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Sample records for accept personal responsibility

  1. Acceptance and commitment therapy group-treatment for non-responsive patients with personality disorders: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Chakhssi, Farid; Janssen, Wim; Pol, Silvia M; van Dreumel, Malinda; Westerhof, Gerben J

    2015-11-01

    Patients with personality disorders who did not respond to previous outpatient treatment are among the most challenging patients to treat and are often referred to specialized settings. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is an innovative therapy that has shown effectiveness in treatment-resistant cases with chronic or recurrent depression with or without co-morbid personality disorders. The central role that ACT accords to positive values and experiential avoidance may enhance treatment responsivity in patients with personality disorders that did not respond to previous treatments. The current nonrandomized study explored the effectiveness of a 26-week ACT-based group treatment (n = 60) for personality disorders compared to treatment-as-usual (n = 21) based on cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-TAU) at a specialized setting for patients with personality disorders. Individuals in both treatment conditions demonstrated small to moderate decreases in general psychological functioning and personality pathology. There was no main effect of therapy condition. Overall, results suggest that ACT is a possible treatment option for individuals with difficult-to-treat personality pathology and further outcome research is warranted.

  2. Who accepts responsibility for their transgressions?

    PubMed

    Schumann, Karina; Dweck, Carol S

    2014-12-01

    After committing an offense, transgressors can optimize their chances of reconciling with the victim by accepting responsibility. However, transgressors may be motivated to avoid admitting fault because it can feel threatening to accept blame for harmful behavior. Who, then, is likely to accept responsibility for a transgression? We examined how implicit theories of personality--whether people see personality as malleable (incremental theory) or fixed (entity theory)--influence transgressors' likelihood of accepting responsibility. We argue that incremental theorists may feel less threatened by accepting responsibility because they are more likely to view the situation as an opportunity for them to grow as a person and develop their relationship with the victim. We found support for our predictions across four studies using a combination of real-world and hypothetical offenses, and correlational and experimental methods. These studies therefore identify an important individual difference factor that can lead to more effective responses from transgressors. PMID:25252938

  3. Personal Responsibility and Lifestyle Diseases.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2016-10-01

    What does it take for an individual to be personally responsible for behaviors that lead to increased risk of disease? We examine three approaches to responsibility that cover the most important aspects of the discussion of responsibility and spell out what it takes, according to each of them, to be responsible for behaviors leading to increased risk of disease. We show that only what we call the causal approach can adequately accommodate widely shared intuitions to the effect that certain causal influences-such as genetic make-up or certain social circumstances-diminish, or undermine personal responsibility. However, accepting the causal approach most likely makes personal responsibility impossible. We therefore need either to reject these widely shared intuitions about what counts as responsibility-softening or undermining or to accept that personal responsibility for behaviors leading to increased risk of disease rests on premises so shaky that personal responsibility is probably impossible.

  4. Personal Responsibility and Lifestyle Diseases.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2016-10-01

    What does it take for an individual to be personally responsible for behaviors that lead to increased risk of disease? We examine three approaches to responsibility that cover the most important aspects of the discussion of responsibility and spell out what it takes, according to each of them, to be responsible for behaviors leading to increased risk of disease. We show that only what we call the causal approach can adequately accommodate widely shared intuitions to the effect that certain causal influences-such as genetic make-up or certain social circumstances-diminish, or undermine personal responsibility. However, accepting the causal approach most likely makes personal responsibility impossible. We therefore need either to reject these widely shared intuitions about what counts as responsibility-softening or undermining or to accept that personal responsibility for behaviors leading to increased risk of disease rests on premises so shaky that personal responsibility is probably impossible. PMID:27473408

  5. The acceptability of pneumococcal vaccine to older persons in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Bedford, D; Igoe, G; White, M; Parsons, B; Foyle, D; Howell, F; Corcoran, R

    2000-01-01

    A study was carried out to demonstrate in an Irish population whether older persons at risk from pneumococcal disease would accept an offer of the pneumococcal vaccine at the same time as their influenza vaccination. Of the 450 patients from 2 practices invited to attend for vaccination, 367 (81.6%) accepted both vaccines, a further 17 (3.8%) accepted the influenza vaccine only and a further 3 (0.7%) accepted the pneumococcal vaccine only. Three hundred and seven (68.2%) patients had received influenza vaccine at some time in previous years and these were statistically more likely to accept either vaccine than those who had not. This study has demonstrated that older persons at risk from pneumococcal disease will respond positively to a written invitation from their GP to avail of the pneumococcal vaccine. PMID:11037249

  6. Does expressed acceptance reflect genuine attitudes? A bogus pipeline study of the effects of mortality salience on acceptance of a person with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Grover, Kristin W; Miller, Carol T

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether expressed acceptance of a person with AIDS reflects genuine acceptance or a desire to appear to be accepting. Theory and research on the effects of mortality salience on acceptance of stigmatized people provided the framework for investigating this question. After writing about death or another aversive topic, participants indicated their acceptance of a target with AIDS while connected to physiological equipment that they believed could detect lies (bogus pipeline) or was simply measuring physiological responses to participation in the study. As predicted, participants in the mortality salience/bogus pipeline condition indicated significantly less acceptance of the target with AIDS than participants in the other three conditions, suggesting that acceptance of a person with AIDS is at least partially a result of wanting to appear to be accepting, without necessarily genuinely accepting someone with AIDS.

  7. 42 CFR 35.65 - Acceptable personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptable personal property. 35.65 Section 35.65 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.65...

  8. Information Technology and Personal Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klempner, Irving M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the societal implications of advanced information technology, focusing on ethical questions and the personal responsibility of the information professional in designing information systems. (FM)

  9. Self-Compassion Promotes Personal Improvement From Regret Experiences via Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia Wei; Chen, Serena

    2016-02-01

    Why do some people report more personal improvement from their regret experiences than others? Three studies examined whether self-compassion promotes personal improvement derived from recalled regret experiences. In Study 1, we coded anonymous regret descriptions posted on a blog website. People who spontaneously described their regret with greater self-compassion were also judged as having expressed more personal improvement. In Study 2, higher trait self-compassion predicted greater self-reported and observer-rated personal improvement derived from recalled regret experiences. In Study 3, people induced to take a self-compassionate perspective toward a recalled regret experience reported greater acceptance, forgiveness, and personal improvement. A multiple mediation analysis comparing acceptance and forgiveness showed self-compassion led to greater personal improvement, in part, through heightened acceptance. Furthermore, self-compassion's effects on personal improvement were distinct from self-esteem and were not explained by adaptive emotional responses. Overall, the results suggest that self-compassion spurs positive adjustment in the face of regrets. PMID:26791595

  10. Self-Compassion Promotes Personal Improvement From Regret Experiences via Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia Wei; Chen, Serena

    2016-02-01

    Why do some people report more personal improvement from their regret experiences than others? Three studies examined whether self-compassion promotes personal improvement derived from recalled regret experiences. In Study 1, we coded anonymous regret descriptions posted on a blog website. People who spontaneously described their regret with greater self-compassion were also judged as having expressed more personal improvement. In Study 2, higher trait self-compassion predicted greater self-reported and observer-rated personal improvement derived from recalled regret experiences. In Study 3, people induced to take a self-compassionate perspective toward a recalled regret experience reported greater acceptance, forgiveness, and personal improvement. A multiple mediation analysis comparing acceptance and forgiveness showed self-compassion led to greater personal improvement, in part, through heightened acceptance. Furthermore, self-compassion's effects on personal improvement were distinct from self-esteem and were not explained by adaptive emotional responses. Overall, the results suggest that self-compassion spurs positive adjustment in the face of regrets.

  11. 48 CFR 46.502 - Responsibility for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibility for acceptance. 46.502 Section 46.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 46.502 Responsibility for acceptance. Acceptance...

  12. 45 CFR 2544.120 - What personal services from a volunteer may be solicited and accepted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What personal services from a volunteer may be....120 What personal services from a volunteer may be solicited and accepted? A donation in the form of personal services from a volunteer may be solicited and accepted to assist the Corporation in carrying...

  13. 45 CFR 2544.120 - What personal services from a volunteer may be solicited and accepted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What personal services from a volunteer may be....120 What personal services from a volunteer may be solicited and accepted? A donation in the form of personal services from a volunteer may be solicited and accepted to assist the Corporation in carrying...

  14. 45 CFR 2544.120 - What personal services from a volunteer may be solicited and accepted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What personal services from a volunteer may be....120 What personal services from a volunteer may be solicited and accepted? A donation in the form of personal services from a volunteer may be solicited and accepted to assist the Corporation in carrying...

  15. 45 CFR 2544.120 - What personal services from a volunteer may be solicited and accepted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What personal services from a volunteer may be....120 What personal services from a volunteer may be solicited and accepted? A donation in the form of personal services from a volunteer may be solicited and accepted to assist the Corporation in carrying...

  16. 45 CFR 2544.120 - What personal services from a volunteer may be solicited and accepted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What personal services from a volunteer may be....120 What personal services from a volunteer may be solicited and accepted? A donation in the form of personal services from a volunteer may be solicited and accepted to assist the Corporation in carrying...

  17. 48 CFR 2446.502 - Responsibility for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Responsibility for acceptance. 2446.502 Section 2446.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 2446.502 Responsibility for acceptance....

  18. Examining Acceptance of an Integrated Personal Health Record (PHR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Alicia A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this project was to examine the practice question, "What are the factors influencing acceptance of integrated PHRs for self-care management among the Howard University Hospital (HUH) Diabetes Treatment Clinic (DTC) patients?" These factors include a) demographic characteristics, b) computer access/use/experience,…

  19. The Relationship between Personality Type and Acceptable Noise Levels: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Cliff; Johnson, Laura V.; Franklin, Clay

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the relationship between acceptable noise level (ANL) and personality. ANL is the difference between a person's most comfortable level for speech and the loudest level of background noise they are willing to accept while listening to speech. Design. Forty young adults with normal hearing participated. ANLs were measured and two personality tests (Big Five Inventory, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) were administered. Results. The analysis revealed a correlation between ANL and the openness and conscientious personality dimensions from the Big Five Inventory; no correlation emerged between ANL and the Myers-Briggs personality types. Conclusions. Lower ANLs are correlated with full-time hearing aid use and the openness personality dimension; higher ANLs are correlated with part-time or hearing aid nonuse and the conscientious personality dimension. Current data suggest that those more open to new experiences may accept more noise and possibly be good hearing aid candidates, while those more conscientious may accept less noise and reject hearing aids, based on their unwillingness to accept background noise. Knowing something about a person's personality type may help audiologists determine if their patients will likely be good candidates for hearing aids. PMID:24349796

  20. Evaluation of the Acceptance of Audience Response System by Corporations Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hsing-Hui; Lu, Ta-Jung; Wann, Jong-Wen

    The purpose of this research is to explore enterprises' acceptance of Audience Response System (ARS) using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The findings show that (1) IT characteristics and facilitating conditions could be external variables of TAM. (2) The degree of E-business has positive significant correlation with behavioral intention of employees. (3) TAM is a good model to predict and explain IT acceptance. (4) Demographic variables, industry and firm characteristics have no significant correlation with ARS acceptance. The results provide useful information to managers and ARS providers that (1) ARS providers should focus more on creating different usages to enhance interactivity and employees' using intention. (2) Managers should pay attention to build sound internal facilitating conditions for introducing IT. (3) According to the degree of E-business, managers should set up strategic stages of introducing IT. (4) Providers should increase product promotion and also leverage academic and government to promote ARS.

  1. Behavioral, Personality, and Communicative Predictors of Acceptance and Popularity in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the behavioral, personality, and communicative predictors of acceptance and popularity in 608 early adolescents. Data were collected with sociometric methods and ratings in 30 sixth-grade classrooms. Hierarchical regressions were run to predict acceptance and popularity from prosocial, antisocial, and withdrawn behavior,…

  2. Clinician Acceptance of Electronic Medical Records (EMRs): Relating Personality Factors to Continuance Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Molly Ann

    2011-01-01

    Many models currently exist for evaluating acceptance and continued use of technology. However, none of these models are healthcare specific, nor do they involve aspects of users' personality. Although the five-factor model (FFM) of personality has been effectively used in psychology and human resources and management research to predict…

  3. Personality Factors Associated with the Decision to Accept or Reject Mobility Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Adventitiously blind adults (n=79) who had accepted mobility training were compared to 60 subjects who had rejected training. Personality profiles varied significantly between groups on seven scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: psychasthenia; schizophrenia; psychopathic deviate; depression; hypomania; paranoia; and…

  4. Personality disorders: conceptual issues and responsibility.

    PubMed

    Sass, H; Herpertz, S; Houben, I

    1994-01-01

    The historical roots of the concepts of abnormal personality, social deviance, delinquency and penal responsibility are described, demonstrating that former concepts of psychopathic personality often included negative social evaluations. Modern classification systems such as DSM-III-R and ICD-10 prefer a behavior-oriented definition of personality disorders, which increases reliability but may lead to a reductionistic and purely criteriological assessment of personality. A checklist for the assessment of personality disorders (AMPS) according to ICD-10 and DSM-III-R is presented, including four subaffective forms derived from the typology of personality disorders described by Kurt Schneider and Kretschmer. To justify statements of diminished legal responsibility or irresponsibility under the German Penal Code, a differentiation between psychopathological phenomena in personality disorders and pure social deviance is needed. The three notions of psychopathy, sociopathy and dissocial behavior are suggested to guide necessary decisions concerning prognosis and therapy chances.

  5. Patients’ Acceptance towards a Web-Based Personal Health Record System: An Empirical Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chung-Feng; Tsai, Yung-Chieh; Jang, Fong-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The health care sector has become increasingly interested in developing personal health record (PHR) systems as an Internet-based telehealthcare implementation to improve the quality and decrease the cost of care. However, the factors that influence patients’ intention to use PHR systems remain unclear. Based on physicians’ therapeutic expertise, we implemented a web-based infertile PHR system and proposed an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) that integrates the physician-patient relationship (PPR) construct into TAM’s original perceived ease of use (PEOU) and perceived usefulness (PU) constructs to explore which factors will influence the behavioral intentions (BI) of infertile patients to use the PHR. From ninety participants from a medical center, 50 valid responses to a self-rating questionnaire were collected, yielding a response rate of 55.56%. The partial least squares (PLS) technique was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the extended model. The results indicate that infertile patients expressed a moderately high intention to use the PHR system. The PPR and PU of patients had significant effects on their BI to use PHR, whereas the PEOU indirectly affected the patients’ BI through the PU. This investigation confirms that PPR can have a critical role in shaping patients’ perceptions of the use of healthcare information technologies. Hence, we suggest that hospitals should promote the potential usefulness of PHR and improve the quality of the physician-patient relationship to increase patients’ intention of using PHR. PMID:24142185

  6. Notice of inquiry on waste acceptance issues: Response summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    On May 25, 1994, the Department of Energy published a Notice of Inquiry on Waste Acceptance Issues in the Federal Register. Through this Notice of Inquiry, the Department sought to implement the Secretary`s initiative to explore with affected parties various options and methods for sharing the costs related to the financial burden associated with continued on-site storage by eliciting the views of affected parties on: (1) The Department`s preliminary view that it does not have a statutory obligation to begin accepting spent nuclear fuel in 1998 in the absence of an operational repository or other suitable storage facility constructed under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended; (2) The need for an interim, away-from-reactor storage facility prior to repository operations; and (3) Options for offsetting, through the Nuclear Waste Fund, a portion of the financial burden that may be incurred by utilities in continuing to store spent nuclear fuel at reactor sites beyond 1998. The Department received a total of 1,111 responses representing 1,476 signatories to this Notice of Inquiry. The responses included submittals from utilities (38 responses); public utility/service commissions and utility regulators (26 responses); Federal, state, and local governments, agencies, and representatives (23 responses); industry and companies (30 responses); public interest groups and other organizations (19 responses); and members of the general public (975 responses).

  7. Personality and Social Framing in Privacy Decision-Making: A Study on Cookie Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Coventry, Lynne M; Jeske, Debora; Blythe, John M; Turland, James; Briggs, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Despite their best intentions, people struggle with the realities of privacy protection and will often sacrifice privacy for convenience in their online activities. Individuals show systematic, personality dependent differences in their privacy decision making, which makes it interesting for those who seek to design 'nudges' designed to manipulate privacy behaviors. We explore such effects in a cookie decision task. Two hundred and ninety participants were given an incidental website review task that masked the true aim of the study. At the task outset, they were asked whether they wanted to accept a cookie in a message that either contained a social framing 'nudge' (they were told that either a majority or a minority of users like themselves had accepted the cookie) or contained no information about social norms (control). At the end of the task, participants were asked to complete a range of personality assessments (impulsivity, risk-taking, willingness to self-disclose and sociability). We found social framing to be an effective behavioral nudge, reducing cookie acceptance in the minority social norm condition. Further, we found personality effects in that those scoring highly on risk-taking and impulsivity were significantly more likely to accept the cookie. Finally, we found that the application of a social nudge could attenuate the personality effects of impulsivity and risk-taking. We explore the implications for those working in the privacy-by-design space.

  8. Exploring Relationships between Personal Innovativeness and Acceptance of Technology of School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pamela Richardson

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of school administrators' personal innovativeness relative to technology acceptance is essential to the implementation of technology programs. School administrators serve as visionary instructional leaders whose beliefs about technology impact technology integration at their schools. The purpose of the "ex post…

  9. Personality and Social Framing in Privacy Decision-Making: A Study on Cookie Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Coventry, Lynne M; Jeske, Debora; Blythe, John M; Turland, James; Briggs, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Despite their best intentions, people struggle with the realities of privacy protection and will often sacrifice privacy for convenience in their online activities. Individuals show systematic, personality dependent differences in their privacy decision making, which makes it interesting for those who seek to design 'nudges' designed to manipulate privacy behaviors. We explore such effects in a cookie decision task. Two hundred and ninety participants were given an incidental website review task that masked the true aim of the study. At the task outset, they were asked whether they wanted to accept a cookie in a message that either contained a social framing 'nudge' (they were told that either a majority or a minority of users like themselves had accepted the cookie) or contained no information about social norms (control). At the end of the task, participants were asked to complete a range of personality assessments (impulsivity, risk-taking, willingness to self-disclose and sociability). We found social framing to be an effective behavioral nudge, reducing cookie acceptance in the minority social norm condition. Further, we found personality effects in that those scoring highly on risk-taking and impulsivity were significantly more likely to accept the cookie. Finally, we found that the application of a social nudge could attenuate the personality effects of impulsivity and risk-taking. We explore the implications for those working in the privacy-by-design space. PMID:27656157

  10. Personality and Social Framing in Privacy Decision-Making: A Study on Cookie Acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Coventry, Lynne M.; Jeske, Debora; Blythe, John M.; Turland, James; Briggs, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Despite their best intentions, people struggle with the realities of privacy protection and will often sacrifice privacy for convenience in their online activities. Individuals show systematic, personality dependent differences in their privacy decision making, which makes it interesting for those who seek to design ‘nudges’ designed to manipulate privacy behaviors. We explore such effects in a cookie decision task. Two hundred and ninety participants were given an incidental website review task that masked the true aim of the study. At the task outset, they were asked whether they wanted to accept a cookie in a message that either contained a social framing ‘nudge’ (they were told that either a majority or a minority of users like themselves had accepted the cookie) or contained no information about social norms (control). At the end of the task, participants were asked to complete a range of personality assessments (impulsivity, risk-taking, willingness to self-disclose and sociability). We found social framing to be an effective behavioral nudge, reducing cookie acceptance in the minority social norm condition. Further, we found personality effects in that those scoring highly on risk-taking and impulsivity were significantly more likely to accept the cookie. Finally, we found that the application of a social nudge could attenuate the personality effects of impulsivity and risk-taking. We explore the implications for those working in the privacy-by-design space.

  11. Background Noise Acceptance and Personality Factors Involved in Library Environment Choices by College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon-Hickey, Susan; Lemley, Trey

    2012-01-01

    For decades, academic libraries made efforts to provide study environments differing in acoustic environment. The present study aimed to provide an evidence basis for this practice by comparing background noise acceptance and personality factors of two groups of college-aged students self identified as preferring quiet or background noise when…

  12. Personality and Social Framing in Privacy Decision-Making: A Study on Cookie Acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Coventry, Lynne M.; Jeske, Debora; Blythe, John M.; Turland, James; Briggs, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Despite their best intentions, people struggle with the realities of privacy protection and will often sacrifice privacy for convenience in their online activities. Individuals show systematic, personality dependent differences in their privacy decision making, which makes it interesting for those who seek to design ‘nudges’ designed to manipulate privacy behaviors. We explore such effects in a cookie decision task. Two hundred and ninety participants were given an incidental website review task that masked the true aim of the study. At the task outset, they were asked whether they wanted to accept a cookie in a message that either contained a social framing ‘nudge’ (they were told that either a majority or a minority of users like themselves had accepted the cookie) or contained no information about social norms (control). At the end of the task, participants were asked to complete a range of personality assessments (impulsivity, risk-taking, willingness to self-disclose and sociability). We found social framing to be an effective behavioral nudge, reducing cookie acceptance in the minority social norm condition. Further, we found personality effects in that those scoring highly on risk-taking and impulsivity were significantly more likely to accept the cookie. Finally, we found that the application of a social nudge could attenuate the personality effects of impulsivity and risk-taking. We explore the implications for those working in the privacy-by-design space. PMID:27656157

  13. Exploring Healthcare Consumer Acceptance of Personal Health Information Management Technology through Personal Health Record Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Huijuan

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare technologies are evolving from a practitioner-centric model to a patient-centric model due to the increasing need for technology that directly serves healthcare consumers, including healthy people and patients. Personal health information management (PHIM) technology is one of the technologies designed to enhance an individual's ability…

  14. Taking charge: a personal responsibility.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, D M

    1987-01-01

    Women can adopt health practices that will help them to maintain good health throughout their various life stages. Women can take charge of their health by maintaining a nutritionally balanced diet, exercising, and using common sense. Women can also employ known preventive measures against osteoporosis, stroke, lung and breast cancer and accidents. Because women experience increased longevity and may require long-term care with age, the need for restructuring the nation's care system for the elderly becomes an important women's health concern. Adult day care centers, home health aides, and preventive education will be necessary, along with sufficient insurance to maintain quality care and self-esteem without depleting a person's resources. PMID:3120224

  15. Personal and other factors affecting acceptance of smartphone technology by older Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qi; Chan, Alan H S; Chen, Ke

    2016-05-01

    It has been well documented that in the 21st century, there will be relatively more older people around the world than in the past. Also, it seems that technology will expand in this era at an unprecedented rate. Therefore, it is of critical importance to understand the factors that influence the acceptance of technology by older people. The positive impact that the use of mobile applications can have for older people was confirmed by a previous study (Plaza et al., 2011). The study reported here aimed to explore and confirm, for older adults in China, the key influential factors of smartphone acceptance, and to describe the personal circumstances of Chinese older adults who use smartphone. A structured questionnaire and face to face individual interviews were used with 120 Chinese older adults (over 55). Structural Equation Modeling was used to confirm a proposed smartphone acceptance model based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The results showed that those who were younger, with higher education, non-widowed, with better economic condition related to salary or family support were more likely to use smartphone. Also, cost was found to be a critical factor influencing behavior intention. Self-satisfaction and facilitating conditions were proved to be important factors influencing perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use.

  16. Personal and other factors affecting acceptance of smartphone technology by older Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qi; Chan, Alan H S; Chen, Ke

    2016-05-01

    It has been well documented that in the 21st century, there will be relatively more older people around the world than in the past. Also, it seems that technology will expand in this era at an unprecedented rate. Therefore, it is of critical importance to understand the factors that influence the acceptance of technology by older people. The positive impact that the use of mobile applications can have for older people was confirmed by a previous study (Plaza et al., 2011). The study reported here aimed to explore and confirm, for older adults in China, the key influential factors of smartphone acceptance, and to describe the personal circumstances of Chinese older adults who use smartphone. A structured questionnaire and face to face individual interviews were used with 120 Chinese older adults (over 55). Structural Equation Modeling was used to confirm a proposed smartphone acceptance model based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The results showed that those who were younger, with higher education, non-widowed, with better economic condition related to salary or family support were more likely to use smartphone. Also, cost was found to be a critical factor influencing behavior intention. Self-satisfaction and facilitating conditions were proved to be important factors influencing perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. PMID:26851465

  17. Evolutionary emergence of responsive and unresponsive personalities.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Max; van Doorn, G Sander; Weissing, Franz J

    2008-10-14

    In many animal species, individuals differ consistently in suites of correlated behaviors, comparable with human personalities. Increasing evidence suggests that one of the fundamental factors structuring personality differences is the responsiveness of individuals to environmental stimuli. Whereas some individuals tend to be highly responsive to such stimuli, others are unresponsive and show routine-like behaviors. Much research has focused on the proximate causes of these differences but little is known about their evolutionary origin. Here, we provide an evolutionary explanation. We develop a simple but general evolutionary model that is based on two key ingredients. First, the benefits of responsiveness are frequency-dependent; that is, being responsive is advantageous when rare but disadvantageous when common. This explains why responsive and unresponsive individuals can coexist within a population. Second, positive-feedback mechanisms reduce the costs of responsiveness; that is, responsiveness is less costly for individuals that have been responsive before. This explains why individuals differ consistently in their responsiveness, across contexts and over time. As a result, natural selection gives rise to stable individual differences in responsiveness. Whereas some individuals respond to environmental stimuli in all kinds of contexts, others consistently neglect such stimuli. Interestingly, such differences induce correlations among all kinds of other traits (e.g., boldness and aggressiveness), thus providing an explanation for environment-specific behavioral syndromes.

  18. Personalized Nutrition by Prediction of Glycemic Responses.

    PubMed

    Zeevi, David; Korem, Tal; Zmora, Niv; Israeli, David; Rothschild, Daphna; Weinberger, Adina; Ben-Yacov, Orly; Lador, Dar; Avnit-Sagi, Tali; Lotan-Pompan, Maya; Suez, Jotham; Mahdi, Jemal Ali; Matot, Elad; Malka, Gal; Kosower, Noa; Rein, Michal; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Dohnalová, Lenka; Pevsner-Fischer, Meirav; Bikovsky, Rony; Halpern, Zamir; Elinav, Eran; Segal, Eran

    2015-11-19

    Elevated postprandial blood glucose levels constitute a global epidemic and a major risk factor for prediabetes and type II diabetes, but existing dietary methods for controlling them have limited efficacy. Here, we continuously monitored week-long glucose levels in an 800-person cohort, measured responses to 46,898 meals, and found high variability in the response to identical meals, suggesting that universal dietary recommendations may have limited utility. We devised a machine-learning algorithm that integrates blood parameters, dietary habits, anthropometrics, physical activity, and gut microbiota measured in this cohort and showed that it accurately predicts personalized postprandial glycemic response to real-life meals. We validated these predictions in an independent 100-person cohort. Finally, a blinded randomized controlled dietary intervention based on this algorithm resulted in significantly lower postprandial responses and consistent alterations to gut microbiota configuration. Together, our results suggest that personalized diets may successfully modify elevated postprandial blood glucose and its metabolic consequences. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:26590418

  19. Responses to Broken Promises: Does Personality Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Violet T.; Weingart, Laurie R.; Rousseau, Denise M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examined the effects of personality traits on individuals' reactions to broken promises. We studied the effects of Neuroticism and Agreeableness on emotive and cognitive responses to breach and investigated whether these effects varied across different types (economic vs. social) and severity (high vs. low) of breach. We collected data…

  20. Accepting leadership responsibility: preparing yourself to lead honestly, humanely, and effectively.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2003-01-01

    Many who enter management are ready and willing to accept the benefits of their positions, but not all are readily accepting of the full responsibilities of leadership. All too frequently, modern leadership appears self-serving, with the needs and desires of the leaders taking precedence over the needs of the followers and even the needs of the clients or customers. True leadership, however, should primarily benefit the followers rather than the leader. Leaders lead and followers follow for essentially the same reason, fulfillment of needs, so leaders and followers are fundamentally little different from each other. Every manager at every level has organizational superiors, so every leader is a follower as well. A true leader among managers is one who subordinates personal needs to the organization's needs, places employees well above self in importance, models appropriate behavior for employees, and functions as a facilitator in the employees' continuing efforts to get the necessary work done efficiently and effectively. PMID:14672447

  1. Testing the Electronic Personal Health Record Acceptance Model by Nurses for Managing Their Own Health

    PubMed Central

    Trinkoff, A.M.; Storr, C.L.; Wilson, M.L.; Gurses, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To our knowledge, no evidence is available on health care professionals’ use of electronic personal health records (ePHRs) for their health management. We therefore focused on nurses’ personal use of ePHRs using a modified technology acceptance model. Objectives To examine (1) the psychometric properties of the ePHR acceptance model, (2) the associations of perceived usefulness, ease of use, data privacy and security protection, and perception of self as health-promoting role models to nurses’ own ePHR use, and (3) the moderating influences of age, chronic illness and medication use, and providers’ use of electronic health record (EHRs) on the associations between the ePHR acceptance constructs and ePHR use. Methods A convenience sample of registered nurses, those working in one of 12 hospitals in the Maryland and Washington, DC areas and members of the nursing informatics community (AMIA and HIMSS), were invited to respond to an anonymous online survey; 847 responded. Multiple logistic regression identified associations between the model constructs and ePHR use, and the moderating effect. Results Overall, ePHRs were used by 47%. Sufficient reliability for all scales was found. Three constructs were significantly related to nurses’ own ePHR use after adjusting for covariates: usefulness, data privacy and security protection, and health-promoting role model. Nurses with providers that used EHRs who perceived a higher level of data privacy and security protection had greater odds of ePHR use than those whose providers did not use EHRs. Older nurses with a higher self-perception as health-promoting role models had greater odds of ePHR use than younger nurses. Conclusions Nurses who use ePHRs for their personal health might promote adoption by the general public by serving as health-promoting role models. They can contribute to improvements in patient education and ePHR design, and serve as crucial resources when working with their

  2. Gathering Complete Response from Mexican-Americans by Personal Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zusman, Marty E.; Olson, Arnold O.

    1977-01-01

    To investigate the quality of response to the personal interview, a survey was undertaken among Mexican-American migrant parents and children. Results demonstrate that the personal interview does not gather complete response. (Author/AM)

  3. Accepting "total and complete responsibility": new age neo-feminist violence against women.

    PubMed

    Sethna, C

    1992-02-01

    Barry Konikov, a hypnotherapist, of Potentials Unlimited Inc., a Michigan-based company which produces approximately 160 Subliminal Persuasion/Self Hypnosis tapes, promises his listeners miracles. The tapes on premenstrual syndrome, abortion, and sexual abuse were analyzed. The self-hypnosis message by Konikov is dangerous for women, because his antifeminism, misogyny, and patriarchism are couched insidiously within New Age neofeminism. Under therapeutic guidance the woman listener can direct her own transformation to complete mental, physical, and spiritual well-being, and her new and improved self is so empowered as to accept total and complete responsibility to overcome the hurt about menstruation, abortion, or sexual abuse. Growth therapies such as Gestalt, guided fantasies, and bioenergetics undermine women with false promises of power. If women are so powerful, then it is their fault if they got raped, or battered, or if they have not received love, money, and inner peace. While seemingly empowering women to develop a strong sense of personal agency, Konikov ignores the patriarchal structures which intersect his women listeners' experience of menstrual discomfort, abortion, and sexual abuse. Konikov's New Age, neofeminist stance contains 4 stages of healing: responsibility, absolution, forgiveness, and resolution. Accepting responsibility for the wound next leads to absolution, and particularly absolution for men. As an example of absolution, Konikov's woman client-ex-plantation slave accepted her past-life relationship to her husband, absolved him of guild, and decided upon a divorce. The issue of absolution widens into forgiveness in the healing process, whereby Konikov wants women to hypnotize themselves therapy should be to help a woman see how her own power as an individual is inextricably bound to the collective power of women as a group. There is no doubt that the New Age neofeminist stance taken by Konikov on the tapes leaves women profoundly

  4. The Person Response Function as a Tool in Person-Fit Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sijtsma, Klaas; Meijer, Rob R.

    2001-01-01

    Studied the use of the person response function (PRF) for identifying nonfitting item score patterns. Proposed a person-fit method reformulated in a nonparametric item response theory (IRT) context. Conducted a simulation study to compare the use of the PRF with a person-fit statistic, resulting in the conclusion that the PRF can be used as a…

  5. Development and validation of the self-acceptance scale for persons with early blindness: the SAS-EB.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Campana, Angela Nogueira Neves Betanho; Tavares, Maria da Consolação Gomes Cunha Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of self-acceptance are critical to understanding the development and maintenance of psychological health. However, valid and reliable instruments for measuring self-acceptance in persons with early blindness have yet to be developed. The current research describes three studies designed to develop and validate the Self-acceptance Scale for Persons with Early Blindness (SAS-EB). In Study 1, we developed the initial item pool. Thirty-three items were generated, based on data from specialized literature and from 2 focus groups. Items were organized in a three-factor structure, theoretically predicted for SAS-EB - (1) body acceptance, (2) self-protection from social stigmas, and (3) feeling and believing in one's capacities. In Study 2, information obtained from a panel of 9 experts and 22 persons with early blindness representing the target population was used to refine the initial item pool, generating a new pool of 27 items. In Study 3, 318 persons with early blindness (141 women and 177 men), between 18 and 60 years of age (M = 37.74 years, SD = 12.37) answered the new pool of 27 items. After the elimination of 9 items using confirmatory factor analysis, we confirmed the theoretical three-factor structure of the SAS-EB. Study 3 also provided support for the scale's internal consistency and construct validity. Finally, the psychometric properties of the SAS-EB, its utility, and its limitations are discussed along with considerations for future research.

  6. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Group Treatment for Symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder: A Public Sector Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Jane; Snowdon, Sharon; Gopold, Michelle; Guymer, Elise

    2012-01-01

    A pilot study of a brief group-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) intervention (12 two-hour sessions) was conducted with clients of public mental health services meeting four or more criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Participants were randomly assigned to receive the ACT group intervention in addition to their current…

  7. Development and Validation of the Self-Acceptance Scale for Persons with Early Blindness: The SAS-EB

    PubMed Central

    Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Campana, Angela Nogueira Neves Betanho; Tavares, Maria da Consolação Gomes Cunha Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of self-acceptance are critical to understanding the development and maintenance of psychological health. However, valid and reliable instruments for measuring self-acceptance in persons with early blindness have yet to be developed. The current research describes three studies designed to develop and validate the Self-acceptance Scale for Persons with Early Blindness (SAS-EB). In Study 1, we developed the initial item pool. Thirty-three items were generated, based on data from specialized literature and from 2 focus groups. Items were organized in a three-factor structure, theoretically predicted for SAS-EB - (1) body acceptance, (2) self-protection from social stigmas, and (3) feeling and believing in one's capacities. In Study 2, information obtained from a panel of 9 experts and 22 persons with early blindness representing the target population was used to refine the initial item pool, generating a new pool of 27 items. In Study 3, 318 persons with early blindness (141 women and 177 men), between 18 and 60 years of age (M = 37.74 years, SD = 12.37) answered the new pool of 27 items. After the elimination of 9 items using confirmatory factor analysis, we confirmed the theoretical three-factor structure of the SAS-EB. Study 3 also provided support for the scale's internal consistency and construct validity. Finally, the psychometric properties of the SAS-EB, its utility, and its limitations are discussed along with considerations for future research. PMID:25268633

  8. Assessment of perceptibility and acceptability of color variations between matched teeth among trainee dentist and lay person

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, A. S.; Sharma, Aruna; Rijesh, K.; Prakash, R.; Devi, Lakshmi; Raja, Edilbert

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to find the difference in perceptibility and acceptability of changes done to various color coordinates of matched teeth, between trainee dental surgeons, and lay person. Materials and Methods: A photograph with a set of matched central incisor teeth was selected. In one of the central incisors, the color coordinates (hue, value, and chroma) were altered to a preset value. These pictures were presented to trainee dental surgeons and lay person and their level of perception of color change and acceptance of color change was registered and compared. Results: It was found that trainee dental surgeons fared better in perceiving the color change and accepted less of the color changed specimens. The dimension of color that was more discerned both by lay person and trainee dental surgeons was value, hue, and last chroma. Conclusion: When compared to a lay person, dental surgeons are more acute in perceiving color changes and do not accept the color difference between teeth to a higher degree. PMID:26538933

  9. Personal Learning Environments Acceptance Model: The Role of Need for Cognition, e-Learning Satisfaction and Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Barrio-García, Salvador; Arquero, José L.; Romero-Frías, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    As long as students use Web 2.0 tools extensively for social purposes, there is an opportunity to improve students' engagement in Higher Education by using these tools for academic purposes under a Personal Learning Environment approach (PLE 2.0). The success of these attempts depends upon the reactions and acceptance of users towards e-learning…

  10. Depressive symptoms and pain evaluations among persons with chronic pain: catastrophizing, but not pain acceptance, shows significant effects.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Elizabeth J; Ness, Timothy J; Doleys, Daniel M; Baños, James H; Cianfrini, Leanne; Richards, J Scott

    2009-12-15

    Cognitive factors such as catastrophic thoughts regarding pain, and conversely, one's acceptance of that pain, may affect emotional functioning among persons with chronic pain conditions. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of both catastrophizing and acceptance on affective ratings of experimentally induced ischemic pain and also self-reports of depressive symptoms. Sixty-seven individuals with chronic back pain completed self-report measures of catastrophizing, acceptance, and depressive symptoms. In addition, participants underwent an ischemic pain induction procedure and were asked to rate the induced pain. Catastrophizing showed significant effects on sensory and intensity but not affective ratings of the induced pain. Acceptance did not show any significant associations, when catastrophizing was also in the model, with any form of ratings of the induced pain. Catastrophizing, but not acceptance, was also significantly associated with self-reported depressive symptoms when these two variables were both included in a regression model. Overall, results indicate negative thought patterns such as catastrophizing appear to be more closely related to outcomes of perceived pain severity and affect in persons with chronic pain exposed to an experimental laboratory pain stimulus than does more positive patterns as reflected in measures of acceptance.

  11. WPerfit: A Program for Computing Parametric Person-Fit Statistics and Plotting Person Response Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo, Urbano

    2000-01-01

    Describes a program for computing different person-fit measures under different parametric item response models for binary items. The indexes can be computed for the Rasch model and the two- and three-parameter logistic models. The program can plot person response curves to allow the researchers to investigate the nonfitting response behavior of…

  12. Older Persons' Reasoning about Responsibility for Health: Variations and Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjellstrom, Sofia; Ross, Sara Nora

    2011-01-01

    With many Western societies structured for adults to live longer and take responsibility for their health, it is valuable to investigate how older persons reason about this demand. Using mixed methods, this pilot studied how older persons reason about responsibility for health and their responsibility as a patient. Interviews with a small Swedish…

  13. Macrophage responses to implants: prospects for personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Kzhyshkowska, Julia; Gudima, Alexandru; Riabov, Vladimir; Dollinger, Camille; Lavalle, Philippe; Vrana, Nihal Engin

    2015-12-01

    Implants, transplants, and implantable biomedical devices are mainstream solutions for a wide variety of human pathologies. One of the persistent problems around nondegradable metallic and polymeric implants is failure of macrophages to resolve the inflammation and their tendency to stay in a state, named "frustrated phagocytosis." During the initial phase, proinflammatory macrophages induce acute reactions to trauma and foreign materials, whereas tolerogenic anti-inflammatory macrophages control resolution of inflammation and induce the subsequent healing stage. However, implanted materials can induce a mixed pro/anti-inflammatory phenotype, supporting chronic inflammatory reactions accompanied by microbial contamination and resulting in implant failure. Several materials based on natural polymers for improved interaction with host tissue or surfaces that release anti-inflammatory drugs/bioactive agents have been developed for implant coating to reduce implant rejection. However, no definitive, long-term solution to avoid adverse immune responses to the implanted materials is available to date. The prevention of implant-associated infections or chronic inflammation by manipulating the macrophage phenotype is a promising strategy to improve implant acceptance. The immunomodulatory properties of currently available implant coatings need to be improved to develop personalized therapeutic solutions. Human primary macrophages exposed to the implantable materials ex vivo can be used to predict the individual's reactions and allow selection of an optimal coating composition. Our review describes current understanding of the mechanisms of macrophage interactions with implantable materials and outlines the prospects for use of human primary macrophages for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to personalized implant therapy. PMID:26168797

  14. The interrelationships between ratings of speech and facial acceptability in persons with cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Sinko, G R; Hedrick, D L

    1982-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine (a) if untrained observers could reliably rate the speech and facial acceptability of young adults with clefts of the lip and/or palate; and (b) if there were differences between the ratings of speech acceptability and facial acceptability according to sex of observer, presentation mode, or speaker effect. Thirty untrained young adult observers rated the speech and facial acceptability of 20 speakers with cleft palate using a 7-point bipolar adjective scale. Judgments of speech acceptability were made from an auditory-only stimulus and then from a combined audio-visual stimulus. Judgments of facial acceptability were made from a visual-only stimulus and then from a combined audio-visual stimulus. Multivariate analysis of variance, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients, and a posteriori multiple range tests were used for data analyses. Results indicated that untrained observers were reliable in rating both speech and facial acceptability (r .65-.97). The effects of speaker and interaction between speaker and presentation mode were significant at .01 levels of confidence. Judgments made of facial acceptability were generally more positive, leading to the conclusion that speech is generally judged more negatively in speakers with cleft palate, at least by untrained observers. The interaction between speech and facial acceptability was not significant.

  15. Testing Hypotheses about the Person-Response Function in Person-Fit Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas; Meijer, Rob R.

    2004-01-01

    The person-response function (PRF) relates the probability of an individual's correct answer to the difficulty of items measuring the same latent trait. Local deviations of the observed PRF from the expected PRF indicate person misfit. We discuss two new approaches to investigate person fit. The first approach uses kernel smoothing to estimate…

  16. A Quantitative Assessment of the Factors that Influence Technology Acceptance in Emergency Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional models for studying user acceptance and adoption of technology focused on the factors that identify and tested the relationships forged between the user and the technology in question. In emergency response, implementing technology without user acceptance may affect the safety of the responders and citizenry. Integrating the factors…

  17. The Interrelationships between Ratings of Speech and Facial Acceptability in Persons with Cleft Palate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinko, Garnet R.; Hedrick, Dona L.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty untrained young adult observers rated the speech and facial acceptablity of 20 speakers with cleft palate. The observers were reliable in rating both speech and facial acceptability. Judgments of facial acceptability were generally more positive, suggesting that speech is generally judged more negatively in speakers with cleft palate.…

  18. Acceptability of a Personally Controlled Health Record in a Community-Based Setting: Implications for Policy and Design

    PubMed Central

    Kaci, Liljana; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2009-01-01

    Background Consumer-centered health information systems that address problems related to fragmented health records and disengaged and disempowered patients are needed, as are information systems that support public health monitoring and research. Personally controlled health records (PCHRs) represent one response to these needs. PCHRs are a special class of personal health records (PHRs) distinguished by the extent to which users control record access and contents. Recently launched PCHR platforms include Google Health, Microsoft’s HealthVault, and the Dossia platform, based on Indivo. Objective To understand the acceptability, early impacts, policy, and design requirements of PCHRs in a community-based setting. Methods Observational and narrative data relating to acceptability, adoption, and use of a personally controlled health record were collected and analyzed within a formative evaluation of a PCHR demonstration. Subjects were affiliates of a managed care organization run by an urban university in the northeastern United States. Data were collected using focus groups, semi-structured individual interviews, and content review of email communications. Subjects included: n = 20 administrators, clinicians, and institutional stakeholders who participated in pre-deployment group or individual interviews; n = 52 community members who participated in usability testing and/or pre-deployment piloting; and n = 250 subjects who participated in the full demonstration of which n = 81 initiated email communications to troubleshoot problems or provide feedback. All data were formatted as narrative text and coded thematically by two independent analysts using a shared rubric of a priori defined major codes. Sub-themes were identified by analysts using an iterative inductive process. Themes were reviewed within and across research activities (ie, focus group, usability testing, email content review) and triangulated to identify patterns. Results Low levels of familiarity with

  19. Personality Research Form: Factor Structure and Response Style Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stricker, Lawrence J.

    1974-01-01

    Explores factor structure of the Personality Research Form (PRF) and examines the inventory's relations with response styles. In general, the PRF content scales correlate moderately with each other and with measures of acquiescence, social desirability, and defensiveness response biases. (Author)

  20. Depressed Adolescents' Pupillary Response to Peer Acceptance and Rejection: The Role of Rumination.

    PubMed

    Stone, Lindsey B; Silk, Jennifer S; Siegle, Greg J; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Stroud, Laura R; Nelson, Eric E; Dahl, Ronald E; Jones, Neil P

    2016-06-01

    Heightened emotional reactivity to peer feedback is predictive of adolescents' depression risk. Examining variation in emotional reactivity within currently depressed adolescents may identify subgroups that struggle the most with these daily interactions. We tested whether trait rumination, which amplifies emotional reactions, explained variance in depressed adolescents' physiological reactivity to peer feedback, hypothesizing that rumination would be associated with greater pupillary response to peer rejection and diminished response to peer acceptance. Twenty currently depressed adolescents (12-17) completed a virtual peer interaction paradigm where they received fictitious rejection and acceptance feedback. Pupillary response provided a time-sensitive index of physiological arousal. Rumination was associated with greater initial pupil dilation to both peer rejection and acceptance, and diminished late pupillary response to peer acceptance trials only. Results indicate that depressed adolescents high on trait rumination are more reactive to social feedback regardless of valence, but fail to sustain cognitive-affective load on positive feedback. PMID:26271345

  1. African-American Children's Representation of Personal and Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowling, Claire M.; Brock, Sheri J.; Hastie, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines 12 grade five elementary school students' attitudes and beliefs concerning personal and social responsibility in physical education. Factors used to identify students' attitudes and beliefs were initially divided into the six levels of Hellison's Taking Personal and Social Responsibility Model (TPSR), namely: irresponsibility,…

  2. Delinquency and peer acceptance in adolescence: a within-person test of Moffitt's hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Rulison, Kelly L; Kreager, Derek A; Osgood, D Wayne

    2014-11-01

    We tested 2 hypotheses derived from Moffitt's (1993) taxonomic theory of antisocial behavior, both of which are central to her explanation for the rise in delinquency during adolescence. We tested whether persistently delinquent individuals become more accepted by their peers during adolescence and whether individuals who abstain from delinquent behavior become less accepted. Participants were 4,359 adolescents from 14 communities in the PROSPER study, which assessed friendship networks and delinquency from 6th (M = 11.8 years) to 9th (M = 15.3 years) grade. We operationalized peer acceptance as number of nominations received (indegree centrality), attractiveness as a friend (adjusted indegree centrality), and network bridging potential (betweenness centrality) and tested the hypotheses with multilevel modeling. Contrary to Moffitt's hypothesis, persistently delinquent youths did not become more accepted between early and middle adolescence, and although abstainers were less accepted in early adolescence, they became more accepted over time. Results were similar for boys and girls; when differences occurred, they provided no support for Moffitt's hypotheses for boys and were opposite of her hypotheses for girls. Sensitivity analyses in which alternative strategies and additional data were used to identify persistently delinquent adolescents produced similar results. We explore the implications of these results for Moffitt's assertions that social mimicry of persistently antisocial adolescents leads to increases in delinquency and that social isolation leads to abstention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25243328

  3. Delinquency and Peer Acceptance in Adolescence: A Within-Person Test of Moffitt’s Hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Rulison, Kelly L; Kreager, Derek A.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    2015-01-01

    We tested two hypotheses derived from Moffitt’s (1993) taxonomic theory of antisocial behavior, both of which are central to her explanation for the rise in delinquency during adolescence. Specifically, we tested whether persistently delinquent individuals become more accepted by their peers during adolescence and whether individuals who abstain from delinquent behavior become less accepted. Participants were 4,359 adolescents from 14 communities in the PROSPER study, which assessed friendship networks and delinquency from 6th (M = 11.8 years) to 9th (M = 15.3 years) grade. We operationalized peer acceptance as: number of nominations received (indegree centrality), attractiveness as a friend (adjusted indegree centrality), and network bridging potential (betweenness centrality) and tested the hypotheses using multilevel modeling. Contrary to Moffitt’s hypothesis, persistently delinquent youth did not become more accepted between early and middle adolescence, and although abstainers were less accepted in early adolescence, they became more accepted over time. Results were similar for boys and girls; when differences occurred, they provided no support for Moffitt’s hypotheses for boys and were opposite of her hypotheses for girls. Sensitivity analyses using alternative strategies and additional data to identify persistently delinquent adolescents produced similar results. We explore the implications of these results for Moffitt’s assertions that social mimicry of persistently antisocial adolescents leads to increases in delinquency and that social isolation leads to abstention. PMID:25243328

  4. Individualism, acceptance and differentiation as attitude traits in the public's response to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Velan, Baruch; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Ziv, Arnona; Yagar, Yaakov; Kaplan, Giora

    2012-09-01

    The attitude of the general public to vaccination was evaluated through a survey conducted on a representative sample of the Israeli population (n = 2,018), in which interviewees were requested to express their standpoints regarding five different vaccination programs. These included: pandemic influenza vaccination, seasonal influenza vaccination, travel vaccines, Human Papilloma Virus vaccine and childhood vaccinations. Analysis of the responses reveal three major attitude traits: a) acceptance, characterized by the opinion that targets should be vaccinated; b) individualism, characterized by the opinion that vaccination should be left to personal choice; and c) differentiation, characterized by the tendency to express different attitudes when addressing different vaccination programs. Interestingly, direct opposition to vaccination was found to be a minor attitude trait in this survey. Groups within the population could be defined according to their tendency to assume these different attitudes as Acceptors, Judicious-acceptors, Differentiators, Soft-individualists, and Hard-individualists. These groups expressed different standpoints on all five vaccination programs as well as on other health recommendations, such as screening for early detection of cancer. Attitude traits could be also correlated, to a certain extent, with actual compliance with vaccination programs. Interestingly, attitudes to vaccination were not correlated with social profiles related to income or education, although younger individuals exhibited higher degrees of individualism and differentiation. Taken together, all this is in accordance with the current social settings, underlining the individual's tendency for critical evaluation and self-stirring. This should be taken into consideration by health authorities involved in vaccination programs.

