A proof-of-principle experiment to demonstrate the VBWA is underway at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). This experiment will use the beating of a 1054 nm and 527 nm laser pulse from the NRL T-cubed laser to generate the beat wave and a 4.5 MeV RF electron gun as the electron source. Simulation results and the experimental design will be presented. The suitability of using axicon or higher order Gaussian laser beams will also be discussed.

  12. Ion beam accelerator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system is described that combines geometrical and electrostatic focusing to provide high ion extraction efficiency and good focusing of an accelerated ion beam. The apparatus includes a pair of curved extraction grids (16, 18) with multiple pairs of aligned holes positioned to direct a group of beamlets (20) along converging paths. The extraction grids are closely spaced and maintained at a moderate potential to efficiently extract beamlets of ions and allow them to combine into a single beam (14). An accelerator electrode device (22) downstream from the extraction grids, is at a much lower potential than the grids to accelerate the combined beam.

  13. Ion beam accelerator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system is described that combines geometrical and electrostatic focusing to provide high ion extraction efficiency and good focusing of an accelerated ion beam. The apparatus includes a pair of curved extraction grids with multiple pairs of aligned holes positioned to direct a group of beamlets along converging paths. The extraction grids are closely spaced and maintained at a moderate potential to efficiently extract beamlets of ions and allow them to combine into a single beam. An accelerator electrode device downstream from the extraction grids is at a much lower potential than the grids to accelerate the combined beam. The application of the system to ion implantation is mentioned.

  14. The beam business: Accelerators in industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, Robert W.; Hamm, Marianne E.

    2011-06-15

    Most physicists know that particle accelerators are widely used for treating cancer. But few are acquainted with the depth and breadth of their use in a myriad of applications outside of pure science and medicine. Society benefits from the use of particle beams in the areas of communications, transportation, the environment, security, health, and safety - in terms both of the global economy and quality of life. On the manufacturing level, the use of industrial accelerators has resulted in the faster and cheaper production of better parts for medical devices, automobiles, aircraft, and virtually all modern electronics. Consumers also benefit from the use of accelerators to explore for oil, gas, and minerals; sterilize food, wastewater, and medical supplies; and aid in the development of drugs and biomaterials.

  15. Proceedings of: 2005 Particle Acceleration Confence

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    The 21st Particle Accelerator Conference, PAC05, took place at the Knoxville Convention Center (KCC) from Monday through Friday, May 16-20, 2005. Sponsored by the American Physical Society (APS), the Institute of Electrics and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) with its subdivision of Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society (NPSS), the conference was hosted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Project and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). The conference was chaired by Norbert Holtkamp, and the Local Organizing Committee was made up of staff from the ORNL SNS Project under the chairmanship of Stuart Henderson. The conference welcomed over 1400 delegates from the United States, Europe, Asia, the Middle East, South America and from as far away as Australia. Almost 1400 papers where processed during the conference and will be published on the Joint Accelerator Conferences Website (JACoW) page.

  16. USSR Report, Science and Technology Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    managers , having focused their attention on the acceleration of scientific and technical progress. 56 [Question] A plan of measures on the acceleration of...science not at its best? "The management of science in the sector does not satisfy the present requirements," V. Rostunov stated at the collegium...brought sectorial science closer to the needs of production. But the managers of the all-union industrial associations perceived their rights in a

  17. Accelerated Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Raymond K.; Ohara, Catherine M.; Green, Joseph J.; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa A.; Basinger, Scott A.; Redding, David C.; Shi, Fang

    2011-01-01

    The Modified Gerchberg-Saxton (MGS) algorithm is an image-based wavefront-sensing method that can turn any science instrument focal plane into a wavefront sensor. MGS characterizes optical systems by estimating the wavefront errors in the exit pupil using only intensity images of a star or other point source of light. This innovative implementation of MGS significantly accelerates the MGS phase retrieval algorithm by using stream-processing hardware on conventional graphics cards. Stream processing is a relatively new, yet powerful, paradigm to allow parallel processing of certain applications that apply single instructions to multiple data (SIMD). These stream processors are designed specifically to support large-scale parallel computing on a single graphics chip. Computationally intensive algorithms, such as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), are particularly well suited for this computing environment. This high-speed version of MGS exploits commercially available hardware to accomplish the same objective in a fraction of the original time. The exploit involves performing matrix calculations in nVidia graphic cards. The graphical processor unit (GPU) is hardware that is specialized for computationally intensive, highly parallel computation. From the software perspective, a parallel programming model is used, called CUDA, to transparently scale multicore parallelism in hardware. This technology gives computationally intensive applications access to the processing power of the nVidia GPUs through a C/C++ programming interface. The AAMGS (Accelerated Adaptive MGS) software takes advantage of these advanced technologies, to accelerate the optical phase error characterization. With a single PC that contains four nVidia GTX-280 graphic cards, the new implementation can process four images simultaneously to produce a JWST (James Webb Space Telescope) wavefront measurement 60 times faster than the previous code.

  18. Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators: SEPAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L.; Roberts, W. T.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Kawashima, N.; Marshall, J. A.; Moses, S. L.; Neubert, T.; Mende, S. B.; Choueiri, E. Y.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC), which flew on the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) 1 mission, used new techniques to study natural phenomena in the Earth's upper atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere by introducing energetic perturbations into the system from a high power electron beam with known characteristics. Properties of auroras were studied by directing the electron beam into the upper atmosphere while making measurements of optical emissions. Studies were also performed of the critical ionization velocity phenomenon.

  19. CLASHING BEAM PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Burleigh, R.J.

    1961-04-11

    A charged-particle accelerator of the proton synchrotron class having means for simultaneously accelerating two separate contra-rotating particle beams within a single annular magnet structure is reported. The magnet provides two concentric circular field regions of opposite magnetic polarity with one field region being of slightly less diameter than the other. The accelerator includes a deflector means straddling the two particle orbits and acting to collide the two particle beams after each has been accelerated to a desired energy. The deflector has the further property of returning particles which do not undergo collision to the regular orbits whereby the particles recirculate with the possibility of colliding upon subsequent passages through the deflector.

  20. Vibration control in accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Montag, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the vast majority of accelerator applications, ground vibration amplitudes are well below tolerable magnet jitter amplitudes. In these cases, it is necessary and sufficient to design a rigid magnet support structure that does not amplify ground vibration. Since accelerator beam lines are typically installed at an elevation of 1-2m above ground level, special care has to be taken in order to avoid designing a support structure that acts like an inverted pendulum with a low resonance frequency, resulting in untolerable lateral vibration amplitudes of the accelerator components when excited by either ambient ground motion or vibration sources within the accelerator itself, such as cooling water pumps or helium flow in superconducting magnets. In cases where ground motion amplitudes already exceed the required jiter tolerances, for instance in future linear colliders, passive vibration damping or active stabilization may be considered.

  1. Dielectric assist accelerating structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, D.; Yoshida, M.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2016-01-01

    A higher-order TM02 n mode accelerating structure is proposed based on a novel concept of dielectric loaded rf cavities. This accelerating structure consists of ultralow-loss dielectric cylinders and disks with irises which are periodically arranged in a metallic enclosure. Unlike conventional dielectric loaded accelerating structures, most of the rf power is stored in the vacuum space near the beam axis, leading to a significant reduction of the wall loss, much lower than that of conventional normal-conducting linac structures. This allows us to realize an extremely high quality factor and a very high shunt impedance at room temperature. A simulation of a 5 cell prototype design with an existing alumina ceramic indicates an unloaded quality factor of the accelerating mode over 120 000 and a shunt impedance exceeding 650 M Ω /m at room temperature.

  2. Wake field acceleration experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Where and how will wake field acceleration devices find use for other than, possibly, accelerators for high energy physics. I don't know that this can be responsibly answered at this time. What I can do is describe some recent results from an ongoing experimental program at Argonne which support the idea that wake field techniques and devices are potentially important for future accelerators. Perhaps this will spawn expanded interest and even new ideas for the use of this new technology. The Argonne program, and in particular the Advanced Accelerator Test Facility (AATF), has been reported in several fairly recent papers and reports. But because this is a substantially new audience for the subject, I will include a brief review of the program and the facility before describing experiments. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Accelerator on a Chip

    SciTech Connect

    England, Joel

    2014-06-30

    SLAC's Joel England explains how the same fabrication techniques used for silicon computer microchips allowed their team to create the new laser-driven particle accelerator chips. (SLAC Multimedia Communications)

  4. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, R.B.

    1985-09-09

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator is described. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams onto the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  5. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  6. Principles of Induction Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs*, Richard J.

    The basic concepts involved in induction accelerators are introduced in this chapter. The objective is to provide a foundation for the more detailed coverage of key technology elements and specific applications in the following chapters. A wide variety of induction accelerators are discussed in the following chapters, from the high current linear electron accelerator configurations that have been the main focus of the original developments, to circular configurations like the ion synchrotrons that are the subject of more recent research. The main focus in the present chapter is on the induction module containing the magnetic core that plays the role of a transformer in coupling the pulsed power from the modulator to the charged particle beam. This is the essential common element in all these induction accelerators, and an understanding of the basic processes involved in its operation is the main objective of this chapter. (See [1] for a useful and complementary presentation of the basic principles in induction linacs.)

  7. Accelerator on a Chip

    ScienceCinema

    England, Joel

    2016-07-12

    SLAC's Joel England explains how the same fabrication techniques used for silicon computer microchips allowed their team to create the new laser-driven particle accelerator chips. (SLAC Multimedia Communications)

  8. DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G; Chen, Y; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2007-10-18

    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) is a compact pulsed power device where the pulse forming lines, switching, and vacuum wall are integrated into a single compact geometry. For this effort, we initiated a extensive compact pulsed power development program and have pursued the study of switching (gas, oil, laser induced surface flashover and photoconductive), dielectrics (ceramics and nanoparticle composites), pulse forming line topologies (asymmetric and symmetric Blumleins and zero integral pulse forming lines), and multilayered vacuum insulator (HGI) technology. Finally, we fabricated an accelerator cell for test on ETAII (a 5.5 MeV, 2 kA, 70 ns pulsewidth electron beam accelerator). We review our past results and report on the progress of accelerator cell testing.

