Science.gov

Sample records for acceptable biological catch

  1. 50 CFR 648.53 - Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual catch limits (ACL), annual catch targets (ACT), DAS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...). The ABC/ACL for the 2015 fishing year is subject to change through a future framework adjustment. (1... access fleet sub-ACL and ACT for the 2015 fishing year are subject to change through a future framework... issued an IFQ scallop permit may only harvest and land the total amount of scallop meats allocated...

  2. 50 CFR 648.53 - Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual catch limits (ACL), annual catch targets (ACT), DAS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... subject to change through a future framework adjustment. (1) ABC/ACL for fishing years 2011 through 2013... and ACT for the 2013 fishing year are subject to change through a future framework adjustment. (i) The... the 2013 fishing year are default allocations and are subject to change through a future...

  3. 50 CFR 648.53 - Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual catch limits (ACL), annual catch targets (ACT), DAS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...). The ABC/ACL for the 2014 fishing year is subject to change through a future framework adjustment. (1... access fleet sub-ACL and ACT for the 2014 fishing year are subject to change through a future framework... amount of scallop meats allocated in accordance with this subpart. Unless otherwise specified in...

  4. 50 CFR 648.53 - Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual catch limits (ACL), annual catch targets (ACT), DAS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management... vessels that held a Confirmation of Permit History as described in § 648.4(a)(2)(i)(J) for the entire... permit history as described in § 648.4(a)(2)(ii)(L) for the entire fishing year preceding the...

  5. Acceptance Criteria Framework for Autonomous Biological Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Dzenitis, J M

    2006-12-12

    The purpose of this study was to examine a set of user acceptance criteria for autonomous biological detection systems for application in high-traffic, public facilities. The test case for the acceptance criteria was the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) operating in high-traffic facilities in New York City (NYC). However, the acceptance criteria were designed to be generally applicable to other biological detection systems in other locations. For such detection systems, ''users'' will include local authorities (e.g., facility operators, public health officials, and law enforcement personnel) and national authorities [including personnel from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the BioWatch Program, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)]. The panel members brought expertise from a broad range of backgrounds to complete this picture. The goals of this document are: (1) To serve as informal guidance for users in considering the benefits and costs of these systems. (2) To serve as informal guidance for developers in understanding the needs of users. In follow-up work, this framework will be used to systematically document the APDS for appropriateness and readiness for use in NYC.

  6. Allosteric role of the large-scale domain opening in biological catch-binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereverzev, Yuriy V.; Prezhdo, Oleg V.; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.

    2009-05-01

    The proposed model demonstrates the allosteric role of the two-domain region of the receptor protein in the increased lifetimes of biological receptor/ligand bonds subjected to an external force. The interaction between the domains is represented by a bounded potential, containing two minima corresponding to the attached and separated conformations of the two protein domains. The dissociative potential with a single minimum describing receptor/ligand binding fluctuates between deep and shallow states, depending on whether the domains are attached or separated. A number of valuable analytic expressions are derived and are used to interpret experimental data for two catch bonds. The P-selectin/P-selectin-glycoprotein-ligand-1 (PSGL-1) bond is controlled by the interface between the epidermal growth factor (EGF) and lectin domains of P-selectin, and the type 1 fimbrial adhesive protein (FimH)/mannose bond is governed by the interface between the lectin and pilin domains of FimH. Catch-binding occurs in these systems when the external force stretches the receptor proteins and increases the interdomain distance. The allosteric effect is supported by independent measurements, in which the domains are kept separated by attachment of another ligand. The proposed model accurately describes the experimentally observed anomalous behavior of the lifetimes of the P-selectin/PSGL-1 and FimH/mannose complexes as a function of applied force and provides valuable insights into the mechanism of catch-binding.

  7. The Two-Pathway Model for the Catch-Slip Transition in Biological Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Pereverzev, Yuriy V.; Prezhdo, Oleg V.; Forero, Manu; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.; Thomas, Wendy E.

    2005-01-01

    Some recently studied biological noncovalent bonds have shown increased lifetime when stretched by mechanical force. In each case these counterintuitive “catch-bonds” have transitioned into ordinary “slip-bonds” that become increasingly shorter lived as the tensile force on the bond is further increased. We describe analytically how these results are supported by a physical model whereby the ligand escapes the receptor binding site via two alternative routes, a catch-pathway that is opposed by the applied force and a slip-pathway that is promoted by force. The model predicts under what conditions and at what critical force the catch-to-slip transition would be observed, as well as the degree to which the bond lifetime is enhanced at the critical force. The model is applied to four experimentally studied systems taken from the literature, involving the binding of P- and L-selectins to sialyl LewisX oligosaccharide-containing ligands. Good quantitative fit to the experimental data is obtained, both for experiments with a constant force and for experiments where the force increases linearly with time. PMID:15951391

  8. Theoretical modeling of the catch-slip bond transition in biological adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunnerson, Kim; Pereverzev, Yuriy; Prezhdo, Oleg

    2006-05-01

    The mechanism by which leukocytes leave the blood stream and enter inflamed tissue is called extravasation. This process is facilitated by the ability of selectin proteins, produced by the endothelial cells of blood vessels, to form transient bonds with the leukocytes. In the case of P-selectin, the protein bonds with P-selectin glycoprotein ligands (PSGL-1) produced by the leukocyte. Recent atomic force microscopy and flow chamber analyses of the binding of P-selectin to PSGL-1 provide evidence for an unusual biphasic catch-bond/slip-bond behavior in response to the strength of exerted force. This biphasic process is not well-understood. There are several theoretical models for describing this phenomenon. These models use different profiles for potential energy landscapes and how they change under forces. We are exploring these changes using molecular dynamics. We will present a simple theoretical model as well as share some of our early MD results for describing this phenomenon.

  9. Education Catching up with Science: Preparing Students for Three-Dimensional Literacy in Cell Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, IJsbrand M.; Dahmani, Hassen-Reda; Delouche, Pamina; Bidabe, Marissa; Schneeberger, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The large number of experimentally determined molecular structures has led to the development of a new semiotic system in the life sciences, with increasing use of accurate molecular representations. To determine how this change impacts students' learning, we incorporated image tests into our introductory cell biology course. Groups of students…

  10. Clean catch urine sample

    MedlinePlus

    Urine culture - clean catch; Urinalysis - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen; Urine collection - clean catch ... lips" (labia). You may be given a special clean-catch kit that contains sterile wipes. Sit on ...

  11. Catching Sunlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Alan

    Everyone knows that astronomy is done in the dark. Astronomers are creatures of the night, like vampires, sleeping during the day and working all night long to catch the faint light of their elusive prey.

  12. Education catching up with science: preparing students for three-dimensional literacy in cell biology.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Ijsbrand M; Dahmani, Hassen-Reda; Delouche, Pamina; Bidabe, Marissa; Schneeberger, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The large number of experimentally determined molecular structures has led to the development of a new semiotic system in the life sciences, with increasing use of accurate molecular representations. To determine how this change impacts students' learning, we incorporated image tests into our introductory cell biology course. Groups of students used a single text dealing with signal transduction, which was supplemented with images made in one of three iconographic styles. Typically, we employed realistic renderings, using computer-generated Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures; realistic-schematic renderings, using shapes inspired by PDB structures; or schematic renderings, using simple geometric shapes to represent cellular components. The control group received a list of keywords. When students were asked to draw and describe the process in their own style and to reply to multiple-choice questions, the three iconographic approaches equally improved the overall outcome of the tests (relative to keywords). Students found the three approaches equally useful but, when asked to select a preferred style, they largely favored a realistic-schematic style. When students were asked to annotate "raw" realistic images, both keywords and schematic representations failed to prepare them for this task. We conclude that supplementary images facilitate the comprehension process and despite their visual clutter, realistic representations do not hinder learning in an introductory course.

  13. Education catching up with science: preparing students for three-dimensional literacy in cell biology.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Ijsbrand M; Dahmani, Hassen-Reda; Delouche, Pamina; Bidabe, Marissa; Schneeberger, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The large number of experimentally determined molecular structures has led to the development of a new semiotic system in the life sciences, with increasing use of accurate molecular representations. To determine how this change impacts students' learning, we incorporated image tests into our introductory cell biology course. Groups of students used a single text dealing with signal transduction, which was supplemented with images made in one of three iconographic styles. Typically, we employed realistic renderings, using computer-generated Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures; realistic-schematic renderings, using shapes inspired by PDB structures; or schematic renderings, using simple geometric shapes to represent cellular components. The control group received a list of keywords. When students were asked to draw and describe the process in their own style and to reply to multiple-choice questions, the three iconographic approaches equally improved the overall outcome of the tests (relative to keywords). Students found the three approaches equally useful but, when asked to select a preferred style, they largely favored a realistic-schematic style. When students were asked to annotate "raw" realistic images, both keywords and schematic representations failed to prepare them for this task. We conclude that supplementary images facilitate the comprehension process and despite their visual clutter, realistic representations do not hinder learning in an introductory course. PMID:23222839

  14. The biological oceanography of the East Australian Current and surrounding waters in relation to tuna and billfish catches off eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J. W.; Hobday, A. J.; Campbell, R. A.; Kloser, R. J.; Bonham, P. I.; Clementson, L. A.; Lansdell, M. J.

    2011-03-01

    The surface and sub-surface biological oceanography of tuna fishing grounds within the East Australian Current (EAC) was compared in 2004 with two other fishing areas further offshore. Our aim was to determine whether the biological oceanography of the region could explain the distribution and intensity of pelagic fishery catches inside and outside the EAC at that time. The EAC fishing area was noticeably warmer, less saline and lower in nutrients than waters in the other fishing areas. The EAC waters were dominated by large diatoms, the biomass of which was significantly higher than in the seamount and offshore areas, apparently the result of a cold core eddy beneath the EAC surface filament. Over the seamount and offshore more typical Tasman Sea waters prevailed, although the presence of a relatively deeper oxygen minimum layer over the seamount suggested topographically induced mixing in the area. Notably, sub-surface zooplankton and micronekton biomass was significantly higher around the seamount than in the two other areas. The offshore region was characterised by frontal activity associated with the Tasman front. Micronekton net biomass was generally highest in surface waters in this region. Examination of tuna catch records at that time showed yellowfin tuna ( Thunnus albacares) dominated the catches of the EAC, whereas swordfish ( Xiphias gladius) and bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) were the main species caught offshore. We suggest the yellowfin tuna concentrate in waters that are not only warmer but where prey species are concentrated near the surface. Offshore, deeper living species such as swordfish and bigeye tuna ( T. obesus) can take advantage of prey species that are distributed deeper in the water column and along the flanks of the many seamounts in the region, or that are concentrated at fronts associated with the Tasman Front. Although only a snapshot of the region, relatively consistent catch data over time suggests the underlying biological

  15. Variables Predicting Prospective Biology Teachers' Acceptance Perceptions Regarding Gene Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Mirac; Demirhan, Haydar

    2014-01-01

    The different opinions on products and applications of gene technology (GT) draw attention to the training and education activities related to GT. The purpose of this study is to review some variables predicting the acceptance perception regarding GT, and to investigate their changes at levels. The prospective teachers' subjective knowledge and…

  16. University Students' Acceptance of Biological Theories--Is Evolution Really Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Michael L.; Sadler, Kim Cleary

    2011-01-01

    Understanding students' thinking about scientific theories is fundamental to the development of effective instructional strategies designed to foster scientific literacy. We conducted a study to determine student acceptance of important biological theories and to explore the relationships between their acceptance of scientific theories and their…

  17. Catch composition, reproductive biology and diet of the bramble shark Echinorhinus brucus (Squaliformes: Echinorhinidae) from the south-eastern Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Akhilesh, K V; Bineesh, K K; White, W T; Shanis, C P R; Hashim, M; Ganga, U; Pillai, N G K

    2013-11-01

    Fishery and biological data are presented for the poorly known bramble shark Echinorhinus brucus (Squaliformes: Echinorhinidae), from the deep waters of the south-eastern Arabian Sea. A total of 5318 individuals from by-catch landings of deep-water bottom set longlines, gillnets and shrimp trawl fisheries operating at depths of 200-1200 m were recorded between January 2008 and December 2011 at the Kochi Fisheries Harbour (Kerala). A total of 431 individuals, from 46 to 318 cm total length (L(T)) and 0·8 to 132 kg total mass (M(T)), were examined to determine biological data for this species. The LT at which 50% were mature (L(T)50) for females and males was estimated at 189 and 187 cm LT. Litter size ranged from 10 to 36 and size at birth was between 42 and 46 cm L(T). Dietary analysis of stomach contents revealed E. brucus feeds on a variety of prey including crustaceans (69% index of relative importance, I(RI)), teleosts (25·8% I(RI)), cephalopods (1·7% I(RI)) and elasmobranchs (0·7% I(RI)). This study provides the first detailed biological data for this species and also highlights the extent of the by-catch fishery for this species in Indian waters.

  18. Catch composition, reproductive biology and diet of the bramble shark Echinorhinus brucus (Squaliformes: Echinorhinidae) from the south-eastern Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Akhilesh, K V; Bineesh, K K; White, W T; Shanis, C P R; Hashim, M; Ganga, U; Pillai, N G K

    2013-11-01

    Fishery and biological data are presented for the poorly known bramble shark Echinorhinus brucus (Squaliformes: Echinorhinidae), from the deep waters of the south-eastern Arabian Sea. A total of 5318 individuals from by-catch landings of deep-water bottom set longlines, gillnets and shrimp trawl fisheries operating at depths of 200-1200 m were recorded between January 2008 and December 2011 at the Kochi Fisheries Harbour (Kerala). A total of 431 individuals, from 46 to 318 cm total length (L(T)) and 0·8 to 132 kg total mass (M(T)), were examined to determine biological data for this species. The LT at which 50% were mature (L(T)50) for females and males was estimated at 189 and 187 cm LT. Litter size ranged from 10 to 36 and size at birth was between 42 and 46 cm L(T). Dietary analysis of stomach contents revealed E. brucus feeds on a variety of prey including crustaceans (69% index of relative importance, I(RI)), teleosts (25·8% I(RI)), cephalopods (1·7% I(RI)) and elasmobranchs (0·7% I(RI)). This study provides the first detailed biological data for this species and also highlights the extent of the by-catch fishery for this species in Indian waters. PMID:24580658

  19. Taiwan High School Biology Teachers' Acceptance and Understanding of Evolution and the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Evolution is the cornerstone of biological sciences, but anti-evolution teaching has become a global controversy since the introduction of evolutionary ideas into the United States high school science curricula in 1914. It is suggested that teachers' attitude toward and acceptance of the theory of evolution will influence their effect of teaching…

  20. Effects of an Educational Experience Incorporating an Inventory of Factors Potentially Influencing Student Acceptance of Biological Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Jason R.; Alters, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This investigation provides an extensive review of scientific, religious, and otherwise non-scientific factors that may influence student acceptance of biological evolution. We also measure the extent to which students' levels of acceptance changed following an educational experience designed to address an inclusive inventory of factors identified…

  1. "Catch a Star !"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    reasonable degree of scientific correctness, are entered as "registered projects" and will receive a lottery number. The first 1000 participants from the corresponding groups will also get a "Catch a star" T-Shirt by mail. All accepted entries will be listed at the corresponding website and all accepted reports will be displayed soon after the expiry of the deadline for submission on November 1st, 2002 . Winners to be Announced on November 8, 2002 On November 8th, 2002, at the end of the European Week of Science and Technology, the winners will be found by drawing numbers in a lottery. This event will take place at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) and will be webcast. The First Prize is a free trip for the members of the group to the ESO Paranal Observatory in Chile , the site of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) . The Paranal trip will be realised in any case, but because of age restrictions, it can only be offered to a group in which all participants are 15 years of age or older at the time of the drawing. Younger participants may win an interesting trip within Europe. There will also be other prizes, to be announced later. Starting now The programme starts now and is open for groups of up to three students and one teacher, who must all belong to a school in Europe on November 1, 2002 . This means that only students who did not yet terminate their school studies on this date can participate. No student may participate in more than one group. The programme is administered by the ESO Educational Office , in close collaboration with members of the EAAE, mostly physics teachers. Details about how to register and how to prepare the report about "your" object are available on the web at: http://www.eso.org/public/outreach/eduoff/cas/ About the ESO Educational Office The ESO Educational Office was established in July 2001. It is part of the EPR Department at ESO Headquarters in Garching near Munich. The aim is to provide support of astronomy and astrophysics education

  2. "Catch a Star !"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    reasonable degree of scientific correctness, are entered as "registered projects" and will receive a lottery number. The first 1000 participants from the corresponding groups will also get a "Catch a star" T-Shirt by mail. All accepted entries will be listed at the corresponding website and all accepted reports will be displayed soon after the expiry of the deadline for submission on November 1st, 2002 . Winners to be Announced on November 8, 2002 On November 8th, 2002, at the end of the European Week of Science and Technology, the winners will be found by drawing numbers in a lottery. This event will take place at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) and will be webcast. The First Prize is a free trip for the members of the group to the ESO Paranal Observatory in Chile , the site of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) . The Paranal trip will be realised in any case, but because of age restrictions, it can only be offered to a group in which all participants are 15 years of age or older at the time of the drawing. Younger participants may win an interesting trip within Europe. There will also be other prizes, to be announced later. Starting now The programme starts now and is open for groups of up to three students and one teacher, who must all belong to a school in Europe on November 1, 2002 . This means that only students who did not yet terminate their school studies on this date can participate. No student may participate in more than one group. The programme is administered by the ESO Educational Office , in close collaboration with members of the EAAE, mostly physics teachers. Details about how to register and how to prepare the report about "your" object are available on the web at: http://www.eso.org/public/outreach/eduoff/cas/ About the ESO Educational Office The ESO Educational Office was established in July 2001. It is part of the EPR Department at ESO Headquarters in Garching near Munich. The aim is to provide support of astronomy and astrophysics education

  3. Catch a Star!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-11-01

    ESO and the European Association for Astronomy Education are launching today the 2007 edition of 'Catch a Star!', their international astronomy competition for school students. Now in its fifth year, the competition offers students the chance to win a once-in-a-lifetime trip to ESO's flagship observatory in Chile, as well as many other prizes. Students are invited to 'become astronomers' and embark on a journey to explore the Universe. ESO PR Photo 42/06 The competition includes separate categories - 'Catch a Star Researchers' and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' - to ensure that every student, whatever their level, has the chance to enter and win exciting prizes. For the artistically minded, 'Catch a Star!' also includes an artwork competition, 'Catch a Star Artists'. "'Catch a Star!' offers a unique opportunity for students to learn more about astronomy and about the methods scientists use to discover new things about the Universe", said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. In teams, students choose an astronomical topic to study and produce an in-depth report. An important part of the project for 'Catch a Star Researchers' is to think about how ESO's telescopes or a telescope of the future can contribute to their investigations of the subject. As well as the top prize - a trip to one of ESO's observatory sites in Chile - visits to observatories in Germany, Austria and Spain, and many other prizes are also available to be won. 'Catch a Star Researchers' winners will be chosen by an international jury, and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' will be awarded further prizes by lottery. Entries for 'Catch a Star Artists' will be displayed on the web and winners chosen with the help of a public online vote. The first editions of 'Catch a Star!' have attracted several hundred entries from more than 25 countries worldwide. Previous winning entries have included "Star clusters and the structure of the Milky Way" (Budapest, Hungary), "Vega" (Acqui Terme, Italy) and "Venus

  4. Catch a Star 2008!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-10-01

    ESO and the European Association for Astronomy Education have just launched the 2008 edition of 'Catch a Star', their international astronomy competition for school students. Now in its sixth year, the competition offers students the chance to win a once-in-a-lifetime trip to ESO's flagship observatory in Chile, as well as many other prizes. CAS logo The competition includes separate categories - 'Catch a Star Researchers' and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' - to ensure that every student, whatever their level, has the chance to enter and win exciting prizes. In teams, students investigate an astronomical topic of their choice and write a report about it. An important part of the project for 'Catch a Star Researchers' is to think about how ESO's telescopes such as the Very Large Telescope (VLT) or future telescopes such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) could contribute to investigations of the topic. Students may also include practical activities such as observations or experiments. For the artistically minded, 'Catch a Star' also offers an artwork competition, 'Catch a Star Artists'. Last year, hundreds of students from across Europe and beyond took part in 'Catch a Star', submitting astronomical projects and artwork. "'Catch a Star' gets students thinking about the wonders of the Universe and the science of astronomy, with a chance of winning great prizes. It's easy to take part, whether by writing about astronomy or creating astronomically inspired artwork," said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. As well as the top prize - a trip to ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile - visits to observatories in Austria and Spain, and many other prizes, can also be won. 'Catch a Star Researchers' winners will be chosen by an international jury, and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' will be awarded further prizes by lottery. Entries for 'Catch a Star Artists' will be displayed on the web and winners

  5. Effects of an Educational Experience Incorporating an Inventory of Factors Potentially Influencing Student Acceptance of Biological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, Jason R.; Alters, Brian

    2011-12-01

    This investigation provides an extensive review of scientific, religious, and otherwise non-scientific factors that may influence student acceptance of biological evolution. We also measure the extent to which students' levels of acceptance changed following an educational experience designed to address an inclusive inventory of factors identified as potentially affecting student acceptance of evolution (n = 81, pre-test/post-test) n = 37, one-year longitudinal). Acceptance of evolution was measured using the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) instrument among participants enrolled in a secondary-level academic programme during the summer prior to their final year of high school and as they transitioned to the post-secondary level. Student acceptance of evolution was measured to be significantly higher than initial levels both immediately following and over one year after the educational experience. Results reported herein carry implications for future quantitative and qualitative research as well as for cross-disciplinary instruction plans related to evolutionary science and non-scientific factors which may influence student understanding of evolution.

  6. Nitrogen catch crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High costs of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and the potential for N losses to ground and surface water have resulted in increased interest in using catch crops to recover this N. Research on potatoes has shown that the amount of N lost to leaching can be as much as the amount of N removed from the field ...

  7. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Acceptance of Biological Evolution in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin, Özgür

    2013-01-01

    The present research aims to determine whether or not pre-service science teachers in Turkey are resistant to learning about the theory of evolution (TOE), and to understand the reasons for their acceptance or rejection of this theory. Following an intervention process, essay documents were collected from each participant ("N" = 113) and…

  8. Determination of an acceptable assimilable organic carbon (AOC) level for biological stability in water distribution systems with minimized chlorine residual.

    PubMed

    Ohkouchi, Yumiko; Ly, Bich Thuy; Ishikawa, Suguru; Kawano, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Sadahiko

    2013-02-01

    There is considerable interest in minimizing the chlorine residual in Japan because of increasing complaints about a chlorinous odor in drinking water. However, minimizing the chlorine residual causes the microbiological water quality to deteriorate, and stricter control of biodegradable organics in finished water is thus needed to maintain biological stability during water distribution. In this investigation, an acceptable level of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) for biologically stable water with minimized chlorine residual was determined based on the relationship between AOC, the chlorine residual, and bacterial regrowth. In order to prepare water samples containing lower AOC, the fractions of AOC and biodegradable organic matter (BOM) in tap water samples were reduced by converting into biomass after thermal hydrolysis of BOM at alkaline conditions. The batch-mode incubations at different conditions of AOC and chlorine residual were carried out at 20 °C, and the presence or absence of bacterial regrowth was determined. The determined curve for biologically stable water indicated that the acceptable AOC was 10.9 μg C/L at a minimized chlorine residual (0.05 mg Cl(2)/L). This result indicated that AOC removal during current water treatment processes in Japan should be significantly enhanced prior to minimization of the chlorine residual in water distribution.

  9. Physics Characterization of TLD-600 and TLD-700 and Acceptance Testing of New XRAD 160 Biological X-Ray Irradiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yanan

    2: Acceptance testing of new X-RAD 160 Biological X-Ray Irradiator. Purpose: An X-RAD 160 Biological X-Ray Irradiator was recently installed at Duke University to serve as a key device for cellular radiobiology research. The purpose of this study is to perform acceptance testing on the new irradiator for operator radiation safety and irradiation specifications. Methods: The acceptance testing included tests of the following components: (1) Leakage radiation survey, (2) Half-value layer (beam quality), (3) Uniformity, (4) KVp accuracy, (5) Exposure at varying mA (linearity of mA), (6) Exposure at varying kVp, (7) Inverse square measurements, (8) Field size measurement, (9) Exposure constancy. The irradiation parameters for each components of first round of acceptance testing performed on September 21, 2012 were: Leakage radiation survey (none, 160 kVp, 18 mA, 200s), Beam quality (40cm, 50-140 kVp in 10 kVp incensement, 1 mA, 10s, none), Uniformity (40cm, 160 kVp, 18 mA, 15s, F1), KVp accuracy (40cm, 50-150 kVp in 10 kVp incensement, 10 mA, 15s, none), Linearity of mA (40cm, 160 kVp, 2-18 mA, 15s, none), Inverse square measurements (20-63cm, 160 kVp, 1mA, 30s, none), Field size measurement (40cm, 160 kVp, 10 mA, 15s, none), Exposure constancy (40cm, 160 kVp, 18 mA, 20s, none). The irradiation parameters for each components for each components of second round of acceptance testing performed on November 18, 2012 were: Beam quality (40cm, 35-150 kVp, 1 mA, 10s, F1), KVp accuracy (40cm, 35-150 kVp, 1 mA, 10s, F1), Variation of kVp (40cm, 160 kVp, 18 mA, 30s, F1), Linearity of mA (40cm, 160 kVp, 1-18 mA, 30s, F1), Uniformity (40cm, 160 kVp, 18 mA, 30s, F1), Inverse square measurements (20-63cm, 160 kVp, 18 mA, 30s, F1). Results: The first round of acceptance testing performed on September 21, 2012 failed due to the fact that the measured exposure along the X-axis was significantly non-uniform; the exposure greatly decreases going in the left direction, which is a clear

  10. 50 CFR 660.18 - Certification and decertification procedures for catch monitors and catch monitor providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... procedures for catch monitors and catch monitor providers. 660.18 Section 660.18 Wildlife and Fisheries... and decertification procedures for catch monitors and catch monitor providers. (a) Certification official. The Regional Administrator (or a designee) will designate a NMFS catch monitor...

  11. The visual guidance of catching.

    PubMed

    Savelsbergh, G J; Whiting, H T; Pijpers, J R; van Santvoord, A A

    1993-01-01

    In order to explore the nature and amount of information in the optic array used by subjects required to carry out one-handed catching actions, the optical expansion pattern (using a deflating ball) and the duration of viewing time (using liquid crystal spectacles) of the ball were varied. Subjects were required to catch luminous balls (two of constant physical size and one of changing physical size during approach) attached to a pendulum in a totally dark room, while the liquid spectacles were closed at 0, 100, 200 or 300 ms before hand-ball contact. The results confirmed previous findings that the timing of the catching action is based on retinal expansion information and that conclusion was strengthened when an additional dependent variable (time of the maximal opening velocity of the grasp) was used. Further, for the viewing time duration manipulations, the time of the maximal closing velocity of the hand was later, while no effect was found on the time of the maximal opening velocity, when the last 300 ms of the trajectory of the ball was occluded. Adjustments to the catching action in response to the different ball sizes under the 0 ms condition differed significantly from the adjustments under the 300 ms condition. Both findings point to the importance of relative optical expansion information, available between 300 and 200 ms before ball-hand contact, in maintaining a (relatively) continuous perception-action coupling in the act of catching.

  12. 50 CFR 660.17 - Catch monitors and catch monitor service providers. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.17 Catch monitors and catch monitor service providers....

  13. Passing and Catching in Rugby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namudu, Mike M.

    This booklet contains the fundamentals for rugby at the primary school level. It deals primarily with passing and catching the ball. It contains instructions on (1) holding the ball for passing, (2) passing the ball to the left--standing, (3) passing the ball to the left--running, (4) making a switch pass, (5) the scrum half's normal pass, (6) the…

  14. [Why do so many arts and social scientists have huge difficulties accepting (evolutionary)biologically based opinions for gender differences].

    PubMed

    Leonhard, Hans-Walter

    2005-09-01

    The contribution deals with the wide-spread rejection of (evolutionary) biological founded statements concerning sex differences by social sciences and arts, which are not based on objective objections, but are ideologically justified. The starting point therefore is to be seen in the justified critique of the biological legitimized racism and sexism in the sixties and seventies of the last century. The continuation of this rejecting position, though the modern biology has changed itself essentially, can be explained psychologically by Festinger's "Theory of Cognitive Dissonance".

  15. Three Decades of Anti-evolution Campaign and its Results: Turkish Undergraduates' Acceptance and Understanding of the Biological Evolution Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peker, Deniz; Comert, Gulsum Gul; Kence, Aykut

    2010-06-01

    Even though in the early years of the Republic of Turkey Darwin’s theory of evolution was treated as a scientific theory and taught fairly in schools, despite all the substantial evidence accumulated supporting the theory of evolution since then, Darwin and his ideas today have been scorned by curriculum and education policy makers. Furthermore, Turkish students and academics have been faced with unprecedented creationist propaganda for many years. In this paper, we first provide a glimpse of the theory of evolution and creationism in Turkey, we then report the results of our survey study ( N = 1,098) about the undergraduates’ acceptance and understanding of Darwinian evolution and some of the socioeconomic variables affecting those measures. Our cross sectional study shows that acceptance and understanding of the theory of evolution is quite low. We criticize the current state of evolution education in Turkey and call for a change towards a scientific treatment of the theory evolution in schools.

  16. An assessment of West African seahorses in fisheries catch and trade.

    PubMed

    Cisneros-Montemayor, A M; West, K; Boiro, I S; Vincent, A C J

    2016-02-01

    This study provides the first assessment of a heavily traded West African seahorse species, Hippocampus algiricus, and the first information on short-snouted seahorse Hippocampus hippocampus biology in Africa. A total of 219 seahorses were sampled from fisher catch in Senegal and The Gambia, with estimated height at reproductive activity for H. algiricus (161 mm) larger than mean ± S.D. catch height (150 ± 31 mm). Catch composition, height at reproductive activity and potential biases in fishery retention are discussed with regard to the current Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES) guidelines.

  17. Evaluation of different methods of catching anopheline mosquitoes in western Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Palis, Y; Curtis, C F

    1992-09-01

    During a longitudinal study of vector biology and malaria transmission in western Venezuela, adult mosquitoes were collected by different methods and their efficiency was compared with human landing catches. CDC light traps, a double-net, a calf-baited trap and collection of resting mosquitoes on vegetation were tested. These methods did not prove to be effective substitutes for human landing catches. PMID:1402863

  18. 5 CFR 1600.23 - Catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Catch-up contributions. 1600.23 Section... Catch-up contributions. (a) A participant may make traditional catch-up contributions or Roth catch-up... annual limit on catch-up contributions contained in section 414(v) the Internal Revenue Code. (b)...

  19. 5 CFR 1600.23 - Catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Catch-up contributions. 1600.23 Section... Catch-up contributions. (a) A participant may make traditional catch-up contributions or Roth catch-up... annual limit on catch-up contributions contained in section 414(v) the Internal Revenue Code. (b)...

  20. Catching a Cold When It's Warm

    MedlinePlus

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Catching a Cold When It’s Warm What’s the Deal with Summertime Sniffles? Most ... be more unfair than catching a cold when it’s warm? How can cold symptoms arise when it’s ...

  1. Role of visual information in ball catching.

    PubMed

    Rosengren, K S; Pick, H L; von Hofsten, C

    1988-06-01

    The present study is concerned with the perceptual information about the body and space underlying the act of catching a ball. In a series of four experiments, subjects were asked to catch a luminous ball under various visual conditions. In general, catching in a normally illuminated room was contrasted with catching the luminous ball in an otherwise completely dark room. In the third and fourth experiments, intermediate conditions of visual information were included. The results suggest that it is possible to catch a ball with one hand when only the ball is visible, but performance is better when the subject has the benefit of a rich visual environment and two hands. The second experiment indicated that subject performance does improve with practice in the dark, but time spent in the darkened room itself doesn't result in a significant decrement in performance. Results of the third study suggest that vision of one's hand does not aid in the performance of this task whereas the presence of a minimal visual frame appears to aid performance. The final study examined the relation between catching performance and body sway under similar visual conditions. Results of this experiment imply that persons who exhibit relatively little postural sway in full-room lighting performed better at this catching task.

  2. School students "Catch a Star"!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-04-01

    School students from across Europe and beyond have won prizes in an astronomy competition, including the trip of a lifetime to one of the world's most powerful astronomical observatories, on a mountaintop in Chile. ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, together with the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE), has just announced the winners of the 2007 "Catch a Star!" competition. ESO PR Photo 21/07 "Catch a Star!" is an international astronomy competition for school students, in which students are invited to 'become astronomers' and explore the Universe. The competition includes two categories for written projects on astronomical themes, to ensure that every student, whatever their level, has the chance to enter and win exciting prizes. For the artistically minded, "Catch a Star!" also includes an astronomy-themed artwork competition. Students from 22 countries submitted hundreds of written projects and pieces of artwork. "The standard of entries was most impressive, and made the jury's task of choosing winners both enjoyable and difficult! We hope that everyone, whether or not they won a prize, had fun taking part, and learnt some exciting things about our Universe", said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. The top prize, of a week-long trip to Chile to visit the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Paranal, was won by students Jan Mestan and Jan Kotek from Gymnazium Pisek in the Czech Republic, together with their teacher Marek Tyle. Their report on "Research and Observation of the Solar Eclipse" told how they had studied solar eclipses, and involved their fellow students in observations of an eclipse from their school in 2006. The team will travel to Chile and visit the ESO VLT - one of the world's most powerful optical/infrared telescopes - where they will meet astronomers and be present during a night of observations on the 2600m high Paranal mountaintop. "It's fantastic that we will see the

  3. Catch reconstructions reveal that global marine fisheries catches are higher than reported and declining

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Daniel; Zeller, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries data assembled by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) suggest that global marine fisheries catches increased to 86 million tonnes in 1996, then slightly declined. Here, using a decade-long multinational ‘catch reconstruction' project covering the Exclusive Economic Zones of the world's maritime countries and the High Seas from 1950 to 2010, and accounting for all fisheries, we identify catch trajectories differing considerably from the national data submitted to the FAO. We suggest that catch actually peaked at 130 million tonnes, and has been declining much more strongly since. This decline in reconstructed catches reflects declines in industrial catches and to a smaller extent declining discards, despite industrial fishing having expanded from industrialized countries to the waters of developing countries. The differing trajectories documented here suggest a need for improved monitoring of all fisheries, including often neglected small-scale fisheries, and illegal and other problematic fisheries, as well as discarded bycatch. PMID:26784963

  4. Catch reconstructions reveal that global marine fisheries catches are higher than reported and declining.

    PubMed

    Pauly, Daniel; Zeller, Dirk

    2016-01-19

    Fisheries data assembled by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) suggest that global marine fisheries catches increased to 86 million tonnes in 1996, then slightly declined. Here, using a decade-long multinational 'catch reconstruction' project covering the Exclusive Economic Zones of the world's maritime countries and the High Seas from 1950 to 2010, and accounting for all fisheries, we identify catch trajectories differing considerably from the national data submitted to the FAO. We suggest that catch actually peaked at 130 million tonnes, and has been declining much more strongly since. This decline in reconstructed catches reflects declines in industrial catches and to a smaller extent declining discards, despite industrial fishing having expanded from industrialized countries to the waters of developing countries. The differing trajectories documented here suggest a need for improved monitoring of all fisheries, including often neglected small-scale fisheries, and illegal and other problematic fisheries, as well as discarded bycatch.

  5. Regulation of actin catch-slip bonds with a RhoA-formin module

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cho-yin; Lou, Jizhong; Wen, Kuo-Kuang; McKane, Melissa; Eskin, Suzanne G.; Rubenstein, Peter A.; Chien, Shu; Ono, Shoichiro; Zhu, Cheng; McIntire, Larry V.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic turnover of the actin cytoskeleton is regulated cooperatively by force and biochemical signaling. We previously demonstrated that actin depolymerization under force is governed by catch-slip bonds mediated by force-induced K113:E195 salt-bridges. Yet, the biochemical regulation as well as the functional significance of actin catch bonds has not been elucidated. Using AFM force-clamp experiments, we show that formin controlled by RhoA switches the actin catch-slip bonds to slip-only bonds. SMD simulations reveal that the force does not induce the K113:E195 interaction when formin binds to actin K118 and E117 residues located at the helical segment extending to K113. Actin catch-slip bonds are suppressed by single residue replacements K113E and E195K that interrupt the force-induced K113:E195 interaction; and this suppression is rescued by a K113E/E195K double mutant (E/K) restoring the interaction in the opposite orientation. These results support the biological significance of actin catch bonds, as they corroborate reported observations that RhoA and formin switch force-induced actin cytoskeleton alignment and that either K113E or E195K induces yeast cell growth defects rescued by E/K. Our study demonstrates how the mechano-regulation of actin dynamics is modulated by biochemical signaling molecules, and suggests that actin catch bonds may be important in cell functions. PMID:27731359

  6. Regulation of actin catch-slip bonds with a RhoA-formin module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cho-Yin; Lou, Jizhong; Wen, Kuo-Kuang; McKane, Melissa; Eskin, Suzanne G.; Rubenstein, Peter A.; Chien, Shu; Ono, Shoichiro; Zhu, Cheng; McIntire, Larry V.

    2016-10-01

    The dynamic turnover of the actin cytoskeleton is regulated cooperatively by force and biochemical signaling. We previously demonstrated that actin depolymerization under force is governed by catch-slip bonds mediated by force-induced K113:E195 salt-bridges. Yet, the biochemical regulation as well as the functional significance of actin catch bonds has not been elucidated. Using AFM force-clamp experiments, we show that formin controlled by RhoA switches the actin catch-slip bonds to slip-only bonds. SMD simulations reveal that the force does not induce the K113:E195 interaction when formin binds to actin K118 and E117 residues located at the helical segment extending to K113. Actin catch-slip bonds are suppressed by single residue replacements K113E and E195K that interrupt the force-induced K113:E195 interaction; and this suppression is rescued by a K113E/E195K double mutant (E/K) restoring the interaction in the opposite orientation. These results support the biological significance of actin catch bonds, as they corroborate reported observations that RhoA and formin switch force-induced actin cytoskeleton alignment and that either K113E or E195K induces yeast cell growth defects rescued by E/K. Our study demonstrates how the mechano-regulation of actin dynamics is modulated by biochemical signaling molecules, and suggests that actin catch bonds may be important in cell functions.

  7. 50 CFR 622.457 - Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs). 622.457 Section 622.457 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY.... Virgin Islands § 622.457 Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and...

  8. 50 CFR 622.496 - Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs). 622.496 Section 622.496 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY.... Virgin Islands § 622.496 Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and...

  9. 50 CFR 622.439 - Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs). 622.439 Section 622.439 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY.... Virgin Islands § 622.439 Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and...

  10. 50 CFR 622.439 - Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs). 622.439 Section 622.439 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY.... Virgin Islands § 622.439 Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and...

  11. 50 CFR 622.496 - Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs). 622.496 Section 622.496 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY.... Virgin Islands § 622.496 Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and...

  12. 50 CFR 622.457 - Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs). 622.457 Section 622.457 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY.... Virgin Islands § 622.457 Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and...

  13. Effect of survey design and catch rate estimation on total catch estimates in Chinook salmon fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Roving–roving and roving–access creel surveys are the primary techniques used to obtain information on harvest of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho sport fisheries. Once interviews are conducted using roving–roving or roving–access survey designs, mean catch rate can be estimated with the ratio-of-means (ROM) estimator, the mean-of-ratios (MOR) estimator, or the MOR estimator with exclusion of short-duration (≤0.5 h) trips. Our objective was to examine the relative bias and precision of total catch estimates obtained from use of the two survey designs and three catch rate estimators for Idaho Chinook salmon fisheries. Information on angling populations was obtained by direct visual observation of portions of Chinook salmon fisheries in three Idaho river systems over an 18-d period. Based on data from the angling populations, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate the properties of the catch rate estimators and survey designs. Among the three estimators, the ROM estimator provided the most accurate and precise estimates of mean catch rate and total catch for both roving–roving and roving–access surveys. On average, the root mean square error of simulated total catch estimates was 1.42 times greater and relative bias was 160.13 times greater for roving–roving surveys than for roving–access surveys. Length-of-stay bias and nonstationary catch rates in roving–roving surveys both appeared to affect catch rate and total catch estimates. Our results suggest that use of the ROM estimator in combination with an estimate of angler effort provided the least biased and most precise estimates of total catch for both survey designs. However, roving–access surveys were more accurate than roving–roving surveys for Chinook salmon fisheries in Idaho.