  5. Individualism, acceptance and differentiation as attitude traits in the public’s response to vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Velan, Baruch; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Ziv, Arnona; Yagar, Yaakov; Kaplan, Giora

    2012-01-01

    The attitude of the general public to vaccination was evaluated through a survey conducted on a representative sample of the Israeli population (n = 2,018), in which interviewees were requested to express their standpoints regarding five different vaccination programs. These included: pandemic influenza vaccination, seasonal influenza vaccination, travel vaccines, Human Papilloma Virus vaccine and childhood vaccinations. Analysis of the responses reveal three major attitude traits: a) acceptance, characterized by the opinion that targets should be vaccinated; b) individualism, characterized by the opinion that vaccination should be left to personal choice; and c) differentiation, characterized by the tendency to express different attitudes when addressing different vaccination programs. Interestingly, direct opposition to vaccination was found to be a minor attitude trait in this survey. Groups within the population could be defined according to their tendency to assume these different attitudes as Acceptors, Judicious-acceptors, Differentiators, Soft-individualists, and Hard-individualists. These groups expressed different standpoints on all five vaccination programs as well as on other health recommendations, such as screening for early detection of cancer. Attitude traits could be also correlated, to a certain extent, with actual compliance with vaccination programs. Interestingly, attitudes to vaccination were not correlated with social profiles related to income or education, although younger individuals exhibited higher degrees of individualism and differentiation. Taken together, all this is in accordance with the current social settings, underlining the individual's tendency for critical evaluation and self-stirring. This should be taken into consideration by health authorities involved in vaccination programs. PMID:22894959

  6. Personality traits modulate emotional and physiological responses to stress.

    PubMed

    Childs, Emma; White, Tara L; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-09-01

    An individual's susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure, for example, cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined the relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardized laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease.

  7. Personality traits modulate emotional and physiological responses to stress

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Emma; White, Tara L.; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    An individual’s susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure e.g., cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardised laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the TSST. Individuals with high Agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high Communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease. PMID:25036730

  8. The Influence of Demographic Factor on Personal Innovativeness towards Technology Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Noraini Mohamed; Hamzah, Mahizer; Abdullah, Norazilawati

    2016-01-01

    Library and Media Teacher (LMT) readiness of accepting and using technology innovation earlier than their colleagues could expedite the technology innovation process into the school education system. The aim of this paper is to report on a study that explored the impact of experience in using computer and the level of ICT knowledge towards…

  9. Scaling the Acceptability of Behavior Decelerative Procedures: Perceptions of Staff Working with Persons with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, David B.; Silverstein, Jay M.

    This study sought to examine the structure and consistency of perceptions of behavior deceleration procedures within populations, provide a preliminary "index" of acceptability, determine if these procedures can be categorized into meaningful groups, and examine the consistency of perceptions across populations. Subjects were 20 professional-level…

  10. Exploring the feasibility and acceptability of sensor monitoring of gait and falls in the homes of persons with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Newland, Pamela; Wagner, Joanne M; Salter, Amber; Thomas, Florian P; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn

    2016-09-01

    Gait parameters variability and falls are problems for persons with MS and have not been adequately captured in the home. Our goal was to explore the feasibility and acceptability of monitoring of gait and falls in the homes of persons with MS over a period of 30 days. To test the feasibility of measuring gait and falls for 30days in the home of persons with MS, spatiotemporal gait parameters stride length, stride time, and gait speed were compared. A 3D infrared depth imaging system has been developed to objectively measure gait and falls in the home environment. Participants also completed a 16-foot GaitRite electronic pathway walk to validate spatiotemporal parameters of gait (gait speed (cm/s), stride length (cm), and gait cycle time(s)) during the timed 25 foot walking test (T25FWT). We also documented barriers to feasibility of installing the in-home sensors for these participants. The results of the study suggest that the Kinect sensor may be used as an alternative device to measure gait for persons with MS, depending on the desired accuracy level. Ultimately, using in-home sensors to analyze gait parameters in real time is feasible and could lead to better analysis of gait in persons with MS.

  11. Global, Local, and Graphical Person-Fit Analysis Using Person-Response Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas; Meijer, Rob R.

    2005-01-01

    Person-fit statistics test whether the likelihood of a respondent's complete vector of item scores on a test is low given the hypothesized item response theory model. This binary information may be insufficient for diagnosing the cause of a misfitting item-score vector. The authors propose a comprehensive methodology for person-fit analysis in the…

  12. Infusing Personal Responsibility into the Curriculum and Cocurriculum: Campus Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This chapter highlights good practices and lessons learned for infusing personal responsibility--striving for excellence, cultivating academic integrity, and developing competence in ethical and moral reasoning and action--as outcomes of college.

  13. Capturing abnormal personality with normal personality inventories: an item response theory approach.

    PubMed

    Walton, Kate E; Roberts, Brent W; Krueger, Robert F; Blonigen, Daniel M; Hicks, Brian M

    2008-12-01

    Correlational and factor-analytic methods indicate that abnormal and normal personality constructs may be tapping the same underlying latent trait. However, they do not systematically demonstrate that measures of abnormal personality capture more extreme ranges of the latent trait than measures of normal range personality. Item Response Theory (IRT) methods, in contrast, do provide this information. In the present study, we use IRT methods to evaluate the range of the latent trait assessed with a normal personality measure and a measure of psychopathy as one example of an abnormal personality construct. Contrary to the expectation that the measure of psychopathy would be more extreme than the measure of normal personality traits, the measures overlapped substantially in terms of the regions of the latent trait for which they provide information. Moreover, both types of inventories were limited in terms of measurement bandwidth, such that they did not provide information across the entire latent trait continuum. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  14. Alcoholism and Personal Responsibility: A Philosopher Dissents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David E.

    1987-01-01

    Asserts that a primary concern to the alcoholic and to those who try to help him is the behavior that causes alcohol dependency. While not disputing the view that alcoholism may be a disease, argues that full responsibility should be assigned to the alcoholic for his behavior. (NB)

  15. Genetics, antisocial personality, and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Dinwiddie, S H

    1996-01-01

    There is now substantial evidence that heritable biological factors play a role in the genesis of repetitive antisocial behavior. The differing conceptual frameworks of behavioral genetics and the law are described, and the implications that current research in behavioral genetics may have for assigning responsibility for unlawful behavior are discussed.

  16. [Legal responsibility of mentally ill persons].

    PubMed

    Olié, Jean-Pierre; Fabre, Isabelle

    2006-05-15

    In a long humanistic tradition, insanity is a cause of irresponsibility. An irresponsible patient has to be treated. Are responsibility and irresponsibility so contrasted? Where can we put the limits between judicial repression and mental care? What are the best means to treat mental patients? Debate remains open. This article is a clinical and practical reasoning.

  17. Acceptance criteria for determining armed response force size at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    This guidance document contains acceptance criteria to be used in the NRC license review process. It consists of a scored worksheet and guidelines for interpreting the worksheet score that can be used in determining the adequacy of the armed response force size at a nuclear power reactor facility.

  18. 30 CFR 1227.200 - What are a State's general responsibilities if it accepts a delegation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are a State's general responsibilities if it accepts a delegation? 1227.200 Section 1227.200 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE DELEGATION TO STATES...

  19. Personality Research Form: Factor Structure and Response Style Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stricker, Lawrence J.

    The aims of this study were (1) to explore the factor structure of the Personality Research Form (PRF) and (2) to examine the inventory's relations with response styles. In general the PRF content scales correlated moderately with each other and with measures of acquiesence, social desirability, and defensiveness response Biases. Six oblique…

  20. Listeners' Response to Music as a Function of Personality Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara E.; Schmidt, Charles P.

    1991-01-01

    Presents findings of research concerning the relationship between listener response to music and personality variables. Reports that correlations were found among undergraduate music appreciation students between the Music Listener Response Scale and sensing intuition for the entire group and between judgment perception and the scale among…

  1. Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility to Juniors through Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severinsen, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    The teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) in physical education (PE) has a research base dating back some years. There is significant literature pertaining to senior students, the underserved, problem youth in America, teaching responsibility in gym settings, and through PE and in special projects. At the fore-front of this literature…

  2. Results of an emergency response atmospheric dispersion model comparison using a state accepted statistical protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Ciolek, J.T. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant, located approximately 26 km northwest of downtown Denver, Colorado, has developed an emergency response atmospheric dispersion model for complex terrain applications. Plant personnel would use the model, known as the Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC) (Hodgin 1985) to project plume impacts and provide off-site protective action recommendations to the State of Colorado should a hazardous material release occur from the facility. The Colorado Department of Health (CDH) entered into an interagency agreement with the Rocky Flats Plant prime contractor, EG&G Rocky Flats, and the US Department of Energy to evaluate TRAC as an acceptable emergency response tool. After exhaustive research of similar evaluation processes from other emergency response and regulatory organizations, the interagency committee devised a formal acceptance process. The process contains an evaluation protocol (Hodgin and Smith 1992), descriptions of responsibilities, an identified experimental data set to use in the evaluation, and judgment criteria for model acceptance. The evaluation protocol is general enough to allow for different implementations. This paper explains one implementation, shows protocol results for a test case, and presents results of a comparison between versions of TRAC with different wind Field codes: a two dimensional mass consistent code called WINDS (Fosberg et al. 1976) that has been extended to three dimensions, and a fully 3 dimensional mass conserving code called NUATMOS (Ross and Smith 1987, Ross et al. 1988).

  3. Personality influences responses to inequity and contrast in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Brosnan, Sarah F.; Hopper, Lydia M.; Richey, Sean; Freeman, Hani D.; Talbot, Catherine F.; Gosling, Samuel D.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Several species besides humans respond negatively to inequity (i.e. receiving a less preferred outcome as compared to a social partner). Among primates, the taxon for which inequity responses have been most comprehensively studied, there are large individual differences in responses that have, thus far, not been well explained by demographic features such as sex, rank and age. Recent evidence shows that individuals’ personalities are important in explaining differences in behavioural outcomes in other contexts. Thus, in the current study, we explored whether personality was associated with chimpanzees’ responses to both inequity and contrast (i.e. receiving less than anticipated). Chimpanzees were paired with multiple members of their social groups. These pairs alternated trading a token to receive food rewards that either differed from what their partner received (inequity condition) or from what was initially offered (contrast condition) and we compared their responses to a control in which both subjects were offered and received the same reward for trading the token. We predicted that both personality and the quality and length of the pairs’ relationship would influence subjects’ reactions to unequal outcomes, as measured by their refusal to exchange tokens. The quality of subjects’ relationships, based on a weighted average of grooming, contact and proximity, did not correlate with refusals to exchange, whereas pairs that had lived together longer were less likely to refuse in the contrast condition than were pairs that had lived together for less time. Considering personality, some of the dimensions influenced responses to both inequity and contrast similarly, but the more ‘social’ personality dimensions (‘extraversion’ and ‘agreeableness’) were more strongly correlated with sensitivity to inequity. These results highlight the importance of considering individual differences, including personality, when evaluating responses in cognitive

  4. Risk Acceptance Personality Paradigm: How We View What We Don't Know We Don't Know

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, Michael J.; Morris, A. Terry

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of integrated hazard analyses, probabilistic risk assessments, failure modes and effects analyses, fault trees and many other similar tools is to give managers of a program some idea of the risks associated with their program. All risk tools establish a set of undesired events and then try to evaluate the risk to the program by assessing the severity of the undesired event and the likelihood of that event occurring. Some tools provide qualitative results, some provide quantitative results and some do both. However, in the end the program manager and his/her team must decide which risks are acceptable and which are not. Even with a wide array of analysis tools available, risk acceptance is often a controversial and difficult decision making process. And yet, today's space exploration programs are moving toward more risk based design approaches. Thus, risk identification and good risk assessment is becoming even more vital to the engineering development process. This paper explores how known and unknown information influences risk-based decisions by looking at how the various parts of our personalities are affected by what they know and what they don't know. This paper then offers some criteria for consideration when making risk-based decisions.

  5. Causal attribution and affective response as mediated by task performance and self-acceptance.

    PubMed

    Green, T D; Bailey, R C; Zinser, O; Williams, D E

    1994-12-01

    Predictions derived from cognitive consistency theories, self-esteem theories, and ego-serving-bias theory concerning how students would make attributional and affective responses to their academic performance were investigated. 202 university students completed a measure of self-acceptance of their college ability and made attributional and affective responses to an hypothetical examination performance. Analyses showed that students receiving positive feedback perceived greater internal causality and responded with greater positive affect than students receiving negative feedback. Self-acceptance did not moderate the attributions or affective reactions. The results supported the ego-serving-bias theory and provided partial support for self-esteem theory. Findings did not support predictions from cognitive-consistency theory.

  6. Development of the Personal Responsibility Scale for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mergler, Amanda; Shield, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Increasing interest by policy makers and educators in enhancing the non-cognitive factors that impact on the wellbeing of young people across the school years requires valid and reliable measurement scales. This paper reports the psychometric development of the Personal Responsibility Scale drawing on a preliminary 34-item measure developed using data from focus groups with secondary students in Australia. This scale was then administered to 513 students across Years 9-12. Exploratory factor analysis identified three factors, 'personal accountability', 'behavioural and emotional control', and 'cognitive control'. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the congeneric measurement models for these factors. The multidimensional nature of the personal responsibility construct was then examined through multilevel confirmatory factor analysis. These analyses supported a three-factor structure to propose a final 15-item scale. Additional validation requirements, future research possibilities, and implications of this study are addressed.

  7. The criminal responsibility of people with multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Saks, E

    1995-01-01

    Because multiple personality disorder (MPD) is more frequently diagnosed today than in the past, it is likely that more multiples will plead insanity. The courts are in a state of disarray as to how best to respond to these pleas. This article considers multiples' responsibility on three interpretations of the status of their alters: that they are different people; that they are different personalities; or that they are parts of one complex, deeply divided personality. On all three theories multiples are nonresponsible. Nevertheless, three rare circumstances exist under which multiples should be found guilty. The article concludes by indicating the kinds of issues psychiatry might explore to further assist the law in its analysis of the criminal responsibility of multiples.

  8. A Comparison of the Person Response Function to the "l(z)" Person-Fit Statistic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nering, Michael L.; Meijer, Rob R.

    1998-01-01

    Compared the person-response function (PRF) method for identifying examinees who respond to test items in a manner divergent from the underlying test model to the "l(z)" index of Drasgow and others (1985). Although performance of the "l(z)" index was superior in most cases, the PRF was useful in some conditions. (SLD)

  9. Teaching Students Personal and Social Responsibility with Measurable Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardaiolo, Frank P.; Neilson, Steve; Daugherty, Timothy K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005 the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) launched a national initiative that championed the importance of a twenty-first century liberal education. What was unique about this initiative was the underlying assumption that educating for personal and social responsibility was "core" for an educated citizenry and should be…

  10. Separability of Item and Person Parameters in Response Time Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses two forms of separability of item and person parameters in the context of response time models. The first is "separate sufficiency," and the second is "ranking independence." For each form a theorem stating sufficient conditions is proved. The two forms are shown to include several cases of models from psychometric and biometric…

  11. Personality, Stressful Life Events, and Treatment Response in Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulmash, Eric; Harkness, Kate L.; Stewart, Jeremy G.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined whether the personality traits of self-criticism or dependency moderated the effect of stressful life events on treatment response. Depressed outpatients (N = 113) were randomized to 16 weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, or antidepressant medication (ADM). Stressful life events were…

  12. Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility: Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinek, Tom; Hellison, Don

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of how the teaching for personal and social responsibility (TPSR) model has evolved. Its birthplace--a gym--is described where things were tried out, ideas tested, and learning about what worked and what did not work took place. Secondly, the present-day applications of the TPSR are examined--its use by a variety…

  13. Maintain workplace civility by sharing the vow of personal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Chism, Marlene

    2012-01-01

    Office gossip, power struggles, employee burnout, and short fuses are becoming more the rule than the exception in running a medical practice. The difficult conversation avoided today can turn into the lawsuit 15 years later. Managers often find it hard to confront high performers and authority figures in the workplace. In order to deal with disruptive behavior and incivility before it ruins the medical practice, practice managers should institute the four steps outlined in this article plus the Vow of Personal Responsibility to improve clarity, teamwork, and personal performance. PMID:22920029

  14. Maintain workplace civility by sharing the vow of personal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Chism, Marlene

    2012-01-01

    Office gossip, power struggles, employee burnout, and short fuses are becoming more the rule than the exception in running a medical practice. The difficult conversation avoided today can turn into the lawsuit 15 years later. Managers often find it hard to confront high performers and authority figures in the workplace. In order to deal with disruptive behavior and incivility before it ruins the medical practice, practice managers should institute the four steps outlined in this article plus the Vow of Personal Responsibility to improve clarity, teamwork, and personal performance.

  15. The acceptability of climate change in agricultural communities: comparing responses across variability and change.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Christopher M; Spoehr, John

    2013-01-30

    This study examined how the terms used to describe climate change influence landholder acceptability judgements and attitudes toward climate change at the local scale. Telephone surveys were conducted with landholders from viticultural (n = 97) or cereal growing (n = 195) backgrounds in rural South Australia. A variety of descriptive and inferential statistics were used to examine the influence of human-induced climate change and winter/spring drying trend terms on adaptation responses and uncertainties surrounding climate change science. We found that the terms used to describe climate change leads to significant differences in adaptation response and levels of scepticism surrounding climate change in rural populations. For example, those respondents who accepted human induced climate change as a reality were significantly more likely to invest in technologies to sow crops earlier or increase the amount of water stored or harvested on their properties than respondents who accepted the winter/spring drying trend as a reality. The results have implications for the targeting of climate change science messages to both rural landholders and communities of practice involved in climate change adaptation planning and implementation. PMID:23246767

  16. The acceptability of climate change in agricultural communities: comparing responses across variability and change.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Christopher M; Spoehr, John

    2013-01-30

    This study examined how the terms used to describe climate change influence landholder acceptability judgements and attitudes toward climate change at the local scale. Telephone surveys were conducted with landholders from viticultural (n = 97) or cereal growing (n = 195) backgrounds in rural South Australia. A variety of descriptive and inferential statistics were used to examine the influence of human-induced climate change and winter/spring drying trend terms on adaptation responses and uncertainties surrounding climate change science. We found that the terms used to describe climate change leads to significant differences in adaptation response and levels of scepticism surrounding climate change in rural populations. For example, those respondents who accepted human induced climate change as a reality were significantly more likely to invest in technologies to sow crops earlier or increase the amount of water stored or harvested on their properties than respondents who accepted the winter/spring drying trend as a reality. The results have implications for the targeting of climate change science messages to both rural landholders and communities of practice involved in climate change adaptation planning and implementation.

  17. Personalized privacy-preserving frequent itemset mining using randomized response.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chongjing; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Junlin; Gao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Frequent itemset mining is the important first step of association rule mining, which discovers interesting patterns from the massive data. There are increasing concerns about the privacy problem in the frequent itemset mining. Some works have been proposed to handle this kind of problem. In this paper, we introduce a personalized privacy problem, in which different attributes may need different privacy levels protection. To solve this problem, we give a personalized privacy-preserving method by using the randomized response technique. By providing different privacy levels for different attributes, this method can get a higher accuracy on frequent itemset mining than the traditional method providing the same privacy level. Finally, our experimental results show that our method can have better results on the frequent itemset mining while preserving personalized privacy.

  18. Personalized Privacy-Preserving Frequent Itemset Mining Using Randomized Response

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chongjing; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Junlin; Gao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Frequent itemset mining is the important first step of association rule mining, which discovers interesting patterns from the massive data. There are increasing concerns about the privacy problem in the frequent itemset mining. Some works have been proposed to handle this kind of problem. In this paper, we introduce a personalized privacy problem, in which different attributes may need different privacy levels protection. To solve this problem, we give a personalized privacy-preserving method by using the randomized response technique. By providing different privacy levels for different attributes, this method can get a higher accuracy on frequent itemset mining than the traditional method providing the same privacy level. Finally, our experimental results show that our method can have better results on the frequent itemset mining while preserving personalized privacy. PMID:25143989

  19. Broadening Our Understanding and Assessment of Personal and Social Responsibility: A Challenge to Researchers and Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosset, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Higher education literature has focused narrowly on social responsibility to the exclusion of personal responsibility. This chapter challenges higher education researchers and practitioners to include behaviors related to personal responsibility in their research and educational agendas.

  20. An Item Response Theory Model for Incorporating Response Time Data in Binary Personality Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a general item response theory model for personality items that allows the information provided by the item response times to be used to estimate the individual trait levels. The submodel describing the item response times is a modification of Thissen's log-linear model and is based on the distance-difficulty hypothesis in…

  1. Psychophysiological responses to competition and the big five personality traits.

    PubMed

    Binboga, Erdal; Guven, Senol; Catıkkaş, Fatih; Bayazıt, Onur; Tok, Serdar

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between psychophysiological arousal, cognitive anxiety, and personality traits in young taekwondo athletes. A total of 20 male and 10 female taekwondo athletes (mean age = 18.6 years; ± 1.8) volunteered for the study. The Five Factor Personality Inventory and the state scale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used to measure personality and cognitive state anxiety. Electrodermal activity (EDA) was measured twice, one day and approximately one hour prior to the competition, to determine psychophysiological arousal. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations, and stepwise regression were used to analyze the data. Several "Big Five" facets were related to the EDA delta scores that were measured both one day and one hour before the competition. Two stepwise regressions were conducted to examine whether personality traits could significantly predict both EDA delta scores. The final model, containing only neuroticism from the Big Five factors, can significantly explain the variations in the EDA delta scores measured one day before the competition. Agreeableness can significantly explain variations in the EDA delta scores measured one hour before the competition. No relationship was found between cognitive anxiety and the EDA delta scores measured one hour before the competition. In conclusion, personality traits, especially agreeableness and neuroticism, might be useful in understanding arousal responses to competition.

  2. Impact of Dialectical Behavior Therapy versus Community Treatment by Experts on Emotional Experience, Expression, and Acceptance in Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Neacsiu, Andrada D.; Lungu, Anita; Harned, Melanie S.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that heightened negative affectivity is a prominent feature of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) that often leads to maladaptive behaviors. Nevertheless, there is little research examining treatment effects on the experience and expression of specific negative emotions. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is an effective treatment for BPD, hypothesized to reduce negative affectivity (Linehan, 1993a). The present study analyzes secondary data from a randomized controlled trial with the aim to assess the unique effectiveness of DBT when compared to Community Treatment by Experts (CTBE) in changing the experience, expression, and acceptance of negative emotions. Suicidal and/or self-injuring women with BPD (n = 101) were randomly assigned to DBT or CTBE for one year of treatment and one year of follow-up. Several indices of emotional experience and expression were assessed. Results indicate that DBT decreased experiential avoidance and expressed anger significantly more than CTBE. No differences between DBT and CTBE were found in improving guilt, shame, anxiety, or anger suppression, trait, and control. These results suggest that DBT has unique effects on improving the expression of anger and experiential avoidance, whereas changes in the experience of specific negative emotions may be accounted for by general factors associated with expert therapy. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24418652

  3. Mothers' and Fathers' Responsive Problem Solving with Early Adolescents: Do Gender, Shyness, and Social Acceptance Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Scott R.; Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma M.

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the extent to which youths' (n = 231) shyness and social acceptance in preadolescence were associated with parents' responsive problem solving 1 year later after controlling for initial levels of parents' problem solving. Teachers (n = 176) completed assessments of youths' shyness and social acceptance, and parents (n = 231 married…

  4. Recruiting faculty with clinical responsibilities: factors that influence a decision to accept an academic position.

    PubMed

    Grauer, Gregory F

    2005-01-01

    The current opportunities for veterinary clinical specialists in private practice and industry have made recruiting and retaining faculty a major focus for most clinical academic departments. To gain a better understanding of the importance of the various factors considered in accepting an academic position, an electronic survey was distributed to newly hired veterinary faculty with clinical responsibilities. The results suggest that the perceived climate and collegiality within the prospective hiring department is the most important factor influencing the decision to accept an academic position. Salary is the second most important factor. Institutional support for the newly hired faculty member and the reputation and quality of the prospective institution rank as more important than the perceived quality of the local community and the geographic location of the institution. The search process and administrative support are the least important factors. There were no differences between the responses of faculty hired into tenure-track positions and those of faculty hired into clinical-track positions. Focusing on the advantages of a collegial environment, enhancing compensation packages, and using creative and flexible appointments may improve faculty recruitment and retention in clinical academic departments.

  5. [Independence, consciously accepted dependency, self-responsibility and shared responsibility as key categories of an ethical analysis of old age].

    PubMed

    Kruse, A

    2005-08-01

    This contribution begins with a brief introduction into some seminal problems of ethics: the search for the essential being of things, the attitude of value consciousness in the context of ethical reflections, and the reflection on models of a 'good life' and on decisions as well as actions in significant moral situations. These introductory statements are illustrated by the example of stoic philosophy. In a second step, independence, consciously accepted dependency, self-responsibility and shared responsibility are discussed as highly significant categories for an ethical analysis of all ages. However these categories must be specified with reference to specific ages. In this contribution, such a specification is carried out for old age focussing on the particular relevance of the four categories for ethical analysis. In a third step, each of the four categories is discussed in detail in the context of basic ethical approaches. In this context, ethical analysis proceeds from the perspectives of the individual, the environment, and the society. Concerning the perspective of the society special interest is offered to societal models of good life in old age which might have an impact on the potential development of a pro-aging culture and shared responsibility in older people. Moreover, these models contribute to older people's ability to use the necessary means of support in cases of dependency and to consciously accept dependency. PMID:16133757

  6. Positive Interaction of Social Comparison and Personal Responsibility for Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Grygolec, Jaroslaw; Coricelli, Giorgio; Rustichini, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    We formulate and test a model that allows sharp separation between two different ways in which environment affects evaluation of outcomes, by comparing social vs. private and personal responsibility vs. chance. In the experiment, subjects chose between two lotteries, one low-risk and one high-risk. They could then observe the outcomes. By varying the environment between private (they could observe the outcome of the chosen lottery and the outcome of the lottery they had not chosen) and social (they could observe the outcome of the lottery chosen by another subject) we can differentiate the response and brain activity following the feedback in social and private settings. The evidence suggests that envy and pride are significant motives driving decisions and outcomes evaluation, stronger than private emotions like regret and rejoice, with ventral striatum playing a key role. When we focus on the outcome evaluation stage we demonstrate that BOLD signal in ventral striatum is increasing in the difference between obtained and counterfactual payoffs. For a given difference in payoffs, striatal responses are more pronounced in social than in private environment. Moreover, a positive interaction (complementarity) between social comparison and personal responsibility is reflected in the pattern of activity in the ventral striatum. At decision stage we observe getting ahead of the Joneses effect in ventral striatum with subjective value of risk larger in social than in private environment. PMID:22371706

  7. Assessing Multimedia Influences on Student Responses Using a Personal Response System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Kyle; Owens, Katharine; Liang, Xin; Steer, David

    2012-01-01

    To date, research to date on personal response systems (clickers) has focused on external issues pertaining to the implementation of this technology or broadly measured student learning gains rather than investigating differences in the responses themselves. Multimedia learning makes use of both words and pictures, and research from cognitive…

  8. Intentional Response Distortion on Personality Tests: Using Eye-Tracking to Understand Response Processes when Faking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hooft, Edwin A. J.; Born, Marise Ph.

    2012-01-01

    Intentional response distortion or faking among job applicants completing measures such as personality and integrity tests is a concern in personnel selection. The present study aimed to investigate whether eye-tracking technology can improve our understanding of the response process when faking. In an experimental within-participants design, a…

  9. Personality traits modulate neural responses to emotions expressed in music.

    PubMed

    Park, Mona; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Bao, Yan; Carl, Petra; Pöppel, Ernst; Welker, Lorenz; Reiser, Maximilian; Meindl, Thomas; Gutyrchik, Evgeny

    2013-07-26

    Music communicates and evokes emotions. The number of studies on the neural correlates of musical emotion processing is increasing but few have investigated the factors that modulate these neural activations. Previous research has shown that personality traits account for individual variability of neural responses. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the dimensions Extraversion and Neuroticism are related to differences in brain reactivity to musical stimuli expressing the emotions happiness, sadness and fear. 12 participants (7 female, M=20.33 years) completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and were scanned while performing a passive listening task. Neurofunctional analyses revealed significant positive correlations between Neuroticism scores and activations in bilateral basal ganglia, insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to music expressing happiness. Extraversion scores were marginally negatively correlated with activations in the right amygdala in response to music expressing fear. Our findings show that subjects' personality may have a predictive power in the neural correlates of musical emotion processing and should be considered in the context of experimental group homogeneity.

  10. 29 CFR 405.8 - Personal responsibility of signatories of reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal responsibility of signatories of reports. 405.8... LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS EMPLOYER REPORTS § 405.8 Personal responsibility of signatories of... shall be personally responsible for the filing of such report and for any statement contained...

  11. 29 CFR 408.9 - Personal responsibility of signatories of reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal responsibility of signatories of reports. 408.9... LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS LABOR ORGANIZATION TRUSTEESHIP REPORTS § 408.9 Personal responsibility... personally responsible for the filing of such report and for any statement contained therein which he...

  12. 42 CFR 137.285 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a construction project agreement? 137.285 Section 137...-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a construction project agreement? Yes, under section 509 of the Act , Self-Governance Tribes must assume all...

  13. 42 CFR 137.285 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a construction project agreement? 137.285 Section 137...-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a construction project agreement? Yes, under section 509 of the Act , Self-Governance Tribes must assume all...

  14. 41 CFR 102-80.125 - Who has the responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.125 Section 102-80.125 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.125 Who has the responsibility...

  15. 41 CFR 102-80.125 - Who has the responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.125 Section 102-80.125 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.125 Who has the responsibility...

  16. 49 CFR 37.49 - Designation of responsible person(s) for intercity and commuter rail stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of responsible person(s) for intercity and commuter rail stations. 37.49 Section 37.49 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities §...

  17. Personalized E-Learning System Using Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chih-Ming, Chen; Lee, Hahn-Ming; Chen, Ya-Hui

    2005-01-01

    Personalized service is important on the Internet, especially in Web-based learning. Generally, most personalized systems consider learner preferences, interests, and browsing behaviors in providing personalized services. However, learner ability usually is neglected as an important factor in implementing personalization mechanisms. Besides, too…

  18. Personalized Medicine in the U.S. and Germany: Awareness, Acceptance, Use and Preconditions for the Wide Implementation into the Medical Standard

    PubMed Central

    Kichko, Kateryna; Marschall, Paul; Flessa, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our research was to collect comprehensive data about the public and physician awareness, acceptance and use of Personalized Medicine (PM), as well as their opinions on PM reimbursement and genetic privacy protection in the U.S. and Germany. In order to give a better overview, we compared our survey results with the results from other studies and discussed Personalized Medicine preconditions for its wide implementation into the medical standard. For the data collection, using the same methodology, we performed several surveys in Pennsylvania (U.S.) and Bavaria (Germany). Physicians were contacted via letter, while public representatives in person. Survey results, analyzed by means of descriptive and non-parametric statistic methods, have shown that awareness, acceptance, use and opinions on PM aspects in Pennsylvania and Bavaria were not significantly different. In both states there were strong concerns about genetic privacy protection and no support of one genetic database. The costs for Personalized Medicine were expected to be covered by health insurances and governmental funds. Summarizing, we came to the conclusion that for PM wide implementation there will be need to adjust the healthcare reimbursement system, as well as adopt new laws which protect against genetic misuse and simultaneously enable voluntary data provision. PMID:27144585

  19. 49 CFR 1570.7 - Fraudulent use or manufacture; responsibilities of persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fraudulent use or manufacture; responsibilities of persons. 1570.7 Section 1570.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... GENERAL RULES § 1570.7 Fraudulent use or manufacture; responsibilities of persons. (a) No person may...

  20. 49 CFR 1570.7 - Fraudulent use or manufacture; responsibilities of persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fraudulent use or manufacture; responsibilities of persons. 1570.7 Section 1570.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... GENERAL RULES § 1570.7 Fraudulent use or manufacture; responsibilities of persons. (a) No person may...

  1. 49 CFR 1570.7 - Fraudulent use or manufacture; responsibilities of persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fraudulent use or manufacture; responsibilities of persons. 1570.7 Section 1570.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... GENERAL RULES § 1570.7 Fraudulent use or manufacture; responsibilities of persons. (a) No person may...

  2. 49 CFR 1570.7 - Fraudulent use or manufacture; responsibilities of persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fraudulent use or manufacture; responsibilities of persons. 1570.7 Section 1570.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... GENERAL RULES § 1570.7 Fraudulent use or manufacture; responsibilities of persons. (a) No person may...

  3. Health research access to personal confidential data in England and Wales: assessing any gap in public attitude between preferable and acceptable models of consent.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark J; Taylor, Natasha

    2014-12-01

    England and Wales are moving toward a model of 'opt out' for use of personal confidential data in health research. Existing research does not make clear how acceptable this move is to the public. While people are typically supportive of health research, when asked to describe the ideal level of control there is a marked lack of consensus over the preferred model of consent (e.g. explicit consent, opt out etc.). This study sought to investigate a relatively unexplored difference between the consent model that people prefer and that which they are willing to accept. It also sought to explore any reasons for such acceptance.A mixed methods approach was used to gather data, incorporating a structured questionnaire and in-depth focus group discussions led by an external facilitator. The sampling strategy was designed to recruit people with different involvement in the NHS but typically with experience of NHS services. Three separate focus groups were carried out over three consecutive days.The central finding is that people are typically willing to accept models of consent other than that which they would prefer. Such acceptance is typically conditional upon a number of factors, including: security and confidentiality, no inappropriate commercialisation or detrimental use, transparency, independent overview, the ability to object to any processing considered to be inappropriate or particularly sensitive.This study suggests that most people would find research use without the possibility of objection to be unacceptable. However, the study also suggests that people who would prefer to be asked explicitly before data were used for purposes beyond direct care may be willing to accept an opt out model of consent if the reasons for not seeking explicit consent are accessible to them and they trust that data is only going to be used under conditions, and with safeguards, that they would consider to be acceptable even if not preferable.

  4. Human annoyance, acceptability and concern as responses to vibration from the construction of Light Rapid Transit lines in residential environments.

    PubMed

    Wong-McSweeney, D; Woodcock, J S; Peris, E; Waddington, D C; Moorhouse, A T; Redel-Macías, M D

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of different self-reported measures for assessing the human response to environmental vibration from the construction of an urban LRT (Light Rapid Transit) system. The human response to environmental stressors such as vibration and noise is often expressed in terms of exposure-response relationships that describe annoyance as a function of the magnitude of the vibration. These relationships are often the basis of noise and vibration policy and the setting of limit values. This paper examines measures other than annoyance by expressing exposure-response relationships for vibration in terms of self-reported concern about property damage and acceptability. The exposure-response relationships for concern about property damage and for acceptability are then compared with those for annoyance. It is shown that concern about property damage occurs at vibration levels well below those where there is any risk of damage. Earlier research indicated that concern for damage is an important moderator of the annoyance induced. Acceptability, on the other hand, might be influenced by both annoyance and concern, as well as by other considerations. It is concluded that exposure-response relationships expressing acceptability as a function of vibration exposure could usefully complement existing relationships for annoyance in future policy decisions regarding environmental vibration. The results presented in this paper are derived from data collected through a socio-vibration survey (N=321) conducted for the construction of an urban LRT in the United Kingdom. PMID:26875606

  5. Human annoyance, acceptability and concern as responses to vibration from the construction of Light Rapid Transit lines in residential environments.

    PubMed

    Wong-McSweeney, D; Woodcock, J S; Peris, E; Waddington, D C; Moorhouse, A T; Redel-Macías, M D

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of different self-reported measures for assessing the human response to environmental vibration from the construction of an urban LRT (Light Rapid Transit) system. The human response to environmental stressors such as vibration and noise is often expressed in terms of exposure-response relationships that describe annoyance as a function of the magnitude of the vibration. These relationships are often the basis of noise and vibration policy and the setting of limit values. This paper examines measures other than annoyance by expressing exposure-response relationships for vibration in terms of self-reported concern about property damage and acceptability. The exposure-response relationships for concern about property damage and for acceptability are then compared with those for annoyance. It is shown that concern about property damage occurs at vibration levels well below those where there is any risk of damage. Earlier research indicated that concern for damage is an important moderator of the annoyance induced. Acceptability, on the other hand, might be influenced by both annoyance and concern, as well as by other considerations. It is concluded that exposure-response relationships expressing acceptability as a function of vibration exposure could usefully complement existing relationships for annoyance in future policy decisions regarding environmental vibration. The results presented in this paper are derived from data collected through a socio-vibration survey (N=321) conducted for the construction of an urban LRT in the United Kingdom.

  6. Clinicians' emotional responses and Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual adult personality disorders: A clinically relevant empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Gazzillo, Francesco; Lingiardi, Vittorio; Del Corno, Franco; Genova, Federica; Bornstein, Robert F; Gordon, Robert M; McWilliams, Nancy

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between level of personality organization and type of personality disorder as assessed with the categories in the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM; PDM Task Force, 2006) and the emotional responses of treating clinicians. We asked 148 Italian clinicians to assess 1 of their adult patients in treatment for personality disorders with the Psychodiagnostic Chart (PDC; Gordon & Bornstein, 2012) and the Personality Diagnostic Prototype (PDP; Gazzillo, Lingiardi, & Del Corno, 2012) and to complete the Therapist Response Questionnaire (TRQ; Betan, Heim, Zittel-Conklin, & Westen, 2005). The patients' level of overall personality pathology was positively associated with helpless and overwhelmed responses in clinicians and negatively associated with positive emotional responses. A parental and disengaged response was associated with the depressive, anxious, and dependent personality disorders; an exclusively parental response with the phobic personality disorder; and a parental and criticized response with narcissistic disorder. Dissociative disorder evoked a helpless and parental response in the treating clinicians whereas somatizing disorder elicited a disengaged reaction. An overwhelmed and disengaged response was associated with sadistic and masochistic personality disorders, with the latter also associated with a parental and hostile/criticized reaction; an exclusively overwhelmed response with psychopathic patients; and a helpless response with paranoid patients. Finally, patients with histrionic personality disorder evoked an overwhelmed and sexualized response in their clinicians whereas there was no specific emotional reaction associated with the schizoid and the obsessive-compulsive disorders. Clinical implications of these findings were discussed.

  7. Pause for thought: response perseveration and personality in gambling.

    PubMed

    Corr, Philip J; Thompson, Stephen J

    2014-12-01

    In a sample of normal volunteers, response perseveration (RP) on a computerised gambling task, the card perseveration task, was examined under two conditions: No pause (Standard task) and a 5-s pause (Pause task) following feedback from previous bet. Behavioural outcomes comprised number of cards played (and cash won/lost) and latency of response. Individual differences in these outcomes were conceptualised in terms of the reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality. Results showed that, on the Standard task only, sub-scales of the Carver and White (J Pers Social Psychol 67:319-333, 1994) Behavioural Approach System scale positively correlated with number of cards played and amount of money lost (indicative of impaired RP), but these associations were abolished with the imposition of a 5-s pause between feedback and the opportunity to make the next bet-this pause also had an overall main effect of improving RP and reducing losses. As related research shows that such a pause normalises the RP deficit seen in pathological gamblers, these findings hold potentially valuable implications for informing practice in the prevention and treatment of pathological gambling, and point to the role played by individual differences in approach motivation. PMID:23832753

  8. Pause for thought: response perseveration and personality in gambling.

    PubMed

    Corr, Philip J; Thompson, Stephen J

    2014-12-01

    In a sample of normal volunteers, response perseveration (RP) on a computerised gambling task, the card perseveration task, was examined under two conditions: No pause (Standard task) and a 5-s pause (Pause task) following feedback from previous bet. Behavioural outcomes comprised number of cards played (and cash won/lost) and latency of response. Individual differences in these outcomes were conceptualised in terms of the reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality. Results showed that, on the Standard task only, sub-scales of the Carver and White (J Pers Social Psychol 67:319-333, 1994) Behavioural Approach System scale positively correlated with number of cards played and amount of money lost (indicative of impaired RP), but these associations were abolished with the imposition of a 5-s pause between feedback and the opportunity to make the next bet-this pause also had an overall main effect of improving RP and reducing losses. As related research shows that such a pause normalises the RP deficit seen in pathological gamblers, these findings hold potentially valuable implications for informing practice in the prevention and treatment of pathological gambling, and point to the role played by individual differences in approach motivation.

  9. Harmonizing professional, personal, and social responsibilities: Indian women dentists' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nagda, Suhasini Jayantilal

    2015-05-01

    Women in Indian culture have a paradoxical status: on the one hand, goddesses are worshipped for power and prosperity; on the other hand, working women face challenges due to age-old beliefs and sociocultural norms. With 60% of the students enrolled in undergraduate dental education currently being women, there is a need to study the challenges these women are facing and how they tackle them. The aim of this survey study was to assess the barriers women dentists face in career advancement and how successfully they balance the personal, professional, and social aspects of their lives. Questionnaires, consisting of four qualitative and 24 quantitative items, were distributed to 500 women dentists: postgraduate residents and faculty members in dental colleges of Mumbai and Navi Mumbai, as well as private dental practitioners. Of the 500 women, 210 returned the survey, for an overall response rate of 42%. The results showed that 95% of the respondents believed they successfully balance the various spheres of their lives, but the most common challenges they faced continued to be traditional gender bias, dual professional and home responsibilities, and preconceived ideas about women.

  10. Delinquency and Peer Acceptance in Adolescence: A Within-Person Test of Moffitt's Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rulison, Kelly L.; Kreager, Derek A.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    We tested 2 hypotheses derived from Moffitt's (1993) taxonomic theory of antisocial behavior, both of which are central to her explanation for the rise in delinquency during adolescence. We tested whether persistently delinquent individuals become more accepted by their peers during adolescence and whether individuals who abstain from…

  11. A Study of the Relationship between Personality Types and the Acceptance of Technical Knowledge Management Systems (TKMS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Maureen S.

    2012-01-01

    Technical knowledge management systems (TKMSs) are not achieving the usage (acceptance) and the benefits that have been forecasted and are therefore, not enhancing competitive advantage and profits in organizations (Comb, 2004, "Assessing customer relationship management strategies for creating competitive advantage in electronic…

  12. Social responses to expressive suppression: The role of personality judgments.

    PubMed

    Tackman, Allison M; Srivastava, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    Why do people who suppress their emotion-expressive behavior have difficulty forming close, supportive relationships? Previous studies have found that suppression disrupts the dynamics of social interactions and existing relationships. We evaluated a complementary hypothesis: that suppression functions as a behavioral cue leading others to form negative personality impressions of suppressors, even at zero-acquaintance. In 2 studies, participants reported personality judgments and other impressions of targets who either suppressed or expressed their emotion-expressive behavior in response to amusing or sad film clips. In findings replicated across studies, targets who suppressed either amusement or sadness were judged as less extraverted, less agreeable, and more interpersonally avoidant and anxious than targets who expressed emotions, and participants were less interested in affiliating with suppressors compared with expressers. Effects were amplified when targets suppressed amusement (compared with sadness) and when participants knew the emotional context (compared with when they did not) and, thus, could form expectations about what emotions targets should be showing. Extraversion and agreeableness judgments mediated the effect of suppression on participants' disinterest in affiliating. In Study 2, which extended Study 1 in several ways, effects were pronounced for the enthusiasm aspect of extraversion and the compassion aspect of agreeableness. We also found evidence that judgments of suppressors do not simply fall between neutral and fully expressing targets; rather, judgments of suppressors are qualitatively different. We discuss implications for understanding the social consequences of emotion regulation-in particular, how beyond disrupting relationships, suppression may prevent some relationships from even forming in the first place.

  13. Social responses to expressive suppression: The role of personality judgments.

    PubMed

    Tackman, Allison M; Srivastava, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    Why do people who suppress their emotion-expressive behavior have difficulty forming close, supportive relationships? Previous studies have found that suppression disrupts the dynamics of social interactions and existing relationships. We evaluated a complementary hypothesis: that suppression functions as a behavioral cue leading others to form negative personality impressions of suppressors, even at zero-acquaintance. In 2 studies, participants reported personality judgments and other impressions of targets who either suppressed or expressed their emotion-expressive behavior in response to amusing or sad film clips. In findings replicated across studies, targets who suppressed either amusement or sadness were judged as less extraverted, less agreeable, and more interpersonally avoidant and anxious than targets who expressed emotions, and participants were less interested in affiliating with suppressors compared with expressers. Effects were amplified when targets suppressed amusement (compared with sadness) and when participants knew the emotional context (compared with when they did not) and, thus, could form expectations about what emotions targets should be showing. Extraversion and agreeableness judgments mediated the effect of suppression on participants' disinterest in affiliating. In Study 2, which extended Study 1 in several ways, effects were pronounced for the enthusiasm aspect of extraversion and the compassion aspect of agreeableness. We also found evidence that judgments of suppressors do not simply fall between neutral and fully expressing targets; rather, judgments of suppressors are qualitatively different. We discuss implications for understanding the social consequences of emotion regulation-in particular, how beyond disrupting relationships, suppression may prevent some relationships from even forming in the first place. PMID:26280841

  14. Effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on consumer acceptance of fruit juices with different concentrations of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    PubMed

    Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar açaí fruit juices that have a low (40% açaí) versus a high (4% açaí) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented. Differences in information effects due to interactions with juice type, consumer background attitudes and socio-demographics were investigated. Providing health information yielded a positive, though rather small increase, in overall liking, perceived healthiness and perceived nutritional value of both juices, as well as in their purchase intention. Sensory experiences remained predominant in the acceptance of the fruit juices, although the health claim had a stronger effect on the perceived healthiness and nutritional value of the least-liked juice. Background attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics influenced consumers' acceptance of both unfamiliar fruit juices. Health-oriented consumers were more likely to compromise on taste for an eventual health benefit, though they still preferred the best tasting juice. Consumers with a high food neophobia reported a lower liking for both unfamiliar fruit juices. Older respondents and women were more likely to accept fruit juices that claim a particular health benefit. PMID:19467277

  15. 25 CFR 502.18 - Person having management responsibility for a management contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.18 Person having management responsibility for a... designated by the management contract as having management responsibility for the gaming operation, or a... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Person having management responsibility for a...