  9. Amps particle accelerator definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The Particle Accelerator System of the AMPS (Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas in Space) payload is a series of charged particle accelerators to be flown with the Space Transportation System Shuttle on Spacelab missions. In the configuration presented, the total particle accelerator system consists of an energetic electron beam, an energetic ion accelerator, and both low voltage and high voltage plasma acceleration devices. The Orbiter is illustrated with such a particle accelerator system.

  10. Designing reliability into accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, A.

    1992-07-01

    Future accelerators will have to provide a high degree of reliability. Quality must be designed in right from the beginning and must remain a central theme throughout the project. The problem is similar to the problems facing US industry today, and examples of the successful application of quality engineering will be given. Different aspects of an accelerator project will be addressed: Concept, Design, Motivation, Management Techniques, and Fault Diagnosis. The importance of creating and maintaining a coherent team will be stressed.

  11. Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, William

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) is an ongoing study of the small forces (vibrations and accelerations) on the ISS that result from the operation of hardware, crew activities, as well as dockings and maneuvering. Results will be used to generalize the types of vibrations affecting vibration-sensitive experiments. Investigators seek to better understand the vibration environment on the space station to enable future research.

  12. CEBAF Accelerator Achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Y. C.; Drury, M.; Hovater, C.; Hutton, A.; Krafft, G. A.; Poelker, M.; Reece, C.; Tiefenback, M.

    2011-05-01

    In the past decade, nuclear physics users of Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) have benefited from accelerator physics advances and machine improvements. As of early 2011, CEBAF operates routinely at 6 GeV, with a 12 GeV upgrade underway. This article reports highlights of CEBAF's scientific and technological evolution in the areas of cryomodule refurbishment, RF control, polarized source development, beam transport for parity experiments, magnets and hysteresis handling, beam breakup, and helium refrigerator operational optimization.

  13. Breakthrough: Fermilab Accelerator Technology

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    There are more than 30,000 particle accelerators in operation around the world. At Fermilab, scientists are collaborating with other laboratories and industry to optimize the manufacturing processes for a new type of powerful accelerator that uses superconducting niobium cavities. Experimenting with unique polishing materials, a Fermilab team has now developed an efficient and environmentally friendly way of creating cavities that can propel particles with more than 30 million volts per meter.

  14. Rolamite acceleration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Briner, Clifton F.; Martin, Samuel B.

    1993-01-01

    A rolamite acceleration sensor which has a failsafe feature including a housing, a pair of rollers, a tension band wrapped in an S shaped fashion around the rollers, wherein the band has a force-generation cut out and a failsafe cut out or weak portion. The failsafe cut out or weak portion breaks when the sensor is subjected to an excessive acceleration so that the sensor fails in an open circuit (non-conducting) state permanently.

  15. Rolamite acceleration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P.; Briner, C.F.; Martin, S.B.

    1993-12-21

    A rolamite acceleration sensor is described which has a failsafe feature including a housing, a pair of rollers, a tension band wrapped in an S shaped fashion around the rollers, wherein the band has a force-generation cut out and a failsafe cut out or weak portion. The failsafe cut out or weak portion breaks when the sensor is subjected to an excessive acceleration so that the sensor fails in an open circuit (non-conducting) state permanently. 6 figures.

  16. Collective field accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Luce, John S.

    1978-01-01

    A collective field accelerator which operates with a vacuum diode and utilizes a grooved cathode and a dielectric anode that operates with a relativistic electron beam with a .nu./.gamma. of .about. 1, and a plurality of dielectric lenses having an axial magnetic field thereabout to focus the collectively accelerated electrons and ions which are ejected from the anode. The anode and lenses operate as unoptimized r-f cavities which modulate and focus the beam.

  17. Biomedical accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Vogel, John S.

    1995-05-01

    Ultrasensitive SIMS with accelerator based spectrometers has recently begun to be applied to biomedical problems. Certain very long-lived radioisotopes of very low natural abundances can be used to trace metabolism at environmental dose levels ( [greater-or-equal, slanted] z mol in mg samples). 14C in particular can be employed to label a myriad of compounds. Competing technologies typically require super environmental doses that can perturb the system under investigation, followed by uncertain extrapolation to the low dose regime. 41Ca and 26Al are also used as elemental tracers. Given the sensitivity of the accelerator method, care must be taken to avoid contamination of the mass spectrometer and the apparatus employed in prior sample handling including chemical separation. This infant field comprises the efforts of a dozen accelerator laboratories. The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has been particularly active. In addition to collaborating with groups further afield, we are researching the kinematics and binding of genotoxins in-house, and we support innovative uses of our capability in the disciplines of chemistry, pharmacology, nutrition and physiology within the University of California. The field can be expected to grow further given the numerous potential applications and the efforts of several groups and companies to integrate more the accelerator technology into biomedical research programs; the development of miniaturized accelerator systems and ion sources capable of interfacing to conventional HPLC and GMC, etc. apparatus for complementary chemical analysis is anticipated for biomedical laboratories.

  18. Science in Science Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Offers some suggestions as to how science fiction, especially television science fiction programs such as "Star Trek" and "Star Wars", can be drawn into physics lessons to illuminate some interesting issues. (Author/KHR)

  19. Distribution and behavior of nonylphenol, octylphenol, and nonylphenol monoethoxylate in Tokyo metropolitan area: their association with aquatic particles and sedimentary distributions.

    PubMed

    Isobe, T; Nishiyama, H; Nakashima, A; Takada, H

    2001-03-15

    Distributions of alkylphenols (APs) [i.e., nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP)], and nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO) in wastewater effluents, river water, and riverine and bay sediments in the Tokyo metropolitan area were demonstrated. During sewage treatments, NP and OP were efficiently removed from the sewage effluents through activated sludge treatments. Greater removal for NP (93% on average) than OP (84% on average) was consistent with their partitioning behavior to particles in primary and secondary effluents. NP concentrations in the river water samples ranged from 0.051 to 1.08 microg/L with higher concentrations in summer and spring than in colder seasons. In the river water samples, approximately 20% of NP was found in the particulate phase. Organic carbon-normalized apparent partition coefficients (K'OC) for NP (10(5.22 +/- 0.38)) and OP (10(4.65 +/- 0.42)) were 1 order of magnitude higher than those expected from their octanol-water partition coefficients (K(OW)), indicating strong affinity of APs to aquatic particles. Among NP isomers, no significant differences in their K'OC values were suggested. This is consistent with surprisingly uniform isomer peak profiles among the technical standard and all the environmental samples analyzed. NP and OP were widely distributed in the river sediments in Tokyo, and relatively high concentrations (0.5-13.0 microg/g dry) of NP were observed in a long reach (approximately 10 km) in the Sumidagawa River. In situ production of APs in the river sediment was suggested. Seaward decreasing trend in APs concentration was observed from the estuary to the Tokyo Bay. APs were well preserved in a sediment core collected from the bay. The profile shows subsurface maximum of AP concentrations in the layer deposited around the mid-1970s. The recent decrease in AP concentrations can be attributed to the legal regulation of industrial wastewater in the early 1970s.

  20. Observed and simulated sensitivities of summertime urban surface air temperatures to anthropogenic heat in downtown areas of two Japanese Major Cities, Tokyo and Osaka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikegawa, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Ai; Ohashi, Yukitaka; Ihara, Tomohiko; Shigeta, Yoshinori

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the sensitivities of surface air temperatures to anthropogenic heat (AH) were investigated in downtowns of the two Japanese major cities, Tokyo and Osaka. First, meteorological measurements were made with the simultaneous monitoring of electricity demand in a contrastive couple of a downtown commercial area (C-area) and a residential area (R-area) within each city in summer 2007. From the measurements, the areal-mean surface air temperatures were obtained as and for each of the C-area and R-area, respectively. Using the actual electricity demand and the estimated motor fuels consumption, their areal total was evaluated as the energy-consumption-basis AH. The estimated C-areas' AH indicated greater values up to 220 W/m2 on weekdays and remarkable decrease about by half on weekends, whereas that in the R-areas showed less values of 10-20 W/m2 stably. Then, on calm and fine days were found to be systematically decreased from weekdays to weekends in both cities roughly indicating a proportional relationship with the reductions in the C-areas' AH on weekends. The result suggested a common afternoon sensitivity for both C-areas of around 1.0°C/100 W/m2, which indicated an intensity of the AH impact on surface air temperature there. Next, to simulate the observed AH impact, the authors' CM-BEM (a multilayer urban canopy model coupled with a building energy model) was newly implemented in the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WMF) model. This new system, WRF-CM-BEM, was applied to Tokyo and almost reasonably validated from the aspects of the reproducibility of urban surface air temperature and electricity demand in the observation areas. The simulations also suggested that WRF-CM-BEM underestimated the observed air temperature sensitivity to AH in the Tokyo C-area roughly by half but still in the same order of magnitude.

  1. [Actual situation and social prognosis of women seeking psychiatric care at the emergency hostel of Tokyo Metropolitan Women's Counseling Center].