  14. Consumer acceptability of liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) as an alternative sweetener and correlation with its bioactive content and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Komes, Draženka; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Jurić, Slaven; Bušić, Arijana; Vojvodić, Aleksandra; Durgo, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    Consumer acceptability and sensory properties of liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) were evaluated. Quantitation of total polyphenolics and glycyrrhizic acid (GA), as well as the antioxidant capacity of liquorice extracts, was conducted and their biological effects (cytotoxic, antioxidative/pro-oxidative activity, lipid peroxidation on human laryngeal carcinoma cell line) compared to the ones of their predominant bioactive compound - GA. Conducted consumer survey revealed poor familiarity with liquorice (12.37% of correspondents), but willingness towards its use as an alternative sweetener (77.32% of consumers). Polyphenolic content of evaluated extracts ranged from 1018.18 to 1277.27 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/l while GA content varied between 2179.53 and 2944.13 mg/l. The most pronounced cytotoxic effect (60%) and lipid peroxidation were exerted by treatment with the highest applied extract concentrations (10 mg/ml). Pure GA exhibited cytotoxic and pro-oxidative effects at concentrations of 0.12-0.6 mg/ml. Due to high GA content, coupled with its pronounced cytotoxic activity, the intake of liquorice root should be limited.

  15. 50 CFR 660.17 - Catch monitors and catch monitor service providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... its catch monitors under contract: (A) Has an individually assigned mobile or cell phones, in working... monitors for the use of the catch monitor's personal cell phone or pager for communications made in support... monitor's name, mailing address, e-mail address, phone numbers, first receiver assignment for the...

  16. 50 CFR 660.17 - Catch monitors and catch monitor service providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... its catch monitors under contract: (A) Has an individually assigned mobile or cell phones, in working... monitors for the use of the catch monitor's personal cell phone or pager for communications made in support... monitor's name, mailing address, e-mail address, phone numbers, first receiver assignment for the...

  17. 50 CFR 660.17 - Catch monitors and catch monitor service providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... its catch monitors under contract: (A) Has an individually assigned mobile or cell phones, in working... monitors for the use of the catch monitor's personal cell phone or pager for communications made in support... monitor's name, mailing address, e-mail address, phone numbers, first receiver assignment for the...

  18. 50 CFR 660.18 - Certification and decertification procedures for catch monitors and catch monitor providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certification and decertification procedures for catch monitors and catch monitor providers. 660.18 Section 660.18 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  19. Global marine primary production constrains fisheries catches.

    PubMed

    Chassot, Emmanuel; Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Mélin, Frédéric; Watson, Reg; Gascuel, Didier; Le Pape, Olivier

    2010-04-01

    Primary production must constrain the amount of fish and invertebrates available to expanding fisheries; however the degree of limitation has only been demonstrated at regional scales to date. Here we show that phytoplanktonic primary production, estimated from an ocean-colour satellite (SeaWiFS), is related to global fisheries catches at the scale of Large Marine Ecosystems, while accounting for temperature and ecological factors such as ecosystem size and type, species richness, animal body size, and the degree and nature of fisheries exploitation. Indeed we show that global fisheries catches since 1950 have been increasingly constrained by the amount of primary production. The primary production appropriated by current global fisheries is 17-112% higher than that appropriated by sustainable fisheries. Global primary production appears to be declining, in some part due to climate variability and change, with consequences for the near future fisheries catches.

  20. Improving electrofishing catch consistency by standardizing power

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkhardt, Randy W.; Gutreuter, Steve

    1995-01-01

    The electrical output of electrofishing equipment is commonly standardized by using either constant voltage or constant amperage, However, simplified circuit and wave theories of electricity suggest that standardization of power (wattage) available for transfer from water to fish may be critical for effective standardization of electrofishing. Electrofishing with standardized power ensures that constant power is transferable to fish regardless of water conditions. The in situ performance of standardized power output is poorly known. We used data collected by the interagency Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) in the upper Mississippi River system to assess the effectiveness of standardizing power output. The data consisted of 278 electrofishing collections, comprising 9,282 fishes in eight species groups, obtained during 1990 from main channel border, backwater, and tailwater aquatic areas in four reaches of the upper Mississippi River and one reach of the Illinois River. Variation in power output explained an average of 14.9% of catch variance for night electrofishing and 12.1 % for day electrofishing. Three patterns in catch per unit effort were observed for different species: increasing catch with increasing power, decreasing catch with increasing power, and no power-related pattern. Therefore, in addition to reducing catch variation, controlling power output may provide some capability to select particular species. The LTRMP adopted standardized power output beginning in 1991; standardized power output is adjusted for variation in water conductivity and water temperature by reference to a simple chart. Our data suggest that by standardizing electrofishing power output, the LTRMP has eliminated substantial amounts of catch variation at virtually no additional cost.

  1. Knowlege of, attitudes toward, and acceptance of genetically modified organisms among prospective teachers of biology, home economics, and grade school in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Sorgo, Andrej; Ambrožič-Dolinšek, Jana

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, opinions, and attitudes toward, as well as readiness to accept genetically modified organisms (GMOs) among prospective primary and secondary Slovene teachers. Our findings are that prospective teachers want to take an active role in rejecting or supporting individual GMOs and are aware of the importance of education about genetically modified organism (GMO) items and their potential significance for society. Through cluster analysis, we recognized four clusters of GMOs, separated by degree of genetically modified acceptability. GM plants and microorganisms which are recognized as useful are accepted. They are undecided about organisms used in research or medicine and reject organisms used for food consumption and for fun. There are only weak correlations between knowledge and attitudes and knowledge and acceptance of GMOs, and a strong correlation between attitudes and acceptance. The appropriate strategies and actions for improving university courses in biotechnology are discussed. PMID:21567816

  2. Knowlege of, attitudes toward, and acceptance of genetically modified organisms among prospective teachers of biology, home economics, and grade school in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Sorgo, Andrej; Ambrožič-Dolinšek, Jana

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, opinions, and attitudes toward, as well as readiness to accept genetically modified organisms (GMOs) among prospective primary and secondary Slovene teachers. Our findings are that prospective teachers want to take an active role in rejecting or supporting individual GMOs and are aware of the importance of education about genetically modified organism (GMO) items and their potential significance for society. Through cluster analysis, we recognized four clusters of GMOs, separated by degree of genetically modified acceptability. GM plants and microorganisms which are recognized as useful are accepted. They are undecided about organisms used in research or medicine and reject organisms used for food consumption and for fun. There are only weak correlations between knowledge and attitudes and knowledge and acceptance of GMOs, and a strong correlation between attitudes and acceptance. The appropriate strategies and actions for improving university courses in biotechnology are discussed.

  3. 30 CFR 56.19132 - Safety catches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety catches. 56.19132 Section 56.19132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel...

  4. 30 CFR 56.19132 - Safety catches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety catches. 56.19132 Section 56.19132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel...

  5. 30 CFR 57.19132 - Safety catches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety catches. 57.19132 Section 57.19132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel...

  6. 30 CFR 57.19132 - Safety catches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety catches. 57.19132 Section 57.19132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel...

  7. 30 CFR 56.19132 - Safety catches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety catches. 56.19132 Section 56.19132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel...

  8. 30 CFR 57.19132 - Safety catches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety catches. 57.19132 Section 57.19132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel...

  9. 30 CFR 56.19132 - Safety catches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety catches. 56.19132 Section 56.19132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel...

  10. 30 CFR 57.19132 - Safety catches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety catches. 57.19132 Section 57.19132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel...

  11. 30 CFR 57.19132 - Safety catches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety catches. 57.19132 Section 57.19132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel...

  12. 30 CFR 56.19132 - Safety catches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety catches. 56.19132 Section 56.19132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel...

  13. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, M.S.; Harris, R.V.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  14. 50 CFR 660.511 - Catch restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Catch restrictions. 660.511 Section 660.511 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics...

  15. Book review: Methods for catching beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beetles are the most speciose animal group and found in virtually all habitats on Earth. Methods for Catching Beetles is a comprehensive general sourcebook about where and how to collect members of this diverse group. The book makes a compelling case in its Introduction about the value of scientif...

  16. Liberal Arts Catch-Up Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyder, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper replicates the work of Giles and Drewes from the 1990s. They showed a catch-up effect whereby graduates of liberal arts undergraduate programs, although at an early-career disadvantage compared with graduates of applied programs, had higher incomes by mid-career. Working with the Panel 5 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (2005-2010),…

  17. Catching the Dream Annual Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavers, Dean, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    In 2002, Catching the Dream (CTD) provided college scholarships to 208 American Indian students as well as grants to improve education in schools that serve Native students. This annual report describes CTD's programs and activities in 2002. Contents include short descriptions of CTD's scholarship, fellowship, and internship programs; describe…

  18. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Harris, Robert V.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  19. 50 CFR 648.71 - Catch quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Catch quotas. 648.71 Section 648.71 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic...

  20. 50 CFR 648.71 - Catch quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Catch quotas. 648.71 Section 648.71 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic...

  1. 50 CFR 622.41 - Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs). 622.41 Section 622.41 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY....41 Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs). (a... projected to reach the annual catch target (ACT) specified in § 622.39(a)(1)(v)(commercial quota),...

  2. Vision Algorithms Catch Defects in Screen Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Andrew Watson, a senior scientist at Ames Research Center, developed a tool called the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO), which models human vision for use in robotic applications. Redmond, Washington-based Radiant Zemax LLC licensed the technology from NASA and combined it with its imaging colorimeter system, creating a powerful tool that high-volume manufacturers of flat-panel displays use to catch defects in screens.

  3. Estimating population diversity with CatchAll

    PubMed Central

    Bunge, John; Woodard, Linda; Böhning, Dankmar; Foster, James A.; Connolly, Sean; Allen, Heather K.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: The massive data produced by next-generation sequencing require advanced statistical tools. We address estimating the total diversity or species richness in a population. To date, only relatively simple methods have been implemented in available software. There is a need for software employing modern, computationally intensive statistical analyses including error, goodness-of-fit and robustness assessments. Results: We present CatchAll, a fast, easy-to-use, platform-independent program that computes maximum likelihood estimates for finite-mixture models, weighted linear regression-based analyses and coverage-based non-parametric methods, along with outlier diagnostics. Given sample ‘frequency count’ data, CatchAll computes 12 different diversity estimates and applies a model-selection algorithm. CatchAll also derives discounted diversity estimates to adjust for possibly uncertain low-frequency counts. It is accompanied by an Excel-based graphics program. Availability: Free executable downloads for Linux, Windows and Mac OS, with manual and source code, at www.northeastern.edu/catchall. Contact: jab18@cornell.edu PMID:22333246

  4. Catch Bond Interaction between Cell-Surface Sulfatase Sulf1 and Glycosaminoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Harder, Alexander; Möller, Ann-Kristin; Milz, Fabian; Neuhaus, Phillipp; Walhorn, Volker; Dierks, Thomas; Anselmetti, Dario

    2015-01-01

    In biological adhesion, the biophysical mechanism of specific biomolecular interaction can be divided in slip and catch bonds, respectively. Conceptually, slip bonds exhibit a reduced bond lifetime under increased external force and catch bonds, in contrast, exhibit an increased lifetime (for a certain force interval). Since 2003, a handful of biological systems have been identified to display catch bond properties. Upon investigating the specific interaction between the unique hydrophilic domain (HD) of the human cell-surface sulfatase Sulf1 against its physiological glycosaminoglycan (GAG) target heparan sulfate (HS) by single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS), we found clear evidence of catch bond behavior in this system. The HD, ∼320 amino acids long with dominant positive charge, and its interaction with sulfated GAG-polymers were quantitatively investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) based force clamp spectroscopy (FCS) and dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS). In FCS experiments, we found that the catch bond character of HD against GAGs could be attributed to the GAG 6-O-sulfation site whereas only slip bond interaction can be observed in a GAG system where this site is explicitly lacking. We interpreted the binding data within the theoretical framework of a two state two path model, where two slip bonds are coupled forming a double-well interaction potential with an energy difference of ΔE ≈ 9 kBT and a compliance length of Δx ≈ 3.2 nm. Additional DFS experiments support this assumption and allow identification of these two coupled slip-bond states that behave consistently within the Kramers-Bell-Evans model of force-mediated dissociation. PMID:25863062

  5. Knowledge of, Attitudes toward, and Acceptance of Genetically Modified Organisms among Prospective Teachers of Biology, Home Economics, and Grade School in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorgo, Andrej; Ambrozic-Dolinsek, Jana

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, opinions, and attitudes toward, as well as readiness to accept genetically modified organisms (GMOs) among prospective primary and secondary Slovene teachers. Our findings are that prospective teachers want to take an active role in rejecting or supporting individual GMOs and are aware of…

  6. Maintenance of effects of the CATCH physical education program: results from the CATCH-ON study.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Thomas L; Li, Donglin; Derby, Carol A; Webber, Larry S; Luepker, Russell V; Cribb, Peter

    2003-08-01

    Long-term maintenance effects of physical education (PE) curriculum and staff development programs have not been studied. The authors assessed the sustainability of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) PE intervention using direct observations of 1,904 PE lessons in former intervention and control schools in four U.S. states 5-years postintervention. Student physical activity levels, lesson contexts, and level of CATCH PE training of teachers were analyzed. Student energy expenditure levels and proportion of PE time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in intervention schools were maintained 5 years later, but vigorous activity declined sharply. Meanwhile, postintervention gains in former control schools, influenced by delayed program implementation and secular trends, resulted in a convergence of activity levels in intervention and control schools. Use of CATCH PE curricula was associated with increased levels of teacher training and school support for PE in both former intervention and control schools.

  7. A Drosera-bioinspired hydrogel for catching and killing cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Shihui; Chen, Niancao; Gaddes, Erin R; Zhang, Xiaolong; Dong, Cheng; Wang, Yong

    2015-09-23

    A variety of bioinspired materials have been successfully synthesized to mimic the sophisticated structures or functions of biological systems. However, it is still challenging to develop materials with multiple functions that can be performed synergistically or sequentially. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate a novel bioinspired hydrogel that can interact with cancer cells, functionally similar to Drosera in catching and killing prey. This hydrogel had two layers with the top one functionalized with oligonucleotide aptamers and the bottom one functionalized with double-stranded DNA. The results show that the top hydrogel layer was able to catch target cells with high efficiency and specificity, and that the bottom hydrogel layer could sequester doxorubicin (Dox) for sustained drug release. Importantly, the released Dox could kill 90% of the cells after 1-h residence of the cells on the hydrogel. After the cell release, this bifunctional hydrogel could be regenerated for continuous cell catching and killing. Therefore, the data presented in this study has successfully demonstrated the potential of developing a material system with the functions of attracting, catching and killing diseased cells (e.g., circulating tumor cells) or even invading microorganisms (e.g., bacteria).

  8. A Drosera-bioinspired hydrogel for catching and killing cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shihui; Chen, Niancao; Gaddes, Erin R.; Zhang, Xiaolong; Dong, Cheng; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A variety of bioinspired materials have been successfully synthesized to mimic the sophisticated structures or functions of biological systems. However, it is still challenging to develop materials with multiple functions that can be performed synergistically or sequentially. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate a novel bioinspired hydrogel that can interact with cancer cells, functionally similar to Drosera in catching and killing prey. This hydrogel had two layers with the top one functionalized with oligonucleotide aptamers and the bottom one functionalized with double-stranded DNA. The results show that the top hydrogel layer was able to catch target cells with high efficiency and specificity, and that the bottom hydrogel layer could sequester doxorubicin (Dox) for sustained drug release. Importantly, the released Dox could kill 90% of the cells after 1-h residence of the cells on the hydrogel. After the cell release, this bifunctional hydrogel could be regenerated for continuous cell catching and killing. Therefore, the data presented in this study has successfully demonstrated the potential of developing a material system with the functions of attracting, catching and killing diseased cells (e.g., circulating tumor cells) or even invading microorganisms (e.g., bacteria). PMID:26396063

  9. A Drosera-bioinspired hydrogel for catching and killing cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Shihui; Chen, Niancao; Gaddes, Erin R; Zhang, Xiaolong; Dong, Cheng; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A variety of bioinspired materials have been successfully synthesized to mimic the sophisticated structures or functions of biological systems. However, it is still challenging to develop materials with multiple functions that can be performed synergistically or sequentially. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate a novel bioinspired hydrogel that can interact with cancer cells, functionally similar to Drosera in catching and killing prey. This hydrogel had two layers with the top one functionalized with oligonucleotide aptamers and the bottom one functionalized with double-stranded DNA. The results show that the top hydrogel layer was able to catch target cells with high efficiency and specificity, and that the bottom hydrogel layer could sequester doxorubicin (Dox) for sustained drug release. Importantly, the released Dox could kill 90% of the cells after 1-h residence of the cells on the hydrogel. After the cell release, this bifunctional hydrogel could be regenerated for continuous cell catching and killing. Therefore, the data presented in this study has successfully demonstrated the potential of developing a material system with the functions of attracting, catching and killing diseased cells (e.g., circulating tumor cells) or even invading microorganisms (e.g., bacteria). PMID:26396063

  10. Midwater trawl catches of adolescent and adult anguilliform fishes during the Sargasso Sea Eel Expedition 1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, A.; Tesch, F.-W.

    1982-09-01

    During the research program on the biology and migration of Anguilla spp. carried out with F.R.V. “Anton Dohrn” in 1979, approximately 1300 adolescent and adult anguilliform individuals were caught covering 8 families, 10 genera and 12 species. Observations on each of these species, including horizontal and vertical distributional patterns, are dealt with herein. The appearance of various species in hauls and the absence of adult Anguilla spp. in the catches obtained are discussed.

  11. Catching up from early nutritional deficits? Evidence from rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Outes, Ingo; Porter, Catherine

    2013-03-01

    We examine the nutritional status of a cohort of poor Ethiopian children and their patterns of catch-up growth in height-for-age between three key development stages: age one, five and eight. We use ordinary least squares (within community) and instrumental variables analysis. During the earliest period, we find that nutritional catch-up patterns vary substantially across socioeconomic groups: average catch-up growth in height-for-age is almost perfect among children in relatively better-off households, while among the poorer children, relative height is more persistent. Between five and eight years of age, however, we find near-perfect persistence and no evidence of heterogeneity in catch-up growth. Our findings suggest that household wealth, and in particular access to services, can lead to substantial catch-up growth early on in life. However, for our sample, the window of opportunity to catch up appears to close as early as the age of five.

  12. Natural communities in catch basins in southern Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, M.; Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.; Gettman, A.D.; Pollnak, F.

    2007-01-01

    Storm-water drainage catch basins are manmade structures that often contain water and organic matter, making them suitable environments for various organisms. We censused organisms inhabiting catch basins in southern Rhode Island in 2002 in an effort to begin to describe these communities. Catch-basin inhabitants were mostly detritivores, including annelids, arthropods, and mollusks that could withstand low oxygen levels and droughts. Our results suggest that catch-basin inhabitants were mostly washed in with rainwater, and populations increased over the summer season as biotic activity resulted in increased nutrient levels later in the summer. In contrast, mosquitoes and other Diptera larvae were abundant earlier in the summer because the adults actively sought catch basins for oviposition sites. Mosquito larvae were likely to be abundant in catch basins with shallow, stagnant water that had relatively low dissolved oxygen and pH, and relatively high total suspended solids, carbon, and nitrogen.

  13. Catch tank inhibitor addition 200-East and 200-West Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Palit, A.N.

    1996-06-21

    Reported is the study of 11 catch tanks in the 200-East Area and the 7 catch tanks in the 200-West Area listed as active. The location, capacity, material of construction, annual total accumulation, annual rain intrusion, waste transfer rate, and access for chemical injection in these tanks are documented. The present and future utilization and isolation plans for the catch tanks are established.

  14. How to catch a cricket ball.

    PubMed

    Dienes, Z; McLeod, P

    1993-01-01

    A cricket or baseball fielder can run so as to arrive at just the right place at just the right time to catch a ball. It is shown that if the fielder runs so that d2(tan alpha)/dt2 = 0, where alpha is the angle of elevation of gaze from fielder to ball, then the ball will generally be intercepted before it hits the ground. This is true whatever the aerodynamic drag experienced by the ball. The only exception is if the ball is not approaching the fielder before he starts to run.

  15. 50 CFR 660.17 - Catch monitors and catch monitor providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... age; (iii) Have a high school diploma and; (A) At least two years of study from an accredited college...., first, middle and last names), date of birth, and gender; (3) A copy of each candidate's academic... monitor's full name (first, middle, and last names); (3) Projected catch monitor assignments. Prior to...

  16. Muskie Lunacy: does the lunar cycle influence angler catch of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?

    PubMed

    Vinson, Mark R; Angradi, Ted R

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ≈5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge.

  17. Muskie Lunacy: Does the Lunar Cycle Influence Angler Catch of Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?

    PubMed Central

    Vinson, Mark R.; Angradi, Ted R.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ≈5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge. PMID:24871329

  18. Muskie lunacy: does the lunar cycle influence angler catch of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vinson, Mark R.; Angradi, Ted R.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ≈5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge.

  19. Catching the wave at its crest.

    PubMed

    Schenke, R

    1995-09-01

    Leland Kaiser, PhD, a long-time member of the ACPE faculty, describes opportunities in terms of surfers. Many smaller and insignificant waves will appear before the surfer senses "the big one." The knowledgeable and skilled surfer will distinguish these small waves (mere fads in management terms) from the real one (a significant trend for the medical manager). If the surfer catches the big wave before its crest, there is a formidable danger of being too far in front and being crushed by it. If the surfer misjudges the wave and starts behind the crest, the wave will leave the surfer behind. It is only by catching the wave at or near its crest that the surfer has a chance for a long and exciting ride. And, of course, even having judged the wave perfectly, there is no guarantee of success. The surfer must still use his or her skills with daring and precision if the ride is to end in the calmer waters of the shore and not in the toss and tumble of a spill. PMID:10161232

  20. How to catch a falling fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marantan, Andrew; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2015-03-01

    A variety of fish engage in complex hunting behaviors involving catching airborne prey falling to the surface of the water. In principle this requires that the fish develop internal models describing both the falling prey and its own motion relative to that prey. However learning such models is complicated by the fact that the fish must also account for noise in optical measurements and the refraction occurring at the air/water interface. Inspired by experimental observations, we describe how one such species (Brycon guatemalensis) might feasibly overcome these obstacles and learn a model accurate enough to catch falling fruit. Instead of learning a model for how the fruit falls and a model for how it moves in the water and a model accounting for refraction, we argue that the fish could instead learn one approximate linear model relating a set of measured inputs to a set of measured outputs valid in a limited domain of initial conditions. The fish could then make its control decisions based on the outcome predicted by this combined linear model. We also discuss how the fish can leverage neural transformations of raw data to learn a model with a larger domain of validity and yet more sensitive to noise due to nontrivial Jacobians arising from the neural transformations.

  1. Increased Throwing Accuracy Improves Children's Catching Performance in a Ball-Catching Task from the Movement Assessment Battery (MABC-2)

    PubMed Central

    Dirksen, Tim; De Lussanet, Marc H. E.; Zentgraf, Karen; Slupinski, Lena; Wagner, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2) is a functional test for identifying deficits in the motor performance of children. The test contains a ball-catching task that requires the children to catch a self-thrown ball with one hand. As the task can be executed with a variety of different catching strategies, it is assumed that the task success can also vary considerably. Even though it is not clear, whether the performance merely depends on the catching skills or also to some extent on the throwing skills, the MABC-2 takes into account only the movement outcome. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine (1) to what extent the throwing accuracy has an effect on the children's catching performance and (2) to what extent the throwing accuracy influences their choice of catching strategy. In line with the test manual, the children's catching performance was quantified on basis of the number of correctly caught balls. The throwing accuracy and the catching strategy were quantified by applying a kinematic analysis on the ball's trajectory and the hand movements. Based on linear regression analyses, we then investigated the relation between throwing accuracy, catching performance and catching strategy. The results show that an increased throwing accuracy is significantly correlated with an increased catching performance. Moreover, a higher throwing accuracy is significantly correlated with a longer duration of the hand on the ball's parabola, which indicates that throwing the ball more accurately could enable the children to effectively reduce the requirements on temporal precision. As the children's catching performance and their choice of catching strategy in the ball-catching task of the MABC-2 are substantially determined by their throwing accuracy, the test evaluation should not be based on the movement outcome alone, but should also take into account the children's throwing performance. Our findings could be of particular value for the

  2. Increased Throwing Accuracy Improves Children's Catching Performance in a Ball-Catching Task from the Movement Assessment Battery (MABC-2).

    PubMed

    Dirksen, Tim; De Lussanet, Marc H E; Zentgraf, Karen; Slupinski, Lena; Wagner, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2) is a functional test for identifying deficits in the motor performance of children. The test contains a ball-catching task that requires the children to catch a self-thrown ball with one hand. As the task can be executed with a variety of different catching strategies, it is assumed that the task success can also vary considerably. Even though it is not clear, whether the performance merely depends on the catching skills or also to some extent on the throwing skills, the MABC-2 takes into account only the movement outcome. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine (1) to what extent the throwing accuracy has an effect on the children's catching performance and (2) to what extent the throwing accuracy influences their choice of catching strategy. In line with the test manual, the children's catching performance was quantified on basis of the number of correctly caught balls. The throwing accuracy and the catching strategy were quantified by applying a kinematic analysis on the ball's trajectory and the hand movements. Based on linear regression analyses, we then investigated the relation between throwing accuracy, catching performance and catching strategy. The results show that an increased throwing accuracy is significantly correlated with an increased catching performance. Moreover, a higher throwing accuracy is significantly correlated with a longer duration of the hand on the ball's parabola, which indicates that throwing the ball more accurately could enable the children to effectively reduce the requirements on temporal precision. As the children's catching performance and their choice of catching strategy in the ball-catching task of the MABC-2 are substantially determined by their throwing accuracy, the test evaluation should not be based on the movement outcome alone, but should also take into account the children's throwing performance. Our findings could be of particular value for the

  3. Mortality of Palmetto bass following catch-and-release angling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.J.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2013-01-01

    Palmetto bass (Striped Bass Morone saxatilis x White Bass M. chrysops) have been stocked into reservoirs in the southeastern USA since the late 1960s and have gained widespread acceptance as a sport fish. These fisheries are growing in popularity and catch-and-release (CR) fishing is commonplace; however, there is a dearth of information on CR mortality of palmetto bass. We experimentally angled palmetto bass (n = 56; >373-mm TL) in a Tennessee reservoir using traditional angling gear in water temperatures ranging from 13 °C to 32 °C. Ultrasonic transmitters equipped with floats were externally attached to fish, which were released immediately and tracked multiple times within 10 d of release. Mortality was negligible (3.6%) in fall and spring at cool water temperatures but was high (39.3%) in summer when water temperatures exceeded 26 °C. The best logistic regression model based on Akaike's information criterion for small sample sizes scores relied on water temperature alone to predict CR mortality of palmetto bass; there was little support for other models that included all possible combinations of the six other predictor variables we tested. Palmetto bass in our study experienced lower CR mortality than Striped Bass in other systems, but CR mortality rates for palmetto bass that approach or exceed 40% during summer are still problematic if the goal is to maintain fishing quality.

  4. The Generalized Optic Acceleration Cancellation Theory of Catching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Peter; Reed, Nick; Dienes, Zoltan

    2006-01-01

    The generalized optic acceleration cancellation (GOAC) theory of catching proposes that the path of a fielder running to catch a ball is determined by the attempt to satisfy 2 independent constraints. The 1st is to keep the angle of elevation of gaze to the ball increasing at a decreasing rate. The 2nd is to control the rate of horizontal rotation…

  5. School climate and the institutionalization of the CATCH program.

    PubMed

    Parcel, Guy S; Perry, Cheryl L; Kelder, Steven H; Elder, John P; Mitchell, Paul D; Lytle, Leslie A; Johnson, Carolyn C; Stone, Elaine J

    2003-08-01

    School climate refers to various physical and psychosocial structures that shape schools' social and physical environments. The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) study provided an opportunity to study how aspects of school climate are associated with continued implementation of the CATCH program. Nutrient analysis of menus, observations of physical education (PE) classes, and teacher and staff self-reports were used to measure CATCH program components. Results of this study indicate that aspects of school climate were associated with continued implementation of the CATCH classroom component but not the CATCH food service or PE components. These findings have implications for how we plan for the progression of innovative school health promotion programs from the initial trial stage to institutionalization. Measures of school climate may be useful in determining a school's readiness to adopt and implement an innovative health promotion curriculum.

  6. Nutritionally-Induced Catch-Up Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gat-Yablonski, Galia; Phillip, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is considered a leading cause of growth attenuation in children. When food is replenished, spontaneous catch-up (CU) growth usually occurs, bringing the child back to its original growth trajectory. However, in some cases, the CU growth is not complete, leading to a permanent growth deficit. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding the mechanism regulating nutrition and growth, including systemic factors, such as insulin, growth hormone, insulin- like growth factor-1, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-21, etc., and local mechanisms, including autophagy, as well as regulators of transcription, protein synthesis, miRNAs and epigenetics. Studying the molecular mechanisms regulating CU growth may lead to the establishment of better nutritional and therapeutic regimens for more effective CU growth in children with malnutrition and growth abnormalities. It will be fascinating to follow this research in the coming years and to translate the knowledge gained to clinical benefit. PMID:25594438

  7. How dogs navigate to catch frisbees.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Dennis M; Krauchunas, Scott M; Eddy, Marianna; McBeath, Michael K

    2004-07-01

    Using micro-video cameras attached to the heads of 2 dogs, we examined their optical behavior while catching Frisbees. Our findings reveal that dogs use the same viewer-based navigational heuristics previously found with baseball players (i.e., maintaining the target along a linear optical trajectory, LOT, with optical speed constancy). On trials in which the Frisbee dramatically changed direction, the dog maintained an LOT with speed constancy until it apparently could no longer do so and then simply established a new LOT and optical speed until interception. This work demonstrates the use of simple control mechanisms that utilize invariant geometric properties to accomplish interceptive tasks. It confirms a common interception strategy that extends both across species and to complex target trajectories. PMID:15200626

  8. NC CATCH: Advancing Public Health Analytics.

    PubMed

    Studnicki, James; Fisher, John W; Eichelberger, Christopher; Bridger, Colleen; Angelon-Gaetz, Kim; Nelson, Debi

    2010-01-01

    The North Carolina Comprehensive Assessment for Tracking Community Health (NC CATCH) is a Web-based analytical system deployed to local public health units and their community partners. The system has the following characteristics: flexible, powerful online analytic processing (OLAP) interface; multiple sources of multidimensional, event-level data fully conformed to common definitions in a data warehouse structure; enabled utilization of available decision support software tools; analytic capabilities distributed and optimized locally with centralized technical infrastructure; two levels of access differentiated by the user (anonymous versus registered) and by the analytical flexibility (Community Profile versus Design Phase); and, an emphasis on user training and feedback. The ability of local public health units to engage in outcomes-based performance measurement will be influenced by continuing access to event-level data, developments in evidence-based practice for improving population health, and the application of information technology-based analytic tools and methods.

  9. How dogs navigate to catch frisbees.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Dennis M; Krauchunas, Scott M; Eddy, Marianna; McBeath, Michael K

    2004-07-01

    Using micro-video cameras attached to the heads of 2 dogs, we examined their optical behavior while catching Frisbees. Our findings reveal that dogs use the same viewer-based navigational heuristics previously found with baseball players (i.e., maintaining the target along a linear optical trajectory, LOT, with optical speed constancy). On trials in which the Frisbee dramatically changed direction, the dog maintained an LOT with speed constancy until it apparently could no longer do so and then simply established a new LOT and optical speed until interception. This work demonstrates the use of simple control mechanisms that utilize invariant geometric properties to accomplish interceptive tasks. It confirms a common interception strategy that extends both across species and to complex target trajectories.

  10. Visual factors in hitting and catching.

    PubMed

    Regan, D

    1997-12-01

    To hit or catch an approaching ball, it is necessary to move a bat or hand to the right place at the right time. The performance of top sports players is remarkable: positional errors of less than 5 cm and temporal errors of less than 2 or 3 ms are reliably maintained. There are three schools of thought about how this is achieved. One holds that predictive visual information about where the ball will be at some future instance (when) is used to achieve the hit or catch. The second holds that the bat or hand is moved to the correct position by exploiting some relation between visual information and the required movement. The third focuses on the use of prior knowledge to supplement inadequate visual information. For a rigid spherical ball travelling at constant speed along or close to the line of sight, the retinal images contain both binocular and monocular correlates of the ball's instantaneous direction of motion in depth. Also, the retinal images contain both binocular and monocular information about time of arrival. Humans can unconfound and use this visual information, but they are unable to estimate the absolute distance of the ball or its approach speed other than crudely. In cricket, this visual inadequacy allows a slow bowler to cause the batsman to misjudge where the ball will hit the ground. Such a bowler uses a three-pronged strategy: first, to deliver the ball in such a way as to prevent the batsman from obtaining the necessary visual information until it is too late to react; secondly, to force the batsman to rely entirely on inadequate retinal image information; thirdly, to allow the batsman to learn a particular relationship between the early part of the ball's flight and the point where the ball hits the ground, and then to change the relationship with such skill that the batsman does not detect the change. PMID:9486432

  11. Visual factors in hitting and catching.

    PubMed

    Regan, D

    1997-12-01

    To hit or catch an approaching ball, it is necessary to move a bat or hand to the right place at the right time. The performance of top sports players is remarkable: positional errors of less than 5 cm and temporal errors of less than 2 or 3 ms are reliably maintained. There are three schools of thought about how this is achieved. One holds that predictive visual information about where the ball will be at some future instance (when) is used to achieve the hit or catch. The second holds that the bat or hand is moved to the correct position by exploiting some relation between visual information and the required movement. The third focuses on the use of prior knowledge to supplement inadequate visual information. For a rigid spherical ball travelling at constant speed along or close to the line of sight, the retinal images contain both binocular and monocular correlates of the ball's instantaneous direction of motion in depth. Also, the retinal images contain both binocular and monocular information about time of arrival. Humans can unconfound and use this visual information, but they are unable to estimate the absolute distance of the ball or its approach speed other than crudely. In cricket, this visual inadequacy allows a slow bowler to cause the batsman to misjudge where the ball will hit the ground. Such a bowler uses a three-pronged strategy: first, to deliver the ball in such a way as to prevent the batsman from obtaining the necessary visual information until it is too late to react; secondly, to force the batsman to rely entirely on inadequate retinal image information; thirdly, to allow the batsman to learn a particular relationship between the early part of the ball's flight and the point where the ball hits the ground, and then to change the relationship with such skill that the batsman does not detect the change.

  12. 50 CFR 622.388 - Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs). 622.388 Section 622.388 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Mexico and South Atlantic) § 622.388 Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and... tracking the ACL, recreational landings will be monitored based on the commercial fishing year, July...

  13. A novel ionic liquid-in-oil microemulsion composed of biologically acceptable components: an excitation wavelength dependent fluorescence resonance energy transfer study.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sarthak; Ghosh, Surajit; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Kuchlyan, Jagannath; Banik, Debasis; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2013-03-21

    In this work we have reported the formulation of a novel ionic liquid-in-oil (IL/O) microemulsion where the polar core of the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium n-butylsulfate ([C2mim][C4SO4]), is stabilized by a mixture of two nontoxic nonionic surfactants, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween-80) and sorbitan laurate (Span-20), in a biological oil phase of isopropyl myristate (IPM). The formation of the microemulsion droplets has been confirmed from the dynamic light scattering (DLS) and phase behavior study. To assess the dynamic heterogeneity of this tween-based IL/O microemulsion, we have performed an excitation wavelength dependent fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from coumarin 480 (C480) to rhodamine 6G (R6G). The multiple donor-acceptor (D-A) distances, ∼15, 30, and 45 Å, obtained from the rise times of the acceptor emission in the presence of a donor can be rationalized from the varying distribution of the donor, C480, in the different regions of the microemulsion system. With increasing the excitation wavelength from 375 to 408 nm, the contribution of the rise component of ∼240 ps which results the D-A distance of ∼30 Å increases significantly due to the enhanced contribution of the C480 probe molecules closer to the acceptor in the ionic liquid pool of the microemulsion. PMID:23445434

  14. CATCH: physical activity process evaluation in a multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, T L; Strikmiller, P K; Stone, E J; Woods, S E; Ehlinger, S S; Romero, K A; Budman, S T

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the process evaluation model for the physical activity intervention component of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) and describes the major procedures used to monitor CATCH PE, the physical education intervention. The paper focuses on CATCH PE teacher training and in-service support as well as on the curriculum implementation. Monitoring training and support included assessing the in-service training workshops and the follow-up on-site assistance provided by staff. Monitoring the implementation included assessing the quantity and quality of CATCH PE instruction in terms of student physical activity engagement and lesson context, the fidelity of the curricular implementation, and the opportunities for other physical activity by children throughout the school day.

  15. Catch-up growth: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Finkielstain, G P; Lui, J C; Baron, J

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, after a period of growth inhibition, body growth often does not just return to a normal rate but actually exceeds the normal rate, resulting in catch-up growth. Recent evidence suggests that catch-up growth occurs because growth-inhibiting conditions delay progression of the physiological mechanisms that normally cause body growth to slow and cease with age. As a result, following the period of growth inhibition, tissues retain a greater proliferative capacity than normal, and therefore grow more rapidly than normal for age. There is evidence that this mechanism contributes both to catch-up growth in terms of body length, which involves proliferation in the growth plate, and to catch-up growth in terms of organ mass, which involves proliferation in multiple nonskeletal tissues.

  16. 1. VIEW EAST, COMPONENTS TEST LABORATORY SHOWING CATCH BASINS, TURBINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW EAST, COMPONENTS TEST LABORATORY SHOWING CATCH BASINS, TURBINE TESTING AREA, AND PUMP TESTING TOWER. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Components Test Laboratory, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. Catch tank code compliance evaluation and alternatives study

    SciTech Connect

    Mattichak, R.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-18

    Evaluation for underground catch tanks against specific criteria by reviewing drawings, documents and conducting interviews with cognizant engineers. The results of this review are documented in a compliance matrix.

  18. [Influence of lunar cycle on catches of spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Palinuridae) in the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba].

    PubMed

    Lopeztegui, Alexander; Baisre, Julio A; Capetillo, Norberto

    2011-03-01

    Many biological processes such as reproductive and migratory behaviours have been associated with moon cycles. In this study, the nocturnal light levels associated with lunar cycle (INT) were correlated with daily catch rate of lobster P. argus, during seven lunar months of 2002 fishing period, to determine a possible relationship between these variables. The lobster catches were obtained from three fishing companies that develop their activities in the Gulf of Batabanó: EPICOL that fishes in Coloma area; PESCAHABANA in Batabanó area and PESCAISLA in Isla area. Daily catch per boat (CDB) was used as a measurement of daily catch variations (catch rate). The correlation was analyzed showing it in chronological graphs based on average of CDB per lunar phases, comparing lobster catch rate per lunar phases -with the Kruskal-Wallis test-. Spearman rank correlation coefficient and cross correlation techniques were also applied. Similarities between lobster catch rate and the lunar cycle were not found. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was modularly smaller than 0.1 in all cases and demonstrated quantitatively that correlation between CDB and INT does not exist. Kruskal-Wallis test detected differences only in Batabanó area but not when making the analyses for the whole Gulf of Batabanó. Finally, the cross correlations do not detected significance in any zone, as well. It is concluded that, in opposition to what other authors have reported, the catch rates of P. argus and the lunar cycle did not show significant correlation in the Gulf of Batabanó. This trend was independent of the fishing art, which varied according to the time of the year that was analyzed.

  19. Does load uncertainty affect adaptation to catch training?

    PubMed

    Berg, William P; Richards, Brian J; Hannigan, Aaron M; Biller, Kelsey L; Hughes, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Catching relies on anticipatory and compensatory control processes. Load uncertainty increases anticipatory and compensatory neuromotor effort in catching. This experiment tested the effect of load uncertainty in plyometric catch/throw training on elbow flexion reaction time (RT), movement time (MT) and peak torque, as well as the distribution of anticipatory and compensatory neuromotor effort in catching. We expected load uncertainty training to be superior to traditional training for improving elbow flexion MT and peak torque, as well as for reallocating neuromotor effort from compensatory to anticipatory control in catching. Three groups of men (mean age = 21), load knowledge training (K) (n = 14), load uncertainty training (U) (n = 13) and control (C) (n = 14), participated. Groups K and U trained three times/week for 6 weeks using single-arm catch/throw exercises with 0.45-4.08 kg balls. Sets involved 16 repetitions of four different ball masses presented randomly. Group K had knowledge of ball mass on every repetition, whereas group U never did. Change scores were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis tests and follow-up Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Group K improved both RT and MT (by 6.2 and 12 %, respectively), whereas group U did not. Both groups K and U improved peak eccentric elbow flexion torque. Group K reallocated neuromotor effort from compensatory to anticipatory processes in the biceps, triceps and the all muscle average, whereas group U did so in the triceps only. In sum, plyometric catch/throw training caused a reallocation of neuromotor effort from compensatory to anticipatory control in catching. However, load uncertainty training did not amplify this effect and in fact appeared to inhibit the reallocation of neuromotor effort from compensatory to anticipatory control.

  20. A Bio-economic Study of the Trophic Structure of the Omani Fish Catch.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Rahman, Medhat Abd El-Barr

    2014-08-01

    The present study was conducted to obtain estimates of certain biological and economic indices of the trophic structure of the Omani landed fish catch, namely, the mean trophic level (MTL), the fishing-in-balance (FiB) index and the relative price index (RPI). The MTL generally decreased from 1995 to 2010, indicating a fishing-down of the marine trophic web. The FiB index increased, indicating an imbalance in the fisheries. An economic index, the RPI, decreased from 1994 to 2007, indicating that the values of lower trophic level (TL) species increased relative to those of higher TL species.