  16. From personal tragedy to personal challenge: responses to stigma among sober living home residents and operators

    PubMed Central

    Heslin, Kevin C.; Singzon, Trudy; Aimiuwu, Otaren; Sheridan, Dave; Hamilton, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Sober living homes for people attempting to maintain abstinence from alcohol and drugs can act as a buffer against the high rates of substance misuse that are endemic to many urban environments. Sober living homes and other group homes for people with disabilities have faced persistent opposition from neighborhood associations, which raises the question of stigma. This article describes the responses of sober living home residents and operators to the threat of stigma across a diverse set of neighborhoods. Ten focus groups were conducted with 68 residents and operators of 35 sober living homes in Los Angeles County, California, between January 2009 and March 2010. Results showed that few residents reported experiences of blatant stigmatization by neighbors; however, they were well aware of the stereotypes that could be ascribed to them. Despite this potential stigma, residents developed valued identities as helpers in their communities, providing advice to neighbors whose family or friends had substance use problems, and organizing community service activities to improve the appearance of their neighborhoods. With their attention to local context, sober living home residents and operators challenge the personal tragedy approach of much traditional advocacy on health-related stigma. PMID:21707663

  17. Physiologic Responses Produced by Active and Passive Personal Cooling Vests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Lee, Hank C.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Luna, Bernadette

    2000-01-01

    Personal thermoregulatory systems which provide chest cooling are used in the industrial and aerospace environments to alleviate thermal stress. However, little information is available regarding the physiologic and circulatory changes produced by routine operation of these systems. The objectives of this study were to document and compare the subjects' response to three cooling vests in their recommended configurations. The Life Enhancement Tech (LET) lightweight active cooling vest with cap, the MicroClimate Systems Change of Phase garment (MCS), and the Steele Vest were each used to cool the chest regions of 12 male and 8 female Healthy subjects (21 to 69 yr.) in this study. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approx. 22 C), were tested for 60 min. with one of the cooling garments. The LET active garment had an initial coolant fluid inlet temperature of 60 F, and was ramped down to 50 F. Oral, right and left ear canal temperatures were logged manually every 5 min. Arm, leg, chest and rectal temperatures; heart rate; and respiration were recorded continuously on a U.F.I., Inc. Biolog ambulatory monitor. For men, all three vests had similar, significant cooling effects. Decreases in the average rectal temperature, oral temperature, and ear canal temperatures were approximately 0.2 C, 0.2 C and 0.1 C, respectively. In contrast to the men, the female subjects wearing the MCS and Steel vests had similar cooling responses in which the core temperature remained elevated and oral and ear canal temperatures did not drop. The LET active garment cooled most of the female subjects in this study; rectal, oral and ear temperature decreased about 0.2 C, 0.3 C and 0.3 C, respectively. These results show that the garment configurations tested do not elicit a similar thermal response in all subjects. A gender difference is evident. The LET active garment configuration was most effective in decreasing temperatures of the female subjects; the MCS

  18. "Not Only Satisfied and Responsible, but Also Hopeful": Prospective Teachers' Career Choice Satisfaction, Hope, and Personal Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eren, Altay

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the relationships between prospective teachers' career choice satisfaction, hope, and sense of personal responsibility, with the intention of exploring the mediating role of hope in the relationship between career choice satisfaction and sense of personal responsibility. A total of 563 prospective teachers…

  19. Assessing Multimedia Influences on Student Responses Using a Personal Response System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Kyle; Owens, Katharine; Liang, Xin; Steer, David

    2012-06-01

    To date, research to date on personal response systems (clickers) has focused on external issues pertaining to the implementation of this technology or broadly measured student learning gains rather than investigating differences in the responses themselves. Multimedia learning makes use of both words and pictures, and research from cognitive psychology suggests that using both words and illustrations improves student learning. This study analyzed student response data from 561 students taking an introductory earth science course to determine whether including an illustration in a clicker question resulted in a higher percentage of correct responses than questions that did not include a corresponding illustration. Questions on topics pertaining to the solid earth were categorized as illustrated questions if they contained a picture, or graph and text- only if the question only contained text. For each type of question, we calculated the percentage of correct responses for each student and compared the results to student ACT-reading, math, and science scores. A within-groups, repeated measures analysis of covariance with instructor as the covariate yielded no significant differences between the percentage of correct responses to either the text-only or the illustrated questions. Similar non-significant differences were obtained when students were grouped into quartiles according to their ACT-reading, -math, and -science scores. These results suggest that the way in which a conceptest question is written does not affect student responses and supports the claim that conceptest questions are a valid formative assessment tool.

  20. Integrating Telemedicine for Disaster Response: Testing the Emergency Telemedicine Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Theresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is little evidence that technology acceptance is well understood in healthcare. The hospital environment is complex and dynamic creating a challenge when new technology is introduced because it impacts current processes and workflows which can significantly affect patient care delivery and outcomes. This study tested the effect…

  1. How are personality judgments made? A cognitive model of reference group effects, personality scale responses, and behavioral reactions.

    PubMed

    Wood, Alex M; Brown, Gordon D A; Maltby, John; Watkinson, Pat

    2012-10-01

    This article suggests that personality judgments are wholly relative, being the outcome of a comparison of a given individual to a reference group of others. The underlying comparison processes are the same as those used to judge psychophysical stimuli (as outlined by range frequency theory and decision by sampling accounts). Five experimental studies show that the same person's personality is rated differently depending on how his or her behavior (a) ranks within a reference group and (b) falls within the overall range of behavior shown by other reference group members. Results were invariant across stimulus type and response options (7-point Likert scale, 990-point allocation task, or dichotomous choice). Simulated occupational scenarios led participants to give different-sized bonuses and employ different people as a function of context. Future research should note that personality judgments (as in self-report personality scales) only represent perceived standing relative to others or alternatively should measure personality through behavior or biological reactivity. Personality judgments cannot be used to compare different populations when the population participants have different reference groups (as in cross-cultural research).

  2. Creating and Assessing Campus Climates That Support Personal and Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reason, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Robert D. Reason defines personal and social responsibility as a five-component outcome of college, presents a case for thinking about educating for personal and social responsibility through the lens of campus climate that eschews the hunt for a single intervention, and encourages the marshaling of multiple resources in multiple…

  3. Educational Reform Related to Personal and Social Responsibility: The Case of Core Commitments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Chris R.; O'Neill, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Fostering students' personal and social responsibility is central to the historical purposes of liberal education and a key emphasis of many campus mission statements. Despite widespread agreement among faculty and administrators about fostering students' personal and social responsibility, national surveys suggest that many do not believe that…

  4. 29 CFR 406.7 - Personal responsibility of signatories of reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal responsibility of signatories of reports. 406.7... AGREEMENTS WITH EMPLOYERS § 406.7 Personal responsibility of signatories of reports. Each individual required... for any statement contained therein which he knows to be false....

  5. 29 CFR 402.8 - Personal responsibility of signatories of reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal responsibility of signatories of reports. 402.8... LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS LABOR ORGANIZATION INFORMATION REPORTS § 402.8 Personal responsibility... statement contained therein which he knows to be false....

  6. Merging Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility with Sport Education: A Marriage Made in Heaven or Hell?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Barrie

    2009-01-01

    Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) is a pedagogical approach to the teaching of physical education that has been developed with the intention of helping students to become more personally and socially responsible. One prominent model that appears to be almost a natural partner to TPSR within physical education is that of Sport…

  7. Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility and Transfer of Learning: Opportunities and Challenges for Teachers and Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Barrie; Doyle, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The transfer of learning from the gym to other areas of participants' lives has always been a core component of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model. The degree to which transfer of learning is successfully facilitated in the reality of Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model-based teaching and coaching is, however,…

  8. Use of Personal Response Systems in Higher Education--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Or-Bach, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The study reported in this paper involved the employment of specially designed learning activities based on the use of a Personal Response System (PRS). Instructors in variety of disciplines are increasingly using personal response systems to increase participation, engagement and active learning. Most studies stress the benefits of using a PRS…

  9. 46 CFR 197.525 - Responsibility of the person in charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibility of the person in charge. 197.525 Section 197.525 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.525 Responsibility of the person in...

  10. 46 CFR 197.525 - Responsibility of the person in charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibility of the person in charge. 197.525 Section 197.525 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.525 Responsibility of the person in...

  11. 46 CFR 197.525 - Responsibility of the person in charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibility of the person in charge. 197.525 Section 197.525 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.525 Responsibility of the person in...

  12. 46 CFR 197.525 - Responsibility of the person in charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibility of the person in charge. 197.525 Section 197.525 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.525 Responsibility of the person in...

  13. 46 CFR 197.525 - Responsibility of the person in charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibility of the person in charge. 197.525 Section 197.525 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.525 Responsibility of the person in...

  14. 46 CFR 109.109 - Responsibilities of master or person in charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities of master or person in charge. 109.109 Section 109.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS General § 109.109 Responsibilities of master or person in charge. (a) The...

  15. 46 CFR 109.109 - Responsibilities of master or person in charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities of master or person in charge. 109.109 Section 109.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS General § 109.109 Responsibilities of master or person in charge. (a) The...

  16. 46 CFR 109.109 - Responsibilities of master or person in charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibilities of master or person in charge. 109.109 Section 109.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS General § 109.109 Responsibilities of master or person in charge. (a) The...

  17. 46 CFR 109.109 - Responsibilities of master or person in charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities of master or person in charge. 109.109 Section 109.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS General § 109.109 Responsibilities of master or person in charge. (a) The...

  18. 46 CFR 109.109 - Responsibilities of master or person in charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities of master or person in charge. 109.109 Section 109.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS General § 109.109 Responsibilities of master or person in charge. (a) The...

  19. Women with borderline personality disorder do not show altered BOLD responses during response inhibition.

    PubMed

    van Eijk, Julia; Sebastian, Alexandra; Krause-Utz, Annegret; Cackowski, Sylvia; Demirakca, Traute; Biedermann, Sarah V; Lieb, Klaus; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian; Ende, Gabriele; Tüscher, Oliver

    2015-12-30

    Impulsivity is central to borderline personality disorder (BPD). Response inhibition, addressing the ability to suppress or stop actions, is one aspect of behavioral impulse control which is frequently used to assess impulsivity. BPD patients display deficits in response inhibition under stress condition or negative emotions. We assessed whether response inhibition and its neural underpinnings are impaired in BPD when tested in an emotionally neutral setting and when co-morbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is excluded. To this end, we studied response inhibition in unmedicated BPD patients and healthy controls (HC) in two independent samples using functional magnetic resonance imaging during Simon-, Go/nogo-, and Stopsignal tasks. BPD patients and HC did not differ significantly in their performance in the Go/nogo and the Stopsignal tasks. Response interference in the Simon task was increased in BPD patients in one sample, but this could not be replicated in the second sample. In both samples, no significant differences in brain activation patterns during any of the tasks were present while the neural impulse control network was robustly activated during the inhibition tasks in both groups. Our results provide evidence that under emotionally neutral conditions response inhibition is not impaired in patients with BPD without co-occurring ADHD. PMID:26483213

  20. Personality.

    PubMed

    Funder, D C

    2001-01-01

    Personality psychology is as active today as at any point in its history. The classic psychoanalytic and trait paradigms are active areas of research, the behaviorist paradigm has evolved into a new social-cognitive paradigm, and the humanistic paradigm is a basis of current work on cross-cultural psychology. Biology and evolutionary theory have also attained the status of new paradigms for personality. Three challenges for the next generation of research are to integrate these disparate approaches to personality (particularly the trait and social-cognitive paradigms), to remedy the imbalance in the person-situation-behavior triad by conceptualizing the basic properties of situations and behaviors, and to add to personality psychology's thin inventory of basic facts concerning the relations between personality and behavior.

  1. Can personality traits predict pathological responses to audiovisual stimulation?

    PubMed

    Yambe, Tomoyuki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Fukudo, Shin; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Shizuka, Kazuhiko; Nanka, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Akira; Abe, Ken-ichi; Shouji, Tomonori; Hongo, Michio; Tabayashi, Kouichi; Nitta, Shin-ichi

    2003-10-01

    The "Pockemon shock" is the most famous accident in the history of the broadcasting industry in Japan. Based on the experiences of this unfortunate accident from famous animation program "Pocket Monster", this study focused on the psychology and psychosomatics of the patients. A head-mounted display was used as the three-dimensional image presentation device and "Descent", a free software shooting game, was used as the software. Ten healthy adult male volunteers were used in this experiment after obtaining their informed consent. The oxygen metabolic change in the anterior lobe of the brain was measured by near infrared spectroscopy and recorded on an electrocardiogram. The mental scaling tendency of the object was analyzed using the type A behavior pattern and the hostility scaling. The Cook and Medley hostility (HO) scale from the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) was also used in this experiment. From this scaling methodology, the paranoid scale, cynicism scale, lie scale, social support quality and social support quantity were calculated. All measured time series data were kept in the normal range, and no fatal arrhythmia or epilepsy were observed during experiments. In some cases, the brain oxygen metabolism may completely differ for the objects of Type A and Type B behavior patterns. On the whole, correlation did not become significant in type A scaling and hostility scaling. In a comparison of the percent changes of the HF in HRV with lie scaling, significant negative correlation was observed. The social support quantity was calculated from Cook and Medley, and significant negative correlations were observed with percent changes of LF/HF in HRV. The lie scale and social support quantity are opposite scaling. The sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system have an opposite function also. Therefore, our results showed an interesting phenomenon, when considering the relationship between the autonomic function and the

  2. Can personality traits predict pathological responses to audiovisual stimulation?

    PubMed

    Yambe, Tomoyuki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Fukudo, Shin; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Shizuka, Kazuhiko; Nanka, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Akira; Abe, Ken-ichi; Shouji, Tomonori; Hongo, Michio; Tabayashi, Kouichi; Nitta, Shin-ichi

    2003-10-01

    The "Pockemon shock" is the most famous accident in the history of the broadcasting industry in Japan. Based on the experiences of this unfortunate accident from famous animation program "Pocket Monster", this study focused on the psychology and psychosomatics of the patients. A head-mounted display was used as the three-dimensional image presentation device and "Descent", a free software shooting game, was used as the software. Ten healthy adult male volunteers were used in this experiment after obtaining their informed consent. The oxygen metabolic change in the anterior lobe of the brain was measured by near infrared spectroscopy and recorded on an electrocardiogram. The mental scaling tendency of the object was analyzed using the type A behavior pattern and the hostility scaling. The Cook and Medley hostility (HO) scale from the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) was also used in this experiment. From this scaling methodology, the paranoid scale, cynicism scale, lie scale, social support quality and social support quantity were calculated. All measured time series data were kept in the normal range, and no fatal arrhythmia or epilepsy were observed during experiments. In some cases, the brain oxygen metabolism may completely differ for the objects of Type A and Type B behavior patterns. On the whole, correlation did not become significant in type A scaling and hostility scaling. In a comparison of the percent changes of the HF in HRV with lie scaling, significant negative correlation was observed. The social support quantity was calculated from Cook and Medley, and significant negative correlations were observed with percent changes of LF/HF in HRV. The lie scale and social support quantity are opposite scaling. The sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system have an opposite function also. Therefore, our results showed an interesting phenomenon, when considering the relationship between the autonomic function and the

  3. Public Acceptance of Wildland Fire and Fuel Management: Panel Responses in Seven Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toman, Eric; Shindler, Bruce; McCaffrey, Sarah; Bennett, James

    2014-09-01

    Wildland fire affects both public and private resources throughout the United States. A century of fire suppression has contributed to changing ecological conditions and accumulated fuel loads. Managers have used a variety of approaches to address these conditions and reduce the likelihood of wildland fires that may result in adverse ecological impacts and threaten communities. Public acceptance is a critical component of developing and implementing successful management programs. This study examines the factors that influence citizen support for agency fuel reduction treatments over time—particularly prescribed fire and mechanical vegetation removal. This paper presents findings from a longitudinal study examining resident beliefs and attitudes regarding fire management and fuels treatments in seven states: Arizona, Colorado, Oregon, Utah, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. The study was implemented in two phases over a 6-year period using mail surveys to residents of communities adjacent to federal lands in each location. Questions replicated measures from the original project as well as some new items to allow a more in-depth analysis of key concepts. The study design enables comparisons over time as well as between locations. We also assess the factors that influence acceptance of both prescribed fire and mechanical vegetation removal. Findings demonstrate a relative stability of attitudes toward fuels management approaches over time and suggest that this acceptance is strongly influenced by confidence in resource managers and beliefs that the treatments would result in positive outcomes.

  4. Personal responsibility or shared responsibility: What is the appropriate role of the law in obesity prevention?

    PubMed

    Brooks, Benjamin

    2015-09-01

    Sensitive to allegations of "nanny state" paternalism, Australian governments support the doctrine that combating obesity is a matter of personal responsibility. Policy-makers endorse the "holistic" approach to obesity prevention, with a view to managing both sides of the nutritional energy equation. This paradigm allows the food and drinks industry to deflect its contributory responsibility for the epidemic and to avoid more stringent regulatory intervention beyond existing self-regulatory and corporate social responsibility regimes. This article argues that the industry must bear shared responsibility for the extent of the obesity crisis, although it cannot bear sole responsibility It defends the public interest case for more invasive, government-led regulation, reframing the crisis as one of public not individual burdens. Mindful of the political risk associated with unfocused calls for regulatory intervention, it articulates a set of regulatory principles to ensure that the interests of consumers and industry are properly acknowledged prior to further regulatory intervention. Finally, the article clarifies the subject, object and content of possible regulatory initiatives, offering an evaluation of their efficacy, practicality and fairness.

  5. Personal responsibility or shared responsibility: What is the appropriate role of the law in obesity prevention?

    PubMed

    Brooks, Benjamin

    2015-09-01

    Sensitive to allegations of "nanny state" paternalism, Australian governments support the doctrine that combating obesity is a matter of personal responsibility. Policy-makers endorse the "holistic" approach to obesity prevention, with a view to managing both sides of the nutritional energy equation. This paradigm allows the food and drinks industry to deflect its contributory responsibility for the epidemic and to avoid more stringent regulatory intervention beyond existing self-regulatory and corporate social responsibility regimes. This article argues that the industry must bear shared responsibility for the extent of the obesity crisis, although it cannot bear sole responsibility It defends the public interest case for more invasive, government-led regulation, reframing the crisis as one of public not individual burdens. Mindful of the political risk associated with unfocused calls for regulatory intervention, it articulates a set of regulatory principles to ensure that the interests of consumers and industry are properly acknowledged prior to further regulatory intervention. Finally, the article clarifies the subject, object and content of possible regulatory initiatives, offering an evaluation of their efficacy, practicality and fairness. PMID:26554202

  6. Personalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca Martin

    1996-01-01

    Describes how a typical high school in Huntington Beach, California, curbed disruptive student behavior by personalizing the school experience for "problem" students. Through mostly volunteer efforts, an adopt-a-kid program was initiated that matched kids' learning styles to adults' personality styles and resulted in fewer suspensions and numerous…

  7. Response of the μ-opioid system to social rejection and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Hsu, D T; Sanford, B J; Meyers, K K; Love, T M; Hazlett, K E; Wang, H; Ni, L; Walker, S J; Mickey, B J; Korycinski, S T; Koeppe, R A; Crocker, J K; Langenecker, S A; Zubieta, J-K

    2013-11-01

    The endogenous opioid system, which alleviates physical pain, is also known to regulate social distress and reward in animal models. To test this hypothesis in humans (n=18), we used an μ-opioid receptor (MOR) radiotracer to measure changes in MOR availability in vivo with positron emission tomography during social rejection (not being liked by others) and acceptance (being liked by others). Social rejection significantly activated the MOR system (i.e., reduced receptor availability relative to baseline) in the ventral striatum, amygdala, midline thalamus and periaqueductal gray (PAG). This pattern of activation is consistent with the hypothesis that the endogenous opioids have a role in reducing the experience of social pain. Greater trait resiliency was positively correlated with MOR activation during rejection in the amygdala, PAG and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), suggesting that MOR activation in these areas is protective or adaptive. In addition, MOR activation in the pregenual ACC was correlated with reduced negative affect during rejection. In contrast, social acceptance resulted in MOR activation in the amygdala and anterior insula, and MOR deactivation in the midline thalamus and sgACC. In the left ventral striatum, MOR activation during acceptance predicted a greater desire for social interaction, suggesting a role for the MOR system in social reward. The ventral striatum, amygdala, midline thalamus, PAG, anterior insula and ACC are rich in MORs and comprise a pathway by which social cues may influence mood and motivation. MOR regulation of this pathway may preserve and promote emotional well being in the social environment. PMID:23958960

  8. Measuring Campus Climate for Personal and Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Andrew J.; Mitchell, Joshua J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding institutional climate enhances decision-making capacity when planning new programs and improving learning environments on college campuses. This chapter defines climate, discusses the purpose and advantages of climate assessment, and identifies important factors to consider in planning and conducting a personal and social…

  9. Personality and treatment response in agoraphobia with panic attacks.

    PubMed

    Clair, A L; Oei, T P; Evans, L

    1992-01-01

    The present study investigated the association of specific personality characteristics with agoraphobia, and whether they predicted long-term outcome following a group cognitive behavior therapy program. Thirty-three patients with agoraphobia with panic attacks, 18 with social phobia, and 26 "normals" were used in the study. Personality factors were measured with the Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI), the Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ), and the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior Scale (FIRO-B). The results showed that (1) agoraphobics are more extroverted and more likely to include others in their activities than are social phobics; however, they are less extroverted, more neurotic, more hostile and intropunitive, and less likely to include others in their activities than are normals; (2) social phobics are similarly less extroverted, more neurotic, and more hostile and intropunitive than normals, but, in addition, are less likely to exert control over others, more likely to want to be controlled, and less expressive of affection than normals; and (3) personality characteristics did not predict treatment outcome.

  10. Acceptance and commitment therapy-based self-management versus psychoeducation training for staff caring for clients with a personality disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Sue; Taylor, Georgina; Lancaster, Joanna; Remington, Bob

    2015-04-01

    People diagnosed with a personality disorder (PD) are often a stigmatized patient group. This can affect the care they receive, their progression, and the well-being of staff caring for them. Interventions targeted at health care professionals that aim to improve attitudes toward these patients and improve staff well-being do exist; however, evidence for their effectiveness is limited. The present study compared a self-management, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-based training intervention (ACTr) with a Psychoeducation Training (PETr) intervention in their effectiveness in improving attitudes toward PD patients, staff-patient relations, and staff well-being. Both interventions were successful at improving attitudes and measures of staff-patient relations up to 6 months after training; however, staff well-being did not change for either group. The implications for staff training and future research are discussed.

  11. 29 CFR 403.6 - Personal responsibility of signatories of reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal responsibility of signatories of reports. 403.6... LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS LABOR ORGANIZATION ANNUAL FINANCIAL REPORTS § 403.6 Personal... statement contained therein which he knows to be false....

  12. 29 CFR 404.6 - Personal responsibility of signatories of reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal responsibility of signatories of reports. 404.6... LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS LABOR ORGANIZATION OFFICER AND EMPLOYEE REPORTS § 404.6 Personal... such report and for any statement contained therein which he knows to be false....

  13. Active Support Is Person-Centred by Definition: A Response to Harman and Sanderson (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Edwin; Lowe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to Harman and Sanderson (2008) who address the important question of how person-centred active support is. The authors' intention is not to disagree with Harman and Sanderson's general point that combining active support (AS) with person-centred planning (PCP) is better than either approach being…

  14. Concordance between Preservice Teachers' Personal Responsibilities and Intended Instructional Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Lia M.; Radil, Amanda; Wagner, Amanda K.

    2016-01-01

    During their education, preservice teachers begin to assume professional responsibilities and gain pedagogical knowledge. However, the question remains whether preservice teachers intend to use instructional practices that are effective in meeting their assumed responsibilities. Thus, we examined the concordance between preservice teachers'…

  15. Educating for Personal and Social Responsibility: Levers for Building Collective Institutional Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a set of lessons learned from a national project on education for personal and social responsibility that can be adopted across a variety of specific institutional contexts and missions.

  16. Methadone Maintenance for HIV Positive and HIV Negative Patients in Kyiv: Acceptability and Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    Dvoriak, Sergii; Karachevsky, Andrey; Chhatre, Sumedha; Booth, Robert; Metzger, David; Schumacher, Joseph; Chychula, Nina; Pecoraro, Anna; Woody, George

    2014-01-01

    Background With up to 40% of opioid injectors infected with HIV, Ukraine has one of the most concentrated HIV epidemics in the world, mainly due to unsterile injection practices and a historical absence of effective prevention services. Harm reduction programs, including syringe exchange and a small buprenorphine treatment program, were introduced in 2004 and methadone maintenance was allowed in 2007. Despite an initial expansion, by 2009, only 3221 injectors were receiving methadone treatment. A growing body of research on methadone maintenance has found high retention rates with reduction in opioid use and HIV risk behaviors. We report on the acceptability and initial outcome of methadone treatment as a function of HIV status, an issue that has not yet been reported for injectors in Ukraine. Methods Longitudinal observational study of a 12-week course of methadone treatment in 25 HIV+ and 25 HIV− opioid addicted individuals recruited from a harm reduction program and the city AIDS Center. Drug use and HIV risk were assessed at baseline and weeks 4, 8, 12 and 20; all patients were offered continued methadone maintenance in the Kyiv city program at the end of 12 weeks. Results Fifty-four individuals were asked if they were interested in the study and 50, demographically similar to other samples of opioid addicted Ukrainians, agreed to participate. Two died of non-study related causes; the other 48 completed assessments at weeks 4, 8 and 12, and 47 completed followups at week 20. Significant reductions were seen in use of heroin (p<. 0001), other opiates/analgesics (p< 0.0001), and HIV risk behaviors (drug, sex, total; all p <0.0001). All 48 patients chose to continue methadone after the 12-weeks of study medication ended. Unlike most opioid treatment studies, sexual risk was somewhat higher than injecting risk at study intake. Conclusions Methadone maintenance was well accepted by HIV+ and HIV− opioid dependent individuals and has the potential for significant

  17. What Responsibilities Should Teachers Accept? Stirling Educational Seminar Papers No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Donald

    1979-01-01

    Five value-laden levels of increasing responsibility are outlined as criteria applied to teacher's own activities; students' overt classroom behavior; comprehension and attitudes; abilities acquired by students; and future characteristics of students. Knowledge available to a teacher and working conditions influence level choice more than teacher…

  18. Use of structured personality survey techniques to indicate operator response to stressful situations

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Under given circumstances, a person will tend to operate in one of four dominant orientations: (1) to perform tasks; (2) to achieve consensus; (3) to achieve understanding, or (4) to maintain structure. Historically, personality survey techniques, such as the Myers-Briggs type indicator, have been used to determine these tendencies. While these techniques can accurately reflect a person's orientation under normal social situations, under different sets of conditions, the same person may exhibit other tendencies, displaying a similar or entirely different orientation. While most do not exhibit extreme tendencies or changes of orientation, the shift in personality from normal to stressful conditions can be rather dramatic, depending on the individual. Structured personality survey techniques have been used to indicate operator response to stressful situations. These techniques have been extended to indicate the balance between orientations that the control room team has through the various levels of cognizance.

  19. Integrating Competing Dimensional Models of Personality: Linking the SNAP, TCI, and NEO Using Item Response Theory

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Yu, Lan; Miller, Joshua D.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Trull, Timothy J.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that several inventories assessing both normal personality and personality disorders measure common dimensional personality traits (i.e., Antagonism, Constraint, Emotional Instability, Extraversion, and Unconventionality), albeit providing unique information along the underlying trait continuum. We used Widiger and Simonsen’s (2005) pantheoretical integrative model of dimensional personality assessment as a guide to create item pools. We then used Item Response Theory (IRT) to compare the assessment of these five personality traits across three established dimensional measures of personality: the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). We found that items from each inventory map onto these five common personality traits in predictable ways. The IRT analyses, however, documented considerable variability in the item and test information derived from each inventory. Our findings support the notion that the integration of multiple perspectives will provide greater information about personality while minimizing the weaknesses of any single instrument. PMID:22452759

  20. The BCN Challenge to Compatibilist Free Will and Personal Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Sie, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    Many philosophers ignore developments in the behavioral, cognitive, and neurosciences that purport to challenge our ideas of free will and responsibility. The reason for this is that the challenge is often framed as a denial of the idea that we are able to act differently than we do. However, most philosophers think that the ability to do otherwise is irrelevant to responsibility and free will. Rather it is our ability to act for reasons that is crucial. We argue that the scientific findings indicate that it is not so obvious that our views of free will and responsibility can be grounded in the ability to act for reasons without introducing metaphysical obscurities. This poses a challenge to philosophers. We draw the conclusion that philosophers are wrong not to address the recent scientific developments and that scientists are mistaken in formulating their challenge in terms of the freedom to do otherwise. PMID:21124755

  1. The relationship between hearing aid frequency response and acceptable noise level in patients with sensorineural hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Jalilvand, Hamid; Pourbakht, Akram; Jalaee, Shohreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: When fitting hearing aid as a compensatory device for an impaired cochlea in a patient with sensorineural hearing loss (HL), it is needed to the effective and efficient frequency response would be selected regarding providing the patient's perfect speech perception. There is not any research about the effects of frequency modifications on speech perception in patients with HL regarding the cochlear desensitization. The effect (s) of modifications in frequency response of hearing aid amplification on the results of acceptable noise level (ANL) test is the main aim of this study. Materials and Methods: The amounts of ANL in two conditions of linear amplification (high frequency emphasis [HFE] and mid frequency emphasis [MFE]) were measured. Thirty-two male subjects who participated in this study had the moderate to severe sensorineural HL. Results: There was not any significant difference between ANL in linear amplification of hearing aid with HFE frequency response and ANL in linear amplification of hearing aid with MFE frequency response. Conclusion: The gain modification of frequency response not only does not affect the patient's performance of speech intelligibility in ANL test. This indicates that we need to note to the cochlear desensitization phenomenon when fitting hearing aid as a compensatory device for an impaired cochlea in a patient. The cochlear desensitization has not been considered properly in hearing aid fitting formula which is needed to be explored more about the bio-mechanisms of impaired cochlea. PMID:26918238

  2. From the Teachers Professional Ethics to the Personal Professional Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seghedin, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Following the idea of civic responsibility of all adults for the new generation, we have tried, in different previous studies, to demonstrate that teaching is involving a lot of moral principles and values. Our present article aim is to present a part of our research about the teaching ethics under the idea of being a stable dimension of teaching…

  3. Revelation of a Personal Placebo Response: Its Effects on Mood, Attitudes and Future Placebo Responding

    PubMed Central

    Chung, S.Karen; Price, Donald D; Verne, G. Nicholas; Robinson, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    While ethics of placebo use has been debated since discovery of the phenomena, there has yet to be a study that examines the aftereffect of individuals learning of a personal placebo response on their future ability to experience a placebo response. In the first study, eleven participants diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome in a placebo study were interviewed individually about their personal placebo response. We found no changes in attitudes about the likelihood of using medical and non-medical treatments for pain, likelihood of participating in future studies, or likeability and trust of experimenters. In addition, we found no changes in mood except for a slight improvement in frustration. In the second study, 77 undergraduate students from the University of Florida were divided into three conditions: placebo, control and repeated baseline. We used a double placebo design with verbal placebo suggestion and conditioning to induce a placebo response and to examine the effect of providing information about a participant’s personal placebo response on their future placebo response. Using a heat thermode, we discovered that there were no differences in future pain responding between participants who were told that they experienced a placebo response versus those who were not. In addition, similar to the first study, we found no detrimental effects of the placebo information variables measured. These studies suggest the placebo response persists even after revelation of a personal placebo response and placebo use does not appear to cause adverse effects on mood and other attitude variables assessed. PMID:17368941

  4. Type A behavior, personality hardiness, and cardiovascular responses to stress.

    PubMed

    Contrada, R J

    1989-11-01

    Type A behavior and hardiness were examined as predictors of cardiovascular responses to stress in 68 male undergraduates. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and heart rate were monitored while subjects performed a difficult mirror-tracing task. Type A assessments based on the Structured Interview, but not those based on the Jenkins Activity Survey, were associated with significantly enhanced SBP and DBP elevations. Hardiness was associated with significantly reduced DBP responsiveness. In addition, a significant interaction indicated that the Type B-high hardiness group showed the least DBP reactivity. A near-significant interaction (p = .06) suggested that Type B-high hardiness subjects also reported the least anger. Further exploration of the data indicated that the challenge component of hardiness accounted for its relationship to DBP reactivity. These results have implications both for the psychophysiologic study of Type A behavior and for understanding the health-promoting effects of hardiness.

  5. Pathways to Healing: Person-centered Responses to Complementary Services

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Sharon W.; Fermon, Barbara; Coleman, Julie Foley

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This research study assessed perceived changes in quality-of-life measures related to participation in complementary services consisting of a variety of nontraditional therapies and/or programs at Pathways: A Health Crisis Resource Center in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Design: Survey data were used to assess perceived changes participants ascribed to their experience with complementary services at Pathways. Quantitative data analysis was conducted using participant demographics together with participant ratings of items from the “Self-Assessment of Change” (SAC) measure developed at the University of Arizona, Tucson. Qualitative data analysis was conducted on written responses to an additional survey question: “To what extent has your participation at Pathways influenced your healing process?” Setting/Location: Pathways offers a variety of services, including one-to-one sessions using nontraditional healing therapies, support groups, educational classes, and practice groups such as yoga and meditation for those facing serious health challenges. These services are offered free of charge through community financial support using volunteer practitioners. Participants: People (126) diagnosed with serious health challenges who used Pathways services from 2007 through 2009. Interventions: Participation in self-selected Pathways services. Measures: Responses to items on the SAC measure plus written responses to the question, “To what extent has your participation at Pathways influenced your healing process?” Results: Quantitative findings: Participants reported experiencing significant changes across all components of the SAC measure. Qualitative findings: Responses to the open-ended survey question identified perspectives on the culture of Pathways and a shift in participants' perceptions of well-being based on their experience of Pathways services. Conclusions: Participation in services provided by the Pathways organization improved perceptions of

  6. Does the severity of psychopathological symptoms mediate the relationship between patient personality and therapist response?

    PubMed

    Lingiardi, Vittorio; Tanzilli, Annalisa; Colli, Antonello

    2015-06-01

    Countertransference can be viewed as a source of valuable diagnostic and therapeutic information and plays a crucial role in psychotherapy process and outcome. Some empirical researches have showed that patients' specific personality characteristics tend to evoke distinct patterns of emotional response in clinicians. However, to date there have been no studies examining the impact of patients' symptomatology on the association between their personality and therapists' responses. This research aimed to (a) investigate the relationship between patients' symptom severity and clinicians' emotional responses; and (b) explore the possible mediated effect of symptom severity on the relationship between patients' personality pathology and countertransference responses. A sample of psychiatrists and clinical psychologists (N = 198) of different theoretical orientations completed the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200 and the Therapist Response Questionnaire on a patient currently in their care, who then completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. The findings showed that patients' symptomatology partially mediates the relationship between their specific personality disorders (in particular, schizotypal, borderline, histrionic, and avoidant) and therapists' emotional responses, but in general, the impact of symptom severity is less sizable than one aroused by patients' personality style. Higher levels of patients' symptom severity are most associated with an intense feeling of being overwhelmed, disorganization, helplessness, and frustration in clinicians. These countertransference reactions are not accounted for by therapists' different therapeutic approaches and other variables (as gender, age, profession, and experience). The clinical implications of these results are addressed.

  7. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Personal Response System in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Dennis M.; Collura, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of the use of an electronic personal response system (or "clickers") during an introductory psychology lecture on perceptual constancy. We graphed and projected student responses to questions during the lecture onto a large-screen display in Microsoft PowerPoint. The distributions of answers corresponded well to…

  8. Heart Rate Complexity in Response to Upright Tilt in Persons with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Baynard, Tracy; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-01-01

    People with Down syndrome (DS) show altered autonomic response to sympatho-excitation. Cardiac autonomic modulation may be examined with heart rate (HR) complexity which is associated uniquely with cardiovascular risk. This study examined whether the response of HR complexity to passive upright tilt differs between persons with and without DS and…

  9. Skin Conductance Responses to Another Person's Gaze in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kylliainen, Anneli; Hietanen, Jari K.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of another person's gaze on physiological arousal were investigated by measuring skin conductance responses (SCR). Twelve able children with autism and 12 control children were shown face stimuli with straight gaze (eye contact) or averted gaze on a computer monitor. In children with autism, the responses to straight gaze were stronger…

  10. Dollars and Sense: Diverse Perspectives on Block Grants and the Personal Responsibility Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Sid; And Others

    In March 1995, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the Personal Responsibility Act (H.R. 4), part of the House Republican Contract with America. The bill would move primary responsibility for child and family programs to states and communities, reduce federal spending, and consolidate programs into block grants for child care, child…

  11. Acceptance and utilisation of the Incident Command System in first response and allied disciplines: an Ohio study.

    PubMed

    Decker, Russell J

    2011-10-01

    In response to the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001, an effort was made to establish a common and uniform command structure for use by the nation's first responder organisations, as well as those disciplines generally expected to assist first responders during a major incident or disaster. The result was the issuance of the National Incident Management System1 or NIMS by the US Department of Homeland Security in 2004. Included in the NIMS document was an embracing of the Incident Command System or ICS, long utilised in the fire service for the effective management of emergency response. The NIMS doctrine also identified certain allied disciplines that needed to adopt this new system for responding to major events. Some of these disciplines included specialised first response units, such as, bomb squads and hazardous materials teams. Other partner disciplines not usually associated with emergency response to include public health and public works were also included. This study will attempt to look at a single component of NIMS, specifically the Incident Command System, and measure its acceptance and utilisation by first responder organisations and selected allied disciplines in the state of Ohio. This is particularly important at this time since the US government is being forced to reduce budgets significantly and determine which laudable policies and programmes will be cut.

  12. EEG responses to photic stimulation in persons experienced at meditation.

    PubMed

    Williams, P; West, M

    1975-11-01

    The EEG responses to intermittent photic stimulation were examined in a group of subjects experienced in meditation, and compared with those of a control group. The meditators exhibited a significantly smaller decrement in alpha activity and alpha blocking over the course of the experiment than did the control group, and alpha induction occurred earlier and more frequently in the meditators. These findings support the hypothesis that experienced meditators spontaneously enter the meditative state on closing the eyes, and also the view that physiologically the meditative state is one of prolonged drowsiness. An alternative interpretation, that meditation is a state of sustained attention, is discussed.

  13. Personal Emergency Response Systems--Communication Technology Aids Elderly and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibner, Andrew S.

    Personal response systems (PRS) bring immediate help to aged and disabled persons at home at the touch of a button. The PRS user wears a tiny radio transmitter as a pendant or a bracelet and can send a telephone signal from any part of the home to a 24-hour emergency center when help is needed. This study examined research on the Lifeline system,…

  14. Interpersonal impacts mediate the association between personality and treatment response in major depression.

    PubMed

    Dermody, Sarah S; Quilty, Lena C; Bagby, R Michael

    2016-07-01

    Personality, as characterized by the Five-Factor Model, predicts response to psychotherapy for depression. To explain how personality impacts treatment response, the present study investigated patient and therapist interpersonal processes in treatment sessions as an explanatory pathway. A clinical trial was conducted in which 103 outpatients (mean age: 41.17 years, 65% female) with primary major depressive disorder completed 16-20 weeks of cognitive-behavioral or interpersonal therapy. Before treatment, patients completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory to assess personality domains (neuroticism, extraversion, openness-to-experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). After 3 and 13 weeks, patient interpersonal behavior was rated by the therapist and vice versa to determine levels of patient and therapist communal and agentic behaviors. Depression levels were measured before and after treatment. Structural equation modeling supported that patients' interpersonal behavior during therapy mediated the associations between pretreatment personality and depression treatment outcome. Specifically, extraversion, conscientiousness, and neuroticism (inverse) predicted higher levels of patient communion throughout treatment, which was in turn associated with improved treatment outcomes. Furthermore, patient agreeableness was inversely associated with agency throughout treatment, which was linked to poorer treatment response. Therapist interpersonal behavior was not a significant mediator. Results suggest that patient interpersonal behavior during treatment may be one way that patient personality impacts clinical outcomes in depression. Results underscore the clinical utility of Five-Factor Model domains in treatment process and outcome. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27031606

  15. Marketing responsible drinking behavior: comparing the effectiveness of responsible drinking messages tailored to three possible "personality" conceptualizations.

    PubMed

    York, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A; Miller, Megan M

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether a thoroughly personalized message (tailored to a person's "Big Five" personality traits) or a message matched to an alternate form of self-schema (ideal self-schema) would be more influential than a self-schema matched message (that has been found to be effective) at marketing responsible drinking. We expected the more thoroughly personalized Big Five matched message to be more effective than the self-schema matched message. However, neither the Big Five message nor the ideal self-schema message was more effective than the actual self-schema message. Therefore, research examining self-schema matching should be pursued rather than more complex Big Five matching.

  16. Marketing responsible drinking behavior: comparing the effectiveness of responsible drinking messages tailored to three possible "personality" conceptualizations.

    PubMed

    York, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A; Miller, Megan M

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether a thoroughly personalized message (tailored to a person's "Big Five" personality traits) or a message matched to an alternate form of self-schema (ideal self-schema) would be more influential than a self-schema matched message (that has been found to be effective) at marketing responsible drinking. We expected the more thoroughly personalized Big Five matched message to be more effective than the self-schema matched message. However, neither the Big Five message nor the ideal self-schema message was more effective than the actual self-schema message. Therefore, research examining self-schema matching should be pursued rather than more complex Big Five matching. PMID:22416925

  17. Denial of Treatment to Obese Patients-the Wrong Policy on Personal Responsibility for Health.

    PubMed

    Eyal, Nir

    2013-08-01

    In many countries around the world, including Iran, obesity is reaching epidemic proportions. Doctors have recently taken, or expressed support for, an extreme 'personal responsibility for health' policy against obesity: refusing services to obese patients. This policy may initially seem to improve patients' incentives to fight obesity. But turning access to medical services into a benefit dependent on health improvement is bad policy. It conditions the very aid that patients need in order to become healthier on success in becoming healthier. Whatever else we may think of personal responsibility for health policies, this particular one is absurd. Unfortunately, quite a few personal responsibility for health policies use similar absurd conditioning. They mistakenly use as 'carrots' or 'sticks' for adherence the basic means to the same health outcomes that they seek to promote. This perspective proposes the following rule of thumb: any conditional incentive for healthy choice should be in a currency other than the basic means to that healthy choice.

  18. Personalized in vitro cancer models to predict therapeutic response: Challenges and a framework for improvement.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Molly M; Johnson, Brian P; Livingston, Megan K; Schuler, Linda A; Alarid, Elaine T; Sung, Kyung E; Beebe, David J

    2016-09-01

    Personalized cancer therapy focuses on characterizing the relevant phenotypes of the patient, as well as the patient's tumor, to predict the most effective cancer therapy. Historically, these methods have not proven predictive in regards to predicting therapeutic response. Emerging culture platforms are designed to better recapitulate the in vivo environment, thus, there is renewed interest in integrating patient samples into in vitro cancer models to assess therapeutic response. Successful examples of translating in vitro response to clinical relevance are limited due to issues with patient sample acquisition, variability and culture. We will review traditional and emerging in vitro models for personalized medicine, focusing on the technologies, microenvironmental components, and readouts utilized. We will then offer our perspective on how to apply a framework derived from toxicology and ecology towards designing improved personalized in vitro models of cancer. The framework serves as a tool for identifying optimal readouts and culture conditions, thus maximizing the information gained from each patient sample.

  19. Mirror-like brain responses to observed touch and personality dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Michael; Rotte, Michael; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Denke, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The last years have shown a growing interest in research on the neural mechanisms for perceiving and understanding social interactions. Only very recently, a role for somatosensation in social perception has been suggested. Numerous studies reported vicarious responses in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and other areas merely when seeing others being touched. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that these vicarious somatosensory responses can be linked with inter-individual differences in empathy. However, beyond empathy other personality traits have been shown to interact with social perception and behavior. Here we tested if personality traits according to the Five-Factor-Model interact with vicarious activation in somatosensory brain regions. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which subjects viewed video clips showing simple non-painful touch to a hand and a control condition including the same visual and motion parts. Results revealed vicarious somatosensory activation when viewing the touched hand, as expected. Vicarious activation in SI showed a trend for a positive correlation with the personality trait openness to experience. Moreover, mirror-like responses in the insula were strongly correlated with the personality trait conscientiousness, suggesting links to processes of self-control. We conclude that vicarious brain responses to seen touch seem to interact with personality traits. PMID:23754999

  20. Can personality traits and gender predict the response to morphine? An experimental cold pain study.

    PubMed

    Pud, Dorit; Yarnitsky, David; Sprecher, Elliot; Rogowski, Zeev; Adler, Rivka; Eisenberg, Elon

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the possible role of personality traits, in accordance with Cloninger's theory, and gender, in the variability of responsiveness to opioids. Specifically, it was intended to test whether or not the three personality dimensions - harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD) and novelty seeking (NS) - as suggested by Cloninger, can predict inter-personal differences in responsiveness to morphine after exposure to experimental cold pain. Thirty-four healthy volunteers (15 females, 19 males) were given the cold pressor test (CPT). Pain threshold, tolerance, and magnitude (VAS) were measured before and after (six measures, 30 min apart) the administration of either 0.5 mg/kg oral morphine sulphate (n=21) or 0.33 mg/kg oral active placebo (diphenhydramine) (n=13) in a randomized, double blind design. Assessment of the three personality traits, according to Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, was performed before the CPT. A high HA score (but not RD, NS, or baseline values of the three pain parameters) predicted a significantly larger pain relief following the administration of morphine sulphate (but not of the placebo). Women exhibited a larger response in response to both treatments, as indicated by a significantly increased threshold and tolerance following morphine sulphate as well as significantly increased tolerance and decreased magnitude following placebo administration. The present study confirms the existence of individual differences in response to analgesic treatment. It suggests that high HA personality trait is associated with better responsiveness to morphine treatment, and that females respond better than men to both morphine and placebo.

  1. Relationship between Achievement Goals and Students' Self-Reported Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized the 2x2 achievement goal model (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance goals) to explore the relationships between achievement goals and self-reported personal and social responsibility behaviors in high school physical education settings. Two hundred and twenty one Turkish students completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals, personal and social responsibility behaviors. Results of the one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences among the four achievement goals, F(3, 660) = 137.05, p < .001, η2 = .39. The result also revealed that students were more likely to endorse the mastery-approach goal than three other goals. The simple correlations revealed mastery-approach and performance-approach goals were positively related to students' self-reported personal (r = .54, p < .001; r = .37, p < .001, respectively) and social responsibility (r = .38, p < .001; r = .22, p < .001, respectively) behaviors. However, hierarchical regression analyses indicated only the mastery-approach goal emerged as the significant positive predictor, b = .52, t(216) = 7.19, p < .001 for personal responsibility behaviors, and b = .41, t(216) = 5.23, p < .001 for social responsibility behaviors. These findings seem to provide convergent evidence that mastery-approach goals are positively related to positive educational outcomes.

  2. Personal vis-a-vis social responsibility for disparities in health status: An issue of justice.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ayan; Dobe, Madhumita

    2016-01-01

    Health inequities are disparities which can be avoided through rational actions on the part of policymakers. Such inequalities are unnecessary and unjust and may exist between and within nations, societies, and population groups. Social determinants such as wealth, income, occupation, education, gender, and racial/ethnic groups are the principal drivers of this inequality since they determine the health risks and preventive behaviors, access to, and affordability of health care. Within this framework, there is a debate on assigning a personal responsibility factor over and above societal responsibility to issues of ill health. One school of philosophy argues that when individuals are worse-off than others for no fault of their own, it is unjust, as opposed to health disparities that arise due to avoidable personal choices such as smoking and drug addiction for which there should (can) be a personal responsibility. Opposing thoughts have pointed out that the relative socioeconomic position of an individual dictates how his/her life may progress from education to working conditions and aging, susceptibility to diseases and infirmity, and the consequences thereof. The existence of a social gradient in health outcomes across populations throughout the world is a testimony to this truth. It has been emphasized that assuming personal responsibility for health in public policy-making can only have a peripheral place. Instead, the concept of individual responsibility should be promoted as a positive concept of enabling people to gain control over the determinants of health through conscious, informed, and healthy choices.

  3. Personal vis-a-vis social responsibility for disparities in health status: An issue of justice.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ayan; Dobe, Madhumita

    2016-01-01

    Health inequities are disparities which can be avoided through rational actions on the part of policymakers. Such inequalities are unnecessary and unjust and may exist between and within nations, societies, and population groups. Social determinants such as wealth, income, occupation, education, gender, and racial/ethnic groups are the principal drivers of this inequality since they determine the health risks and preventive behaviors, access to, and affordability of health care. Within this framework, there is a debate on assigning a personal responsibility factor over and above societal responsibility to issues of ill health. One school of philosophy argues that when individuals are worse-off than others for no fault of their own, it is unjust, as opposed to health disparities that arise due to avoidable personal choices such as smoking and drug addiction for which there should (can) be a personal responsibility. Opposing thoughts have pointed out that the relative socioeconomic position of an individual dictates how his/her life may progress from education to working conditions and aging, susceptibility to diseases and infirmity, and the consequences thereof. The existence of a social gradient in health outcomes across populations throughout the world is a testimony to this truth. It has been emphasized that assuming personal responsibility for health in public policy-making can only have a peripheral place. Instead, the concept of individual responsibility should be promoted as a positive concept of enabling people to gain control over the determinants of health through conscious, informed, and healthy choices. PMID:27561401

  4. Young Children's Affective Responses to Acceptance and Rejection from Peers: A Computer-Based Task Sensitive to Variation in Temperamental Shyness and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, Grace Z.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a novel task examining young children's affective responses to evaluative feedback--specifically, social acceptance and rejection--from peers. We aimed to determine (1) whether young children report their affective responses to hypothetical peer evaluation predictably and consistently, and (2) whether young children's responses…

  5. Political Microtargeting: Relationship Between Personalized Advertising on Facebook and Voters' Responses.

    PubMed

    Kruikemeier, Sanne; Sezgin, Minem; Boerman, Sophie C

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between exposure to political personalized ads on Facebook and voters' responses toward those ads and studies the mediating role of the use of persuasion knowledge in this relationship. Results from an online experiment (N = 122) demonstrate that exposure to a personalized ad from a political party activates persuasion knowledge, which in turn leads to lower intentions to engage in electronic word of mouth, but only for those participants who recall seeing the Sponsored label. We found no effects on source trustworthiness. Adding a text explaining the practice of personalized advertising did not lead to higher levels of persuasion knowledge and did not change the responses toward the message.