    PubMed

    Kamo, Toshiko; Ujiie, Yuri; Tamura, Atsuko

    2002-01-01

    The emergency hostel of Tokyo Metropolitan Women's Counseling Center, established in 1957, provides protection and care for about 600 Japanese or foreign women per year. The women housed there need social support for various reasons such as prostitution, poverty, somatic or mental diseases, or domestic violence (DV). We investigated the sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnoses and social prognoses of 2667 women who consulted the psychiatric clinic in the emergency hostel between 1961 and 1997. Seventy-four women consulted the psychiatric clinic per year, on average. Most were aged between 20 and 49. During the study period, there was a gradual decline in the number referred through the prostitution prevention law. Psychiatric diagnoses at the first visit varied widely. Annual comparison showed a gradual decrease in schizophrenia and manic-depressive illness, but an increase in substance abuse, psychogenic reaction, and personality disorder. Sociodemographically, most subjects appeared to have been children from underprivileged backgrounds. The social prognoses of 930 cases judged in March 1998 were good in 25%, moderate in 23% and poor in 48%. The poor prognosis group contained significantly more women with schizophrenia and personality disorder than the other two groups. The poor prognosis group tended to include more cases of substance abuse, while the good prognosis group contained more cases of depression and mental retardation. Women in the DV group tended to have more children than those in the non-DV group, and to have a higher prevalence of psychogenic reaction and a lower prevalence of schizophrenia. The DV group also tended to include more subjects with a moderate social prognosis and fewer subjects with a poor social prognosis. Specialized treatment should be provided for women after emergency admission to the hostel and this treatment needs to be aimed at improving social adaptation of the hostel residents, especially those with

  2. Characterization of Pollen Dispersion in the Neighborhood of Tokyo, Japan in the Spring of 2005 and 2006

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Ohno, Hideki; Oh-ishi, Shuji; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Kizaki, Takako; Yoshizumi, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    The behavior of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) pollens in an urban area was examined through the measurements of the dispersion characteristics at the various sampling locations in both outdoor and indoor environments. Airborne pollens were counted continuously for three months during the Japanese cedar pollen and Japanese cypress seasons in 2005 and 2006 by the use of Durham’s pollen trap method in and around Tokyo, Japan. The dispersion of pollens at the rooftop of Kyoritsu Women’s University was observed to be at extremely high levels in 2005 compared with previously reported results during the past two decades. As for Japanese cedar pollen, the maximum level was observed as 440 counts cm−2 day−1 on 18 March 2005. Japanese cypress pollen dispersed in that area in the latter period was compared with the Japanese cedar pollen dispersions. The maximum dispersion level was observed to be 351 counts cm−2 day−1 on 7 April 2005. Total accumulated dispersions of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress pollens were 5,552 and 1,552 counts cm−2 for the three months (Feb., Mar. and Apr.) in 2005, respectively. However, the dispersion of both pollens in 2006 was very low. The total accumulated dispersions of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress pollens were 421 and 98 counts cm−2 for three months (Feb., Mar. and Apr.) in 2006, respectively. Moreover, the pollen deposition on a walking person in an urban area showed that the pollen counts on feet were observed to be extremely high compared with the ones on the shoulder, back and legs. These findings suggested that pollen fell on the surface of the paved road at first, rebounded to the ambient air and was deposited on the residents again. Furthermore, the regional distribution of the total pollen dispersion in the South Kanto area was characterized on 15–16 March 2005 and on 14–15 March 2006. Although the pollen levels in 2005 were much higher than in 2006, it

  3. Characterization of pollen dispersion in the neighborhood of Tokyo, Japan in the spring of 2005 and 2006.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Ohno, Hideki; Oh-ishi, Shuji; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Kizaki, Takako; Yoshizumi, Kunio

    2008-03-01

    The behavior of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) pollens in an urban area was examined through the measurements of the dispersion characteristics at the various sampling locations in both outdoor and indoor environments. Airborne pollens were counted continuously for three months during the Japanese cedar pollen and Japanese cypress seasons in 2005 and 2006 by the use of Durham's pollen trap method in and around Tokyo, Japan. The dispersion of pollens at the rooftop of Kyoritsu Women's University was observed to be at extremely high levels in 2005 compared with previously reported results during the past two decades. As for Japanese cedar pollen, the maximum level was observed as 440 counts cm(-2) day(-1) on 18 March 2005. Japanese cypress pollen dispersed in that area in the latter period was compared with the Japanese cedar pollen dispersions. The maximum dispersion level was observed to be 351 counts cm(-2) day(-1) on 7 April 2005. Total accumulated dispersions of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress pollens were 5,552 and 1,552 counts cm(-2) for the three months (Feb., Mar. and Apr.) in 2005, respectively. However, the dispersion of both pollens in 2006 was very low. The total accumulated dispersions of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress pollens were 421 and 98 counts cm(-2) for three months (Feb., Mar. and Apr.) in 2006, respectively. Moreover, the pollen deposition on a walking person in an urban area showed that the pollen counts on feet were observed to be extremely high compared with the ones on the shoulder, back and legs. These findings suggested that pollen fell on the surface of the paved road at first, rebounded to the ambient air and was deposited on the residents again. Furthermore, the regional distribution of the total pollen dispersion in the South Kanto area was characterized on 15-16 March 2005 and on 14-15 March 2006. Although the pollen levels in 2005 were much higher than in 2006, it was

  4. Installation of 66kV XLPE power-optical fiber composite submarine cable and water pipe for the Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Y.; Kuroshima, T.; Takeuchi, M.; Sanpei, T.; Suzuki, S.; Ishikura, S.; Inoue, H.; Uematsu, T.

    1995-07-01

    The manufacturing and the installation of the optical fiber composite submarine cable and water pipe for the Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway were completed in 1993. It was the Japanese longest 66kV XLPE power-optical fiber composite submarine cable and the first application of optical fiber composite submarine water pipe composed of two hollow galvanized steel armor wires inserted with optical fiber to monitor and control of construction sites. This paper describes the application and development of the hollow steel armor wire with optical fiber ribbon and the features of construction and installation of the optical fiber composite submarine cable and water pipe.

  5. (International Panel on 14 MeV Intense Neutron Source Based on Accelerators for Fusion Materials Study)

    SciTech Connect

    Thoms, K.R.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1991-02-14

    Both travelers were members of a nine-person US delegation that participated in an international workshop on accelerator-based 14 MeV neutron sources for fusion materials research hosted by the University of Tokyo. Presentations made at the workshop reviewed the technology developed by the FMIT Project, advances in accelerator technology, and proposed concepts for neutron sources. One traveler then participated in the initial meeting of the IEA Working Group on High Energy, High Flux Neutron Sources in which efforts were begun to evaluate and compare proposed neutron sources; the Fourth FFTF/MOTA Experimenters' Workshop which covered planning and coordination of the US-Japan collaboration using the FFTF reactor to irradiate fusion reactor materials; and held discussions with several JAERI personnel on the US-Japan collaboration on fusion reactor materials.

  6. The Moon as a Science Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazio, Joseph; Bowman, J.; Burns, J. O.; Farrell, W. M.; Jones, D. L.; Kasper, J.; MacDowall, R.; Stewart, K. P.; Weiler, K.

    2012-01-01

    The Moon offers a valuable platform for space sciences studies: (1) No atmosphere, (2) Farside is radio quiet. There is a compelling science program: (1) Cosmic dawn and the dark ages, (2) Particle acceleration and space weather. The technology and engineering development are making good progress. A staged roadmap with science and technology development at every step is presented.

  7. Laser Ion Acceleration Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Shigeo; Nagashima, T.; Izumiyama, T.; Sato, D.; Takano, M.; Barada, D.; Ma, Y. Y.; Gu, Y. J.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Wang, W. M.

    2013-10-01

    An intense femtosecond pulsed laser is employed to accelerate ions. The issues in the laser ion accelerator include the energy efficiency from the laser to the ions, the ion beam collimation, the ion energy spectrum control, the ion beam bunching, the ion particle energy control, etc. In the study particle computer simulations were performed to solve the issues, and each component was designed to control the ion beam quality. When an intense laser illuminates a target, electrons in the target are accelerated and leave from the target; temporarily a strong electric field is formed between the high-energy electrons and the target ions, and the target ions are accelerated. The energy efficiency from the laser to ions was improved by using a solid target with a fine sub-wavelength structure or by a near critical density gas plasma. The ion beam collimation was realized by holes behind the solid target. The control of the ion energy spectrum and the ion particle energy, and the ion beam bunching were successfully realized by a multi-stage laser-target interaction. The present study proposed a novel concept for a future compact laser ion accelerator, based on each component study required to control the ion beam quality and parameters. Partly supported by JSPS, MEXT, CORE, Japan/US Cooperation program, ASHULA and ILE/Osaka University.

  8. Dielectric laser accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, R. Joel; Noble, Robert J.; Bane, Karl; Dowell, David H.; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Spencer, James E.; Tantawi, Sami; Wu, Ziran; Byer, Robert L.; Peralta, Edgar; Soong, Ken; Chang, Chia-Ming; Montazeri, Behnam; Wolf, Stephen J.; Cowan, Benjamin; Dawson, Jay; Gai, Wei; Hommelhoff, Peter; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Jing, Chunguang; McGuinness, Christopher; Palmer, Robert B.; Naranjo, Brian; Rosenzweig, James; Travish, Gil; Mizrahi, Amit; Schachter, Levi; Sears, Christopher; Werner, Gregory R.; Yoder, Rodney B.

    2014-10-01

    The use of infrared lasers to power optical-scale lithographically fabricated particle accelerators is a developing area of research that has garnered increasing interest in recent years. The physics and technology of this approach is reviewed, which is referred to as dielectric laser acceleration (DLA). In the DLA scheme operating at typical laser pulse lengths of 0.1 to 1 ps, the laser damage fluences for robust dielectric materials correspond to peak surface electric fields in the GV /m regime. The corresponding accelerating field enhancement represents a potential reduction in active length of the accelerator between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude. Power sources for DLA-based accelerators (lasers) are less costly than microwave sources (klystrons) for equivalent average power levels due to wider availability and private sector investment. Because of the high laser-to-particle coupling efficiency, required pulse energies are consistent with tabletop microJoule class lasers. Combined with the very high (MHz) repetition rates these lasers can provide, the DLA approach appears promising for a variety of applications, including future high-energy physics colliders, compact light sources, and portable medical scanners and radiative therapy machines.