  1. A Bio-economic Study of the Trophic Structure of the Omani Fish Catch

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Rahman, Medhat Abd El-Barr

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to obtain estimates of certain biological and economic indices of the trophic structure of the Omani landed fish catch, namely, the mean trophic level (MTL), the fishing-in-balance (FiB) index and the relative price index (RPI). The MTL generally decreased from 1995 to 2010, indicating a fishing-down of the marine trophic web. The FiB index increased, indicating an imbalance in the fisheries. An economic index, the RPI, decreased from 1994 to 2007, indicating that the values of lower trophic level (TL) species increased relative to those of higher TL species. PMID:25210586

  2. Developmental sequences for catching a small ball: a prelongitudinal screening.

    PubMed

    Strohmeyer, H S; Williams, K; Schaub-George, D

    1991-09-01

    Developmental sequences are identified for many skills (e.g., hopping and throwing). Sequences are hypothesized but not validated for catching. Two purposes of this investigation were to validate hypothesized catching sequences and examine the importance of task constraints on catching performance. Seventy-two subjects (5-12 years of age) were videotaped as they attempted to catch a small (10-cm) ball, tossed to three locations: (a) directly to the body, (b) at the forehead, and (c) to various other locations. Trials were categorized using developmental sequences including four components: arm preparation, arm reception, hands, and body. The data were analyzed by catching condition using the prelongitudinal screening procedure described by Roberton, Williams, and Langendorfer (1980). Preliminary screening resulted in clarification of descriptions for several developmental levels. Movement sequences for hand and body components were comprehensive and age-related for the groups studied. Task conditions differently constrained children of different ages. Arm components did not meet the Roberton et al. criteria. Combining them may be warranted. Varying ball size or type is needed to test the comprehensiveness of the proposed sequences for other catching skills.

  3. Catch-up growth and catch-up fat in children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won Kyoung; Suh, Byung-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of perinatal morbidity, persistent short stature, and metabolic alterations in later life. Recent studies have focused on the association between birth weight (BW) and later body composition. Some reports suggest that fetal nutrition, as reflected by BW, may have an inverse programing effect on abdominal adiposity later in life. This inverse association between BW and abdominal adiposity in adults may contribute to insulin resistance. Rapid weight gain during infancy in SGA children seemed to be associated with increased fat mass rather than lean mass. Early catch-up growth after SGA birth rather than SGA itself has been noted as a cardiovascular risk factor in later life. Children who are born SGA also have a predisposition to accumulation of fat mass, particularly intra-abdominal fat. It is not yet clear whether this predisposition is due to low BW itself, rapid postnatal catch-up growth, or a combination of both. In this report, we review the published literature on central fat accumulation and metabolic consequences of being SGA, as well as the currently popular research area of SGA, including growth aspects. PMID:26893597

  4. Mitigating by-catch of diamondback terrapins in crab pots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, Kristen M.; Crowder, Larry B.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic by-catch of diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) pots is a concern for terrapin conservation along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Despite the availability of by-catch reduction devices (BRDs) for crab pots, adoption of BRDs has not been mandated and by-catch of terrapins continues. We conducted experimental fishing studies in North Carolina's year-round blue crab fishery from 2000 to 2004 to evaluate the ability of various BRDs to reduce terrapin by-catch without a concomitant reduction in the catch of blue crabs. In 4,822 crab pot days fished, we recorded only 21 terrapin captures. Estimated capture rates were 0.003 terrapins/pot per day in hard crab experimental fishing and 0.008 terrapins/pot per day in peeler experimental fishing. All terrapin captures occurred from April to mid-May within 321.4 m of the shoreline. Longer soak times produced more dead terrapins, with 4 live and 4 dead during hard crab experimental fishing and 11 live and 2 dead during peeler experimental fishing. The 4.0-cm BRDs in fall and 4.5-cm and 5.0-cm BRDs in spring reduced the catch of legal-sized male hard crabs by 26.6%, 21.2%, and 5.7%, respectively. Only the 5.0-cm BRDs did not significantly affect the catch of legal-sized hard male crabs. However, BRDs had no measurable effect on catch of target crabs in the peeler crab fishery. Our results identify 3 complementary and economically feasible tools for blue crab fishery managers to exclude terrapins from commercially fished crab pots in North Carolina: 1) gear modifications (e.g., BRDs); 2) distance-to-shore restrictions; and 3) time-of-year regulations. These measures combined could provide a reduction in terrapin by-catch of up to 95% without a significant reduction in target crab catch.

  5. Catch-up validation study of an in vitro skin irritation test method based on an open source reconstructed epidermis (phase I).

    PubMed

    Mewes, K R; Fischer, A; Zöller, N N; Laubach, V; Bernd, A; Jacobs, A; van Rompay, A; Liebsch, M; Pirow, R; Petersohn, D

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a new in vitro skin irritation test based on an open source reconstructed epidermis (OS-REp) with openly accessible protocols for tissue production and test performance. Due to structural, mechanistic and procedural similarity, a blinded catch-up validation study for skin irritation according to OECD Performance Standards (PS) was conducted in three laboratories to promote regulatory acceptance, with OS-REp models produced at a single production site only. While overall sensitivity and predictive capacity met the PS requirements, overall specificity was only 57%. A thorough analysis of the test results led to the assumption that some of the false-positive classifications could have been evoked by volatile skin-irritating chemicals tested in the same culture plate as the non-irritants falsely predicted as irritants. With GC/MS and biological approaches the cross-contamination effect was confirmed and the experimental set-up adapted accordingly. Retesting of the affected chemicals with the improved experimental set-up and otherwise identical protocol resulted in correct classifications as non-irritants. Taking these re-test results into account, 93% overall sensitivity, 70% specificity and 82% accuracy was achieved, which is in accordance with the OECD PS. A sufficient reliability of the method was indicated by a within-laboratory-reproducibility of 85-95% and a between-laboratory-reproducibility of 90%. PMID:27432483

  6. What's the catch? Validity of whaling data for Japanese catches of sperm whales in the North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Ivashchenko, Yulia V; Clapham, Phillip J

    2015-07-01

    The failure of international efforts to manage commercial whaling was exemplified by revelations of large-scale illegal whale catches by the USSR over a 30 year period following World War II. Falsifications of catch data have also been reported for Japanese coastal whaling, but to date there has been no investigation of the reliability of catch statistics for Japanese pelagic (factory fleet) whaling operations. Here, we use data of known reliability from Soviet whaling industry reports to show that body lengths reported to the International Whaling Commission (IWC) by Japanese factory fleets for female sperm whales caught in the North Pacific are not credible. In 1968/1969, Japanese whaling fleets in the North Pacific killed 1568 females, of which 1525 (97.3%) were reported as being at or above the IWC's minimum length of 11.6 m (legal-sized females, LSFs). By contrast, Soviet fleets operating during this period killed 12 578 females; only 824 (6.6%) were LSFs. Adjusting for effort, catches of LSFs were up to 9.1 times higher for Japan compared with the USSR, and even higher for very large females. Dramatic differences in body length statistics were evident when both nations operated in the same area. Significantly, the frequency of LSFs and very large females in the Japanese catch markedly declined after the IWC's International Observer Scheme in 1972 made illegal whaling more difficult. We conclude that the Japanese length data reflect systematic falsification of catch statistics submitted to the IWC, with serious implications for the reliability of data used in current population assessments. The apparent ease with which catch data were falsified in the past underscores the necessity of transparent and independent inspection procedures in any future commercial whaling.

  7. What's the catch? Validity of whaling data for Japanese catches of sperm whales in the North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Ivashchenko, Yulia V; Clapham, Phillip J

    2015-07-01

    The failure of international efforts to manage commercial whaling was exemplified by revelations of large-scale illegal whale catches by the USSR over a 30 year period following World War II. Falsifications of catch data have also been reported for Japanese coastal whaling, but to date there has been no investigation of the reliability of catch statistics for Japanese pelagic (factory fleet) whaling operations. Here, we use data of known reliability from Soviet whaling industry reports to show that body lengths reported to the International Whaling Commission (IWC) by Japanese factory fleets for female sperm whales caught in the North Pacific are not credible. In 1968/1969, Japanese whaling fleets in the North Pacific killed 1568 females, of which 1525 (97.3%) were reported as being at or above the IWC's minimum length of 11.6 m (legal-sized females, LSFs). By contrast, Soviet fleets operating during this period killed 12 578 females; only 824 (6.6%) were LSFs. Adjusting for effort, catches of LSFs were up to 9.1 times higher for Japan compared with the USSR, and even higher for very large females. Dramatic differences in body length statistics were evident when both nations operated in the same area. Significantly, the frequency of LSFs and very large females in the Japanese catch markedly declined after the IWC's International Observer Scheme in 1972 made illegal whaling more difficult. We conclude that the Japanese length data reflect systematic falsification of catch statistics submitted to the IWC, with serious implications for the reliability of data used in current population assessments. The apparent ease with which catch data were falsified in the past underscores the necessity of transparent and independent inspection procedures in any future commercial whaling. PMID:26587276

  8. Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch.

    PubMed

    Cheung, William W L; Watson, Reg; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-05-16

    Marine fishes and invertebrates respond to ocean warming through distribution shifts, generally to higher latitudes and deeper waters. Consequently, fisheries should be affected by 'tropicalization' of catch (increasing dominance of warm-water species). However, a signature of such climate-change effects on global fisheries catch has so far not been detected. Here we report such an index, the mean temperature of the catch (MTC), that is calculated from the average inferred temperature preference of exploited species weighted by their annual catch. Our results show that, after accounting for the effects of fishing and large-scale oceanographic variability, global MTC increased at a rate of 0.19 degrees Celsius per decade between 1970 and 2006, and non-tropical MTC increased at a rate of 0.23 degrees Celsius per decade. In tropical areas, MTC increased initially because of the reduction in the proportion of subtropical species catches, but subsequently stabilized as scope for further tropicalization of communities became limited. Changes in MTC in 52 large marine ecosystems, covering the majority of the world's coastal and shelf areas, are significantly and positively related to regional changes in sea surface temperature. This study shows that ocean warming has already affected global fisheries in the past four decades, highlighting the immediate need to develop adaptation plans to minimize the effect of such warming on the economy and food security of coastal communities, particularly in tropical regions.

  9. Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch.

    PubMed

    Cheung, William W L; Watson, Reg; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-05-16

    Marine fishes and invertebrates respond to ocean warming through distribution shifts, generally to higher latitudes and deeper waters. Consequently, fisheries should be affected by 'tropicalization' of catch (increasing dominance of warm-water species). However, a signature of such climate-change effects on global fisheries catch has so far not been detected. Here we report such an index, the mean temperature of the catch (MTC), that is calculated from the average inferred temperature preference of exploited species weighted by their annual catch. Our results show that, after accounting for the effects of fishing and large-scale oceanographic variability, global MTC increased at a rate of 0.19 degrees Celsius per decade between 1970 and 2006, and non-tropical MTC increased at a rate of 0.23 degrees Celsius per decade. In tropical areas, MTC increased initially because of the reduction in the proportion of subtropical species catches, but subsequently stabilized as scope for further tropicalization of communities became limited. Changes in MTC in 52 large marine ecosystems, covering the majority of the world's coastal and shelf areas, are significantly and positively related to regional changes in sea surface temperature. This study shows that ocean warming has already affected global fisheries in the past four decades, highlighting the immediate need to develop adaptation plans to minimize the effect of such warming on the economy and food security of coastal communities, particularly in tropical regions. PMID:23676754

  10. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

  11. Resolving the molecular mechanism of cadherin catch bond formation

    SciTech Connect

    Manibog, Kristine; Li, Hui; Rakshit, Sabyasachi; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi

    2014-06-02

    Classical cadherin Ca(2+)-dependent cell-cell adhesion proteins play key roles in embryogenesis and in maintaining tissue integrity. Cadherins mediate robust adhesion by binding in multiple conformations. One of these adhesive states, called an X-dimer, forms catch bonds that strengthen and become longer lived in the presence of mechanical force. Here we use single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy with an atomic force microscope along with molecular dynamics and steered molecular dynamics simulations to resolve the molecular mechanisms underlying catch bond formation and the role of Ca(2+) ions in this process. Our data suggest that tensile force bends the cadherin extracellular region such that they form long-lived, force-induced hydrogen bonds that lock X-dimers into tighter contact. When Ca(2+) concentration is decreased, fewer de novo hydrogen bonds are formed and catch bond formation is eliminated

  12. Assessment of soil nitrogen and related enzymes as influenced by the incorporation time of field pea cultivated as a catch crop in Alfisol.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska-Długosz, Anna; Wilczewski, Edward

    2014-12-01

    The effect of the time of catch crop (field pea) incorporation [catch crop incorporated in the autumn (A) or in the spring (B) versus plots without a catch crop (C)] on the soil enzymes related to N transformation (urease - UR, protease - PRO, nitrate reductase - NR, arginine ammonification rate - AAR), the total N and mineral N as well as microbial biomass N (MBN) contents were investigated in a 3-year experiment. The catch crop was sown at the beginning of August and plowed in the autumn in 2008, 2009 and 2010 or left as mulch during the winter. Soil samples for microbial activity were taken from spring barley plots that were grown in 2009, 2010 and 2011 before sowing (March), during the tillering phase (May), shooting (June) and after the harvesting of spring barley (August). The use of catch crop significantly increased the soil mineral and MBN contents as well as the activities of PRO and NR as compared to the control soil. The spring incorporation of the field pea significantly increased the MBN content in contrast to the autumn application, while the activity of N-cycle enzymes were clearly unaffected (UR and AAR) regardless of the time of the incorporation of field pea or else the results were inconsistent (PRO and NR). When the catch crop was incorporated in the spring, a significantly higher content of mineral N as compared to autumn incorporation was noted on only two of the four sampling dates. The enzymatic activity (PRO and AAR) was about 1.3-2.8 times higher in May and June as compared with March and August. Both spring or autumn incorporation of catch crop can be a useful management practice to increase the soil mineral N content and enhance the soil biological activity.

  13. 50 CFR 660.18 - Certification and decertification procedures for observers, catch monitors, catch monitor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of embezzlement, theft, forgery, bribery, falsification or destruction of records, making false... employed. (iv) May not solicit or accept employment as a crew member or an employee of a vessel,...

  14. A simple, efficient and inexpensive method for malaria parasites' DNA catching from fixed Giemsa-stained blood slides.

    PubMed

    Eskandarian, Abbas Ali; Moradi, Sara; Abedi, Saeed

    2016-09-01

    As parasitological or microscopic method is the gold standard and the best method for diagnosis of malaria, so fixed Geimsa-stained blood slides in the form of thick and thin blood smears are the most important data collections of malaria, especially historical slides. The parasites are dead but their DNA is valuable for many molecular biologic researches. A simple and efficient method for catching and extraction malaria parasites' DNA with a desired yield from dried and stained blood on slides is the first and major step. Introduction of an applicable, efficient and inexpensive DNA catching method and assessment of its performance in following molecular applications  was the main objective of present study. PMID:27605792

  15. 76 FR 21705 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Catch Accounting in the Longline Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Alaska; Catch Accounting in the Longline Catcher/Processor Pacific Cod Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... Islands to support different catch accounting methods for Pacific cod catch. NMFS is considering...

  16. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  17. Comparing catch orientation among Minnesota walleye, northern pike, and bass anglers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-01-01

    We compared the catch orientations of Minnesota walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) anglers. Results were derived from 2009, 2010, and 2012 surveys of anglers targeting these different species. Consistent with previous research, we identified four dimensions of anglers’ catch orientation: (a) catching something, (b) catching big fish, (c) catching many fish, and (d) keeping fish. Walleye anglers were the most motivated to keep fish, while northern pike anglers were more oriented toward catching big fish. Largemouth bass anglers, and to a lesser extent smallmouth bass anglers, were also oriented toward catching big fish. Bass anglers reported the lowest interest in keeping fish. An orientation to keep fish was negatively related to more restrictive management actions, regardless of species. A stronger orientation to catch big fish was associated with support for increased harvest restrictions only for northern pike and smallmouth bass.

  18. Key factors influencing the potential of catch crops for methane production.

    PubMed

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Fernández-Varela, Raquel; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2014-08-01

    Catch crops are grown in crop rotation primarily for soil stabilization. The excess biomass of catch crops was investigated for its potential as feedstock for biogas production. Ten variables affecting catch crop growth and methane potential were evaluated. Field trials and methane potential were studied for 14 different catch crops species, with 19 samples harvested in 2010 and 36 harvested in 2011. Principal component analysis was applied to the data to identify the variables characterizing the potential for the different catch crops species for methane production. Two principal components explained up to 84.6% and 71.6% of the total variation for 2010 and 2011 samples, respectively. Specific methane yield, climate conditions (rainfall and temperature) and total nitrogen in the biomass were the variables classifying the different catch crops. Catch crops in the Brassicaceae and Graminaceae botanical families showed the highest methane yield. This study demonstrates the importance of the crop species when choosing a suitable catch crop for biogas production.

  19. CATCH: Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. [Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health has launched an initiative called the Cardiovascular Health Promotion Project to teach heart-healthy habits to children. One of the programs developed by this initiative, CATCH, the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health, is the largest…

  20. A minimum attention control law for ball catching.

    PubMed

    Jang, Cheongjae; Lee, Jee-eun; Lee, Sohee; Park, F C

    2015-10-06

    Digital implementations of control laws typically involve discretization with respect to both time and space, and a control law that can achieve a task at coarser levels of discretization can be said to require less control attention, and also reduced implementation costs. One means of quantitatively capturing the attention of a control law is to measure the rate of change of the control with respect to changes in state and time. In this paper we present an attention-minimizing control law for ball catching and other target tracking tasks based on Brockett's attention criterion. We first highlight the connections between this attention criterion and some well-known principles from human motor control. Under the assumption that the optimal control law is the sum of a linear time-varying feedback term and a time-varying feedforward term, we derive an LQR-based minimum attention tracking control law that is stable, and obtained efficiently via a finite-dimensional optimization over the symmetric positive-definite matrices. Taking ball catching as our primary task, we perform numerical experiments comparing the performance of the various control strategies examined in the paper. Consistent with prevailing theories about human ball catching, our results exhibit several familiar features, e.g., the transition from open-loop to closed-loop control during the catching movement, and improved robustness to spatiotemporal discretization. The presented control laws are applicable to more general tracking problems that are subject to limited communication resources.

  1. Direct observation of catch bonds involving cell-adhesion molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Bryan T.; Long, Mian; Piper, James W.; Yago, Tadayuki; McEver, Rodger P.; Zhu, Cheng

    2003-05-01

    Bonds between adhesion molecules are often mechanically stressed. A striking example is the tensile force applied to selectin-ligand bonds, which mediate the tethering and rolling of flowing leukocytes on vascular surfaces. It has been suggested that force could either shorten bond lifetimes, because work done by the force could lower the energy barrier between the bound and free states (`slip'), or prolong bond lifetimes by deforming the molecules such that they lock more tightly (`catch'). Whereas slip bonds have been widely observed, catch bonds have not been demonstrated experimentally. Here, using atomic force microscopy and flow-chamber experiments, we show that increasing force first prolonged and then shortened the lifetimes of P-selectin complexes with P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1, revealing both catch and slip bond behaviour. Transitions between catch and slip bonds might explain why leukocyte rolling on selectins first increases and then decreases as wall shear stress increases. This dual response to force provides a mechanism for regulating cell adhesion under conditions of variable mechanical stress.

  2. West Indian Ocean variability and East African fish catch.

    PubMed

    Jury, M; McClanahan, T; Maina, J

    2010-08-01

    We describe marine climate variability off the east coast of Africa in the context of fish catch statistics for Tanzania and Kenya. The time series exhibits quasi-decadal cycles over the period 1964-2007. Fish catch is up when sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric humidity are below normal in the tropical West Indian Ocean. This pattern relates to an ocean Rossby wave in one phase of its east-west oscillation. Coastal-scale analyses indicate that northward currents and uplift on the shelf edge enhance productivity of East African shelf waters. Some of the changes are regulated by the south equatorial current that swings northward from Madagascar. The weather is drier and a salty layer develops in high catch years. While the large-scale West Indian Ocean has some impact on East African fish catch, coastal dynamics play a more significant role. Climatic changes are reviewed using 200 years of past and projected data. The observed warming trend continues to increase such that predicted SST may reach 30 degrees C by 2100 while SW monsoon winds gradually increase, according to a coupled general circulation model simulation with a gradual doubling of CO(2). PMID:20471674

  3. 13. CANVAS NET USED TO CATCH TOOLS OR SUPPORT PERSONNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. CANVAS NET USED TO CATCH TOOLS OR SUPPORT PERSONNEL FALLING FROM UPPER LEVELS OF MOBILE SERVICE STRUCTURE. BELOW NET IS A NINETY FOOT DROP TO THE PAVEMENT; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28416, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  4. A minimum attention control law for ball catching.

    PubMed

    Jang, Cheongjae; Lee, Jee-eun; Lee, Sohee; Park, F C

    2015-10-01

    Digital implementations of control laws typically involve discretization with respect to both time and space, and a control law that can achieve a task at coarser levels of discretization can be said to require less control attention, and also reduced implementation costs. One means of quantitatively capturing the attention of a control law is to measure the rate of change of the control with respect to changes in state and time. In this paper we present an attention-minimizing control law for ball catching and other target tracking tasks based on Brockett's attention criterion. We first highlight the connections between this attention criterion and some well-known principles from human motor control. Under the assumption that the optimal control law is the sum of a linear time-varying feedback term and a time-varying feedforward term, we derive an LQR-based minimum attention tracking control law that is stable, and obtained efficiently via a finite-dimensional optimization over the symmetric positive-definite matrices. Taking ball catching as our primary task, we perform numerical experiments comparing the performance of the various control strategies examined in the paper. Consistent with prevailing theories about human ball catching, our results exhibit several familiar features, e.g., the transition from open-loop to closed-loop control during the catching movement, and improved robustness to spatiotemporal discretization. The presented control laws are applicable to more general tracking problems that are subject to limited communication resources. PMID:26440578

  5. Optical Trajectories and the Informational Basis of Fly Ball Catching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marken, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    D. M. Shaffer and M. K. McBeath (see record 2002-02027-006) plotted the optical trajectories of uncatchable fly balls and concluded that linear optical trajectory is the informational basis of the actions taken to catch these balls. P. McLeod, N. Reed, and Z. Dienes (see record 2002-11140-016) replotted these trajectories in terms of changes in…

  6. Scholarships and School Improvement: Annual Report of Catching the Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavers, Dean, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "The Native Scholar" is comprised entirely of the annual report of Catching the Dream (CTD), an organization that awards scholarships to Native American students and grants for improving Native American schools. CTD scholarship programs are described, as are scholarships in general and how to find them. Fourteen scholarship websites…

  7. 76 FR 2871 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ..., NMFS implemented the Pacific Council-recommended long-term Plan (60 FR 14651, March 20, 1995). In each... results in a Washington sport allocation that is less than 214,110 lb (97.1 mt). According to the catch... coordinates for the 30-fm and 100-fm lines, and replace this information with references to the...

  8. Catch Up® Literacy: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutt, Simon; Kettlewell, Kelly; Bernardinelli, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Catch Up® Literacy is a structured one-to-one literacy intervention for pupils between the ages of 6 and 14 who are struggling to learn to read. It teaches pupils to blend phonemes (combine letter sounds into words), segment phonemes (separate words into letter sounds), and memorise particular words so they can be understood without needing to use…

  9. Functional diversity of catch mitigates negative effects of temperature variability on fisheries yields.

    PubMed

    Dee, Laura E; Miller, Steve J; Peavey, Lindsey E; Bradley, Darcy; Gentry, Rebecca R; Startz, Richard; Gaines, Steven D; Lester, Sarah E

    2016-08-17

    Temperature variation within a year can impact biological processes driving population abundances. The implications for the ecosystem services these populations provide, including food production from marine fisheries, are poorly understood. Whether and how temperature variability impacts fishery yields may depend on the number of harvested species and differences in their responses to varying temperatures. Drawing from previous theoretical and empirical studies, we predict that greater temperature variability within years will reduce yields, but harvesting a larger number of species, especially a more functionally diverse set, will decrease this impact. Using a global marine fisheries dataset, we find that within-year temperature variability reduces yields, but current levels of functional diversity (FD) of targeted species, measured using traits related to species' responses to temperature, largely offset this effect. Globally, high FD of catch could avoid annual losses in yield of 6.8% relative to projections if FD were degraded to the lowest level observed in the data. By contrast, species richness in the catch and in the ecosystem did not provide a similar mitigating effect. This work provides novel empirical evidence that short-term temperature variability can negatively impact the provisioning of ecosystem services, but that FD can buffer these negative impacts.

  10. Functional diversity of catch mitigates negative effects of temperature variability on fisheries yields.

    PubMed

    Dee, Laura E; Miller, Steve J; Peavey, Lindsey E; Bradley, Darcy; Gentry, Rebecca R; Startz, Richard; Gaines, Steven D; Lester, Sarah E

    2016-08-17

    Temperature variation within a year can impact biological processes driving population abundances. The implications for the ecosystem services these populations provide, including food production from marine fisheries, are poorly understood. Whether and how temperature variability impacts fishery yields may depend on the number of harvested species and differences in their responses to varying temperatures. Drawing from previous theoretical and empirical studies, we predict that greater temperature variability within years will reduce yields, but harvesting a larger number of species, especially a more functionally diverse set, will decrease this impact. Using a global marine fisheries dataset, we find that within-year temperature variability reduces yields, but current levels of functional diversity (FD) of targeted species, measured using traits related to species' responses to temperature, largely offset this effect. Globally, high FD of catch could avoid annual losses in yield of 6.8% relative to projections if FD were degraded to the lowest level observed in the data. By contrast, species richness in the catch and in the ecosystem did not provide a similar mitigating effect. This work provides novel empirical evidence that short-term temperature variability can negatively impact the provisioning of ecosystem services, but that FD can buffer these negative impacts. PMID:27534960

  11. Deepening Thermocline Displaces Salmon Catch On The Oregon Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, C. S.; Lawson, P.

    2015-12-01

    Establishing a linkage between fish stock distributions and physical oceanography at a fine scale provides insights into the dynamic nature of near-shore ocean habitats. Characterization of habitat preferences adds to our understanding of the ecosystem, and may improve forecasts of distribution for harvest management. The Project CROOS (Collaborative Research on Oregon Ocean Salmon) Chinook salmon catch data set represents an unprecedented high-resolution record of catch location and depth, with associated in-situ temperature measurements and stock identification derived from genetic data. Here we connect this data set with physical ocean observations to gain understanding of how circulation affects salmon catch distributions. The CROOS observations were combined with remote and in situ observations of temperature, as well as a data assimilative regional ocean model that incorporates satellite and HF radar data. Across the CROOS data set, catch is primarily located within the upwelling front over the seamounts and reef structures associated with Heceta and Stonewall Banks along the shelf break. In late September of 2014 the anomalously warm "blob" began to arrive on the Oregon coast coincident with a strong downwelling event. At this time the thermocline deepened from 20 to 40 m, associated with a deepening of salmon catch depth. A cold "bulb" of water over Heceta Bank may have provided a thermal refuge for salmon during the initial onshore movement of the anomalously warm water. These observations suggest that a warming ocean, and regional warming events in particular, will have large effects on fish distributions at local and regional scales, in turn impacting fisheries.

  12. Inter- and intra-limb generalization of adaptation during catching.

    PubMed

    Morton, S M; Lang, C E; Bastian, A J

    2001-12-01

    We have previously shown that healthy adults require a few trials to adapt to a changed ball weight during catching. It is not known whether this adaptation generalizes to the opposite arm or to different configurations of the same arm. We tested healthy adult subjects catching balls of different weight while maintaining the hand within a vertical spatial "window." In experiment 1, subjects caught a series of light and heavy balls, first with one hand and then with the other. In experiment 2, subjects caught a series of light and heavy balls, first with the catching arm in either a "bent" or a "straight" configuration and then with the same arm in the other configuration. A percentage transfer value was calculated to determine the degree to which previous experience with a given ball weight in one context affected performance of the same task in a new context (i.e., different arm or different arm configuration). Results showed that generalization occurred both between arms and within an arm. However, the subjects who switched arms showed less generalization than those who switched arm positions. Specifically, the percentage transfer value for subjects who switched arms was 58%, while the percentage transfer for those who switched arm positions was 100%. These results support the idea that the motor system is able to generalize adaptive control of ball catching to the contralateral arm and to different arm configurations. Our findings are also in agreement with the recent notion that multiple internal representations of a task may exist in the CNS. Because there was partial generalization between the two arms, we conclude that there must be a representation stored and used for catching that is not effector specific, but rather can be utilized by brain regions controlling either arm. However, because generalization was only complete within an arm, we conclude that another sensorimotor representation exists, which might only be stored in brain regions specific to a

  13. 76 FR 7155 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Announcement of Billfish and Swordfish Catch Card Pilot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ...; Announcement of Billfish and Swordfish Catch Card Pilot Program for Puerto Rico AGENCY: National Marine...; Announcement of Billfish and Swordfish Catch Card Pilot Program for Puerto Rico. SUMMARY: Accurate information... accuracy of recreational billfish and swordfish landings data, NMFS will pilot test a new catch...

  14. Different Strategies for Using Motion-in-Depth Information in Catching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rob; Sieffert, Randy

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies on ball catching have had the limitation that the catcher was restricted to lateral hand movements. The authors investigated catching behavior in the more natural situation in which hand movements were unconstrained. Movements of the hand were tracked as participants tried to "catch" an approaching ball simulated with changing…

  15. 26 CFR 1.402(g)-2 - Increased limit for catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Increased limit for catch-up contributions. 1.... § 1.402(g)-2 Increased limit for catch-up contributions. (a) General rule. Under section 402(g)(1)(C...(g) for a catch-up eligible participant (within the meaning of § 1.414(v)-1(g)), the...

  16. 26 CFR 1.402(g)-2 - Increased limit for catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Increased limit for catch-up contributions. 1.... § 1.402(g)-2 Increased limit for catch-up contributions. (a) General rule. Under section 402(g)(1)(C...(g) for a catch-up eligible participant (within the meaning of § 1.414(v)-1(g)), the...

  17. 26 CFR 1.402(g)-2 - Increased limit for catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Increased limit for catch-up contributions. 1.... § 1.402(g)-2 Increased limit for catch-up contributions. (a) General rule. Under section 402(g)(1)(C...(g) for a catch-up eligible participant (within the meaning of § 1.414(v)-1(g)), the...

  18. Grasping in One-Handed Catching in Relation to Performance

    PubMed Central

    Cesqui, Benedetta; Russo, Marta; Lacquaniti, Francesco; d’Avella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Catching a flying ball involves bringing the hand to the aimed interception point at the right time, adjusting the hand posture to receive the incoming ball and to absorb the ball momentum, and closing the hand to ensure a stable grip. A small error in any of these actions can lead to a failure in catching the ball. Here we sought to gather new insights on what aspects of the catching movements affect the interceptive performance most. In particular, we wondered whether the errors occurred in bringing the hand to the interception point or in closing the fingers on the ball, and whether these two phases of interception differed between individuals. To this end, we characterized grasping and wrist movement kinematics of eleven participants attempting to catch a ball projected in space with different ball arrival heights and flight durations. The spatial position of the ball and of several markers placed on the participant’s arm were recorded by a motion capture system, the hand joint angles were recorded with an instrumented glove, and several movement features were extracted. All participants were able to intercept the ball trajectory (i.e. to touch the ball) in over 90% of cases, but they differed in the ability to grasp the ball (success rate varied between 2% and 85%). Similar temporal features were observed across individuals when they caught the ball. In particular, all participants adapted their wrist movements under varying temporal and arrival height constraints, they aligned the time of peak hand closing velocity to the time of hand-ball contact, and they maintained the same hand closing duration in the different experimental conditions. These movement features characterized successful trials, and hence allowed to evaluate the possible sources of errors underlying unsuccessful trials. Thus, inter-individual and inter-trial variability in the modulation of each kinematic feature were related to catching performance. We observed that different participants

  19. Grasping in One-Handed Catching in Relation to Performance.

    PubMed

    Cesqui, Benedetta; Russo, Marta; Lacquaniti, Francesco; d'Avella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Catching a flying ball involves bringing the hand to the aimed interception point at the right time, adjusting the hand posture to receive the incoming ball and to absorb the ball momentum, and closing the hand to ensure a stable grip. A small error in any of these actions can lead to a failure in catching the ball. Here we sought to gather new insights on what aspects of the catching movements affect the interceptive performance most. In particular, we wondered whether the errors occurred in bringing the hand to the interception point or in closing the fingers on the ball, and whether these two phases of interception differed between individuals. To this end, we characterized grasping and wrist movement kinematics of eleven participants attempting to catch a ball projected in space with different ball arrival heights and flight durations. The spatial position of the ball and of several markers placed on the participant's arm were recorded by a motion capture system, the hand joint angles were recorded with an instrumented glove, and several movement features were extracted. All participants were able to intercept the ball trajectory (i.e. to touch the ball) in over 90% of cases, but they differed in the ability to grasp the ball (success rate varied between 2% and 85%). Similar temporal features were observed across individuals when they caught the ball. In particular, all participants adapted their wrist movements under varying temporal and arrival height constraints, they aligned the time of peak hand closing velocity to the time of hand-ball contact, and they maintained the same hand closing duration in the different experimental conditions. These movement features characterized successful trials, and hence allowed to evaluate the possible sources of errors underlying unsuccessful trials. Thus, inter-individual and inter-trial variability in the modulation of each kinematic feature were related to catching performance. We observed that different participants

  20. Catching Comet's Particles in the Earth's Atmosphere by Using Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potashko, Oleksandr; Viso, Michel

    The project is intended to catch cometary particles in the atmosphere by using balloons. The investigation is based upon knowledge that the Earth crosses the comet’s tails during the year. One can catch these particles at different altitudes in the atmosphere. So, we will be able to gradually advance in the ability to launch balloons from low to high altitudes and try to catch particles from different comet tails. The maximum altitude that we have to reach is 40 km. Both methods - distance observation and cometary samples from mission Stardust testify to the presence of organic components in comet’s particles. It would be useful to know more details about this organic matter for astrobiology; besides, the factor poses danger to the Earth. Moreover, it is important to prove that it is possible to get fundamental scientific results at low cost. In the last 5 years launching balloons has become popular and this movement looks like hackers’ one - as most of them occur without launch permission to airspace. The popularity of ballooning is connected with low cost of balloon, GPS unit, video recording unit. If you use iPhone, you have a light solution with GPS, video, picture and control function in one unit. The price of balloon itself begins from $50; it depends on maximum altitude, payload weight and material. Many university teams realized balloon launching and reached even stratosphere at an altitude of 33 km. But most of them take only video and picture. Meanwhile, it is possible to carry out scientific experiments by ballooning, for example to collect comet particles. There is rich experience at the moment of the use of mineral, chemical and isotopic analysis techniques and data of the comet’s dust after successful landing of StarDust capsule with samples in 2006. Besides, we may use absolutely perfect material to catch particles in the atmosphere, which was used by cosmic missions such as Stardust and Japanese Hayabusa. As to balloon launches, we could use

  1. Grasping in One-Handed Catching in Relation to Performance.

    PubMed

    Cesqui, Benedetta; Russo, Marta; Lacquaniti, Francesco; d'Avella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Catching a flying ball involves bringing the hand to the aimed interception point at the right time, adjusting the hand posture to receive the incoming ball and to absorb the ball momentum, and closing the hand to ensure a stable grip. A small error in any of these actions can lead to a failure in catching the ball. Here we sought to gather new insights on what aspects of the catching movements affect the interceptive performance most. In particular, we wondered whether the errors occurred in bringing the hand to the interception point or in closing the fingers on the ball, and whether these two phases of interception differed between individuals. To this end, we characterized grasping and wrist movement kinematics of eleven participants attempting to catch a ball projected in space with different ball arrival heights and flight durations. The spatial position of the ball and of several markers placed on the participant's arm were recorded by a motion capture system, the hand joint angles were recorded with an instrumented glove, and several movement features were extracted. All participants were able to intercept the ball trajectory (i.e. to touch the ball) in over 90% of cases, but they differed in the ability to grasp the ball (success rate varied between 2% and 85%). Similar temporal features were observed across individuals when they caught the ball. In particular, all participants adapted their wrist movements under varying temporal and arrival height constraints, they aligned the time of peak hand closing velocity to the time of hand-ball contact, and they maintained the same hand closing duration in the different experimental conditions. These movement features characterized successful trials, and hence allowed to evaluate the possible sources of errors underlying unsuccessful trials. Thus, inter-individual and inter-trial variability in the modulation of each kinematic feature were related to catching performance. We observed that different participants

  2. Synthesis of underreported small-scale fisheries catch in Pacific island waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, D.; Harper, S.; Zylich, K.; Pauly, D.

    2015-03-01

    We synthesize fisheries catch reconstruction studies for 25 Pacific island countries, states and territories, which compare estimates of total domestic catches with officially reported catch data. We exclude data for the large-scale tuna fleets, which have largely foreign beneficial ownership, even when flying Pacific flags. However, we recognize the considerable financial contributions derived from foreign access or charter fees for Pacific host countries. The reconstructions for the 25 entities from 1950 to 2010 suggested that total domestic catches were 2.5 times the data reported to FAO. This discrepancy was largest in early periods (1950: 6.4 times), while for 2010, total catches were 1.7 times the reported data. There was a significant difference in trend between reported and reconstructed catches since 2000, with reconstructed catches declining strongly since their peak in 2000. Total catches increased from 110,000 t yr-1 in 1950 (of which 17,400 t were reported) to a peak of over 250,000 t yr-1 in 2000, before declining to around 200,000 t yr-1 by 2010. This decrease is driven by a declining artisanal (small-scale commercial) catch, which was not compensated for by increasing domestic industrial (large-scale commercial) catches. The artisanal fisheries appear to be declining from a peak of 97,000 t yr-1 in 1992 to less than 50,000 t yr-1 by 2010. However, total catches were dominated by subsistence (small-scale, non-commercial) fisheries, which accounted for 69 % of total catches, with the majority missing from the reported data. Artisanal catches accounted for 22 %, while truly domestic industrial fisheries accounted for only 6 % of total catches. The smallest component is the recreational (small-scale, non-commercial and largely for leisure) sector (2 %), which, although small in catch, is likely of economic importance in some areas due to its direct link to tourism income.

  3. The spatiotemporal structure of control variables during catching.

    PubMed

    Polman, R C; Whiting, H T; Savelsbergh, G J

    1996-06-01

    The discrepancy between traditional (force scaling models) and the more recently conceived dynamic explanations of load compensation (lambda model) was the departure point for the present study. By using the complex "open" motor skill of catching a ball--rather than the traditional "closed" skills--under "normal" (baseline) conditions and under conditions where a spring load was applied to the catching hand (thereby changing the dynamics of the skeletomuscular system) it was hoped to provide further clarification of this issue. Traditional force scaling models, in this respect, would predict that maximal closing velocity of the grasp action, and movement time would not be significantly different between a control and a spring-load condition. In contrast, a dynamic system perspective would maintain that spring loading would be compensated for by a change in the rate of shift of the reciprocal command (R-command). The obtained results showed a significant difference for conditions with regard to the maximal closing velocity of the grasp action, the baseline condition being higher than the two spring-load conditions. Furthermore, a significant difference was found for the aperture at moment of catch, the aperture at moment of catch being smaller in the baseline condition than that under the two spring-load conditions. With regard to the temporal variables, no significant differences were obtained. A comprehensive overall explanation of the obtained data in terms of the force scaling models was not realisable. It may be that findings supporting such theories are task specific and that for constrained tasks--such as catching a ball--different underlying organisational principles apply. The lambda model, however, could explain adequately the obtained results. It was concluded that, except for the preparatory phase associated with load compensation before the onset of the movement of the ball, the spatiotemporal structure of the control pattern underlying catching remains

  4. An aptamer-functionalized chemomechanically modulated biomolecule catch-and-release system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shastri, Ankita; McGregor, Lynn M.; Liu, Ya; Harris, Valerie; Nan, Hanqing; Mujica, Maritza; Vasquez, Yolanda; Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Ma, Yongting; Aizenberg, Michael; Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C.; Aizenberg, Joanna; He, Ximin

    2015-05-01

    The efficient extraction of (bio)molecules from fluid mixtures is vital for applications ranging from target characterization in (bio)chemistry to environmental analysis and biomedical diagnostics. Inspired by biological processes that seamlessly synchronize the capture, transport and release of biomolecules, we designed a robust chemomechanical sorting system capable of the concerted catch and release of target biomolecules from a solution mixture. The hybrid system is composed of target-specific, reversible binding sites attached to microscopic fins embedded in a responsive hydrogel that moves the cargo between two chemically distinct environments. To demonstrate the utility of the system, we focus on the effective separation of thrombin by synchronizing the pH-dependent binding strength of a thrombin-specific aptamer with volume changes of the pH-responsive hydrogel in a biphasic microfluidic regime, and show a non-destructive separation that has a quantitative sorting efficiency, as well as the system's stability and amenability to multiple solution recycling.