  6. Political Microtargeting: Relationship Between Personalized Advertising on Facebook and Voters' Responses.

    PubMed

    Kruikemeier, Sanne; Sezgin, Minem; Boerman, Sophie C

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between exposure to political personalized ads on Facebook and voters' responses toward those ads and studies the mediating role of the use of persuasion knowledge in this relationship. Results from an online experiment (N = 122) demonstrate that exposure to a personalized ad from a political party activates persuasion knowledge, which in turn leads to lower intentions to engage in electronic word of mouth, but only for those participants who recall seeing the Sponsored label. We found no effects on source trustworthiness. Adding a text explaining the practice of personalized advertising did not lead to higher levels of persuasion knowledge and did not change the responses toward the message. PMID:27327063

  7. Relations among children's social goals, implicit personality theories, and responses to social failure.

    PubMed

    Erdley, C A; Cain, K M; Loomis, C C; Dumas-Hines, F; Dweck, C S

    1997-03-01

    Two studies examined children's thought patterns in relation to their responses to social challenge. In Study 1, 4th and 5th graders tried out for a pen pal club under either a performance goal (stressing the evaluative nature of the tryout) or a learning goal (emphasizing the potential learning opportunities). In their behavior and attributions following rejection, children who were focused on a performance goal reacted with more helplessness, whereas children given a learning goal displayed a more mastery-oriented response. Study 2 found that in response to hypothetical socially challenging situations, 4th, 5th, and 6th graders who believed personality was nonmalleable (entity theorists) vs. malleable (incremental theorists) were more likely to endorse performance goals. Together, these studies indicate that children's goals in social situations are associated with their responses to social failure and are predicted by their implicit theories about their personality. PMID:9147835

  8. Parental modelling and prompting effects on acceptance of a novel fruit in 2-4-year-old children are dependent on children's food responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Blissett, Jackie; Bennett, Carmel; Fogel, Anna; Harris, Gillian; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-02-14

    Few children consume the recommended portions of fruit or vegetables. This study examined the effects of parental physical prompting and parental modelling in children's acceptance of a novel fruit (NF) and examined the role of children's food-approach and food-avoidance traits on NF engagement and consumption. A total of 120 caregiver-child dyads (fifty-four girls, sixty-six boys) participated in this study. Dyads were allocated to one of the following three conditions: physical prompting but no modelling, physical prompting and modelling or a modelling only control condition. Dyads ate a standardised meal containing a portion of a fruit new to the child. Parents completed measures of children's food approach and avoidance. Willingness to try the NF was observed, and the amount of the NF consumed was measured. Physical prompting but no modelling resulted in greater physical refusal of the NF. There were main effects of enjoyment of food and food fussiness on acceptance. Food responsiveness interacted with condition such that children who were more food responsive had greater NF acceptance in the prompting and modelling conditions in comparison with the modelling only condition. In contrast, children with low food responsiveness had greater acceptance in the modelling control condition than in the prompting but no modelling condition. Physical prompting in the absence of modelling is likely to be detrimental to NF acceptance. Parental use of physical prompting strategies, in combination with modelling of NF intake, may facilitate acceptance of NF, but only in food-responsive children. Modelling consumption best promotes acceptance in children with low food responsiveness.

  9. Fraternities and Sororities Shaping the Campus Climate of Personal and Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Cassie L.

    2014-01-01

    Data from 9,760 college students on 20 campuses were used to explore the extent to which fraternity and sorority organizations assert an influence over the manner in which students experience the climate for personal and social responsibility while in college. Results demonstrated greater exposure to fraternities and sororities can function to…

  10. Teacher Candidates' Implementation of the Personal and Social Responsibility Model in Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okseon

    2012-01-01

    With the teacher concerns theory (Fuller, 1969) as a theoretical framework, this study has set out to examine how physical education teacher candidates perceive their implementation of the Personal and Social Responsibility Model (Hellison, 2003) and how they actually implement it during field experience. Five teacher candidates (three female, two…

  11. A Bayesian Approach to Person Fit Analysis in Item Response Theory Models. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.; Meijer, Rob R.

    A Bayesian approach to the evaluation of person fit in item response theory (IRT) models is presented. In a posterior predictive check, the observed value on a discrepancy variable is positioned in its posterior distribution. In a Bayesian framework, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure can be used to generate samples of the posterior distribution…

  12. uRespond: iPad as Interactive, Personal Response System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryfczynski, Samuel P.; Brown, Rebecca; Hester, Josiah; Herrmann, Andrew; Koch, Danielle L.; Cooper, Melanie M.; Grove, Nathaniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Personal response systems are quickly becoming indispensable formative assessment tools in many college-level chemistry courses. With the use of such devices, students are provided with invaluable insights into the skills perceived by the instructor as important, while concurrently, the instructor can gather feedback as to how well students have…

  13. High Profile Football Players' Reading at a Research University: ACT Scores, Interview Responses, and Personal Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Martha

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study examines the reading acumen of a cohort of twenty-six senior football players at a Midwestern public research university. Data related to three indices--ACT scores, interview responses, and personal preferences--were collected as part of a larger IRB-approved study aimed at determining the factors that led to the entire…

  14. 33 CFR 142.4 - Duties of lessees, permittees, and persons responsible for actual operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duties of lessees, permittees, and persons responsible for actual operations. 142.4 Section 142.4 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES...

  15. 46 CFR 196.50-1 - Master or person in charge responsible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master or person in charge responsible. 196.50-1 Section 196.50-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... steps as he deems necessary and prudent to assist vessels in distress or for other similar emergencies....

  16. Effective Learning in Science: The Use of Personal Response Systems with a Wide Range of Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Karen; Crowley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the flexibility of Personal Response Systems (PRSs), (also known as "clickers" or electronic voting systems (EVS)), as part of strategies to support students' learning in science. Whilst variants of this technology began to appear 12 years ago, there is now a steadily increasing adoption of these systems within higher…

  17. The Relation between the Ethics of Personal Conscience-Social Responsibility and Principled Moral Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutkin, Daniel C.; Suls, Jerry

    1979-01-01

    College students were tested on Hogan's Survey of Ethical Attitudes, Rest's Defining Issues Test, Collins' revision of Rotter's Internal-External Scale, and Snyder's Self-Monitoring Scale. Subjects who endorsed personal conscience showed greater maturity in moral reasoning. The subjects who advocated social responsibility tended to show more…

  18. An Empirical Study of Personal Response Technology for Improving Attendance and Learning in a Large Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Student evaluations of a large General Psychology course indicate that students enjoy the class a great deal, yet attendance is low. An experiment was conducted to evaluate a personal response system as a solution. Attendance rose by 30% as compared to extra credit as an inducement, but was equivalent to offering pop quizzes. Performance on test…

  19. The Influence of Professional Development on Teachers' Implementation of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okseon; Choi, Euichang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a professional development (PD) program on teachers' implementation of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model, and to identify the characteristics of PD that influence teaching practice. The participants were six elementary school teachers and 12 students, and the data…

  20. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996: What Welfare Reform Means for Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuell, Julie; Hanna, Jeff; Oterlei, Jannell; Kariger, Patricia

    This National Head Start Association booklet outlines the main provisions of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act and describes how it may affect local Head Start Programs. The document is intended to serve as a starting point for local programs, parents, administrators and policy workers to discuss and plan how Head Start will…

  1. Learning to Click: An Evaluation of the Personal Response System Clicker Technology in Introductory Marketing Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson Sprague, Elaine; Dahl, Darren W.

    2010-01-01

    The incorporation of personal response system (PRS) clickers into teaching pedagogy has created implications for teaching practice and student satisfaction. Using a current undergraduate business student population, the authors measure student attitudes and preferences and identify student performance outcomes relating to the use of PRS clickers.…

  2. Investigating Nigerian Primary School Teachers' Preparedness to Adopt Personal Response System in ESL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which computer literacy dimensions (computer general knowledge, documents and documentations, communication and surfing as well as data inquiry), computer use and academic qualification as independent variables predicted primary school teachers' attitude towards the integration of Personal Response System in…

  3. A Participatory Design Approach for a Mobile App-Based Personal Response System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Donggil; Oh, Eun Young

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on a participatory design approach including the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of a mobile app-based personal response system (PRS). The first cycle formulated initial design principles through context and needs analysis; the second utilized the collaboration with instructors and experts embodying specific…

  4. Modified Response Elaboration Training: Application to Procedural Discourse and Personal Recounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wambaugh, Julie L.; Nessler, Christina; Wright, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation was designed to examine the effects of a modification of response elaboration training (RET; Kearns, 1985) with speakers with mild to mild-moderate aphasia. The modification entailed application of RET to procedural discourse and personal recounts rather than to narrative discourse. Method: Three participants with…

  5. Attitudes towards Study Effort Response to Higher Grading Standards: Do Gender and Personality Distinctions Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallan, Lars; Opstad, Leiv

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how gender and personality preferences affect student attitudes towards effort response to higher grading standards. Data collected from 150 economics and business students at a Scandinavian business school reveals that higher grading standards enhance effort and time devoted to learning to a higher degree…

  6. Students' Perceptions of Using Personal Response Systems ("Clickers") with Cases in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Bjorn H. K.; Lundeberg, Mary A.; Kang, Hosun; Herreid, Clyde F.

    2011-01-01

    The authors explored whether a new pedagogy using personal response systems (clickers) along with case study teaching improved students' perceptions of their understanding of science in large introductory biology classrooms. Twelve faculty from nine institutions and 1,457 students across the United States and Canada participated in this study.…

  7. Making It Click: A California High School Test Drives and Evaluates Six New Personal Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley J. T.; Jackson, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Personal response systems, better known as "clickers," are all the rage on college and university campuses and are beginning to expand into the K-12 market. Clickers allow students and instructors to interact in a variety of interesting and innovative ways, both in classroom situations and professional development sessions. In this article, the…

  8. Exploring How Teachers' Personal Experiences with Childhood Bullying Influence Their Response to Student Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lay, Debra J.

    2010-01-01

    The results of the study provided a unique perspective of 20 teachers and how their personal childhood bullying experiences influenced their response to student bullying. Teachers who participated in this study acknowledged that they had a heightened awareness of student bullying, felt their positive attitude was due to their Olweus training as…

  9. Optimal and Most Exact Confidence Intervals for Person Parameters in Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doebler, Anna; Doebler, Philipp; Holling, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    The common way to calculate confidence intervals for item response theory models is to assume that the standardized maximum likelihood estimator for the person parameter [theta] is normally distributed. However, this approximation is often inadequate for short and medium test lengths. As a result, the coverage probabilities fall below the given…

  10. Towards a Sociolinguistically Responsive Pedagogy: Teaching Second-Person Address Forms in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Compernolle, Remi A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a sociolinguistically responsive model of pedagogy situated within existing sociocultural and communicative approaches to language learning and teaching. The specific focus of the discussion is on the French pronouns of address, "tu" and "vous". The article reviews previous research on second-person address in educational and…

  11. Personal Response Systems and Learning: It Is the Pedagogy that Matters, Not the Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Kyle; Steer, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that asking conceptually based questions along with a personal response system (clickers) is an effective way of implementing the peer instruction pedagogy. Lecture tutorials are a paper-based method that also incorporates peer instruction. Past research has shown that both methods yield significant learning gains for students…

  12. Feasibility and acceptability of oral cholera vaccine mass vaccination campaign in response to an outbreak and floods in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Msyamboza, Kelias Phiri; M'bang'ombe, Maurice; Hausi, Hannah; Chijuwa, Alexander; Nkukumila, Veronica; Kubwalo, Hudson Wenji; Desai, Sachin; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Legros, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite some improvement in provision of safe drinking water, proper sanitation and hygiene promotion, cholera still remains a major public health problem in Malawi with outbreaks occurring almost every year since 1998. In response to 2014/2015 cholera outbreak, ministry of health and partners made a decision to assess the feasibility and acceptability of conducting a mass oral cholera vaccine (OCV) as an additional public health measure. This paper highlights the burden of the 2014/15 cholera outbreak, successes and challenges of OCV campaign conducted in March and April 2015. Methods This was a documentation of the first OCV campaign conducted in Malawi. The campaign targeted over 160,000 people aged one year or more living in 19 camps of people internally displaced by floods and their surrounding communities in Nsanje district. It was a reactive campaign as additional measure to improved water, sanitation and hygiene in response to the laboratory confirmed cholera outbreak. Results During the first round of the OCV campaign conducted from 30 March to 4 April 2015, a total of 156,592 (97.6%) people out of 160,482 target population received OCV. During the second round (20 to 25 April 2015), a total of 137,629 (85.8%) people received OCV. Of these, 108,247 (67.6%) people received their second dose while 29,382 (18.3%) were their first dose. Of the 134,836 people with known gender and sex who received 1 or 2 doses, 54.4% were females and over half (55.4%) were children under the age of 15 years. Among 108,237 people who received 2 doses (fully immunized), 54.4% were females and 51.9% were children under 15 years of age. No severe adverse event following immunization was reported. The main reason for non-vaccination or failure to take the 2 doses was absence during the period of the campaign. Conclusion This documentation has demonstrated that it was feasible, acceptable by the community to conduct a large-scale mass OCV campaign in Malawi within five

  13. Corticosterone responses and personality in birds: Individual variation and the ability to cope with environmental changes due to climate change.

    PubMed

    Cockrem, John F

    2013-09-01

    Birds can respond to an internal or external stimulus with activation of the HPA axis and secretion of corticosterone. There is considerable individual variation in corticosterone responses, and individual responses can be very different from the mean response for a group of birds. Corticosterone responses and behavioural responses to environmental stimuli are determined by individual characteristics called personality. It is proposed that birds with low corticosterone responses and proactive personalities are likely to be more successful (have greater fitness) in constant or predictable conditions, whilst birds with reactive personalities and high corticosterone responses will be more successful in changing or unpredictable conditions. The relationship between corticosterone responses and fitness thus depends on the prevailing environmental conditions, so birds with either low or high corticosterone responses can have the greatest fitness and be most successful, but in different situations. It is also proposed that birds with reactive personalities and high corticosterone responses will be better able to cope with environmental changes due to climate change than birds with proactive personalities and relatively low corticosterone responses. Phenotypic plasticity in corticosterone responses can be quantified using a reaction norm approach, and reaction norms can be used to determine the degree of plasticity in corticosterone responses of individual birds, and mean levels of plasticity in responses of species of birds. Individual corticosterone responses and personality, and reaction norms for corticosterone responses, can in future be used to predict the ability of birds to cope with environmental changes due to climate change.

  14. m-Chlorophenylpiperazine challenge in borderline personality disorder: relationship of neuroendocrine response, behavioral response, and clinical measures.

    PubMed

    Stein, D J; Hollander, E; DeCaria, C M; Simeon, D; Cohen, L; Aronowitz, B

    1996-09-15

    We have previously found that a subgroup of patients with impulsive personality disorders respond to m-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) administration with a distinctive spacy/high behavioral reaction and with increased cortisol responses. In this report we analyzed the relationship between behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to m-CPP in an enlarged sample of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). We also assessed the association of behavioral and neuroendocrine responses with clinical symptoms and with m-CPP blood levels. We found that in BPD patients the presence of a spacy/high behavioral response was significantly associated with increased prolactin and cortisol responses to m-CPP. In BPD patients increased m-CPP levels were significantly associated with neuroendocrine hypersensitivity and with a spacy/high behavioral response, while in controls increased m-CPP levels were not significantly associated with neuroendocrine hypersensitivity but were significantly associated with dysphoric behavioral responses. Taken together with previous work on m-CPP in obsessive-compulsive disorder, these results are partially consistent with the hypothesis that compulsive and impulsive symptoms fall at opposite ends of a phenomenologic and neurobiologic spectrum.

  15. Personality predictors of antiaggressive response to fluoxetine: inverse association with neuroticism and harm avoidance.

    PubMed

    Phan, K Luan; Lee, Royce; Coccaro, Emil F

    2011-09-01

    Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are generally effective in reducing impulsive aggression in individuals with intermittent explosive disorder, a large proportion of intermittent explosive disorder patients fail to achieve full remission despite adequate dosage and duration of treatment. Temperament, specifically those associated with negative emotionality (neuroticism, harm avoidance) may predict response to SSRI treatment. The objective of this study was to determine whether baseline neuroticism and harm avoidance scores would be associated with reduced aggression (as measured by the Overt Aggression Scale-Modified [OAS-M] aggression scores) after SSRI treatment. Participants participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of fluoxetine completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (n=57) and the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (n=38) before entering the treatment trial. Multiple regression analyses (accounting for baseline OAS-M aggression scores) revealed that pretreatment eysenck personality questionnaire neuroticism and tridimensional personality questionnaire harm avoidance independently and uniquely predicted OAS-M aggression scores at endpoint in the fluoxetine, but not placebo, treated group. These preliminary findings are the first from a placebo-controlled clinical trial to suggest that temperamental factors such as neuroticism and harm avoidance can partly explain the observed variability in treatment response in SSRI treated individuals with impulsive aggression and prompt future prospective studies examining personality dimensions as predictors of outcomes in clinical trials.

  16. Proposition: a personality disorder may nullify responsibility for a criminal act.

    PubMed

    Kinscherff, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article argues in support of the proposition that "A Personality Disorder May Nullify Responsibility for a Criminal Act." Building upon research in categorical and dimensional controversies in diagnosis, neurocognitive science and the behavioral genetics of mental disorders, and difficulties in differential diagnosis and co-morbidity with personality disorders, this article holds that a per se rule barring personality diagnosis as a basis for a defense of legal insanity is scientifically and conceptually indefensible. Rather, focus should be upon the severity and impact in specific cases of any legally relevant functional deficits arising from a mental disorder (including personality disorders). Failure to do so risks potentially misleading "battles of the experts" about a defendant's diagnosis in criminal responsibility defenses and improper usurpation of the role of the legal finder of fact as mental health expert witnesses are inserted as gatekeepers indefensibly based upon diagnosis. Implications for practice and public policy are considered, including a "modest proposal" for post-trial management of defendants found not guilty by reason of insanity on the basis of functional deficits arising from personality disorder.

  17. Applying procedural justice theory to law enforcement's response to persons with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Watson, Amy C; Angell, Beth

    2007-06-01

    Procedural justice provides a framework for considering how persons with mental illness experience interactions with the police and how officer behaviors may shape cooperation or resistance. The procedural justice perspective holds that the fairness with which people are treated in an encounter with authority figures (such as the police) influences whether they cooperate or resist authority. Key components of a procedural justice framework include participation (having a voice), which involves having the opportunity to present one's own side of the dispute and be heard by the decision maker; dignity, which includes being treated with respect and politeness and having one's rights acknowledged; and trust that the authority is concerned with one's welfare. Procedural justice has its greatest impact early in the encounter, suggesting that how officers initially approach someone is extremely important. Persons with mental illness may be particularly attentive to how they are treated by police. According to this framework, people who are uncertain about their status (such as members of stigmatized groups) will respond most strongly to the fairness by which police exercise their authority. This article reviews the literature on police response to persons with mental illness. Procedural justice theory as it has been applied to mental health and justice system contexts is examined. Its application to encounters between police and persons with mental illness is discussed. Implications and cautions for efforts to improve police response to persons with mental illness and future research also are examined.

  18. Genetic influences on response to novel objects and dimensions of personality in Papio baboons.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Zachary; Brent, Linda; Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Shelledy, Wendy; Ramirez, Stephanie; Cox, Laura; Mahaney, Michael C; Huang, Yung-Yu; Mann, J John; Kaplan, Jay R; Rogers, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    Behavioral variation within and between populations and species of the genus Papio has been studied extensively, but little is known about the genetic causes of individual- or population-level differences. This study investigates the influence of genetic variation on personality (sometimes referred to as temperament) in baboons and identifies a candidate gene partially responsible for the variation in that phenotype. To accomplish these goals, we examined individual variation in response to both novel objects and an apparent novel social partner (using a mirror test) among pedigreed baboons (n = 578) from the Southwest National Primate Research Center. We investigated the frequency and duration of individual behaviors in response to novel objects and used multivariate factor analysis to identify trait-like dimensions of personality. Exploratory factor analysis identified two distinct dimensions of personality within this population. Factor 1 accounts for 46.8 % of the variance within the behavioral matrix, and consists primarily of behaviors related to the "boldness" of the subject. Factor 2 accounts for 18.8 % of the variation, and contains several "anxiety" like behaviors. Several specific behaviors, and the two personality factors, were significantly heritable, with the factors showing higher heritability than most individual behaviors. Subsequent analyses show that the behavioral reactions observed in the test protocol are associated with animals' social behavior observed later in their home social groups. Finally we used linkage analysis to map quantitative trait loci for the measured phenotypes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in a positional candidate gene (SNAP25) are associated with variation in one of the personality factors, and CSF levels of homovanillic acid and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol. This study documents heritable variation in personality among baboons and suggests that sequence variation in SNAP25 may influence differences in behavior and

  19. An Item Response Theory Analysis of Response Stability in Personality Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo, Urbano; Molina, Gabriel

    2001-01-01

    Developed an item response theory model of response stability based on the local independence principle. Tested the model, which predicts response changes under repeated administrations of the same instrument, with real data for 432 Spanish undergraduates. Results indicate that the model predictions are approximately fulfilled. (SLD)

  20. Shy birds play it safe: personality in captivity predicts risk responsiveness during reproduction in the wild.

    PubMed

    Cole, Ella F; Quinn, John L

    2014-05-01

    Despite a growing body of evidence linking personality to life-history variation and fitness, the behavioural mechanisms underlying these relationships remain poorly understood. One mechanism thought to play a key role is how individuals respond to risk. Relatively reactive and proactive (or shy and bold) personality types are expected to differ in how they manage the inherent trade-off between productivity and survival, with bold individuals being more risk-prone with lower survival probability, and shy individuals adopting a more risk-averse strategy. In the great tit (Parus major), the shy-bold personality axis has been well characterized in captivity and linked to fitness. Here, we tested whether 'exploration behaviour', a captive assay of the shy-bold axis, can predict risk responsiveness during reproduction in wild great tits. Relatively slow-exploring (shy) females took longer than fast-exploring (bold) birds to resume incubation after a novel object, representing an unknown threat, was attached to their nest-box, with some shy individuals not returning within the 40 min trial period. Risk responsiveness was consistent within individuals over days. These findings provide rare, field-based experimental evidence that shy individuals prioritize survival over reproductive investment, supporting the hypothesis that personality reflects life-history variation through links with risk responsiveness. PMID:24829251

  1. Shy birds play it safe: personality in captivity predicts risk responsiveness during reproduction in the wild.

    PubMed

    Cole, Ella F; Quinn, John L

    2014-05-01

    Despite a growing body of evidence linking personality to life-history variation and fitness, the behavioural mechanisms underlying these relationships remain poorly understood. One mechanism thought to play a key role is how individuals respond to risk. Relatively reactive and proactive (or shy and bold) personality types are expected to differ in how they manage the inherent trade-off between productivity and survival, with bold individuals being more risk-prone with lower survival probability, and shy individuals adopting a more risk-averse strategy. In the great tit (Parus major), the shy-bold personality axis has been well characterized in captivity and linked to fitness. Here, we tested whether 'exploration behaviour', a captive assay of the shy-bold axis, can predict risk responsiveness during reproduction in wild great tits. Relatively slow-exploring (shy) females took longer than fast-exploring (bold) birds to resume incubation after a novel object, representing an unknown threat, was attached to their nest-box, with some shy individuals not returning within the 40 min trial period. Risk responsiveness was consistent within individuals over days. These findings provide rare, field-based experimental evidence that shy individuals prioritize survival over reproductive investment, supporting the hypothesis that personality reflects life-history variation through links with risk responsiveness.

  2. The serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and personality: response style as a new endophenotype for anxiety.

    PubMed

    Plieger, Thomas; Montag, Christian; Felten, Andrea; Reuter, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Although the serotonin transporter length polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism is an extensively-investigated genetic marker of anxiety related personality traits (neuroticism and harm avoidance) and affective disorders, effect sizes in meta-analyses are small, if present at all, and all available primary studies to date lack mandatory statistical power. Moreover, questionnaire data is prone to confounding by variables such as social desirability. Therefore, extreme response style (ERS) is suggested as a new approach to elucidate the relationship between 5-HTTLPR and negative emotionality, as it is more implicit and of high reliability. N = 1075 healthy subjects were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR and a flanking polymorphism (rs25531) and filled out the NEO Five Factor Inventory and the Temperament Character Inventory. As dependent variable the number of extreme responses across all items was calculated. Using the common genotype or the triallelic approach (including rs25531) the meta-analytic findings could not be replicated. However, there was a significant association between 5-HTTLPR and extreme response style. Carriers of the L-allele or the L'-allele, respectively, had a significantly higher number of extreme responses than homozygous SS carriers across all items of the NEO Five Factor Inventory. This finding could be replicated in an alternative personality questionnaire (Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales, ANPS). There is a long tradition in psychological assessment indicating that ERS is an implicit measure of personality. Given the positive findings of the present study, ERS qualifies as a promising endophenotype in future genetic association studies on personality and affective disorders.

  3. A cautionary note for population health: disproportionate emphasis on personal responsibility for health and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Naumova, Elena N

    2014-08-01

    By investing in healthy human life we are investing in our social capital, the primary treasure of a modern technologically advanced society. In rethinking the definition of health from a new interdisciplinary viewpoint, I argue that health can be measured by satisfaction with life fulfillment and by abilities that permit an individual to perform tasks demanded by a society. While considering health as a property of a dynamic system governed by social and environmental determinants, a balance between societal and personal responsibility for health and wellbeing has to be maintained to protect those who have limited opportunities to "use their biologically given and personally acquired potentials" or to entertain their rights of healthy living standards. Instead of separating the biologically given and personally acquired potentials, I suggest capitalizing on emerging information, technologies, and materials aiming to enhance human potentials, both physical and intellectual. PMID:24943666

  4. Auditory steady state response in the schizophrenia, first-degree relatives, and schizotypal personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Rass, Olga; Forsyth, Jennifer K; Krishnan, Giri P; Hetrick, William P; Klaunig, Mallory J; Breier, Alan; O'Donnell, Brian F; Brenner, Colleen A

    2012-04-01

    The power and phase synchronization of the auditory steady state response (ASSR) at 40 Hz stimulation is usually reduced in schizophrenia (SZ). The sensitivity of the 40 Hz ASSR to schizophrenia spectrum phenotypes, such as schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), or to familial risk has been less well characterized. We compared the ASSR of patients with SZ, persons with schizotypal personality disorder, first degree relatives of patients with SZ, and healthy control participants. ASSRs were obtained to 20, 30, 40 and 50 Hz click trains, and assessed using measures of power (mean trial power or MTP) and phase consistency (phase locking factor or PLF). The MTP to 40 Hz stimulation was reduced in relatives, and there was a trend for MTP reduction in SZ. The 40 Hz ASSR was not reduced in SPD participants. PLF did not differ among groups. These data suggest the 40 Hz ASSR is sensitive to familial risk factors associated with schizophrenia.

  5. Personal responsibility and control over our bodies: when expectation exceeds reality.

    PubMed

    Brownell, K D

    1991-01-01

    Good health has become more than a means to personal goals such as greater attractiveness and increased longevity. It symbolizes self-control, hard work, ambition, and success in life. Inherent in this symbolism is the concept that the individual controls behavior, which in turn controls health. Although control over one's life plays an important role in both physical and mental health, the concept of personal control also infers responsibility. Positive attributes are accorded to people who are healthy, but those who fall ill, or those with less than the perfect body, are blamed and are thought to be self-indulgent, lazy, or even irresponsible and immoral. There is a tendency to overstate the impact of personal behavior on health. However, biological realities shape the degree to which health is under the control of the individual. The positive effects of behavior change must be balanced with the limits imposed by biology. PMID:1935864

  6. Measuring Students' Perceptions of Personal and Social Responsibility and the Relationship to Intrinsic Motivation in Urban Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weidong; Wright, Paul M.; Rukavina, Paul Bernard; Pickering, Molly

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the validity and reliability of a two-factor model of the Personal and Social Responsibility Questionnaire (PSRQ) and examine the relationships between perceptions of personal and social responsibility and intrinsic motivation in physical education. Participants were 253 middle school students who…

  7. 45 CFR 287.35 - What grant amounts are available under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What grant amounts are available under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) for the NEW Program? 287... the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) for the...

  8. Uncovering the Links between Prospective Teachers' Personal Responsibility, Academic Optimism, Hope, and Emotions about Teaching: A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eren, Altay

    2014-01-01

    Prospective teachers' sense of personal responsibility has not been examined together with their academic optimism, hope, and emotions about teaching in a single study to date. However, to consider hope, academic optimism, and emotions about teaching together with personal responsibility is important to uncover the factors affecting…

  9. Attitude towards littering as a mediator of the relationship between personality attributes and responsible environmental behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ojedokun, Oluyinka

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Independently, altruism and locus of control contributed significantly toward attitude towards littering. > Altruism and locus of control jointly contributed significantly to attitude towards littering. > The results further show a significant joint influence of altruism and locus of control on REB. > The independent contributions reveal that altruism and locus of control contribute significantly to REB. > Attitude towards littering mediates the relationship between locus of control and REB. - Abstract: The study tested whether attitude towards littering mediates the relationship between personality attributes (altruism and locus of control) and responsible environmental behavior (REB) among some residents of Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. Using multistage sampling technique, measures of each construct were administered to 1360 participants. Results reveal significant independent and joint influence of personality attributes on attitude towards littering and responsible environmental behavior, respectively. Attitude towards littering also mediates the relationship between personality characteristics and REB. These findings imply that individuals who possess certain desirable personality characteristics and who have unfavorable attitude towards littering have more tendencies to engage in pro-environmental behavior. Therefore, stakeholders who have waste management as their priority should incorporate this information when guidelines for public education and litter prevention programs are being developed. It is suggested that psychologists should be involved in designing of litter prevention strategies. This will ensure the inclusion of behavioral issues in such strategies. An integrated approach to litter prevention that combines empowerment, cognitive, social, and technical solutions is recommended as the most effective tool of tackling the litter problem among residents of Ibadan metropolis.

  10. Attitude towards littering as a mediator of the relationship between personality attributes and responsible environmental behavior.

    PubMed

    Ojedokun, Oluyinka

    2011-12-01

    The study tested whether attitude towards littering mediates the relationship between personality attributes (altruism and locus of control) and responsible environmental behavior (REB) among some residents of Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. Using multistage sampling technique, measures of each construct were administered to 1360 participants. Results reveal significant independent and joint influence of personality attributes on attitude towards littering and responsible environmental behavior, respectively. Attitude towards littering also mediates the relationship between personality characteristics and REB. These findings imply that individuals who possess certain desirable personality characteristics and who have unfavorable attitude towards littering have more tendencies to engage in pro-environmental behavior. Therefore, stakeholders who have waste management as their priority should incorporate this information when guidelines for public education and litter prevention programs are being developed. It is suggested that psychologists should be involved in designing of litter prevention strategies. This will ensure the inclusion of behavioral issues in such strategies. An integrated approach to litter prevention that combines empowerment, cognitive, social, and technical solutions is recommended as the most effective tool of tackling the litter problem among residents of Ibadan metropolis.

  11. A genetic analysis of avian personality traits: correlated, response to artificial selection.

    PubMed

    van Oers, Kees; de Jong, Gerdien; Drent, Piet J; van Noordwijk, Arie J

    2004-11-01

    Individuals in a range of species consistently differ in their behavior towards mild challenges, over age and time. Differences have been found for several personality traits in a range of species. In great tits these traits have a genetic basis and are phenotypically correlated. Estimates of genetic correlations are, however, fundamental to understanding the evolution of consistent individual differences in behavior. This study analyzed two selection experiments on two avian personality traits, early exploratory behavior and risk-taking behavior. The selection lines used were both started using wild great tits (Parus major) from two natural populations. Genetic correlations were calculated using the response and the correlated response to artificial selection. We found genetic correlations ranging from 0.51 to 0.66, based on individual values, and from 0.84 to 1.00 based on nest means. Genetic correlations can be due to pleiotropic effects or to linkage disequilibrium. The different behavioral traits might therefore have a common genetic basis, possibly constraining independent evolution of personality traits in natural populations. These results are discussed in relation to domain generality and domain specificity of personalities.

  12. [Relationships among empathy, prosocial behavior, aggressiveness, self-efficacy and pupils' personal and social responsibility].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Sanmartín, Melchor; Escartí Carbonell, Amparo; Pascual Baños, Carminal

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was, on the one hand, to present/display the Spanish version of diverse instruments that assess Empathy, Prosocial behavior, Aggressiveness, Self-efficacy and Personal and social responsibility, and, on the other hand, to analyze which of these variables could predict responsibility. Participants were 822 pupils, ages 8 to 15 years, who studied in 11 educational centres of the Valencian Community. Measures include Spanish versions of the Index of Empathy for Children and Adolescents, Prosocial Behaviour, and Physical and Verbal Aggression, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Self-Efficacy, and the Contextual Self-Responsibility Questionnaire. Through structural equation modelling (SEM), the results showed positive relationships between Prosocial behaviour, Empathy, Self-efficacy, and Responsibility; and negative relationships between Aggressiveness and Responsibility. The results and implications for education are discussed.

  13. New registered nurses' personal responses to professional practice: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Kathleen S

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study employed a qualitative description design to inquire into new registered nurses' (RNs') personal responses to being a "new nurse." Six new RNs participated in semistructured interviews. The findings of this pilot study can be used to guide educational activities for nurse leaders and others who work with new RNs. Several strategies are discussed, which may ease new RNs' transition into professional practice.

  14. Taking personal responsibility: Nurses' and assistant nurses' experiences of good nursing practice in psychiatric inpatient care.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsson, Sebastian; Sävenstedt, Stefan; Olsson, Malin

    2016-10-01

    Therapeutic nurse-patient relationships are considered essential for good nursing practice in psychiatric inpatient care. Previous research suggests that inpatient care fails to fulfil patients' expectations in this regard, and that nurses might experience the reality of inpatient care as an obstruction. The aim of the present study was to explore nurses' and assistant nurses' experiences of good nursing practice in the specific context of psychiatric inpatient care. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 skilled, relationship-oriented nurses and assistant nurses in order to explore their experiences with nursing practice related to psychiatric inpatient care. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using an interpretive descriptive approach. Findings describe good nursing practice as a matter of nurses and assistant nurses taking personal responsibility for their actions and for the individual patient as a person. Difficulties in providing dignified nursing care and taking personal responsibility cause them to experience feelings of distress and frustration. Shared values and nursing leadership supports being moral and treating patients with respect, having enough time supports being present and connecting with patients, and working as a part of a competent team with critical daily discussions and diversity supports being confident and building trust. The findings suggest that taking personal responsibility is integral to good nursing practice. If unable to improve poor circumstances, nurses might be forced to promote their own survival by refuting or redefining their responsibility. Nurses need to prioritize being with patients and gain support in shaping their own nursing practice. Nursing leadership should provide moral direction and defend humanistic values. PMID:27378375

  15. Relationship between Personality Traits and Brain Reward Responses when Playing on a Team

    PubMed Central

    Morawetz, Carmen; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Baudewig, Juergen; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperation is an integral part of human social life and we often build teams to achieve certain goals. However, very little is currently understood about emotions with regard to cooperation. Here, we investigated the impact of social context (playing alone versus playing on a team) on emotions while winning or losing a game. We hypothesized that activity in the reward network is modulated by the social context and that personality characteristics might impact team play. We conducted an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment that involved a simple game of dice. In the team condition, the participant played with a partner against another two-person team. In the single-player condition, the participant played alone against another player. Our results revealed that reward processing in the right amygdala was modulated by the social context. The main effect of outcome (gains versus losses) was associated with increased responses in the reward network. We also found that differences in the reward-related neural response due to social context were associated with specific personality traits. When playing on a team, increased activity in the amygdala during winning was a unique function of openness, while decreased activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum during losing was associated with extraversion and conscientiousness, respectively. In conclusion, we provide evidence that working on a team influences the affective value of a negative outcome by attenuating the negative response associated with it in the amygdala. Our results also show that brain reward responses in a social context are affected by personality traits related to teamwork. PMID:24475262

  16. Taking personal responsibility: Nurses' and assistant nurses' experiences of good nursing practice in psychiatric inpatient care.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsson, Sebastian; Sävenstedt, Stefan; Olsson, Malin

    2016-10-01

    Therapeutic nurse-patient relationships are considered essential for good nursing practice in psychiatric inpatient care. Previous research suggests that inpatient care fails to fulfil patients' expectations in this regard, and that nurses might experience the reality of inpatient care as an obstruction. The aim of the present study was to explore nurses' and assistant nurses' experiences of good nursing practice in the specific context of psychiatric inpatient care. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 skilled, relationship-oriented nurses and assistant nurses in order to explore their experiences with nursing practice related to psychiatric inpatient care. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using an interpretive descriptive approach. Findings describe good nursing practice as a matter of nurses and assistant nurses taking personal responsibility for their actions and for the individual patient as a person. Difficulties in providing dignified nursing care and taking personal responsibility cause them to experience feelings of distress and frustration. Shared values and nursing leadership supports being moral and treating patients with respect, having enough time supports being present and connecting with patients, and working as a part of a competent team with critical daily discussions and diversity supports being confident and building trust. The findings suggest that taking personal responsibility is integral to good nursing practice. If unable to improve poor circumstances, nurses might be forced to promote their own survival by refuting or redefining their responsibility. Nurses need to prioritize being with patients and gain support in shaping their own nursing practice. Nursing leadership should provide moral direction and defend humanistic values.

  17. Gender and Personality Differences in Response to Social Stressors in Great Tits (Parus major)

    PubMed Central

    van der Meer, Esther; van Oers, Kees

    2015-01-01

    In response to stressors, animals can increase the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, resulting in elevated glucocorticoid concentrations. An increase in glucocorticoids results in an increase in heterophils and a decrease in lymphocytes, which ratio (H/L-ratio) is an indicator of stress in birds. The physiological response to a stressor can depend on individual characteristics, like dominance rank, sex and personality. Although the isolated effects of these characteristics on the response to a stressor have been well studied, little is known about the response in relation to a combination of these characteristics. In this study we investigate the relationship between social stress, dominance rank, sex and exploratory behaviour as a validated operational measure of personality in great tits (Parus major). Great tits show consistent individual differences in behaviour and physiology in response to stressors, and exploratory behaviour can be classified as fast or slow exploring. We group-housed four birds, two fast and two slow explorers, of the same sex that were previously singly housed, in an aviary and compared the H/L-ratio, lymphocyte and heterophil count before and after group housing. After experiencing the social context all birds increased their H/L-ratio and heterophil count. Females showed a stronger increase in H/L-ratio and heterophil count than males, which seemed to be related to a higher number of agonistic interactions compared to males. Dominance rank and exploration type did not affect the H/L-ratio or heterophil count. Contrary to our expectations, all birds increased their lymphocyte count. However, this increase was slower for fast than for slow explorers. Our study suggests that personality and sex related differences, but not dominance rank, are associated with changes in an individual's physiological response due to a social context. PMID:26011633

  18. Social status and personality: stability in social state can promote consistency of behavioural responses

    PubMed Central

    Favati, Anna; Leimar, Olof; Radesäter, Tommy; Løvlie, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Stability of ‘state’ has been suggested as an underlying factor explaining behavioural stability and animal personality (i.e. variation among, and consistency within individuals in behavioural responses), but the possibility that stable social relationships represent such states remains unexplored. Here, we investigated the influence of social status on the expression and consistency of behaviours by experimentally changing social status between repeated personality assays. We used male domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus), a social species that forms relatively stable dominance hierarchies, and showed that behavioural responses were strongly affected by social status, but also by individual characteristics. The level of vigilance, activity and exploration changed with social status, whereas boldness appeared as a stable individual property, independent of status. Furthermore, variation in vocalization predicted future social status, indicating that individual behaviours can both be a predictor and a consequence of social status, depending on the aspect in focus. Our results illustrate that social states contribute to both variation and stability in behavioural responses, and should therefore be taken into account when investigating and interpreting variation in personality. PMID:24225462

  19. Personality influences the neural responses to viewing facial expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Calder, Andrew J; Ewbank, Michael; Passamonti, Luca

    2011-06-12

    Cognitive research has long been aware of the relationship between individual differences in personality and performance on behavioural tasks. However, within the field of cognitive neuroscience, the way in which such differences manifest at a neural level has received relatively little attention. We review recent research addressing the relationship between personality traits and the neural response to viewing facial signals of emotion. In one section, we discuss work demonstrating the relationship between anxiety and the amygdala response to facial signals of threat. A second section considers research showing that individual differences in reward drive (behavioural activation system), a trait linked to aggression, influence the neural responsivity and connectivity between brain regions implicated in aggression when viewing facial signals of anger. Finally, we address recent criticisms of the correlational approach to fMRI analyses and conclude that when used appropriately, analyses examining the relationship between personality and brain activity provide a useful tool for understanding the neural basis of facial expression processing and emotion processing in general.

  20. Denial of Treatment to Obese Patients—the Wrong Policy on Personal Responsibility for Health

    PubMed Central

    Eyal, Nir

    2013-01-01

    In many countries around the world, including Iran, obesity is reaching epidemic proportions. Doctors have recently taken, or expressed support for, an extreme ‘personal responsibility for health’ policy against obesity: refusing services to obese patients. This policy may initially seem to improve patients’ incentives to fight obesity. But turning access to medical services into a benefit dependent on health improvement is bad policy. It conditions the very aid that patients need in order to become healthier on success in becoming healthier. Whatever else we may think of personal responsibility for health policies, this particular one is absurd. Unfortunately, quite a few personal responsibility for health policies use similar absurd conditioning. They mistakenly use as ‘carrots’ or ‘sticks’ for adherence the basic means to the same health outcomes that they seek to promote. This perspective proposes the following rule of thumb: any conditional incentive for healthy choice should be in a currency other than the basic means to that healthy choice. PMID:24596846

  1. Personality influences the neural responses to viewing facial expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Calder, Andrew J; Ewbank, Michael; Passamonti, Luca

    2011-06-12

    Cognitive research has long been aware of the relationship between individual differences in personality and performance on behavioural tasks. However, within the field of cognitive neuroscience, the way in which such differences manifest at a neural level has received relatively little attention. We review recent research addressing the relationship between personality traits and the neural response to viewing facial signals of emotion. In one section, we discuss work demonstrating the relationship between anxiety and the amygdala response to facial signals of threat. A second section considers research showing that individual differences in reward drive (behavioural activation system), a trait linked to aggression, influence the neural responsivity and connectivity between brain regions implicated in aggression when viewing facial signals of anger. Finally, we address recent criticisms of the correlational approach to fMRI analyses and conclude that when used appropriately, analyses examining the relationship between personality and brain activity provide a useful tool for understanding the neural basis of facial expression processing and emotion processing in general. PMID:21536554

  2. On the response of electronic personal dosimeters in constant potential and pulsed x- ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, M. C.; Silva, C. R. E.; Oliveira, P. M. C.; da Silva, T. A.

    2016-07-01

    Electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) based on solid state detectors have widely been used but some deficiencies in their response in pulsed radiation beams have been reported. Nowadays, there is not an international standard for pulsed x-ray beams for calibration or type testing of dosimeters. Irradiation conditions for testing the response of EPDs in both the constant potential and pulsed x-ray beams were established in CDTN. Three different types of EPDs were tested in different conditions in similar ISO and IEC x-ray qualities. Results stressed the need of performing additional checks before using EPDs in constant potential or pulsed x-rays.

  3. Choice, deliberation, violence: Mental capacity and criminal responsibility in personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Pickard, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Personality disorder is associated with self-harm and suicide, as well as criminal offending and violence towards others. These behaviours overlap when the means chosen to self-harm or attempt suicide put others at risk. In such circumstances, an individual's mental state at one and the same time may be deemed to meet the conditions for criminal responsibility, and to warrant involuntary hospital admission. I explore this tension in how people with personality disorder are treated at the hands of the criminal and civil law respectively in England and Wales: they may be deemed sufficiently mentally well to be punished for their crimes, but not deemed sufficiently mentally well to retain the right to make their own decisions about matters of serious importance to their own lives, including whether or not to continue them. The article divides into four sections. After introducing this tension, Section 2 sketches the nature of personality disorder and the psychology underlying self-directed and other-directed violence. Section 3 addresses the questions of whether people with personality disorder who are violent, whether towards self or others, typically meet the conditions for criminal responsibility and mental capacity respectively, considering in particular whether their underlying desires and values, or their emotional distress, affect their mental capacity to make treatment decisions. Section 4 then considers what we might do to address the tension, within the confines of current legislation. Drawing on The Review of the Mental Health Act 1983, I argue that we are ethically justified in involuntarily admitting to hospital people with personality disorder who pose a serious risk to themselves only if we simultaneously undertake to offer genuine help for their future, in the form of appropriate treatment, social support, and better life opportunities - a provision which, as things stand in England and Wales, is sorely lacking.

  4. Choice, deliberation, violence: Mental capacity and criminal responsibility in personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Personality disorder is associated with self-harm and suicide, as well as criminal offending and violence towards others. These behaviours overlap when the means chosen to self-harm or attempt suicide put others at risk. In such circumstances, an individual's mental state at one and the same time may be deemed to meet the conditions for criminal responsibility, and to warrant involuntary hospital admission. I explore this tension in how people with personality disorder are treated at the hands of the criminal and civil law respectively in England and Wales: they may be deemed sufficiently mentally well to be punished for their crimes, but not deemed sufficiently mentally well to retain the right to make their own decisions about matters of serious importance to their own lives, including whether or not to continue them. The article divides into four sections. After introducing this tension, Section 2 sketches the nature of personality disorder and the psychology underlying self-directed and other-directed violence. Section 3 addresses the questions of whether people with personality disorder who are violent, whether towards self or others, typically meet the conditions for criminal responsibility and mental capacity respectively, considering in particular whether their underlying desires and values, or their emotional distress, affect their mental capacity to make treatment decisions. Section 4 then considers what we might do to address the tension, within the confines of current legislation. Drawing on The Review of the Mental Health Act 1983, I argue that we are ethically justified in involuntarily admitting to hospital people with personality disorder who pose a serious risk to themselves only if we simultaneously undertake to offer genuine help for their future, in the form of appropriate treatment, social support, and better life opportunities — a provision which, as things stand in England and Wales, is sorely lacking. PMID:25997380

  5. A Comprehensive Regression-Based Approach for Identifying Sources of Person Misfit in Typical-Response Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a general parametric item response theory approach for identifying sources of misfit in response patterns that have been classified as potentially inconsistent by a global person-fit index. The approach, which is based on the weighted least squared regression of the observed responses on the model-expected responses, can be…

  6. Differential Responses to Food Price Changes by Personal Characteristic: A Systematic Review of Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mizdrak, Anja; Scarborough, Peter; Waterlander, Wilma E.; Rayner, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Background Fiscal interventions to improve population diet have been recommended for consideration by many organisations including the World Health Organisation and the United Nations and policies such as sugar-sweetened beverage taxes have been implemented at national and sub-national levels. However, concerns have been raised with respect to the differential impact of fiscal interventions on population sub-groups and this remains a barrier to implementation. Objective To examine how personal characteristics (such as socioeconomic status, sex, impulsivity, and income) moderate changes in purchases of targeted foods in response to food and beverage price changes in experimental settings. Design Systematic review Data Sources Online databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EconLit and PsycInfo), reference lists of previous reviews, and additional data from study authors. Study Selection We included randomised controlled trials where food and beverage prices were manipulated and reported differential effects of the intervention on participant sub-groups defined according to personal characteristics. Data Analysis Where possible, we extracted data to enable the calculation of price elasticities for the target foods by personal characteristic. Results 8 studies were included in the review. Across studies, the difference in price elasticity varied from 0.02 to 2.43 between groups within the same study. 11 out of the total of 18 comparisons of own-price elasticity estimates by personal characteristic differed by more than 0.2 between groups. Income related factors were the most commonly considered and there was an indication that own-price elasticity estimates do vary by income but the direction of this effect was not clear. Conclusion Experimental studies provide an opportunity to examine the differential effects of fiscal measures to improve population diets. Patterns in price sensitivity by personal characteristics are complex. General conclusions pertaining to the

  7. College Students' Sexual Health: Personal Responsibility or the Responsibility of the College?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechner, Kate E.; Garcia, Carolyn M.; Frerich, Ellen A.; Lust, Katherine; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article examines students' perceptions of individual and institutional responsibility for sexual health so that institutions can better provide for the needs of their students to increase academic success and healthy relationship outcomes. Participants: Students from 2- and 4-year colleges in 1 state ("N" = 78).…

  8. Physiological responses to near-miss outcomes and personal control during simulated gambling.

    PubMed

    Clark, Luke; Crooks, Ben; Clarke, Robert; Aitken, Michael R F; Dunn, Barnaby D

    2012-03-01

    Near-miss outcomes during gambling are non-win outcomes that fall close to a pay-out. While objectively equivalent to an outright miss, near-misses motivate ongoing play and may therefore be implicated in the development of disordered gambling. Given naturalistic data showing increases in heart rate (HR) and electrodermal activity (EDA) during periods of real gambling play, we sought to explore the phasic impact of win, near-miss and full-miss outcomes on physiological arousal in a controlled laboratory environment. EDA and HR were monitored as healthy, student participants (n = 33) played a simulated slot-machine task involving unpredictable monetary wins. A second gambling distortion, perceived personal control, was manipulated within the same task by allowing the participant to select the play icon on some trials, and having the computer automatically select the play icon on other trials. Near-misses were rated as less pleasant than full-misses. However, on trials that involved personal choice, near-misses produced higher ratings of 'continue to play' than full-misses. Winning outcomes were associated with phasic EDA responses that did not vary with personal choice. Compared to full-misses, near-miss outcomes also elicited an EDA increase, which was greater on personal choice trials. Near-misses were also associated with greater HR acceleration than other outcomes. Near-miss outcomes are capable of eliciting phasic changes in physiological arousal consistent with a state of subjective excitement, despite their objective non-win status.