  9. Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Aston, Graeme

    1989-01-01

    The Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) is a thruster concept which promises specific impulse levels between low power arcjets and those of the ion engine while retaining the relative simplicity of the arcjet. The EPA thruster produces thrust through the electrostatic acceleration of a moderately dense plasma. No accelerating electrodes are used and the specific impulse is a direct function of the applied discharge voltage and the propellant atomic mass. The goal of the present program is to demonstrate feasibility of the EPA thruster concept through experimental and theoretical investigations of the EPA acceleration mechanism and discharge chamber performance. Experimental investigations will include operating the test bed ion (TBI) engine as an EPA thruster and parametrically varying the thruster geometry and operating conditions to quantify the electrostatic plasma acceleration effect. The theoretical investigations will include the development of a discharge chamber model which describes the relationships between the engine size, plasma properties, and overall performance. For the EPA thruster to be a viable propulsion concept, overall thruster efficiencies approaching 30% with specific impulses approaching 1000 s must be achieved.

  10. Advanced accelerator theory development

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, S.E.; Houck, T.L.; Poole, B.; Tishchenko, N.; Vitello, P.A.; Wang, I.

    1998-02-09

    A new accelerator technology, the dielectric wall accelerator (DWA), is potentially an ultra compact accelerator/pulsed power driver. This new accelerator relies on three new components: the ultra-high gradient insulator, the asymmetric Blumlein and low jitter switches. In this report, we focused our attention on the first two components of the DWA system the insulators and the asymmetric Blumlein. First, we sought to develop the necessary design tools to model and scale the behavior of the high gradient insulator. To perform this task we concentrated on modeling the discharge processes (i.e., initiation and creation of the surface discharge). In addition, because these high gradient structures exhibit favorable microwave properties in certain accelerator configurations, we performed experiments and calculations to determine the relevant electromagnetic properties. Second, we performed circuit modeling to understand energy coupling to dynamic loads by the asymmetric Blumlein. Further, we have experimentally observed a non-linear coupling effect in certain asymmetric Blumlein configurations. That is, as these structures are stacked into a complete module, the output voltage does not sum linearly and a lower than expected output voltage results. Although we solved this effect experimentally, we performed calculations to understand this effect more fully to allow better optimization of this DWA pulse-forming line system.

  11. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Carl B.

    1999-12-01

    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas.

  12. Perturbations for transient acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Cristofher Zuñiga; Zimdahl, Winfried; Hipólito-Ricaldi, Wiliam S. E-mail: hipolito@ceunes.ufes.br

    2012-04-01

    According to the standard ΛCDM model, the accelerated expansion of the Universe will go on forever. Motivated by recent observational results, we explore the possibility of a finite phase of acceleration which asymptotically approaches another period of decelerated expansion. Extending an earlier study on a corresponding homogeneous and isotropic dynamics, in which interactions between dark matter and dark energy are crucial, the present paper also investigates the dynamics of the matter perturbations both on the Newtonian and General Relativistic (GR) levels and quantifies the potential relevance of perturbations of the dark-energy component. In the background, the model is tested against the Supernova type Ia (SNIa) data of the Constitution set and on the perturbative level against growth rate data, among them those of the WiggleZ survey, and the data of the 2dFGRS project. Our results indicate that a transient phase of accelerated expansion is not excluded by current observations.

  13. Uniform acceleration in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Yaakov; Scarr, Tzvi

    2015-10-01

    We extend de la Fuente and Romero's (Gen Relativ Gravit 47:33, 2015) defining equation for uniform acceleration in a general curved spacetime from linear acceleration to the full Lorentz covariant uniform acceleration. In a flat spacetime background, we have explicit solutions. We use generalized Fermi-Walker transport to parallel transport the Frenet basis along the trajectory. In flat spacetime, we obtain velocity and acceleration transformations from a uniformly accelerated system to an inertial system. We obtain the time dilation between accelerated clocks. We apply our acceleration transformations to the motion of a charged particle in a constant electromagnetic field and recover the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation.

  14. Lessons from Adaptive Level One Accelerator (ALOA) System Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Umesh D.; Brambora, Clifford; Ghuman, Parminder; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Adaptive Level One Accelerator (ALOA) system was developed as part of the Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) project. The reconfigurable computing technologies were investigated for Level 1 satellite telemetry data processing to achieve computing acceleration and cost reduction for the next-generation Level 1 data processing systems. The MODIS instrument calibration algorithm was implemented using reconfigurable a computer. The system development process and the lessons learned throughout the design cycle are summarized in this paper.

  15. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Robb M.; Shul, Randy J.; Polosky, Marc A.; Hoke, Darren A.; Vernon, George E.

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  16. Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baring, Matthew

    2003-04-01

    The process of diffusive acceleration of charged particles in shocked plasmas is widely invoked in astrophysics to account for the ubiquitous presence of signatures of non-thermal relativistic electrons and ions in the universe. This statistical energization mechanism, manifested in turbulent media, was first posited by Enrico Fermi in 1949 to explain the observed cosmic ray population, which exhibits an almost power-law distribution in rigidity. The absence of a momentum scale is a key characteristic of diffusive shock acceleration, and astrophysical systems generally only impose scales at the injection (low energy) and loss (high energy) ends of the particle spectrum. The existence of structure in the cosmic ray spectrum (the "knee") at around 3000 TeV has promoted contentions that there are at least two origins for cosmic rays, a galactic one supplying those up to the knee, and perhaps an extragalactic one that can explain even the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) seen at 1-300 EeV. Accounting for the UHECRs with familiar astrophysical sites of acceleration has historically proven difficult due to the need to assume high magnetic fields in order to reduce the shortest diffusive acceleration timescale, the ion gyroperiod, to meaningful values. Yet active galaxies and gamma-ray bursts remain strong and interesting candidate sources for UHECRs, turning the theoretical focus to relativistic shocks. This review summarizes properties of diffusive shock acceleration that are salient to the issue of UHECR generation. These include spectral indices, anisotropies, acceleration efficencies and timescales, as functions of the shock speed and mean field orientation, and also the degree of field turbulence. Astrophysical sites for UHECR production are also critiqued.

  17. High-resolution 3D seismic reflection imaging across active faults and its impact on seismic hazard estimation in the Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroshi; Abe, Susumu; Kawasaki, Shinji; Kato, Naoko

    2016-10-01

    We collected and interpreted high-resolution 3D seismic reflection data across a hypothesized fault scarp, along the largest active fault that could generate hazardous earthquakes in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The processed and interpreted 3D seismic cube, linked with nearby borehole stratigraphy, suggests that a monocline that deforms lower Pleistocene units is unconformably overlain by middle Pleistocene conglomerates. Judging from structural patterns and vertical separation on the lower-middle Pleistocene units and the ground surface, the hypothesized scarp was interpreted as a terrace riser rather than as a manifestation of late Pleistocene structural growth resulting from repeated fault activity. Devastating earthquake scenarios had been predicted along the fault in question based on its proximity to the metropolitan area, however our new results lead to a significant decrease in estimated fault length and consequently in the estimated magnitude of future earthquakes associated with reactivation. This suggests a greatly reduced seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan area from earthquakes generated by active intraplate crustal faults.

  18. [Recent progress and challenges in investigator-driven clinical development of novel drugs and medical devices at the University of Tokyo Hospital].

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    At the University of Tokyo Hospital, investigator-driven clinical development of novel drugs and medical devices is mainly supported by the Translational Research Center and Clinical Research Support Center. The former supports non-clinical research and the preparation of test materials and the latter supports clinical trials. The Clinical Research Support Center was established in 2010 by the reorganization of the former Clinical Research Center, which was established in 2001. The center adopted International Conference on Harmonisation-Good Clinical Practice (ICH-GCP) as a standard guideline for clinical trials and prepared standard operation procedures and templates for protocols and informed consent documents in 2001 and, thereafter, provided consultation services to researchers for protocol development. In 2010, the service was extended to project management, data management and monitoring to support the credibility of clinical trials. In 2011, The University of Tokyo Hospital was selected by the government as a base for the early and exploratory clinical development of drugs in the fields of psychological and neurological diseases. For this purpose, a phase 1 unit for early phase clinical pharmacology trials is now being built. The center provides training courses for clinical research coordinators and hold seminars for clinical researchers; however, the biggest challenge remains the education and training of medical students who will lead clinical trials in the future.

  19. Large-scale flooding analysis in the suburbs of Tokyo Metropolis caused by levee breach of the Tone River using a 2D hydrodynamic model.

    PubMed

    Hai, Pham T; Magome, J; Yorozuya, A; Inomata, H; Fukami, K; Takeuchi, K

    2010-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of climate change on flood disasters in urban areas, we applied a two dimensional finite element hydrodynamic model (2D-FEM) to simulate flood processes for the case analysis of levee breach caused by Kathleen Typhoon on 16 September 1947 in Kurihashi reach of Tone River, upstream of Tokyo area. The purpose is to use the model to simulate flood inundation processes under the present topography and land-use conditions with impending extreme flood scenarios due to climate change for mega-urban areas like Tokyo. Simulation used 100 m resolution topographic data (in PWRI), which was derived from original LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data, and levee breach hydrographic data in 1947. In this paper, we will describe the application of the model with calibration approach and techniques when applying for such fine spatial resolution in urban environments. The fine unstructured triangular FEM mesh of the model appeared to be the most capable of introducing of constructions like roads/levees in simulations. Model results can be used to generate flood mapping, subsequently uploaded to Google Earth interface, making the modeling and presentation process much comprehensible to the general public.