  5. Comparative influence of ocean conditions on yellowfin and Atlantic bluefin tuna catch from longlines in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Teo, Steven L H; Block, Barbara A

    2010-05-28

    Directed fishing effort for Atlantic bluefin tuna in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), their primary spawning grounds in the western Atlantic, has been prohibited since the 1980s due to a precipitous decline of the spawning stock biomass. However, pelagic longlines targeted at other species, primarily yellowfin tuna and swordfish, continue to catch Atlantic bluefin tuna in the GOM as bycatch. Spatial and temporal management measures minimizing bluefin tuna bycatch in the GOM will likely become important in rebuilding the western Atlantic bluefin stock. In order to help inform management policy and understand the relative distribution of target and bycatch species in the GOM, we compared the spatiotemporal variability and environmental influences on the catch per unit effort (CPUE) of yellowfin (target) and bluefin tuna (bycatch). Catch and effort data from pelagic longline fisheries observers (1993-2005) and scientific tagging cruises (1998-2002) were coupled with environmental and biological data. Negative binomial models were used to fit the data for both species and Akaike's Information Criterion (corrected for small sample size) was used to determine the best model. Our results indicate that bluefin CPUE had higher spatiotemporal variability as compared to yellowfin CPUE. Bluefin CPUE increased substantially during the breeding months (March-June) and peaked in April and May, while yellowfin CPUE remained relatively high throughout the year. In addition, bluefin CPUE was significantly higher in areas with negative sea surface height anomalies and cooler sea surface temperatures, which are characteristic of mesoscale cyclonic eddies. In contrast, yellowfin CPUE was less sensitive to environmental variability. These differences in seasonal variability and sensitivity to environmental influences suggest that bluefin tuna bycatch in the GOM can be reduced substantially by managing the spatial and temporal distribution of the pelagic longline effort without substantially

  6. Comparative influence of ocean conditions on yellowfin and Atlantic bluefin tuna catch from longlines in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Teo, Steven L H; Block, Barbara A

    2010-01-01

    Directed fishing effort for Atlantic bluefin tuna in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), their primary spawning grounds in the western Atlantic, has been prohibited since the 1980s due to a precipitous decline of the spawning stock biomass. However, pelagic longlines targeted at other species, primarily yellowfin tuna and swordfish, continue to catch Atlantic bluefin tuna in the GOM as bycatch. Spatial and temporal management measures minimizing bluefin tuna bycatch in the GOM will likely become important in rebuilding the western Atlantic bluefin stock. In order to help inform management policy and understand the relative distribution of target and bycatch species in the GOM, we compared the spatiotemporal variability and environmental influences on the catch per unit effort (CPUE) of yellowfin (target) and bluefin tuna (bycatch). Catch and effort data from pelagic longline fisheries observers (1993-2005) and scientific tagging cruises (1998-2002) were coupled with environmental and biological data. Negative binomial models were used to fit the data for both species and Akaike's Information Criterion (corrected for small sample size) was used to determine the best model. Our results indicate that bluefin CPUE had higher spatiotemporal variability as compared to yellowfin CPUE. Bluefin CPUE increased substantially during the breeding months (March-June) and peaked in April and May, while yellowfin CPUE remained relatively high throughout the year. In addition, bluefin CPUE was significantly higher in areas with negative sea surface height anomalies and cooler sea surface temperatures, which are characteristic of mesoscale cyclonic eddies. In contrast, yellowfin CPUE was less sensitive to environmental variability. These differences in seasonal variability and sensitivity to environmental influences suggest that bluefin tuna bycatch in the GOM can be reduced substantially by managing the spatial and temporal distribution of the pelagic longline effort without substantially

  7. Role of catch bonds in actomyosin mechanics and cell mechanosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Vernerey, Franck J; Akalp, Umut

    2016-07-01

    We propose a mechanism of adherent cell mechanosensing, based on the idea that the contractile actomyosin machinery behaves as a catch bond. For this, we construct a simplified model of the actomyosin structure that constitutes the building block of stress fibers and express the stability of cross bridges in terms of the force-dependent bonding energy of the actomyosin bond. Consistent with experimental measurements, we then consider that the energy barrier of the actomyosin bond increases for tension and show that this response is enough to explain the force-induced stabilization of a stress fiber. Further numerical simulations at the cellular level show that the catch-bond hypothesis can help in understanding and predict the sensitivity of adherent cells to substrate stiffness. PMID:27575160

  8. The effects of periodic visual occlusion on ball catching.

    PubMed

    Elliott, D; Zuberec, S; Milgram, P

    1994-06-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of periodic visual occlusion on one-handed ball catching. Tennis balls were projected one at a time over distances of 8-12 m, and liquid-crystal visual occlusion spectacles provided intermittent vision by opening and closing the lens shutters at different frequencies. As well as frequency, we manipulated duty cycle, or the proportion of time that the lenses were open. Generally, catching performance deteriorated as frequency was reduced. Although longer visual samples (i.e., increased duty cycle) mediated this effect to some extent, the most potent variable was the time between visual samples; performance deteriorated rapidly when this interval was greater than 80 ms (i.e., 10 Hz with 20-ms lens open times). Presumably this occurred because subjects had difficulty integrating visual information separated by longer temporal intervals. PMID:15753064

  9. The contribution of stereo vision to one-handed catching.

    PubMed

    Mazyn, Liesbeth I N; Lenoir, Matthieu; Montagne, Gilles; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2004-08-01

    Participants with normal (StereoN) and weak (StereoW) stereopsis caught tennis balls under monocular and binocular viewing at three different speed conditions. Monocular or binocular viewing did not affect catching performance in catchers with weak stereopsis, while the StereoN group caught more balls under binocular vision as compared with the monocular condition. These effects were more pronounced with increasing ball speed. Kinematic analysis of the catch partially corroborated these findings. These results indicate that StereoW catchers have not developed a compensatory strategy for information pick-up, and that negative effects of a lack of stereopsis grow larger as temporal constraints become more severe. These findings also support the notion that several monocular and/or binocular information sources can be used in the control of interceptive action. PMID:15221161

  10. Role of catch bonds in actomyosin mechanics and cell mechanosensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernerey, Franck J.; Akalp, Umut

    2016-07-01

    We propose a mechanism of adherent cell mechanosensing, based on the idea that the contractile actomyosin machinery behaves as a catch bond. For this, we construct a simplified model of the actomyosin structure that constitutes the building block of stress fibers and express the stability of cross bridges in terms of the force-dependent bonding energy of the actomyosin bond. Consistent with experimental measurements, we then consider that the energy barrier of the actomyosin bond increases for tension and show that this response is enough to explain the force-induced stabilization of a stress fiber. Further numerical simulations at the cellular level show that the catch-bond hypothesis can help in understanding and predict the sensitivity of adherent cells to substrate stiffness.

  11. Acceptability of BCG vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mande, R

    1977-01-01

    The acceptability of BCG vaccination varies a great deal according to the country and to the period when the vaccine is given. The incidence of complications has not always a direct influence on this acceptability, which depends, for a very large part, on the risk of tuberculosis in a given country at a given time.

  12. ATLAS ACCEPTANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, J. C. , Jr.; Parker, J. V.; Hinckley, W. B.; Hosack, K. W.; Mills, D.; Parsons, W. M.; Scudder, D. W.; Stokes, J. L.; Tabaka, L. J.; Thompson, M. C.; Wysocki, Frederick Joseph; Campbell, T. N.; Lancaster, D. L.; Tom, C. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The acceptance test program for Atlas, a 23 MJ pulsed power facility for use in the Los Alamos High Energy Density Hydrodynamics program, has been completed. Completion of this program officially releases Atlas from the construction phase and readies it for experiments. Details of the acceptance test program results and of machine capabilities for experiments will be presented.

  13. A quick-catch corral trap for wintering canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Derleth, E.L.; McAuley, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    We designed a bait trap for wintering Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) that has proven more effective than conventional funnel or slot entrance traps for diving ducks. The unique feature of this trap is the corral entrance that presents unimpaired access to the bait and thus ease of entrance to the trap. Catches of 50-75 ducks have been made in a matter of minutes at prebaited sites.

  14. People favour imperfect catching by assuming a stable world.

    PubMed

    López-Moliner, Joan; Keil, Matthias S

    2012-01-01

    The visual angle that is projected by an object (e.g. a ball) on the retina depends on the object's size and distance. Without further information, however, the visual angle is ambiguous with respect to size and distance, because equal visual angles can be obtained from a big ball at a longer distance and a smaller one at a correspondingly shorter distance. Failure to recover the true 3D structure of the object (e.g. a ball's physical size) causing the ambiguous retinal image can lead to a timing error when catching the ball. Two opposing views are currently prevailing on how people resolve this ambiguity when estimating time to contact. One explanation challenges any inference about what causes the retinal image (i.e. the necessity to recover this 3D structure), and instead favors a direct analysis of optic flow. In contrast, the second view suggests that action timing could be rather based on obtaining an estimate of the 3D structure of the scene. With the latter, systematic errors will be predicted if our inference of the 3D structure fails to reveal the underlying cause of the retinal image. Here we show that hand closure in catching virtual balls is triggered by visual angle, using an assumption of a constant ball size. As a consequence of this assumption, hand closure starts when the ball is at similar distance across trials. From that distance on, the remaining arrival time, therefore, depends on ball's speed. In order to time the catch successfully, closing time was coupled with ball's speed during the motor phase. This strategy led to an increased precision in catching but at the cost of committing systematic errors.

  15. Stakeholder discourse and water management - implementation of the participatory model CATCH in a Northern Italian alpine sub-catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupo Stanghellini, P. S.; Collentine, D.

    2008-03-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD, directive 2000/60/EC) was created to ensure the sustainable use of water resources in the European Union. A central guideline included throughout the directive is a call for the participation of stakeholders in the management of these resources. Involving stakeholders is an important step to ensure that catchment management plans take into consideration local experience in the development of these plans and the impact of the plans on local interests. This paper describes and analyses the results of a series of workshops to facilitate implementation of the WFD at a catchment level based on the stakeholder participation model, CATCH. To test the usefulness of the CATCH model, developed for water management in a catchment area, a sub-catchment in an alpine valley in the north-east of Italy, the Alta Valsugana in the Province of Trento, was chosen as the setting for a series of workshops. In this valley water is fundamental for activities associated with agriculture, domestic use, energy production, sports and recreation. In the recent past the valley has had serious problems related to water quality and quantity. Implementation of water management plans under the WFD may lead to conflicts within the catchment between different stakeholder interest groups. Including stakeholders in the development of management plans not only follows the guidelines of the WFD but also could result in a more locally adapted and acceptable plan for the catchment. A new stakeholder analysis methodology was developed and implemented in order to identify the relevant stakeholders of the area and then two sets of workshops involving the key stakeholders identified were conducted in Spring 2006. The CATCH meetings were a new experience for the participants, who had to deal with both the principles of the WFD in general and the participation requirement in particular. During the meetings, the CATCH model played a very important role in structuring the

  16. Catching fly balls: a simulation study of the Chapman strategy.

    PubMed

    Kistemaker, D A; Faber, H; Beek, P J

    2009-04-01

    Chapman [Chapman, S. (1968). Catching a baseball. American Journal of Physics, 36, 868-870] showed that a catcher may be guided to the landing spot of a fly ball by zeroing out its optical acceleration. Subsequently, various studies have provided evidence for what is now known as the Chapman strategy. However, in those studies the catcher's own acceleration and the visuo-motor delay were ignored. This raises the question whether the Chapman strategy still provides an accurate description if those factors are taken into account. To address this question, we implemented the Chapman strategy in a forward dynamical model of the catcher's locomotion in relation to the ball's actual trajectory. Numerical simulations of the model revealed that catching performance was still successful under a broad range of ball trajectories. Furthermore, the model simulations largely reproduced the real running paths reported by McLeod and Dienes [McLeod, P., & Dienes, Z. (1996). Do fielders know where to go to catch the ball or only how to get there? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and performance, 22, 531-543]. However, the simulations also revealed that real running paths exhibit some detailed characteristics that appear to be irreconcilable with the Chapman strategy. PMID:19110332

  17. Catching fly balls: a simulation study of the Chapman strategy.

    PubMed

    Kistemaker, D A; Faber, H; Beek, P J

    2009-04-01

    Chapman [Chapman, S. (1968). Catching a baseball. American Journal of Physics, 36, 868-870] showed that a catcher may be guided to the landing spot of a fly ball by zeroing out its optical acceleration. Subsequently, various studies have provided evidence for what is now known as the Chapman strategy. However, in those studies the catcher's own acceleration and the visuo-motor delay were ignored. This raises the question whether the Chapman strategy still provides an accurate description if those factors are taken into account. To address this question, we implemented the Chapman strategy in a forward dynamical model of the catcher's locomotion in relation to the ball's actual trajectory. Numerical simulations of the model revealed that catching performance was still successful under a broad range of ball trajectories. Furthermore, the model simulations largely reproduced the real running paths reported by McLeod and Dienes [McLeod, P., & Dienes, Z. (1996). Do fielders know where to go to catch the ball or only how to get there? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and performance, 22, 531-543]. However, the simulations also revealed that real running paths exhibit some detailed characteristics that appear to be irreconcilable with the Chapman strategy.

  18. Flexible timing of eye movements when catching a ball.

    PubMed

    López-Moliner, Joan; Brenner, Eli

    2016-01-01

    In ball games, one cannot direct ones gaze at the ball all the time because one must also judge other aspects of the game, such as other players' positions. We wanted to know whether there are times at which obtaining information about the ball is particularly beneficial for catching it. We recently found that people could catch successfully if they saw any part of the ball's flight except the very end, when sensory-motor delays make it impossible to use new information. Nevertheless, there may be a preferred time to see the ball. We examined when six catchers would choose to look at the ball if they had to both catch the ball and find out what to do with it while the ball was approaching. A catcher and a thrower continuously threw a ball back and forth. We recorded their hand movements, the catcher's eye movements, and the ball's path. While the ball was approaching the catcher, information was provided on a screen about how the catcher should throw the ball back to the thrower (its peak height). This information disappeared just before the catcher caught the ball. Initially there was a slight tendency to look at the ball before looking at the screen but, later, most catchers tended to look at the screen before looking at the ball. Rather than being particularly eager to see the ball at a certain time, people appear to adjust their eye movements to the combined requirements of the task.

  19. Flexible timing of eye movements when catching a ball.

    PubMed

    López-Moliner, Joan; Brenner, Eli

    2016-01-01

    In ball games, one cannot direct ones gaze at the ball all the time because one must also judge other aspects of the game, such as other players' positions. We wanted to know whether there are times at which obtaining information about the ball is particularly beneficial for catching it. We recently found that people could catch successfully if they saw any part of the ball's flight except the very end, when sensory-motor delays make it impossible to use new information. Nevertheless, there may be a preferred time to see the ball. We examined when six catchers would choose to look at the ball if they had to both catch the ball and find out what to do with it while the ball was approaching. A catcher and a thrower continuously threw a ball back and forth. We recorded their hand movements, the catcher's eye movements, and the ball's path. While the ball was approaching the catcher, information was provided on a screen about how the catcher should throw the ball back to the thrower (its peak height). This information disappeared just before the catcher caught the ball. Initially there was a slight tendency to look at the ball before looking at the screen but, later, most catchers tended to look at the screen before looking at the ball. Rather than being particularly eager to see the ball at a certain time, people appear to adjust their eye movements to the combined requirements of the task. PMID:26982371

  20. Rising catch variability preceded historical fisheries collapses in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Litzow, Michael A; Mueter, Franz J; Urban, J Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Statistical indicators such as rising variance and rising skewness in key system parameters may provide early warning of "regime shifts" in communities and populations. However, the utility of these indicators has rarely been tested in the large, complex ecosystems that are of most interest to managers. Crustacean fisheries in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea experienced a series of collapses beginning in the 1970s, and we used spatially resolved catch data from these fisheries to test the predictions that increasing variability and skewness would precede stock collapse. Our data set consisted of catch data from 14 fisheries (12 collapsing and two non-collapsing), spanning 278 cumulative years. Our sampling unit for analysis was the Alaska Department of Fish and Game statistical reporting area (mean n for individual fisheries = 42 areas, range 7-81). We found that spatial variability in catches increased prior to stock collapse: a random-effects model estimating trend in variability across all 12 collapsing fisheries showed strong evidence of increasing variability prior to collapse. Individual trends in variability were statistically significant for only four of the 12 collapsing fisheries, suggesting that rising variability might be most effective as an indicator when information from multiple populations is available. Analyzing data across multiple fisheries allowed us to detect increasing variability 1-4 years prior to collapse, and trends in variability were significantly different for collapsing and non-collapsing fisheries. In spite of theoretical expectations, we found no evidence of pre-collapse increases in catch skewness. Further, while models generally predict that rising variability should be a transient phenomenon around collapse points, increased variability was a persistent feature of collapsed fisheries in our study. We conclude that this result is more consistent with fishing effects as the cause of increased catch variability, rather than the

  1. Estimating historical eastern North Pacific blue whale catches using spatial calling patterns.

    PubMed

    Monnahan, Cole C; Branch, Trevor A; Stafford, Kathleen M; Ivashchenko, Yulia V; Oleson, Erin M

    2014-01-01

    Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) were exploited extensively around the world and remain endangered. In the North Pacific their population structure is unclear and current status unknown, with the exception of a well-studied eastern North Pacific (ENP) population. Despite existing abundance estimates for the ENP population, it is difficult to estimate pre-exploitation abundance levels and gauge their recovery because historical catches of the ENP population are difficult to separate from catches of other populations in the North Pacific. We collated previously unreported Soviet catches and combined these with known catches to form the most current estimates of North Pacific blue whale catches. We split these conflated catches using recorded acoustic calls from throughout the North Pacific, the knowledge that the ENP population produces a different call than blue whales in the western North Pacific (WNP). The catches were split by estimating spatiotemporal occurrence of blue whales with generalized additive models fitted to acoustic call patterns, which predict the probability a catch belonged to the ENP population based on the proportion of calls of each population recorded by latitude, longitude, and month. When applied to the conflated historical catches, which totaled 9,773, we estimate that ENP blue whale catches totaled 3,411 (95% range 2,593 to 4,114) from 1905-1971, and amounted to 35% (95% range 27% to 42%) of all catches in the North Pacific. Thus most catches in the North Pacific were for WNP blue whales, totaling 6,362 (95% range 5,659 to 7,180). The uncertainty in the acoustic data influence the results substantially more than uncertainty in catch locations and dates, but the results are fairly insensitive to the ecological assumptions made in the analysis. The results of this study provide information for future studies investigating the recovery of these populations and the impact of continuing and future sources of anthropogenic mortality. PMID

  2. Estimating historical eastern North Pacific blue whale catches using spatial calling patterns.

    PubMed

    Monnahan, Cole C; Branch, Trevor A; Stafford, Kathleen M; Ivashchenko, Yulia V; Oleson, Erin M

    2014-01-01

    Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) were exploited extensively around the world and remain endangered. In the North Pacific their population structure is unclear and current status unknown, with the exception of a well-studied eastern North Pacific (ENP) population. Despite existing abundance estimates for the ENP population, it is difficult to estimate pre-exploitation abundance levels and gauge their recovery because historical catches of the ENP population are difficult to separate from catches of other populations in the North Pacific. We collated previously unreported Soviet catches and combined these with known catches to form the most current estimates of North Pacific blue whale catches. We split these conflated catches using recorded acoustic calls from throughout the North Pacific, the knowledge that the ENP population produces a different call than blue whales in the western North Pacific (WNP). The catches were split by estimating spatiotemporal occurrence of blue whales with generalized additive models fitted to acoustic call patterns, which predict the probability a catch belonged to the ENP population based on the proportion of calls of each population recorded by latitude, longitude, and month. When applied to the conflated historical catches, which totaled 9,773, we estimate that ENP blue whale catches totaled 3,411 (95% range 2,593 to 4,114) from 1905-1971, and amounted to 35% (95% range 27% to 42%) of all catches in the North Pacific. Thus most catches in the North Pacific were for WNP blue whales, totaling 6,362 (95% range 5,659 to 7,180). The uncertainty in the acoustic data influence the results substantially more than uncertainty in catch locations and dates, but the results are fairly insensitive to the ecological assumptions made in the analysis. The results of this study provide information for future studies investigating the recovery of these populations and the impact of continuing and future sources of anthropogenic mortality.

  3. Acceptance procedures: Microfilm printer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Acceptance tests were made for a special order automatic additive color microfilm printer. Tests include film capacity, film transport, resolution, illumination uniformity, exposure range checks, and color cuing considerations.

  4. Ecological relevance of stereopsis in one-handed ball-catching.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, M; Musch, E; La Grange, N

    1999-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare one-handed catching performance between catchers with high (n = 10) and low (n = 10) binocular depth vision or stereopsis. In two sessions of 90 trials, tennis balls were projected at three different velocities towards the subject's shoulder region. Participants with good stereopsis were more successful, although the difference in number of correct catches fell short of significance. More specifically, catchers with low stereopsis made more temporal errors, but no differences in spatial errors. As the velocity of the ball increased, the initiation of the catch was delayed and catching performance decreased. The finding that stereopsis affected timing of the catch challenges the 'monocular tau hypothesis' in the control of interceptive timing, while the velocity effect shows that the act of catching a ball is not initiated at a constant time-to-contact. PMID:10597587

  5. Interactions between finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Ronald H; Smith, Ruth E; Fisher, E Brian

    2014-11-15

    Interactions between open-net pen finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay in Nova Scotia, Canada, were investigated using fishermen's participatory research in annual lobster trap surveys over seven years. Fishermen recorded lobster catches during the last two weeks of May from 2007 to 2013. Catches for each trap haul were recorded separately for ovigerous and market-sized lobsters. Catch trends within the bay were compared to regional trends. Results of correlation analyses indicated that ovigerous catch trends were strongly affected by the fish farm's feeding/fallow periods. There was no significant correlation between trends for bay and LFA lobster landings. Patterns of lobster catch per unit effort extending over considerable distance in Port Mouton Bay appear to be influenced by proximity to the fish farm regardless of year-to-year variation in water temperatures and weather conditions. Odours and habitat changes surrounding open-net pen finfish operations are potential factors affecting lobster displacement.

  6. Ecological relevance of stereopsis in one-handed ball-catching.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, M; Musch, E; La Grange, N

    1999-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare one-handed catching performance between catchers with high (n = 10) and low (n = 10) binocular depth vision or stereopsis. In two sessions of 90 trials, tennis balls were projected at three different velocities towards the subject's shoulder region. Participants with good stereopsis were more successful, although the difference in number of correct catches fell short of significance. More specifically, catchers with low stereopsis made more temporal errors, but no differences in spatial errors. As the velocity of the ball increased, the initiation of the catch was delayed and catching performance decreased. The finding that stereopsis affected timing of the catch challenges the 'monocular tau hypothesis' in the control of interceptive timing, while the velocity effect shows that the act of catching a ball is not initiated at a constant time-to-contact.

  7. Interactions between finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Ronald H; Smith, Ruth E; Fisher, E Brian

    2014-11-15

    Interactions between open-net pen finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay in Nova Scotia, Canada, were investigated using fishermen's participatory research in annual lobster trap surveys over seven years. Fishermen recorded lobster catches during the last two weeks of May from 2007 to 2013. Catches for each trap haul were recorded separately for ovigerous and market-sized lobsters. Catch trends within the bay were compared to regional trends. Results of correlation analyses indicated that ovigerous catch trends were strongly affected by the fish farm's feeding/fallow periods. There was no significant correlation between trends for bay and LFA lobster landings. Patterns of lobster catch per unit effort extending over considerable distance in Port Mouton Bay appear to be influenced by proximity to the fish farm regardless of year-to-year variation in water temperatures and weather conditions. Odours and habitat changes surrounding open-net pen finfish operations are potential factors affecting lobster displacement. PMID:25242235

  8. Computational biology of RNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, Christoph; Stadler, Peter F

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity of the RNA world has been underestimated for decades. RNA molecules are key building blocks, sensors, and regulators of modern cells. The biological function of RNA molecules cannot be separated from their ability to bind to and interact with a wide space of chemical species, including small molecules, nucleic acids, and proteins. Computational chemists, physicists, and biologists have developed a rich tool set for modeling and predicting RNA interactions. These interactions are to some extent determined by the binding conformation of the RNA molecule. RNA binding conformations are approximated with often acceptable accuracy by sequence and secondary structure motifs. Secondary structure ensembles of a given RNA molecule can be efficiently computed in many relevant situations by employing a standard energy model for base pair interactions and dynamic programming techniques. The case of bi-molecular RNA-RNA interactions can be seen as an extension of this approach. However, unbiased transcriptome-wide scans for local RNA-RNA interactions are computationally challenging yet become efficient if the binding motif/mode is known and other external information can be used to confine the search space. Computational methods are less developed for proteins and small molecules, which bind to RNA with very high specificity. Binding descriptors of proteins are usually determined by in vitro high-throughput assays (e.g., microarrays or sequencing). Intriguingly, recent experimental advances, which are mostly based on light-induced cross-linking of binding partners, render in vivo binding patterns accessible yet require new computational methods for careful data interpretation. The grand challenge is to model the in vivo situation where a complex interplay of RNA binders competes for the same target RNA molecule. Evidently, bioinformaticians are just catching up with the impressive pace of these developments.

  9. 26 CFR 1.402(g)-2 - Increased limit for catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Increased limit for catch-up contributions. 1.402.... § 1.402(g)-2 Increased limit for catch-up contributions. (a) General rule. Under section 402(g)(1)(C...(g) for a catch-up eligible participant (within the meaning of § 1.414(v)-1(g)), the...

  10. Cerebellar subjects show impaired adaptation of anticipatory EMG during catching.

    PubMed

    Lang, C E; Bastian, A J

    1999-11-01

    We evaluated the role of the cerebellum in adapting anticipatory muscle activity during a multijointed catching task. Individuals with and without cerebellar damage caught a series of balls of different weights dropped from above. In Experiment 1 (light-heavy-light), each subject was required to catch light balls (baseline phase), heavy balls (adaptation phase), and then light balls again (postadaptation phase). Subjects were not told when the balls would be switched, and they were required to keep their hand within a vertical spatial "window" during the catch. During the series of trials, we measured three-dimensional (3-D) position and electromyogram (EMG) from the catching arm. We modeled the adaptation process using an exponential decay function; this model allowed us to dissociate adaptation from performance variability. Results from the position data show that cerebellar subjects did not adapt or adapted very slowly to the changed ball weight when compared with the control subjects. The cerebellar group required an average of 30.9 +/- 8.7 trials (mean +/- SE) to progress approximately two-thirds of the way through the adaptation compared with 1.7 +/- 0.2 trials for the control group. Only control subjects showed a negative aftereffect indicating storage of the adaptation. No difference in performance variability existed between the two groups. EMG data show that control subjects increased their anticipatory muscle activity in the flexor muscles of the arm to control the momentum of the ball at impact. Cerebellar subjects were unable to differentially increase the anticipatory muscle activity across three joints to perform the task successfully. In Experiment 2 (heavy-light-heavy), we tested to see whether the rate of adaptation changed when adapting to a light ball versus a heavy ball. Subjects caught the heavy balls (baseline phase), the light balls (adaptation phase), and then heavy balls again (postadaptation phase). Comparison of rates of adaptation

  11. Efficacy of methoprene for mosquito control in storm water catch basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, M.; LeBrun, R.A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gettman, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of methoprene, a widely used juvenile hormone mimic, formulated as 30-day slow release Altosid? pellets, at controlling mosquitoes in underground storm water drainage catch basins. Data from applications to ?-sized cement catch basins in the laboratory, field observations from treated and untreated basins, and an experiment that confined mosquito larvae in floating emergence jars in catch basins showed that methoprene effectively controlled mosquitoes for a month under field conditions and substantially longer under laboratory conditions when applied at a dose of 3.5 g pellets per average-sized catch basin.

  12. Catch basin inserts to reduce pollution from stormwater.

    PubMed

    Lau, S L; Khan, E; Stenstrom, M K

    2001-01-01

    Stormwater contamination represents the largest source of contaminants to many receiving waters in the United States, such as Santa Monica Bay in Los Angeles, California. Point sources to these same waters generally receive secondary or better treatment before they are released, and they are usually discharged through outfalls that diffuse the wastewater plume to prevent it from contacting the shoreline. Stormwaters receive no treatment and reach the receiving waters through a variety of ways, but most enter through catch basins or inserts to storm drains that terminate at the beach or in shallow coastal areas. Under these conditions, the stormwater discharge may have greater impact on the quality and utility of the receiving water than the treated wastewater discharges. One method of reducing pollution is to equip catch basins with an insert that can capture pollutants. A number of commercially available devices exist but few have been evaluated by independent parties in full-scale applications. A series of tests using bench and full-scale devices under both laboratory and field conditions were conducted to evaluate their ability to remove trash and debris, suspended solids and oil and grease in stormwaters. The results presented in the paper should provide a basis for future insert development and application.

  13. Mechanical perturbation of the wrist during one-handed catching.

    PubMed

    Button, C; Davids, K; Bennett, S J; Taylor, M A

    2000-09-01

    In the present study, the co-ordination of grasp and transport components of one-handed catching was examined following mechanical perturbations applied to the wrist. Six skilled catchers (mean age = 27.5 years) performed 64 trials in which tennis balls were projected at approximately 8 ms-1. The trial blocks consisted of 10 non-perturbed trials (NPTs) (baseline), and a block of 54 trials of which 20 trials were perturbed. The perturbation was in the form of a resistive force (12 N) applied via a piece of cord attached to a mechanical brake. In baseline trials participants reached maximal wrist velocity closer to the time of hand-ball contact (237 ms +/- 68) than in the perturbed (309 ms +/- 61) condition. Furthermore the wrist velocity profile of five out of six participants exhibited a double peak immediately after a perturbation. However, aperture variables such as the relative moment of final hand closure (approximately 70% of overall movement time) were not typically affected. The stability of grasp and transport coupling for one-handed catching was shown to vary from trial to trial. Skilled performers exploited redundant degrees of freedom in the motor system when faced with a sudden, unexpected change in task constraints. PMID:11057000

  14. Cardiac alterations induced by a fish-catching diving competition.

    PubMed

    Gargne, O; Joulia, F; Golé, Y; Coulange, M; Bessereau, J; Fontanari, P; Desruelle, A-V; Gavarry, O; Boussuges, A

    2012-06-01

    Cardiac changes induced by repeated breath-hold diving were investigated after a fish-catching diving competition. Eleven healthy subjects carried out repeated breath-hold dives at a mean maximal depth of 20 ± 2.7 msw (66 ± 9 fsw) during 5 h. One hour after the competition, the body mass loss was -1.7 ± 0.5 kg. Most of the breath-hold divers suffered from cold and although the core temperature remained normal, a decrease in cutaneous temperature was recorded in the extremities. Systolic blood pressure was reduced in both upper and lower limbs. Heart rate was unchanged, but left ventricular (LV) stroke volume was reduced leading to a decrease in cardiac output (-20%). Left atrial and LV diameters were significantly decreased. LV filling was assessed on a trans-mitral profile. An increase in the contribution of the atrial contraction to LV filling was observed. Right cavity diameters were increased. The cardiac autonomic alterations were in favor of sympathetic hyperactivity. After a fish-catching diving competition in cold water, alterations suggesting dehydration, contraction in plasma volume and sympathetic hyperactivity were observed. Furthermore, enlargements of right cavities were in favor of right ventricular strains. Repeated apnea and swimming in cold water may account for these alterations. PMID:20738824

  15. Catch-bond behavior of DNA condensate under tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Wong, Wei-Juan; Lim, Ci-Ji; Ju, Hai-Peng; Li, Ming; Yan, Jie; Wang, Peng-Ye

    2015-12-01

    Toroid formation is an important mechanism underlying DNA condensation, which has been investigated extensively by single-molecule experiments in vitro. Here, the de-condensation dynamics of DNA condensates were studied using magnetic tweezers combined with Brownian dynamics simulations. The experimental results revealed a surprising non-monotonic dependence of the unfolding rate on the force applied under strong adhesion conditions, resembling the catch-bond behavior reported in the field of ligand-receptor interactions. Simulation results showed that the different unfolding pathways of DNA condensate under large forces derive from the force-dependent deformation of the DNA toroid, which explains the catch-bond behavior of DNA condensate in the magnetic tweezers experiments. These results challenge the universality of the regular toroidal DNA unwrapping mechanism and provide the most complete description to date of multivalent cation-dependent DNA unwrapping under tension. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11104341, 11474346, 11274374, and 61275192), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), and the Mechanobiology Institute at National University of Singapore.

  16. Optical trajectories and the informational basis of fly ball catching.

    PubMed

    Marken, Richard S

    2005-06-01

    D. M. Shaffer and M. K. McBeath (see record 2002-02027-006) plotted the optical trajectories of uncatchable fly balls and concluded that linear optical trajectory is the informational basis of the actions taken to catch these balls. P. McLeod, N. Reed, and Z. Dienes (see record 2002-11140-016) replotted these trajectories in terms of changes in the tangent of optical angle over time and concluded that optical acceleration is the informational basis of fielder actions. Neither of these conclusions is warranted, however, because the optical trajectories of even uncatchable balls confound the information that is the basis of fielder action with the effects of those same actions on these trajectories. To determine the informational basis of fielder action, it is necessary to do the control-theory-based Test for the Controlled Variable, in which the informational basis of catching is found by looking for features of optical trajectories that are protected from experimentally or naturally applied disturbances. PMID:15982135

  17. Spatiotemporal characteristics of muscle patterns for ball catching

    PubMed Central

    D'Andola, M.; Cesqui, B.; Portone, A.; Fernandez, L.; Lacquaniti, F.; d'Avella, A.

    2013-01-01

    What sources of information and what control strategies the central nervous system (CNS) uses to perform movements that require accurate sensorimotor coordination, such as catching a flying ball, is still debated. Here we analyzed the EMG waveforms recorded from 16 shoulder and elbow muscles in six subjects during catching of balls projected frontally from a distance of 6 m and arriving at two different heights and with three different flight times (550, 650, 750 ms). We found that a large fraction of the variation in the muscle patterns was captured by two time-varying muscle synergies, coordinated recruitment of groups of muscles with specific activation waveforms, modulated in amplitude and shifted in time according to the ball's arrival height and flight duration. One synergy was recruited with a short and fixed delay from launch time. Remarkably, a second synergy was recruited at a fixed time before impact, suggesting that it is timed according to an accurate time-to-contact estimation. These results suggest that the control of interceptive movements relies on a combination of reactive and predictive processes through the intermittent recruitment of time-varying muscle synergies. Knowledge of the dynamic effect of gravity and drag on the ball may be then implicitly incorporated in a direct mapping of visual information into a small number of synergy recruitment parameters. PMID:23966939

  18. Optical trajectories and the informational basis of fly ball catching.

    PubMed

    Marken, Richard S

    2005-06-01

    D. M. Shaffer and M. K. McBeath (see record 2002-02027-006) plotted the optical trajectories of uncatchable fly balls and concluded that linear optical trajectory is the informational basis of the actions taken to catch these balls. P. McLeod, N. Reed, and Z. Dienes (see record 2002-11140-016) replotted these trajectories in terms of changes in the tangent of optical angle over time and concluded that optical acceleration is the informational basis of fielder actions. Neither of these conclusions is warranted, however, because the optical trajectories of even uncatchable balls confound the information that is the basis of fielder action with the effects of those same actions on these trajectories. To determine the informational basis of fielder action, it is necessary to do the control-theory-based Test for the Controlled Variable, in which the informational basis of catching is found by looking for features of optical trajectories that are protected from experimentally or naturally applied disturbances.

  19. PyCatch: catchment modelling in the PCRaster framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karssenberg, Derek; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Schmitz, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    PCRaster is an open source software framework for the construction and execution of stochastic, spatio-temporal, forward, models. It provides a large number of spatial operations on raster maps, with an emphasis on operations that are capable of transporting material (water, sediment) over a drainage network. These operations have been written in C++ and are provided to the model builder as Python functions. Models are constructed by combining these functions in a Python script. To ease implementation of models that use time steps and Monte Carlo iterations, the software comes with a Python framework providing control flow for temporal modelling and Monte Carlo simulation, including options for Bayesian data assimilation (Ensemble Kalman Filter, Particle Filter). A sophisticated visualization tool is provided capable of visualizing, animating, and exploring stochastic, spatio-temporal input or model output data. PCRaster is used for construction of for instance hydrological models (hillslope to global scale), land use change models, and geomorphological models. It is still being improved upon, for instance by adding under the hood functionality for executing models on multiple CPU cores, and by adding components for agent-based and network simulation. The software runs in MS Windows and Linux and is available at http://www.pcraster.eu. We provide an extensive set of online course materials (partly available free of charge). Using the PCRaster software framework, we recently developed the PyCatch model components for hydrological modelling and land degradation modelling at catchment scale. The PyCatch components run at time steps of seconds to weeks, and grid cell sizes of approximately 1-100 m, which can be selected depending on the case study for which PyCatch is used. Hydrological components currently implemented include classes for simulation of incoming solar radiation, evapotranspiration (Penman-Monteith), surface storage, infiltration (Green and Ampt

  20. Smaller hospitals accept advertising.

    PubMed

    Mackesy, R

    1988-07-01

    Administrators at small- and medium-sized hospitals gradually have accepted the role of marketing in their organizations, albeit at a much slower rate than larger institutions. This update of a 1983 survey tracks the increasing competitiveness, complexity and specialization of providing health care and of advertising a small hospital's services. PMID:10288550

  1. Students Accepted on Probation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorberbaum, Caroline S.

    This report is a justification of the Dalton Junior College admissions policy designed to help students who had had academic and/or social difficulties at other schools. These students were accepted on probation, their problems carefully analyzed, and much effort devoted to those with low academic potential. They received extensive academic and…

  2. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  3. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  4. Movement Coordination in Ball Catching: Comparison between Boys with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Przysucha, Eryk P.; Maraj, Brian K. V.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation examined the catching coordination of 12 boys (M age = 9.9 years, SD = 0.8) with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD; M age = 10.5 years, SD = 0.8), under different task constraints. Participants attempted a total of 60 catches in central and lateral locations, under blocked and randomized conditions. No effect…

  5. Catch-and-release science and its application to conservation and management of recreational fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooke, S.J.; Schramm, H.L.

    2007-01-01

    Catch-and-release angling is a well-established practice in recreational angler behaviour and fisheries management. Accompanying this is a growing body of catch-and-release research that can be applied to reduce injury, mortality and sublethal alterations in behaviour and physiology. Here, the status of catch-and-release research from a symposium on the topic is summarised. Several general themes emerged including the need to: (1) better connect sublethal assessments to population-level processes; (2) enhance understanding of the variation in fish, fishing practices and gear and their role in catch and release; (3) better understand animal welfare issues related to catch and release; (4) increase the exchange of information on fishing-induced stress, injury and mortality between the recreational and commercial fishing sectors; and (5) improve procedures for measuring and understanding the effect of catch-and-release angling. Through design of better catch-and-release studies, strategies could be developed to further minimise stress, injury and mortality arising from catch-and-release angling. These strategies, when integrated with other fish population and fishery characteristics, can be used by anglers and managers to sustain or enhance recreational fishing resources. ?? 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. A Global Analysis of the Relationship between Farmed Seaweed Production and Herbivorous Fish Catch.

    PubMed

    Hehre, E James; Meeuwig, Jessica J

    2016-01-01

    Globally, farmed seaweed production is expanding rapidly in shallow marine habitats. While seaweed farming provides vital income to millions of artisanal farmers, it can negatively impact shallow coral reef and seagrass habitats. However, seaweed farming may also potentially provide food subsidies for herbivorous reef fish such as the Siganidae, a valuable target family, resulting in increased catch. Comparisons of reef fish landings across the central Philippines revealed that the catch of siganids was positively correlated to farmed seaweed production whilst negatively correlated to total reef fish catch over the same period of time. We tested the generality of this pattern by analysing seaweed production, siganid catch, and reef fish catch for six major seaweed-producing countries in the tropics. We hypothesized that increased seaweed production would correspond with increased catch of siganids but not other reef fish species. Analysis of the global data showed a positive correlation between farmed seaweeds and siganids in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines) but not Africa (Tanzania and Zanzibar), or the Western Pacific (Fiji). In Southeast Asia, siganid catch increased disproportionately faster with seaweed production than did reef fish catch. Low continuity, sporadic production and smaller volumes of seaweed farming may explain the differences.

  7. Efficacy and persistence of Altosid pellets against Culex species in catch basins in Michigan.

    PubMed

    McCarry, M J

    1996-03-01

    Larvae of Culex pipiens and Cx. restuans in catch basins were exposed to Altosid pellets (4% active ingredient, [S]-methoprene) applied at a rate of 11.3 kg/ha (7 g of pellets per catch basin). Under field conditions, the pellets yielded an average 82% emergence inhibition of adult mosquitoes over the 15-wk trial period.