  9. Dissociation of rapid response learning and facilitation in perceptual and conceptual networks of person recognition.

    PubMed

    Valt, Christian; Klein, Christoph; Boehm, Stephan G

    2015-08-01

    Repetition priming is a prominent example of non-declarative memory, and it increases the accuracy and speed of responses to repeatedly processed stimuli. Major long-hold memory theories posit that repetition priming results from facilitation within perceptual and conceptual networks for stimulus recognition and categorization. Stimuli can also be bound to particular responses, and it has recently been suggested that this rapid response learning, not network facilitation, provides a sound theory of priming of object recognition. Here, we addressed the relevance of network facilitation and rapid response learning for priming of person recognition with a view to advance general theories of priming. In four experiments, participants performed conceptual decisions like occupation or nationality judgments for famous faces. The magnitude of rapid response learning varied across experiments, and rapid response learning co-occurred and interacted with facilitation in perceptual and conceptual networks. These findings indicate that rapid response learning and facilitation in perceptual and conceptual networks are complementary rather than competing theories of priming. Thus, future memory theories need to incorporate both rapid response learning and network facilitation as individual facets of priming.

  10. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Childcare Professionals: Comparison of a Web-Based and In-Person Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Zajac, Kristyn; Patton, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Recent prevention research has established the efficacy of some child sexual abuse prevention programs targeting adults; however, less is known about the feasibility of implementing such programs. The current study examines the feasibility and acceptability of a child sexual abuse prevention program for child care professionals provided in two…

  11. Pathological gambling and age: differences in personality, psychopathology, and response to treatment variables.

    PubMed

    González-Ibáñez, A; Mora, M; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, J; Ariza, A; Lourido-Ferreira, M R

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the possible differences in personality, psychopathology, and response to treatment in pathological gambling according to age. The sample, comprising 67 participants, was divided into three groups: 32.6% with ages ranging between 17 and 26 years, 31.3% between 27 and 43 years, and 35.8% over 44 years of age. The participants were administered the following tests, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI; Hathaway, S.R. & McKinley, J.C. (1943, 1961). Cuestionario de personalidad MMPI. Madrid Seccion de Estudios de TEA ed. 1970, 1975], sensation-seeking questionnaire [SSS; Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation seeking; beyond the optimal level of arousal. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates], and the Symptom Check List Revised [SCL-90-R; Derogatis, L.R. (1977). Symptom check list-90 revised. Administration scoring and procedures manual. Baltimore]. All underwent a group treatment programme that was carried out in the Pathological Gambling Unit at Ciutat Sanitaria i Universitaria de Bellvitge (CSUB), Teaching hospital, Barcelona, Spain. The findings show differences depending on age in the participants' personality and in psychopathology and in their response to treatment.

  12. The tridimensional personality questionnaire as a predictor of response to nefazodone treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Nelson, E C; Cloninger, C R

    1995-10-01

    Personality traits have emerged as the strongest identified predictors of response to antidepressant treatment of major depressive disorder (Peselow et al., 1992; Joyce et al., 1994). 18 subjects in the midst of a major depressive episode were treated with nefazodone in an open trial. All subjects completed Cloninger's tridimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ) before beginning treatment. A multiple regression analysis was performed in an attempt to replicate Joyce et al.'s (1994) finding that temperament type, as assessed by the TPQ, is a strong predictor of antidepressant response. A model involving TPQ reward dependence and harm avoidance scores, and their interaction, was found to significantly predict the response to nefazodone (r2 = 0.47, P < 0.027). When response was defined as a 50% decrease in HAM-D score at last visit, high reward dependence score alone significantly separated responders from nonresponders (Fisher's exact P = 0.050, df = 1). These results raise the intriguing possibility that TPQ scores may have direct clinical applications. PMID:8557887

  13. Introduction of a thermal response to the DSTL PADC personal neutron dosemeter.

    PubMed

    Mills, R G; Spyrou, N M; Stokes, R P; Holloway, I E; Beeley, P A

    2004-01-01

    The response of the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL) PADC personal neutron dosemeter is strongly dependent upon neutron energy, with a range of 300-500 tracks per cm2 per mSv for energies between 1 and 5 MeV. Below 1 MeV the response drops off sharply. This lack of sensitivity is undesirable when the dosemeter is employed with the softened fission spectra encountered in the workplace. In order to incorporate a thermal response, a polypropylene converter doped with LiF has been placed directly in front of the PADC elements. Tritons produced in the thermal neutron reaction 6Li (n,t)alpha at 2.7 MeV will then penetrate the PADC, leaving a trail of damage. The reaction rate within the converter has been calculated using MCNP for thermal neutrons and a range of higher energies, while transport of the tritons is modelled using the SRIM/TRIM package to determine the resultant track density and depth distribution. The modelling and experimental work have demonstrated that a concentration of 0.2% natural lithium by weight results in a track density in a thermal field comparable with that produced per unit personal dose equivalent by neutrons greater than 1 MeV in the standard dosemeter. Additional MCNP modelling has demonstrated that the dosemeters' albedo response to intermediate energy neutrons can be enhanced considerably by placing a boron-doped shield in front of the converter and increasing its lithium concentration. PMID:15353665

  14. Boring in response to bark and phloem extracts from North American trees does not explain host acceptance behavior of Orthotomicus erosus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    PubMed

    Walter, Abigail J; Kells, Stephen A; Venette, Robert C; Seybold, Steven J

    2010-04-01

    When invasive herbivorous insects encounter novel plant species, they must determine whether the novel plants are hosts. The Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), an exotic bark beetle poised to expand its range in North America, accepts hosts after contacting the bark. To test the hypothesis that O. erosus accepts hosts on the basis of gustatory cues, we prepared bark and phloem extracts from logs of four North American tree species that we had used in previous host acceptance experiments. Water, methanol, and hexane extracts of red pine, tamarack, balsam fir, and paper birch were presented alone and in combination on a neutral filter paper substrate in a section of a plastic drinking straw. Boring behavior in response to the three-extract combinations differed from the pattern of acceptance previously observed among species when the beetles were in contact with the bark surface. Only the aqueous extracts of tamarack, Larix laricina, increased the initiation and the extent of boring by O. erosus on the filter paper substrate. We conclude that the effects of extracted chemicals do not match the behavior of the beetles observed when penetrating excised bark and phloem discs, indicating that host selection by O. erosus may not be predictable from bark and phloem chemistry alone. Instead, host acceptance may be determined by nongustatory stimuli or by a combination of stimuli including gustatory and nongustatory cues.

  15. College Students’ Sexual Health: Personal Responsibility or the Responsibility of the College?

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, Kate E.; Garcia, Carolyn M.; Frerich, Ellen A.; Lust, Katherine; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article examines students’ perceptions of individual and institutional responsibility for sexual health so institutions can better provide for the needs of their students to increase academic success and healthy relationship outcomes. Participants Students from two-and four-year colleges in one state (n = 78). Methods From May through November 2010, the authors used go-along interviews to examine students’ perceptions of resources for sexual health on their campuses. Results Participants believed that it is the college’s responsibility to provide resources and the responsibility of students to access resources. Participants at two-year schools wanted referrals to resources, whereas participants at four-year schools expected resources to be available and emphasized the importance of a supportive community. Conclusions Students at two- and four-year colleges have different expectations of their institutions; by making resources and referrals for sexual health available, colleges can better serve their students, which will result in improved health outcomes. PMID:23305542

  16. Comparative Study of Three Different Personal Response Systems with Fourth-Year Undergraduate Veterinary Students.

    PubMed

    Duret, Denis; Senior, Avril

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three different Personal Response Systems that have been used in recent years at the School of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool: a technology-free system (Communicubes), a handset delivery device (TurningPoint), and a cloud-based technology (Poll Everywhere) that allows students to use a range of personal computing devices to register their answer. All three systems offer a method to promote active learning, and lecturers were encouraged to use them. However, there are cost and logistical implications for each. The authors found that both staff and students did have particular preferences for a specific system. This preference was not the same for both groups. The outcome of the comparison is that further research is needed into cloud-based technology as it offers benefits to the students but is also a distraction.

  17. Selecting a response form for nonverbal persons: Facilitated communication, pointing systems, or sign language?

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Mark L.

    1993-01-01

    The three major types of augmentative communication for nonverbal persons consist of writing (or typing), pointing, and signing. These alternative response forms are examined in terms of their advantages and disadvantages for establishing effective verbal behavior. In addition, these systems are examined using the concepts from Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior (i.e., mand, tact, intraverbal, and autoclitic). The results of this analysis show that sign language has the most advantages and the fewest disadvantages, and more closely parallels speech in terms of the verbal operants. Although, the current trend is to favor facilitated communication (typing) and pointing systems, both of these response forms have several disadvantages that impede the development of the verbal operants. It is suggested that for many nonverbal individuals sign language is a better alternative response form, and has a better chance of improving speech. PMID:22477084

  18. Two Persons with Multiple Disabilities Use Camera-Based Microswitch Technology to Control Stimulation with Small Mouth and Eyelid Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Bellini, Domenico; Oliva, Doretta; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lang, Russell

    2012-01-01

    Background: A camera-based microswitch technology was recently developed to monitor small facial responses of persons with multiple disabilities and allow those responses to control environmental stimulation. This study assessed such a technology with 2 new participants using slight variations of previous responses. Method: The technology involved…

  19. Lesbian workers: personal strategies amid changing organisational responses to 'sexual minorities' in UK workplaces.

    PubMed

    Colgan, Fiona; Creegan, Chris; McKearney, Aidan; Wright, Tessa

    2008-01-01

    This article reports emerging findings from a qualitative research study about lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) people at work in the UK. The research focuses on the personal experiences and strategies of LGB people amidst changing organisational responses to sexuality within a new legal and political landscape following the introduction of the Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003. The article draws specifically on the perceptions of lesbian respondents about a range of issues concerning social inclusion and exclusion in the workplace including coming out at work, treatment by managers and colleagues, workplace and organisational culture and participation in LGBT groups and networks.

  20. Laughter as a social rejection cue: gelotophobia and transient cardiac responses to other persons' laughter and insult.

    PubMed

    Papousek, Ilona; Aydin, Nilüfer; Lackner, Helmut K; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Bühner, Markus; Schulter, Günter; Charlesworth, Canice; Freudenthaler, H Harald

    2014-11-01

    Other persons' laughter, normally perceived as a signal that persons are friendly and inviting others to approach, can also be perceived as a cue of social rejection. In this study, prerecorded laughter was placed in a realistic and personally relevant context, and participants' responses were related to gelotophobia, a trait predisposing to perceiving laughter as a cue of social rejection. Individuals with gelotophobia showed marked heart rate deceleration in response to the laughter stimulus, possibly indicating a "freezing-like" response. Moreover, cardiac responses to anger provocation by overtly insulting statements indicated heightened aggressive anger in response to cumulated social threat. The study adds to recent research showing specific cardiac responses to social rejection and to the literature on social rejection sensitivity by demonstrating the value of using well interpretable physiological measures in this research context.

  1. Acquisition of a Biomedical Database of Acute Responses to Space Flight during Commercial Personal Suborbital Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Richard, Elizabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    There is currently too little reproducible data for a scientifically valid understanding of the initial responses of a diverse human population to weightlessness and other space flight factors. Astronauts on orbital space flights to date have been extremely healthy and fit, unlike the general human population. Data collection opportunities during the earliest phases of space flights to date, when the most dynamic responses may occur in response to abrupt transitions in acceleration loads, have been limited by operational restrictions on our ability to encumber the astronauts with even minimal monitoring instrumentation. The era of commercial personal suborbital space flights promises the availability of a large (perhaps hundreds per year), diverse population of potential participants with a vested interest in their own responses to space flight factors, and a number of flight providers interested in documenting and demonstrating the attractiveness and safety of the experience they are offering. Voluntary participation by even a fraction of the flying population in a uniform set of unobtrusive biomedical data collections would provide a database enabling statistical analyses of a variety of acute responses to a standardized space flight environment. This will benefit both the space life sciences discipline and the general state of human knowledge.

  2. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  3. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  4. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  5. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  6. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  7. Counterproductive Consequences of a Conservative Ideology: Medicaid Expansion and Personal Responsibility Requirements.

    PubMed

    Baker, Allison M; Hunt, Linda M

    2016-07-01

    Medicaid expansion, a key part of the Affordable Care Act, has been opposed by conservative politicians despite its fiscal and public health benefits. In response, some Republican-led states have expanded Medicaid with new reforms, including requirements for cost sharing and behavioral incentives, that promote conservative political values tied to an ideology of personal responsibility. We examine this trend using Michigan's Medicaid expansion as a case example. We explore the origins, evidence base, and possible consequences of these reforms. We argue that these reforms prioritize ideology over sound public health knowledge, deflecting attention away from the social, economic, and structural factors that influence the health of the poor, and may ultimately contribute to counterproductive public health and fiscal outcomes. PMID:27196640

  8. Constructing Personality Scales under the Assumptions of an Ideal Point Response Process: Toward Increasing the Flexibility of Personality Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernyshenko, Oleksandr S.; Stark, Stephen; Drasgow, Fritz; Roberts, Brent W.

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to explicate why a transition to ideal point methods of scale construction is needed to advance the field of personality assessment. The study empirically demonstrated the substantive benefits of ideal point methodology as compared with the dominance framework underlying traditional methods of scale construction.…

  9. Empowerment of patients over their personal health record implies sharing responsibility with the physician.

    PubMed

    Quantin, Catherine; Benzenine, Eric; Auverlot, Bertrand; Jaquet-Chiffelle, David-Olivier; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Allaert, François-André

    2011-01-01

    Through this article, we point out the unavoidable empowerment of patients with regard to their personal health record and propose the mixed management of patients' medical records. This mixed management implies sharing responsibilities between the patient and the Medical Practitioner (MP) by making patients responsible for the validation of their administrative information, and MPs responsible for the validation of their patients' medical information. We propose a solution to gather and update patients' administrative and medical data in order to reconstitute patients' medical histories accurately. This method is based on two processes. The aim of the first process is to provide patients administrative data, in order to know where and when they received care (name of the health structure or health practitioner, type of care: outpatient or inpatient). The aim of the second process is to provide patients' medical information and to validate it under the responsibility of the MP with the help of patients if needed. During these two processes, the patients' privacy will be ensured through cryptographic hash functions like the Secure Hash Algorithm, which allows the pseudonymization of patients' identities. The Medical Record Search Engine we propose will be able to retrieve and to provide upon a request formulated by the MP all the available information concerning a patient who has received care in different health structures without divulging the patient's true identity. Associated with strong traceability of all access, modifications or deletions, our method can lead to improved efficiency of personal medical record management while reinforcing the empowerment of patients over their medical records.

  10. Improving police response to persons with mental illness: a multi-level conceptualization of CIT.

    PubMed

    Watson, Amy C; Morabito, Melissa Schaefer; Draine, Jeffrey; Ottati, Victor

    2008-01-01

    The large numbers of people with mental illness in jails and prisons has fueled policy concern in all domains of the justice system. This includes police practice, where initial decisions to involve persons in the justice system or divert them to mental health services are made. One approach to focus police response in these situations is the implementation of Crisis Intervention Teams (CIT). The CIT model is being implemented widely, with over 400 programs currently operating. While the limited evidence on CIT effectiveness is promising, research on CIT is limited in scope and conceptualization-much of it focusing on officer characteristics and training. In this paper we review the literature on CIT and present a conceptual model of police response to persons with mental illness that accounts for officer, organizational, mental health system and community level factors likely to influence implementation and effectiveness of CIT and other approaches. By moving our conceptualizations and research in this area to new levels of specificity, we may contribute more to effectiveness research on these interventions.

  11. Improving police response to persons with mental illness: A Multi-level conceptualization of CIT

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Amy C; Morabito, Melissa Schaefer; Draine, Jeffrey; Ottati, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The large numbers of people with mental illness in jails and prisons has fueled policy concern in all domains of the justice system. This includes police practice, where initial decisions to involve persons in the justice system or divert them to mental health services are made. One approach to focus police response in these situations is the implementation of Crisis Intervention Teams (CIT). The CIT model is being implemented widely, with over 400 programs currently operating. While the limited evidence on CIT effectiveness is promising, research on CIT is limited in scope and conceptualization-much of it focusing on officer characteristics and training. In this paper we review the literature on CIT and present a conceptual model of police response to persons with mental illness that accounts for officer, organizational, mental health system and community level factors likely to influence implementation and effectiveness of CIT and other approaches. By moving our conceptualizations and research in this area to new levels of specificity, we may contribute more to effectiveness research on these interventions. PMID:18632154

  12. Anxiety in family caregivers of hospitalized persons with dementia: Contributing factors and responses

    PubMed Central

    Chippendale, Tracy; Resnick, Barbara; Galvin, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Baseline health and functional vulnerabilities increase the risk for complications in persons with dementia and predispose family caregivers (FCGs) to increased stress. Methods This secondary analysis used a combined quantitative and qualitative approach. Regression analyses examined the contribution of patient and family caregiver characteristics to FCG anxiety. Interviews with FCGs explored the experiences and responses of FCGs during hospitalization of their family member with dementia. Results Lower patient physical function and higher caregiver strain were associated with higher FCG anxiety. FCGs described the following themes related to the hospitalization: 1) added strain; 2) care-related worries; 3) keeping vigil; 4) need to be heard; and 5) enablers of family caregivers. Conclusions Routine evaluation of caregiver strain and baseline patient function is integral to informing the transitional planning for persons with dementia. The FCG responses suggest that a multi-factorial approach (family-centered policies of partnership in care, staff education addressing the specialized needs of patients and family- members, and attention to promoting functional recovery) may benefit both hospitalized patients with dementia as well as FCGs and warrants future research. PMID:25635341

  13. Determining criminal responsibility: How relevant are insight and personal attitudes to mock jurors?

    PubMed

    Jung, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    High levels of insight are interpreted as indications of a treatment compliance and good outcome by clinical professionals. However, it is unclear whether a defendant's insight plays a role in the decision-making of jurors when determining criminal responsibility. It may be the case that personal biases and attitudes toward the mentally ill and the insanity defense are more relevant in such decisions. This study examines the influence of two core dimensions of insight and personal attitudes on juror decision-making. Participants read trial scenarios describing a defendant who is accused of a violent crime and is diagnosed with schizophrenia. Assigning a verdict of not criminally responsible to the defendant was not influenced by insight, but instead, by supportive attitudes of the insanity defense and higher attributions of blame to external factors and to psychological factors. These findings highlight the need for continued investigation in the area of extra-legal factors that guide legal decision-making when defendants have a mental disorder.

  14. How to Improve Adolescent Stress Responses: Insights From Integrating Implicit Theories of Personality and Biopsychosocial Models.

    PubMed

    Yeager, David S; Lee, Hae Yeon; Jamieson, Jeremy P

    2016-08-01

    This research integrated implicit theories of personality and the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat, hypothesizing that adolescents would be more likely to conclude that they can meet the demands of an evaluative social situation when they were taught that people have the potential to change their socially relevant traits. In Study 1 (N = 60), high school students were assigned to an incremental-theory-of-personality or a control condition and then given a social-stress task. Relative to control participants, incremental-theory participants exhibited improved stress appraisals, more adaptive neuroendocrine and cardiovascular responses, and better performance outcomes. In Study 2 (N = 205), we used a daily-diary intervention to test high school students' stress reactivity outside the laboratory. Threat appraisals (Days 5-9 after intervention) and neuroendocrine responses (Days 8 and 9 after intervention only) were unrelated to the intensity of daily stressors when adolescents received the incremental-theory intervention. Students who received the intervention also had better grades over freshman year than those who did not. These findings offer new avenues for improving theories of adolescent stress and coping.

  15. How to Improve Adolescent Stress Responses: Insights From Integrating Implicit Theories of Personality and Biopsychosocial Models.

    PubMed

    Yeager, David S; Lee, Hae Yeon; Jamieson, Jeremy P

    2016-08-01

    This research integrated implicit theories of personality and the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat, hypothesizing that adolescents would be more likely to conclude that they can meet the demands of an evaluative social situation when they were taught that people have the potential to change their socially relevant traits. In Study 1 (N = 60), high school students were assigned to an incremental-theory-of-personality or a control condition and then given a social-stress task. Relative to control participants, incremental-theory participants exhibited improved stress appraisals, more adaptive neuroendocrine and cardiovascular responses, and better performance outcomes. In Study 2 (N = 205), we used a daily-diary intervention to test high school students' stress reactivity outside the laboratory. Threat appraisals (Days 5-9 after intervention) and neuroendocrine responses (Days 8 and 9 after intervention only) were unrelated to the intensity of daily stressors when adolescents received the incremental-theory intervention. Students who received the intervention also had better grades over freshman year than those who did not. These findings offer new avenues for improving theories of adolescent stress and coping. PMID:27324267

  16. Determining criminal responsibility: How relevant are insight and personal attitudes to mock jurors?

    PubMed

    Jung, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    High levels of insight are interpreted as indications of a treatment compliance and good outcome by clinical professionals. However, it is unclear whether a defendant's insight plays a role in the decision-making of jurors when determining criminal responsibility. It may be the case that personal biases and attitudes toward the mentally ill and the insanity defense are more relevant in such decisions. This study examines the influence of two core dimensions of insight and personal attitudes on juror decision-making. Participants read trial scenarios describing a defendant who is accused of a violent crime and is diagnosed with schizophrenia. Assigning a verdict of not criminally responsible to the defendant was not influenced by insight, but instead, by supportive attitudes of the insanity defense and higher attributions of blame to external factors and to psychological factors. These findings highlight the need for continued investigation in the area of extra-legal factors that guide legal decision-making when defendants have a mental disorder. PMID:26294081

  17. The influence of rhythm and personality in the endurance response to motivational asynchronous music.

    PubMed

    Crust, Lee; Clough, Peter J

    2006-02-01

    In this study, we examined participants' responses to motivational asynchronous music by isolating rhythmical properties and exploring personality correlates. Fifty-eight physically active participants (41 men and 17 women) aged 22.3 +/- 6.4 years performed an isometric weight-holding task on three occasions while being randomly exposed to no music, rhythm and motivational music. The rhythm and music conditions were edited portions of the same musical selection and had identical fast tempi, although the rhythm condition contained no melody, harmonies or lyrics. Participants each completed a copy of Cattell's 16PF following the third and final trial. A repeated-measures analysis of variance found the participants held the weight suspended for significantly longer when listening to motivational music in comparison to rhythm or no music. When listening to rhythm, participants endured the task for significantly longer than when listening to no music. The response to music was found to be significantly related to liveliness, while sensitivity correlated with responses to music factors (harmony, melody, lyrics, etc.) not present in the rhythm condition. These results suggest that responses to motivational music are subtle in nature and are determined by both musical factors and individual characteristics, and potentially an interaction between the two.

  18. 42 CFR 137.285 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a construction project agreement? 137.285 Section 137... that would apply if the Secretary were to undertake a construction project, but only those responsibilities directly related to the completion of the construction project being assumed....

  19. 42 CFR 137.285 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a construction project agreement? 137.285 Section 137... that would apply if the Secretary were to undertake a construction project, but only those responsibilities directly related to the completion of the construction project being assumed....

  20. 42 CFR 137.285 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a construction project agreement? 137.285 Section 137... that would apply if the Secretary were to undertake a construction project, but only those responsibilities directly related to the completion of the construction project being assumed....

  1. The A B Cs of Welfare Reform: A Guide to the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Candace J.; Sugarman, Jule M.

    The passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 means that, for the first time, the federal government has shifted substantial responsibility for maintaining a social safety net for the most vulnerable populations to the state governments. This guide summarizes the contents of the new law, identifies…

  2. Lecture Rule No. 1: Cell Phones ON, Please! A Low-Cost Personal Response System for Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Albert W. M.; Ng, Joseph K. Y.; Wong, Eva Y. W.; Tan, Alfred; Lau, April K. Y.; Lai, Stephen F. Y.

    2013-01-01

    phone, that can be used to replace the "clicker" as a personal response device. Our mobile phone-based response system (iQlickers) collects and analyzes the answers or opinions sent in by the students as SMS (short message service) messages. The statistic of the…

  3. Camera-Based Microswitch Technology for Eyelid and Mouth Responses of Persons with Profound Multiple Disabilities: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Bellini, Domenico; Oliva, Doretta; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    These two studies assessed camera-based microswitch technology for eyelid and mouth responses of two persons with profound multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior. This technology, in contrast with the traditional optic microswitches used for those responses, did not require support frames on the participants' face but only small color…

  4. Fitting a Mixture Item Response Theory Model to Personality Questionnaire Data: Characterizing Latent Classes and Investigating Possibilities for Improving Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maij-de Meij, Annette M.; Kelderman, Henk; van der Flier, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Mixture item response theory (IRT) models aid the interpretation of response behavior on personality tests and may provide possibilities for improving prediction. Heterogeneity in the population is modeled by identifying homogeneous subgroups that conform to different measurement models. In this study, mixture IRT models were applied to the…

  5. Characterization of the energy response and backscatter contribution for two electronic personal dosimeter models.

    PubMed

    Meier, Joseph; Kappadath, S Cheenu

    2015-11-08

    We characterized the energy response of personal dose equivalent (Hp(10) in mrem) and the contribution of backscatter to the readings of two electronic personal dosimeter (EPD) models with radionuclides commonly used in a nuclear medicine clinic. The EPD models characterized were the RADOS RAD-60R, and the SAIC PD-10i. The experimental setup and calculation of EPD energy response was based on ANSI/HPS N13.11-2009. Fifteen RAD-60R and 2 PD-10i units were irradiated using (99m)Tc, (131)I, and (18)F radionuclides with emission energies at 140 keV, 364 keV, and 511 keV, respectively. At each energy, the EPDs output in Hp(10) [mrem] were recorded with 15 inch thick PMMA to simulate backscatter form the torso. Simultaneous free-in-air exposure rate measurements were also performed using two Victoreen ionization survey meters to calculate the expected EPD Hp(10) values per ANSI/HPS N13.11-2009. The energy response was calculated by taking the ratio of the EPD Hp(10) readings with the expected Hp(10) readings and a two-tailed z-test was used to determine the significance of the ratio deviating away from unity. The contribution from backscatter was calculated by taking the ratio of the EPD Hp(10) readings with and without backscatter material. A paired, two-tailed t-test was used to determine the significance of change in EPD Hp(10) readings. The RAD-60R mean energy response at 140 keV was 0.85, and agreed to within 5% and 11% at 364 and 511 keV, respectively. The PD-10i mean energy response at 140 keV was 1.20, and agreed to within 5% at 364 and 511 keV, respectively. On average, in the presence of acrylic, RAD-60R values increased by 32%, 12%, and 14%, at 140, 364, and 511 keV, respectively; all increases were statistically significant. The PD-10i increased by 25%, 19%, and 10% at 140 keV, 364 keV, and 511 keV, respectively; however, only the 140 keV measurement was statistically significant. Although both EPD models performed within the manufacturers' specifications of

  6. Towards Socially-Responsible Management of Personal Information in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Jean-Henry

    Considering the increasing number of Personal Information (PI) used and shared in our now common social networked interactions, privacy issues, retention and how such information are manages have become important. Most approaches rely on one-way disclaimers and policies, often complex, hard to find and lacking ease of understanding for ordinary users of such common networks. Thus leaving little room for users to actually retain any control how the released information is actually used and managed once it has been put online. Additionally, personal information (PI) may include digital artifacts and contributions for which people would legitimately like to retain some rights over their use and their lifetime. Of particular interest in this category is the notion of the "right to forget" we no longer have control over, given the persistent nature of the Internet and its ability to retain information forever. This paper examines this issue from the point of view of the user and social responsibility, arguing for the need to augment information with an additional set of metadata about its usage and management. We discuss the use of DRM technologies in this context as a possible direction.

  7. Lateralization of behavior in dairy cows in response to conspecifics and novel persons.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C J C; Oevermans, H; Syrett, K L; Jespersen, A Y; Pearce, G P

    2015-04-01

    The right brain hemisphere, connected to the left eye, coordinates fight and flight behaviors in a wide variety of vertebrate species. We investigated whether left eye vision predominates in dairy cows' interactions with other cows and humans, and whether dominance status affects the extent of visual lateralization. Although we found no overall lateralization of eye use to view other cows during interactions, cows that were submissive in an interaction were more likely to use their left eye to view a dominant animal. Both subordinate and older cows were more likely to use their left eye to view other cattle during interactions. Cows that predominantly used their left eye during aggressive interactions were more likely to use their left eye to view a person in unfamiliar clothing in the middle of a track by passing them on the right side. However, a person in familiar clothing was viewed predominantly with the right eye when they passed mainly on the left side. Cows predominantly using their left eyes in cow-to-cow interactions showed more overt responses to restraint in a crush compared with cows who predominantly used their right eyes during interactions (crush scores: left eye users 7.9, right eye users 6.4, standard error of the difference=0.72). Thus, interactions between 2 cows and between cows and people were visually lateralized, with losing and subordinate cows being more likely to use their left eyes to view winning and dominant cattle and unfamiliar humans.

  8. Physiologic correlates to background noise acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampas, Joanna; Harkrider, Ashley; Nabelek, Anna

    2001-05-01

    Acceptance of background noise can be evaluated by having listeners indicate the highest background noise level (BNL) they are willing to accept while following the words of a story presented at their most comfortable listening level (MCL). The difference between the selected MCL and BNL is termed the acceptable noise level (ANL). One of the consistent findings in previous studies of ANL is large intersubject variability in acceptance of background noise. This variability is not related to age, gender, hearing sensitivity, personality, type of background noise, or speech perception in noise performance. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if individual differences in physiological activity measured from the peripheral and central auditory systems of young female adults with normal hearing can account for the variability observed in ANL. Correlations between ANL and various physiological responses, including spontaneous, click-evoked, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem and middle latency evoked potentials, and electroencephalography will be presented. Results may increase understanding of the regions of the auditory system that contribute to individual noise acceptance.

  9. Sex, college major, and attribution of responsibility in empathic responding to persons with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Bécares, Laia; Turner, Castellano

    2004-10-01

    This investigation studied the influence of sex, college major, and attributed responsibility on college students' empathic responding towards persons infected with HIV. We hypothesized that (1) women would score higher on empathy than men; (2) nursing and psychology majors would score higher on empathy than business and computer science majors; and (3) participants would score higher on empathy towards a target who contracted HIV through blood transfusion (presented as a Nonresponsible target) rather than through unprotected sex (presented as a Responsible target). Two hundred and fifty-eight undergraduate students (110 male, 148 female) attending a large urban university in the northeast filled out an anonymous demographic questionnaire, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index of Davis (1983), and an Empathy Reaction Scale that was developed by the authors. Results indicated a higher mean Empathy Reaction score from nursing and psychology students as compared to business and computer science students. There was no difference in Empathy Reaction scores between men and women. A higher Empathy Reaction score was found among participants who had read a diary from the target portrayed as Nonresponsible, as opposed to those who read a diary from the target portrayed as Responsible.

  10. Immune Responses to an Oral Cholera Vaccine in Internally Displaced Persons in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Anita S.; Bouhenia, Malika; Rumunu, John; Abubakar, Abdinasir; Gruninger, Randon J.; Pita, Jane; Lino, Richard Lako; Deng, Lul L.; Wamala, Joseph F.; Ryan, Edward T.; Martin, Stephen; Legros, Dominique; Lessler, Justin; Sack, David A.; Luquero, Francisco J.; Leung, Daniel T.; Azman, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent large-scale cholera outbreaks, little is known about the immunogenicity of oral cholera vaccines (OCV) in African populations, particularly among those at highest cholera risk. During a 2015 preemptive OCV campaign among internally displaced persons in South Sudan, a year after a large cholera outbreak, we enrolled 37 young children (1–5 years old), 67 older children (6–17 years old) and 101 adults (≥18 years old), who received two doses of OCV (Shanchol) spaced approximately 3 weeks apart. Cholera-specific antibody responses were determined at days 0, 21 and 35 post-immunization. High baseline vibriocidal titers (>80) were observed in 21% of the participants, suggesting recent cholera exposure or vaccination. Among those with titers ≤80, 90% young children, 73% older children and 72% adults seroconverted (≥4 fold titer rise) after the 1st OCV dose; with no additional seroconversion after the 2nd dose. Post-vaccination immunological endpoints did not differ across age groups. Our results indicate Shanchol was immunogenic in this vulnerable population and that a single dose alone may be sufficient to achieve similar short-term immunological responses to the currently licensed two-dose regimen. While we found no evidence of differential response by age, further immunologic and epidemiologic studies are needed. PMID:27775046

  11. Neuromagnetic brain responses to other person's eye blinks seen on video

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Anne; Helokunnas, Siiri; Pihko, Elina; Hari, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Eye blinks, typically occurring 15–20 times per minute, rarely capture attention during face-to-face interaction. To determine the extent to which eye blinks affect the viewer's brain activity, we recorded magnetoencephalographic brain responses to natural blinks, and to the same blinks slowed down to 38% of the original speed. The stimuli were presented on video once every 2.3–6.2 s. As a control, we presented two horizontal black bars moving with the same time courses and the same extent as the eyelids in the blink video. Both types of blinks and bars elicited clear responses peaking at about 200 ms in the occipital areas, with no systematic differences between hemispheres. For the bars, these main responses were (as expected) weaker (by 24%) and later (by 33 ms) to slow-motion than normal-speed stimuli. For blinks, however, the responses to both normal-speed and slow-motion stimuli were of the same amplitude and latency. Our results demonstrate that the brain not only responds to other persons' eye blinks, but that the responses are as fast and of equal size even when the blinks are considerably slowed down. We interpret this finding to reflect the increased social salience of the slowed-down blinks that counteracted the general tendency of the brain to react more weakly and more slowly to slowly- vs. quickly-changing stimuli. This finding may relate to the social importance of facial gestures, including eye blinks. PMID:24796310

  12. Genetic influences of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor response: an opportunity for personalizing therapy?

    PubMed

    Brugts, Jasper J; Simoons, Maarten L

    2012-08-01

    The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are a cornerstone drug therapy in the current treatment of patients with hypertension, stable coronary artery disease and heart failure. Individualizing therapy of ACE inhibitors with clinical risk factors in low-risk patients with stable coronary artery disease is not feasible. The concept of pharmacogenetics, by studying patient factors more individually, offers a first glimpse in the quest for the 'holy grail' of personalized medicine. As such, genetic targets in the direct pharmacodynamic pathway of ACE inhibitors, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, is a plausible candidate for such an approach. In the past few decades, results of pharmacogenetic studies were scarce and inconsistent. However, recently the first reports of larger pharmacogenetic studies are now confirming that the 'pharmacogenetic approach' might be feasible in the future. The current review focuses on the recent developments in pharmacogenetic research in response to ACE inhibitors in patients with stable coronary artery disease. PMID:23030290

  13. Personalized preventive medicine: genetics and the response to regular exercise in preventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Claude; Antunes-Correa, Ligia M; Ashley, Euan A; Franklin, Nina; Hwang, Paul M; Mattsson, C Mikael; Negrao, Carlos E; Phillips, Shane A; Sarzynski, Mark A; Wang, Ping-Yuan; Wheeler, Matthew T

    2015-01-01

    Regular exercise and a physically active lifestyle have favorable effects on health. Several issues related to this theme are addressed in this report. A comment on the requirements of personalized exercise medicine and in-depth biological profiling along with the opportunities that they offer is presented. This is followed by a brief overview of the evidence for the contributions of genetic differences to the ability to benefit from regular exercise. Subsequently, studies showing that mutations in TP53 influence exercise capacity in mice and humans are succinctly described. The evidence for effects of exercise on endothelial function in health and disease also is covered. Finally, changes in cardiac and skeletal muscle in response to exercise and their implications for patients with cardiac disease are summarized. Innovative research strategies are needed to define the molecular mechanisms involved in adaptation to exercise and to translate them into useful clinical and public health applications. PMID:25559061

  14. Who's your nanny? Choice, paternalism and public health in the age of personal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Lindsay F; Berman, Micah L; Blanke, Doug

    2013-03-01

    A belief that the government does (and should) have broad authority to protect and improve health, coupled with an understanding that collective action is often necessary to address public health challenges effectively, is central to the public health mindset. But many are questioning whether this vision of a strong government role is applicable to non-communicable disease threats and the social determinants of health. Arguments about public health paternalism are playing a role in political opposition to new law and policy interventions and in legal challenges aimed at striking down existing public health laws. This article explores the forces behind the cultural and political resonance of concerns about public health paternalism, "personal responsibility," and the "nanny state" and attempts to outlines a potential path forward from here. PMID:23590750

  15. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Interim Report on Customer Acceptance, Retention, and Response to Time-Based Rates from the Consumer Behavior Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Hans, Liesel; Scheer, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Time-based rate programs1, enabled by utility investments in advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), are increasingly being considered by utilities as tools to reduce peak demand and enable customers to better manage consumption and costs. There are several customer systems that are relatively new to the marketplace and have the potential for improving the effectiveness of these programs, including in-home displays (IHDs), programmable communicating thermostats (PCTs), and web portals. Policy and decision makers are interested in more information about customer acceptance, retention, and response before moving forward with expanded deployments of AMI-enabled new rates and technologies. Under the Smart Grid Investment Grant Program (SGIG), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) partnered with several utilities to conduct consumer behavior studies (CBS). The goals involved applying randomized and controlled experimental designs for estimating customer responses more precisely and credibly to advance understanding of time-based rates and customer systems, and provide new information for improving program designs, implementation strategies, and evaluations. The intent was to produce more robust and credible analysis of impacts, costs, benefits, and lessons learned and assist utility and regulatory decision makers in evaluating investment opportunities involving time-based rates. To help achieve these goals, DOE developed technical guidelines to help the CBS utilities estimate customer acceptance, retention, and response more precisely.

  16. Preliminary data on an acceptance-based emotion regulation group intervention for deliberate self-harm among women with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Kim L; Gunderson, John G

    2006-03-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and deliberate self-harm are clinically important conditions for which additional economically and clinically feasible interventions are needed. Literature on both the emotion regulating and experientially avoidant function of self-harm and the role of emotional dysfunction in BPD provided the rationale for developing a group intervention targeting emotion dysregulation among self-harming women with BPD. This study provides preliminary data on the efficacy of this new, 14-week, emotion regulation group intervention, designed to teach self-harming women with BPD more adaptive ways of responding to their emotions so as to reduce the frequency of their self-harm behavior. Participants were matched on level of emotion dysregulation and lifetime frequency of self-harm and randomly assigned to receive this group in addition to their current outpatient therapy (N = 12), or to continue with their current outpatient therapy alone for 14 weeks (N = 10). Results indicate that the group intervention had positive effects on self-harm, emotion dysregulation, experiential avoidance, and BPD-specific symptoms, as well as symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Participants in the group treatment condition evidenced significant changes over time on all measures, and reached normative levels of functioning on most. While these preliminary results are promising, the study's limitations require their replication in a larger-scale randomized controlled trial.

  17. Improving eye safety in citrus harvest crews through the acceptance of personal protective equipment, community-based participatory research, social marketing, and community health workers.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Aguilar, J Antonio; Monaghan, Paul F; Bryant, Carol A; Esposito, Andrew; Wade, Mark; Ruiz, Omar; McDermott, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    For the last 10 years, the Partnership for Citrus Workers Health (PCWH) has been an evidence-based intervention program that promotes the adoption of protective eye safety equipment among Spanish-speaking farmworkers of Florida. At the root of this program is the systematic use of community-based preventive marketing (CBPM) and the training of community health workers (CHWs) among citrus harvester using popular education. CBPM is a model that combines the organizational system of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and the strategies of social marketing. This particular program relied on formative research data using a mixed-methods approach and a multilevel stakeholder analysis that allowed for rapid dissemination, effective increase of personal protective equipment (PPE) usage, and a subsequent impact on adoptive workers and companies. Focus groups, face-to-face interviews, surveys, participant observation, Greco-Latin square, and quasi-experimental tests were implemented. A 20-hour popular education training produced CHWs that translated results of the formative research to potential adopters and also provided first aid skills for eye injuries. Reduction of injuries is not limited to the use of safety glasses, but also to the adoption of timely intervention and regular eye hygiene. Limitations include adoption in only large companies, rapid decline of eye safety glasses without consistent intervention, technological limitations of glasses, and thorough cost-benefit analysis.

  18. Survey and online discussion groups to develop a patient-rated outcome measure on acceptability of treatment response in vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is a chronic depigmenting skin disorder which affects around 0.5-1% of the world’s population. The outcome measures used most commonly in trials to judge treatment success focus on repigmentation. Patient-reported outcome measures of treatment success are rarely used, although recommendations have been made for their inclusion in vitiligo trials. This study aimed to evaluate the face validity of a new patient-reported outcome measure of treatment response, for use in future trials and clinical practice. Method An online survey to gather initial views on what constitutes treatment success for people with vitiligo or their parents/carers, followed by online discussion groups with patients to reach consensus on what constitutes treatment success for individuals with vitiligo, and how this can be assessed in the context of trials. Participants were recruited from an existing database of vitiligo patients and through posts on the social network sites Facebook and Twitter. Results A total of 202 survey responses were received, of which 37 were excluded and 165 analysed. Three main themes emerged as important in assessing treatment response: a) the match between vitiligo and normal skin (how well it blends in); b) how noticeable the vitiligo is and c) a reduction in the size of the white patches. The majority of respondents said they would consider 80% or more repigmentation to be a worthwhile treatment response after 9 months of treatment. Three online discussion groups involving 12 participants led to consensus that treatment success is best measured by asking patients how noticeable their vitiligo is after treatment. This was judged to be best answered using a 5-point Likert scale, on which a score of 4 or 5 represents treatment success. Conclusions This study represents the first step in developing a patient reported measure of treatment success in vitiligo trials. Further work is now needed to assess its construct validity and responsiveness to

  19. Guilty, but not ashamed: "true" self-conceptions influence affective responses to personal shortcomings.

    PubMed

    Vess, Matthew; Schlegel, Rebecca J; Hicks, Joshua A; Arndt, Jamie

    2014-06-01

    The current research examined how true self-conceptions (who a person believes he or she truly is) influence negative self-relevant emotions in response to shortcomings. In Study 1 (N = 83), an Internet sample of adults completed a measure of authenticity, reflected on a shortcoming or positive life event, and completed state shame and guilt measures. In Study 2 (N = 49), undergraduates focused on true versus other determined self-attributes, received negative performance feedback, and completed state shame and guilt measures. In Study 3 (N = 138), undergraduates focused on self-determined versus other determined self-aspects, reflected on a shortcoming or neutral event, and completed state shame, guilt, and self-esteem measures. In Study 4 (N = 75), undergraduates thought about true self-attributes, an achievement, or an ordinary event; received positive or negative performance feedback; and completed state shame and guilt measures. In Study 1, differences in true self-expression positively predicted shame-free guilt (but not guilt-free shame) following reminders of a shortcoming. Studies 2-4 found that experimental activation of true self-conceptions increased shame-free guilt and generally decreased guilt-free shame in response to negative evaluative experiences. The findings offer novel insights into true self-conceptions by revealing their impact on negative self-conscious emotions.

  20. Audience response made easy: using personal digital assistants as a classroom polling tool.

    PubMed

    Menon, Anil S; Moffett, Shannon; Enriquez, Melissa; Martinez, Miriam M; Dev, Parvati; Grappone, Todd

    2004-01-01

    Both teachers and students benefit from an interactive classroom. The teacher receives valuable input about effectiveness, student interest, and comprehension, whereas student participation, active learning, and enjoyment of the class are enhanced. Cost and deployment have limited the use of existing audience response systems, allowing anonymous linking of teachers and students in the classroom. These limitations can be circumvented, however, by use of personal digital assistants (PDAs), which are cheaper and widely used by students. In this study, the authors equipped a summer histology class of 12 students with PDAs and wireless Bluetooth cards to allow access to a central server. Teachers displayed questions in multiple-choice format as a Web page on the server and students responded with their PDAs, a process referred to as polling. Responses were immediately compiled, analyzed, and displayed. End-of-class survey results indicated that students were enthusiastic about the polling tool. The surveys also provided technical feedback that will be valuable in streamlining future trials.

  1. Identification of innate immune response endotypes in asthma: implications for personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Brasier, Allan R

    2013-10-01

    Asthma is an idiopathic disease characterized by episodic inflammation and reversible airway obstruction triggered by exposure to environmental agents. Because this disease is heterogeneous in onset, exacerbations, inflammatory states, and response to therapy, there is intense interest in developing personalized approaches to its management. Of focus in this review, the recognition that a component of the pathophysiology of asthma is mediated by inflammation has implications for understanding its etiology and individualizing its therapy. Despite understanding how Th2 polarization mediates asthma exacerbations by aeroallergen exposure, we do not yet fully understand how RNA virus infections produce asthmatic exacerbations. This review will summarize the explosion of information that has revealed how patterns produced by RNA virus infection trigger the innate immune response (IIR) in sentinel airway cells. When the IIR is triggered, these cells elaborate inflammatory cytokines and protective mucosal interferons whose actions activate long-lived adaptive immunity and limit organismal replication. Recent work has shown the multifaceted way that dysregulation of the IIR is linked to viral-induced exacerbation, steroid insensitivity, and T helper polarization of adaptive immunity. New developments in quantitative proteomics now enable accurate identification of subgroups of individuals that demonstrate activation of IIR ("innate endotype"). Potential applications to clinical research are proposed. Together, these developments open realistic prospects for how identification of the IIR endotype may inform asthma therapy in the future.

  2. Soft tissue response to orthognathic surgery in persons with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Ewing, M; Ross, R B

    1993-05-01

    Individuals with cleft lip and palate often require orthognathic surgery to establish facial harmony and optimal occlusal function. Surgery to the skeletal components of the face can accomplish predictable alterations in jaw relations. The soft tissue response to those skeletal movements, however, is difficult to predict, as it is also for the noncleft individual. In addition there is the variability of the repaired cleft lip. The study included 30 persons with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate, operated for midface deficiency using a Le Fort I maxillary advancement at a mean age of 18.0 years. Some relapse occurred in the immediate postoperative period, but after 1 year the mean advancement of the maxilla was 4.9 mm (best fit of anterior maxilla) and 5.6 mm (incisal edge). Both skeletal and soft tissue changes were negligible after that time. The ratio of upper lip advancement to underlying incisor advancement was 0.65 to 1. Although the lip response was highly correlated to the underlying bony movement, the variation was sufficient to preclude accurate prediction. The upper lip thinned with maxillary advancement, but this was not related to the original lip thickness. Coincident mandibular surgery had no appreciable effect on upper lip movement.