  20. Determination of rare earth elements (REES) in airborne particulate matter (APM) collected in Tokyo, Japan, and a positive anomaly of europium and terbium.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshinari; Suzuki, Tatsunosuke; Furuta, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    The determination of rare earth elements (REEs) in airborne particulate matter (APM) was conducted, and the distribution pattern of atmospheric REEs was evaluated in this study. The APM was collected in the center of Tokyo, Japan, where serious air pollution is always of concern. A cellulose acetate membrane filter was used to collect the APM because Ba and REEs contamination is lower than that in a quartz glass fiber filter. The REEs measurement was conducted by ICP-MS after the digestion of the APM by a microwave acid digestion procedure. The standard reference material (SRM) of NIST 1648 urban particulate matter was used to validate the accuracy of the analytical method. The analytical results for SRM well agreed with those of the reference and reported values. Consequently, the analytical method established in this study was applied to the determination of REEs in APM collected in Tokyo, Japan. The obtained REEs distribution pattern in the APM showed a positive anomaly of Tb and Eu. The La/Sm ratio, which is considered to be as a good indicator of the anthropogenic effect, in size-classified APM showed a high degree of the anthropogenic effect in fine APM with a diameter of <1.1 µm. Emission sources of Tb, Eu and other REEs are discussed.

  1. 'Light Sail' Acceleration Reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Macchi, Andrea; Veghini, Silvia; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2009-08-21

    The dynamics of the acceleration of ultrathin foil targets by the radiation pressure of superintense, circularly polarized laser pulses is investigated by analytical modeling and particle-in-cell simulations. By addressing self-induced transparency and charge separation effects, it is shown that for 'optimal' values of the foil thickness only a thin layer at the rear side is accelerated by radiation pressure. The simple 'light sail' model gives a good estimate of the energy per nucleon, but overestimates the conversion efficiency of laser energy into monoenergetic ions.

  2. HIGH GRADIENT INDUCTION ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G J; Sampayan, S; Chen, Y; Blackfield, D; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Krogh, M; Nelson, S; Nunnally, W; Paul, A; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2007-06-21

    A new type of compact induction accelerator is under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that promises to increase the average accelerating gradient by at least an order of magnitude over that of existing induction machines. The machine is based on the use of high gradient vacuum insulators, advanced dielectric materials and switches and is stimulated by the desire for compact flash x-ray radiography sources. Research describing an extreme variant of this technology aimed at proton therapy for cancer will be described. Progress in applying this technology to several applications will be reviewed.

  3. "Light sail" acceleration reexamined.

    PubMed

    Macchi, Andrea; Veghini, Silvia; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2009-08-21

    The dynamics of the acceleration of ultrathin foil targets by the radiation pressure of superintense, circularly polarized laser pulses is investigated by analytical modeling and particle-in-cell simulations. By addressing self-induced transparency and charge separation effects, it is shown that for "optimal" values of the foil thickness only a thin layer at the rear side is accelerated by radiation pressure. The simple "light sail" model gives a good estimate of the energy per nucleon, but overestimates the conversion efficiency of laser energy into monoenergetic ions.

  4. High intensity hadron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-05-01

    This rapporteur report consists mainly of two parts. Part I is an abridged review of the status of all High Intensity Hadron Accelerator projects in the world in semi-tabulated form for quick reference and comparison. Part II is a brief discussion of the salient features of the different technologies involved. The discussion is based mainly on my personal experiences and opinions, tempered, I hope, by the discussions I participated in in the various parallel sessions of the workshop. In addition, appended at the end is my evaluation and expression of the merits of high intensity hadron accelerators as research facilities for nuclear and particle physics.

  5. Science and Science Fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Scherrer, Robert

    2006-03-29

    I will explore the similarities and differences between the process of writing science fiction and the process of 'producing' science, specifically theoretical physics. What are the ground rules for introducing unproven new ideas in science fiction, and how do they differ from the corresponding rules in physics? How predictive is science fiction? (For that matter, how predictive is theoretical physics?) I will also contrast the way in which information is presented in science fiction, as opposed to its presentation in scientific papers, and I will examine the relative importance of ideas (as opposed to the importance of the way in which these ideas are presented). Finally, I will discuss whether a background as a research scientist provides any advantage in writing science fiction.

  6. Science and Science Fiction

    ScienceCinema

    Scherrer, Robert [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States

    2016-07-12

    I will explore the similarities and differences between the process of writing science fiction and the process of 'producing' science, specifically theoretical physics. What are the ground rules for introducing unproven new ideas in science fiction, and how do they differ from the corresponding rules in physics? How predictive is science fiction? (For that matter, how predictive is theoretical physics?) I will also contrast the way in which information is presented in science fiction, as opposed to its presentation in scientific papers, and I will examine the relative importance of ideas (as opposed to the importance of the way in which these ideas are presented). Finally, I will discuss whether a background as a research scientist provides any advantage in writing science fiction.

  7. A new perspective on global mean sea level (GMSL) acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Phil J.

    2016-06-01

    The vast body of contemporary climate change science is largely underpinned by the premise of a measured acceleration from anthropogenic forcings evident in key climate change proxies -- greenhouse gas emissions, temperature, and mean sea level. By virtue, over recent years, the issue of whether or not there is a measurable acceleration in global mean sea level has resulted in fierce, widespread professional, social, and political debate. Attempts to measure acceleration in global mean sea level (GMSL) have often used comparatively crude analysis techniques providing little temporal instruction on these key questions. This work proposes improved techniques to measure real-time velocity and acceleration based on five GMSL reconstructions spanning the time frame from 1807 to 2014 with substantially improved temporal resolution. While this analysis highlights key differences between the respective reconstructions, there is now more robust, convincing evidence of recent acceleration in the trend of GMSL.

  8. Chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser vacuum accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Landahl, Eric C.

    2002-01-01

    A chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) vacuum accelerator for high gradient laser acceleration in vacuum. By the use of an ultrashort (femtosecond), ultrahigh intensity chirped laser pulse both the IFEL interaction bandwidth and accelerating gradient are increased, thus yielding large gains in a compact system. In addition, the IFEL resonance condition can be maintained throughout the interaction region by using a chirped drive laser wave. In addition, diffraction can be alleviated by taking advantage of the laser optical bandwidth with negative dispersion focusing optics to produce a chromatic line focus. The combination of these features results in a compact, efficient vacuum laser accelerator which finds many applications including high energy physics, compact table-top laser accelerator for medical imaging and therapy, material science, and basic physics.

  9. Earth Science Multimedia Theater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.

    1998-01-01

    The presentation will begin with the latest 1998 NASA Earth Science Vision for the next 25 years. A compilation of the 10 days of animations of Hurricane Georges which were supplied daily on NASA to Network television will be shown. NASA's visualizations of Hurricane Bonnie which appeared in the Sept 7 1998 issue of TIME magazine. Highlights will be shown from the NASA hurricane visualization resource video tape that has been used repeatedly this season on network TV. Results will be presented from a new paper on automatic wind measurements in Hurricane Luis from 1 -min GOES images that will appear in the October BAMS. The visualizations are produced by the Goddard Visualization & Analysis Laboratory, and Scientific Visualization Studio, as well as other Goddard and NASA groups using NASA, NOAA, ESA, and NASDA Earth science datasets. Visualizations will be shown from the "Digital-HyperRes-Panorama" Earth Science ETheater'98 recently presented in Tokyo, Paris and Phoenix. The presentation in Paris used a SGI/CRAY Onyx Infinite Reality Super Graphics Workstation at 2560 X 1024 resolution with dual synchronized video Epson 71 00 projectors on a 20ft wide screen. Earth Science Electronic Theater '999 is being prepared for a December 1 st showing at NASA HQ in Washington and January presentation at the AMS meetings in Dallas. The 1999 version of the Etheater will be triple wide with at resolution of 3840 X 1024 on a 60 ft wide screen. Visualizations will also be featured from the new Earth Today Exhibit which was opened by Vice President Gore on July 2, 1998 at the Smithsonian Air & Space Museum in Washington, as well as those presented for possible use at the American Museum of Natural History (NYC), Disney EPCOT, and other venues. New methods are demonstrated for visualizing, interpreting, comparing, organizing and analyzing immense Hyperimage remote sensing datasets and three dimensional numerical model results. We call the data from many new Earth sensing satellites

  10. Survey of proposed high intensity accelerators and their applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schriber, S.O.

    1994-09-01

    Many interesting applications are being considered for high intensity accelerators. Implications of the technology developments that are enhancing these opportunities, or making them possible, will be covered in context of the applications. Applications include those for research (in areas such as material science, biological sciences, nuclear and high energy physics), accelerator-driven transmutation technologies, defense, and medicine. Specific examples will be used to demonstrate the impact that technology development can have and how transfer of this technology to industry can have an impact in the consumer and commercial arenas. Technology Development in rf power, controls, beam optics, rf structures, magnets, injectors, and beam halos will be considered.

  11. Applications of High Intensity Proton Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Rajendran; Mishra, Shekhar

    2010-06-01

    collider and neutrino factory - summary of working group 2 / J. Galambos, R. Garoby and S. Geer -- Prospects for a very high power CW SRF linac / R. A. Rimmer -- Indian accelerator program for ADS applications / V. C. Sahni and P. Singh -- Ion accelerator activities at VECC (particularly, operating at low temperature) / R. K. Bhandari -- Chinese efforts in high intensity proton accelerators / S. Fu, J. Wang and S. Fang -- ADSR activity in the UK / R. J. Barlow -- ADS development in Japan / K. Kikuchi -- Project-X, SRF, and very large power stations / C. M. Ankenbrandt, R. P. Johnson and M. Popovic -- Power production and ADS / R. Raja -- Experimental neutron source facility based on accelerator driven system / Y. Gohar -- Transmutation mission / W. S. Yang -- Safety performance and issues / J. E. Cahalan -- Spallation target design for accelerator-driven systems / Y. Gohar -- Design considerations for accelerator transmutation of waste system / W. S. Yang -- Japan ADS program / T. Sasa -- Overview of members states' and IAEA activities in the field of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) / A. Stanculescu -- Linac for ADS applications - accelerator technologies / R. W. Garnett and R. L. Sheffield -- SRF linacs and accelerator driven sub-critical systems - summary working groups 3 & 4 / J. Delayen -- Production of Actinium-225 via high energy proton induced spallation of Thorium-232 / J. Harvey ... [et al.] -- Search for the electric dipole moment of Radium-225 / R. J. Holt, Z.-T. Lu and R. Mueller -- SRF linac and material science and medicine - summary of working group 5 / J. Nolen, E. Pitcher and H. Kirk.