  8. Leaching and utilization of nitrogen during a spring wheat catch crop succession.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Juan M; Liedgens, Markus

    2009-01-01

    An experiment covering a 2-yr spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) catch crop succession was conducted in lysimeters to account for the losses of N due to leaching. We sought to relate these losses to the N uptake of the main crop and to integrate the estimated N loss and uptake into a balance. The non-winter hardy catch crops [yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.), Phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)] as well as bare soil fallow were studied at low and high N input levels of 4 and 29 g N m(-2) yr(-1), respectively. Catch crops allowed for an effective reduction of N leaching of 0.33 to 1.67 g N m(-2) yr(-1) compared to fallow. Reductions in N leaching were achieved mainly by avoiding the fallow period during autumn and winter while the catch crop species grown had little impact. During the spring wheat growing season, N leaching losses were highest after yellow mustard, the most effective catch crop for the entire crop succession. A balance of N indicated that the reductions in N leaching exerted by the catch crops did not result in a higher overall utilization of N by spring wheat. Thus, the efficacy shown by catch crops in reducing N leaching during growth is relatively lower when considering the entire crop succession. In addition, the N saved by growing catch crops does not increase N utilization by succeeding spring wheat. PMID:19465716

  9. A Global Analysis of the Relationship between Farmed Seaweed Production and Herbivorous Fish Catch.

    PubMed

    Hehre, E James; Meeuwig, Jessica J

    2016-01-01

    Globally, farmed seaweed production is expanding rapidly in shallow marine habitats. While seaweed farming provides vital income to millions of artisanal farmers, it can negatively impact shallow coral reef and seagrass habitats. However, seaweed farming may also potentially provide food subsidies for herbivorous reef fish such as the Siganidae, a valuable target family, resulting in increased catch. Comparisons of reef fish landings across the central Philippines revealed that the catch of siganids was positively correlated to farmed seaweed production whilst negatively correlated to total reef fish catch over the same period of time. We tested the generality of this pattern by analysing seaweed production, siganid catch, and reef fish catch for six major seaweed-producing countries in the tropics. We hypothesized that increased seaweed production would correspond with increased catch of siganids but not other reef fish species. Analysis of the global data showed a positive correlation between farmed seaweeds and siganids in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines) but not Africa (Tanzania and Zanzibar), or the Western Pacific (Fiji). In Southeast Asia, siganid catch increased disproportionately faster with seaweed production than did reef fish catch. Low continuity, sporadic production and smaller volumes of seaweed farming may explain the differences. PMID:26894553

  10. Factorial Validity of the Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes towards Children with Handicaps Scale (CATCH)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossaert, Goele; Petry, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes towards Children with Handicaps Scale (CATCH) has been developed to measure the attitudes of children toward peers with disabilities. The present study aims to evaluate the factorial validity of the CATCH in a sample of 2396 students in 7th grade, including 179 students with disabilities and 2217 typically developing…

  11. Tyrosine requirement during the rapid catch-up growth phase of recovery from severe childhood undernutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The requirement for aromatic amino acids, during the rapid catch-up in weight phase of recovery from severe childhood under nutrition (SCU) is not clearly established. As a first step, the present study aimed to estimate the tyrosine requirement of children with SCU during the catch-up growth phase ...

  12. Catching up with Harvard: Results from Regression Analysis of World Universities League Tables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Mei; Shankar, Sriram; Tang, Kam Ki

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses regression analysis to test if the universities performing less well according to Shanghai Jiao Tong University's world universities league tables are able to catch up with the top performers, and to identify national and institutional factors that could affect this catching up process. We have constructed a dataset of 461…

  13. Estimating insect flight densities from attractive trap catches and flight height distributions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect species often exhibit a specific mean flight height and vertical flight distribution that approximates a normal distribution with a characteristic standard deviation (SD). Many studies in the literature report catches on passive (non-attractive) traps at several heights. These catches were us...

  14. A Global Analysis of the Relationship between Farmed Seaweed Production and Herbivorous Fish Catch

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Globally, farmed seaweed production is expanding rapidly in shallow marine habitats. While seaweed farming provides vital income to millions of artisanal farmers, it can negatively impact shallow coral reef and seagrass habitats. However, seaweed farming may also potentially provide food subsidies for herbivorous reef fish such as the Siganidae, a valuable target family, resulting in increased catch. Comparisons of reef fish landings across the central Philippines revealed that the catch of siganids was positively correlated to farmed seaweed production whilst negatively correlated to total reef fish catch over the same period of time. We tested the generality of this pattern by analysing seaweed production, siganid catch, and reef fish catch for six major seaweed-producing countries in the tropics. We hypothesized that increased seaweed production would correspond with increased catch of siganids but not other reef fish species. Analysis of the global data showed a positive correlation between farmed seaweeds and siganids in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines) but not Africa (Tanzania and Zanzibar), or the Western Pacific (Fiji). In Southeast Asia, siganid catch increased disproportionately faster with seaweed production than did reef fish catch. Low continuity, sporadic production and smaller volumes of seaweed farming may explain the differences. PMID:26894553

  15. Control of mosquitoes in catch basins in Connecticut with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Bacillus sphearicus, and Spinosad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catch basins are a major source of Culex pipiens pipiens, Cx. restuans, and Aedes japonicus in northeastern U.S. VectoBac CG®, VectoLex CG®, and VectoBac 12AS® applied at maximum label rates to catch basins in Stratford, CT on June 30 and July 28, 2008 significantly reduced numbers of larvae for on...

  16. Time series analyses reveal environmental and fisheries controls on Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) catch rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Time-series models (Dynamic factorial analyses and; Min/max autocorrelation factor analysis) were used to explore the relative influences of environmental variables and fishing pressure of trawl, seine and artisanal fleets on catch rates on Trachurus trachurus in ICES IXa sub-divisions (IXaCN-North coast; IXa- CS-South coast; IXaS-Algarve, South coast, Algarve). Fishing effort influenced catch rates in all areas with a 2 year lag and fishing pressure for each area was related to specific fleet sectors effort. In IXaCN, winter upwelling (spawning peak) and both summer northerly wind and wind magnitude (outside of the spawning peak) were strongly correlated with catch rates. In IXaCS summer/autumn westerly winds were related with catch rates. Northerly winds in spring, upwelling and SST (winter and autumn) were related with catch rates in IXaS-Algarve. For species with a long spawning season such as horse mackerel, seasonal analyses at broad regional scales can detract from a better understanding of variability in short term sub-stock catch rates. Favorable environmental conditions, even during seasons with low spawning activity can positively affect catch rates. Ignoring the role of regional oceanographic features on the spatial distribution of the sub-stocks when analysing variability in catch rates can lead to poor inferences about the productivity of the populations.

  17. Comprehensive Quantification of the Spastic Catch in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Bar-On; Erwin, Aertbelien; Guy, Molenaers; Herman, Bruyninckx; Davide, Monari; Ellen, Jaspers; Anne, Cazaerck; Kaat, Desloovere

    2013-01-01

    In clinical settings, the spastic catch is judged subjectively. This study assessed the psychometric properties of objective parameters that define and quantify the severity of the spastic catch in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A convenience sample of children with spastic CP (N = 46; age range: 4-16 years) underwent objective spasticity…

  18. Catching up: The rise of the Chinese wind turbine industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefevre-Marton, Nicolas

    This thesis argues that Chinese firms can catch up with the technological frontier in the scope of new climate friendly energy technologies and provides a detailed study of the case of wind power. Chapter 2 assesses the nature and extent of wind turbine technology catch-up. Firstly, it uses various wind turbine technology indicators to detail the convergence of trends of leading Chinese firms with firms at the technological frontier. Secondly, the chapter assesses the evolution of technological capabilities among leading Chinese turbine manufacturers. It shows that Chinese firms were progressively introducing turbine technologies similar to those produced by frontier firms and had rapidly improved their capabilities, allowing them to increasingly rely on independent technology development efforts. Chapter 3 describes how the Chinese wind power technology development system, characterized by the presence of a powerful and proactive government, provided the necessary conditions for Chinese wind turbine manufacturers to make rapid technological progress. In particular, it highlights the policies introduced by the government to create a large and rapidly growing wind power market in China and the steps taken by the government to ensure that Chinese firms entered and progressively dominated the domestic turbine manufacturing market. The competition which ensued among domestic turbine manufacturers was arguably the main driver of technology development efforts. The most significant challenge to the continued progress of the industry was whether the Chinese system could transition from a model of technology development based on technology transfer to one based on its own innovation efforts. Chapter 4 shows that due to limited government support over the years in both Europe and the United States, the wind power technology frontier has evolved relatively slowly, making it easier for Chinese firms to catch up. Firstly, using patenting rates as indicators of knowledge

  19. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  20. How the CATCH eat smart program helps implement the USDA regulations in school cafeterias.

    PubMed

    Hoelscher, Deanna M; Mitchell, Paul; Dwyer, Johanna; Elder, John; Clesi, Ann; Snyder, Patricia

    2003-08-01

    This article describes the implementation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National School Lunch Program (NSLP) standards in school lunch menus in 56 intervention and 20 control schools from the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) 5 years after the main trial, compared with 12 schools previously unexposed to CATCH. School food service personnel completed questionnaires to assess CATCH guideline implementation, demographic data, behavioral constructs, training, program material use, and participation in competing programs. Five days of menus and recipes were collected from school cafeteria staff, averaged, and compared to USDA School Meal Initiative (SMI) standards. Significant differences between intervention and unexposed schools were found for training and knowledge of CATCH and in mean percentage energy from fat and carbohydrates. Intervention schools most closely met USDA SMI recommendations for fat. Thus, the CATCH Eat Smart Program assisted school cafeterias in meeting USDA guidelines 5 years postimplementation. PMID:12929895

  1. Spatial and temporal adaptations that accompany increasing catching performance during learning.

    PubMed

    Mazyn, Liesbeth I N; Lenoir, Matthieu; Montagne, Gilles; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2007-11-01

    The authors studied changes in performance and kinematics during the acquisition of a 1-handed catch. Participants were 8 women who took an intensive 2-week training program during which they evolved from poor catchers to subexpert catchers. An increased temporal consistency, shift in spatial location of ball-hand contact away from the body, and higher peak velocity of the transport of the hand toward the ball accompanied their improvement in catching performance. Moreover, novice catchers first adjusted spatial characteristics of the catch to the task constraints and fine-tuned temporal features only later during learning. A principal components analysis on a large set of kinematic variables indicated that a successful catch depends on (a) forward displacement of the hand and (b) the dynamics of the hand closure, thereby providing a kinematic underpinning for the traditional transport-manipulation dissociation in the grasping and catching literature.

  2. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  3. Egocentric and allocentric reference frames for catching a falling object.

    PubMed

    Le Séac'h, Anne Brec'hed; Senot, Patrice; McIntyre, Joseph

    2010-04-01

    When programming movement, one must account for gravitational acceleration. This is particularly important when catching a falling object because the task requires a precise estimate of time-to-contact. Knowledge of gravity's effects is intimately linked to our definition of 'up' and 'down'. Both directions can be described in an allocentric reference frame, based on visual and/or gravitational cues, or in an egocentric reference frame in which the body axis is taken as vertical. To test which frame humans use to predict gravity's effect, we asked participants to intercept virtual balls approaching from above or below with artificially controlled acceleration that could be congruent or not with gravity. To dissociate between these frames, subjects were seated upright (trunk parallel to gravity) or lying down (body axis orthogonal to the gravitational axis). We report data in line with the use of an allocentric reference frame and discuss its relevance depending on available gravity-related cues. PMID:20024651

  4. Wireless ultrasound pitch-catch sensor powered by microwave energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedi, Farshad; Yao, Jun; Huang, Haiying

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a compact, batteryless wireless ultrasound pitch-catch system that wirelessly transmits the excitation signals to the actuator installed on the structure, and acquires the ultrasound sensing signal from the wireless sensor. The principle of frequency conversion is used to transform the ultrasound signals to microwave signals so that it can be wirelessly transmitted without digitization. As such, the power hungry digital-to-analog data conversion at the wireless actuator is eliminated. The wireless sensor node is equipped with a low power amplifier, which can be powered continuously by a microwave energy harvester. In addition, compact microstrip patch antennas are implemented for wireless transmissions, which help to achieve a compact interrogation unit.

  5. Stereo vision enhances the learning of a catching skill.

    PubMed

    Mazyn, Liesbeth I N; Lenoir, Matthieu; Montagne, Gilles; Delaey, Christophe; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereo vision to the acquisition of a natural interception task. Poor catchers with good (N = 8; Stereo+) and weak (N = 6; Stereo-) stereo vision participated in an intensive training program spread over 2 weeks, during which they caught over 1,400 tennis balls in a pre-post-retention design. While the Stereo+ group improved from a catching percentage of 18% to 59%, catchers in the Stereo- group did not significantly improve (from 10 to 31%), this progress being indifferent from a control group (N = 9) that did not practice at all. These results indicate that the development and use of of compensatory cues for depth perception in people with weak stereopsis is insufficient to successfully deal with interceptions under high temporal constraints, and that this disadvantage cannot be fully attenuated by specific and intensive training. PMID:17487478

  6. Noncovalent catch and release of carboxylates in water.

    PubMed

    Beck, Christie L; Winter, Arthur H

    2014-04-01

    Association constants of a bis-(acetylguanidinium)ferrocene dication to various (di)carboxylates were determined through UV-vis titrations. Association constant values greater than 10(4) M(-1) were determined for both phthalate and maleate carboxylates to the bis-(acetylguanidinium)ferrocene salt in pure water. Density functional theory computations of the binding enthalpy of the rigid carboxylates for these complexes agree well with the experimentally determined association constants. Catch and release competitive binding experiments were done by NMR for the cation-carboxylate ion-pair complexes with cucurbit[7]uril, and they show dissociation of the ion-pair complex upon addition of cucurbit[7]uril and release of the free (di)carboxylate.

  7. Stereo vision enhances the learning of a catching skill.

    PubMed

    Mazyn, Liesbeth I N; Lenoir, Matthieu; Montagne, Gilles; Delaey, Christophe; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereo vision to the acquisition of a natural interception task. Poor catchers with good (N = 8; Stereo+) and weak (N = 6; Stereo-) stereo vision participated in an intensive training program spread over 2 weeks, during which they caught over 1,400 tennis balls in a pre-post-retention design. While the Stereo+ group improved from a catching percentage of 18% to 59%, catchers in the Stereo- group did not significantly improve (from 10 to 31%), this progress being indifferent from a control group (N = 9) that did not practice at all. These results indicate that the development and use of of compensatory cues for depth perception in people with weak stereopsis is insufficient to successfully deal with interceptions under high temporal constraints, and that this disadvantage cannot be fully attenuated by specific and intensive training.

  8. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(17)-1 - Remuneration for services performed on a boat engaged in catching fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... engaged in catching fish. 31.3401(a)(17)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(17)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Remuneration for services performed on a boat engaged in catching fish. (a) Remuneration for services performed on or after December 31, 1954, by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms...

  9. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(17)-1 - Remuneration for services performed on a boat engaged in catching fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... engaged in catching fish. 31.3401(a)(17)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(17)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Remuneration for services performed on a boat engaged in catching fish. (a) Remuneration for services performed on or after December 31, 1954, by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(17)-1 - Remuneration for services performed on a boat engaged in catching fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... engaged in catching fish. 31.3401(a)(17)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(17)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Remuneration for services performed on a boat engaged in catching fish. (a) Remuneration for services performed on or after December 31, 1954, by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(17)-1 - Remuneration for services performed on a boat engaged in catching fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... engaged in catching fish. 31.3401(a)(17)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(17)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Remuneration for services performed on a boat engaged in catching fish. (a) Remuneration for services performed on or after December 31, 1954, by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms...

  12. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(17)-1 - Remuneration for services performed on a boat engaged in catching fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... engaged in catching fish. 31.3401(a)(17)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(17)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Remuneration for services performed on a boat engaged in catching fish. (a) Remuneration for services performed on or after December 31, 1954, by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms...

  13. 76 FR 55343 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Extension of Public Comment Period on Proposed Rule for a Catch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... published regulations at 76 FR 44156, that would implement a catch sharing plan for the guided sport and... Fisheries; Extension of Public Comment Period on Proposed Rule for a Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and... implement a catch sharing plan for the guided sport and commercial fisheries for Pacific halibut in...

  14. 50 CFR 300.209 - Alternative procedures for nations identified as having vessels engaged in shark catch that are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... identified as having vessels engaged in shark catch that are not certified in this subpart. 300.209 Section... identified as having vessels engaged in shark catch that are not certified in this subpart. (a) These... not target or incidentally catch sharks, or were harvested by practices that— (1) Are comparable...

  15. 50 CFR 300.204 - Identification and certification of nations whose vessels are engaged in shark catch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... nations whose vessels are engaged in shark catch. 300.204 Section 300.204 Wildlife and Fisheries... shark catch. (a) Procedures to identify nations if fishing vessels of that nation are engaged in fishing activities or practices in waters beyond any national jurisdiction that target or incidentally catch...

  16. 50 CFR 300.204 - Identification and certification of nations whose vessels are engaged in shark catch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... nations whose vessels are engaged in shark catch. 300.204 Section 300.204 Wildlife and Fisheries... shark catch. (a) Procedures to identify nations if fishing vessels of that nation are engaged in fishing activities or practices in waters beyond any national jurisdiction that target or incidentally catch...

  17. 50 CFR 300.209 - Alternative procedures for nations identified as having vessels engaged in shark catch that are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... identified as having vessels engaged in shark catch that are not certified in this subpart. 300.209 Section... identified as having vessels engaged in shark catch that are not certified in this subpart. (a) These... not target or incidentally catch sharks, or were harvested by practices that— (1) Are comparable...

  18. 78 FR 62331 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-Annual Catch Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-17

    ... herring catch will reach 92 percent of the sub-ACL allocated in any of the four management areas... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-Annual Catch Limit (ACL) Harvested for Management... fishery in management area 1A, because it projects that 92 percent of the catch limit for that area...

  19. 78 FR 39121 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... Parts 300 and 679 Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial... 300 and 679 RIN 0648-BA37 Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and... proposes regulations that would implement a catch sharing plan for the guided sport (charter)...

  20. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  1. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  2. Is Early Puberty Triggered by Catch-Up Growth Following Undernutrition?

    PubMed Central

    Proos, Lemm; Gustafsson, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Undernutrition during fetal and postnatal life is still a major problem in many low- and middle-income countries. Even in high-income countries malnutrition may exist in cases of intrauterine growth retardation, as well as in chronic conditions such as anorexia nervosa and inflammatory bowel disease. Children adopted from developing countries are often chronically malnourished. Nutritional rehabilitation, resulting in catch-up growth, is often complicated by influences originating in fetal life as well as during postnatal growth. This may result in hormonal and metabolic changes as well as alterations in pubertal development. The present review focuses on fetal, postnatal and fetal-postnatal undernutrition and subsequent catch-up growth as well as catch-up growth in relation to pubertal development. Catch-up growth in children can be associated with early puberty following fetal or combined fetal-postnatal undernutrition. However, early puberty does not seem to occur following catch-up growth after isolated postnatal undernutrition. Gonadotropins have been reported to be elevated in prepubertal adopted girls as well as during catch-up growth in animals. Even if other factors may contribute, linear catch-up growth seems to be associated with the timing of pubertal development. The mechanisms behind this are still unknown. Future research may elucidate how to carry out nutritional rehabilitation without risk for early pubertal development. PMID:22754473

  3. Children's one-hand catching as a function of age, gender, and ball location.

    PubMed

    Fischman, M G; Moore, J B; Steele, K H

    1992-12-01

    A sizable body of literature exists on the product characteristics and developmental sequence for two-hand catching, but to date there is no description of the developmental characteristics of simple one-hand catching in young children. This study investigated the influence of age, gender, and ball location on children's one-hand catching. Boys and girls (N = 240) ranging in age from 5 to 12 years attempted to catch a total of 24 tennis balls, tossed from a 9-ft distance. Tosses were directed to four locations: (a) Waist, (b) Shoulder, (c) Above-the-Head, and (d) Out-to-the-Side. Descriptive data consisted of the percentage of successful catches at each ball location, and the hand-arm orientation selected by the child as a function of ball location. Results revealed that catching performance improved with age, boys caught more balls than girls, ball location influenced catching success, and, in general, the location of the toss constrained the child's selection of an appropriate hand-arm orientation. With the possible exception of the Shoulder location for girls, even very young children are sensitive to the perceptual aspects of the toss and respond with an appropriate orientation. PMID:1439158

  4. Evaluation of nontarget effects of methoprene applied to catch basins for mosquito control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, Mari; Ginsberg, Howard S.; LeBrun, Roger A.; Gettman, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The mosquito larvicide methoprene is a juvenile growth hormone mimic that is widely used to control mosquito larvae in stormwater catch basins. This study addresses two concerns pertaining to methoprene's use for mosquito control. First, measurements of methoprene concentrations were made from water in catch basins that had been treated with methoprene and from an adjoining salt pond near where the treated catch basins emptied. The concentrations of methoprene in catch basins and at drainage outlets after application at the rates currently used for mosquito control in southern Rhode Island were 0.5 ppb and lower, orders of magnitude below what has been determined as detrimental to organisms other than mosquitoes. Second, the effects of methoprene on the communities that live in catch basins were evaluated both in simulated catch basins in the laboratory and in actual catch basins in the field. We found no evidence of declines in abundances of any taxa attributable to the application. Furthermore, we found no consistent changes in community-level parameters (e.g., taxonomic richness, and dominance-diversity relationships) related to methoprene application in either field or laboratory trials.

  5. Evaluation of nontarget effects of methoprene applied to catch basins for mosquito control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, M.; Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.; Gettman, A.

    2010-01-01

    The mosquito larvicide methoprene is a juvenile growth hormone mimic that is widely used to control mosquito larvae in stormwater catch basins. This study addresses two concerns pertaining to methoprene's use for mosquito control. First, measurements of methoprene concentrations were made from water in catch basins that had been treated with methoprene and from an adjoining salt pond near where the treated catch basins emptied. The concentrations of methoprene in catch basins and at drainage outlets after application at the rates currently used for mosquito control in southern Rhode Island were 0.5 ppb and lower, orders of magnitude below what has been determined as detrimental to organisms other than mosquitoes. Second, the effects of methoprene on the communities that live in catch basins were evaluated both in simulated catch basins in the laboratory and in actual catch basins in the field. We found no evidence of declines in abundances of any taxa attributable to the application. Furthermore, we found no consistent changes in community-level parameters (e.g., taxonomic richness, and dominance-diversity relationships) related to methoprene application in either field or laboratory trials. ?? 2010 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  6. Effects of fly abundance on catch index of traps for Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Diptera: Glossinidae).

    PubMed

    Muhigwa, J B; Saini, R K; Hassanali, A

    1998-03-01

    The effect of fly abundance on the catch index of traps and that of rain as a source of variation in fly abundance were investigated for Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Newstead around Lake Victoria, western Kenya, using odor-baited and color-improved traps. There was a significant inverse relationship between the catch index of experimental traps and abundance of flies; the catch index being the ratio of catch in the experimental trap per catch in a reference trap. At low tsetse abundance (< 10 flies per trap per day) there was a 3-fold increase of the catch of females in the experimental trap compared with the control. Rainfall alone explained 22-87% of the total variation of fly abundance. It is suggested that fly abundance should be considered in evaluating baits for G. f. fuscipes or when using traps for monitoring. The relative depression of the catch index at high abundance may be related to avoidance of conspecifics. Flies entered standard traps in an inverse proportion to the number observed at the trap. Females approached traps in greater numbers when fewer decoys (dead flies) were placed on traps.

  7. Freeze-thaw effects on phosphorus loss in runoff from manured and catch-cropped soils.

    PubMed

    Bechmann, Marianne E; Kleinman, Peter J A; Sharpley, Andrew N; Saporito, Lou S

    2005-01-01

    Concern over nonpoint source P losses from agricultural lands to surface waters in frigid climates has focused attention on the role of freezing and thawing on P loss from catch crops (cover crops). This study evaluated the effect of freezing and thawing on the fate of P in bare soils, soils mixed with dairy manure, and soils with an established catch crop of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.). Experiments were conducted to evaluate changes in P runoff from packed soil boxes (100 by 20 by 5 cm) and P leaching from intact soil columns (30 cm deep). Before freezing and thawing, total P (TP) in runoff from catch-cropped soils was lower than from manured and bare soils due to lower erosion. Repeated freezing and thawing significantly increased water-extractable P (WEP) from catch crop biomass and resulted in significantly elevated concentrations of dissolved P in runoff (9.7 mg L(-1)) compared with manured (0.18 mg L(-1)) and bare soils (0.14 mg L(-1)). Catch crop WEP was strongly correlated with the number of freeze-thaw cycles. Freezing and thawing did not change the WEP of soils mixed with manures, nor were differences observed in subsurface losses of P between catch-cropped and bare soils before or after manure application. This study illustrates the trade-offs of establishing catch crops in frigid climates, which can enhance P uptake by biomass and reduce erosion potential but increase dissolved P runoff.

  8. Children's one-hand catching as a function of age, gender, and ball location.

    PubMed

    Fischman, M G; Moore, J B; Steele, K H

    1992-12-01

    A sizable body of literature exists on the product characteristics and developmental sequence for two-hand catching, but to date there is no description of the developmental characteristics of simple one-hand catching in young children. This study investigated the influence of age, gender, and ball location on children's one-hand catching. Boys and girls (N = 240) ranging in age from 5 to 12 years attempted to catch a total of 24 tennis balls, tossed from a 9-ft distance. Tosses were directed to four locations: (a) Waist, (b) Shoulder, (c) Above-the-Head, and (d) Out-to-the-Side. Descriptive data consisted of the percentage of successful catches at each ball location, and the hand-arm orientation selected by the child as a function of ball location. Results revealed that catching performance improved with age, boys caught more balls than girls, ball location influenced catching success, and, in general, the location of the toss constrained the child's selection of an appropriate hand-arm orientation. With the possible exception of the Shoulder location for girls, even very young children are sensitive to the perceptual aspects of the toss and respond with an appropriate orientation.

  9. Effects of cricket ball colour and illuminance levels on catching behaviour in professional cricketers.

    PubMed

    Scott, K; Kingsbury, D; Bennett, S; Davids, K; Langley, M

    2000-10-01

    In recent years there have been many alterations to equipment and technology in professional cricket, including the introduction of white balls during day-night matches. In the present study simulated slip-catching performance and movement initiation time were examined in professional cricketers when ball colour and illuminance levels differed. Five male professional cricketers (mean age: 27.3 +/- 1.4 years) volunteered to catch a total of 60 cricket balls, 20 (10 red and 10 white) under each of three illuminance levels (571, 1143 and 1714 lux). Balls were projected from a ball machine at 20 m s(-1) (45 mph) over a distance of 8.4 m, to the subject's dominant side. Catching performance was measured using an established catching scale. Movement initiation times for each hand were also calculated for each trial using a motion-analysis system. Data were submitted to separate two-way (ball colour [2] x illuminance level [3]) repeated measures analysis of variance. No significant effects were obtained for ball colour or illuminance levels for either catching performance or movement initiation time. Neither ball colour nor light level (within the range tested) affected slip-catching performance and movement initiation times in professional cricketers. Therefore it was concluded that the changes made to ball colour and light conditions in professional cricket were not detrimental to catching performance.

  10. Catch-up growth after dexamethasone withdrawal occurs in cultured postnatal rat metatarsal bones.

    PubMed

    Chagin, Andrei S; Karimian, Elham; Sundström, Katja; Eriksson, Emma; Sävendahl, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Children exposed to systemic glucocorticoids often exhibit growth retardation and after the cessation of therapy catch-up growth occurs in many, but not all patients. The developmental regulation and underlying cellular mechanisms of catch-up growth are not fully understood. To clarify this issue, we established an in vitro model of catch-up growth. Here we present a protocol for the long-term culture (up to 160 days) of fetal (E20) as well as postnatal (P8) rat metatarsal bones which allowed us to characterize ex vivo the phenomenon of catch-up growth without any influence by systemic factors. The relevance of the model was confirmed by the demonstration that the growth of fetal and postnatal bones were stimulated by IGF1 (100 ng/ml) and inhibited by dexamethasone (Dexa; 1 microM). We found that the capacity to undergo catch-up growth was restricted to postnatal bones. Catch-up growth occurred after postnatal bones had been exposed to Dexa for 7 or 12 days but not after a more prolonged exposure (19 days). Incomplete catch-up growth resulted in compromised bone length when assessed at the end of the 4-month period of culture. While exposure to Dexa was associated with decreased chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, catch-up growth was only associated with increased cell proliferation. We conclude that the phenomenon of catch-up growth after Dexa treatment is intrinsic to the growth plate and primarily mediated by an upregulation of chondrocyte proliferation.

  11. Planning and on-line control of catching as a function of perceptual-motor constraints.

    PubMed

    Mazyn, Liesbeth I N; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; Montagne, Gilles; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2007-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted in order to investigate the adaptability and associated strategies of the human perceptuo-motor system to deal with changing constraints. In a catching task, perceptual-motor constraints were internally controlled by coupling movement onset of the catch and the illumination circuit in the lab: upon the first movement of the catcher, all lights went out within 3 ms. The authors studied (a) how much movement time catchers prefer if no visual information is available after movement onset, and (b) how movement execution changes under such temporal constraints. It was hypothesised that, in order to accomplish successful catching behaviour, (1) movement initiation would be postponed in order to allow sufficient information uptake before the lights went out, and (2) an alternative control strategy would have to be mobilised, since on-line control becomes inappropriate when catching in the dark. In the first experiment, the adaptation process to the light-dark paradigm was investigated. In the second experiment, the conclusions from experiment 1 were challenged under varying ball speeds. In order to maintain catching performance, subjects initiated the catch approximately 280 ms before ball-hand contact. Next to changes in temporal structure of the catch and subtle kinematic adaptations, evidence for a change in the control mode emerged: while an on-line control strategy was adopted under normal illumination, catching movements seemed to be executed as planned in advance when catching in the dark. Additionally, perceptual constraints seem to determine the time of movement initiation, rather than motor constraints. These results emphasize the capability of the human perceptuo-motor system to adjust promptly to new task constraints.

  12. A sampling device for the fauna of storm water catch basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, M.; Casagrande, R.; LeBrun, R.; Ginsberg, H.; Gettman, A.

    2007-01-01

    Storm water drainage catch basins provide habitat to a variety of different aquatic organisms including arthropods, molluscs and annelid worms. Arthropods such as mosquitoes are known to use these environments as larval habitat. Because of health concerns, catch basins are often targeted for mosquito control exposing all inhabitants to pesticides such as methoprene or BTI. In this paper we describe a sampler that we used to evaluate catch basin communities in southern Rhode Island over a six month period. We also examine its efficacy and consistency. We found that the sampler effectively estimated organism abundances.

  13. Catching the therapeutic window of opportunity in early Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Danese, Silvio; Fiorino, Gionata; Fernandes, Carlos; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laureal

    2014-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, disabling, progressive and destructive disease. The general goal of conventional step-up strategy in CD treatment is to treat and control symptoms. This strategy did not change the disease course and is now being replaced with a treat-to-target approach. Achieving deep remission (clinical remission and absence of mucosal ulcerations) is the target in CD in 2014. Inducing and maintaining deep remission is needed to prevent long-term outcomes such as bowel damage and disability in CD. Diagnostic delay is a common issue in CD and is associated with an increased risk of bowel damage over time. Identification of poor prognostic factors, risk stratification together with the development of "red flags" may result in early intervention with disease-modifying agents such as anti-TNF agents with the final aim of preventing overtreatment and avoiding undertreatment. Similar to rheumatoid arthritis, by catching the therapeutic window of opportunity in early CD and achieving deep remission, this could be the best way to change disease course (hospitalizations, surgeries, bowel damage, and disability) and patients' life.

  14. Will a catch share for whales improve social welfare?

    PubMed

    Smith, Martin D; Asche, Frank; Bennear, Lori S; Havice, Elizabeth; Read, Andrew J; Squires, Dale

    2014-01-01

    We critique a proposal to use catch shares to manage transboundary wildlife resources with potentially high non-extractive values, and we focus on the case of whales. Because whales are impure public goods, a policy that fails to capture all nonmarket benefits (due to free riding) could lead to a suboptimal outcome. Even if free riding were overcome, whale shares would face four implementation challenges. First, a whale share could legitimize the international trade in whale meat and expand the whale meat market. Second, a legal whale trade creates monitoring and enforcement challenges similar to those of organizations that manage highly migratory species such as tuna. Third, a whale share could create a new political economy of management that changes incentives and increases costs for nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to achieve the current level of conservation. Fourth, a whale share program creates new logistical challenges for quota definition and allocation regardless of whether the market for whale products expands or contracts. Each of these issues, if left unaddressed, could result in lower overall welfare for society than under the status quo. PMID:24640530

  15. Will a catch share for whales improve social welfare?

    PubMed

    Smith, Martin D; Asche, Frank; Bennear, Lori S; Havice, Elizabeth; Read, Andrew J; Squires, Dale

    2014-01-01

    We critique a proposal to use catch shares to manage transboundary wildlife resources with potentially high non-extractive values, and we focus on the case of whales. Because whales are impure public goods, a policy that fails to capture all nonmarket benefits (due to free riding) could lead to a suboptimal outcome. Even if free riding were overcome, whale shares would face four implementation challenges. First, a whale share could legitimize the international trade in whale meat and expand the whale meat market. Second, a legal whale trade creates monitoring and enforcement challenges similar to those of organizations that manage highly migratory species such as tuna. Third, a whale share could create a new political economy of management that changes incentives and increases costs for nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to achieve the current level of conservation. Fourth, a whale share program creates new logistical challenges for quota definition and allocation regardless of whether the market for whale products expands or contracts. Each of these issues, if left unaddressed, could result in lower overall welfare for society than under the status quo.

  16. Root growth and nitrate-nitrogen leaching of catch crops following spring wheat.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Juan M; Feil, Boy; Stamp, Peter; Liedgens, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Growing nitrogen (N) catch crops can reduce NO(3)-N leaching after cultivating cereals. The objective of this study was to relate NO(3)-N leaching to variation in the uptake of N and the size and distribution of the root systems of different catch crops species. In a 3-yr lysimeter experiment, phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and a Brassica species (yellow mustard [Brassica alba L.] or a hybrid of turnip rape [B. rapa L. spp. oleifera (DC.) Metzg.] and Chinese cabbage [B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Hanelt]) were grown after the harvest of spring wheat under two levels of N supply. Bare soil lysimeters served as the control. Water percolation from the lysimeters and the NO(3)(-) concentration in the leachate were measured weekly from the sowing until the presumed frost-kill of the catch crops. Minirhizotrons were used to assess the spatial and temporal patterns of root growth from 0.10 to 1.00 m. The catch crop species differed in their shoot biomass, N uptake, total NO(3)-N leaching, and root growth. The results suggested that there was no strict relationship between the total NO(3)-N leaching of each catch crop species and the N uptake or parameters that indicate static characteristics of the root system. In contrast, the ranking of each catch crop species by parameters that indicate early root growth was inversely related to the ranking of each catch crop species in NO(3)-N leaching. The rapid establishment of the root system is essential for a catch crop following spring wheat to reduce the amount of NO(3)-N leaching after the harvest of spring wheat.

  17. Combining telephone surveys and fishing catches self-report: the French sea bass recreational fishery assessment.

    PubMed

    Rocklin, Delphine; Levrel, Harold; Drogou, Mickaël; Herfaut, Johanna; Veron, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish) were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools.

  18. Combining Telephone Surveys and Fishing Catches Self-Report: The French Sea Bass Recreational Fishery Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Rocklin, Delphine; Levrel, Harold; Drogou, Mickaël; Herfaut, Johanna; Veron, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish) were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools. PMID:24489885

  19. Root growth and nitrate-nitrogen leaching of catch crops following spring wheat.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Juan M; Feil, Boy; Stamp, Peter; Liedgens, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Growing nitrogen (N) catch crops can reduce NO(3)-N leaching after cultivating cereals. The objective of this study was to relate NO(3)-N leaching to variation in the uptake of N and the size and distribution of the root systems of different catch crops species. In a 3-yr lysimeter experiment, phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and a Brassica species (yellow mustard [Brassica alba L.] or a hybrid of turnip rape [B. rapa L. spp. oleifera (DC.) Metzg.] and Chinese cabbage [B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Hanelt]) were grown after the harvest of spring wheat under two levels of N supply. Bare soil lysimeters served as the control. Water percolation from the lysimeters and the NO(3)(-) concentration in the leachate were measured weekly from the sowing until the presumed frost-kill of the catch crops. Minirhizotrons were used to assess the spatial and temporal patterns of root growth from 0.10 to 1.00 m. The catch crop species differed in their shoot biomass, N uptake, total NO(3)-N leaching, and root growth. The results suggested that there was no strict relationship between the total NO(3)-N leaching of each catch crop species and the N uptake or parameters that indicate static characteristics of the root system. In contrast, the ranking of each catch crop species by parameters that indicate early root growth was inversely related to the ranking of each catch crop species in NO(3)-N leaching. The rapid establishment of the root system is essential for a catch crop following spring wheat to reduce the amount of NO(3)-N leaching after the harvest of spring wheat. PMID:20400580

  20. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; McCurdy, David A.

    1992-04-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  1. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  2. Why Do We Keep Catching the Common Cold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Alan L.; Mayor, Heather D.

    1995-01-01

    Describes activities for biology teachers that will stimulate discussions on virus structure, cell biology, rhino viruses, and new trends in treating the common cold. Provides opportunity for inquiry and problem solving in exercises that emphasize an understanding of how common cold viruses might pack inside nasal epithelial cells. (14 references)…

  3. Catch Rates, Composition and Fish Size from Reefs Managed with Periodically-Harvested Closures

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philippa Jane; Alexander, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Periodically-harvested closures are commonly employed within co-management frameworks to help manage small-scale, multi-species fisheries in the Indo-Pacific. Despite their widespread use, the benefits of periodic harvesting strategies for multi-species fisheries have, to date, been largely untested. We examine catch and effort data from four periodically-harvested reef areas and 55 continuously-fished reefs in Solomon Islands. We test the hypothesis that fishing in periodically-harvested closures would yield: (a) higher catch rates, (b) proportionally more short lived, fast growing, sedentary taxa, and (c) larger finfish and invertebrates, compared to catches from reefs continuously open to fishing. Our study showed that catch rates were significantly higher from periodically-harvested closures for gleaning of invertebrates, but not for line and spear fishing. The family level composition of catches did not vary significantly between open reefs and periodically-harvested closures. Fish captured from periodically-harvested closures were slightly larger, but Trochus niloticus were significantly smaller than those from continuously open reefs. In one case of intense and prolonged harvesting, gleaning catch rates significantly declined, suggesting invertebrate stocks were substantially depleted in the early stages of the open period. Our study suggests periodically-harvested closures can have some short term benefits via increasing harvesting efficiency. However, we did not find evidence that the strategy had substantially benefited multi-species fin-fisheries. PMID:24066044

  4. Effect of catch bonding on transport of cellular cargo by dynein motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Anil; Chandel, Sameep; Mitra, Mithun K.; Muhuri, Sudipto; Chaudhuri, Abhishek

    2016-09-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that dynein motors exhibit catch bonding behavior, in which the unbinding rate of a single dynein decreases with increasing force, for a certain range of force. Motivated by these experiments, we study the effect of catch bonding on unidirectional transport properties of cellular cargo carried by multiple dynein motors. We introduce a threshold force bond deformation (TFBD) model, consistent with the experiments, wherein catch bonding sets in beyond a critical applied load force. We find catch bonding can result in dramatic changes in the transport properties, which are in sharp contrast to kinesin-driven unidirectional transport, where catch bonding is absent. We predict that under certain conditions, the average velocity of the cellular cargo can actually increase as applied load is increased. We characterize the transport properties in terms of a velocity profile plot in the parameter space of the catch bond strength and the stall force of the motor. This plot yields predictions that may be experimentally accessed by suitable modifications of motor transport and binding properties.

  5. Catch rates, composition and fish size from reefs managed with periodically-harvested closures.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Philippa Jane; Alexander, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Periodically-harvested closures are commonly employed within co-management frameworks to help manage small-scale, multi-species fisheries in the Indo-Pacific. Despite their widespread use, the benefits of periodic harvesting strategies for multi-species fisheries have, to date, been largely untested. We examine catch and effort data from four periodically-harvested reef areas and 55 continuously-fished reefs in Solomon Islands. We test the hypothesis that fishing in periodically-harvested closures would yield: (a) higher catch rates, (b) proportionally more short lived, fast growing, sedentary taxa, and (c) larger finfish and invertebrates, compared to catches from reefs continuously open to fishing. Our study showed that catch rates were significantly higher from periodically-harvested closures for gleaning of invertebrates, but not for line and spear fishing. The family level composition of catches did not vary significantly between open reefs and periodically-harvested closures. Fish captured from periodically-harvested closures were slightly larger, but Trochus niloticus were significantly smaller than those from continuously open reefs. In one case of intense and prolonged harvesting, gleaning catch rates significantly declined, suggesting invertebrate stocks were substantially depleted in the early stages of the open period. Our study suggests periodically-harvested closures can have some short term benefits via increasing harvesting efficiency. However, we did not find evidence that the strategy had substantially benefited multi-species fin-fisheries. PMID:24066044

  6. Commercial catch rates of the clam Spisula solida reflect local environmental coastal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, V.; Leitão, F.