  3. Very rapid virologic response and early HCV response kinetics, as quick measures to compare efficacy and guide a personalized response-guided therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yakoot, Mostafa; Abdo, Alaa M; Yousry, Ahmed; Helmy, Sherine

    2016-01-01

    Background This is the second and final report for our study designed to compare two generic sofosbuvir products for the degree and speed of virologic response to a dual anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment protocol. We aimed to test the applicability of the early virus response kinetics and the very rapid virologic response (vRVR) rate as quick outcome measures for accelerated comparative efficacy studies and as a foundation for a personalized response-guided therapy. Methods Fifty eligible chronic HCV patients were randomized to either one of two generic sofosbuvir products (Gratisovir or Grateziano) at a daily dose of one 400 mg tablet plus a weight-based ribavirin dose. Data were compared between the groups for early virus response kinetics and vRVR rates in relation to the rates of final sustained virologic response at week 12 posttreatment (SVR12). Results The Log10 transformed virus load (Log polymerase chain reaction) curves showed fairly similar rapid decline during the first 2 weeks, with no significant difference between the groups at four analysis points throughout the study by repeated-measures factorial analysis of variance test (P=0.48). The SVR12 rates were 96% (95% confidence interval, 79.6%–99.9%) in Gratisovir group (24/25) and 95.7% (95% confidence interval, 78%–99.9%) in Grateziano group (22/23). There was no statistically significant difference found by exact test (P>0.999). There was a significant association between the vRVR and the SVR12, with 100% positive predictive value (38/38 of those who had vRVR, achieved a final SVR12) and 82.6% sensitivity (among the total 46 with SVR12, 38 were having vRVR). Conclusion We can conclude from our study that the early HCV response kinetics and the vRVR rates could be used as sensitive quick markers for efficacy (with a very high positive predictive value for SVR12), based on our accelerated comparative efficacy research model. This might open the way for new models of accelerated equivalence

  4. Very rapid virologic response and early HCV response kinetics, as quick measures to compare efficacy and guide a personalized response-guided therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yakoot, Mostafa; Abdo, Alaa M; Yousry, Ahmed; Helmy, Sherine

    2016-01-01

    Background This is the second and final report for our study designed to compare two generic sofosbuvir products for the degree and speed of virologic response to a dual anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment protocol. We aimed to test the applicability of the early virus response kinetics and the very rapid virologic response (vRVR) rate as quick outcome measures for accelerated comparative efficacy studies and as a foundation for a personalized response-guided therapy. Methods Fifty eligible chronic HCV patients were randomized to either one of two generic sofosbuvir products (Gratisovir or Grateziano) at a daily dose of one 400 mg tablet plus a weight-based ribavirin dose. Data were compared between the groups for early virus response kinetics and vRVR rates in relation to the rates of final sustained virologic response at week 12 posttreatment (SVR12). Results The Log10 transformed virus load (Log polymerase chain reaction) curves showed fairly similar rapid decline during the first 2 weeks, with no significant difference between the groups at four analysis points throughout the study by repeated-measures factorial analysis of variance test (P=0.48). The SVR12 rates were 96% (95% confidence interval, 79.6%–99.9%) in Gratisovir group (24/25) and 95.7% (95% confidence interval, 78%–99.9%) in Grateziano group (22/23). There was no statistically significant difference found by exact test (P>0.999). There was a significant association between the vRVR and the SVR12, with 100% positive predictive value (38/38 of those who had vRVR, achieved a final SVR12) and 82.6% sensitivity (among the total 46 with SVR12, 38 were having vRVR). Conclusion We can conclude from our study that the early HCV response kinetics and the vRVR rates could be used as sensitive quick markers for efficacy (with a very high positive predictive value for SVR12), based on our accelerated comparative efficacy research model. This might open the way for new models of accelerated equivalence

  5. The personal characteristics of effective counselors: what 10 experts think.

    PubMed

    Pope, V T; Kline, W B

    1999-06-01

    The counseling professional has called for the use of personal characteristics to be used for admissions to counseling programs as well as in the evaluation of counseling students. 10 expert counselors ranked 22 personality characteristics of potential students for importance and responsiveness to training. The most important include empathy, acceptance, and warmth, while the least important include resourcefulness, sympathy and sociability. PMID:10477949

  6. The Personalities of Group Leaders: Implications for Selection and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLennan, Beryce W.

    This paper discusses the growing recognition that the personalities and life experiences of group leaders are important factors in their effectiveness. Leaders should be warm, empathetic, responsive, understand individual and group behavior, give feedback, be trusted and accepted. Life experiences and personal development are important for the…

  7. Individual differences in response to automation: the five factor model of personality.

    PubMed

    Szalma, James L; Taylor, Grant S

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of operator personality (Five Factor Model) and characteristics of the task and of adaptive automation (reliability and adaptiveness-whether the automation was well-matched to changes in task demand) to operator performance, workload, stress, and coping. This represents the first investigation of how the Five Factors relate to human response to automation. One-hundred-sixty-one college students experienced either 75% or 95% reliable automation provided with task loads of either two or four displays to be monitored. The task required threat detection in a simulated uninhabited ground vehicle (UGV) task. Task demand exerted the strongest influence on outcome variables. Automation characteristics did not directly impact workload or stress, but effects did emerge in the context of trait-task interactions that varied as a function of the dimension of workload and stress. The pattern of relationships of traits to dependent variables was generally moderated by at least one task factor. Neuroticism was related to poorer performance in some conditions, and all five traits were associated with at least one measure of workload and stress. Neuroticism generally predicted increased workload and stress and the other traits predicted decreased levels of these states. However, in the case of the relation of Extraversion and Agreeableness to Worry, Frustration, and avoidant coping, the direction of effects varied across task conditions. The results support incorporation of individual differences into automation design by identifying the relevant person characteristics and using the information to determine what functions to automate and the form and level of automation.

  8. Ebola Response: Modeling the Risk of Heat Stress from Personal Protective Clothing

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Adam W.; Gonzalez, Julio A.; Xu, Xiaojiang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A significant number of healthcare workers have responded to aid in the relief and containment of the 2013 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa. Healthcare workers are required to wear personal protective clothing (PPC) to impede the transmission of the virus; however, the impermeable design and the hot humid environment lead to risk of heat stress. Objective Provide healthcare workers quantitative modeling and analysis to aid in the prevention of heat stress while wearing PPC in West Africa. Methods A sweating thermal manikin was used to measure the thermal (Rct) and evaporative resistance (Ret) of the five currently used levels of PPC for healthcare workers in the West Africa EVD response. Mathematical methods of predicting the rise in core body temperature (Tc) in response to clothing, activity, and environment was used to simulate different responses to PPC levels, individual body sizes, and two hot humid conditions: morning/evening (air temperature: 25°C, relative humidity: 40%, mean radiant temperature: 35°C, wind velocity: 1 m/s) and mid-day (30°C, 60%, 70°C, 1 m/s). Results Nearly still air (0.4 m/s) measures of Rct ranged from 0.18 to 0.26 m2 K/W and Ret ranged from 25.53 to 340.26 m2 Pa/W. Conclusion Biophysical assessments and modeling in this study provide quantitative guidance for prevention of heat stress of healthcare workers wearing PPC responding to the EVD outbreak in West Africa. PMID:26575389

  9. Personality disorder comorbidity with major depression and response to treatment with sertraline or citalopram.

    PubMed

    Ekselius, L; von Knorring, L

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of DSM-III-R personality disorders in depressed patients treated in primary care, and to examine the effect of sertraline or citalopram on the diagnosis of personality disorders. A total of 308 patients with a major depressive disorder were assessed with the Swedish version of the Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Disorders (SCID) screen questionnaire, before and after 24 weeks double-blind treatment with sertraline (50-150 mg/day) or citalopram (20-60 mg/day). Following treatment, significant reductions in the frequency of paranoid, borderline, avoidant and dependent personality disorder diagnoses were seen in both treatment groups. When the personality disorders were analysed as continuous, dimensional personality traits significant reductions were seen for most personality categories. To elucidate if the observed reductions in personality disorder criteria could be explained by the improvement in depressive symptomatology, a series of multiple regressions were made. Reduction of depression scores was of some importance for the changes in most personality disorders. However, the multiple R never exceeded 0.24 (cluster C). Type of drug was of importance only as concerns obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Overall, the results suggest that sertraline and citalopram may be beneficial in the treatment of certain personality disorder traits in patients with major depressive disorders.

  10. [Personality disorders in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Denis, J F

    1990-04-01

    Psychiatric patients with personality disorders are among the most difficult because of the counter-transferential strain they put on clinicians and the paucity of specific treatment. The author develops the point that personality disorders are not diseases as implied in Axis I disorders, but social illness syndromes which depict systemic problems in which clinicians can be engulfed and entrapped. The difficult patient does not exist in isolation, a victim of his own drives and psyche, but rather is a specific socio-cultural actor living and emerging from a particular environmental context. Personality disorders are considered to be interpersonal patterns in which a person's debilitating behaviour elicits complementary behaviour that reinforces the original behaviour. Within a systems perspective, there is not a disordered personality so much as a disordering system of relationships. As with families and society, healers too become involved in the vicious cycle of personality disorders if they fail to see the manipulative interpersonal devices used by these patients. If clinicians accept too naively the lay person's simplistic belief that personality disorders are diseases to be treated by psychiatrists, they run the risk of fostering inappropriate passivity in patients in the face of life demands. Overindulgence and angry rejection are the two major pitfalls often seen in clinical practice. The approach proposed here may seem conterintuitive in laying stress on the need to actively resist the temptation to take over responsibility for a patient's life. There is a difference between a behaviour that a patient's illness (Axis I disorder) prevents him from controlling and an impulsive deliberate behaviour stemming from character pathology. It is a logical error to deal with personality disorders in the same manner and with the same conceptual terminology as for depressive and psychotic disorders. Principles of management are detailed and can be summarized as a kind

  11. Personalized Circulating Tumor DNA Biomarkers Dynamically Predict Treatment Response and Survival In Gynecologic Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Sanya; Sebra, Robert; Catalina Camacho, Sandra; Garnar-Wortzel, Leopold; Nair, Navya; Moshier, Erin; Wooten, Melissa; Uzilov, Andrew; Chen, Rong; Prasad-Hayes, Monica; Zakashansky, Konstantin; Beddoe, Ann Marie; Schadt, Eric; Dottino, Peter; Martignetti, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background High-grade serous ovarian and endometrial cancers are the most lethal female reproductive tract malignancies worldwide. In part, failure to treat these two aggressive cancers successfully centers on the fact that while the majority of patients are diagnosed based on current surveillance strategies as having a complete clinical response to their primary therapy, nearly half will develop disease recurrence within 18 months and the majority will die from disease recurrence within 5 years. Moreover, no currently used biomarkers or imaging studies can predict outcome following initial treatment. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) represents a theoretically powerful biomarker for detecting otherwise occult disease. We therefore explored the use of personalized ctDNA markers as both a surveillance and prognostic biomarker in gynecologic cancers and compared this to current FDA-approved surveillance tools. Methods and Findings Tumor and serum samples were collected at time of surgery and then throughout treatment course for 44 patients with gynecologic cancers, representing 22 ovarian cancer cases, 17 uterine cancer cases, one peritoneal, three fallopian tube, and one patient with synchronous fallopian tube and uterine cancer. Patient/tumor-specific mutations were identified using whole-exome and targeted gene sequencing and ctDNA levels quantified using droplet digital PCR. CtDNA was detected in 93.8% of patients for whom probes were designed and levels were highly correlated with CA-125 serum and computed tomography (CT) scanning results. In six patients, ctDNA detected the presence of cancer even when CT scanning was negative and, on average, had a predictive lead time of seven months over CT imaging. Most notably, undetectable levels of ctDNA at six months following initial treatment was associated with markedly improved progression free and overall survival. Conclusions Detection of residual disease in gynecologic, and indeed all cancers, represents a diagnostic

  12. Do bipolar subjects' responses to personality questionnaires lack reliability? Evidence from the PsyCoLaus study.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Marc; Capel, Roland; Meier, Emanuele; Rudaz, Dominique; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Castelao, Enrique; Preisig, Martin; Vandeleur, Caroline L

    2016-04-30

    Differences in personality scores between subjects with and without mood disorders might result from response biases rather than specific personality traits per se. The aim of this study was to compare subjects with bipolar disorders (BPD) to non-bipolar subjects in terms of response quality to the NEO-FFI. Using data from the population-based cohort study PsyCoLaus, subjects were compared in terms of responses to the NEO-FFI, and indices of response quality were calculated. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed and controlled for sociodemographic factors, depressive episodes, dysthymia, anxiety disorders and substance use disorders. Consistent with the literature, subjects with BPD had higher scores in neuroticism and openness, and lower scores in conscientiousness. However, significant differences were measured for response reliability and validity. In particular, the indices of response quality including response reliability were lower in subjects with BPD suggesting that bipolar subjects might have more difficulty in providing consistent answers throughout questionnaires. However, regression models resulted in small associations between mania/hypomania and response quality, and showed that differences in response quality were mainly attributable to correlates of BPD instead of the presence of mania/hypomania itself. The current findings suggest that bipolar subjects' responses to questionnaires are biased, making them less reliable. PMID:27086248

  13. Effect of Ethanol and Methyl-tert-Butyl Ether on Monoaromatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation: Response Variability for Different Aquifer Materials Under Various Electron-Accepting Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Aguilar, G L; Fernandez-Sanchez, J M; Kane, S R; Kim, D; Alvarez, P J

    2003-10-06

    Aquifer microcosms were used to determine how ethanol and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MtBE) affect monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation under different electron-accepting conditions commonly found in contaminated sites experiencing natural attenuation. Response variability was investigated by using aquifer material from four sites with different exposure history. The lag phase prior to BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and ethanol degradation was typically shorter in microcosms with previously contaminated aquifer material, although previous exposure did not always result in high degradation activity. Toluene was degraded in all aquifer materials and generally under a broader range of electron-accepting conditions compared to benzene, which was degraded only under aerobic conditions. MtBE was not degraded within 100 days under any condition, and it did not affect BTEX or ethanol degradation patterns. Ethanol was often degraded before BTEX compounds, and had a variable effect on BTEX degradation as a function of electron-accepting conditions and aquifer material source. An occasional enhancement of toluene degradation by ethanol occurred in denitrifying microcosms with unlimited nitrate; this may be attributable to the fortuitous growth of toluene-degrading bacteria during ethanol degradation. Nevertheless, experiments with flow-through aquifer columns showed that this beneficial effect could be eclipsed by an ethanol-driven depletion of electron acceptors, which significantly inhibited BTEX degradation and is probably the most important mechanism by which ethanol could hinder BTEX natural attenuation. A decrease in natural attenuation could increase the likelihood that BTEX compounds reach a receptor as well as the potential duration of exposure.

  14. Effect of base layer materials on physiological and perceptual responses to exercise in personal protective equipment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Denise L; Arena, Logan; DeBlois, Jacob P; Haller, Jeannie M; Hultquist, Eric M; Lefferts, Wesley K; Russell, Tim; Wu, Annie; Fehling, Patricia C

    2014-05-01

    Ten men (non-firefighters) completed a 110 min walking/recovery protocol (three 20-min exercise bouts, with recovery periods of 10, 20, and 20 min following successive bouts) in a thermoneutral laboratory while wearing firefighting personal protective equipment over one of four base layers: cotton, modacrylic, wool, and phase change material. There were no significant differences in changes in heart rate, core temperature, rating of perceived exertion, thermal discomfort, and thermal strain among base layers. Sticking to skin, coolness/hotness, and clothing humidity sensation were more favorable (p < 0.05) for wool compared with cotton; no significant differences were identified for the other 7 clothing sensations assessed. Separate materials performance testing of the individual base layers and firefighting ensembles (base layer + turnout gear) indicated differences in thermal protective performance and total heat loss among the base layers and among ensembles; however, differences in heat dissipation did not correspond with physiological responses during exercise or recovery.

  15. Not all my fault”: Genetics, stigma, and personal responsibility for women with eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Easter, Michele M.

    2012-01-01

    Medical researchers and clinicians increasingly understand and present eating disorders (anorexia and bulimia nervosa) as biologically-based psychiatric disorders, with genetic risk factors established by high heritability estimates in twin studies. But there has been no research on interpretation of genetic involvement by people with eating disorders, who may hold other views. Their interpretations are particularly important given the frequent presumption that biogenetic framing will reduce stigma, and recent findings that it exacerbates stigma for other mental illnesses. To identify implications of genetic framing in eating disorders, I conducted semi-structured interviews with 50 US women with a history of eating disorders (half recovered, half in treatment; interviewed 2008–9 in the USA). Interviews introduced the topic of genetics, but not stigma per se. Analysis followed the general principles of grounded theory to identify perceived implications of genetic involvement; those relevant to stigma are reported here. Most anticipated that genetic reframing would help reduce stigma from personal responsibility (i.e., blame and guilt for eating disorder as ongoing choice). A third articulated ways it could add stigma, including novel forms of stigma related to genetic essentialist effacing of social factors. Despite welcoming reductions in blame and guilt, half also worried genetic framing could hamper recovery, by encouraging fatalistic self-fulfilling prophecies and genetic excuses. This study is the first to elicit perceptions of genetic involvement by those with eating disorders, and contributes to an emerging literature on perceptions of psychiatric genetics by people with mental illness. PMID:22819736

  16. Revealing Real-Time Emotional Responses: a Personalized Assessment based on Heartbeat Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenza, Gaetano; Citi, Luca; Lanatá, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    Emotion recognition through computational modeling and analysis of physiological signals has been widely investigated in the last decade. Most of the proposed emotion recognition systems require relatively long-time series of multivariate records and do not provide accurate real-time characterizations using short-time series. To overcome these limitations, we propose a novel personalized probabilistic framework able to characterize the emotional state of a subject through the analysis of heartbeat dynamics exclusively. The study includes thirty subjects presented with a set of standardized images gathered from the international affective picture system, alternating levels of arousal and valence. Due to the intrinsic nonlinearity and nonstationarity of the RR interval series, a specific point-process model was devised for instantaneous identification considering autoregressive nonlinearities up to the third-order according to the Wiener-Volterra representation, thus tracking very fast stimulus-response changes. Features from the instantaneous spectrum and bispectrum, as well as the dominant Lyapunov exponent, were extracted and considered as input features to a support vector machine for classification. Results, estimating emotions each 10 seconds, achieve an overall accuracy in recognizing four emotional states based on the circumplex model of affect of 79.29%, with 79.15% on the valence axis, and 83.55% on the arousal axis.

  17. Revealing Real-Time Emotional Responses: a Personalized Assessment based on Heartbeat Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Valenza, Gaetano; Citi, Luca; Lanatá, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Emotion recognition through computational modeling and analysis of physiological signals has been widely investigated in the last decade. Most of the proposed emotion recognition systems require relatively long-time series of multivariate records and do not provide accurate real-time characterizations using short-time series. To overcome these limitations, we propose a novel personalized probabilistic framework able to characterize the emotional state of a subject through the analysis of heartbeat dynamics exclusively. The study includes thirty subjects presented with a set of standardized images gathered from the international affective picture system, alternating levels of arousal and valence. Due to the intrinsic nonlinearity and nonstationarity of the RR interval series, a specific point-process model was devised for instantaneous identification considering autoregressive nonlinearities up to the third-order according to the Wiener-Volterra representation, thus tracking very fast stimulus-response changes. Features from the instantaneous spectrum and bispectrum, as well as the dominant Lyapunov exponent, were extracted and considered as input features to a support vector machine for classification. Results, estimating emotions each 10 seconds, achieve an overall accuracy in recognizing four emotional states based on the circumplex model of affect of 79.29%, with 79.15% on the valence axis, and 83.55% on the arousal axis. PMID:24845973

  18. Combined treatment of borderline personality disorder with interpersonal psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy: predictors of response.

    PubMed

    Bellino, Silvio; Bozzatello, Paola; Bogetto, Filippo

    2015-03-30

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by affective instability, impulsive behaviors, and disturbed interpersonal relationships. A previous study of our group found that combined therapy with interpersonal psychotherapy adapted to BPD (IPT-BPD) and fluoxetine was superior to single pharmacotherapy in BPD patients. The aim of the present study was to examine what clinical factors predicted response to combined therapy in patients evaluated in the previous efficacy study. The subgroup of 27 patients allocated to combined therapy was analyzed. Patients were treated for 32 weeks with fluoxetine 20-40 mg/day plus IPT-BPD. Patients were assessed at baseline and week 32 with an interview for demographic and clinical variables, CGI-S, HDRS, HARS, SOFAS, BPDSI, and SAT-P. Statistical analysis was performed with multiple regression. The difference of CGI-S score between baseline and week 32 (∆CGI-S) was the dependent variable. Factors significantly and independently related to ∆CGI-S were the BPDSI total score and the items abandonment, affective instability, and identity. Patients with more severe BPD psychopathology and with a higher degree of core symptoms such as fear of abandonment, affective instability, and identity disturbance have a better chance to improve with combined therapy with fluoxetine and IPT-BPD.

  19. "Not all my fault": genetics, stigma, and personal responsibility for women with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Easter, Michele M

    2012-10-01

    Medical researchers and clinicians increasingly understand and present eating disorders (anorexia and bulimia nervosa) as biologically-based psychiatric disorders, with genetic risk factors established by high heritability estimates in twin studies. But there has been no research on interpretation of genetic involvement by people with eating disorders, who may hold other views. Their interpretations are particularly important given the frequent presumption that biogenetic framing will reduce stigma, and recent findings that it exacerbates stigma for other mental illnesses. To identify implications of genetic framing in eating disorders, I conducted semi-structured interviews with 50 US women with a history of eating disorders (half recovered, half in treatment; interviewed 2008-9 in the USA). Interviews introduced the topic of genetics, but not stigma per se. Analysis followed the general principles of grounded theory to identify perceived implications of genetic involvement; those relevant to stigma are reported here. Most anticipated that genetic reframing would help reduce stigma from personal responsibility (i.e., blame and guilt for eating disorder as ongoing choice). A third articulated ways it could add stigma, including novel forms of stigma related to genetic-essentialist effacing of social factors. Despite welcoming reductions in blame and guilt, half also worried genetic framing could hamper recovery, by encouraging fatalistic self-fulfilling prophecies and genetic excuses. This study is the first to elicit perceptions of genetic involvement by those with eating disorders, and contributes to an emerging literature on perceptions of psychiatric genetics by people with mental illness.

  20. Considering the use of a personal emergency response system: an experience of frail, older women.

    PubMed

    Porter, Eileen J; Ganong, Lawrence H

    2002-01-01

    The individual considerations of frail women who are elderly as to the use of personal emergency response systems (PERS) are discussed within this article, and they derived from a larger longitudinal study that explores the home care experience of older widows. Participants were 11 frail women (aged 81-94) who perceived a risk of "falling and not being found" and did not have a PERS. A descriptive phenomenological method was used to analyze PERS-related data obtained during interviews with each woman in her home. With regard to considering the use of a PERS, experiences were structured variously by "getting by fine without it," "waiting to get it until I really need it," "convincing myself that I might get it later," and "borrowing no more trouble than I already have." Consistent interventions by home care professionals may perhaps be needed to increase PERS utilization rates. To develop effective interventions, further descriptive research is deemed necessary to explore drawbacks and barriers to PERS use by older frail women.

  1. The thermic response to food intake in persons with thoracic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Asahara, Ryota; Yamasaki, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the influence of the level of spinal cord injury on the thermic effect of food intake (TEF) in persons with thoracic spinal cord injury. [Subjects and Methods] Seven male subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI; age, 40 ± 6 years) and six able-bodied subjects (AB; age, 37 ± 8 years) volunteered to participate in the present study. The subjects consumed an identical test meal consisting of 7.9 kcal/kg of body weight. Energy expenditure and plasma norepinephrine concentrations were measured over a 3-hour period. [Results] The adjusted TEF at 60 min was almost the same among the three groups [AB, SCI with high thoracic cord (T5-6) injury (HSCI), and SCI with low thoracic cord (T9-12) injury (LSCI)]. Although the LSCI group had almost the same adjusted TEF at 120 min as the AB group, the adjusted TEF at 120 min of the HSCI group was significantly lower than that of the AB group. The changes in plasma norepinephrine concentration and heart rate in response to food intake were similar among the three groups. [Conclusion] SCI at the T5-6 level results in a lower TEF due to sympathetic decentralization. PMID:27190431

  2. An investigation of a personal norm of condom-use responsibility among African American crack cocaine smokers

    PubMed Central

    WILLIAMS, M.; BOWEN, A.; ROSS, M.; TIMPSON, S.; PALLONEN, U.; AMOS, C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the unique contribution of a personal norm of condom-use responsibility to the formation of intentions to use male condoms during vaginal sex. Data were collected from 402 male and 157 female heterosexual African American crack cocaine smokers in Houston, Texas, US. Two structural equation models of the intention to use a condom with the last sex partner were estimated. One model included measures of condom-use attitudes, subjective norms and condom-use self-efficacy. A second model included these three measures and a fourth measure of a personal norm of condom-use responsibility. Separate models were estimated for men and women. The addition of a personal norm of condom-use responsibility provided a significantly better fit to the data than did models including only outcome expectations, subjective norms and self-efficacy. Results also showed distinctly different underlying cognitive structures of condom-use intention for men and women. A personal norm of condom-use responsibility had a strong direct effect on men’s intentions to use condoms with the last sex partner. Other variables appeared to have no direct effect on men’s intentions. Women’s intentions were strongly influenced by a personal norm and social subjective norms. Situational self-efficacy and outcome expectations had weaker, yet significant, effects on women’s intentions. Given the strong effect of personal norms on men’s intentions to use condoms, further research should be undertaken. PMID:18293133

  3. Using a Personal Response System as an In-Class Assessment Tool in the Teaching of Basic College Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Tzy-Ling; Lan, Yu-Li

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of personal response systems (PRS) (also referred to as "clickers") nearly a decade ago, their use has been extensively adopted on college campuses, and they are particularly popular with lecturers of large classes. Available evidence supports that PRS offers a promising avenue for future developments in pedagogy, although…

  4. European Religious Education Teachers' Perceptions of and Responses to Classroom Diversity and Their Relationship to Personal and Professional Biographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everington, Judith; ter Avest, Ina; Bakker, Cok; van der Want, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on teachers of secondary level religious education in England, Estonia, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Norway. It presents a study of the teachers' perceptions of and responses to the diversity within their classes, in relation to their professional role and their personal and professional biographies. The study employed…

  5. Persons with Multiple Disabilities Use Forehead and Smile Responses to Access or Choose among Technology-Aided Stimulation Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Alberti, Gloria; Bellini, Domencio; Oliva, Doretta; Boccasini, Adele; La Martire, Maria L.; Signorino, Mario

    2013-01-01

    A variety of technology-aided programs have been developed to help persons with congenital or acquired multiple disabilities access preferred stimuli or choose among stimulus options. The application of those programs may pose problems when the participants have very limited behavior repertoires and are unable to use conventional responses and…

  6. Toward Pride and Professionalism: Increasing Personal Responsibility. Thirty-Six Hour Substance Abuse Curriculum. Facilitator Guide. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Barbara Reed

    This document presents a 36-hour curriculum of the Navy Alcohol and Drug Safety Action Program designed to reduce drug and alcohol related problems in the Navy by increasing resistance to addiction. The responsibility each person holds for his or her own health and well-being as a member of the United States Navy is emphasized throughout the…

  7. The Impact of Non-attempted and Dually-Attempted Items on Person Abilities Using Item Response Theory

    PubMed Central

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Tsaousis, Ioannis; Al Harbi, Khaleel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate response strategy with person ability estimates. Two behavioral strategies were examined: (a) the strategy to skip items in order to save time on timed tests, and, (b) the strategy to select two responses on an item, with the hope that one of them may be considered correct. Participants were 4,422 individuals who were administered a standardized achievement measure related to math, biology, chemistry, and physics. In the present evaluation, only the physics subscale was employed. Two analyses were conducted: (a) a person-based one to identify differences between groups and potential correlates of those differences, and, (b) a measure-based analysis in order to identify the parts of the measure that were responsible for potential group differentiation. For (a) person abilities the 2-PL model was employed and later the 3-PL and 4-PL models in order to estimate upper and lower asymptotes of person abilities. For (b) differential item functioning, differential test functioning, and differential distractor functioning were investigated. Results indicated that there were significant differences between groups with completers having the highest ability compared to both non-attempters and dual responders. There were no significant differences between no-attempters and dual responders. The present findings have implications for response strategy efficacy and measure evaluation, revision, and construction. PMID:27790174

  8. Work First and Forget about Education: New York City's Personal Responsibility Act and the Creation of a Working Underclass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Brown, Delores; Mahoney, Jacqueline

    2001-01-01

    Though New York City's welfare reform act claims to emphasize personal responsibility, its design diminishes the possibility of sustained, meaningful employment or long-term economic stability for substantial numbers of Temporary Assistance for Needy Family recipients. By focusing on gaining employment, the act ignores well-established avenues to…

  9. Helping Youth in Underserved Communities Envision Possible Futures: An Extension of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, David

    2008-01-01

    Empowering youth through the exploration of their possible futures is a fresh and innovative approach to the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility model (TPSR). The purpose of this study was to examine the combination of TPSR with the theory of possible selves. This combination, called the Career Club, was a program specifically designed to…

  10. Effect of Personal Response Systems on Student Perception and Academic Performance in Courses in a Health Sciences Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzPatrick, Kathleen A.; Finn, Kevin E.; Campisi, Jay

    2011-01-01

    To increase student engagement, active participation, and performance, personal response systems (clickers) were incorporated into six lecture-based sections of four required courses within the Health Sciences Department major curriculum: freshman-level Anatomy and Physiology I and II, junior-level Exercise Physiology, and senior-level Human…

  11. College Students' Intention to Continue Using a Personal Response System: Deriving a Model from Four Theoretical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, C. Rosa; Tao, Yu-Hui

    2012-01-01

    The use of personal response systems (PRS) in classrooms is gaining popularity in the higher education institutes of Taiwan. However, past research rarely adopts theories from the information system domains, and their focus was primarily on the UK and US context. Therefore, this study adopted a theory-based approach to explore the perceptions of…

  12. How Benefits and Challenges of Personal Response System Impact Students' Continuance Intention? A Taiwanese Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, C. Rosa; Tao, Yu-Hui

    2013-01-01

    To address four issues observed from the latest Personal Response System (PRS) review by Kay and LeSage (2009), this paper investigates, through a systematic research, how the derived benefits and challenges of PRS affect the satisfaction and continuance intention of college students in Taiwan. The empirical study samples representative college…

  13. Gender Differences in Student Performance in Large Lecture Classrooms Using Personal Response Systems ("Clickers") with Narrative Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hosun; Lundeberg, Mary; Wolter, Bjorn; delMas, Robert; Herreid, Clyde F.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in science learning between two pedagogical approaches: traditional lecture and narrative case studies using personal response systems ("clickers"). Thirteen instructors of introductory biology classes at 12 different institutions across the USA and Canada used two types of pedagogy (Clicker Cases and…

  14. Exploring the Relevance of the Personal and Social Responsibility Model in Adapted Physical Activity: A Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Paul M.; White, Katherine; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the application of the Personal and Social Responsibility Model (PSRM) in an adapted physical activity program. Although the PSRM was developed for use with underserved youth, scholars in the field of adapted physical activity have noted its potential relevance for children with disabilities. Using a…

  15. Using a Personal Response System to Map Cognitive Efficiency and Gain Insight into a Proposed Learning Progression in Preparatory Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    Personal response systems ("clickers") have become an important means for instructors to gauge student learning in large lecture classes. In addition to measuring students' performance on a particular question, requesting a measure of mental effort from students allows for richer data concerning student learning. This information can be provided…

  16. 41 CFR 102-36.385 - What are our responsibilities in the disposal of foreign excess personal property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are our responsibilities in the disposal of foreign excess personal property? 102-36.385 Section 102-36.385 Public... compliance with U.S. Department of Commerce and Department of Agriculture regulations when transporting...

  17. Higher Education's Role in Educating for Personal and Social Responsibility: A Review of Existing Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reason, Robert D.; Ryder, Andrew J.; Kee, Chad

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines the existing literature in two major areas. A review of literature related to higher education's mission to educate for personal and social responsibility provides a rationale to refocus our collective attention on this important area of student learning and development. The chapter also reviews the current understanding…

  18. The Personal Response: A Novel Writing Assignment to Engage First Year Students in Large Human Biology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moni, Roger W.; Moni, Karen B.; Poronnik, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of highly valued scientific writing skills in the first year of university is challenging. This report describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of a novel written assignment, "The Personal Response" and accompanying Peer Review, in the course, Human Biology (BIOL1015) at The University of Queensland. These assignments were…

  19. Implementation Fidelity of a Program Designed to Promote Personal and Social Responsibility through Physical Education: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascual, Carmina; Escarti, Amparo; Llopis, Ramon; Gutierrez, Melchor; Marin, Diana; Wright, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative comparative case study was to examine the implementation fidelity of a program designed to deliver the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model (Hellison, 2003) through physical education and its relationship with short-term outcomes for elementary school students. The research questions were: (a)…

  20. Kinesiology Career Club: Undergraduate Student Mentors' Perspectives on a Physical Activity-Based Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, David S.; Veri, Maria J.; Willard, Jason J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present university student mentors' perspectives on the impact of a teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) model youth program called the Kinesiology Career Club. Data sources in this qualitative case study included program observations, mentoring reflections, and semistructured interviews. Data…

  1. Should age-period-cohort analysts accept innovation without scrutiny? A response to Reither, Masters, Yang, Powers, Zheng and Land.

    PubMed

    Bell, Andrew; Jones, Kelvyn

    2015-03-01

    This commentary clarifies our original commentary (Bell and Jones, 2014c) and illustrates some concerns we have regarding the response article in this issue (Reither et al., 2015). In particular, we argue that (a) linear effects do not have to be produced by exact linear mathematical functions to behave as if they were linear, (b) linear effects by this wider definition are extremely common in real life social processes, and (c) in the presence of these effects, the Hierarchical Age Period Cohort (HAPC) model will often not work. Although Reither et al. do not define what a 'non-linear monotonic trend' is (instead, only stating that it isn't a linear effect) we show that the model often doesn't work in the presence of such effects, by using data generated as a 'non-linear monotonic trend' by Reither et al. themselves. We then question their discussion of fixed and random effects before finishing with a discussion of how we argue that theory should be used, in the context of the obesity epidemic.

  2. "I am not alone": the feasibility and acceptability of interactive voice response-facilitated telephone peer support among older adults with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Heisler, Michele; Halasyamani, Lakshmi; Resnicow, Kenneth; Neaton, Marie; Shanahan, Jan; Brown, Stephanie; Piette, John D

    2007-01-01

    Patient self-management is a critical determinant of heart failure (HF) outcomes, yet patients with HF are often frail and socially isolated, factors that may limit their ability to manage self-care and access clinic-based services. Mobilizing peer support among HF patients is a promising strategy to improve self-management support. In this pilot, the authors evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of an interactive voice response (IVR)-based platform to facilitate telephone peer support among older adults with HF. Participants completed a baseline survey, were offered a 3-hour training session in peer communication skills, and were paired with another patient who had HF. Participants were asked to contact their partner weekly using a toll-free IVR phone system that protected their anonymity and provided automated reminders if contacts were not made. Times and duration of participants' telephone contacts were monitored and recorded. After the 7-week intervention, participants completed surveys and brief face-to-face interviews. The authors found high levels of use and satisfaction and improvements in depressive symptoms among the 20 pilot study participants. An IVR peer-support intervention is feasible, is acceptable to patients, and may have positive effects on patients' HF social support and health outcomes, in conjunction with structured health system support, that warrant more rigorous evaluation in a randomized trial. PMID:17541307

  3. The Personal Emergency Response System as a Technology Innovation in Primary Health Care Services: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Most western countries are experiencing greater pressure on community care services due to increased life expectancy and changes in policy toward prioritizing independent living. This has led to a demand for change and innovation in caring practices with an expected increased use of technology. Despite numerous attempts, it has proven surprisingly difficult to implement and adopt technological innovations. The main established technological innovation in home care services for older people is the personal emergency response system (PERS), which is widely adopted and used throughout most western countries aiming to support “aging safely in place.” Objective This integrative review examines how research literature describes use of the PERS focusing on the users’ perspective, thus exploring how different actors experience the technology in use and how it affects the complex interactions between multiple actors in caring practices. Methods The review presents an overview of the body of research on this well-established telecare solution, indicating what is important for different actors in regard to accepting and using this technology in community care services. An integrative review, recognized by a systematic search in major databases followed by a review process, was conducted. Results The search resulted in 33 included studies describing different actors’ experiences with the PERS in use. The overall focus was on the end users’ experiences and the consequences of having and using the alarm, and how the technology changes caring practices and interactions between the actors. Conclusions The PERS contributes to safety and independent living for users of the alarm, but there are also unforeseen consequences and possible improvements in the device and the integrated service. This rather simple and well-established telecare technology in use interacts with the actors involved, creating changes in daily living and even affecting their identities

  4. School Principals' Perceptions of Ethically Just Responses to a Student Sexting Vignette: Severity of Administrator Response, Principal Personality, and Offender Gender and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods study was designed to determine how principals perceived the ethicality of sanctions for students engaged in sexting behavior relative to the race/ethnicity and gender of the student. Personality traits of the principals were surveyed to determine if Openness and/or Conscientiousness would predict principal response. Sexting is…

  5. Effectiveness of an on-body lifting aid at reducing low back physical demands during an automotive assembly task: assessment of EMG response and user acceptability.

    PubMed

    Graham, Ryan B; Agnew, Michael J; Stevenson, Joan M

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and user acceptability of a Personal Lift-Assist Device (PLAD) at an automotive manufacturing facility, with operators who perform an on-line assembly process requiring forward bending and static holding. Surface EMG data were collected at six sites on the low back and abdomen, and an accelerometer was used to measure trunk inclination. Use of the PLAD significantly reduced the thoracic and lumbar erector spinae activity and EMG-predicted compression at the 10th, 50th, and 90th APDF percentile levels (p < or = 0.05), without significantly increasing rectus abdominus activity or trunk flexion. Similarly, ratings of perceived exertion were found to be significantly lower when wearing the PLAD (p = 0.006). Subjective opinions were positive, with 8/10 subjects indicating they would wear the device everyday. With slight changes, workers felt that the PLAD could be beneficial at reducing forces and discomfort in similar industrial or manual materials handling tasks that place excessive physical demands on the low back.

  6. Effectiveness of light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems in preventing functional decline among the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Lachal, Florent; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Cardinaud, Noëlle; Saulnier, Isabelle; Nessighaoui, Hichem; Laubarie-Mouret, Cécile; Dantoine, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The elderly population is at high risk of functional decline, which will induce significant costs due to long-term care. Dependency could be delayed by preventing one of its major determinants: falls. Light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems could prevent the functional decline through fall prevention. Methods: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems on the functional decline in an elderly population living at home. It is a secondary analysis on data from a previous cohort. In all, 190 older adults (aged 65 years or more) living at home participated. Participants in the exposed group were equipped with home-based technologies: light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems. The participants’ functional status was assessed using the Functional Autonomy Measurement System scale at baseline (T0) and at the end of the study (T12-month). Baseline characteristics were evaluated by a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Results: After 1 year, 43% of the unexposed group had functional decline versus 16% of the exposed group. Light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems were significantly associated with a decrease in the functional decline (Δ Functional Autonomy Measurement System ⩾ 5) at home (odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (0.11–0.54), p = 0.002). Discussion: This study suggests that light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems prevent the functional decline over 12 months. This result may encourage the prescription and use of home-based technologies to postpone dependency and institutionalization, but they need a larger cost-effectiveness study to demonstrate the efficiency of these technologies.

  7. Effectiveness of light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems in preventing functional decline among the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Lachal, Florent; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Cardinaud, Noëlle; Saulnier, Isabelle; Nessighaoui, Hichem; Laubarie-Mouret, Cécile; Dantoine, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The elderly population is at high risk of functional decline, which will induce significant costs due to long-term care. Dependency could be delayed by preventing one of its major determinants: falls. Light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems could prevent the functional decline through fall prevention. Methods: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems on the functional decline in an elderly population living at home. It is a secondary analysis on data from a previous cohort. In all, 190 older adults (aged 65 years or more) living at home participated. Participants in the exposed group were equipped with home-based technologies: light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems. The participants’ functional status was assessed using the Functional Autonomy Measurement System scale at baseline (T0) and at the end of the study (T12-month). Baseline characteristics were evaluated by a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Results: After 1 year, 43% of the unexposed group had functional decline versus 16% of the exposed group. Light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems were significantly associated with a decrease in the functional decline (Δ Functional Autonomy Measurement System ⩾ 5) at home (odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (0.11–0.54), p = 0.002). Discussion: This study suggests that light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems prevent the functional decline over 12 months. This result may encourage the prescription and use of home-based technologies to postpone dependency and institutionalization, but they need a larger cost-effectiveness study to demonstrate the efficiency of these technologies. PMID:27635246

  8. Personalized Kampo Medicine Facilitated Both Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Response and Clinical Benefits Induced by Personalized Peptide Vaccination for Advanced Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yutani, Shigeru; Shichijo, Shigeki; Sakamoto, Shinjiro; Naito, Masayasu; Okuda, Koji; Morita, Michi; Yamaguchi, Rin; Itoh, Kyogo

    2016-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated if personalized Kampo medicine (PKM) could facilitate CTL responses and clinical benefits induced by personalized peptide vaccination (PPV), in which HLA-matched vaccines were selected and administered based on the preexisting host immunity, for advanced esophageal cancer (aEC) patients. Among 34 aEC patients entered in the clinical study, 23 patients received PKM and PPV without (n = 12) or with chemotherapy (n = 11), while the remaining 11 patients did not receive PKM but received PPV without (n = 6) or with chemotherapy (n = 5), respectively. Incidence of adverse events was significantly lower or higher in PKM and PPV arm (n = 23) or PPV and chemotherapy arm (n = 16) as compared to that of the counter arm (n = 11 or 18), respectively. Postvaccination PBMCs from the patients undergoing PKM and PPV showed significantly higher CTL responses as compared to the counter arm. The median progression-free survival (PFS) or median survival time (MST) of 34 patients was 2.9 or 7.6 months, respectively. The combination therapy in PPV and PKM arm, but not that in PPV and chemotherapy arm, significantly (P = 0.02) prolonged MST. These results could warrant a next step of prospective clinical study of PKM and PPV for aEC patients. PMID:27703488

  9. West Nile virus infection and serologic response among persons previously vaccinated against yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B W; Kosoy, O; Martin, D A; Noga, A J; Russell, B J; Johnson, A A; Petersen, L R

    2005-01-01

    It is hypothesized that previous heterologous flaviviral exposure may modulate clinical illness among persons infected with West Nile virus (WNV). Little is known about the serological response in such persons. In summer 2003, a WNV outbreak occurred in Colorado, the location of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases (DVBID). DVBID employees, most previously vaccinated with yellow fever virus (YFV) or Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccines, were studied to determine whether previous vaccination affected symptom development among those subsequently infected with WNV during the outbreak, as well as their serological response. Serum samples collected in December 2003 and previously banked samples were tested using the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) against WNV, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, dengue- 4 virus, JEV, and YFV. Specimens shown to have WNV antibody by PRNT were tested by IgM and IgG enzymelinked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Ten (9%) of 113 serosurvey participants had WNV neutralizing antibody titers in December 2003. PRNT titers from previous specimens showed that one of the ten had seroconverted to WNV before 2003. Of the remaining nine participants, seven reported illness in the summer of 2003, two of which were unvaccinated and five previously vaccinated. In the December 2003 specimens, five persons previously unvaccinated or vaccinated only against YFV had a fourfold or greater neutralizing titer with WNV than with other flaviviruses, whereas no persons previously vaccinated against JEV or JEV and YFV showed a similar difference in neutralizing titers. Eight of nine persons infected in 2003 had negative or indeterminate WNV MAC-ELISA results in the December 2003 sample; the ninth person was vaccinated against YFV one month previously, and was also YFV positive by MAC-ELISA. We conclude that previous flaviviral vaccination does not markedly affect the development of WNV fever and

  10. Responsibilities of Physical Education to the Total Person. The Alliance Scholar Lecture 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison

    This paper's major focus is on particular physical-motor domain contributers to the total effectiveness of the person. Topics addressed include: (1) the integrity of the organism; (2) mental achievement; (3) personal-social effectiveness; (4) the nature, extent, and significance of individual differences; and (5) the configuration of…

  11. Our Purposes: Personal Reflections on Character Development and Social Responsibility in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chickering, Arthur W.

    2010-01-01

    Recognition of the importance of outcomes related to moral and ethical development, other dimensions of personal development, and civic engagement is a result of decades of educational reform. But have colleges and universities succeeded in helping students achieve these outcomes? In this article, the author shares his personal reflections on…

  12. 49 CFR 1570.7 - Fraudulent use or manufacture; responsibilities of persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or attempt to use a credential, security threat assessment, access control medium, or identification medium issued or conducted under this subchapter that was issued or conducted for another person. (b) No person may make, produce, use or attempt to use a false or fraudulently created access control...

  13. Student Personality Differences Are Related to Their Responses on Instructor Evaluation Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Stewart; Gardner, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The relation of student personality to student evaluations of teaching (SETs) was determined in a sample of 144 undergraduates. Student Big Five personality variables and core self-evaluation (CSE) were assessed. Students rated their most preferred instructor (MPI) and least preferred instructor (LPI) on 11 common evaluation items. Pearson and…

  14. Defining Personal Epistemology: A Response to Hofer & Pintrich (1997) and Sandoval (2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elby, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Some researchers, including B. K. Hofer and P. R. Pintrich (1997) and W. A. Sandoval (2005), argue for defining "personal epistemology" as views about the nature of knowledge and knowing but not views about the nature of learning. Others continue using a more expansive definition of "personal epistemology" that includes views about learning. I…

  15. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  16. Anticipated Guilt for Not Helping and Anticipated Warm Glow for Helping Are Differently Impacted by Personal Responsibility to Help

    PubMed Central

    Erlandsson, Arvid; Jungstrand, Amanda Å.; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    One important motivation for people behaving prosocially is that they want to avoid negative and obtain positive emotions. In the prosocial behavior literature however, the motivations to avoid negative emotions (e.g., guilt) and to approach positive emotions (e.g., warm glow) are rarely separated, and sometimes even aggregated into a single mood-management construct. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anticipated guilt if not helping and anticipated warm glow if helping are influenced similarly or differently when varying situational factors related to personal responsibility to help. Helping scenarios were created and pilot tests established that each helping scenario could be formulated both in a high-responsibility version and in a low-responsibility version. In Study 1 participants read high-responsibility and low-responsibility helping scenarios, and rated either their anticipated guilt if not helping or their anticipated warm glow if helping (i.e., separate evaluation). Study 2 was similar but here participants rated both their anticipated guilt if not helping and their anticipated warm glow if helping (i.e., joint evaluation). Anticipated guilt was clearly higher in the high-responsibility versions, but anticipated warm glow was unaffected (in Studies 1a and 1b), or even higher in the low-responsibility versions (Study 2). In Studies 3 (where anticipated guilt and warm glow were evaluated separately) and 4 (where they were evaluated jointly), personal responsibility to help was manipulated within-subjects. Anticipated guilt was again constantly higher in the high-responsibility versions but for many types of responsibility-manipulations, anticipated warm glow was higher in the low-responsibility versions. The results suggest that we anticipate guilt if not fulfilling our responsibility but that we anticipate warm glow primarily when doing over and beyond our responsibility. We argue that future studies investigating motivations for helping

  17. Tobacco industry use of personal responsibility rhetoric in public relations and litigation: disguising freedom to blame as freedom of choice.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Lissy C; Cheyne, Andrew; Givelber, Daniel; Gottlieb, Mark A; Daynard, Richard A

    2015-02-01

    We examined the tobacco industry's rhetoric to frame personal responsibility arguments. The industry rarely uses the phrase "personal responsibility" explicitly, but rather "freedom of choice." When freedom of choice is used in the context of litigation, the industry means that those who choose to smoke are solely to blame for their injuries. When used in the industry's public relations messages, it grounds its meaning in the concept of liberty and the right to smoke. The courtroom "blame rhetoric" has influenced the industry's larger public relations message to shift responsibility away from the tobacco companies and onto their customers. Understanding the rhetoric and framing that the industry employs is essential to combating this tactic, and we apply this comprehension to other industries that act as disease vectors.

  18. Tobacco industry use of personal responsibility rhetoric in public relations and litigation: disguising freedom to blame as freedom of choice.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Lissy C; Cheyne, Andrew; Givelber, Daniel; Gottlieb, Mark A; Daynard, Richard A

    2015-02-01

    We examined the tobacco industry's rhetoric to frame personal responsibility arguments. The industry rarely uses the phrase "personal responsibility" explicitly, but rather "freedom of choice." When freedom of choice is used in the context of litigation, the industry means that those who choose to smoke are solely to blame for their injuries. When used in the industry's public relations messages, it grounds its meaning in the concept of liberty and the right to smoke. The courtroom "blame rhetoric" has influenced the industry's larger public relations message to shift responsibility away from the tobacco companies and onto their customers. Understanding the rhetoric and framing that the industry employs is essential to combating this tactic, and we apply this comprehension to other industries that act as disease vectors. PMID:25521876

  19. Obesity prevention and personal responsibility: the case of front-of-pack food labelling in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Australia, the food industry and public health groups are locked in serious struggle for regulatory influence over the terms of front-of-pack food labelling. Clear, unambiguous labelling of the nutritional content of pre-packaged foods and of standardized food items sold in chain restaurants is consistent with the prevailing philosophy of 'personal responsibility'. An interpretive, front-of-pack labelling scheme has the capacity to encourage healthier patterns of eating, and to be a catalyst for improvements in the nutritional quality of food products through re-formulation. On the other hand, the strength of opposition of the Australian Food and Grocery Council to 'Traffic Light Labelling', and its efforts to promote a non-interpretive, voluntary scheme, invite the interpretation that the food industry is resistant to any reforms that could destabilise current (unhealthy) purchasing patterns and the revenues they represent. Discussion This article argues that although policies that aim to educate consumers about the nutritional content of food are welcome, they are only one part of a broader basket of policies that are needed to make progress on obesity prevention and public health nutrition. However, to the extent that food labelling has the capacity to inform and empower consumers to make healthier choices - and to be a catalyst for improving the nutritional quality of commercial recipes - it has an important role to play. Furthermore, given the dietary impact of meals eaten in fast food and franchise restaurants, interpretive labelling requirements should not be restricted to pre-packaged foods. Summary Food industry resistance to an interpretive food labelling scheme is an important test for government, and a case study of how self-interest prompts industry to promote weaker, voluntary schemes that pre-empt and undermine progressive public health regulation. PMID:21044302

  20. Patterns of Response to Patient-Centered Decision Support Through a Personal Health Record

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Gary S.; Sullivan, Sarah M.; Dong, XinXin; Weimer, Melissa; Zeith, Caroline; Clark, Sunday; Roberts, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Over 140 million people in the United States have at least one chronic medical condition, but they receive fewer than 60% of guideline-recommended services for these conditions. Increasing patients' involvement in their own care may improve the receipt of guideline-recommended services. We evaluated patients' patterns of responses to notifications regarding guideline-recommended services delivered through a personalized health record (PHR). Materials and Methods: We enrolled 584 participants with high cardiovascular disease risk from 73 primary care practices into an active PHR in which they received patient-centered decision support—notifications delivered via a PHR regarding prevention gaps (i.e., unmet preventive healthcare or chronic disease monitoring). Participants with prevention gaps received up to three weekly messages regarding all services due within a 2-month time frame. These three-message cycles could repeat up to every 2 months for a new, or continuing, prevention gap. Results: Of the 584 participants, 501 (86%) received at least one reminder. Approximately 61% of these participants accessed the PHR or received the care that triggered the message after the first message and 73% after the first two messages. In subsequent three-message cycles, we observed no change in the number of messages required prior to participants accessing the PHR or receiving recommended care (chi-squared=12.4, p=0.3). Of the 2,656 prevention gaps these participants had over 1 year, 1,539 (58%) were closed. Conclusions: In this low-intensity intervention, participants accessed the PHR and received recommended care. Providing notification through the PHR allows patients to choose when they receive, and take action on, the message. Notifications can be provided to patients through a PHR without alert fatigue and may be an additional tool to help patients achieve better health. PMID:25243350

  1. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996: An Examination of Its Impact on Legal Immigrants and Refugees in Rhode Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serpa, Fernando A.