  12. Radioisotope Dating with Accelerators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Richard A.

    1979-01-01

    Explains a new method of detecting radioactive isotopes by counting their accelerated ions rather than the atoms that decay during the counting period. This method increases the sensitivity by several orders of magnitude, and allows one to find the ages of much older and smaller samples. (GA)

  13. Accelerated Management Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn, Kenn

    1974-01-01

    Western Electric's accelerated management development program for hand picked college graduate students consists of a high risk training project in which the management candidate accomplishes his task or is terminated. The success of such projects puts candidates in third level management in seven years or half the normal time. (DS)

  14. FPGA Verification Accelerator (FVAX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, Jane; Burke, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Is Verification Acceleration Possible? - Increasing the visibility of the internal nodes of the FPGA results in much faster debug time - Forcing internal signals directly allows a problem condition to be setup very quickly center dot Is this all? - No, this is part of a comprehensive effort to improve the JPL FPGA design and V&V process.

  15. Combined generating-accelerating buncher for compact linear accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, E. A.; Matsievskiy, S. V.; Sobenin, N. P.; Sokolov, I. D.; Zavadtsev, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    Described in the previous article [1] method of the power extraction from the modulated electron beam has been applied to the compact standing wave electron linear accelerator feeding system, which doesnt require any connection waveguides between the power source and the accelerator itself [2]. Generating and accelerating bunches meet in the hybrid accelerating cell operating at TM020 mode, thus the accelerating module is placed on the axis of the generating module, which consists from the pulsed high voltage electron sources and electrons dumps. This combination makes the accelerator very compact in size which is very valuable for the modern applications such as portable inspection sources. Simulations and geometry cold tests are presented.

  16. Final Report to the Department of Energy on the 1994 International Accelerator School: Frontiers of Accelerator Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, F.A.

    1998-09-17

    The international accelerator school on Frontiers of Accelerator Technology was organized jointly by the US Particle Accelerator School (Dr. Mel Month and Ms. Marilyn Paul), the CERN Accelerator School, and the KEK Accelerator School, and was hosted by the University of Hawaii. The course was held on Maui, Hawaii, November 3-9, 1994 and was made possible in part by a grant from the Department of Energy under award number DE-FG03-94ER40875, AMDT M006. The 1994 program was preceded by similar joint efforts held at Santa Margherita di Pula, Sardinia in February 1985, South Padre Island, Texas in October 1986, Anacapri, Italy in October 1988, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina in October 1990, and Benalmedena, Spain in October/November 1992. The most recent program was held in Montreux, Switzerland in May 1998. The purpose of the program is to disseminate knowledge on the latest ideas and developments in the technology of particle accelerators by bringing together known world experts and younger scientists in the field. It is intended for individuals with professional interest in accelerator physics and technology, for graduate students, for post-docs, for those interested in accelerator based sciences, and for scientific and engineering staff at industrial firms, especially those companies specializing in accelerator components.

  17. Neurodegeneration in accelerated aging.

    PubMed

    Scheibye-Knudsen, Moren

    2016-11-01

    The growing proportion of elderly people represents an increasing economic burden, not least because of age-associated diseases that pose a significant cost to the health service. Finding possible interventions to age-associated disorders therefore have wide ranging implications. A number of genetically defined accelerated aging diseases have been characterized that can aid in our understanding of aging. Interestingly, all these diseases are associated with defects in the maintenance of our genome. A subset of these disorders, Cockayne syndrome, Xeroderma pigmentosum group A and ataxia-telangiectasia, show neurological involvement reminiscent of what is seen in primary human mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondria are the power plants of the cells converting energy stored in oxygen, sugar, fat, and protein into ATP, the energetic currency of our body. Emerging evidence has linked this organelle to aging and finding mitochondrial dysfunction in accelerated aging disorders thereby strengthens the mitochondrial theory of aging. This theory states that an accumulation of damage to the mitochondria may underlie the process of aging. Indeed, it appears that some accelerated aging disorders that show neurodegeneration also have mitochondrial dysfunction. The mitochondrial alterations may be secondary to defects in nuclear DNA repair. Indeed, nuclear DNA damage may lead to increased energy consumption, alterations in mitochondrial ATP production and defects in mitochondrial recycling, a term called mitophagy. These changes may be caused by activation of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1 (PARP1), an enzyme that responds to DNA damage. Upon activation PARP1 utilizes key metabolites that attenuate pathways that are normally protective for the cell. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 or reconstitution of the metabolites rescues the changes caused by PARP1 hyperactivation and in many cases reverse the phenotypes associated with accelerated aging. This implies that modulation

  18. Menopause accelerates biological aging

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Morgan E.; Lu, Ake T.; Chen, Brian H.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bandinelli, Stefania; Salfati, Elias; Manson, JoAnn E.; Quach, Austin; Kusters, Cynthia D. J.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Teschendorff, Andrew E.; Widschwendter, Martin; Ritz, Beate R.; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Horvath, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Although epigenetic processes have been linked to aging and disease in other systems, it is not yet known whether they relate to reproductive aging. Recently, we developed a highly accurate epigenetic biomarker of age (known as the “epigenetic clock”), which is based on DNA methylation levels. Here we carry out an epigenetic clock analysis of blood, saliva, and buccal epithelium using data from four large studies: the Women's Health Initiative (n = 1,864); Invecchiare nel Chianti (n = 200); Parkinson's disease, Environment, and Genes (n = 256); and the United Kingdom Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (n = 790). We find that increased epigenetic age acceleration in blood is significantly associated with earlier menopause (P = 0.00091), bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0018), and a longer time since menopause (P = 0.017). Conversely, epigenetic age acceleration in buccal epithelium and saliva do not relate to age at menopause; however, a higher epigenetic age in saliva is exhibited in women who undergo bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0079), while a lower epigenetic age in buccal epithelium was found for women who underwent menopausal hormone therapy (P = 0.00078). Using genetic data, we find evidence of coheritability between age at menopause and epigenetic age acceleration in blood. Using Mendelian randomization analysis, we find that two SNPs that are highly associated with age at menopause exhibit a significant association with epigenetic age acceleration. Overall, our Mendelian randomization approach and other lines of evidence suggest that menopause accelerates epigenetic aging of blood, but mechanistic studies will be needed to dissect cause-and-effect relationships further. PMID:27457926

  19. Laser Plasma Accelerators for Medical and Nuclear Uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Koyama, Kazuyoshi

    2010-11-01

    Starting from the cases of the current clinical facilities as a source of reference to compare with, final performance of lasers and accelerators and even cost target were discussed. We assume maximum flexibility to enable treatment of small as well as large in-depth tumor volumes requiring the maximum energy of 250 MeV for protons and 400 MeV/u for carbon. We adopt their reference numbers for the required total number of protons / carbon ions per fraction (5 min) as well as peak numbers (per second). Other parameters (like energy spread and total number of voxels) are adjusted to the particularities of laser acceleration, which include a much higher production energy spread than in the synchrotron case and a laser pulse rate currently suggested by technology. As far as cost, it is assumed that a single laser driver unit is foreseen for one treatment room. It is suggested that the target for 10-20 years of development could be a cost of the laser driver unit not exceeding 1/4 of the conventional synchrotron facility cost, which is 40 M€. Further, design study, proposal and preliminary experimental results for all optical Compton scattering X-ray source for nuclear material detection at University of Tokyo is introduced. By using the Ti:Sapphire laser at about 7 TW and our original gas-jet and magnetic plasma channel, we succeeded in generating more than 100 MeV electrons with a reasonable emittance. Compton scattering with beam-spread Ti:Sapphire laser pulse can yield quasi-monochromatic X-rays around 110 keV near the K-edges of U, Np, Pu. Subtraction imaging across the K-edge realizes clear recognition and distingushment of those compounds in liquid.

  20. Laser Plasma Accelerators for Medical and Nuclear Uses

    SciTech Connect

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Koyama, Kazuyoshi

    2010-11-04

    Starting from the cases of the current clinical facilities as a source of reference to compare with, final performance of lasers and accelerators and even cost target were discussed. We assume maximum flexibility to enable treatment of small as well as large in-depth tumor volumes requiring the maximum energy of 250 MeV for protons and 400 MeV/u for carbon. We adopt their reference numbers for the required total number of protons / carbon ions per fraction (5 min) as well as peak numbers (per second). Other parameters (like energy spread and total number of voxels) are adjusted to the particularities of laser acceleration, which include a much higher production energy spread than in the synchrotron case and a laser pulse rate currently suggested by technology. As far as cost, it is assumed that a single laser driver unit is foreseen for one treatment room. It is suggested that the target for 10-20 years of development could be a cost of the laser driver unit not exceeding 1/4 of the conventional synchrotron facility cost, which is 40 MEuro. Further, design study, proposal and preliminary experimental results for all optical Compton scattering X-ray source for nuclear material detection at University of Tokyo is introduced. By using the Ti:Sapphire laser at about 7 TW and our original gas-jet and magnetic plasma channel, we succeeded in generating more than 100 MeV electrons with a reasonable emittance. Compton scattering with beam-spread Ti:Sapphire laser pulse can yield quasi-monochromatic X-rays around 110 keV near the K-edges of U, Np, Pu. Subtraction imaging across the K-edge realizes clear recognition and distingushment of those compounds in liquid.