    2014-02-01

    The effect of environmental variables and fishing pressure (explanatory variables were lagged 1 year) on commercial catch rates of the clam Spisula solida was studied on an annual basis over a 21 year period in three areas off the Portuguese coast (the Northwest, the Southwest and the South) between 1989 and 2009. Each area showed distinct environmental (oceanographic and hydrological) characteristics. Different sensitivities of S. solida fishing grounds to environmental variables were found among the study areas. On the Northwest coast, the combined effect of NAO indices and sea surface temperature had a positive effect on S. solida fisheries, particularly during the spawning season. On the Southwest coast, the variation of S. solida catches was negatively associated with wind magnitude and positively related with South-Southeast winds. Winter river discharges and summer sea surface temperature negatively affected S. solida catches on the South coast. Fishing effort also affected S. solida catch rates in the South. However, “extreme” changes in environmental conditions were the main drivers of short-term variations in catch rates. These results indicate that variations of S. solida catches strongly reflect a regional signature of local climatic features off the coast. Information on local environmental conditions should therefore be used for the purpose of identifying management actions to ensure long-term sustainability of S. solida fisheries.

  7. Entropic-elasticity-controlled dissociation and energetic-elasticity-controlled rupture induce catch-to-slip bonds in cell-adhesion molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yujie

    2008-03-01

    We develop a physical model to describe the kinetic behavior in cell-adhesion molecules. Unbinding of noncovalent biological bonds is assumed to occur by both bond dissociation and bond rupture. Such a decomposition of debonding processes is a space decomposition of the debonding events. Dissociation under thermal fluctuation is nondirectional in a three-dimensional space, and its energy barrier to escape is not influenced by a tensile force, but the microstates that could lead to dissociation are changed by the tensile force; rupture happens along the tensile force direction. An applied force effectively lowers the energy barrier to escape along the loading direction. The lifetime of the biological bond, due to the two concurrent off rates, may grow with increasing tensile force to a moderate amount and then decrease with further increasing load. We hypothesize that a catch-to-slip bond transition is a generic feature in biological bonds. The model also predicts that catch bonds in a more flexible molecular structure have longer lifetimes and need less force to be fully activated.

  8. [Effect of environmental factors and fishing effort allocation on catch of the Spotted Eagle Ray Aetobatus narinari (Rajiformes: Myliobatidae) in Southern Gulf of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Elizabeth; Pérez, Juan Carlos; Méndez, Iván

    2013-09-01

    Aetobatus narinari represents a fisheries target in Southern Gulf of Mexico, and it is currently considered a Near Threatened species by the IUCN red list. The information available of this batoid fish includes some biological and fishery aspects; nevertheless, little is known about the factors influencing on fishing operations and catches. In order to evaluate the effect of environmental factors and the fishing effort allocation by vessels on the target fishery of A. narinari in this area, a daily basis sampling was carried out on four small-scale vessels, from January to July 2009 (the entire fishing season), in two fishing localities (Campeche and Seybaplaya). A total of 896 rays were recorded from 280 fishing trips. A General Linear Model was used to predict the factors effect on the probability that fishing operations occurred, and on the probability for captures of at least one or three or five rays per vessel-trip. The probability that fishing operations occurred off Campeche was predicted by the lunar cycle, with the highest probability in the new moon period (66%) and a probability smaller than 35% for the other periods. The probability that fishing operations occurred off Seybaplaya was predicted by wind velocity, with higher probabilities at low wind velocity than at high wind velocity, and a 50% probability of fishing operations at 12-15 km/h. Catch rates off Seybaplaya were predicted by the vessel's factor (the effect of fishing effort allocation), the North wind season and sea surface temperature. The probability for captures of at least one and three rays per vessel-trip was predicted by the vessel's factor and the North wind season. One vessel had higher catch probability (83% for at least one ray and 43% for at least three rays) than the others (69 and 70% for at least one ray and 26% for at least three rays), and during the North wind season the catch probability was higher (96% for at least one ray and 72% for at least three rays) than out of

  9. Catching the Light - The Entwined History of Light and Mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajonc, Arthur

    1995-04-01

    In 1910, the surgeons Moreau and LePrince wrote about their successful operation on an eight-year-old boy who had been blind since birth because of cataracts. When the boy's eyes were healed they removed the bandages and, waving a hand in front of the child's physically perfect eyes, asked him what he saw. "I don't know," was his only reply. What he saw was only a varying brightness in front of him. However, when allowed to touch the hand as it began to move, he cried out in a voice of triumph, "It's moving!" He could feel it move, but he still needed laboriously to learn to see it move. Light and eyes were not enough to grant him sight. How, then, do we see? What's the difference between seeing and perception? What is light? From ancient times to the present, from philosophers to quantum physicists, nothing has so perplexed, so fascinated, so captivated the mind as the elusive definition of light. In Catching the Light , Arthur Zajonc takes us on an epic journey into history, tracing how humans have endeavored to understand the phenomenon of light. Blending mythology, religion, science, literature, and painting, Zajonc reveals in poetic detail the human struggle to identify the vital connection between the outer light of nature and the inner light of the human spirit. He explains the curiousness of the Greeks' blue and green "color blindness": Odysseus gazing longingly at the "wine-dark sea"; the use of chloros (green) as the color of honey in Homer's Odessey ; and Euripides' use of the color green to describe the hue of tears and blood. He demonstrates the complexity of perception through the work of Paul Cézanne--the artist standing on the bank of a river, painting the same scene over and over again, the motifs multiplying before his eyes. And Zajonc goes on to show how our quest for an understanding of light, as well as the conclusions we draw, reveals as much about the nature of our own psyche as it does about the nature of light itself. For the ancient

  10. Community implementation outcomes of Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up.

    PubMed

    Caron, E B; Weston-Lee, Patria; Haggerty, Danielle; Dozier, Mary

    2016-03-01

    Bringing evidence-based treatments to community practice is a critical challenge for the field. When implemented in the community, evidence-based treatments often fail to provide the benefits shown in laboratory settings. Therefore, when evidence-based treatments are transported to the community, it is essential to investigate implementation process and outcomes. The present study assessed whether Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC), an intervention for high-risk parents that has been shown to be efficacious in randomized clinical trials (RCTs), changed parent behavior in a community-based setting. This study examined data collected from 78 cases by 9 parent coaches in a diverse community setting in Hawaii, and compared data to benchmarks from RCTs. Parent coach fidelity was coded from intervention session video clips, and was also compared with benchmarks. Caregivers participating in ABC were primarily birth parents, and most were referred through Child Protective Services involvement or for reasons of harsh parenting or neglect. Parental behavior was assessed before and after intervention using a semi-structured play task. Increases in parental following the lead and delight, and decreases in parental intrusiveness, were observed; these changes were comparable to effect sizes observed in RCTs. Intent to treat analyses were conducted using behavioral data from videotaped sessions, and suggested that ABC also improved following the lead in parents who subsequently dropped out of treatment. These results support the viability of ABC for enhancing parenting behavior among parents at high risk for maltreatment, and demonstrate that parent coaches in community agencies can successfully implement ABC.

  11. Community implementation outcomes of Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up.

    PubMed

    Caron, E B; Weston-Lee, Patria; Haggerty, Danielle; Dozier, Mary

    2016-03-01

    Bringing evidence-based treatments to community practice is a critical challenge for the field. When implemented in the community, evidence-based treatments often fail to provide the benefits shown in laboratory settings. Therefore, when evidence-based treatments are transported to the community, it is essential to investigate implementation process and outcomes. The present study assessed whether Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC), an intervention for high-risk parents that has been shown to be efficacious in randomized clinical trials (RCTs), changed parent behavior in a community-based setting. This study examined data collected from 78 cases by 9 parent coaches in a diverse community setting in Hawaii, and compared data to benchmarks from RCTs. Parent coach fidelity was coded from intervention session video clips, and was also compared with benchmarks. Caregivers participating in ABC were primarily birth parents, and most were referred through Child Protective Services involvement or for reasons of harsh parenting or neglect. Parental behavior was assessed before and after intervention using a semi-structured play task. Increases in parental following the lead and delight, and decreases in parental intrusiveness, were observed; these changes were comparable to effect sizes observed in RCTs. Intent to treat analyses were conducted using behavioral data from videotaped sessions, and suggested that ABC also improved following the lead in parents who subsequently dropped out of treatment. These results support the viability of ABC for enhancing parenting behavior among parents at high risk for maltreatment, and demonstrate that parent coaches in community agencies can successfully implement ABC. PMID:26746112

  12. Cortical asymmetry: catching an object in free fall.

    PubMed

    Velasques, Bruna; Machado, Sergio; Portella, Cláudio Elidio; Silva, Julio Guilherme; Terra, Patrícia; Ferreira, Camila; Basile, Luis; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2007-09-01

    The main goal of the present study was to analyze theta asymmetry through quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) when individuals were exposed to a sequential motor task, i.e. catching a ball. The sample was composed of 23 healthy subjects, male and female, between 25 and 40 years of age. A two-way factor Anova was applied to compare pre and post moments related to the balls' drop and scalp regions (i.e., frontal and parieto-occipital cortices). The first analysis of the frontal region compared electrodes in the left, right and left/right hemispheres combined, with the frontal midline electrode (FZ) included in the analysis. The results showed moment and region main effects. The second analysis compared left versus right hemisphere without the FZ site. The findings demonstrated an interaction effect between moment and region. The first parieto-occipital analysis, comparing left, right and central regions, with PZ included in all regions, showed main effects of moment and region. The second analysis, comparing left, right (without Pz) and central regions strictly demonstrated a region main effect. Thus, we observed an asymmetric pattern in the frontal cortex (i.e., planning and response selection) when the subjects were waiting for the balls' drop. Moreover, the left hemisphere seems to engage differently from the other regions when the central nervous system needs to prepare for a motor action. On the other hand, the parieto-occipital cortex, which is related to attentive processes, demonstrated a more asymmetric activity towards the right region which implies a participation of this area in cognitive strategies in this particular task. Taken together, we concluded that the adopted experimental approach can be useful to explore several others directions combining sensorimotor integration tasks with different pathologies, such as depression, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  13. Conceptual Ecology of Evolution Acceptance among Greek Education Students: The Contribution of Knowledge Increase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Katakos, Efstratios; Papadopoulou, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored the factors related to acceptance of evolutionary theory among students/preservice preschool education teachers using conceptual ecology for biological evolution as a theoretical frame. We aimed to examine the acceptance and understanding of evolutionary theory and also the relationship of acceptance and understanding of…

  14. Atomic-level Snapshot Catches Protein Motor in Action

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Using a state-of-the-art protein crystallography beamline at Berkeley Labs Advanced Light Source, researchers have captured a critical action shapshot of an enzyme that is vital to the survival of all biological cells.

  15. Reliability of the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) Instrument with University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Michael L.; Sadler, Kim C.

    2007-01-01

    The Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) instrument was initially designed to assess high school biology teachers' acceptance of evolutionary theory. To determine if the MATE instrument is reliable with university students, it was administered to students in a non-majors biology course (n = 61) twice over a 3-week period.…

  16. Influence of two catching methods on the occurrence of lesions in broilers.

    PubMed

    Langkabel, Nina; Baumann, Maximilian P O; Feiler, Annika; Sanguankiat, Arsooth; Fries, Reinhard

    2015-08-01

    During the catching of broilers for slaughter, 2 to 3 birds are grabbed per hand at one leg at the same time. From an animal welfare point of view, this procedure is under critical observation from animal welfare administration and the general public.In this paper 2 catching methods were compared: the routinely used 1-leg catching method, and a second tech-nique whereby birds were grabbed by both legs with a maximum of 2 birds per hand (2-leg catching method). Lesions on the body, legs, and wings (hemorrhages and fractures) were recorded by a camera system located after the plucking position. Two weight classes, 2 catching teams, and 2 flocks were included in the study.Heavy animals showed more lesions than birds of the light weight class. In all investigations, lesions on the body and legs were rare, whereas wing lesions occurred at a rate of up to 15.32%. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the 2 methods or between the catching teams for both weight classes. A correlation between lesions and weight was observed, with a significant odds ratio ( OR: ) of 3.6 (95% CI: 3.299-3.957).During 2-leg catching, the animals appeared to be more restless. Workers stated that the grabbing of both legs of a bird was more difficult and that working in a crouching position for a longer time was harder.We conclude that the cautious handling of animals to reduce stress is more important than "holding animals by both legs", as has been proposed. PMID:26089477

  17. Getting to Darwin: Obstacles to Accepting Evolution by Natural Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thagard, Paul; Findlay, Scott

    2010-06-01

    Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection is central to modern biology, but is resisted by many people. This paper discusses the major psychological obstacles to accepting Darwin’s theory. Cognitive obstacles to adopting evolution by natural selection include conceptual difficulties, methodological issues, and coherence problems that derive from the intuitiveness of alternative theories. The main emotional obstacles to accepting evolution are its apparent conflict with valued beliefs about God, souls, and morality. We draw on the philosophy of science and on a psychological theory of cognitive and emotional belief revision to make suggestions about what can be done to improve acceptance of Darwinian ideas.

  18. Cone penetrometer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Boechler, G.N.

    1996-09-19

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATR-151. Included in this report is a summary of the tests, the results and issues, the signature and sign- off ATP pages, and a summarized table of the specification vs. ATP section that satisfied the specification.

  19. Dissolution test acceptance sampling plans.

    PubMed

    Tsong, Y; Hammerstrom, T; Lin, K; Ong, T E

    1995-07-01

    The U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) general monograph provides a standard for dissolution compliance with the requirements as stated in the individual USP monograph for a tablet or capsule dosage form. The acceptance rules recommended by USP have important roles in the quality control process. The USP rules and their modifications are often used as an industrial lot release sampling plan, where a lot is accepted when the tablets or capsules sampled are accepted as proof of compliance with the requirement. In this paper, the operating characteristics of the USP acceptance rules are reviewed and compared to a selected modification. The operating characteristics curves show that the USP acceptance rules are sensitive to the true mean dissolution and do not reject a lot or batch that has a large percentage of tablets that dissolve with less than the dissolution specification.

  20. Limited catching bias in a wild population of birds with near-complete census information

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Mirre J P; Winney, Isabel; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Burke, Terry; Schroeder, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Animal research often relies on catching wild animals; however, individuals may have different trappability, and this can generate bias. We studied bias in mist netting, the main method for catching wild birds. The unusually high resighting rate in our study population—house sparrows (Passer domesticus) on Lundy Island (England)—allowed us to obtain accurate estimates of the population size. This unique situation enabled us to test for catching bias in mist netting using deviations from the expected Poisson distribution. There was no evidence that a fraction of the birds in the population consistently remained uncaught. However, we detected a different bias: More birds than expected were captured only once within a year. This bias probably resulted from a mixture of fieldworkers sometimes ignoring rapid recaptures and birds becoming net shy after their first capture. We had sufficient statistical power with the available data to detect a substantial uncaught fraction. Therefore, our data are probably unbiased toward catching specific individuals from our population. Our analyses demonstrate that intensively monitored natural insular populations, in which population size can be estimated precisely, provide the potential to address important unanswered questions without concerns about a fraction of the population remaining uncaught. Our approach can help researchers to test for catching bias in closely monitored wild populations for which reliable estimates of population size and dispersal are available. PMID:26380681

  1. Effect of catch-and-release angling on growth and survival of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, K.L.; Wilde, G.R.; Knabe, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    Catch-and-release angling is popular in many parts of the world and plays an increasingly important role in fish conservation efforts. Although survival rates associated with catch-and-release angling are well documented for many species, sublethal effects have been less studied. An experiment was conducted to directly assess the effects of catch-and-release angling on growth and survival of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Catch-and-release events were simulated in laboratory tanks maintained at 15-16 ??C with hooks manually placed in pre-designated locations in the mouths of the fish. There were no differences in standard length (P = 0.59) or wet weight (P = 0.81) gained between caught and uncaught fish over a 1-month angling and recovery period. Survival was 96.99 ?? 0.06% for rainbow trout caught and released, and did not vary with number (one, two or four) of captures. Thus, catch-and-release angling appears to have little effect on growth and mortality of rainbow trout hooked in the mouth. ?? 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Monocular and binocular vision in one-hand ball catching: interocular integration.

    PubMed

    Olivier, I; Weeks, D J; Lyons, J; Ricker, K L; Elliott, D

    1998-12-01

    In 2 experiments, binocular and monocular vision were compared and interocular integration in 1-hand ball catching was examined. Participants (N = 10 in each experiment) were required to catch tennis balls projected over a distance of 15 m. Participants wore liquid-crystal visual occlusion goggles so that the duration and frequency of visual samples provided to their eyes over ball flight could be manipulated. An examination of catching performance indicated that binocular vision contributed to both the spatial and temporal aspects of the catching task. Experienced catchers are able to integrate information from the 2 eyes over intervals as long as 80-100 ms. When provided with only intermittent monocular samples of ball flight, catching performance deteriorated rapidly as the interval between consecutive samples was increased. Results are discussed both in terms of the sources of visual information useful for the interception of objects and the temporal differences for interocular integration between the perception of form and visual-motor control. PMID:20037037

  3. Twitchin as a regulator of catch contraction in molluscan smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    FUNABARA, DAISUKE; KANOH, SATOSHI; SIEGMAN, MARION J.; BUTLER, THOMAS M.; HARTSHORNE, DAVID J.; WATABE, SHUGO

    2006-01-01

    Molluscan catch muscle can maintain tension for a long time with little energy consumption. This unique phenomenon is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of twitchin, a member of the titin/connectin family. The catch state is induced by a decrease of intracellular Ca2+ after the active contraction and is terminated by the phosphorylation of twitchin by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Twitchin, from the well-known catch muscle, the anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) of the mollusc Mytilus, incorporates three phosphates into two major sites D1 and D2, and some minor sites. Dephosphorylation is required for re-entering the catch state. Myosin, actin and twitchin are essential players in the mechanism responsible for catch during which force is maintained while myosin cross-bridge cycling is very slow. Dephosphorylation of twitchin allows it to bind to Factin, whereas phosphorylation decreases the affinity of the two proteins. Twitchin has been also been shown to be a thick filament-binding protein. These findings raise the possibility that twitchin regulates the myosin cross-bridge cycle and force output by interacting with both actin and myosin resulting in a structure that connects thick and thin filaments in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. PMID:16453161

  4. Skill level, vision, and proprioception in simple one-hand catching.

    PubMed

    Fischman, M G; Schneider, T

    1985-06-01

    Two experiments examined the interaction of vision and articular proprioception in simple one-hand catching. In Experiment 1 (N = 18) skilled baseball and softball players used the left and right hands to catch slowly moving tennis balls, while Experiment 2 (N = 16) used novice catchers as subjects. In half the trials, sight of the catching hand was prevented by placing a screen alongside the subjects' face. Results of Experiment 1 revealed that the screen caused minimal disruption of the positioning phase of the catch, with moderate disruption of the grasping phase. However, for the unskilled subjects of Experiment 2, the screen caused considerable disruption of positioning. The data provide only minimal support for Smyth and Marriott' (1982) contention that limb position is inadequately specified by articular proprioception. It is argued that skill level serves as a mediator in the ability to use proprioception for limb positioning, but vision appears necessary to control the precise temporal organization of the grasp phase of one-hand catching.

  5. Synthetic biology and biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Robienski, Jürgen; Simon, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the conflict fields and legal questions of synthetic biology, esp. concerning biosecurity. A respective jurisprudential discussion has not taken place yet in Germany apart from few statements and recommendations. But in Germany, Europe and the USA, it is generally accepted that a broad discussion is necessary. This is esp. true for the question of biosecurity and the possible dangers arising from Synthetic Biology. PMID:25845204

  6. Extending the Technology Acceptance Model: Policy Acceptance Model (PAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Tamra

    There has been extensive research on how new ideas and technologies are accepted in society. This has resulted in the creation of many models that are used to discover and assess the contributing factors. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is one that is a widely accepted model. This model examines people's acceptance of new technologies based on variables that directly correlate to how the end user views the product. This paper introduces the Policy Acceptance Model (PAM), an expansion of TAM, which is designed for the analysis and evaluation of acceptance of new policy implementation. PAM includes the traditional constructs of TAM and adds the variables of age, ethnicity, and family. The model is demonstrated using a survey of people's attitude toward the upcoming healthcare reform in the United States (US) from 72 survey respondents. The aim is that the theory behind this model can be used as a framework that will be applicable to studies looking at the introduction of any new or modified policies.

  7. Test plan for measuring ventilation rates and combustible gas levels in RPP active catch tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    1999-06-03

    The purpose of this test is to provide an initial screening of combustible gas concentrations in catch tanks that currently are operated by River Protection Project (RPP). The data will be used to determine whether or not additional data will be needed for closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. This test will involve field measurements of ammonia, organic vapor, and total combustible gas levels in the headspace of the catch tanks. If combustible gas level in a tank exceeds an established threshold, gas samples will be collected in SUMMA canisters for more extensive laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be measured to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flow through the tanks.

  8. Test plan for measuring ventilation rates and combustible gas levels in TWRS active catch tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    1999-05-20

    The purpose of this test is to provide an initial screening of combustible gas concentrations in catch tanks that currently are operated by Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The data will be used to determine whether or not additional data will be needed for closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. This test will involve field measurements of ammonia, organic vapor, and total combustible gas levels in the headspace of the catch tanks. If combustible gas level in a tank exceeds an established threshold, gas samples will be collected in SUMMA canisters for more extensive laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be measured to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flow through the tanks.

  9. Realization of Cooperative Behavior for Multiple Mobile Robots on Catching Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariya, Manabu; Kamano, Takuya; Yasuno, Takashi; Suzuki, Takayuki; Harada, Hironobu; Ogura, Sayaka

    In this paper, the realization of cooperative knowledge for a catching problem of multiple hunter robots and an escaping target is considered. To achieve successful catching, a pincer attack movement between two hunter robots is introduced as the basic cooperation strategy. The pincer attack movement of each hunter robot is described by the fuzzy rules. The fuzzy rules are tuned by genetic algorithm that the hunter robots can realize the pincer attack formation. Furthermore, the indirect approach is discussed in which the tuned fuzzy pincer attack rules are only applied to the nearest pair among the multiple hunter robots. Experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the suitable cooperative movement among the robots is realized and the proposed cooperation scheme is effective to the catching problem.

  10. Synthesis of Seafood Catch, Distribution, and Consumption Patterns in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    SciTech Connect

    Steimle and Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    The purpose of this task was to gather and assemble information that will provide a synthesis of seafood catch, distribution and consumption patterns for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) region. This task was part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project entitled ''Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations.'' Personal interviews were conducted with a total of 905 recreational fishermen and 218 commercial fishermen (inclusive of shrimpers, crabbers, oystermen and finfishermen) in Louisiana and Texas using survey questionnaires developed for the study. Results of these interviews detail the species and quantities caught, location of catch, mode of fishing, distribution of catch, family consumption patterns and demographics of the fishermen.

  11. Effects of variable recruitment on catch-curve analysis for crappie populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Catch-curve analysis is frequently used to estimate total annual mortality (A) of exploited fishes, but the method assumes constant recruitment. Because populations of crappie Pomoxis spp. have exhibited large fluctuations in recruitment, I conducted simulations to assess the amount of variability in recruitment that precludes the use of a catch curve and compared results to recruitment dynamics in six crappie populations. Coefficients of variation (CV = 100 ?? SD/mean) in recruitment to age 1 ranged from 55% to 84% among the six crappie populations. Simulations suggested that recruitment variability in these ranges would likely allow estimation of A within ?? 10%, but the probability of obtaining estimates of A that were ??5% or more of the true A would exceed 0.15. I suggest that catch curves may be used to approximate A in crappie populations but that managers should consider the effects on management recommendations if A were ??10% of the estimated A.

  12. The effects of baseball experience on movement initiation in catching fly balls.

    PubMed

    Oudejans, R R; Michaels, C F; Bakker, F C

    1997-12-01

    Previous research has shown that skilled athletes are able to respond faster than novices to skill-specific information. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether expert outfielders are faster than non-experts in acting on information about the flight of a fly ball. It was hypothesized that expert outfielders are better attuned to this information; as a result, faster and more accurate responses were expected. This hypothesis was tested by having non-expert and expert outfielders judge, as quickly as possible, where a ball would land in the front-behind dimension (perceptual condition) and, in another condition, to attempt to catch such balls (catching condition). The results of the perceptual condition do not support the hypothesis that expert outfielders are more sensitive to ball flight information than non-experts, but the results of the catching condition reveal that experts are more likely to initiate locomotion in the correct direction.

  13. Relationships between tuna catch and variable frequency oceanographic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormaza-González, Franklin Isaac; Mora-Cervetto, Alejandra; María Bermúdez-Martínez, Raquel

    2016-08-01

    Skipjack (Katsuwunus pelamis), yellow fin (Thunnus albacares) and albacore (Thunnus alulunga) tunas landed in the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) countries and Ecuador were correlated to the Indexes Oceanic El Niño (ONI) and Multivariate Enso Index (MEI). The temporal series 1983-2012, and 1977-1999 (warm Pacific Decadal Oscillation, PDO), and 2000-2012 (cold PDO) were analyzed. Linear correlation showed that at least 11 % of the total landings were associated with the MEI, with a slightly negative gradient from cold to warm conditions. When non-linear regression (n = 6), the R2 was higher up to 0.304 (MEI, r = 0.551). The correlation shows high spread from -0.5 to +0.5 for both MEI/ONI; the highest landings occurred at 0.34-0.45; both indexes suggested that at extreme values < -1.0 and > 1.1 total landings tend to decrease. Landings were associated up to 21.9 % (MEI) in 2000-2012, 1983-1999 rendered lower R2 (< 0.09); i.e., during cold PDO periods there was a higher association between landings and oceanographic conditions. For the non-linear regression (n = 6) a R2 of 0.374 (MEI) and 0.408 (ONI) were registered, for the 2000-2012, a higher R2 was observed in 1983-1999, 0.443 and 0.711 for MEI and ONI respectively, suggesting that is better to analyze split series (1983-1999, 2000-2012) than as a whole (1983-2012), due to noise produced by the transition from hot to cold PDOs. The highest landings were in the range -0.2 to 0.5 for MEI/ONI. The linear regression of skipjack landings in Ecuador gave an R2 of 0.140 (MEI) and 0.066 (ONI) and the non-linear were 0.440 and 0.183 respectively. Total landings in the EPO associated to oceanographic events of high and low frequencies could be used somehow as predictors of the high El Niño o La Niña. There is a clear evidence that tuna fish biomass are at higher levels when the PDO is on cold phase (2000-2030) and vice versa on warm phase (1980-1999). The analysis of the skipjack catch per unit effort (CPUE) on floating

  14. The influence of Community Access to Child Health (CATCH) program on community pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Soares, Neelkamal S; Hobson, Wendy L; Ruch-Ross, Holly; Finneran, Maureen; Varrasso, Denia A; Keller, David

    2014-01-01

    The CATCH (Community Access to Child Health) Program, which supports pediatricians who engage with the community to improve child health, increase access to health care, and promote advocacy through small seed grants, was last evaluated in 1998. The objective was to describe the characteristics of CATCH grant recipients and projects and assess the community impact of funded projects. Prospective data was collected from CATCH applications (grantee characteristics, topic area and target population for projects funded from 2006-2012) and post-project 2-year follow-up survey (project outcomes, sustainability, and impact for projects funded from 2008 through 2010). From 2006 through 2012, the CATCH Program awarded 401 projects to grantees working mostly in general pediatrics. Eighty-five percent of projects targeted children covered by Medicaid, 33% targeted uninsured children, and 75% involved a Latino population. Main topic areas addressed were nutrition, access to health care, and medical home. Sixty-nine percent of grantees from 2008 to 2010 responded to the follow-up survey. Ninety percent reported completing their projects, and 86% of those projects continued to exist in some form. Grantees reported the development of community partnerships (77%) and enhanced recognition of child health issues in the community (73%) as the most frequent changes due to the projects. The CATCH Program funds community-based projects led by pediatricians that address the medical home and access to care. A majority of these projects and community partnerships are sustained beyond their original CATCH funding and, in many cases, are leveraged into additional financial or other community support.

  15. Developmental differences in the use of peripheral vision during catching performance.

    PubMed

    Davids, K

    1988-03-01

    Recently, it has been argued that peripheral vision may control adequate orientation of catching limbs, although questions have been raised of whether this remains the case as skill develops. The aim of the present study was to remediate previous methodological deficiencies to verify whether developmental differences exist in the extent of the functional visual field. A further aim included examining the importance of peripheral vision as a control process for effector orientation during catching without recourse to an occlusion technique. Previous arguments that peripheral vision may be necessary in controlling one-handed catching performance were extended to a two-handed catching task. Male subjects (n = 80) were required to perform a two-handed catch and simultaneously process a peripheral visual signal presented either early in, in the middle of, or late in flight. Developmental differences were noted between the age groups (mean ages = 10, 12, 16, and 20 years) in the ability to divide visual attention between the ball in flight, location of hands, and the peripheral cue acting as a probe. Evidently, the ability to allocate control of effects to the articular proprioceptive system develops with age because there was an obvious improvement in peripheral visual processing performance during the late segment of flight. Specifically, it appears that between the ages of 12 and 15 years catchers develop the capacity to increase the functional control of the articular proprioceptive system, as indicated by a significant decrease in peripheral visual errors during the late segment made by the latter age group. Limited evidence is also presented suggesting that the successful allocation of greater control to the articular proprioceptive system changes as a function of practice and experience with the specific central task, thus overcoming initial reliance on sight of the catching hands.

  16. By-Catch of Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus) in Baltic Fisheries—A Bayesian Analysis of Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Vanhatalo, Jarno; Vetemaa, Markus; Herrero, Annika; Aho, Teija; Tiilikainen, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    Baltic seals are recovering after a population decline. The increasing seal stocks cause notable damage to fisheries in the Baltic Sea, with an unknown number of seals drowning in fishing gear every year. Thus, sustainable seal management requires updated knowledge of the by-catch of seals—the number of specimens that die in fishing gear. We analyse the by-catch of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in Finland, Sweden, and Estonia in 2012. We collect data with interviews (35 in Finland, 54 in Sweden, and 72 in Estonia) and analyse them with a hierarchical Bayesian model. The model accounts for variability in seal abundance, seal mortality and fishing effort in different sub-areas of the Baltic Sea and allows us to predict the by-catch in areas where interview data was not available. We provide a detailed description of the survey design and interview methods, and discuss different factors affecting fishermen's motivation to report by-catch and how this may affect the results. Our analysis shows that the total yearly by-catch by trap and gill nets in Finland, Sweden and Estonia is, with 90% probability, more than 1240 but less than 2860; and the posterior median and mean of the total by-catch are 1550 and 1880 seals, respectively. Trap nets make about 88% of the total by-catch. However, results also indicate that in one of the sub-areas of this study, fishermen may have underreported their by-catch. Taking the possible underreporting into account the posterior mean of the total by-catch is between 2180 and 2380. The by-catch in our study area is likely to represent at least 90% of the total yearly grey seal by-catch in the Baltic Sea. PMID:25423168

  17. By-catch of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in Baltic fisheries--a Bayesian analysis of interview survey.

    PubMed

    Vanhatalo, Jarno; Vetemaa, Markus; Herrero, Annika; Aho, Teija; Tiilikainen, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    Baltic seals are recovering after a population decline. The increasing seal stocks cause notable damage to fisheries in the Baltic Sea, with an unknown number of seals drowning in fishing gear every year. Thus, sustainable seal management requires updated knowledge of the by-catch of seals--the number of specimens that die in fishing gear. We analyse the by-catch of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in Finland, Sweden, and Estonia in 2012. We collect data with interviews (35 in Finland, 54 in Sweden, and 72 in Estonia) and analyse them with a hierarchical Bayesian model. The model accounts for variability in seal abundance, seal mortality and fishing effort in different sub-areas of the Baltic Sea and allows us to predict the by-catch in areas where interview data was not available. We provide a detailed description of the survey design and interview methods, and discuss different factors affecting fishermen's motivation to report by-catch and how this may affect the results. Our analysis shows that the total yearly by-catch by trap and gill nets in Finland, Sweden and Estonia is, with 90% probability, more than 1240 but less than 2860; and the posterior median and mean of the total by-catch are 1550 and 1880 seals, respectively. Trap nets make about 88% of the total by-catch. However, results also indicate that in one of the sub-areas of this study, fishermen may have underreported their by-catch. Taking the possible underreporting into account the posterior mean of the total by-catch is between 2180 and 2380. The by-catch in our study area is likely to represent at least 90% of the total yearly grey seal by-catch in the Baltic Sea.

  18. Modeling the potential benefits of catch-crop introduction in fodder crop rotations in a Western Europe landscape.

    PubMed

    Moreau, P; Ruiz, L; Raimbault, T; Vertès, F; Cordier, M O; Gascuel-Odoux, C; Masson, V; Salmon-Monviola, J; Durand, P

    2012-10-15

    Among possible mitigation options to reduce agricultural-borne nitrate fluxes to water bodies, introduction of catch crop before spring crops is acknowledged as a cost-efficient solution at the plot scale, but it was rarely assessed at the catchment level. This study aims to evaluate a set of catch crop implantation scenarios and their consequences in a coastal catchment prone to eutrophication. The objectives are (i) to discuss the potential benefits of catch crop introduction taking into account the limitations due to the physiographic and agricultural context of the area (ii) to propose a multicriteria classification of these scenarios as a basis for discussion with stakeholders. We used the distributed agro-hydrological model TNT2 to simulate 25 scenarios of catch crop management, differing in length of catch crop growing period, place in the crop rotation and residue management. The scenarios were classified considering the variations in main crop yields and either nitrogen fluxes in stream or the global nitrogen mass balance at the catchment level. The simulations showed that in the catchment studied, little improvement can be expected from increasing the catch crop surface. Catch crop cultivation was always beneficial to reduce nitrogen losses, but led to adverse effects on main crop yields in some cases. Among the scenarios involving additional catch crop surface, introducing catch crop between two winter cereals appeared as the most promising. The classification of scenarios depended on the chosen criteria: when considering only the reduction of nitrogen fluxes in streams, exporting catch crop residues was the most efficient while when considering the global nitrogen mass balance, soil incorporation of catch crop residues was the most beneficial. This work highlights the interest, while using integrated models, of assessing simulated scenarios with multicriteria approach to provide stakeholder with a picture as complete as possible of the consequences of

  19. L-286 Acceptance Test Record

    SciTech Connect

    HARMON, B.C.

    2000-01-14

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  20. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  1. Catch a Glimpse of Me: The development of staff videos to promote person-centered care.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Tracey L; King Seymour, Lindsay; Welleford, E Ayn

    2016-09-01

    Catch a Glimpse of Me is an ongoing project that uses video to help staff deliver more person-centered care for people with dementia living in long-term care. Focus groups consisting of residents, family and staff members were conducted to develop a template for the development of the videos. The five themes they identified as being important to include are: family; interests and hobbies; memories and moments; life space and getting personal. The article describes the process of developing the videos and discusses the ongoing potential of the Catch a Glimpse of Me project.

  2. Influence of moonlight on light trap catches of the malaria vector Anopheles nuneztovari in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Palis, Y

    1992-06-01

    A significant effect (P = 0.002) of moonlight on light trap catches of Anopheles nuneztovari females was observed during a longitudinal study in western Venezuela. The catch with no moon was 1.86 times larger than with full moon. Nevertheless, moonlight does not seem to have any effect on the composition of adult mosquito population since the difference in the parous rate of females collected during full moon and during no moon was not significant (P greater than 0.05). PMID:1431859

  3. Efficacy of Electrocuting Devices to Catch Tsetse Flies (Glossinidae) and Other Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Glyn A.; Hargrove, John W.; Cullis, N. Alan; Chamisa, Andrew; Torr, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The behaviour of insect vectors has an important bearing on the epidemiology of the diseases they transmit, and on the opportunities for vector control. Two sorts of electrocuting device have been particularly useful for studying the behaviour of tsetse flies (Glossina spp), the vectors of the trypanosomes that cause sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock. Such devices consist of grids on netting (E-net) to catch tsetse in flight, or on cloth (E-cloth) to catch alighting flies. Catches are most meaningful when the devices catch as many as possible of the flies potentially available to them, and when the proportion caught is known. There have been conflicting indications for the catching efficiency, depending on whether the assessments were made by the naked eye or assisted by video recordings. Methodology/Principal Findings Using grids of 0.5m2 in Zimbabwe, we developed catch methods of studying the efficiency of E-nets and E-cloth for tsetse, using improved transformers to supply the grids with electrical pulses of ~40kV. At energies per pulse of 35–215mJ, the efficiency was enhanced by reducing the pulse interval from 3200 to 1ms. Efficiency was low at 35mJ per pulse, but there seemed no benefit of increasing the energy beyond 70mJ. Catches at E-nets declined when the fine netting normally used became either coarser or much finer, and increased when the grid frame was moved from 2.5cm to 27.5cm from the grid. Data for muscoids and tabanids were roughly comparable to those for tsetse. Conclusion/Significance The catch method of studying efficiency is useful for supplementing and extending video methods. Specifications are suggested for E-nets and E-cloth that are ~95% efficient and suitable for estimating the absolute numbers of available flies. Grids that are less efficient, but more economical, are recommended for studies of relative numbers available to various baits. PMID:26505202

  4. Conservation strategies on citrus plantation in eastern Spain. Catch crops, geotextiles and mulches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Dominguez, Alfons; Giménez Morera, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    Tillage (6 %), and herbicides (89 %) are the most widespread soil management methods in eastern Spain citrus orchards. The bare soils, the high intensity thunderstorms and the steep slopes result in high erosion rates. Over the last 3 years an experimental station has been developed at Montesa municipality in order to determine the effect of different types of mulch, geotextiles and catch crops. Rainfall simulation experiments on 20 m2 plots shown that soil losses can be control by catch crops (85 %), chipped pruned branches (89 %), straw mulch (97 %) and geotextiles (99 %). Then, vegetation can contribute to control the soil and water losses on the highly erodible soil of Mediterranean orchards.

  5. Doublethink in Biological Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Donald D.

    1974-01-01

    Presents the material given in a talk at the 1974 convention of the National Science Teachers Association in which the author compares practices in biology education to George Orwell's concept of "doublethink," i.e., the ability to hold two contradictory beliefs in one's mind simultaneously and to accept both of them. Developments in curriculum…

  6. Getting to Darwin: Obstacles to Accepting Evolution by Natural Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thagard, Paul; Findlay, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is central to modern biology, but is resisted by many people. This paper discusses the major psychological obstacles to accepting Darwin's theory. Cognitive obstacles to adopting evolution by natural selection include conceptual difficulties, methodological issues, and coherence problems that…

  7. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(20)-1 - Service performed on a boat engaged in catching fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fish. 31.3121(b)(20)-1 Section 31.3121(b)(20)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... catching fish. (a) In general. (1) Service performed on or after December 31, 1954, by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life (hereinafter “fish”) are...

  8. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(20)-1 - Service performed on a boat engaged in catching fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fish. 31.3121(b)(20)-1 Section 31.3121(b)(20)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... catching fish. (a) In general. (1) Service performed on or after December 31, 1954, by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life (hereinafter “fish”) are...

  9. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(20)-1 - Service performed on a boat engaged in catching fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fish. 31.3121(b)(20)-1 Section 31.3121(b)(20)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... catching fish. (a) In general. (1) Service performed on or after December 31, 1954, by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life (hereinafter “fish”) are...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(20)-1 - Service performed on a boat engaged in catching fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fish. 31.3121(b)(20)-1 Section 31.3121(b)(20)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... catching fish. (a) In general. (1) Service performed on or after December 31, 1954, by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life (hereinafter “fish”) are...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(20)-1 - Service performed on a boat engaged in catching fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... fish. 31.3121(b)(20)-1 Section 31.3121(b)(20)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... catching fish. (a) In general. (1) Service performed on or after December 31, 1954, by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life (hereinafter “fish”) are...

  12. Total catch of a red-listed marine species is an order of magnitude higher than official data.

    PubMed

    Kleiven, Alf Ring; Olsen, Esben Moland; Vølstad, Jon Helge

    2012-01-01

    Accurate information on total catch and effort is essential for successful fisheries management. Officially reported landings, however, may be underestimates of total catch in many fisheries. We investigated the fishery for the nationally red-listed European lobster (Homarus gammarus) in south-eastern Norway. Probability-based strip transect surveys were used to count buoys in the study area in combination with catch per unit effort data obtained independently from volunteer catch diaries, phone interviews, and questionnaires. We estimate that recreational catch accounts for 65% of total catch in the study area. Moreover, our results indicate that only a small proportion (24%) of lobsters landed commercially were sold through the legal market and documented. Total estimated lobster catch was nearly 14 times higher than reported officially. Our study highlights the need for adequate catch monitoring and data collection efforts in coastal areas, presents a clear warning to resource managers that illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fisheries in coastal areas should not be ignored, and shows the potential impact of recreational fisheries.