    This report describes a 1998 consultation conducted to examine the impact of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 on legal immigrants and refugees in Rhode Island. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act restricted access of documented immigrants to a wide range of government programs such as…

  2. 41 CFR 102-36.120 - What are our responsibilities in authorizing a non-federal individual to screen excess personal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are our responsibilities in authorizing a non-federal individual to screen excess personal property? 102-36.120 Section 102... responsibilities in authorizing a non-federal individual to screen excess personal property? You must do...

  3. 41 CFR 102-36.120 - What are our responsibilities in authorizing a non-federal individual to screen excess personal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are our responsibilities in authorizing a non-federal individual to screen excess personal property? 102-36.120 Section 102... responsibilities in authorizing a non-federal individual to screen excess personal property? You must do...

  4. Development of the PRO-SDLS: A Measure of Self-Direction in Learning Based on the Personal Responsibility Orientation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Susan L.; Brockett, Ralph G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument to measure self-directedness in learning among college students based on an operationalization of the personal responsibility orientation (PRO) model of self-direction in learning. The resultant 25-item Personal Responsibility Orientation to Self-Direction in Learning Scale…

  5. The effects of container design and stair climbing on maximal acceptable lift weight, wrist posture, psychophysical, and physiological responses in wafer-handling tasks.

    PubMed

    Chung, H C; Wang, M J

    2001-12-01

    Despite the high level of automation in semiconductor manufacturing processes, many manual operations are still involved in the workplace. Due to inadequate human-machine interface design, stairs are frequently used to help operators perform wafer-handling tasks. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of climbing stairs and carrying wafer containers (pods) on psychophysical responses (maximal acceptable weight of lift--MAWL, and ratings of perceived exertion--RPE), physiological responses (oxygen consumption--VO2, and heart rate--HR), and wrist posture (ulnar and radial deviations). Each of 12 subjects (six males and six females) performed six sessions (3 climbing stairs x 2 pods types). The results indicate that climbing stairs had a significant influence on MAWL and VO2 (p<0.01). The type of pod effect on wrist posture was significant (p<0.01). Gender effect differences on MAWL, VO2 and wrist posture were also significant (p<0.05). Job design implications are discussed.

  6. Does Suicidal History Enhance Acceptance of Other Suicidal Individuals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, Ena; Range, Lillian

    2001-01-01

    To see if moderately suicidal outpatients were more accepting of a suicidal person than never- or severely-suicidal outpatients, 105 respondents completed measures of suicidality, depression, acceptance, and empathy. Results indicated, unexpectedly, that net of depression, never-suicidal people were more accepting of a suicidal person than…

  7. The assessment of Big Five Personality Factors and Temperament Domains as modifiers of cardiovascular response to occupational stress.

    PubMed

    Merecz, D; Makowska, Z; Makowiec-Dabrowska, T

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the role of Big Five Personality Factors and Temperament Domains as the factors influencing cardiovascular response to work, and their moderating effect on the relationship between occupational stress and cardiovascular reactivity. The self-reported data on occupational stress and filled in NEO-Five Factor Inventory by Costa, and McCrae and Pavlovian Temperament Survey by Strelau et al. were collected from 97 bank clerks employed in large bank branches. The subjects also responded to the questionnaire on personal and professional background factors. A 24 hour monitoring of cardiovascular reactivity (heart rate and blood pressure) was also provided. Conscientiousness was found to be the only modifier of cardiovascular response to occupational stress reflected by systolic blood pressure. Several main, independent of stress effects of personality and temperament domains were also found. The ratio of heart rate at work to heart rate during sleep was associated with the strength of excitatory process, the percentage of maximum heart rate index with Conscientiousness, and systolic blood pressure at work was influenced by the strength of inhibitory process. However, generally speaking, physiological indicators of the cardiovascular system functioning were not very sensitive to changes in values of personality and temperament variables at the level of occupational stress reported by the bank clerks who participated in the study.

  8. Endocrine responses after d-fenfluramine and ipsapirone challenge: further support for Cloninger's tridimensional model of personality.

    PubMed

    Hennig, J; Toll, C; Schonlau, P; Rohrmann, S; Netter, P

    2000-01-01

    The tridemensional model of personality introduced by Cloninger relates aspects of novelty seeking to the dopaminergic, harm avoidance (HA) to the serotonergic, and reward dependence to the noradrenergic neurotransmitter system. Using a neuroendocrine challenge paradigm, this study investigates whether subjects characterized by blunted cortisol (CORT) responses after ipsapirone (IPS) relate to different subfactors of HA from those characterized by blunted prolactin (PRL) responses after treatment with d-fenfluramine (D-FEN). Moreover, subjects blunted in both responses should differ in scale values of subfactors of HA from those with only one or no blunted reactions. In the first part of the experiment, 16 healthy male volunteers were treated with 15 mg D-FEN. The second part of the study (about 1 year later) consists of a challenge with the partial 5-hydroxytryptamine-1a (5-HT(1a)) agonist IPS (10 mg) in the same subjects. The results indicate that blunted PRL responses are accompanied by high values in HA, while the main effect of IPS responsivity did not relate significantly to this dimension. With respect to the subscales of HA, subjects blunted in both responses (PRL-/C-) exhibit significantly higher levels in fatigability and asthenia when compared to all other groups (PRL-/C+, PRL+/C-,PRL+/C+). The data demonstrate that combined challenge tests may shed more light on the biological basis of personality and that HA and most clearly fatigability and asthenia relate to the 5-HT system.

  9. Tobacco Industry Use of Personal Responsibility Rhetoric in Public Relations and Litigation: Disguising Freedom to Blame as Freedom of Choice

    PubMed Central

    Cheyne, Andrew; Givelber, Daniel; Gottlieb, Mark A.; Daynard, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the tobacco industry’s rhetoric to frame personal responsibility arguments. The industry rarely uses the phrase “personal responsibility” explicitly, but rather “freedom of choice.” When freedom of choice is used in the context of litigation, the industry means that those who choose to smoke are solely to blame for their injuries. When used in the industry’s public relations messages, it grounds its meaning in the concept of liberty and the right to smoke. The courtroom “blame rhetoric” has influenced the industry’s larger public relations message to shift responsibility away from the tobacco companies and onto their customers. Understanding the rhetoric and framing that the industry employs is essential to combating this tactic, and we apply this comprehension to other industries that act as disease vectors. PMID:25521876

  10. "Schizoid" personality in childhood: auditory P300 and eye tracking responses at follow-up in adult life.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, D H; Muir, W J; Roxborough, H M; Walker, M R; Townshend, R; Glabus, M F; Wolff, S

    1994-08-01

    The auditory P300 response and smooth pursuit eye tracking were recorded from a group of 23 male adult subjects who had been diagnosed in childhood as having schizoid personality. No differences were found in these physiological measures between the study group, their matched controls of other child psychiatric patients, and a group of population controls. The essentially negative findings are discussed in the light of abnormalities of these psychophysiological responses previously found in schizophrenic patients, in some of their biological relatives, and in other groups of psychiatric patients, including autistic children and adults with a diagnosis of borderline and schizotypal personality disorder. Results suggest that "schizoid" children, despite their high scores on a measure of schizotypy, do not have schizophrenia spectrum disorder or that schizotypy is a heterogeneous condition.

  11. A Multivariate Analysis of the Relationship between Androgyny and Self-Esteem, Self-Acceptance and Acceptance of Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eman, Virginia A.; Morse, Benjamin W.

    Androgynous persons accept both their masculine and feminine characteristics rather than adhere to traditional sex-role stereotypes. This study tested whether the multidimensional approach and psychological freedom of androgynous persons would give them greater self-esteem, self-acceptance, and acceptance of others, according to their own…

  12. Usage and Dose Response of a Mobile Acceptance and Commitment Therapy App: Secondary Analysis of the Intervention Arm of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lappalainen, Raimo; Välkkynen, Pasi; Sairanen, Essi; Lappalainen, Päivi; Karhunen, Leila; Peuhkuri, Katri; Korpela, Riitta; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Ermes, Miikka

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile phone apps offer a promising medium to deliver psychological interventions. A mobile app based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) was developed and studied in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Objective To study usage metrics of a mobile ACT intervention and dose-response relationship between usage and improvement in psychological flexibility. Methods An RCT was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of different lifestyle interventions for overweight people with psychological stress. This paper presents a secondary analysis of the group that received an 8-week mobile ACT intervention. Most of the analyzed 74 participants were female (n=64, 86%). Their median age was 49.6 (interquartile range, IQR 45.4-55.3) years and their mean level of psychological flexibility, measured with the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire II, was 20.4 (95% confidence interval 18.3-22.5). Several usage metrics describing the intensity of use, usage of content, and ways of use were calculated. Linear regression analyses were performed to study the dose-response relationship between usage and the change in psychological flexibility and to identify the usage metrics with strongest association with improvement. Binary logistic regression analyses were further used to assess the role of usage metrics between those who showed improvement in psychological flexibility and those who did not. In addition, associations between usage and baseline participant characteristics were studied. Results The median number of usage sessions was 21 (IQR 11.8-35), the number of usage days was 15 (IQR 9.0-24), and the number of usage weeks was 7.0 (IQR 4.0-8.0). The participants used the mobile app for a median duration of 4.7 (IQR 3.2-7.2) hours and performed a median of 63 (IQR 46-98) exercises. There was a dose-response relationship between usage and the change in psychological flexibility. The strongest associations with psychological flexibility (results adjusted with gender

  13. Improving Communicative Competence with "Clickers": Acceptance/Attitudes among Nigerian Primary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the predictive power of teachers' perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEU), behavioural intention (BI) to use personal response system (PRS) and computer experience (CE) on teachers' acceptance and attitude towards using PRS in improving communicative competence in the classroom where English is taught…

  14. Television station acceptance of AIDS prevention PSAs and condom advertisements.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, A M; Wicks, J L

    1998-01-01

    AIDS is a fatal, though preventable disease with more than 56,000 new cases reported in 1996 alone. Condom advertisements and AIDS public service announcements (AIDS PSAs) can help prevent the spread of AIDS, but these AIDS PSAs often contain controversial subject matter and are thus rejected for broadcast by television stations. It is for this reason why a large-scale national mail survey was conducted. The survey, which examined the impact of personal ethical considerations of television station management on AIDS acceptance decisions in the US, was based on five hypothetical questions. It used questionnaires mailed to television station managers. Responses were received from 364 stations, yielding a 40.63% response rate. Significant results were found related to the impact of personal ethical concerns of television managers on AIDS acceptance decision. Most stations were unlikely to accept condom or safe sex advertisements but were more likely to accept generic AIDS messages. These findings pose a dilemma for public health officials, which include the high cost of television advertisements and the difficulty in choosing a creative execution type. The most effective approach would be to appeal to sales managers to run the advertisements since they are important for the community and serve the public interest. PMID:12295801

  15. Television station acceptance of AIDS prevention PSAs and condom advertisements.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, A M; Wicks, J L

    1998-01-01

    AIDS is a fatal, though preventable disease with more than 56,000 new cases reported in 1996 alone. Condom advertisements and AIDS public service announcements (AIDS PSAs) can help prevent the spread of AIDS, but these AIDS PSAs often contain controversial subject matter and are thus rejected for broadcast by television stations. It is for this reason why a large-scale national mail survey was conducted. The survey, which examined the impact of personal ethical considerations of television station management on AIDS acceptance decisions in the US, was based on five hypothetical questions. It used questionnaires mailed to television station managers. Responses were received from 364 stations, yielding a 40.63% response rate. Significant results were found related to the impact of personal ethical concerns of television managers on AIDS acceptance decision. Most stations were unlikely to accept condom or safe sex advertisements but were more likely to accept generic AIDS messages. These findings pose a dilemma for public health officials, which include the high cost of television advertisements and the difficulty in choosing a creative execution type. The most effective approach would be to appeal to sales managers to run the advertisements since they are important for the community and serve the public interest.

  16. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  19. Person-Situation Effects and Gender Differences in the Prediction of Social Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, L. Alan

    1990-01-01

    Uses an 8-item Social Responsibility Scale to investigate social responsibility in a study involving 149 U.S. undergraduate students. Observes that satisfaction with the university and gratification delay are more powerful predictors of social responsibility among males. Identifies the socially responsible as those satisfied with an organization…

  20. PERSONALIZED HYPOTHESIS TESTS FOR DETECTING MEDICATION RESPONSE IN PARKINSON DISEASE PATIENTS USING iPHONE SENSOR DATA.

    PubMed

    Chaibub Neto, Elias; Bot, Brian M; Perumal, Thanneer; Omberg, Larsson; Guinney, Justin; Kellen, Mike; Klein, Arno; Friend, Stephen H; Trister, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    We propose hypothesis tests for detecting dopaminergic medication response in Parkinson disease patients, using longitudinal sensor data collected by smartphones. The processed data is composed of multiple features extracted from active tapping tasks performed by the participant on a daily basis, before and after medication, over several months. Each extracted feature corresponds to a time series of measurements annotated according to whether the measurement was taken before or after the patient has taken his/her medication. Even though the data is longitudinal in nature, we show that simple hypothesis tests for detecting medication response, which ignore the serial correlation structure of the data, are still statistically valid, showing type I error rates at the nominal level. We propose two distinct personalized testing approaches. In the first, we combine multiple feature-specific tests into a single union-intersection test. In the second, we construct personalized classifiers of the before/after medication labels using all the extracted features of a given participant, and test the null hypothesis that the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the classifier is equal to 1/2. We compare the statistical power of the personalized classifier tests and personalized union-intersection tests in a simulation study, and illustrate the performance of the proposed tests using data from mPower Parkinsons disease study, recently launched as part of Apples ResearchKit mobile platform. Our results suggest that the personalized tests, which ignore the longitudinal aspect of the data, can perform well in real data analyses, suggesting they might be used as a sound baseline approach, to which more sophisticated methods can be compared to.

  1. PERSONALIZED HYPOTHESIS TESTS FOR DETECTING MEDICATION RESPONSE IN PARKINSON DISEASE PATIENTS USING iPHONE SENSOR DATA.

    PubMed

    Chaibub Neto, Elias; Bot, Brian M; Perumal, Thanneer; Omberg, Larsson; Guinney, Justin; Kellen, Mike; Klein, Arno; Friend, Stephen H; Trister, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    We propose hypothesis tests for detecting dopaminergic medication response in Parkinson disease patients, using longitudinal sensor data collected by smartphones. The processed data is composed of multiple features extracted from active tapping tasks performed by the participant on a daily basis, before and after medication, over several months. Each extracted feature corresponds to a time series of measurements annotated according to whether the measurement was taken before or after the patient has taken his/her medication. Even though the data is longitudinal in nature, we show that simple hypothesis tests for detecting medication response, which ignore the serial correlation structure of the data, are still statistically valid, showing type I error rates at the nominal level. We propose two distinct personalized testing approaches. In the first, we combine multiple feature-specific tests into a single union-intersection test. In the second, we construct personalized classifiers of the before/after medication labels using all the extracted features of a given participant, and test the null hypothesis that the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the classifier is equal to 1/2. We compare the statistical power of the personalized classifier tests and personalized union-intersection tests in a simulation study, and illustrate the performance of the proposed tests using data from mPower Parkinsons disease study, recently launched as part of Apples ResearchKit mobile platform. Our results suggest that the personalized tests, which ignore the longitudinal aspect of the data, can perform well in real data analyses, suggesting they might be used as a sound baseline approach, to which more sophisticated methods can be compared to. PMID:26776193

  2. Fight-flight or freeze-hide? Personality and metabolic phenotype mediate physiological defence responses in flatfish.

    PubMed

    Rupia, Emmanuel J; Binning, Sandra A; Roche, Dominique G; Lu, Weiqun

    2016-07-01

    Survival depends on appropriate behavioural and physiological responses to danger. In addition to active 'fight-flight' defence responses, a passive 'freeze-hide' response is adaptive in some contexts. However, the physiological mechanisms determining which individuals choose a given defence response remain poorly understood. We examined the relationships among personality, metabolic performance and physiological stress responses across an environmental gradient in the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. We employed four behavioural assays to document the existence of two distinct behavioural types ('bold' and 'shy') in this species. We found consistent metabolic differences between individuals of a given behavioural type across an environmental gradient: shy individuals had overall lower aerobic scope, maximum metabolic rate and standard metabolic rate than bold individuals in both high (25 ppt) and low (3 ppt) salinity. These behavioural and metabolic differences translated into divergent physiological responses during acute stress: shy individuals adopted a passive 'freeze-hide' response by reducing their oxygen consumption rates (akin to shallow breathing) whereas bold individuals adopted an active 'fight-flight' response by increasing their rates of respiration. These distinct defence strategies were repeatable within individuals between salinity treatments. Although it has been suggested theoretically, this is the first empirical evidence that the metabolic response to stressful situations differs between bold and shy individuals. Our results emphasize the importance of incorporating physiological measures to understand the mechanisms driving persistent inter-individual differences in animals.

  3. On the characteristics of caloric nystagmus in healthy persons. [in response to caloric stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodo, D.; Baranova, V. P.; Matsnev, E. I.; Yakovleva, M. Y.

    1974-01-01

    The asymmetry of reflex activity of labyrinths and directional preponderance of the reaction were studied on healthy persons subjected to caloric tests. Calorization with hot water was accompanied by less pronounced reactions in all parameters of nystagmus than analogous indices at cold water stimulation. The symmetry of labyrinth function shifted to the right in individuals with greater activity of the left central vestibular formations, analogous to right handedness behavior. It is concluded that asymmetry of reflex nystagmus in healthy persons can be due to a certain preponderance of functional activity in structures of the left hemisphere of the brain.

  4. Dose evaluation in criticality accidents using response of Panasonic TL personal dosemeters (UD-809/UD-802).

    PubMed

    Zeyrek, C T; Gündüz, H

    2012-09-01

    This study gives the results of dosimetry measurements carried out in the Silène reactor at Valduc (France) with neutron and photon personal thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) in mixed neutron and gamma radiation fields, in the frame of the international accident dosimetry intercomparison programme in 2002. The intercomparison consisted of a series of three irradiation scenarios. The scenarios took place at the Valduc site (France) by using the Silène experimental reactor. For neutron and photon dosimetry, Panasonic model UD-809 and UD-802 personal TLDs were used together. PMID:22389154

  5. Healthcare professionals’ acceptance of BelRAI, a web-based system enabling person-centred recording and data sharing across care settings with interRAI instruments: a UTAUT analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthcare and social care environments are increasingly confronted with older persons with long-term care needs. Consequently, the need for integrated and coordinated assessment systems increases. In Belgium, feasibility studies have been conducted on the implementation and use of interRAI instruments offering opportunities to improve continuity and quality of care. However, the development and implementation of information technology to support a shared dataset is a difficult and gradual process. We explore the applicability of the UTAUT theoretical model in the BelRAI healthcare project to analyse the acceptance of the BelRAI web application by healthcare professionals in home care, nursing home care and acute hospital care for older people with disabilities. Methods A structured questionnaire containing items based on constructs validated in the original UTAUT study was distributed to 661 Flemish caregivers. We performed a complete case analysis using data from 282 questionnaires to obtain information regarding the effects of performance expectancy (PE), effort expectancy (EE), social influence (SI), facilitating conditions (FC), anxiety (ANX), self-efficacy (SE) and attitude towards using technology (ATUT) on behavioural intention (BI) to use the BelRAI web application. Results The values of the internal consistency evaluation of each construct demonstrated adequate reliability of the survey instrument. Convergent and discriminant validity were established. However, the items of the ATUT construct cross-loaded on PE. FC proved to have the most significant influence on BI to use BelRAI, followed by SE. Other constructs (PE, EE, SI, ANX, ATUT) had no significant influence on BI. The ‘direct effects only’ model explained 30.8% of the variance in BI to use BelRAI. Conclusions Critical factors in stimulating the behavioural intention to use new technology are good-quality software, interoperability and compatibility with other information systems

  6. 49 CFR 193.2303 - Construction acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2303 Construction acceptance. No person may place in...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance. 1205.326 Section 1205.326 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 1205.326 Section 1205.326 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  9. Emotional Responses to Self-Injury Imagery among Adults with Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Stacy Shaw; Linehan, Marsha M.; Sylvers, Patrick; Chittams, Jesse; Rizvi, Shireen L.

    2008-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts (SAs) are especially prevalent in borderline personality disorder. One proposed mechanism for the maintenance of NSSI and SAs is escape conditioning, whereby immediate reductions in aversive emotional states negatively reinforce the behaviors. Psychophysiological and subjective indicators of…

  10. Parental Grief Responses and Personal Growth Following the Death of a Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Linda P.; LaMontagne, Lynda L.; Hepworth, Joseph T.; Murphy, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    Conceptualizing parental grief as a psychosocial transition, this cross-sectional study of bereaved mothers (N = 35) examined the relationship of dispositional factors, grief reactions, and personal growth. More optimistic mothers reported less intense grief reactions and less distress indicative of complicated grief. Additionally, mothers who…

  11. The Mismeasure of Morals: Antisocial Personality Traits Predict Utilitarian Responses to Moral Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartels, Daniel M.; Pizarro, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have recently argued that utilitarianism is the appropriate framework by which to evaluate moral judgment, and that individuals who endorse non-utilitarian solutions to moral dilemmas (involving active vs. passive harm) are committing an error. We report a study in which participants responded to a battery of personality assessments…

  12. Responsible Management and Use of a Personal Take-Home Naloxone Supply: A Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, Andrew; Lindsay, George; Woods, Maureen; Louttit, Derek

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To assess if Scottish drug users, their family and friends could be trained in critical incident management and the safe and effective administration of naloxone. The project also sought to monitor whether drug users can manage their own personal take-home naloxone (THN) supply and use it appropriately in an emergency opiate overdose…

  13. Honoring the Personal Response: A Strategy for Serving the Public Hunger for Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Many groups of adult museum visitors welcome the invitation to make personal connections to works of art. Time for individual reflection and sharing with others may enable relationships to deepen and new insights to emerge. This article describes an approach to gallery teaching that honors the memories, associations, and emotions that visitors…

  14. Individual Differences in Response to Automation: The Five Factor Model of Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szalma, James L.; Taylor, Grant S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of operator personality (Five Factor Model) and characteristics of the task and of adaptive automation (reliability and adaptiveness--whether the automation was well-matched to changes in task demand) to operator performance, workload, stress, and coping. This represents the first investigation of how the Five…

  15. Teacher Personality and Pupil Control Ideology: Associations with Response to Relational Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyllborg, Amy B.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the associations between teacher personality and pupil control ideology and the way in which these variables impact the methods used by Midwestern teachers (n = 123) to respond to and intervene in hypothetical instances of relational aggression, presented via vignette. Regression analyses indicated that aspects of…

  16. An Implicit Theories of Personality Intervention Reduces Adolescent Aggression in Response to Victimization and Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, David Scott; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Dweck, Carol S.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents are often resistant to interventions that reduce aggression in children. At the same time, they are developing stronger beliefs in the fixed nature of personal characteristics, particularly aggression. The present intervention addressed these beliefs. A randomized field experiment with a diverse sample of Grades 9 and 10 students (ages…

  17. Personality and Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Charles M.

    2004-01-01

    Bases for individual acceptance and cultural integration of gays and lesbians were investigated by assessing qualities of personality among four participant groups: Heterosexual females, heterosexual males, homosexual females, and homosexual males. Personality was operationally defined as personal qualities and characteristics associated with…

  18. Improving the Response Rate to a Street Survey: An Evaluation of the "But You Are Free to Accept or to Refuse" Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gueguen, Nicolas; Pascual, Alexandre

    2005-01-01

    The "but you are free to accept or to refuse" technique is a compliance procedure in which someone is approached with a request by simply telling him/her that he/she is free to accept or to refuse the request. This semantic evocation leads to increased compliance with the request. Furthermore, in most of the studies in which this technique was…

  19. Do Ethical Judgments Depend on the Type of Response Scale? Comparing Acceptability versus Unacceptability Judgments in the Case of Life-Ending Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sastre, Maria Teresa Munoz; Gonzalez, Charlene; Lhermitte, Astrid; Sorum, Paul C.; Mullet, Etienne

    2010-01-01

    Using Functional Measurement (Anderson, 2008), Frileux, Lelievre, Munoz Sastre, Mullet, and Sorum (2003) examined the joint impact of several key factors on lay people's judgments of the acceptability of physicians' interventions to end patients' lives. The level of acceptability was high, and the information integration rule that best described…

  20. Effects of a Follow-On Formula Containing Isomaltulose (Palatinose™) on Metabolic Response, Acceptance, Tolerance and Safety in Infants: A Randomized-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fleddermann, M.; Rauh-Pfeiffer, A.; Demmelmair, H.; Holdt, L.; Teupser, D.; Koletzko, B.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of the dietary glycaemic load on postprandial blood glucose and insulin response might be of importance for fat deposition and risk of obesity. We aimed to investigate the metabolic effects, acceptance and tolerance of a follow-on formula containing the low glycaemic and low insulinaemic carbohydrate isomaltulose replacing high glycaemic maltodextrin. Healthy term infants aged 4 to 8 completed months (n = 50) were randomized to receive the intervention follow-on formula (IF, 2.1g isomaltulose (Palatinose™)/100mL) or an isocaloric conventional formula (CF) providing 2.1g maltodextrin/100mL for four weeks. Plasma insulinaemia 60min after start of feeding (primary outcome) was not statistically different, while glycaemia adjusted for age and time for drinking/volume of meal 60min after start of feeding was 122(105,140) mg/dL in IF (median, interquartile range) and 111(100,123) in CF (p = 0.01). Urinary c-peptide:creatinine ratio did not differ (IF:81.5(44.7, 96.0) vs. CF:56.8(37.5, 129),p = 0.43). Urinary c-peptide:creatinine ratio was correlated total intake of energy (R = 0.31,p = 0.045), protein (R = 0.42,p = 0.006) and fat (R = 0.40,p = 0.01) but not with carbohydrate intake (R = 0.22,p = 0.16). Both formulae were well accepted without differences in time of crying, flatulence, stool characteristics and the occurrence of adverse events. The expected lower postprandial plasma insulin and blood glucose level due to replacement of high glycaemic maltodextrin by low glycaemic isomaltulose were not observed in the single time-point blood analysis. In infants aged 4 to 8 completed months fed a liquid formula, peak blood glucose might be reached earlier than 60min after start of feeding. Non-invasive urinary c-peptide measurements may be a suitable marker of nutritional intake during the previous four days in infants. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01627015 PMID:26987056

  1. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  2. Some Statistics for Assessing Person-Fit Based on Continuous-Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere Joan

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes several statistics for assessing individual fit based on two unidimensional models for continuous responses: linear factor analysis and Samejima's continuous response model. Both models are approached using a common framework based on underlying response variables and are formulated at the individual level as fixed regression…

  3. Effects of Personalization and Invitation Email Length on Web-Based Survey Response Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trespalacios, Jesús H.; Perkins, Ross A.

    2016-01-01

    Individual strategies to increase response rate and survey completion have been extensively researched. Recently, efforts have been made to investigate a combination of interventions to yield better response rates for web-based surveys. This study examined the effects of four different survey invitation conditions on response rate. From a large…

  4. Persons found 'not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder': a comparison of British Columbia, Canada and Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoping; Livingston, James D; Brink, Johann; Murphy, Emlene

    2006-12-20

    Current research literature contains very few international, cross-cultural comparison studies of persons adjudicated 'Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder' (NCRMD). This study explores and compares the demographic differences between persons found NCRMD in British Columbia, Canada and Hunan, China. Eight variables such as sex, age, education level, marital status, conviction history, psychiatric history, and index offence are compared between the Canadian and Chinese cohorts. The Canadian and Chinese cohorts were similar in sex and psychiatric history. The divorce rate, educational level, and conviction histories were significantly higher, and the age was significantly older in the Canadian cohort. The Chinese cohort had higher levels of murder and attempted murder index offences. Differences between the two cohorts can be explained in terms of legislative and cultural differences.

  5. An implicit theories of personality intervention reduces adolescent aggression in response to victimization and exclusion.

    PubMed

    Yeager, David Scott; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Dweck, Carol S

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents are often resistant to interventions that reduce aggression in children. At the same time, they are developing stronger beliefs in the fixed nature of personal characteristics, particularly aggression. The present intervention addressed these beliefs. A randomized field experiment with a diverse sample of Grades 9 and 10 students (ages 14-16, n = 230) tested the impact of a 6-session intervention that taught an incremental theory (a belief in the potential for personal change). Compared to no-treatment and coping skills control groups, the incremental theory group behaved significantly less aggressively and more prosocially 1 month postintervention and exhibited fewer conduct problems 3 months postintervention. The incremental theory and the coping skills interventions also eliminated the association between peer victimization and depressive symptoms. PMID:23106262

  6. An Implicit Theories of Personality Intervention Reduces Adolescent Aggression in Response to Victimization and Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Yeager, David Scott; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Dweck, Carol S

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents are often resistant to interventions that reduce aggression in children. At the same time, they are developing stronger beliefs in the fixed nature of personal characteristics, particularly aggression. The present intervention addressed these beliefs. A randomized field experiment with a diverse sample of Grades 9 and 10 students (ages 14–16, n = 230) tested the impact of a 6-session intervention that taught an incremental theory (a belief in the potential for personal change). Compared to no-treatment and coping skills control groups, the incremental theory group behaved significantly less aggressively and more prosocially 1 month postintervention and exhibited fewer conduct problems 3 months postintervention. The incremental theory and the coping skills interventions also eliminated the association between peer victimization and depressive symptoms. PMID:23106262

  7. An implicit theories of personality intervention reduces adolescent aggression in response to victimization and exclusion.

    PubMed

    Yeager, David Scott; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Dweck, Carol S

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents are often resistant to interventions that reduce aggression in children. At the same time, they are developing stronger beliefs in the fixed nature of personal characteristics, particularly aggression. The present intervention addressed these beliefs. A randomized field experiment with a diverse sample of Grades 9 and 10 students (ages 14-16, n = 230) tested the impact of a 6-session intervention that taught an incremental theory (a belief in the potential for personal change). Compared to no-treatment and coping skills control groups, the incremental theory group behaved significantly less aggressively and more prosocially 1 month postintervention and exhibited fewer conduct problems 3 months postintervention. The incremental theory and the coping skills interventions also eliminated the association between peer victimization and depressive symptoms.

  8. Men's migration, women's personal networks, and responses to HIV/AIDS in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Avogo, Winfred; Agadjanian, Victor

    2013-03-01

    This study brings together the literature on social network approaches to social capital and health and on migration and HIV risks to examine how non-migrating wives of labor migrants use their personal networks to cope with perceived risks of HIV infection in rural southern Mozambique. Using data from a 2006 survey of 1,680 women and their dyadic interactions, we compare the composition of personal networks, HIV/AIDS communication, and preventive behavior of women married to migrants and those married to non-migrants. Results show that migrants' wives were more likely than non-migrants' wives to have other migrants' wives as personal network members, to engage in HIV/AIDS communication, and to discuss HIV prevention. However, they were no more likely to talk about HIV/AIDS with migrants' wives than with non-migrants' wives. They were also no more likely to talk about AIDS and its prevention than non-migrants' wives who express worry about HIV infection from their spouses. Finally, we detect that network members' prevention behavior was similar to respondents', although this did not depend on migration. We contextualize these findings within the literature and discuss their policy implications.

  9. Does the amygdala response correlate with the personality trait ‘harm avoidance’ while evaluating emotional stimuli explicitly?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The affective personality trait ‘harm avoidance’ (HA) from Cloninger’s psychobiological personality model determines how an individual deals with emotional stimuli. Emotional stimuli are processed by a neural network that include the left and right amygdalae as important key nodes. Explicit, implicit and passive processing of affective stimuli are known to activate the amygdalae differently reflecting differences in attention, level of detailed analysis of the stimuli and the cognitive control needed to perform the required task. Previous studies revealed that implicit processing or passive viewing of affective stimuli, induce a left amygdala response that correlates with HA. In this new study we have tried to extend these findings to the situation in which the subjects were required to explicitly process emotional stimuli. Methods A group of healthy female participants was asked to rate the valence of positive and negative stimuli while undergoing fMRI. Afterwards the neural responses of the participants to the positive and to the negative stimuli were separately correlated to their HA scores and compared between the low and high HA participants. Results Both analyses revealed increased neural activity in the left laterobasal (LB) amygdala of the high HA participants while they were rating the positive and the negative stimuli. Conclusions Our results indicate that the left amygdala response to explicit processing of affective stimuli does correlate with HA. PMID:24884791

  10. Person Response Functions and the Definition of Units in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhard, George, Jr.; Perkins, Aminah F.

    2011-01-01

    Humphry (this issue) has written a thought-provoking piece on the interpretation of item discrimination parameters as scale units in item response theory. One of the key features of his work is the description of an item response theory (IRT) model that he calls the logistic measurement function that combines aspects of two traditions in IRT that…

  11. PERSONALITY AND MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS IN RESPONSES TO AN ENVIRONMENTAL DESCRIPTION SCALE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARKS, EDMOND

    MANY OF THE 150 ITEMS FORMING THE PACE COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY ENVIRONMENT SCALES (CUES), AN INSTRUMENT FOR ASSESSING COLLEGE STUDENT PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR ENVIRONMENT, FALL WITHIN THE CATEGORY OF HIGH RESPONSE VARIABILITY (50 PERCENT TRUE AND 50 PERCENT FALSE RESPONSES). THE AUTHOR HYPOTHESIZED THAT THIS VARIABILITY IS ATTRIBUTABLE TO CERTAIN…

  12. Optimizing the Use of Personal Response Devices (Clickers) in Large-Enrollment Introductory Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelk, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Clickers are electronic response devices with which a student can remotely submit responses to questions or problems posed by a teacher. The problems are typically true-false or multiple-choice questions, but can also include numerical problems. Clicker devices are particularly popular in large-enrollment introductory science, technology,…

  13. Against a singular understanding of legal capacity: Criminal responsibility and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Craigie, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) is being used to argue for wider recognition of the legal capacity of people with mental disabilities. This raises a question about the implications of the Convention for attributions of criminal responsibility. The present paper works towards an answer by analysing the relationship between legal capacity in relation to personal decisions and criminal acts. Its central argument is that because moral and political considerations play an essential role in setting the relevant standards, legal capacity in the context of personal decisions and criminal acts should not be thought of as two sides of the same coin. The implications of particular moral or political norms are likely to be different in these two legal contexts, and this may justify asymmetries in the relevant standards for legal capacity. However, the analysis highlights a fundamental question about how much weight moral or political considerations should be given in setting these standards, and this is used to frame a challenge to those calling for significantly wider recognition of the legal capacity of people with mental disabilities on the basis of the Convention. PMID:25997381

  14. Personality predicts individual responsiveness to the risks of starvation and predation.

    PubMed

    Quinn, J L; Cole, E F; Bates, J; Payne, R W; Cresswell, W

    2012-05-22

    Theory suggests that individual personality is tightly linked to individual life histories and to environmental variation. The reactive-proactive axis, for example, is thought to reflect whether individuals prioritize productivity or survival, mutually exclusive options that can be caused by conflicts between foraging and anti-predation behaviour. Evidence for this trade-off hypothesis, however, is limited. Here, we tested experimentally whether exploration behaviour (EB), an assay of proactivity, could explain how great tits (Parus major) respond to changes in starvation and predation risk. Individuals were presented with two feeders, holding good or poor quality food, which interchanged between safe and dangerous positions 10 m apart, across two 24 h treatments. Starvation risk was assumed to be highest in the morning and lowest in the afternoon. The proportion of time spent feeding on good quality food (PTG) rather than poor quality food was repeatable within treatments, but individuals varied in how PTG changed with respect to predation- and starvation-risk across treatments. This individual plasticity variation in foraging behaviour was linked to EB, as predicted by the reactive-proactive axis, but only among individuals in dominant social classes. Our results support the trade-off hypothesis at the level of individuals in a wild population, and suggest that fine-scale temporal and spatial variation may play important roles in the evolution of personality. PMID:22179807

  15. Personality predicts individual responsiveness to the risks of starvation and predation

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, J. L.; Cole, E. F.; Bates, J.; Payne, R. W.; Cresswell, W.

    2012-01-01

    Theory suggests that individual personality is tightly linked to individual life histories and to environmental variation. The reactive–proactive axis, for example, is thought to reflect whether individuals prioritize productivity or survival, mutually exclusive options that can be caused by conflicts between foraging and anti-predation behaviour. Evidence for this trade-off hypothesis, however, is limited. Here, we tested experimentally whether exploration behaviour (EB), an assay of proactivity, could explain how great tits (Parus major) respond to changes in starvation and predation risk. Individuals were presented with two feeders, holding good or poor quality food, which interchanged between safe and dangerous positions 10 m apart, across two 24 h treatments. Starvation risk was assumed to be highest in the morning and lowest in the afternoon. The proportion of time spent feeding on good quality food (PTG) rather than poor quality food was repeatable within treatments, but individuals varied in how PTG changed with respect to predation- and starvation-risk across treatments. This individual plasticity variation in foraging behaviour was linked to EB, as predicted by the reactive–proactive axis, but only among individuals in dominant social classes. Our results support the trade-off hypothesis at the level of individuals in a wild population, and suggest that fine-scale temporal and spatial variation may play important roles in the evolution of personality. PMID:22179807

  16. Public perceptions of the response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: personal experiences, information sources, and social context.

    PubMed

    Safford, Thomas G; Ulrich, Jessica D; Hamilton, Lawrence C

    2012-12-30

    The 2010 British Petroleum (BP) Deepwater Horizon oil spill highlighted long-standing questions about energy exploration and its social and environmental implications. Sociologists studying environmental disasters have documented the social impacts resulting from these events and dissatisfaction with government and industry responses. In this paper, we use data from a survey conducted during the Gulf of Mexico oil spill to examine how Louisiana and Florida residents' social backgrounds, experiences with the spill, and trust in information sources predict their perceptions of governmental and BP response efforts. We find that direct personal impacts and compensation strongly influence the evaluations of responding organizations. Age and place of residence also predict such assessments. Finally, levels of confidence in television news and BP as sources of information appear to shape Gulf Coast residents' opinions about the work of organizations responding to the Deepwater Horizon disaster.

  17. Public perceptions of the response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: personal experiences, information sources, and social context.

    PubMed

    Safford, Thomas G; Ulrich, Jessica D; Hamilton, Lawrence C

    2012-12-30

    The 2010 British Petroleum (BP) Deepwater Horizon oil spill highlighted long-standing questions about energy exploration and its social and environmental implications. Sociologists studying environmental disasters have documented the social impacts resulting from these events and dissatisfaction with government and industry responses. In this paper, we use data from a survey conducted during the Gulf of Mexico oil spill to examine how Louisiana and Florida residents' social backgrounds, experiences with the spill, and trust in information sources predict their perceptions of governmental and BP response efforts. We find that direct personal impacts and compensation strongly influence the evaluations of responding organizations. Age and place of residence also predict such assessments. Finally, levels of confidence in television news and BP as sources of information appear to shape Gulf Coast residents' opinions about the work of organizations responding to the Deepwater Horizon disaster. PMID:22985712

  18. Engaging millennial learners: Effectiveness of personal response system technology with nursing students in small and large classrooms.

    PubMed

    Revell, Susan M Hunter; McCurry, Mary K

    2010-05-01

    Nurse educators must explore innovative technologies that make the most of the characteristics and learning styles of millennial learners. These students are comfortable with technology and prefer interactive classrooms with individual feedback and peer collaboration. This study evaluated the perceived effectiveness of personal response system (PRS) technology in enhancing student learning in small and large classrooms. PRS technology was integrated into two undergraduate courses, nursing research (n = 33) and junior medical-surgical nursing (n = 116). Multiple-choice, true-false, NCLEX-RN alternate format, and reading quiz questions were incorporated within didactic PowerPoint presentations. Data analysis of Likert-type and open-response questions supported the use of PRS technology as an effective strategy for educating millennial learners in both small and large classrooms. PRS technology promotes active learning, increases participation, and provides students and faculty with immediate feedback that reflects comprehension of content and increases faculty-student interaction.

  19. Balancing Social Responsibility and Personal Autonomy: Adolescents' Reasoning About Community Service Programs.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Justin; Helwig, Charles C

    2015-01-01

    Many jurisdictions in North America have implemented mandatory community service programs in high schools. However, little research exists examining the reasoning of youth themselves about such programs. This study examined how youth reason about community service programs, and how they balance the prosocial goals of these programs against their personal autonomy. Seventy-two participants between 10 and 18 years old evaluated voluntary community service along with 4 hypothetical mandatory programs that varied according to whether students or the government decided the areas in which students would serve, and whether a structured reflection component was included. The findings reveal that youth are not simply self-focused but rather balance and coordinate considerations of autonomy and community in their judgments and reasoning about community service.

  20. Commentary: personality disorder and diminished responsibility--the significance of priorities and objectives.

    PubMed

    Baird, John A; Rodgers, Carla

    2009-01-01

    Professor Landy Sparr's paper systematically examines issues and anomalies of courtroom practice in relation to offenders who are considered to have a personality disorder. The in-depth description of a recent case from the International War Crimes Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia forms the basis of the paper. As an international forum, the Tribunal illustrates clearly the different practices and interpretations in various jurisdictions. Sparr provides much detail about the machinations of the Tribunal, leading to speculation about the principles that underlie the complex legislation as it is applied in different countries. Despite the considerable differences in mental health systems among different countries, there are probably shared themes and trends that influence the practice of forensic psychiatry.

  1. The mismeasure of morals: antisocial personality traits predict utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Daniel M; Pizarro, David A

    2011-10-01

    Researchers have recently argued that utilitarianism is the appropriate framework by which to evaluate moral judgment, and that individuals who endorse non-utilitarian solutions to moral dilemmas (involving active vs. passive harm) are committing an error. We report a study in which participants responded to a battery of personality assessments and a set of dilemmas that pit utilitarian and non-utilitarian options against each other. Participants who indicated greater endorsement of utilitarian solutions had higher scores on measures of Psychopathy, machiavellianism, and life meaninglessness. These results question the widely-used methods by which lay moral judgments are evaluated, as these approaches lead to the counterintuitive conclusion that those individuals who are least prone to moral errors also possess a set of psychological characteristics that many would consider prototypically immoral. PMID:21757191

  2. The mismeasure of morals: antisocial personality traits predict utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Daniel M; Pizarro, David A

    2011-10-01

    Researchers have recently argued that utilitarianism is the appropriate framework by which to evaluate moral judgment, and that individuals who endorse non-utilitarian solutions to moral dilemmas (involving active vs. passive harm) are committing an error. We report a study in which participants responded to a battery of personality assessments and a set of dilemmas that pit utilitarian and non-utilitarian options against each other. Participants who indicated greater endorsement of utilitarian solutions had higher scores on measures of Psychopathy, machiavellianism, and life meaninglessness. These results question the widely-used methods by which lay moral judgments are evaluated, as these approaches lead to the counterintuitive conclusion that those individuals who are least prone to moral errors also possess a set of psychological characteristics that many would consider prototypically immoral.

  3. Phase-dependent justification: the role of personal responsibility in fair healthcare.

    PubMed

    Bærøe, Kristine; Cappelen, Cornelius

    2015-10-01

    The main aim of this paper is to examine the fairness of different ways of holding people responsible for healthcare-related choices. Our focus is on conceptualisations of responsibility that involve blame and sanctions, and our analytical approach is to provide a systematic discussion based on interrelated and successive health-related, lifestyle choices of an individual. We assess the already established risk-sharing, backward-looking and forward-looking views on responsibility according to a variety of standard objections. In conclusion, all of the proposed views on holding people responsible for their lifestyle choices are subjected to reasonable critiques, although the risk-sharing view fare considerably better than the others overall considered. With our analytical approach, we are able to identify how basic conditions for responsibility ascription alter along a time axis. Repeated relapses with respect to healthcare associated with persistent, unhealthy lifestyle choices, call for distinct attention. In such situations, contextualised reasoning and transparent policy-making, rather than opaque clinical judgements, are required as steps towards fair allocation of healthcare resources. PMID:26269464

  4. Phase-dependent justification: the role of personal responsibility in fair healthcare.

    PubMed

    Bærøe, Kristine; Cappelen, Cornelius

    2015-10-01

    The main aim of this paper is to examine the fairness of different ways of holding people responsible for healthcare-related choices. Our focus is on conceptualisations of responsibility that involve blame and sanctions, and our analytical approach is to provide a systematic discussion based on interrelated and successive health-related, lifestyle choices of an individual. We assess the already established risk-sharing, backward-looking and forward-looking views on responsibility according to a variety of standard objections. In conclusion, all of the proposed views on holding people responsible for their lifestyle choices are subjected to reasonable critiques, although the risk-sharing view fare considerably better than the others overall considered. With our analytical approach, we are able to identify how basic conditions for responsibility ascription alter along a time axis. Repeated relapses with respect to healthcare associated with persistent, unhealthy lifestyle choices, call for distinct attention. In such situations, contextualised reasoning and transparent policy-making, rather than opaque clinical judgements, are required as steps towards fair allocation of healthcare resources.

  5. 41 CFR 102-36.45 - What are our responsibilities in the management of excess personal property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... procurement policies should require consideration of excess personal property before authorizing procurement..., handling, conserving, and transporting excess and surplus personal property, and destroying or...

  6. 41 CFR 102-36.45 - What are our responsibilities in the management of excess personal property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... procurement policies should require consideration of excess personal property before authorizing procurement..., handling, conserving, and transporting excess and surplus personal property, and destroying or...

  7. Detection of Unmotivated Test Takers through an Analysis of Response Patterns: Beyond Person-Fit Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twiste, Tara L.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of patterned responding in unmotivated test takers was investigated through the formation of a novel method. The proposed method relied on marginal proportions of answer choice options as well as the transitional proportions between responses on item pairs. A chi square analysis was used to determine the degree of significance…

  8. Direct Responses to People on the Screen: Television and Personal Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombard, Matthew

    1995-01-01

    Investigates similarities in how people respond to mediated presentations and nonmediated experience in the realm of social interaction. Finds that viewing distance manipulation failed to support predictions and watching larger television screens led to more positive emotional responses, in which subjects selected a viewing position that…

  9. Beyond Personally Responsible: A Study of Teacher Conceptualizations of Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Nancy; Doppen, Frans; Misco, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods study explores secondary teacher conceptualizations of citizenship education in one Midwestern state in the USA. First, the authors situate the study within the teacher belief and citizenship education literature. They then analyze statewide survey responses and interview transcripts that describe teacher beliefs and classroom…

  10. Modern Methodology and Techniques Aimed at Developing the Environmentally Responsible Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponomarenko, Yelena V.; Zholdasbekova, Bibisara A.; Balabekov, Aidarhan T.; Kenzhebekova, Rabiga I.; Yessaliyev, Aidarbek A.; Larchenkova, Liudmila A.