  1. Science in science fiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Science fiction, from Star Trek to Star Wars, is hugely popular and pupils will surely have encountered good and bad physics there, but do they really notice? Discussing the science implied in books and movies, such as in the use of transporters, can be a good way of getting students interested in physics.

  2. Stacked insulator induction accelerator gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, T.I.; Westenskow, G.A.; Kim, J.S.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.S.; Vanecek, D.

    1997-05-01

    Stacked insulators, with alternating layers of insulating material and conducting film, have been shown to support high surface electrical field stresses. We have investigated the application of the stacked insulator technology to the design of induction accelerator modules for the Relativistic-Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator program. The rf properties of the accelerating gaps using stacked insulators, particularly the impedance at frequencies above the beam pipe cutoff frequency, are investigated. Low impedance is critical for Relativistic-Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator applications where a high current, bunched beam is trsnsported through many accelerating gaps. An induction accelerator module designs using a stacked insulator is presented.

  3. Thinking Science Australia: A Short History of How Thirty Science Lessons Transform Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Originally called Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education, Thinking Science is a program of 30 lessons, usually delivered in Years 7 and 8, that has been shown to improve learner outcomes in science, maths and English. Over recent years, it has grown in popularity in Australia and was the subject of an ARC-funded research project at the…

  4. Mass spectrometry with accelerators.

    PubMed

    Litherland, A E; Zhao, X-L; Kieser, W E

    2011-01-01

    As one in a series of articles on Canadian contributions to mass spectrometry, this review begins with an outline of the history of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), noting roles played by researchers at three Canadian AMS laboratories. After a description of the unique features of AMS, three examples, (14)C, (10)Be, and (129)I are given to illustrate the methods. The capabilities of mass spectrometry have been extended by the addition of atomic isobar selection, molecular isobar attenuation, further ion acceleration, followed by ion detection and ion identification at essentially zero dark current or ion flux. This has been accomplished by exploiting the techniques and accelerators of atomic and nuclear physics. In 1939, the first principles of AMS were established using a cyclotron. In 1977 the selection of isobars in the ion source was established when it was shown that the (14)N(-) ion was very unstable, or extremely difficult to create, making a tandem electrostatic accelerator highly suitable for assisting the mass spectrometric measurement of the rare long-lived radioactive isotope (14)C in the environment. This observation, together with the large attenuation of the molecular isobars (13)CH(-) and (12)CH 2(-) during tandem acceleration and the observed very low background contamination from the ion source, was found to facilitate the mass spectrometry of (14)C to at least a level of (14)C/C ~ 6 × 10(-16), the equivalent of a radiocarbon age of 60,000 years. Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, or AMS, has now made possible the accurate radiocarbon dating of milligram-sized carbon samples by ion counting as well as dating and tracing with many other long-lived radioactive isotopes such as (10)Be, (26)Al, (36)Cl, and (129)I. The difficulty of obtaining large anion currents with low electron affinities and the difficulties of isobar separation, especially for the heavier mass ions, has prompted the use of molecular anions and the search for alternative

  5. Estimated Dietary Intake of Radionuclides and Health Risks for the Citizens of Fukushima City, Tokyo, and Osaka after the 2011 Nuclear Accident

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Michio; Oki, Taikan

    2014-01-01

    The radionuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 pose a health risk. In this study, we estimated the 1st-year average doses resulting from the intake of iodine 131 (131I) and cesium 134 and 137 (134Cs and 137Cs) in drinking water and food ingested by citizens of Fukushima City (∼50 km from the nuclear power plant; outside the evacuation zone), Tokyo (∼230 km), and Osaka (∼580 km) after the accident. For citizens in Fukushima City, we considered two scenarios: Case 1, citizens consumed vegetables bought from markets; Case 2, citizens consumed vegetables grown locally (conservative scenario). The estimated effective doses of 134Cs and 137Cs agreed well with those estimated through market basket and food-duplicate surveys. The average thyroid equivalent doses due to ingestion of 131I for adults were 840 µSv (Case 1) and 2700 µSv (Case 2) in Fukushima City, 370 µSv in Tokyo, and 16 µSv in Osaka. The average effective doses due to 134Cs and 137Cs were 19, 120, 6.1, and 1.9 µSv, respectively. The doses estimated in this study were much lower than values reported by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, whose assessments lacked validation and full consideration of regional trade in foods, highlighting the importance of including regional trade. The 95th percentile effective doses were 2–3 times the average values. Lifetime attributable risks (LARs) of thyroid cancers due to ingestion were 2.3–39×10−6 (Case 1) and 10–98×10−6 (Case 2) in Fukushima City, 0.95–14×10−6 in Tokyo, and 0.11–1.3×10−6 in Osaka. The contributions of LARs of thyroid cancers due to ingestion were 7.5%–12% of all exposure (Case 1) and 12%–30% (Case 2) in Fukushima City. PMID:25390339

  6. Estimated dietary intake of radionuclides and health risks for the citizens of Fukushima City, Tokyo, and Osaka after the 2011 nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Oki, Taikan

    2014-01-01

    The radionuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 pose a health risk. In this study, we estimated the 1st-year average doses resulting from the intake of iodine 131 (131I) and cesium 134 and 137 (134Cs and 137Cs) in drinking water and food ingested by citizens of Fukushima City (∼50 km from the nuclear power plant; outside the evacuation zone), Tokyo (∼230 km), and Osaka (∼580 km) after the accident. For citizens in Fukushima City, we considered two scenarios: Case 1, citizens consumed vegetables bought from markets; Case 2, citizens consumed vegetables grown locally (conservative scenario). The estimated effective doses of 134Cs and 137Cs agreed well with those estimated through market basket and food-duplicate surveys. The average thyroid equivalent doses due to ingestion of 131I for adults were 840 µSv (Case 1) and 2700 µSv (Case 2) in Fukushima City, 370 µSv in Tokyo, and 16 µSv in Osaka. The average effective doses due to 134Cs and 137Cs were 19, 120, 6.1, and 1.9 µSv, respectively. The doses estimated in this study were much lower than values reported by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, whose assessments lacked validation and full consideration of regional trade in foods, highlighting the importance of including regional trade. The 95th percentile effective doses were 2-3 times the average values. Lifetime attributable risks (LARs) of thyroid cancers due to ingestion were 1.7-37×10-6 (Case 1) and5.6-79×10-6 (Case 2) in Fukushima City, 0.73-13×10-6 in Tokyo, and 0.04-0.49×10- 6 in Osaka. The contributions of LARs of thyroid cancers due to ingestion were 5.4%-11% of all exposure (Case 1) and 11%-25% (Case 2) in Fukushima City [corrected].

  7. Sustained High Seismicity Rate Beneath Tokyo Associated with after-Slip of the 2011 M=9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, S.; Stein, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake brought a broad and unprecedented increase in seismicity in northern Honshu, Japan, including a high occurrence rate of moderate-size earthquakes in and around Tokyo, where five M>7 earthquakes struck in the past 400 years. Immediately after the Tohoku-oki earthquake, the seismicity rate in the Kanto seismic corridor beneath Tokyo jumped ten-fold and then decayed for 6-12 months, after which it steadied at three-to-two times the pre-Tohoku rate (continuous at least until the end of July, 2014). The time series of the seismicity does not fit by a simple Omori-decay formula and not observed in a typical off-fault aftershock sequence. To well explain the rate increase and its unique time dependency, we employ rate and state dependent Coulomb model incorporating not only the coseismic stress step but also stressing rate change. In the model, coseismic static stress changes are calculated onto the nodal planes of 338 pre-mianshock focal mechanisms as proxies for potential nucleation sites. We found ~80% were brought closer to failure by the M=9.0 mainshock and M=7.9 aftershock with the mean increase of 1 bar. We then use the histogram of the stress changes with plausible rate/state parameters to reproduce the seismicity time series following the method of Toda et al. (2012). Because the Kanto seismicity did not decay back to the pre-Tohoku rate, we included a 3-times higher stressing rate after the Tohoku mainshock. The origin of the higher post-Tohoku-oki stressing rate is likely explained by postseismic creep. Both on land GPS data (Ozawa et al., 2012) and repeating earthquakes (Uchida and Matsuzawa, 2013) inferred a significant postseismic after-slip on up-dip extension of the upper Pacific slab. We speculate that gradual stress transfer on deeper plate interface from such a transient shallow postseismic creep is responsible for the unique long-lasting off-fault seismicity beneath Tokyo.

  8. Advanced Accelerator Concepts: Seventh Workshop. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, S.; McCullough, J.; Dahl, P.

    1997-09-01

    These proceedings are based on the Seventh Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts held in October, 1996 at Lake Tahoe, California. This workshop was sponsored by the US Department of Energy(High Energy Physics Division, Advanced Technology Branch) and by the center for Beam Physics at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory of the University of California. A wide range of applications was covered at the workshop, from high energy colliders to synchrotron radiation sources. This scope included topics such as new methods of particle acceleration, production of ultrahigh gradient electromagnetic fields, diagnostics and control of particle/photon beams in ultrashort dimensions and ultrafast time scales, and various energy and beam sources. There were 87 papers presented at the workshop and out of these, 65 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  9. Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obayashi, Tatsuzo

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) on the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) mission, is to carry out active and interactive experiments on and in the earth's ionosphere, atmosphere, and magnetosphere. The instruments to be used are an electron beam accelerator (EBA), plasma contactor, and associated instruments the purpose of which is to perform diagnostic, monitoring, and general data taking functions. Four major classes of investigations are to be performed by SEPAC. They are: beam plasma physics, beam-atmosphere interactions, the use of modulated electron beams as transmitting antennas, and the use of electron beams for remote sensing of electric and magnetic fields. The first class consists mainly of onboard plasma physics experiments to measure the effects of phenomena in the vicinity of the shuttle. The last three are concerned with remote effects and are supported by other ATLAS 1 investigations as well as by ground-based observations.