  13. Total catch of a red-listed marine species is an order of magnitude higher than official data.

    PubMed

    Kleiven, Alf Ring; Olsen, Esben Moland; Vølstad, Jon Helge

    2012-01-01

    Accurate information on total catch and effort is essential for successful fisheries management. Officially reported landings, however, may be underestimates of total catch in many fisheries. We investigated the fishery for the nationally red-listed European lobster (Homarus gammarus) in south-eastern Norway. Probability-based strip transect surveys were used to count buoys in the study area in combination with catch per unit effort data obtained independently from volunteer catch diaries, phone interviews, and questionnaires. We estimate that recreational catch accounts for 65% of total catch in the study area. Moreover, our results indicate that only a small proportion (24%) of lobsters landed commercially were sold through the legal market and documented. Total estimated lobster catch was nearly 14 times higher than reported officially. Our study highlights the need for adequate catch monitoring and data collection efforts in coastal areas, presents a clear warning to resource managers that illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fisheries in coastal areas should not be ignored, and shows the potential impact of recreational fisheries. PMID:22363583

  14. 75 FR 64956 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... established by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod...

  15. 75 FR 56016 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... established by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod...

  16. 75 FR 64957 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. ] SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific...

  17. 75 FR 10441 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... specifications for groundfish of the GOA (74 FR 7333, February 17, 2010) and inseason adjustment (74 FR 68713... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod...

  18. 75 FR 63402 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... established by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod...

  19. Meeting the Dietary Goals for School Meals by the Year 2000: The CATCH Eat Smart School Nutrition Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Eat Smart School Nutrition Program, an elementary school health promotion program. The article examines components of the CATCH kitchen visits and intervention materials, including the School Meal Program Guide, Fat and Sodium Criteria, Recipe File Box, Vendor…

  20. Evaluation of methoprene (Altosid XR) sustained-release briquets for control of culex mosquitoes in urban catch basins.

    PubMed

    Knepper, R G; Leclair, A D; Strickler, J D; Walker, E D

    1992-09-01

    A sustained-release, briquet formulation of methoprene (Altosid XR), applied at a rate of one briquet per catch basin in Saginaw, Michigan, provided ca. 70% reduction in emergence of Culex pipiens and Cx. restuans adults, compared with nontreated catch basins, during a period of 15 wk in the summer of 1990. In a parallel study using one briquet per 10.5 liter bucket, there was 99% reduction in adult emergence of these species for a period of 12 weeks. The difference between catch basins and buckets may be attributable to water movement through the catch basins with each rainfall, causing a dilution of methoprene through time. However, both studies indicated that the briquets released methoprene for 12-15 wk, suggesting that this formulation may offer season-long control of Culex mosquitoes from urban catch basins in Michigan, with a single treatment of insecticide.

  1. Spatially explicit estimates of stocks sizes, structure and biomass of herring and blue whiting, and catch data of bluefin tuna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huse, G.; MacKenzie, B. R.; Trenkel, V.; Doray, M.; Nøttestad, L.; Oskarsson, G.

    2014-07-01

    The north Atlantic is a productive marine region which has supported important commercial fisheries for centuries. Many of these fisheries have exploited the pelagic species, including herring, blue whiting and tuna. Here we present data on the distribution of herring and blue whiting based on surveys in the Norwegian Sea, the Bay of Biscay and Celtic Sea. We also present catch data on bluefin tuna, which has been depleted for decades, but historically used to be a key predator on the other pelagic stocks during summer. The results show that there have been substantial changes in the herring and blue whiting distribution during the 1990s and early 2000s. The earliest bluefin tuna catches noted were in 1907. The catches in the Norwegian Sea area peaked in the 1950s and there have been very small catches since the 1980s. The catches in the Mediterranean on the other hand peaked in the late 1990, and had subsequently a strong reduction.

  2. A Review of Research Instruments Assessing Levels of Student Acceptance of Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasri, Pratchayapong

    2014-01-01

    Darwin's theory of evolution by means of natural selection, called evolution for short, is perceived as a unifying theme in biology, forming a major part of all biology syllabuses. It is reported that student acceptance of evolution associates with conceptual understandings of biological contents, nature of science, as well as motivations to…

  3. Project Catch: A space based solution to combat illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing. Part I: Vessel monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detsis, Emmanouil; Brodsky, Yuval; Knudtson, Peter; Cuba, Manuel; Fuqua, Heidi; Szalai, Bianca

    2012-11-01

    Space assets have a unique opportunity to play a more active role in global resource management. There is a clear need to develop resource management tools in a global framework. Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported (IUU) fishing is placing pressure on the health and size of fishing stocks around the world. Earth observation systems can provide fishery management organizations with cost effective monitoring of large swaths of ocean. Project Catch is a fisheries management project based upon the complimentary, but independent Catch-VMS and Catch-GIS systems. Catch-VMS is a Vessel Monitoring System with increased fidelity over existing offerings. Catch-GIS is a Geographical Information System that combines VMS information with existing Earth Observation data and other data sources to identify Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported (IUU) fishing. Project Catch was undertaken by 19 Masters students from the 2010 class of the International Space University. In this paper, the space-based system architecture of Project Catch is presented and analyzed. The rationale for the creation of the system, as well as the engineering trade-off studies in its creation, are discussed. The Catch-VMS proposal was envisaged in order to address two specific problems: (1) the expansion of illegal fishing to high-latitude regions where existing satellite systems coverage is an issue and (2) the lack of coverage in remote oceanic regions due to reliance on coastal-based monitoring. Catch-VMS utilizes ship-borne transponders and hosted-payload receivers on a Global Navigation Satellite System in order to monitor the position and activity of compliant fishing vessels. Coverage is global and continuous with multiple satellites in view providing positional verification through multilateration techniques. The second part of the paper briefly describes the Catch-GIS system and investigates its cost of implementation.

  4. 50 CFR 622.280 - Annual catch limits (ACLs) and accountability measures (AMs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery Off the Atlantic States § 622.280 Annual catch limits (ACLs) and accountability measures (AMs). (a) Atlantic dolphin—(1) Commercial sector. (i) If commercial landings for Atlantic dolphin, as estimated by the SRD, reach or are projected to reach...

  5. Bait type influences on catch and bycatch in tandem hoop nets set in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Stewart, David R.; Shiflet, Jeremy; Balsman, Dane; Shoup, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    Tandem hoop nets have become the primary gear for sampling channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, but suffer from high incidences of bycatch, particularly aquatic turtles that usually drown as a result. We sought to determine if bait type, ZOTE© soap and ground cheese logs, would influence catch of channel catfish (CPUE and mean TL) and bycatch of fishes and aquatic turtles. We sampled with tandem hoop nets in 13 Kentucky reservoirs (5–73 ha) using a crossover design and two sampling events. We found no difference in channel catfish catch rates between bait types, but mean sizes of fish caught using ZOTE© soap were approximately 24 mm longer compared to cheese. Fish bycatch was similar between bait types, but tandem hoop nets baited with ZOTE© soap caught up to 61% fewer turtles and mortality of turtles that were captured was up to 12% lower than those baited with cheese. Depth of net set, water temperature, and Secchi depth were environmental factors measured that affected catch and bycatch, but varied among species. Using ZOTE© soap as bait in tandem hoop nets appears to be a fairly simple and straightforward method for maintaining high catch rates of channel catfish while minimizing turtle mortality.

  6. 26 CFR 1.414(v)-1 - Catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Catch-up contributions. 1.414(v)-1 Section 1.414(v)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(v)-1...

  7. 26 CFR 1.414(v)-1 - Catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Catch-up contributions. 1.414(v)-1 Section 1.414(v)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(v)-1...

  8. 26 CFR 1.414(v)-1 - Catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Catch-up contributions. 1.414(v)-1 Section 1.414(v)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(v)-1...

  9. 50 CFR 679.93 - Amendment 80 Program recordkeeping, permits, monitoring, and catch accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amendment 80 Program recordkeeping, permits, monitoring, and catch accounting. 679.93 Section 679.93 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE...

  10. 50 CFR 679.84 - Rockfish Program recordkeeping, permits, monitoring, and catch accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rockfish Program recordkeeping, permits, monitoring, and catch accounting. 679.84 Section 679.84 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE...

  11. Evaluating potential sources of variation in Chironomidae catch rates on sticky traps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joshua T.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.; Kennedy, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Sticky traps are a convenient tool for assessing adult aquatic insect population dynamics, but there are many practical questions about how trap sampling artefacts may affect observed results. Utilising study sites on the Colorado River and two smaller streams in northern Arizona, USA, we evaluated whether catch rates and sex ratios of Chironomidae, a ubiquitous aquatic insect, were affected by spraying traps with insecticide, placing traps at different heights above ground, and placing traps at different locations within a terrestrial habitat patch. We also evaluated temporal variation in Chironomidae counts monthly over a 9-month growing season. We found no significant variation in catch rates or sex ratios between traps treated versus untreated with insecticide, nor between traps placed at the upstream or downstream end of a terrestrial habitat patch. Traps placed near ground level did have significantly higher catch rates than traps placed at 1.5 m, although sex ratios were similar across heights. Chironomidae abundance and sex ratios also varied from month-to-month and seemed to be related to climatic conditions. Our results inform future sticky trap studies by demonstrating that trap height, but not insecticide treatment or precise trap placement within a habitat patch, is an important source of variation influencing catch rates.

  12. Spatial and temporal variation in artisanal catches of dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus off north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, M F; Kinas, P G; Lessa, R; Ferrandis, E

    2015-02-01

    The sampling of fish from the artisanal fleet operating with surface lines off north-eastern Brazil was carried out between 1998 and 2000. Generalized linear models (GLMs) were used to standardize mean abundance indices using catch and fishing effort data on dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus and to identify abundance trends in time and space, using 1215 surface line deployments. A standard relative abundance index (catch per unit effort, CPUE) was estimated for the most frequent vessels used in the sets, employing factors and coefficients generated in the GLMs. According to the models, C. hippurus catches are affected by the operating characteristics and power of different fishing vessels. These differences highlight the need for standardization of catch and effort data for artisanal fisheries. The highest mean abundance values for C. hippurus were off the state of Rio Grande do Norte, with an increasing tendency in areas with greater depths and more distant from the coast, reaching maximal values in areas whose depths range from 200 to 500 m. The highest mean abundance values occurred between April and June. The higher estimated abundance of C. hippurus in this period off the state of Rio Grande do Norte and within the 200-500 m depth range may be related to a migration pattern of food sources, as its main prey, the flying fish Hirundichthys affinis, uses floating algae as refuge and to deposit its pelagic eggs.

  13. 36 CFR 13.908 - Fishing limit of catch and in possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fishing limit of catch and in possession. 13.908 Section 13.908 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  14. 36 CFR 13.908 - Fishing limit of catch and in possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fishing limit of catch and in possession. 13.908 Section 13.908 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  15. 36 CFR 13.908 - Fishing limit of catch and in possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fishing limit of catch and in possession. 13.908 Section 13.908 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  16. 36 CFR 13.908 - Fishing limit of catch and in possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fishing limit of catch and in possession. 13.908 Section 13.908 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  17. The PS 200 catching trap: A new tool for ultra-low energy antiproton physics

    SciTech Connect

    Holzscheiter, M.H.; Dyer, P.L.; King, N.S.P.; Lizon, D.C.; Morgan, G.L.; Schauer, M.M.; Schecker, J.A.; Hoibraten, S.; Lewis, R.A.; Otto, T.; Rochet, J.

    1994-04-01

    Approximately one million antiprotons have been trapped and electron cooled in the PS200 catching trap from a single fast extracted pulse from LEAR. The system is described in detail, different extraction schemes are discussed, and possible applications of this instrument to ultra-low energy atomic and nuclear physics with antiprotons are mentioned.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: STORMWATER SOURCE AREA TREATMENT DEVICE - STORMWATER MANAGEMENT INC., CATCH BASIN STORMFILTER®

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Stormwater Management CatchBasin StormFilter® (CBSF) was conducted on a 0.16 acre drainage basin at the City of St. Clair Shores, Michigan Department of Public Works facility. The four-cartridge CBSF consists of a storm grate and filter chamber inlet b...

  19. Spatial and temporal variation in artisanal catches of dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus off north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, M F; Kinas, P G; Lessa, R; Ferrandis, E

    2015-02-01

    The sampling of fish from the artisanal fleet operating with surface lines off north-eastern Brazil was carried out between 1998 and 2000. Generalized linear models (GLMs) were used to standardize mean abundance indices using catch and fishing effort data on dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus and to identify abundance trends in time and space, using 1215 surface line deployments. A standard relative abundance index (catch per unit effort, CPUE) was estimated for the most frequent vessels used in the sets, employing factors and coefficients generated in the GLMs. According to the models, C. hippurus catches are affected by the operating characteristics and power of different fishing vessels. These differences highlight the need for standardization of catch and effort data for artisanal fisheries. The highest mean abundance values for C. hippurus were off the state of Rio Grande do Norte, with an increasing tendency in areas with greater depths and more distant from the coast, reaching maximal values in areas whose depths range from 200 to 500 m. The highest mean abundance values occurred between April and June. The higher estimated abundance of C. hippurus in this period off the state of Rio Grande do Norte and within the 200-500 m depth range may be related to a migration pattern of food sources, as its main prey, the flying fish Hirundichthys affinis, uses floating algae as refuge and to deposit its pelagic eggs. PMID:27500372

  20. Vandals: Think Tank Says Catch Them But Don't Punish Them Too Harshly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Carolyn

    1978-01-01

    A report of the British government's Central Policy Review Staff finds no reliable evidence that harsh punishment deters the vandal. It recommends that local authorities make buildings more vandal-proof and adults be encouraged to help deter and catch young offenders. (Author/SJL)

  1. Catching up to College and Career Readiness in Kentucky. ACT Research Report Series. 2014 (4)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Chrys; Hiserote, Linda; Shaw, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This report focuses on the extent to which students who are academically far off track in fourth or eighth grade in Kentucky catch up by eighth or eleventh grade. We studied three recent cohorts of Kentucky students whose eighth-grade ACT Explore® scores were more than one standard deviation below the ACT Explore benchmark scores associated with…

  2. Designing I*CATch: A Multipurpose, Education-Friendly Construction Kit for Physical and Wearable Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngai, Grace; Chan, Stephen C. F.; Leong, Hong Va; Ng, Vincent T. Y.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the design and development of i*CATch, a construction kit for physical and wearable computing that was designed to be scalable, plug-and-play, and to provide support for iterative and exploratory learning. It consists of a standardized construction interface that can be adapted for a wide range of soft textiles or electronic…

  3. The control and coordination of one-handed catching: the effect of temporal constraints.

    PubMed

    Laurent, M; Montagne, G; Savelsbergh, G J

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to identify the control mechanisms involved in a goal-directed task by manipulating the temporal constraints. Subjects were required to catch, with one hand, table tennis balls projected by a ball-projection machine under five temporal conditions (ball speed ranged from 5.7 to 9 m/s, giving rise to flight times of 550-350 ms). By means of three-dimensional kinematics analysis the following results were obtained, which are some spatio-temporal adaptations of the catching movement to the increase of temporal constraints: (1) a decrease in movement time, (2) an increase in the straightness of the trajectory of the wrist, and (3) a shift backwards of the place of ball-hand contact while (4) the grasping time was kept constant. Moreover, as a result of increasing temporal constraints, the acceleration phase of the transportation component was kept constant while the deceleration phase was progressively decreased and nearly suppressed. Further, an increased correlation of the initial direction of the transportation component with the initial direction of the ball path was found. These findings show some spatio-temporal adaptations of the catching movement when the time available is manipulated. They also support the contention of a shift in the control mechanisms involved in one-handed catching facing different temporal constraints. PMID:7843318

  4. 50 CFR 648.71 - Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch Targets (ACT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch... Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.71 Surfclam and ocean quahog... management uncertainty to recommend ACTs to the MAFMC as part of the surfclam and ocean quahog...

  5. 50 CFR 648.71 - Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch Targets (ACT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch... Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.71 Surfclam and ocean quahog... management uncertainty to recommend ACTs to the MAFMC as part of the surfclam and ocean quahog...

  6. 50 CFR 648.70 - Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch... Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.70 Surfclam and ocean quahog... ocean quahog fisheries, which shall be equal to the ABCs recommended by the SSC. (1) Sectors....

  7. 50 CFR 648.70 - Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch... Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.70 Surfclam and ocean quahog... ocean quahog fisheries, which shall be equal to the ABCs recommended by the SSC. (1) Sectors....

  8. 50 CFR 648.71 - Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch Targets (ACT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch... Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.71 Surfclam and ocean quahog... management uncertainty to recommend ACTs to the MAFMC as part of the surfclam and ocean quahog...

  9. Catching up to College and Career Readiness in Arkansas. ACT Research Report Series. 2014 (3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Chrys; Hiserote, Linda; Shaw, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This report focuses on the extent to which students who are academically far off track in fourth or eighth grade in Arkansas catch up by eighth or eleventh and twelfth grades. We studied two recent cohorts of Arkansas students whose eighth-grade ACT Explore® scores were more than one standard deviation below the ACT Explore Benchmark scores…

  10. 50 CFR 679.32 - CDQ fisheries monitoring and catch accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CDQ fisheries monitoring and catch accounting. 679.32 Section 679.32 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Western Alaska...

  11. 50 CFR 648.230 - Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Limits (ACLs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES... commercial spiny dogfish fishery, which shall equal to the domestic ABC (i.e., the ABC minus Canadian catch... is exceeded with a frequency greater than 25 percent (i.e., more than once in 4 years or any...

  12. Affirmative Action in Higher Education in India: Targeting, Catch Up, and Mismatch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisancho, Veronica; Krishna, Kala

    2016-01-01

    Using detailed data on the 2008 graduating class from an elite engineering institution in India, we evaluate the impact of affirmative action policies in higher education focusing on three issues: targeting, catch up, and mismatch. We find that admission preferences effectively target minority students who are poorer than average displaced…

  13. 75 FR 9157 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Scale and Catch Weighing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... requirements address performance standards designed to ensure that all catch delivered to the processor is... series of design criteria. Because of the wide variations in factory layout for inshore processors, NMFS... Community Development Quota Program (CDQ) catcher/processors, American Fisheries Act (AFA)...

  14. Pilot-Testing CATCH Early Childhood: A Preschool-Based Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shreela; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Hedberg, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The literature on theoretically-based programs targeting healthy nutrition and physical activity in preschools is scarce. Purpose: To pilot test CATCH Early Childhood (CEC), a preschool-based nutrition and physical activity program among children ages three to five in Head Start. Methods: The study was conducted in two Head Start…

  15. Kinesthetic Ability as Related to a Ball Catching Task with Dominant and Non-Dominant Hands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watz, Karyl A.; Eskridge, Veronica L.

    This study was designed to investigate a specific skill pattern as it relates to kinesthetics and hand dominance. The specific skill pattern investigated was the ability of subjects, using either their dominant or nondominant hand, to catch a ball when they were unable to see their arm or hand. An "L" shaped curtain containing a hole for the ball…

  16. 75 FR 56016 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Total Allowable Catch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... to Area 1B (75 FR 48874, August 12, 2010) is 4,362 mt; 0 mt of the TAC is set aside for research... United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Total Allowable Catch Harvested for Management Area 1B AGENCY...) of Atlantic herring in or from Management Area 1B (Area 1B) per trip or calendar day until January...

  17. 75 FR 69014 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Total Allowable Catch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... August 12, 2010 (75 FR 48874). The 2010 total TAC is 91,200 mt, allocated to the herring management areas... United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Total Allowable Catch Harvested for Management Area 1A AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; notification of trip limit reduction in Area 1A of the Atlantic Herring...

  18. 26 CFR 1.402(g)-2 - Increased limit for catch-up contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....402(g)-2 Section 1.402(g)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.402(g)-2 Increased limit for catch-up contributions. (a) General rule. Under section 402(g)(1)(C), in determining...

  19. Why are prices in wild catch and aquaculture industries so different?

    PubMed

    Villasante, Sebastián; Rodríguez-González, David; Antelo, Manel; Rivero-Rodríguez, Susana; Lebrancón-Nieto, Joseba

    2013-12-01

    Through a comparative analysis of prices in capture fisheries and aquaculture sectors, the objectives of this paper are a) to investigate three the trends in prices of forage catches to feed the aquaculture species, b) to analyze the amount of fish species need to feed aquaculture species in order to assess the level of efficiency in resource use, and c) to examine the degree of economic concentration either in wild-catch industry and aquaculture sectors. The results show that prices of cultivated species are higher than prices of the same species when harvested from the sea. We explain this fact by the interplay of three forces. First, the amount of wild fish to feed aquaculture species continues to improve over time. Second, the pressure of fishing activities has not been reduced since catches of most forage fishes are declining, which induce higher prices of capture species that feed aquaculture production. Third, the level of seafood market concentration is significantly higher in aquaculture than in wild catches, which generates higher prices in aquaculture. PMID:24213993

  20. Australian Children Catch the Bug: Motivating Young Children to Engage in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exley, Beryl

    2007-01-01

    Concerned by a report that a number of seven-year-olds in their school were at risk for literacy difficulties, a team of teachers devised a low-budget program to promote reading at school and at home. After researching reading motivation, two of the authors conceived a catch phrase, a mascot, and gimmicks, including all-school activities, to…

  1. Spatial-temporal dynamics of stable fly (Diptera:muscidae) trap catches in eastern Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatial and temporal relationships among catches of adult stable flies on sticky traps in eastern Nebraska were evaluated. Twenty-five alsynite sticky traps were placed in a 5 × 5 grid with ˜1.6 km intervals in a mixed agricultural environment from 2003 to 2011. Denser grids of 45-90 traps were impl...

  2. 50 CFR 300.63 - Catch sharing plan and domestic management measures in Area 2A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-fm (183-m) boundary are listed at 50 CFR 660.73(a). (2) Non-treaty commercial vessels operating in... adjusted inseason by NMFS. (2) A portion of the commercial TAC is allocated as incidental catch in the... regulated under 50 CFR 660.372. This fishing opportunity is only available in years in which the Area 2A...

  3. 36 CFR 13.908 - Fishing limit of catch and in possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fishing limit of catch and in possession. 13.908 Section 13.908 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  4. Why are prices in wild catch and aquaculture industries so different?

    PubMed

    Villasante, Sebastián; Rodríguez-González, David; Antelo, Manel; Rivero-Rodríguez, Susana; Lebrancón-Nieto, Joseba

    2013-12-01

    Through a comparative analysis of prices in capture fisheries and aquaculture sectors, the objectives of this paper are a) to investigate three the trends in prices of forage catches to feed the aquaculture species, b) to analyze the amount of fish species need to feed aquaculture species in order to assess the level of efficiency in resource use, and c) to examine the degree of economic concentration either in wild-catch industry and aquaculture sectors. The results show that prices of cultivated species are higher than prices of the same species when harvested from the sea. We explain this fact by the interplay of three forces. First, the amount of wild fish to feed aquaculture species continues to improve over time. Second, the pressure of fishing activities has not been reduced since catches of most forage fishes are declining, which induce higher prices of capture species that feed aquaculture production. Third, the level of seafood market concentration is significantly higher in aquaculture than in wild catches, which generates higher prices in aquaculture.

  5. Microbiological status of broiler respiratory tracts before and after feed withdrawal during catching

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant point of entry for Salmonella into a processing plant is within the broilers to be processed. Prior to transport to the processing plant, feed is withdrawn from the broilers for 4 h on the farm, then birds are caught and cooped. During catching, an increased presence of litter dust in ...

  6. [[Catch composition of monofilament gillnet netting with different mesh sizes in Qingcaosha Reservoir, Shanghai, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-lei; Wu, Hao; Liu, Qi-gen; Chen, Li-qiao; Hu, Zhong-jun

    2015-08-01

    During 2010 to 2012, fish diversity in Qingcaosha Reservoir was studied based on gillnets (multi-mesh monofilament gillnets and single-mesh trammel gillnets), electric fishing, bottom trawl and cage. The investigation collected a total of 34 fish species, belonging to 8 orders, 12 families. Cypriniformes contained the largest number of species (19 species) in the collection, followed by Perciformes (6 species). Multi-mesh monofilament gillnets sampled 19 fish species, of which Coilia nasus was the dominant species. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that mesh size of monofilament gillnets had significant influence on the composition of catches: C. nasus and Hemiculter bleekeri were the dominant species of catches of gillnet netting with mesh size of 2 cm, while C. nasus was the dominant species of catches of the nettings with mesh sizes larger than 2 cm. Species numbers and the catch per unit of effort ( CPUE) had a decreasing tendency with the increasing mesh size. Mesh size also had significant effects on the total length distribution of the dominant species C. nasus, which increased with the increasing mesh size. The results suggested that a combination of several gears was required to reliably estimate fish diversity of standing waters.

  7. Factors affecting catches of the crab Scylla serrata (Forskål) (Decapoda: Portunidae) in baited traps: Soak time, time of day and accessibility of the bait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, W. D.

    1989-08-01

    The effect of soak time, time of day and accessibility of the bait on catches of Scylla serrata in baited box traps was investigated. Catches over 24 h were compared on nine occasions at two different sites in traps that were cleared of their catch every 2 h and in traps that were not cleared. Mean catches differed between sites by factors of 4·5 in cleared traps and 2·2 in uncleared traps, indicating different crab densities. Catch did not increase linearly with soak time but tended towards an asymptote. Curves were fitted using the equation Ct = Cx (1- e- βt), where Ct is catch at time t, C∞ is the asymptotic catch and β is a constant. Catches after 24 h were 1·3 to 4·3 times higher in cleared traps than in uncleared traps. This was attributed to saturation of the uncleared traps. Estimated saturation levels varied between 0·8 and 6·1 crabs per trap, indicating that this parameter is not a constant for a particular design of trap. As catch was asymptotic, catch per unit effort (CPUE) expressed as catch per trap hour decreased with soak time. CPUE is, therefore, considered to be a poor index of abundance. The possibility of using either the asymptotic catch of regularly cleared traps or the rate at which this asymptotic catch is approached, as an index of abundance, is recommended for further research. Night catches were not significantly higher than day catches. There was no significant improvement in catch if trapped crabs were prevented from eating the bait.

  8. Biologic response to environmental toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, S.

    1983-12-01

    Biological response to environmental toxins results from the sum of natural, environmental, avocational, inapparent, and occupational exposures. These external exposures result in acceptable or unacceptable levels of absorption or internal exposure based on anticipated biological effects. There is no level of exposure which is in and of itself synonymous with intoxication. Biological effects may be classified as physiologic or pathologic, adaptive or nonadaptive, respectively. In each instance, the response may be acceptable or unacceptable. Intoxication requires the demonstration of a significant impairment of health. One may have an unacceptable pathologic response and still not have intoxication. Professional judgment is required.

  9. From requirements to acceptance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Lionel; Pasquier, Helene

    1993-01-01

    From user requirements definition to accepted software system, the software project management wants to be sure that the system will meet the requirements. For the development of a telecommunication satellites Control Centre, C.N.E.S. has used new rules to make the use of tracing matrix easier. From Requirements to Acceptance Tests, each item of a document must have an identifier. A unique matrix traces the system and allows the tracking of the consequences of a change in the requirements. A tool has been developed, to import documents into a relational data base. Each record of the data base corresponds to an item of a document, the access key is the item identifier. Tracing matrix is also processed, providing automatically links between the different documents. It enables the reading on the same screen of traced items. For example one can read simultaneously the User Requirements items, the corresponding Software Requirements items and the Acceptance Tests.

  10. The impact of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) on catch statistics in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Green, Darren M; Penman, David J; Migaud, Herve; Bron, James E; Taggart, John B; McAndrew, Brendan J

    2012-01-01

    In Scotland and elsewhere, there are concerns that escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) may impact on wild salmon stocks. Potential detrimental effects could arise through disease spread, competition, or inter-breeding. We investigated whether there is evidence of a direct effect of recorded salmon escape events on wild stocks in Scotland using anglers' counts of caught salmon (classified as wild or farmed) and sea trout (Salmo trutta L.). This tests specifically whether documented escape events can be associated with reduced or elevated escapes detected in the catch over a five-year time window, after accounting for overall variation between areas and years. Alternate model frameworks were somewhat inconsistent, however no robust association was found between documented escape events and higher proportion of farm-origin salmon in anglers' catch, nor with overall catch size. A weak positive correlation was found between local escapes and subsequent sea trout catch. This is in the opposite direction to what would be expected if salmon escapes negatively affected wild fish numbers. Our approach specifically investigated documented escape events, contrasting with earlier studies examining potentially wider effects of salmon farming on wild catch size. This approach is more conservative, but alleviates some potential sources of confounding, which are always of concern in observational studies. Successful analysis of anglers' reports of escaped farmed salmon requires high data quality, particularly since reports of farmed salmon are a relatively rare event in the Scottish data. Therefore, as part of our analysis, we reviewed studies of potential sensitivity and specificity of determination of farmed origin. Specificity estimates are generally high in the literature, making an analysis of the form we have performed feasible. PMID:22970132

  11. The Impact of Escaped Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) on Catch Statistics in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Green, Darren M.; Penman, David J.; Migaud, Herve; Bron, James E.; Taggart, John B.; McAndrew, Brendan J.

    2012-01-01

    In Scotland and elsewhere, there are concerns that escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) may impact on wild salmon stocks. Potential detrimental effects could arise through disease spread, competition, or inter-breeding. We investigated whether there is evidence of a direct effect of recorded salmon escape events on wild stocks in Scotland using anglers' counts of caught salmon (classified as wild or farmed) and sea trout (Salmo trutta L.). This tests specifically whether documented escape events can be associated with reduced or elevated escapes detected in the catch over a five-year time window, after accounting for overall variation between areas and years. Alternate model frameworks were somewhat inconsistent, however no robust association was found between documented escape events and higher proportion of farm-origin salmon in anglers' catch, nor with overall catch size. A weak positive correlation was found between local escapes and subsequent sea trout catch. This is in the opposite direction to what would be expected if salmon escapes negatively affected wild fish numbers. Our approach specifically investigated documented escape events, contrasting with earlier studies examining potentially wider effects of salmon farming on wild catch size. This approach is more conservative, but alleviates some potential sources of confounding, which are always of concern in observational studies. Successful analysis of anglers' reports of escaped farmed salmon requires high data quality, particularly since reports of farmed salmon are a relatively rare event in the Scottish data. Therefore, as part of our analysis, we reviewed studies of potential sensitivity and specificity of determination of farmed origin. Specificity estimates are generally high in the literature, making an analysis of the form we have performed feasible. PMID:22970132

  12. The impact of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) on catch statistics in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Green, Darren M; Penman, David J; Migaud, Herve; Bron, James E; Taggart, John B; McAndrew, Brendan J

    2012-01-01

    In Scotland and elsewhere, there are concerns that escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) may impact on wild salmon stocks. Potential detrimental effects could arise through disease spread, competition, or inter-breeding. We investigated whether there is evidence of a direct effect of recorded salmon escape events on wild stocks in Scotland using anglers' counts of caught salmon (classified as wild or farmed) and sea trout (Salmo trutta L.). This tests specifically whether documented escape events can be associated with reduced or elevated escapes detected in the catch over a five-year time window, after accounting for overall variation between areas and years. Alternate model frameworks were somewhat inconsistent, however no robust association was found between documented escape events and higher proportion of farm-origin salmon in anglers' catch, nor with overall catch size. A weak positive correlation was found between local escapes and subsequent sea trout catch. This is in the opposite direction to what would be expected if salmon escapes negatively affected wild fish numbers. Our approach specifically investigated documented escape events, contrasting with earlier studies examining potentially wider effects of salmon farming on wild catch size. This approach is more conservative, but alleviates some potential sources of confounding, which are always of concern in observational studies. Successful analysis of anglers' reports of escaped farmed salmon requires high data quality, particularly since reports of farmed salmon are a relatively rare event in the Scottish data. Therefore, as part of our analysis, we reviewed studies of potential sensitivity and specificity of determination of farmed origin. Specificity estimates are generally high in the literature, making an analysis of the form we have performed feasible.

  13. Physiological response of some economically important freshwater salmonids to catch-and-release fishing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, G.A.; Wydoski, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Catch-and-release fishing regulations are widely used by fishery resource managers to maintain both the quantity and quality of sport fish populations. We evaluated blood chemistry disturbances in wild brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, brown trout Salmo trutta, cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii, and Arctic grayling Thymallus arcticus that had been hooked and played for 1-5 min in waters of the intermountain western United States. A hatchery stock of brown trout was included for comparison. To assess time needed for recovery, additional test groups were played for 5 min and then released into net-pens, where they were held for up to 72 h. The osmoregulatory and metabolic disturbances associated with catch-and-release fishing under the conditions we tested were minimal and judged to be well within normal physiological tolerance limits. In fish that were held for recovery, the blood chemistry alterations that did occur appeared to be related to stress from confinement in the net-pens. Our results confirm the results of previous studies, showing that prerelease air exposure and handling cause more physiological stress than does either hooking per se or playing time. Fishery managers must be aware of the differences in the perceptions, attitudes, and values of different societal groups, some of which feel that catch-and-release fishing should be banned because it is cruel to the animals. On the basis of brain anatomy, it seems highly unlikely that fish experience pain in the same manner as humans experience it, because fish lack a neocortex, the brain structure that enables the sensation of pain in higher vertebrates. However, independent of the neurobiological argument, our results indicate that under conditions similar to those tested, fish subjected to catch and release are neither suffering nor particularly stressed. Improved education programs about the relatively benign physiological effects of catch-and-release fishing as a fishery management practice would

  14. Biological Threats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thunderstorms & Lightning Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may ...

  15. Acceptability of bio-engineered vaccines.

    PubMed

    Danner, K

    1997-01-01

    For hundreds of years bacterial and viral vaccines have been-in a way-bioengineered and were generally well received by the public, the authorities, and the medical profession. Today, additional tools, e.g. molecular biology, enable new approaches to the development of better and safer products. Various vaccines derived from gene technology have now been licensed for commercial use and are acknowledged within the scientific community. Acceptance by the public and the politicians is, however, negatively influenced by the discussions encompassing gene manipulation in man and animals, transgenic plant, and "novel food". Lack of information leads to confusion and fear. Concurrently, the absence of spectacular and life-threatening epidemics limits the perceived value of immune prophylaxis and its benefits. Scientists in institutes and industry are in a position to stimulate acceptability of bio-engineered vaccines by following some simple rule: (1) adherence to the principles of safety; (2) establishment of analytical and control methods; (3) well functioning regulatory and reporting systems; (4) demonstration of usefulness and economic benefits; (5) open communication; and (6) correct and prudent wording. PMID:9023035

  16. Imaginary Companions and Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Tracy R.

    2004-01-01

    Early research on imaginary companions suggests that children who create them do so to compensate for poor social relationships. Consequently, the peer acceptance of children with imaginary companions was compared to that of their peers. Sociometrics were conducted on 88 preschool-aged children; 11 had invisible companions, 16 had personified…

  17. Acceptance of Others (Number Form).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, James R.; Laverty, Grace E.

    As part of the instrumentation to assess the effectiveness of the Schools Without Failure (SWF) program in 10 elementary schools in the New Castle, Pa. School District, the Acceptance of Others (Number Form) was prepared to determine pupil's attitudes toward classmates. Given a list of all class members, pupils are asked to circle a number from 1…

  18. W-025, acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Roscha, V.

    1994-10-04

    This acceptance test report (ATR) has been prepared to establish the results of the field testing conducted on W-025 to demonstrate that the electrical/instrumentation systems functioned as intended by design. This is part of the RMW Land Disposal Facility.

  19. Euthanasia Acceptance: An Attitudinal Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.

    The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…

  20. Helping Our Children Accept Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Mae

    1984-01-01

    Parents of a child with muscular dystrophy recount their reactions to learning of the diagnosis, their gradual acceptance, and their son's resistance, which was gradually lessened when he was provided with more information and treated more normally as a member of the family. (CL)

  1. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This is the introductory article to a special series in Cognitive and Behavioral Practice on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Instead of each article herein reviewing the basics of ACT, this article contains that review. This article provides a description of where ACT fits within the larger category of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT):…

  2. Who accepts first aid training?

    PubMed

    Pearn, J; Dawson, B; Leditschke, F; Petrie, G; Nixon, J

    1980-09-01

    The percentage of individuals trained in first aid skills in the general community is inadequate. We report here a study to investigate factors which influence motivation to accept voluntary training in first aid. A group of 700 randomly selected owners of inground swimming pools (a parental high-risk group) was offered a course of formal first aid instruction. Nine per cent attended the offered training course. The time commitment involved in traditional courses (eight training nights spread over four weeks) is not a deterrent, the same percentage accepting such courses as that who accept a course of one night's instruction. Cost is an important deterrent factor, consumer resistance rising over 15 cost units (one cost unit = the price of a loaf of bread). The level of competent first aid training within the community can be raised by (a) keeping to traditional course content, but (b) by ensuring a higher acceptance rate of first aid courses by a new approach to publicity campaigns, to convince prospective students of the real worth of first aid training. Questions concerning who should be taught first aid, and factors influencing motivation, are discussed.

  3. TRAJECTORIES OF CHANGE IN ATTACHMENT AND BIOBEHAVIORAL CATCH-UP AMONG HIGH-RISK MOTHERS: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL.

    PubMed

    Yarger, Heather A; Hoye, Julie R; Dozier, Mary

    2016-09-01

    Using an intensive short-term longitudinal design, this study first examined whether there were significant differences in maternal sensitivity and intrusiveness after completion of Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC; Dozier & the Infant-Caregiver Project Lab, 2013) when compared to a control condition. The second aim was to explore the rate and shape of change in parenting behaviors. Participants were 24 mothers and their biological children, who were randomly assigned to ABC (n = 13) or a control condition (n = 11). A structured play assessment with each mother and her child was video-recorded prior to randomization into the study, before each intervention session, and at a follow-up visit. A total of 270 videos were coded for sensitivity and intrusiveness. Hierarchical linear growth models were used to estimate the total change in parenting qualities across the 10 intervention sessions when comparing ABC to a control condition. Piecewise hierarchical linear growth models were used to investigate patterns of change across the intervention for mothers within ABC. Mothers in the ABC condition showed greater increases in sensitivity and decreases in intrusiveness than mothers in the control condition. There was evidence for nonlinear patterns of change in sensitivity and intrusiveness among mothers in ABC. These results support the effectiveness of ABC in changing sensitivity quickly. PMID:27548644

  4. Does catch and release affect the mating system and individual reproductive success of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)?

    PubMed

    Richard, Antoine; Dionne, Mélanie; Wang, Jinliang; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we documented the breeding system of a wild population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by genetically sampling every returning adult and assessed the determinants of individual fitness. We then quantified the impacts of catch and release (C&R) on mating and reproductive success. Both sexes showed high variance in individual reproductive success, and the estimated standardized variance was higher for males (2.86) than for females (0.73). We found a weak positive relationship between body size and fitness and observed that fitness was positively correlated with the number of mates, especially in males. Mature male parr sired 44% of the analysed offspring. The impact of C&R on the number of offspring was size dependent, as the reproductive success of larger fish was more impaired than smaller ones. Also, there was an interactive negative effect of water temperature and air exposure time on reproductive success of C&R salmon. This study improves our understanding of the complex reproductive biology of the Atlantic salmon and is the first to investigate the impact of C&R on reproductive success. Our study expands the management toolbox of appropriate C&R practices that promote conservation of salmon populations and limit negative impacts on mating and reproductive success.

  5. Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): spatial relationship between trap catch and distance from a source of emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Richard T; Chini, Shahpar R; McGovern, Jeffrey E

    2005-04-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), was selected as a representative stored-product moth to test the validity of contour mapping of trap catch for pest monitoring in warehouses and retail stores. Three experiments, each replicated five times, were conducted in a 3.2 by 9.0-m aluminum shed. Each experiment involved placing pupae at a single release point (source) and recording the numbers of emerging adult males captured after 24, 48, and 72 h in each of four pheromone-baited sticky traps. The experiments differed only with respect to the point of release. Distribution of trap catch reflected the general distribution of moths in the shed; and consecutive contour maps tracked their dispersal from the source. As emergence and dispersal progressed, cumulative trap catch increased throughout the shed, but it remained highest near the source. The observed spatial patterns of trap catch relative to sources of infestation and the inverse relationship of trap catch to distance from a source support the validity of contour mapping as a means of monitoring stored-product moths and locating foci of infestation. The relationship between trap catch and distance from a source of infestation was well described by two-parameter exponential decay, both in P. interpunctella and in the previously studied Lasioderma serricorne (F.). Analysis of data from retail pet stores also showed exponential decline in trap catch of P. interpunctella with distance from centers of infestation.

  6. Stretching the truth: length data highlight falsification of Japanese sperm whale catch statistics in the Southern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Ivashchenko, Yulia V.