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the positive impact of an environmentally responsible individual as the social unit able to live in harmony with the natural world, himself/herself and other people. The purpose of the article is to provide theoretical substantiation of modern teaching methods. The authors considered the experience of philosophy, psychology,…

  11. Is DSM widely accepted by Japanese clinicians?

    PubMed

    Someya, T; Takahashi, M; Takahashi, M

    2001-10-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III), a new standardized diagnostic system with multiaxial diagnosis, operational criteria and renewed definitions of mental disorders, was introduced in 1980 and prompted movements to reform conventions in Japanese psychiatry. This review overviews the initial response of Japanese clinicians to accept DSM-III, and its effects on the development of systematic research of psychiatric diagnosis. These new research activities include those on reliability of psychiatric diagnosis, application of various evaluation tools, discussion on the concept of mental disorders, relation of personality disorders with depressive disorders, and Taijin-kyofusho, or culturally distinctive phobia in Japan. A reference database search to survey the latest trend on psychiatric research indicated that the number of papers published by Japanese workers increased sharply after 1987, and DSM apparently greatly influenced their internationalization. Twenty years after the publication of DSM-III, a questionnaire on the use of DSM-IV was set out in 2000 to survey how widely DSM is utilized in clinical practice in Japan. Two hundred and twelve psychiatrists answered the questionnaire, and the results show that DSM has been accepted positively by the younger generation, while the older generation (over 40s) has still less interest in DSM, and DSM is used mainly for research purposes rather than in daily practice.

  12. Intergroup Contact, Attitudes toward Homosexuality, and the Role of Acceptance of Gender Non-Conformity in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Kate L.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how contact with gay and lesbian persons affects adolescents' attitudes toward them, and whether this association is mediated or moderated by one's acceptance of gender non-conformity. We analyzed survey responses from 456 Dutch adolescents aged 12-15 who reported having no same-sex attractions. Data were collected in 2008 at 8…

  13. Euthanasia Acceptance: An Attitudinal Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.

    The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…

  14. Dysfunctional Freezing Responses to Approaching Stimuli in Persons with a Looming Cognitive Style for Physical Threats

    PubMed Central

    Riskind, John H.; Sagliano, Laura; Trojano, Luigi; Conson, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Immobilizing freezing responses are associated with anxiety and may be etiologically related to several anxiety disorders. Although recent studies have sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms in freezing responses that are so problematic in many forms of anxiety, cognitive factors related to anxiety have not been investigated. This study was designed to investigate the potential moderating role of a well-documented cognitive vulnerability to anxiety, the Looming Cognitive Style (i.e., LCS; Riskind et al., 2000), which assesses the extent to which individuals tend to routinely interpret ambiguous threats (e.g., physical or social threats) in a biased manner as approaching. We assessed participants' Reaction Times (RTs) when they made judgments about images of animals that differed in threat valence (threat or neutral) and motion direction (approach or recede). As expected, LCS for concerns about the approach of physical dangers appeared to moderate freeze reactions. Individuals who were high on this LCS factor tended to generally exhibit a freeze-response (slower RTs) and this was independent of the threat valence or motion direction of the animals. These general freezing reactions were in stark contrast to those of individuals who were low on the LCS factor for concerns about the approach of physical dangers. These participants tended to exhibit more selective and functional freezing responses that occurred only to threatening animals with approach motion; they did not exhibit freezing to neutral stimuli or any stimuli with receding motion. These findings did not appear to be explicable by a general slowing of RTs for the participants with high LCS. Moreover, the LCS factor for concerns about social threats (such as rejection or embarrassment) was not related to differences in freezing; there was also no additional relationship of freezing to behavioral inhibition scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System and the Behavioral Activation System Scales (BIS

  15. Change in Neuroplasticity-Related Proteins in Response to Acute Activity-Based Therapy in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Astorino, Todd A.; Knoblach, Susan M.; Feather, Jillenne

    2014-01-01

    Background: Activity-based therapy (ABT) focuses on regaining motor and sensory function below the level of the lesion in persons with a spinal cord injury (SCI). This is accomplished through repetitive training of specific motor tasks. Research has shown that ABT may increase neuroplasticity in the rat and human spinal cord. Objective: The primary aim of this study was to examine acute alterations in neuroplasticity-related proteins during ABT in persons with SCI. Methods: Volunteers were current participants in an ABT program and consisted of 12 men and 3 women (age, 31.8 ± 10.9 years) with chronic SCI (injury duration, 63.9 ± 54.4 months). A single 2-hour bout of ABT consisted of standing load bearing, body weight-supported treadmill training, whole body vibration, and functional electrical stimulation. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and immediately after completion of each modality to determine serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), prolactin, and cortisol. Results: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was used to examine differences in proteins over time. Results revealed baseline levels of BDNF (2.37 ± 1.41 ng/mL) that were lower than previous research has demonstrated in persons with SCI. No change in BDNF or cortisol was found, although prolactin was significantly reduced in response to ABT. Conclusion: Despite the length of the bout, acute changes in BDNF were not observed. Whether different intensities or modalities of ABT may promote acute increases in serum BDNF in individuals with SCI remains to be determined and further study is merited. PMID:25477737

  16. Persons with Multiple Disabilities Exercise Adaptive Response Schemes with the Help of Technology-Based Programs: Three Single-Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Campodonico, Francesca; Lang, Russell

    2012-01-01

    The present three single-case studies assessed the effectiveness of technology-based programs to help three persons with multiple disabilities exercise adaptive response schemes independently. The response schemes included (a) left and right head movements for a man who kept his head increasingly static on his wheelchair's headrest (Study I), (b)…

  17. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  18. Motivational influences in persons found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder: a review of legislation and research.

    PubMed

    Penney, Stephanie R; Morgan, Andrew; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the legislative reforms and case law that have impacted the defense of Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder (NCRMD) in Canada over the past three decades. As in other jurisdictions internationally, we observe that legislative reforms of procedural, as opposed to substantive, aspects of the NCRMD defense have impacted the manner in which NCRMD criteria are applied in common practice. More people are being declared NCRMD in recent years, and there is greater heterogeneity in the offending and psychiatric profiles of these individuals, suggesting that NCRMD criteria are being applied more liberally over time. In light of the substantial growth of the forensic mental health system over the past two decades, witnessed both in Canada and abroad, we propose that the study of motivational influences underlying the offending behaviors of persons with serious mental illness (SMI) is necessary to begin disentangling symptom-based offending from violent and antisocial behaviors that may have other motives. This, in turn, can help to determine legal issues, better define the nature of each person's offending and treatment needs, and provide a more fine-grained analysis of the drivers behind the growth experienced by the forensic system.

  19. Factors Influencing the Acceptance of Web-Based Training in Malaysia: Applying the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Junaidah

    2008-01-01

    Companies in Malaysia are beginning to use web-based training to reduce the cost of training and to provide employees with greater access to instruction. However, some people are uncomfortable with technology and prefer person-to-person methods of training. This study examines the acceptance of web-based training among a convenience sample of 261…

  20. Childhood Trauma and Neural Responses to Personalized Stress, Favorite-Food and Neutral-Relaxing Cues in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Elsey, James; Coates, Alice; Lacadie, Cheryl M; McCrory, Eamon J; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have found childhood trauma to be associated with functional and structural abnormalities in corticostriatal-limbic brain regions, which may explain the associations between trauma and negative mental and physical health outcomes. However, functional neuroimaging of maltreatment-related trauma has been limited by largely using generic and predominantly aversive stimuli. Personalized stress, favorite-food, and neutral/relaxing cues during functional magnetic resonance imaging were used to probe the neural correlates of emotional/motivational states in adolescents with varying exposure to maltreatment-related trauma. Sixty-four adolescents were stratified into high- or low-trauma-exposed groups. Cue-related measures of subjective anxiety and craving were collected. Relative to the low-trauma-exposed group, high-trauma-exposed adolescents displayed an increased activation of insula, anterior cingulate, and prefrontal cortex in response to stress cues. Activation in subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, was inversely correlated with subjective anxiety in the high- but not the low-trauma-exposed group. The high-trauma-exposed group displayed hypoactivity of cerebellar regions in response to neutral/relaxing cues. No group differences were observed in response to favorite-food cues. The relationship between trauma exposure and altered cortico-limbic circuitry may in part explain the association between childhood trauma and heightened vulnerability to emotional disturbances and risky behaviour. This may be particularly pertinent during adolescence when such difficulties often emerge. Further work is needed to elucidate the mechanism linking trauma to obesity. PMID:25567424

  1. Understanding the Relation between Attitude Involvement and Response Latitude Using Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Christopher J.; Withrow, Scott; Zickar, Michael J.; Wood, Nicole L.; Dalal, Dev K.; Bochinski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Adapting the original latitude of acceptance concept to Likert-type surveys, response latitudes are defined as the range of graded response options a person is willing to endorse. Response latitudes were expected to relate to attitude involvement such that high involvement was linked to narrow latitudes (the result of selective, careful…

  2. Parental food provisioning is related to nestling stress response in wild great tit nestlings: implications for the development of personality

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Variation in early nutrition is known to play an important role in shaping the behavioural development of individuals. Parental prey selection may have long-lasting behavioural influences. In birds foraging on arthropods, for instance, the specific prey types, e.g. spiders and caterpillars, matter as they have different levels of taurine which may have an effect on personality development. Here we investigated how naturally occurring variation in the amounts of spiders and caterpillars, provisioned to nestlings at day 4 and 8 after hatching, is related to the response to handling stress in a wild passerine, the great tit (Parus major). Broods were cross-fostered in a split-brood design allowing us to separate maternal and genetic effects from early rearing effects. Adult provisioning behaviour was monitored on day four and day eight after hatching using video recordings. Individual nestlings were subjected to a handling stress test at an age of 14 days, which is a validated proxy for exploratory behaviour as an adult. Results Variation in handling stress was mainly determined by the rearing environment. We show that, contrary to our predictions, not the amount of spider biomass, but the amount of caterpillar biomass delivered per nestling significantly affected individual performance in the stress test. Chicks provisioned with lower amounts of caterpillars exhibited a stronger stress response, reflecting faster exploratory behaviour later on in life, than individuals who received larger amounts of caterpillars. Conclusions These results suggest that natural variation in parental behaviour in wild birds modulates the developmental trajectories of their offspring's personality via food provisioning. Since parental provisioning behaviour might also reflect the local environmental conditions, provisioning behaviour may influence how nestlings respond to these local environmental conditions. PMID:26913051

  3. Amygdala and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex responses to appearance-based and behavior-based person impressions.

    PubMed

    Baron, Sean G; Gobbini, M I; Engell, Andrew D; Todorov, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    We explored the neural correlates of learning about people when the affective value of both facial appearance and behavioral information is manipulated. Participants were presented with faces that were either rated as high or low on trustworthiness. Subsequently, we paired these faces with positive, negative, or no behavioral information. Prior to forming face-behavior associations, a cluster in the right amygdala responded more strongly to untrustworthy than to trustworthy faces. During learning, a cluster in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) responded more strongly to faces paired with behaviors than faces not paired with behaviors. We also observed that the activity in the dmPFC was correlated with behavioral learning performance assessed after scanning. Interestingly, individual differences in the initial amygdala response to face trustworthiness prior to learning modulated the relationship between dmPFC activity and learning. This finding suggests that the activity of the amygdala can affect the interaction between dmPFC activity and learning.

  4. Hemodynamic Response to Interictal Epileptiform Discharges Addressed by Personalized EEG-fNIRS Recordings

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, Giovanni; Machado, Alexis; von Ellenrieder, Nicolas; Watanabe, Satsuki; Hall, Jeffery A.; Lina, Jean-Marc; Kobayashi, Eliane; Grova, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed at studying the hemodynamic response (HR) to Interictal Epileptic Discharges (IEDs) using patient-specific and prolonged simultaneous ElectroEncephaloGraphy (EEG) and functional Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (fNIRS) recordings. Methods: The epileptic generator was localized using Magnetoencephalography source imaging. fNIRS montage was tailored for each patient, using an algorithm to optimize the sensitivity to the epileptic generator. Optodes were glued using collodion to achieve prolonged acquisition with high quality signal. fNIRS data analysis was handled with no a priori constraint on HR time course, averaging fNIRS signals to similar IEDs. Cluster-permutation analysis was performed on 3D reconstructed fNIRS data to identify significant spatio-temporal HR clusters. Standard (GLM with fixed HRF) and cluster-permutation EEG-fMRI analyses were performed for comparison purposes. Results: fNIRS detected HR to IEDs for 8/9 patients. It mainly consisted oxy-hemoglobin increases (seven patients), followed by oxy-hemoglobin decreases (six patients). HR was lateralized in six patients and lasted from 8.5 to 30 s. Standard EEG-fMRI analysis detected an HR in 4/9 patients (4/9 without enough IEDs, 1/9 unreliable result). The cluster-permutation EEG-fMRI analysis restricted to the region investigated by fNIRS showed additional strong and non-canonical BOLD responses starting earlier than the IEDs and lasting up to 30 s. Conclusions: (i) EEG-fNIRS is suitable to detect the HR to IEDs and can outperform EEG-fMRI because of prolonged recordings and greater chance to detect IEDs; (ii) cluster-permutation analysis unveils additional HR features underestimated when imposing a canonical HR function (iii) the HR is often bilateral and lasts up to 30 s. PMID:27047325

  5. Field responsive shear thickening fluids for personal protective equipment and MMOD shielding for spacecraft and astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Norman

    2015-03-01

    Shear thickening fluids (STFs) are novel, field responsive materials and have been shown to provide enhanced ballistic and puncture resistance when integrated into nanocomposites. In this talk, I will review the basic principles of shear thickening in colloidal dispersions by introducing new, recent results describing the unique material functions of the shear thickened state and how these material functions relate to those observed in simulation and experiments, as well as models for these material functions and their dependence on particle concentration. Next, performance data for STF-Armor(TM) nanocomposites (STF intercalated with aramid and other textiles) in puncture, ballistic and hypervelocity impact experiments, as well as energy absorbing impact experiments, will be shown and related back to the material properties of the STF fluids. Finally, advances in product development to achieve suitable puncture resistance for novel applications such as puncture resistant surgical gloves (STF Technologies LLC) will be presented along with challenges for the future product development. Support from NSF STTR # IIP-1346269 and NASA NNX11AQ28A is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Response latencies are alive and well for identifying fakers on a self-report personality inventory: A reconsideration of van Hooft and Born (2012).

    PubMed

    Holden, Ronald R; Lambert, Christine E

    2015-12-01

    Van Hooft and Born (Journal of Applied Psychology 97:301-316, 2012) presented data challenging both the correctness of a congruence model of faking on personality test items and the relative merit (i.e., effect size) of response latencies for identifying fakers. We suggest that their analysis of response times was suboptimal, and that it followed neither from a congruence model of faking nor from published protocols on appropriately filtering the noise in personality test item answering times. Using new data and following recommended analytic procedures, we confirmed the relative utility of response times for identifying personality test fakers, and our obtained results, again, reinforce a congruence model of faking. PMID:25381021

  7. Neural Response during the Activation of the Attachment System in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder: An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Buchheim, Anna; Erk, Susanne; George, Carol; Kächele, Horst; Martius, Philipp; Pokorny, Dan; Spitzer, Manfred; Walter, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are characterized by emotional instability, impaired emotion regulation and unresolved attachment patterns associated with abusive childhood experiences. We investigated the neural response during the activation of the attachment system in BPD patients compared to healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eleven female patients with BPD without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 17 healthy female controls matched for age and education were telling stories in the scanner in response to the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), an eight-picture set assessment of adult attachment. The picture set includes theoretically-derived attachment scenes, such as separation, death, threat and potential abuse. The picture presentation order is designed to gradually increase the activation of the attachment system. Each picture stimulus was presented for 2 min. Analyses examine group differences in attachment classifications and neural activation patterns over the course of the task. Unresolved attachment was associated with increasing amygdala activation over the course of the attachment task in patients as well as controls. Unresolved controls, but not patients, showed activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the rostral cingulate zone (RCZ). We interpret this as a neural signature of BPD patients' inability to exert top-down control under conditions of attachment distress. These findings point to possible neural mechanisms for underlying affective dysregulation in BPD in the context of attachment trauma and fear.

  8. Effect of personal response systems on student perception and academic performance in courses in a health sciences curriculum.

    PubMed

    FitzPatrick, Kathleen A; Finn, Kevin E; Campisi, Jay

    2011-09-01

    To increase student engagement, active participation, and performance, personal response systems (clickers) were incorporated into six lecture-based sections of four required courses within the Health Sciences Department major curriculum: freshman-level Anatomy and Physiology I and II, junior-level Exercise Physiology, and senior-level Human Pathophysiology. Clickers were used to gather anonymous student responses to questions posed within the class period after individual thought and peer discussion. Students (n = 293, 88% of students completing the courses) completed a perceptual survey on clicker effectiveness inserted into the Student Assessment of Learning Gains online instrument. Across courses and years, students uniformly rated several dimensions of clicker use as providing good to great gain in engaging them in active learning, increasing participation and involvement during class, maintaining attention, applying material immediately, providing feedback concerning their understanding, and offering an anonymous format for participation. Within these four sections, quiz grades were compared between clicker and nonclicker years. Significant increases in pre- and posttest scores were seen in Exercise Physiology in clicker years and on some, but not all material, in Anatomy and Physiology I and II based on content quizzes. Human Pathophysiology results were unexpected, with higher quiz scores in the nonclicker year. The results support the hypothesis of increased engagement with clicker use. The hypothesis of increased student performance was not consistently supported. Increased performance was seen in Exercise Physiology. In Anatomy and Physiology I and II, performance improved on some content quizzes. In Human Pathophysiology, performance did not improve with clickers.

  9. Neural Response during the Activation of the Attachment System in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Buchheim, Anna; Erk, Susanne; George, Carol; Kächele, Horst; Martius, Philipp; Pokorny, Dan; Spitzer, Manfred; Walter, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are characterized by emotional instability, impaired emotion regulation and unresolved attachment patterns associated with abusive childhood experiences. We investigated the neural response during the activation of the attachment system in BPD patients compared to healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eleven female patients with BPD without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 17 healthy female controls matched for age and education were telling stories in the scanner in response to the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), an eight-picture set assessment of adult attachment. The picture set includes theoretically-derived attachment scenes, such as separation, death, threat and potential abuse. The picture presentation order is designed to gradually increase the activation of the attachment system. Each picture stimulus was presented for 2 min. Analyses examine group differences in attachment classifications and neural activation patterns over the course of the task. Unresolved attachment was associated with increasing amygdala activation over the course of the attachment task in patients as well as controls. Unresolved controls, but not patients, showed activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the rostral cingulate zone (RCZ). We interpret this as a neural signature of BPD patients’ inability to exert top-down control under conditions of attachment distress. These findings point to possible neural mechanisms for underlying affective dysregulation in BPD in the context of attachment trauma and fear. PMID:27531977

  10. Hemodynamic responses to psychological stress: Comparison of normotensive and hypertensive persons using an ambulatory ventricular function monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D.Z.; Dimsdale, J.E.; Moore, R.H.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Newell, J.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1985-05-01

    The development of a portable device for measuring ventricular function allows assessment of hemodynamic responses under a wide range of circumstances. The authors compared the effects of standardized psychological stress (PS) on an index of left ventricular ejection fraction (EFI), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and plasma norepinephrine level (NE) in 6 normotensive (N, mean BP = 121/77 +- 12/8) and six hypertensive (H, mean BP = 137/95 +- 6/6) subjects. PS included 4 minutes of mental arithmetic and a 16 minute psychiatric interview. The interview focused on life stresses such as marital and family discord, job dissatisfaction, monetary insufficiency, health concerns, and bereavement. Changes in EFI, SBP, and NE (..delta.. EFI, ..delta.. SBP, ..delta.. NE) and in their log transformed variances (..delta.. log(var)) were compared to those occurring during a 20 minute period of standarized rest (R) which consisted on listening to relaxing music. Compared to R, all 12 subjects had a significant pressor response to PS (p less than or equal to .05, range = 6 to 29mmHg). There was an increase in mean EFI in 3 N (p less than or equal to .05, range = 0.5 to 2.7) and 3 H (p less than or equal to .05, range = 1.7 to 4.4) and a decrease in 1 N (p less than or equal to .05, -2.3) and 1 H (p less than or equal to .05, -2.3). Mean NE increased in 4 N (p less than or equal to .05, range 110 to 563 pg/ml) and 6 H (p less than or equal to .05, range = 136 to 525 pg/ml). The authors conclude that (1) in both N and H, PS induces significant responses in EFI which varies in direction despite near uniform increases in SBP and NE, and (2) hypertensive persons have a greater change in variability in EFI during PS than do normotensive persons despite equivalent changes in SBP and NE.

  11. Listening to the Shepard-Risset Glissando: the Relationship between Emotional Response, Disruption of Equilibrium, and Personality.

    PubMed

    Vernooij, Eveline; Orcalli, Angelo; Fabbro, Franco; Crescentini, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    The endless scale illusion, obtained by cyclically repeating a chromatic scale made up of Shepard tones, has been used in a variety of musical works. Music psychology and neuroscience has been interested in this particular psychoacoustic phenomenon mainly for studying the cognitive processes of pitch perception involved. In the present study, we investigated the emotional states induced by the Shepard-Risset glissando, a variant of the Shepard scale. For this purpose we chose three musical stimuli: a Matlab-generated Shepard Risset glissando, Jean-Claude Risset's Computer Suite from Little Boy, which presents a Shepard-Risset glissando integrated in the aesthetic context of a composition, and an ordinary orchestral glissando taken from the opening of Iannis Xenakis's Metastasis. Seventy-three volunteers completed a listening experiment during which they rated their emotional response to these stimuli on a seven-point Likert scale and indicated whether they had experienced a disruption of equilibrium. Personality was also measured with the Five-Factor Model of personality traits. The results show that negative emotions were most strongly evoked during listening to each of the stimuli. We also found that the Shepard-Risset glissando illusion, both within the aesthetic context of a musical composition and on its own, was capable of evoking disruption of equilibrium, frequently leading to the associated feeling of falling. Moreover, generally for the Shepard-Risset glissando illusion, higher negative emotional ratings were given by individuals who had experienced a feeling of disturbance of equilibrium relative to those who had not had this experience. Finally, we found a complex pattern of relationships between personality and the subjective experience of the glissando. Openness to experience correlated positively with positive emotion ratings for the Computer Suite, while agreeableness correlated negatively with positive emotion ratings for the Matlab stimulus

  12. Listening to the Shepard-Risset Glissando: the Relationship between Emotional Response, Disruption of Equilibrium, and Personality

    PubMed Central

    Vernooij, Eveline; Orcalli, Angelo; Fabbro, Franco; Crescentini, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    The endless scale illusion, obtained by cyclically repeating a chromatic scale made up of Shepard tones, has been used in a variety of musical works. Music psychology and neuroscience has been interested in this particular psychoacoustic phenomenon mainly for studying the cognitive processes of pitch perception involved. In the present study, we investigated the emotional states induced by the Shepard-Risset glissando, a variant of the Shepard scale. For this purpose we chose three musical stimuli: a Matlab-generated Shepard Risset glissando, Jean-Claude Risset's Computer Suite from Little Boy, which presents a Shepard-Risset glissando integrated in the aesthetic context of a composition, and an ordinary orchestral glissando taken from the opening of Iannis Xenakis's Metastasis. Seventy-three volunteers completed a listening experiment during which they rated their emotional response to these stimuli on a seven-point Likert scale and indicated whether they had experienced a disruption of equilibrium. Personality was also measured with the Five-Factor Model of personality traits. The results show that negative emotions were most strongly evoked during listening to each of the stimuli. We also found that the Shepard-Risset glissando illusion, both within the aesthetic context of a musical composition and on its own, was capable of evoking disruption of equilibrium, frequently leading to the associated feeling of falling. Moreover, generally for the Shepard-Risset glissando illusion, higher negative emotional ratings were given by individuals who had experienced a feeling of disturbance of equilibrium relative to those who had not had this experience. Finally, we found a complex pattern of relationships between personality and the subjective experience of the glissando. Openness to experience correlated positively with positive emotion ratings for the Computer Suite, while agreeableness correlated negatively with positive emotion ratings for the Matlab stimulus

  13. Listening to the Shepard-Risset Glissando: the Relationship between Emotional Response, Disruption of Equilibrium, and Personality.

    PubMed

    Vernooij, Eveline; Orcalli, Angelo; Fabbro, Franco; Crescentini, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    The endless scale illusion, obtained by cyclically repeating a chromatic scale made up of Shepard tones, has been used in a variety of musical works. Music psychology and neuroscience has been interested in this particular psychoacoustic phenomenon mainly for studying the cognitive processes of pitch perception involved. In the present study, we investigated the emotional states induced by the Shepard-Risset glissando, a variant of the Shepard scale. For this purpose we chose three musical stimuli: a Matlab-generated Shepard Risset glissando, Jean-Claude Risset's Computer Suite from Little Boy, which presents a Shepard-Risset glissando integrated in the aesthetic context of a composition, and an ordinary orchestral glissando taken from the opening of Iannis Xenakis's Metastasis. Seventy-three volunteers completed a listening experiment during which they rated their emotional response to these stimuli on a seven-point Likert scale and indicated whether they had experienced a disruption of equilibrium. Personality was also measured with the Five-Factor Model of personality traits. The results show that negative emotions were most strongly evoked during listening to each of the stimuli. We also found that the Shepard-Risset glissando illusion, both within the aesthetic context of a musical composition and on its own, was capable of evoking disruption of equilibrium, frequently leading to the associated feeling of falling. Moreover, generally for the Shepard-Risset glissando illusion, higher negative emotional ratings were given by individuals who had experienced a feeling of disturbance of equilibrium relative to those who had not had this experience. Finally, we found a complex pattern of relationships between personality and the subjective experience of the glissando. Openness to experience correlated positively with positive emotion ratings for the Computer Suite, while agreeableness correlated negatively with positive emotion ratings for the Matlab stimulus

  14. Trade-offs in traditional criteria vs environmental acceptability in product development: an example of the drilling fluids industry's response to environmental regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.; Collins, C.; Havis, D.

    1980-01-01

    The coevolution of increased energy needs and a heightened environmental awareness within the past decade has been fraught with direct conflicts. Often, these conflicts were necessary to solidify boad policy acts or challenge nebulous or unclear regulations. The drilling fluids industry, a vital part of petroleum exploration and production, has recognized the need for avoiding future conflicts and for insuring the conservation of our environment. This recognition is best witnessed by the production of new products or the alteration of established products to eliminate or minimize environmental impact. As an example, biocides used by the industry to preserve drilling fluids and control microbiological problems have been under close scrutinization by the Environmental Protection Agency, the United States Geological Service, and the National Marine Fisheries Service. The need to develop new products in this area or substitute the active ingredients of established products is evident. Data are presented on 19 active ingredients under consideration by IMCO Services. Of the 19, three failed performance tests. An additional seven were dismissed because of environmental concerns even though all passed performace testing. Of the nine remaining, four were selected because of their optimal combination of performance and environmental acceptability. The final choice appeared acceptable in both categories and was economically competitive. By careful consideration of applicable regulations, it is intended that future conflicts over use and disposal of this product will be minimzed.

  15. The meaning and process of pain acceptance. Perceptions of women living with arthritis and fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    LaChapelle, Diane L; Lavoie, Susan; Boudreau, Ainsley

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Within the past 10 years, cognitive-behavioural pain management models have moved beyond the traditional focus on coping strategies and perceived control over pain, to incorporate mindfulness-and acceptance-based approaches. Pain acceptance is the process of giving up the struggle with pain and learning to live life despite pain. Acceptance is associated with lower levels of pain, disability and psychological distress. Relatively little is known, however, about how patients arrive at a state of acceptance without the aid of therapy. OBJECTIVES: To explore personal definitions of acceptance and the factors that facilitate or hinder acceptance. METHODS: Eleven focus groups, involving a total of 45 women with arthritis and fibromyalgia, were conducted. RESULTS: The qualitative analysis revealed that, while the women rejected the word ‘acceptance’, they did agree with the main components of existing research definitions. The women’s responses revealed that acceptance was a process of realizations and acknowledgements, including realizing that the pain was not normal and help was needed, receiving a diagnosis, acknowledging that there was no cure and realizing that they needed to redefine ‘normal’. Diagnosis, social support, educating self and others, and self-care were factors that promoted acceptance. Struggling to retain a prepain identity, negative impacts on relationships, others not accepting their pain and the unspoken message that the pain was ‘all in their head’ were barriers to acceptance. CONCLUSION: The implications of these findings, distinctions between the diagnostic groups and recommendations regarding how health professionals can facilitate the process of acceptance are discussed. PMID:18592056

  16. The Influence of Purchasing Context and Reversibility of Choice on Consumer Responses Toward Personalized Products and Standardized Products.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jieun; Lee, Doo-Hee; Taylor, Charles R

    2016-04-01

    Existing research on personalization has found that consumers generally prefer personalized products over standardized ones. This study argued that consumer preference for personalized products is dependent on purchasing context and reversibility of choice. Results of an experiment conducted in this study found that consumers preferred personalized products when purchasing an item for personal use but preferred standardized products when purchasing an item as a gift. However, the effects of purchasing context were negated when consumers were given the assurance that personalized products could be returned (reversibility of choice); when presented with reversibility of choice, consumers preferred personalized products over standardized products regardless of purchasing context. Theoretical and managerial implications of these results were discussed.

  17. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; McCurdy, David A.

    1992-04-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  18. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  19. "A Human Ethogram: Its Scientific Acceptability and Importance." A Treatise Assessing Modern Theories of Personality Development and Proposing a New Comprehensive Theory of Behavior and Behavioral Development, key chapters and sections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesness, Bradley

    Written by a methodological behaviorist, this treatise critiques neo-Hullian, Freudian, Eriksonian, and Piagetian theories and presents an ethological perspective on behavior and personality development. The critique is extended to cover social learning, cognitive-developmental, neo-Freudian, and Skinnerian theories, as well as the ideas of…

  20. Validation of a Spanish version of the psychological inflexibility in pain scale (PIPS) and an evaluation of its relation with acceptance of pain and mindfulness in sample of persons with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological flexibility has been suggested as a fundamental process in health. The Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale (PIPS) is one of the scales employed for assessing psychological inflexibility in pain patients. The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the PIPS and secondly, to compare it to two other psychological constructs, the acceptance of pain and mindfulness scales. Methods The PIPS was translated into Spanish by two bilingual linguistic experts, and then, back-translated into English to assess for equivalence. The final Spanish version was administered along with the Pain Visual Analogue Scale, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, to 250 Spanish patients with fibromyalgia. Face validity, construct validity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) and convergent validity were tested. Also a multiple regression analysis was carried out.The usual guidelines have been followed for cross-cultural adaptations. Results Data were very similar to the ones obtained in the original PIPS version. The construct validity confirmed the original two-components solution which explained 61.6% of the variance. The Spanish PIPS had good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.97) and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.90). The Spanish PIPS’ score correlated significantly with worse global functioning (r = 0.55), anxiety (r = 0.54), depression (r = 0.66), pain catastrophizing (r = 0.62), pain acceptance (r = −0.72) and mindfulness (r = −0.47), as well as correlating modestly with pain intensity (r = 0.12). The multiple regression analyses showed that psychological inflexibility, acceptance and mindfulness are not overlapped. Conclusions The Spanish PIPS scale appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for the evaluation of

  1. Acceptability of BCG vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mande, R

    1977-01-01

    The acceptability of BCG vaccination varies a great deal according to the country and to the period when the vaccine is given. The incidence of complications has not always a direct influence on this acceptability, which depends, for a very large part, on the risk of tuberculosis in a given country at a given time.

  2. ATLAS ACCEPTANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, J. C. , Jr.; Parker, J. V.; Hinckley, W. B.; Hosack, K. W.; Mills, D.; Parsons, W. M.; Scudder, D. W.; Stokes, J. L.; Tabaka, L. J.; Thompson, M. C.; Wysocki, Frederick Joseph; Campbell, T. N.; Lancaster, D. L.; Tom, C. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The acceptance test program for Atlas, a 23 MJ pulsed power facility for use in the Los Alamos High Energy Density Hydrodynamics program, has been completed. Completion of this program officially releases Atlas from the construction phase and readies it for experiments. Details of the acceptance test program results and of machine capabilities for experiments will be presented.

  3. Acceptability of blood and blood substitutes.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, E; Prowse, C; Townsend, E; Spence, A; Hilten, J A van; Lowe, K

    2008-03-01

    Alternatives to donor blood have been developed in part to meet increasing demand. However, new biotechnologies are often associated with increased perceptions of risk and low acceptance. This paper reviews developments of alternatives and presents data, from a field-based experiment in the UK and Holland, on the risks and acceptance of donor blood and alternatives (chemical, genetically modified and bovine). UK groups perceived all substitutes as riskier than the Dutch. There is a negative association between perceived risk and acceptability. Solutions to increasing acceptance are discussed in terms of implicit attitudes, product naming and emotional responses.

  4. Acute Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Responses During Exoskeleton-Assisted Walking Overground Among Persons with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hartigan, Clare; Kandilakis, Casey; Pharo, Elizabeth; Clesson, Ismari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity robotic exoskeleton technology is being developed with the promise of affording people with spinal cord injury (SCI) the opportunity to stand and walk. The mobility benefits of exoskeleton-assisted walking can be realized immediately, however the cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits of this technology have not been thoroughly investigated. Objective: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the acute cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses associated with exoskeleton-assisted walking overground and to determine the degree to which these responses change at differing walking speeds. Methods: Five subjects (4 male, 1 female) with chronic SCI (AIS A) volunteered for the study. Expired gases were collected during maximal graded exercise testing and two, 6-minute bouts of exoskeleton-assisted walking overground. Outcome measures included peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak), average oxygen consumption (V̇O2avg), peak heart rate (HRpeak), walking economy, metabolic equivalent of tasks for SCI (METssci), walk speed, and walk distance. Results: Significant differences were observed between walk-1 and walk-2 for walk speed, total walk distance, V̇O2avg, and METssci. Exoskeleton-assisted walking resulted in %V̇O2peak range of 51.5% to 63.2%. The metabolic cost of exoskeleton-assisted walking ranged from 3.5 to 4.3 METssci. Conclusion: Persons with motor-complete SCI may be limited in their capacity to perform physical exercise to the extent needed to improve health and fitness. Based on preliminary data, cardiorespiratory and metabolic demands of exoskeleton-assisted walking are consistent with activities performed at a moderate intensity. PMID:26364281

  5. Association between violent behaviour and impaired prepulse inhibition of the startle response in antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Veena; Das, Mrigen; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Zachariah, Elizabeth; Barkataki, Ian; Howlett, Michael; Sharma, Tonmoy

    2005-03-01

    Violent behaviour has a strong association with antisocial personality disorder (APD) and schizophrenia. Although developments in the understanding of socio-environmental factors associated with violence should not be ignored, advances in prevention and treatment of violent behaviour would benefit by improved understanding of its neurobiological and cognitive basis. The authors, therefore, investigated prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response in APD and schizophrenia in relation to a history of serious violence. The neural substrates of PPI, especially the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus and basal ganglia, are implicated in violence as well as in APD and schizophrenia. The study included four groups: (i) patients with APD and a history of violence, (ii) patients with schizophrenia and a history of violence, (iii) patients with schizophrenia without a history of violence, and (iv) healthy subjects with no history of violence or a mental disorder. All subjects were assessed identically on acoustic PPI. Compared to healthy subjects, significantly reduced PPI occurred in APD, violent schizophrenia and non-violent schizophrenia patients. Although PPI did not significantly differentiate the three clinical groups, high ratings of violence were modestly associated with reduced PPI across the entire study sample. Violent patients with impulsive and premeditated violence showed comparable PPI. The association between violent behaviour and impaired PPI suggests that neural structures and functions underlying PPI are implicated in (inhibition of) violence.

  6. From personal survival to public health: community leadership by men who have sex with men in the response to HIV

    PubMed Central

    Trapence, Gift; Collins, Chris; Avrett, Sam; Carr, Robert; Sanchez, Hugo; Ayala, George; Diouf, Daouda; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan D

    2013-01-01

    Community leadership and participation by gay men and men who have sex with men (MSM) have been central to the response to HIV since the beginning of the epidemic. Through a wide array of actions, engagement of MSM has been important in the protection of communities. The connection between personal and community health as drivers of health advocacy continue to be a powerful element. The passion and urgency brought by MSM communities have led to the targeting and expansion of HIV and AIDS research and programming, and have improved the synergy of health and human rights, sustainability, accountability, and health outcomes for all people affected by HIV. MSM are, however, frequently excluded from the evidence-based services that they helped to develop, despite them generally being the most effective actors in challenging environments. Without MSM community involvement, government-run health programmes might have little chance of effectively reaching communities or scaling up interventions to lessen, and ultimately end, the HIV pandemic. PMID:22819662

  7. Helping youth in underserved communities envision possible futures: an extension of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility model.

    PubMed

    Walsh, David

    2008-06-01

    Empowering youth through the exploration of their possible futures is afresh and innovative approach to the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility model (TPSR). The purpose of this study was to examine the combination of TPSR with the theory of possible selves. This combination, called the Career Club, was a program specifically designed to better assist students in understanding and facilitating reflective discussions on their future decisions. Career Club was taught weekly for nine sessions, 90 min each, at an inner city elementary school in a large metropolitan city. Participants comprised 12 seventh- and eighth-grade boys and girls who had at least 1 year and up to 5 years of experience in a TPSR program. Data sources included document analysis, lesson observations, formal interviews, and observationalfield notes. Themes were classified into the following categories: hoped- for-selves and feared selves-a delicate balance, coaching as a necessary component, and coming to understand possible futures. These results indicated that Career Club was effective in providing the participants a meaningful career exploration in coaching. Data also suggested these coaching experiences facilitated reflective discussions on realizing their future orientation choices.

  8. Thermoregulatory responses to layered personal protective clothing: practical implications for oil spill clean-up and remediation.

    PubMed

    Sirikul, Bovorn; Bishop, Phillip A; Nevett, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    Many jobs in toxic environments and in less than ideal surroundings, such as oil spill remediation, require the use of 2 layers of personal protective equipment (PPE) to maximize worker safety. This study was designed to assess physiological and subjective responses while working in a single-layer (SL) or double-layer (DL) ensemble during a continuous work protocol in a hot environment of 31 °C WBGT. Eleven men in a repeated-measures design performed 2 counterbalanced work-bouts at a time-weighted work rate of 300 kcal/h. All tests were terminated when a rectal temperature (Tre) of 38.7 °C was attained. Total work time was significantly (P < 0.05) shorter in DL (60.5 ± 3.9 versus 66.4 ± 4.6 min in SL), and final microenvironmental temperature (MEt) (35.6 ± 0.9 °C vs 37.1 ± 0.3 °C) and humidity (MEh) (90.0 ± 4.0% vs 95.4 ± 1.1%) were higher in DL. There were no differences for Tre, mean skin temperature, or sweat rate over time. These data have practical implications in that although the physiological strain on workers in DL was not substantially greater than in SL, worker safety, and productivity can be reduced while working in layered PPE.

  9. Global connectivity of hub residues in Oncoprotein structures encodes genetic factors dictating personalized drug response to targeted Cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soundararajan, Venky; Aravamudan, Murali

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy and mechanisms of therapeutic action are largely described by atomic bonds and interactions local to drug binding sites. Here we introduce global connectivity analysis as a high-throughput computational assay of therapeutic action - inspired by the Google page rank algorithm that unearths most ``globally connected'' websites from the information-dense world wide web (WWW). We execute short timescale (30 ps) molecular dynamics simulations with high sampling frequency (0.01 ps), to identify amino acid residue hubs whose global connectivity dynamics are characteristic of the ligand or mutation associated with the target protein. We find that unexpected allosteric hubs - up to 20Å from the ATP binding site, but within 5Å of the phosphorylation site - encode the Gibbs free energy of inhibition (ΔGinhibition) for select protein kinase-targeted cancer therapeutics. We further find that clinically relevant somatic cancer mutations implicated in both drug resistance and personalized drug sensitivity can be predicted in a high-throughput fashion. Our results establish global connectivity analysis as a potent assay of protein functional modulation. This sets the stage for unearthing disease-causal exome mutations and motivates forecast of clinical drug response on a patient-by-patient basis. We suggest incorporation of structure-guided genetic inference assays into pharmaceutical and healthcare Oncology workflows.

  10. Global connectivity of hub residues in Oncoprotein structures encodes genetic factors dictating personalized drug response to targeted Cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Soundararajan, Venky; Aravamudan, Murali

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy and mechanisms of therapeutic action are largely described by atomic bonds and interactions local to drug binding sites. Here we introduce global connectivity analysis as a high-throughput computational assay of therapeutic action – inspired by the Google page rank algorithm that unearths most “globally connected” websites from the information-dense world wide web (WWW). We execute short timescale (30 ps) molecular dynamics simulations with high sampling frequency (0.01 ps), to identify amino acid residue hubs whose global connectivity dynamics are characteristic of the ligand or mutation associated with the target protein. We find that unexpected allosteric hubs – up to 20Å from the ATP binding site, but within 5Å of the phosphorylation site – encode the Gibbs free energy of inhibition (ΔGinhibition) for select protein kinase-targeted cancer therapeutics. We further find that clinically relevant somatic cancer mutations implicated in both drug resistance and personalized drug sensitivity can be predicted in a high-throughput fashion. Our results establish global connectivity analysis as a potent assay of protein functional modulation. This sets the stage for unearthing disease-causal exome mutations and motivates forecast of clinical drug response on a patient-by-patient basis. We suggest incorporation of structure-guided genetic inference assays into pharmaceutical and healthcare Oncology workflows. PMID:25465236

  11. Gender determines cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to acute physical and psychosocial stress in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ayako; Oshita, Harumi; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Aimi; Ikeda, Rie; Ando, Tomoko; Aizawa, Saeko; Masuda, Koji; Higuma, Haruka; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Ninomiya, Taiga; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2015-07-30

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by affective instability, unstable relationships, and identity disturbance. We measured salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol levels in all participants during exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and an electric stimulation stress. Seventy-two BPD patients were compared with 377 age- and gender- matched controls. The State and Trait versions of the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory test (STAI-S and STAI-T, respectively), the Profile of Mood State (POMS) tests, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS) were administered to participants before electrical stimulation. Following TSST exposure, salivary cortisol levels significantly decreased in female patients and significantly increased in male patients compared with controls. POMS tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, fatigue, and confusion scores were significantly increased in BPD patients compared with controls. In contrast, vigor scores were significantly decreased in BPD patients relative to controls. Furthermore, STAI-T and STAI-S anxiety scores and BDI scores were significantly increased in BPD patient compared with controls. DACS scores were significantly increased in BPD patient compared with controls. Different stressors (e.g., psychological or physical) induced different responses in the HPA and SAM systems in female or male BPD patients.

  12. Gender determines cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to acute physical and psychosocial stress in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ayako; Oshita, Harumi; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Aimi; Ikeda, Rie; Ando, Tomoko; Aizawa, Saeko; Masuda, Koji; Higuma, Haruka; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Ninomiya, Taiga; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2015-07-30

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by affective instability, unstable relationships, and identity disturbance. We measured salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol levels in all participants during exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and an electric stimulation stress. Seventy-two BPD patients were compared with 377 age- and gender- matched controls. The State and Trait versions of the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory test (STAI-S and STAI-T, respectively), the Profile of Mood State (POMS) tests, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS) were administered to participants before electrical stimulation. Following TSST exposure, salivary cortisol levels significantly decreased in female patients and significantly increased in male patients compared with controls. POMS tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, fatigue, and confusion scores were significantly increased in BPD patients compared with controls. In contrast, vigor scores were significantly decreased in BPD patients relative to controls. Furthermore, STAI-T and STAI-S anxiety scores and BDI scores were significantly increased in BPD patient compared with controls. DACS scores were significantly increased in BPD patient compared with controls. Different stressors (e.g., psychological or physical) induced different responses in the HPA and SAM systems in female or male BPD patients. PMID:25979467

  13. Acceptance of dying: a discourse analysis of palliative care literature.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Camilla

    2012-07-01

    The subject of death denial in the West has been examined extensively in the sociological literature. However, there has not been a similar examination of its "opposite", the acceptance of death. In this study, I use the qualitative method of discourse analysis to examine the use of the term "acceptance" of dying in the palliative care literature from 1970 to 2001. A Medline search was performed by combining the text words "accept or acceptance" with the subject headings "terminal care or palliative care or hospice care", and restricting the search to English language articles in clinical journals discussing acceptance of death in adults. The 40 articles were coded and analysed using a critical discourse analysis method. This paper focuses on the theme of acceptance as integral to palliative care, which had subthemes of acceptance as a goal of care, personal acceptance of healthcare workers, and acceptance as a facilitator of care. For patients and families, death acceptance is a goal that they can be helped to attain; for palliative care staff, acceptance of dying is a personal quality that is a precondition for effective practice. Acceptance not only facilitates the dying process for the patient and family, but also renders care easier. The analysis investigates the intertextuality of these themes with each other and with previous texts. From a Foucauldian perspective, I suggest that the discourse on acceptance of dying represents a productive power, which disciplines patients through apparent psychological and spiritual gratification, and encourages participation in a certain way to die. PMID:22513246

  14. Kernel-Smoothing Estimation of Item Characteristic Functions for Continuous Personality Items: An Empirical Comparison with the Linear and the Continuous-Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.

    2004-01-01

    This study used kernel-smoothing procedures to estimate the item characteristic functions (ICFs) of a set of continuous personality items. The nonparametric ICFs were compared with the ICFs estimated (a) by the linear model and (b) by Samejima's continuous-response model. The study was based on a conditioned approach and used an error-in-variables…

  15. Using E-Portfolios in a Field Experience Placement: Examining Student-Teachers' Attitudes towards Learning in Relationship to Personal Value, Control and Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shroff, Ronnie H.; Trent, John; Ng, Eugenia M. W.

    2013-01-01

    This study extends the ownership of learning model by using e-portfolios in a field experience placement to examine student-teachers' attitudes towards learning in relationship to personal value, feeling in control and taking responsibility. A research model is presented based on research into ownership of learning. The student e-portfolio…

  16. Toward a State of Esteem. The Final Report of the California Task Force to Promote Self-esteem and Personal and Social Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This document contains the final report of a California Task Force created to promote self-esteem and personal responsibility. It begins with an executive summary listing key principles of the task force and providing recommendations and discussions in each of six major areas upon which the report focuses. The next section presents the task…

  17. The Effectiveness of Peer Instruction Using Personal Response Systems on the Academic Performance and Attitudes of Students in an Introductory Psychology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dawn Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of a personal response system (PRS) in conjunction with a form of cooperative learning in an introductory, undergraduate psychology class to determine if the combination produced a beneficial impact on student academic achievement. Student attitudes toward use of a PRS with cooperative learning…

  18. Treatment acceptability among mexican american parents.

    PubMed

    Borrego, Joaquin; Ibanez, Elizabeth S; Spendlove, Stuart J; Pemberton, Joy R

    2007-09-01

    There is a void in the literature with regard to Hispanic parents' views about common interventions for children with behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment acceptability of child management techniques in a Mexican American sample. Parents' acculturation was also examined to determine if it would account for differences in treatment acceptability. Mexican American parents found response cost, a punishment-based technique, more acceptable than positive reinforcement-based techniques (e.g., differential attention). Results suggest that Mexican American parents' acculturation has little impact on acceptability of child management interventions. No association was found between mothers' acculturation and treatment acceptability. However, more acculturated Mexican American fathers viewed token economy as more acceptable than less acculturated fathers. Results are discussed in the context of clinical work and research with Mexican Americans.

  19. The need for dental ethicists and the promise of universal patient acceptance: response to Richard Masella's "Renewing professionalism in dental education".

    PubMed

    Patthoff, Donald E

    2007-02-01

    Richard Masella's "Renewing Professionalism in Dental Education: Overcoming the Market Environment" reveals why professionalism is nearly dead in America; it also shows the good of commerce and the excesses of commercialism in the market. More importantly, it collects and summarizes most of the relevant forms of education currently available to teach professionalism and professional ethics in dentistry; it then briefly examines whether those forms of education are used and if they are effective. Masella also asks some key challenging questions. His select and limited references lead to deeper studies about the nature and definition of professionalism and how it might be learned and presented. His suggestions for renewing professionalism are minimal; this sets the stage for proposing and selecting other ideas that need attention and development. Some of those ideas and suggestions, such as competition and collaboration, four types of dentistry, understanding two conflicting meanings of desire and need, and universal patient acceptance were recently explored in a workshop, "Professional Promises: Hopes and Gaps in Access to Oral Health Care" (procedings published in the November 2006 Journal of Dental Education), and were not yet available to Masella when his article was authored. His article, though, stimulates good discussion and action. Its data and substance show why, for example, dentistry needs to develop a core cadre of full-time practicing professional dental ethicists. Currently, there is only a small but very dedicated group of volunteers trying to meet our society's need to bring new life to professionalism in dentistry and our market. PMID:17314383

  20. An Alternative Perspective Concerning the Differential Psychophysiological Responsivity of Persons with the Type A and Type B Behavior Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, David S.

    1983-01-01

    Reviewed task-related differences in physiological arousal between Type A and Type B persons and found that differences are less consistent and of a smaller magnitude than what is usually assumed. Furthermore, the median difference in systolic blood pressure between Type A and Type B persons working on tasks was small. (Author/JAC)