  10. Review of ion accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.

    1990-06-01

    The field of ion acceleration to higher energies has grown rapidly in the last years. Many new facilities as well as substantial upgrades of existing facilities have extended the mass and energy range of available beams. Perhaps more significant for the long-term development of the field has been the expansion in the applications of these beams, and the building of facilities dedicated to areas outside of nuclear physics. This review will cover many of these new developments. Emphasis will be placed on accelerators with final energies above 50 MeV/amu. Facilities such as superconducting cyclotrons and storage rings are adequately covered in other review papers, and so will not be covered here.

  11. Accelerator research studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the first year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams, TASK B, Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams; TASK C, Study of a Gyroklystron High-power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders. In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks.

  12. Commissioning the GTA accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sander, O.R.; Atkins, W.H.; Bolme, G.O.; Bowling, S.; Brown, S.; Cole, R.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Garnett, R.; Guy, F.W.; Ingalls, W.B.; Johnson, K.F.; Kerstiens, D.; Little, C.; Lohsen, R.A.; Lloyd, S.; Lysenko, W.P.; Mottershead, C.T.; Neuschaefer, G.; Power, J.; Rusthoi, D.P.; Sandoval, D.P. Stevens, R.R. Jr.; Vaughn, G.; Wadlinger, E.A.; Yuan, V.; Connolly, R.; Weiss, R.; Saadatmand, K.

    1992-09-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) is supported by the Strategic Defense command as part of their Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program. Neutral particles have the advantage that in space they are unaffected by the earth`s magnetic field and travel in straight lines unless they enter the earth`s atmosphere and become charged by stripping. Heavy particles are difficult to stop and can probe the interior of space vehicles; hence, NPB can function as a discriminator between warheads and decoys. We are using GTA to resolve the physics and engineering issues related to accelerating, focusing, and steering a high-brightness, high-current H{sup -} beam and then neutralizing it. Our immediate goal is to produce a 24-MeV, 50mA device with a 2% duty factor.

  13. Commissioning the GTA accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sander, O.R.; Atkins, W.H.; Bolme, G.O.; Bowling, S.; Brown, S.; Cole, R.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Garnett, R.; Guy, F.W.; Ingalls, W.B.; Johnson, K.F.; Kerstiens, D.; Little, C.; Lohsen, R.A.; Lloyd, S.; Lysenko, W.P.; Mottershead, C.T.; Neuschaefer, G.; Power, J.; Rusthoi, D.P.; Sandoval, D.P. Stevens, R.R. Jr.; Vaughn, G.; Wadlinger, E.A.; Yuan, V. ); Connolly, R.; Weiss, R. (Gr

    1992-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) is supported by the Strategic Defense command as part of their Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program. Neutral particles have the advantage that in space they are unaffected by the earth's magnetic field and travel in straight lines unless they enter the earth's atmosphere and become charged by stripping. Heavy particles are difficult to stop and can probe the interior of space vehicles; hence, NPB can function as a discriminator between warheads and decoys. We are using GTA to resolve the physics and engineering issues related to accelerating, focusing, and steering a high-brightness, high-current H{sup -} beam and then neutralizing it. Our immediate goal is to produce a 24-MeV, 50mA device with a 2% duty factor.

  14. Auroral ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalimov, S. L.

    From the altitude of 500 km to 15 R sub E everywhere conic like distributions of H+, O+, He+ ions are moving upwards from the ionosphere along the geomagnetic field lines in the auroral zone. The distributed ions suggest the existence of ion transverse acceleration mechanisms (ITAM) acting below the observation point. The more plausible mechanisms are connected with the resonance of the type wave particle between ions and the observed EIC and LH waves and are also due to the existence of the local transverse electric fields in the ionoshere and the magnetosphere. The known ion transverse acceleration mechanisms were complemented by new results. The conical distributions of ionospheric ions at different altitudes in the auroral zone are pointed out.

  15. Review of accelerator instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrin, J.L.

    1980-05-01

    Some of the problems associated with the monitoring of accelerator beams, particularly storage rings' beams, are reviewed along with their most common solutions. The various electrode structures used for the measurement of beam current, beam position, and the detection of the bunches' transverse oscillations, yield pulses with sub-nanosecond widths. The electronics for the processing of these short pulses involves wide band techniques and circuits usually not readily available from industry or the integrated circuit market: passive or active, successive integrations, linear gating, sample-and-hold circuits with nanosecond acquisition time, etc. This report also presents the work performed recently for monitoring the ultrashort beams of colliding linear accelerators or single-pass colliders. To minimize the beam emittance, the beam position must be measured with a high resolution, and digitized on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Experimental results obtained with the Stanford two-mile Linac single bunches are included.

  16. Hardware Accelerated Simulated Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Laney, D; Callahan, S; Max, N; Silva, C; Langer, S; Frank, R

    2005-04-12

    We present the application of hardware accelerated volume rendering algorithms to the simulation of radiographs as an aid to scientists designing experiments, validating simulation codes, and understanding experimental data. The techniques presented take advantage of 32 bit floating point texture capabilities to obtain validated solutions to the radiative transport equation for X-rays. An unsorted hexahedron projection algorithm is presented for curvilinear hexahedra that produces simulated radiographs in the absorption-only regime. A sorted tetrahedral projection algorithm is presented that simulates radiographs of emissive materials. We apply the tetrahedral projection algorithm to the simulation of experimental diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion experiments on a laser at the University of Rochester. We show that the hardware accelerated solution is faster than the current technique used by scientists.

  17. Adaptive control for accelerators

    DOEpatents

    Eaton, Lawrie E.; Jachim, Stephen P.; Natter, Eckard F.

    1991-01-01

    An adaptive feedforward control loop is provided to stabilize accelerator beam loading of the radio frequency field in an accelerator cavity during successive pulses of the beam into the cavity. A digital signal processor enables an adaptive algorithm to generate a feedforward error correcting signal functionally determined by the feedback error obtained by a beam pulse loading the cavity after the previous correcting signal was applied to the cavity. Each cavity feedforward correcting signal is successively stored in the digital processor and modified by the feedback error resulting from its application to generate the next feedforward error correcting signal. A feedforward error correcting signal is generated by the digital processor in advance of the beam pulse to enable a composite correcting signal and the beam pulse to arrive concurrently at the cavity.

  18. Pulsed electromagnetic gas acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, R. G.; Vonjaskowsky, W. F.; Clark, K. E.

    1971-01-01

    Experimental data were combined with one-dimensional conservation relations to yield information on the energy deposition ratio in a parallel-plate accelerator, where the downstream flow was confined to a constant area channel. Approximately 70% of the total input power was detected in the exhaust flow, of which only about 20% appeared as directed kinetic energy, thus implying that a downstream expansion to convert chamber enthalpy into kinetic energy must be an important aspect of conventional high power MPD arcs. Spectroscopic experiments on a quasi-steady MPD argon accelerator verified the presence of A(III) and the absence of A(I), and indicated an azimuthal structure in the jet related to the mass injection locations. Measurements of pressure in the arc chamber and impact pressure in the exhaust jet using a piezocrystal backed by a Plexiglas rod were in good agreement with the electromagnetic thrust model.

  19. Pulsed Drift Tube Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Faltens, A.

    2004-10-25

    The pulsed drift-tube accelerator (DTA) concept was revived by Joe Kwan and John Staples and is being considered for the HEDP/WDM application. It could be used to reach the full energy or as an intermediate accelerator between the diode and a high gradient accelerator such as multi-beam r.f. In the earliest LBNL HIF proposals and conceptual drivers it was used as an extended injector to reach energies where an induction linac with magnetic quadrupoles is the best choice. For HEDP, because of the very short pulse duration, the DTA could provide an acceleration rate of about 1MV/m. This note is divided into two parts: the first, a design based on existing experience; the second, an optimistic extrapolation. The first accelerates 16 parallel K{sup +} beams at a constant line charge density of 0.25{micro} C/m per beam to 10 MeV; the second uses a stripper and charge selector at around 4MeV followed by further acceleration to reach 40 MeV. Both benefit from more compact sources than the present 2MV injector source, although that beam is the basis of the first design and is a viable option. A pulsed drift-tube accelerator was the first major HIF experiment at LBNL. It was designed to produce a 2{micro}s rectangular 1 Ampere C{sub s}{sup +} beam at 2MeV. It ran comfortably at 1.6MeV for several years, then at lower voltages and currents for other experiments, and remnants of that experiment are in use in present experiments, still running 25 years later. The 1A current, completely equivalent to 1.8A K{sup +}, was chosen to be intermediate between the beamlets appropriate for a multi-beam accelerator, and a single beam of, say, 10A, at injection energies. The original driver scenarios using one large beam on each side of the reactor rapidly fell out of favor because of the very high transverse and longitudinal fields from the beam space charge, circa 1MV/cm and 250 kV/cm respectively, near the chamber and because of aberrations in focusing a large diameter beam down to a 1

  20. SUPERDIFFUSIVE SHOCK ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Perri, S.; Zimbardo, G.

    2012-05-10

    The theory of diffusive shock acceleration is extended to the case of superdiffusive transport, i.e., when the mean square deviation grows proportionally to t{sup {alpha}}, with {alpha} > 1. Superdiffusion can be described by a statistical process called Levy random walk, in which the propagator is not a Gaussian but it exhibits power-law tails. By using the propagator appropriate for Levy random walk, it is found that the indices of energy spectra of particles are harder than those obtained where a normal diffusion is envisaged, with the spectral index decreasing with the increase of {alpha}. A new scaling for the acceleration time is also found, allowing substantially shorter times than in the case of normal diffusion. Within this framework we can explain a number of observations of flat spectra in various astrophysical and heliospheric contexts, for instance, for the Crab Nebula and the termination shock of the solar wind.