    2016-01-01

    Falsification of reports on Japanese catches of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) is known to have occurred at both land whaling stations and in North Pacific factory fleets. Here, we conduct an analysis of pelagic sperm whale catches in the Southern Hemisphere: we compare true Soviet length data from the Yuri Dolgorukiy factory fleet during 1960–1975 to data for the same period reported to the International Whaling Commission (IWC) by Japan. Prior to implementation of the International Observer Scheme (IOS) in 1972, the Soviet fleet killed 5536 females, of which only 153 (2.8%) were at or above the minimum legal length of 11.6 m. During the same period, Japan killed 5799 females and reported that 5686 (98.5%) were of legal size, with 88.5% of the entire length distribution reported as being between 11.6 and 12.0 m. This unrealistic distribution, together with the fact that Japanese fleets were supposedly able to catch 37 times the number of legal-sized females as the Soviet fleet, indicates extensive falsification of catch data by Japan. Further evidence of misreporting is that females >11.5 m dropped to 9.1% of the Japanese catch after 1971, when the IOS made cheating much more difficult. That 99.6% of 10 433 males in the pre-IOS catch were also reported to be of legal size, indicates that illegal catches were not confined to females. We caution that the Japanese sperm whale data in the IWC Catch Database are unreliable and should not be used in population assessments. The ease with which illegal catches were apparently made underscores the past failures of the IWC to effectively regulate whaling. PMID:27703712

  7. I Lost It in the Lights: The Effects of Predictable and Variable Intermittent Vision on Unimanual Catching.

    PubMed

    Lyons, J; Fontaine, R; Elliott, D

    1997-06-01

    In this study, 2 competing views of interceptive action were examined by assessing the influence of variability in the interval between visual samples in a unimanual ball-catching task. Subjects were required to catch tennis balls projected over a distance of 14 m, under conditions of intermittent vision in which the between-sample intervals were either predictable or unpredictable. Results indicated that, although performance was best with shorter between-sample intervals, the temporal predictability of samples did not reliably affect catching performance. This suggests that between-sample retinal expansion provides sufficient information for the timing of the interceptive act. PMID:12453788

  8. Effects of Catch-and-Release Angling on Salmonids at Elevated Water Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, James W.; Guy, Christopher S.; Horton, Travis; Leathe, Steven A.

    2010-08-01

    Few studies have assessed catch and release mortality of salmonids at water temperatures ≥23°C, despite predictions of warming stream temperatures due to climate change. In addition, the effects of diel temperature fluctuations on salmonid mortality have largely been ignored in catch and release angling studies. The primary objective of this study was to measure catch and release mortality of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, brown trout Salmo trutta, and mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni in three water temperature treatments; when daily maximum water temperatures were cool (<20°C), warm (20 to 22.9°C), and hot ( 23°C). A secondary objective was to assess catch and release mortality of salmonids angled in morning and evening within water-temperature treatments. These objectives were related to Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks’ Drought Fishing Closure Policy (DFCP). Angling (fly-fishing only) occurred in the Gallatin and Smith rivers. All angled fish were confined to in-stream holding cages and monitored for mortality for 72 h. Mortality of rainbow trout peaked at 16% in the Gallatin River and 9% in the Smith River during the hot treatment. Mortality of brown trout was less than 5% in all water-temperature treatments in both rivers. Mountain whitefish mortality peaked at 28% in the hot treatment in the Smith River. No mortality for any species occurred in either river when daily maximum water temperatures were <20°C. Mortality of rainbow trout peaked at 16% in the evening hot treatment in the Smith River. Mortality of brown trout and mountain whitefish was not related to time of day. The catch and release mortality values presented here likely represent fishing mortality given that most anglers in southwest Montana practice catch and release angling. The mortality values we observed were lower than predicted (< 30%), given reports in the literature. The difference is likely related to the in situ nature of the study and periods of cooler water

  9. Inter-joint coupling and joint angle synergies of human catching movements.

    PubMed

    Bockemühl, Till; Troje, Nikolaus F; Dürr, Volker

    2010-02-01

    A central question in motor control is how the central nervous system (CNS) deals with redundant degrees of freedom (DoFs) inherent in the musculoskeletal system. One way to simplify control of a redundant system is to combine several DoFs into synergies. In reaching movements of the human arm, redundancy occurs at the kinematic level because there is an unlimited number of arm postures for each position of the hand. Redundancy also occurs at the level of muscle forces because each arm posture can be maintained by a set of muscle activation patterns. Both postural and force-related motor synergies may contribute to simplify the control problem. The present study analyzes the kinematic complexity of natural, unrestrained human arm movements, and detects the amount of kinematic synergy in a vast variety of arm postures. We have measured inter-joint coupling of the human arm and shoulder girdle during fast, unrestrained, and untrained catching movements. Participants were asked to catch a ball launched towards them on 16 different trajectories. These had to be reached from two different initial positions. Movement of the right arm was recorded using optical motion capture and was transformed into 10 joint angle time courses, corresponding to 3 DoFs of the shoulder girdle and 7 of the arm. The resulting time series of the arm postures were analyzed by principal components analysis (PCA). We found that the first three principal components (PCs) always captured more than 97% of the variance. Furthermore, subspaces spanned by PC sets associated with different catching positions varied smoothly across the arm's workspace. When we pooled complete sets of movements, three PCs, the theoretical minimum for reaching in 3D space, were sufficient to explain 80% of the data's variance. We assumed that the linearly correlated DoFs of each significant PC represent cardinal joint angle synergies, and showed that catching movements towards a multitude of targets in the arm's workspace

  10. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  11. Sweeteners: consumer acceptance in tea.

    PubMed

    Sprowl, D J; Ehrcke, L A

    1984-09-01

    Sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and saccharin were compared for consumer preference, aftertaste, and cost to determine acceptability of the sweeteners. A 23-member taste panel evaluated tea samples for preference and aftertaste. Mean retail cost of the sweeteners were calculated and adjusted to take sweetening power into consideration. Sucrose was the least expensive and most preferred sweetener. No significant difference in preference for fructose and aspartame was found, but both sweeteners were rated significantly lower than sucrose. Saccharin was the most disliked sweetener. Fructose was the most expensive sweetener and aspartame the next most expensive. Scores for aftertaste followed the same pattern as those for preference. Thus, a strong, unpleasant aftertaste seems to be associated with a dislike for a sweetener. From the results of this study, it seems that there is no completely acceptable low-calorie substitute for sucrose available to consumers.

  12. Addressing the Lack of Measurement Invariance for the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Amy; Wagler, Ron

    2013-01-01

    The Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) was constructed to be a single-factor instrument that assesses an individual's overall acceptance of evolutionary theory. The MATE was validated and the scores resulting from the MATE were found to be reliable for the population of inservice high school biology teachers. However,…

  13. Conceptual Ecology of the Evolution Acceptance among Greek Education Students: Knowledge, Religious Practices and Social Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulou, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored some of the factors related to the acceptance of evolution theory among Greek university students training to be teachers in early childhood education, using conceptual ecology for biological evolution as a theoretical framework. We examined the acceptance of evolution theory and we also looked into the relationship…

  14. High School Students' Perceptions of Evolution Instruction: Acceptance and Evolution Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Lisa A.; Kazempour, Mahsa; Amirshokoohi, Aidin

    2009-01-01

    Evolution is an important and sometimes controversial component of high school biology. In this study, we used a mixed methods approach to explore students' evolution acceptance and views of evolution teaching and learning. Students explained their acceptance and rejection of evolution in terms of evidence and conflicts with religion and…

  15. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it does not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  16. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  17. Effectiveness of catch basins equipped with hoods in retaining gross solids and hydrocarbons in highway runoff, Southeast Expressway, Boston, Massachusetts, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Stormwater mobilizes litter and other debris along the roadway where it is transported to the highway drainage systems. Initial treatment for stormwater runoff typically is provided by catch basins in highway settings. Modification of catch basins to include hoods that cover the catch-basin outlet is intended to enhance catch-basin performance by retaining floatable debris and various hydrophobic organic compounds that tend to float on the water surface within the sump of the catch basin. The effectiveness of six deep-sump off-line catch basins equipped with hoods in reducing the mass of gross solids greater than 0.25 inches in diameter and concentrations of oil and grease (OG) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was examined along the Southeast Expressway, in Boston, Massachusetts. Two deep-sump catch basins were equipped with cast-iron hoods. Three were equipped with molded plastic hoods, known as an Eliminator, and a single catch basin was equipped with a fiberglass anti-siphoning hood, known as a Snout. Samples of gross solids greater than 0.25 inches in diameter, excluding gravel and metallic materials, were routinely collected for a 6-month period from a collection structure mounted at the end of each catch-basin outlet pipe. After about 6 months, all floatable, saturated low-density and high-density solids were removed from each catch basin. In addition to the collection of samples of gross solids, samples of sump water from five catch basins and flow-weighted composite samples of stormwater from the outlet of one catch basin were collected and analyzed for concentrations of OG and TPH. A mass balance approach was used to assess the effectiveness of each catch basin equipped with a hood in retaining gross solids. The effectiveness of the deep-sump catch basins fitted with one of three types of hoods in retaining gross solids ranged from 27 to 52 percent. From 45 to 90 percent of the gross solids collected from the catch-basin sumps were composed of

  18. [Systems biology of cancer].

    PubMed

    Barillot, Emmanuel; Calzone, Laurence; Zinovyev, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    Cancer Systems Biology is now accepted and recognized as a promising field both in biological and clinical research. It relies on a rigorous formalization of regulation networks into precise and unambiguous languages. It provides both detailed and modular views of the complex biological system of interest (which in cancer research is typically an interaction network governing essential cellular events such as proliferation, differentiation, cell death...) in order to facilitate the interpretation of molecular profiles of tumors. The translation of these networks into mathematical models allows prediction of the evolution of the system in time and under certain perturbations. As a result, it can not only propose specific target points for pharmaceutical purposes, but also anticipate the evolution of tumors as well as their classifications. These characteristics emphasize the important role of Systems Biology of Cancer in the future of biomedical research.

  19. 48 CFR 12.402 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 12.402 Section... Acceptance. (a) The acceptance paragraph in 52.212-4 is based upon the assumption that the Government will rely on the contractor's assurances that the commercial item tendered for acceptance conforms to...

  20. Catch-slip bonds can be dispensable for motor force regulation during skeletal muscle contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chenling; Chen, Bin

    2015-07-01

    It is intriguing how multiple molecular motors can perform coordinated and synchronous functions, which is essential in various cellular processes. Recent studies on skeletal muscle might have shed light on this issue, where rather precise motor force regulation was partly attributed to the specific stochastic features of a single attached myosin motor. Though attached motors can randomly detach from actin filaments either through an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis cycle or through "catch-slip bond" breaking, their respective contribution in motor force regulation has not been clarified. Here, through simulating a mechanical model of sarcomere with a coupled Monte Carlo method and finite element method, we find that the stochastic features of an ATP hydrolysis cycle can be sufficient while those of catch-slip bonds can be dispensable for motor force regulation.

  1. Comparison of fish catches with buoyant pop nets and seines in vegetated and nonvegetated habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dewey, M.R.; Holland-Bartels, L. E.; Zigler, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Two models of pop nets were developed to sample fish in shallow riverine waters, one for use in vegetated areas and the other for nonvegetated areas. Both nets have a mechanical release mechanism that can be tripped from the water surface. Replicated field tests were conducted to compare pop-net catches with bag-seine collections every 2 weeks from May through mid-October. Overall, total catch per effort did not vary significantly (P 2) was smaller than the area swept by the average seine haul (70-140 m2). The pop net effectively sampled fish in shallow nonvegetated habitats and was useful in heavily vegetated areas where seining or electroshocking was difficult.

  2. A chip for catching, separating, and transporting bio-particles with dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jung-Tang; Wang, Guo-Chen; Tseng, Kuang-Ming; Fang, Shiuh-Bin

    2008-11-01

    This study aims at developing a 3D device for catching, separating, and transporting bio-particles based on dielectrophoresis (DEP). Target particles can be simultaneously caught and transported using the negative DEP method. In non-uniform electric fields, the levitation height or complex permittivity of certain particle may be different from that of another and this property can facilitate separation of particles. We have designed and constructed a 3D device consisting of two layers of electrodes separated by a channel formed by 50 microm thick photoresist. The electrodes can operate effectively with 10-15 V and 5-7 MHz to catch all particles in the channel, and can move particles after switching the electric field to 5-15 V and 500-1,000 KHz. Hence, particles experienced coupling force of two different directional twDEP forces, and tallied with our estimation to move along the coupling direction. PMID:18719958

  3. A preliminary survey of whale shark Rhincodon typus catch and trade in China: an emerging crisis.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Wang, Y; Norman, B

    2012-04-01

    This study gives an account of spatial and temporal distribution of whale shark Rhincodon typus catch events in China on the basis of historical records and information obtained from interviews with fishing industry stakeholders. A total of 186 R. typus were recorded with key harvest areas identified as in Hainan and Zhejiang, and the peak catching seasons were May to June and September to October. Aspects of the R. typus trade are discussed, including products, markets and the process. The results suggest that R. typus is increasingly becoming a targeted resource in China as a consequence of fierce competition for large shark fins and an emerging local market for consumption of all body parts. Current obstacles and potential measures for sustainable exploitation and trade of R. typus are discussed.

  4. Estimating time to contact and impact velocity when catching an accelerating object with the hand.

    PubMed

    Senot, Patrice; Prévost, Pascal; McIntyre, Joseph

    2003-02-01

    To catch a moving object with the hand requires precise coordination between visual information about the target's motion and the muscle activity necessary to prepare for the impact. A key question remains open as to if and how a human observer uses velocity and acceleration information when controlling muscles in anticipation of impact. Participants were asked to catch the moving end of a swinging counterweighted pendulum, and resulting muscle activities in the arm were measured. The authors also simulated muscle activities that would be produced according to different tuning strategies. By comparing data with simulations, the authors provide evidence that human observers use online information about velocity but not acceleration when preparing for impact.

  5. Catching fly balls in virtual reality: a critical test of the outfielder problem.

    PubMed

    Fink, Philip W; Foo, Patrick S; Warren, William H

    2009-01-01

    How does a baseball outfielder know where to run to catch a fly ball? The "outfielder problem" remains unresolved, and its solution would provide a window into the visual control of action. It may seem obvious that human action is based on an internal model of the physical world, such that the fielder predicts the landing point based on a mental model of the ball's trajectory (TP). However, two alternative theories, Optical Acceleration Cancellation (OAC) and Linear Optical Trajectory (LOT), propose that fielders are led to the right place at the right time by coupling their movements to visual information in a continuous "online" manner. All three theories predict successful catches and similar running paths. We provide a critical test by using virtual reality to perturb the vertical motion of the ball in mid-flight. The results confirm the predictions of OAC but are at odds with LOT and TP. PMID:20055547

  6. Global estimates of shark catches using trade records from commercial markets.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Shelley C; McAllister, Murdoch K; Milner-Gulland, E J; Kirkwood, G P; Michielsens, Catherine G J; Agnew, David J; Pikitch, Ellen K; Nakano, Hideki; Shivji, Mahmood S

    2006-10-01

    Despite growing concerns about overexploitation of sharks, lack of accurate, species-specific harvest data often hampers quantitative stock assessment. In such cases, trade studies can provide insights into exploitation unavailable from traditional monitoring. We applied Bayesian statistical methods to trade data in combination with genetic identification to estimate by species, the annual number of globally traded shark fins, the most commercially valuable product from a group of species often unrecorded in harvest statistics. Our results provide the first fishery-independent estimate of the scale of shark catches worldwide and indicate that shark biomass in the fin trade is three to four times higher than shark catch figures reported in the only global data base. Comparison of our estimates to approximated stock assessment reference points for one of the most commonly traded species, blue shark, suggests that current trade volumes in numbers of sharks are close to or possibly exceeding the maximum sustainable yield levels.

  7. A preliminary survey of whale shark Rhincodon typus catch and trade in China: an emerging crisis.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Wang, Y; Norman, B

    2012-04-01

    This study gives an account of spatial and temporal distribution of whale shark Rhincodon typus catch events in China on the basis of historical records and information obtained from interviews with fishing industry stakeholders. A total of 186 R. typus were recorded with key harvest areas identified as in Hainan and Zhejiang, and the peak catching seasons were May to June and September to October. Aspects of the R. typus trade are discussed, including products, markets and the process. The results suggest that R. typus is increasingly becoming a targeted resource in China as a consequence of fierce competition for large shark fins and an emerging local market for consumption of all body parts. Current obstacles and potential measures for sustainable exploitation and trade of R. typus are discussed. PMID:22497400

  8. Catching fly balls in virtual reality: a critical test of the outfielder problem.

    PubMed

    Fink, Philip W; Foo, Patrick S; Warren, William H

    2009-01-01

    How does a baseball outfielder know where to run to catch a fly ball? The "outfielder problem" remains unresolved, and its solution would provide a window into the visual control of action. It may seem obvious that human action is based on an internal model of the physical world, such that the fielder predicts the landing point based on a mental model of the ball's trajectory (TP). However, two alternative theories, Optical Acceleration Cancellation (OAC) and Linear Optical Trajectory (LOT), propose that fielders are led to the right place at the right time by coupling their movements to visual information in a continuous "online" manner. All three theories predict successful catches and similar running paths. We provide a critical test by using virtual reality to perturb the vertical motion of the ball in mid-flight. The results confirm the predictions of OAC but are at odds with LOT and TP.

  9. Development of catching by children in kindergarten to grade 8: a multicohort longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Loovis, E Michael; Butterfield, Stephen A; Bagaka's, Joshua G

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine developmental change associated with catching by children in Grades Kindergarten through 8. Children's performance was tested on the Catching Subtest of the Ohio State University Scale of Intra Gross Motor Assessment (OSU-SIGMA). More precisely, four cohorts of boys and girls in Grades K-8 (N = 340) from 1992 to 2000: in 1992 Grades K-8, in 1994 Grades 2-8, in 1996 Grades 4-8, and in 1998 Grades 6-8. In 2000, the original Kindergarten cohort was tested again. Data, analyzed by hierarchical nonlinear modeling, yielded significant differences in mean initial status (intercept) of all three cohorts, in mean growth rate (slope) for the K-8 cohort only, in initial status of the K-8 cohort, and for participants in baseball and softball.

  10. Weighted combination of size and disparity: a computational model for timing a ball catch.

    PubMed

    Rushton, S K; Wann, J P

    1999-02-01

    How do we time hand closure to catch a ball? Binocular disparity and optical looming provide two sources of information about an object's motion in depth, but the relative effectiveness of the two cues depends on ball size. Based on results from a virtual reality ball-catching task, we derive a simple model that uses both cues. The model is sensitive to the relative effectiveness of size and disparity and implicitly switches its response to the cue that specifies the earliest arrival and away from a cue that is lost or below threshold. We demonstrate the model's robustness by predicting the response of participants to some very unusual ball trajectories in a virtual reality task.

  11. Ball catching in children with developmental coordination disorder: control of degrees of freedom.

    PubMed

    Utley, Andrea; Steenbergen, Bert; Astill, Sarah Louise

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated two-handed catching in eight children (four males, four females) aged 7 to 8 years (mean 7y 4mo [SD 3mo]) with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and their age-matched controls (AMCs). Kinematic data were collected to examine Bernstein's (1967) notion of freezing and releasing degrees of freedom (DF). Participants were asked to catch a ball 30 times, delivered in three blocks of 10 trials. Video analysis showed that children with DCD caught significantly fewer balls than their AMCs (p< or =0.001) counterparts. Kinematic analyses showed that children with DCD exhibited smaller ranges of motion and less variable angular excursions of the elbow joints than their AMCs, and that their elbows are more rigidly coupled (p< or =0.001). These data suggest that children with DCD rigidly fix and couple their limbs to reduce the number of DF actively involved in the task.

  12. Effects of agricultural management on productivity, soil quality and climate change mitigation - evaluations within the EU Project (FP 7) CATCH-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, Heide; Schlatter, Norman; Haslmayr, Hans-Peter; Baumgarten, Andreas; ten Berge, Hein

    2014-05-01

    Soils are the main basis for the production of food and feed. Furthermore, the production of biomass for energy and material use is becoming increasingly important. Goals for an optimal management of agricultural soils are, on the one hand, the maintenance or improvement of soil quality and, on the other hand, high productivity and climate change mitigation (reduction of GHG emissions and C sequestration). Thus, the EU project CATCH-C aims to evaluate current management practices concerning these three goals based on indicators derived from long-term field experiments of the project partners and from literature data. A maximum of 72 indicators for productivity, soil quality and the potential for carbon storage in the soil and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions were selected by the project partners. As indicators for productivity, crop yields are determined in almost all field trials. The content of soil organic carbon (SOC) is an indicator for chemical, physical and biological soil quality and was analysed in the topsoil in all field trials. Less data exist for SOC contents in the subsoil. An important physical soil quality indicator is the bulk density, however, it is not determined in all field trials of the project partners. Therefore, information on SOC stocks, with relevance to carbon storage and climate change mitigation, is not available in all field experiments. Other physical indicators, such as penetration resistance, runoff coefficient and soil losses are evaluated. Essential biological indicators are microbial biomass and the number and weight of earthworms, which have been tested in several field trials. The evaluation of all these indicators will help to select "best management practices" and to address trade-offs and synergies for all indicators under consideration of major European farm type zones. CATCH-C is funded within the 7th Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration, Theme 2 - Biotechnologies

  13. Sampling and Analysis Plan for Catch Tank 241ER311 Vapor

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    1999-11-15

    This tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAF') identifies the sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) objectives for the characterization of catch tank 241-ER-311 vapor space. Data to be collected under this revision (Revision 2) of the TSAP will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the portable exhauster recently installed for the tank. Vapor samples taken previous to the issuance of this revision shall be analyzed in accordance with Revision 1.

  14. Evaluation of catch-and-release regulations on Brook Trout in Pennsylvania streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jason Detar,; Kristine, David; Wagner, Tyler; Greene, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission implemented catch-and-release (CR) regulations on headwater stream systems to determine if eliminating angler harvest would result in an increase in the number of adult (≥100 mm) or large (≥175 mm) Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis. Under the CR regulations, angling was permitted on a year-round basis, no Brook Trout could be harvested at any time, and there were no tackle restrictions. A before-after–control-impact design was used to evaluate the experimental regulations. Brook Trout populations were monitored in 16 treatment (CR regulations) and 7 control streams (statewide regulations) using backpack electrofishing gear periodically for up to 15 years (from 1990 to 2003 or 2004) before the implementation of the CR regulations and over a 7–8-year period (from 2004 or 2005 to 2011) after implementation. We used Poisson mixed models to evaluate whether electrofishing catch per effort (CPE; catch/100 m2) of adult (≥100 mm) or large (≥175 mm) Brook Trout increased in treatment streams as a result of implementing CR regulations. Brook Trout CPE varied among sites and among years, and there was no significant effect (increase or decrease) of CR regulations on the CPE of adult or large Brook Trout. Results of our evaluation suggest that CR regulations were not effective at improving the CPE of adult or large Brook Trout in Pennsylvania streams. Low angler use, high voluntary catch and release, and slow growth rates in infertile headwater streams are likely the primary reasons for the lack of response.

  15. Predicting black light trap catch and flight activity of Acrosternum hilare (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) adults.

    PubMed

    Kamminga, Katherine L; Herbert, D Ames; Kuhar, Thomas P; Brewster, Carlyle C

    2009-12-01

    A regression model was developed to predict the flight activity of Acrosternum hilare (Say) using data on the number of adults collected in a single black light trap located in Painter, VA, in the 18-yr period from 1990 to 2007. Eighteen initial weather variables, including cumulative precipitation over different time periods, mean monthly precipitation (PJA) and days below freezing (DFJA) from January to April, and mean monthly temperatures from December to April were tested in developing the regression model. Mixed (backward and forward) stepwise regression analysis showed that a two-variable model using PJA and DFJA was adequate for predicting the seasonal mean weekly number of A. hilare adults in the trap. Validation of the model using five independent black light trap data sets resulted in a strong correlation (r = 0.98) between observed and predicted mean weekly number of A. hilare adults caught in traps. Three peaks in flights of A. hilare adults were observed when mean trap catch was plotted over time for the 18-yr period. Peaks occurred at 319, 892, and 1,331 degree days (DD) from 1 January. Based on known developmental rates, the first peak was attributed to overwintered adults, the second to first-generation adults, and the third to a second generation of adults. This research suggests that A. hilare undergoes two complete generations in Virginia. Cumulative trap catch estimated from the 18-yr mean trap catch showed that 10, 50, and 90% of the total seasonal catch should occur by 153, 501, and 1,066 DD.

  16. Environmental factors influencing the recruitment and catch of tropical Panulirus lobsters in southern Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, David A.; Satria, Fayakun; Proctor, Craig H.; Prasetyo, Andhika P.; Utama, Andria A.; Fauzi, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    Tropical Panulirus lobster fisheries in many parts of the world are open-access and poorly-regulated. This is in part because tropical Panulirus lobsters have an extended pelagic larval phase (up to 9 months) and their larval settlement may take place in different habitats and depths. When recruits of a fishery are believed not spawned locally, regulatory incentives are weak. We assessed the potential sources of recruits to a small, valuable fishery for six species of Panulirus lobster in southern Java, Indonesia with a larval advection model. The model predicted that between 1993 and 2007, 50-90% of the recruits were sourced locally compared to a mean of 25% from remote locations. The relative intensity of the Indonesian flow-through, the south Java current and seasonal onshore winds appear to be important in the local retention of recruits. Local fisheries records showed a strong seasonality in catch that we compared to potential environmental triggers with boosted regression trees. We found that the increased catch was associated with the rapid onset of increased rainfall (>90 mm) at the start of the monsoon (November-May). Fishers believe the coastal runoff during periods of high rainfall increases turbidity and thus enhanced catchability. Catches declined dramatically during an extended monsoon in 2010-2011, but recovered in early 2012 when rainfall patterns became more seasonal. These combined results show that there may be potential benefit of implementing local fisheries management regulations to increase sustainability. However, their effectiveness may be difficult to detect due to the strong influence of climate and oceanographic variability on both recruitment and subsequent catch.

  17. 50 CFR 300.63 - Catch sharing plan and domestic management measures in Area 2A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adjusted inseason by NMFS. (2) A portion of the commercial TAC is allocated as incidental catch in the... regulated under 50 CFR 660.372. This fishing opportunity is only available in years in which the Area 2A TAC is greater than 900,000 lb (408.2 mt,) provided that a minimum of 10,000 lb (4.5 mt) is...

  18. Catching a Galactic Football: Chandra Examines Cygnus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    falling into the Cygnus A galaxy. However, the two jets powered by the nuclear black hole in this galaxy push this gas outward, like a balloon being inflated by a tank of gas. Cygnus A is not alone in its galactic neighborhood, but is a member of a large cluster containing many galaxies. Extremely hot (tens of millions of degrees Celsius) gas is spread between the galaxies. Although it has a very low density, this gas provides enough resistance to slow down the outward advancement of the particle jets from Cygnus A. At the ends of the jets, astronomers find bright areas of radio and X-ray emission known as "hot spots." Scientists believe that fast atomic particles and magnetic fields from the jets spill out into the region, providing pressure that continuously inflates the cavity. In a paper accepted by the Astrophysical Journal Letters, Wilson, Young and Shopbell discuss how the Chandra observations resolve a long-standing puzzle about the hot spots at the ends of the jets. By analyzing the X-ray emission of the hot spots, the astronomers have measured the strength of the magnetic field associated with them. "The radio data themselves cannot determine the strength of the magnetic field, a limitation that has inhibited progress in our understanding of cosmic radio sources for 50 years," said Wilson. "Combination of the Chandra X-ray and the radio data allows a quite precise measurement of the field strength." The Chandra observation of Cygnus A was made with the ACIS on May 21, 2000, for over nine hours. The ACIS X-ray camera was developed for NASA by Pennsylvania State University and MIT. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, manages the Chandra program. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, California, is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, MA. This research was supported by the Chandra project at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Images associated with this

  19. Genetic Evidence Highlights Potential Impacts of By-Catch to Cetaceans

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Martin; Rosenbaum, Howard C.; Wells, Randall S.; Stamper, Andrew; Bordino, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Incidental entanglement in fishing gear is arguably the most serious threat to many populations of small cetaceans, judging by the alarming number of captured animals. However, other aspects of this threat, such as the potential capture of mother-offspring pairs or reproductive pairs, could be equally or even more significant but have rarely been evaluated. Using a combination of demographic and genetic data we provide evidence that i) Franciscana dolphin pairs that are potentially reproductive and mother-offspring pairs form temporal bonds, and ii) are entangled simultaneously. Our results highlight potential demographic and genetic impacts of by-catch to cetacean populations: the joint entanglement of mother-offspring or reproductive pairs, compared to random individuals, might exacerbate the demographic consequences of by-catch, and the loss of groups of relatives means that significant components of genetic diversity could be lost together. Given the social nature of many odontocetes (toothed cetaceans), we suggest that these potential impacts could be rather general to the group and therefore by-catch could be more detrimental than previously considered. PMID:21179542

  20. Fishing effort and catch composition of urban market and rural villages in Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Hallwass, Gustavo; Lopes, Priscila Fabiana; Juras, Anastacio Afonso; Silvano, Renato Azevedo Matias

    2011-02-01

    The management of small-scale freshwater fisheries in Amazon has been based usually on surveys of urban markets, while fisheries of rural villages have gone unnoticed. We compared the fishing characteristics (catch, effort and selectivity) between an urban market and five small villages in the Lower Tocantins River (Brazilian Amazon), downstream from a large reservoir. We recorded 86 and 601 fish landings in the urban market and villages, respectively, using the same methodology. The urban fishers showed higher catch per unit of effort, higher amount of ice (related to a higher fishing effort, as ice is used to store fish catches) and larger crew size per fishing trip, but village fishers had a higher estimated annual fish production. Conversely, urban and village fishers used similar fishing gear (gillnets) and the main fish species caught were the same. However, village fishers showed more diverse strategies regarding gear, habitats and fish caught. Therefore, although it underestimated the total amount of fish caught in the Lower Tocantins River region, the data from the urban market could be a reliable indicator of main fish species exploited and fishing gear used by village fishers. Monitoring and management should consider the differences and similarities between urban and rural fisheries, in Amazon and in other tropical regions.

  1. Fishing Effort and Catch Composition of Urban Market and Rural Villages in Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallwass, Gustavo; Lopes, Priscila Fabiana; Juras, Anastacio Afonso; Silvano, Renato Azevedo Matias

    2011-02-01

    The management of small-scale freshwater fisheries in Amazon has been based usually on surveys of urban markets, while fisheries of rural villages have gone unnoticed. We compared the fishing characteristics (catch, effort and selectivity) between an urban market and five small villages in the Lower Tocantins River (Brazilian Amazon), downstream from a large reservoir. We recorded 86 and 601 fish landings in the urban market and villages, respectively, using the same methodology. The urban fishers showed higher catch per unit of effort, higher amount of ice (related to a higher fishing effort, as ice is used to store fish catches) and larger crew size per fishing trip, but village fishers had a higher estimated annual fish production. Conversely, urban and village fishers used similar fishing gear (gillnets) and the main fish species caught were the same. However, village fishers showed more diverse strategies regarding gear, habitats and fish caught. Therefore, although it underestimated the total amount of fish caught in the Lower Tocantins River region, the data from the urban market could be a reliable indicator of main fish species exploited and fishing gear used by village fishers. Monitoring and management should consider the differences and similarities between urban and rural fisheries, in Amazon and in other tropical regions.

  2. Test Plan for Measuring Ventilation Rates and Combustible Gas Levels in TWRS Active Catch Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    1999-10-25

    The purpose of this sampling activity is to obtain data to support an initial evaluation of potential hazards due to the presence of combustible gas in catch tanks that are currently operated by the River Protection Project (RPP). Results of the hazard analysis will be used to support closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. The data collection will be conducted in accordance with the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (Dukelow et al. 1995). Combustible gas, ammonia, and organic vapor levels in the headspace of the catch tanks will be field-measured using hand-held instruments. If a combustible gas level measurement in a tank exceeds an established threshold, gas samples will he collected in SUMMA' canisters for more extensive laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be measured to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flowing through the tanks. This test plan identifies the sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, and reporting objectives for this data collection effort. The plan also provides the procedures for field measurement of combustible gas concentrations and ventilation rates.

  3. Catch-up growth in very-low-birth-weight infants. Clinical correlates.

    PubMed

    Hack, M; Merkatz, I R; McGrath, S K; Jones, P K; Fanaroff, A A

    1984-04-01

    Clinical correlates of catch-up growth were documented in 182 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants (less than 1.5 kg) followed up prospectively until a corrected age of 33 months. At birth, 147 infants had weights appropriate for gestational age (AGA), and 35 were small for gestational age (SGA). The infants in each group were categorized as small if body weight was 2 SDs below the mean for age or appropriate if body weight was within 2 SDs of the mean at birth and at corrected ages of 40 weeks and 8, 21, and 33 months. Of the 147 AGA infants, 67 (46%) weighed less than 2 SDs of the mean for age at a corrected age of 40 weeks, 40 (27%) at 8 months, 28 (19%) at 21 months, and 25 (17%) at 33 months. Of the 35 SGA infants, 32 (91%) had subnormal weight at 40 weeks, 17 (49%) at 8 months and 21 months, and 16 (46%) at 33 months. Significant correlates of poor catch-up growth in the AGA group were birth weight, gestational age, severity of neonatal complications, poor neonatal head growth, and chronic physical and neurologic sequelae. In the infants in the SGA group, the correlates of poor catch-up growth were birth weight, multiple birth, and social class.

  4. Applying a reservoir functional-zone paradigm to littoral bluegills: differences in length and catch frequency?

    PubMed Central

    DeAngelis, Holly; Crosby, Abigale M.; Roosenburg, Willem M.

    2014-01-01

    Reservoirs exhibit gradients in conditions and resources along the transition from lotic to lentic habitat that may be important to bluegill ecology. The lotic–lentic gradient can be partitioned into three functional zones: the riverine, transitional, and lacustrine zones. We measured catch frequency and length of bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) captured along the periphery of these areas (i.e., in the littoral zone of each functional zone) for four small reservoirs in Southeastern Ohio during the summer months of three years. Catch frequency differed between zones for two reservoirs, but these differences were not observed in other years. There was no relationship between reservoir zone and either standard length or catch frequency when the data for all reservoirs were pooled, but we did observe a bimodal length distribution in all reservoirs. A combination of ecological factors including inter and intraspecific competition, predation intensity, management practices, limnology, and assemblage complexity may be mitigating bluegill distribution and abundance in reservoirs. Therefore, a functional zone (categorical) approach to understanding bluegill ecology in reservoirs may not be appropriate. PMID:25177535

  5. Improvement of red pepper yield and soil environment by summer catch aquatic crops in greenhouses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, X. F.; Wang, L. Z.; Peng, J.; Wang, G. L.; Guo, X. S.; Wen, T. G.; Gu, D. L.; Wang, W. Z.; Wu, C. W.

    2016-08-01

    To investigate effects of the rotation of summer catch crops on remediation retrogressed soils in continuous cropping, a field experiment was conducted. Rice, water spinach, or cress were selected as summer catch crops; bare fallow during summer fallow was used as the control group. Results showed that aquatic crops grown in summer fallow period could effectively reduce soil bulk density and pH, facilitate soil nutrient release, and improve soil physical and chemical properties compared with those grown in fallow period. Paddy-upland rotation could improve soil microbial members and increase bacterial and actinomycete populations; by contrast, paddy-upland rotation could reduce fungal populations and enhance bacterium-to-fungus ratio. Paddy-upland rotation could also actively promote activities of soil enzymes, such as urease, phosphatase, invertase, and catalase. The proposed paddy-upland rotation significantly affected the growth of red pepper; the yield and quality of the grown red pepper were enhanced. Summer catch crops, such as rice, water spinach, and cress significantly increased pepper yield in the following growing season by 15.4%, 10.2% and 14.0%, respectively, compared with those grown in fallow treatment. Therefore, the proposed paddy-upland crop rotation could be a useful method to alleviate continuous cropping problems involved in cultivating red pepper in greenhouses.

  6. Motivating meta-awareness of mind wandering: A way to catch the mind in flight?

    PubMed

    Zedelius, Claire M; Broadway, James M; Schooler, Jonathan W

    2015-11-01

    Given the negative effects of mind wandering on performance, it may be profitable to be aware of task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) as they occur. The present study investigated whether motivating people to catch TUTs increases meta-awareness. We offered incentives for increased self-catching during reading. To enhance the veracity of these self-reports, we used a "bogus-pipeline" procedure; we convinced participants that their mental states were being covertly monitored using physiological measures. In reality, mind wandering was assessed covertly by a secondary task ("gibberish detection"), and overtly by experience sampling. The results showed that incentives increased the number of self-catches without increasing overall mind wandering. Moreover, both the bogus pipeline and the opportunity for incentives increased the validity of self-reports, evidenced by significantly increased correlations between self-caught and behaviorally assessed mind wandering. We discuss the relevance of this methodological approach for research on mind wandering and research building on introspective reports more generally.

  7. Spatial and temporal distribution of tsetse fly trap catches at Nguruman, southwest Kenya.

    PubMed

    Odulaja, A; Baumgärtner, J; Mihok, S; Abu-Zinid, I M

    2001-06-01

    Spatial and temporal dynamics of rapidly growing populations of tsetse flies at Nguruman, southwest Kenya during 1993-1995, were investigated, following six years of intensive population suppression with traps over a c. 100 km2 area. The two tsetse species present were randomly distributed in the short rainy season, but were aggregated in the dry and long rainy seasons. Maximum temperature was the dominant weather factor associated with the degree of aggregation. Trends in catches at 20 fixed sites along an 18 km north-south axis were weakly correlated between locations, possibly representing population sub-structuring. In particular, trends in population change were poorly correlated between the area with a long history of trapping suppression in the south and the area with a more recent history of suppression in the north. On a micro-geographic scale, correlations among paired trap catches were clearly related to geographical proximity for Glossina pallidipes Austen (r2 = 0.55); whereas this relationship was quite weak for Glossina longipennis Corti (r2 = 0.12). Positive correlations among trap catches were significant for sites separated by less than c. 3.8 km (G. pallidipes) or 4.8 km (G. longipennis). These results suggest the existence of different population substructures in the two species on a relatively small geographic scale.

  8. Sampling, testing and modeling particle size distribution in urban catch basins.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, G; Carbone, M; Piro, P

    2014-01-01

    The study analyzed the particle size distribution of particulate matter (PM) retained in two catch basins located, respectively, near a parking lot and a traffic intersection with common high levels of traffic activity. Also, the treatment performance of a filter medium was evaluated by laboratory testing. The experimental treatment results and the field data were then used as inputs to a numerical model which described on a qualitative basis the hydrological response of the two catchments draining into each catch basin, respectively, and the quality of treatment provided by the filter during the measured rainfall. The results show that PM concentrations were on average around 300 mg/L (parking lot site) and 400 mg/L (road site) for the 10 rainfall-runoff events observed. PM with a particle diameter of <45 μm represented 40-50% of the total PM mass. The numerical model showed that a catch basin with a filter unit can remove 30 to 40% of the PM load depending on the storm characteristics. PMID:25500476

  9. Application of lariat lock catch knot suture in the achilles tendon rupture

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baocang; Feng, Xiaona; Yan, Ming; Wang, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarize the clinical experience of repairing the Achilles tendon rupture by lariat lock catch knot suture. Between January 2011 and February, 2014, 32 cases of the Achilles tendon rupture were treated by lariat lock catch knot suture. There were 26 males and 6 females, with the average age of 39 years (range 17-53 years), including 13 left knees and 19 right knees. 29 wounds healed by first intention, and 3 cases who were performed local flap transfer due to necrosis of skin were healed by second intention. Thirty-two cases were followed up 10-25 months (13 months on average). No re-rupture of Achilles tendon or deep infection occurred during follow-up period. According to Arner-Lindholm assessment standard, the results were excellent in 19 cases and good in 13 cases, the excellent and good rate was 100%. Lariat lock catch knot suture is a safe and effective method for repairing Achilles tendon. PMID:26770612

  10. CATCH: A Cloud-based Adaptive Data Transfer Service for HPC

    SciTech Connect

    Monti, Henri; Butt, Ali R; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S

    2011-01-01

    Modern High Performance Computing (HPC) applications process very large amounts of data. A critical research challenge lies in transporting input data to the HPC center from a number of distributed sources, e.g., scientific experiments and web repositories, etc., and offloading the result data to geographically distributed, intermittently available end-users, often over under-provisioned connections. Such end-user data services are typically performed using point-to-point transfers that are designed for well-endowed sites and are unable to reconcile the center's resource usage and users delivery deadlines, unable to adapt to changing dynamics in the end-to-end data path and are not fault-tolerant. To overcome these inefficiencies, decentralized HPC data services are emerging as viable alternatives. In this paper, we develop and enhance such distributed data services by designing CATCH, a Cloud-based Adaptive data Transfer serviCe for HPC. CATCH leverages a bevy of cloud storage resources to orchestrate a decentralized data transport with fail-over capabilities. Our results demonstrate that CATCH is a feasible approach, and can help improve the data transfer times at the HPC center by as much as 81.1% for typical HPC workloads.

  11. Acceptance of domestic cat mitochondrial DNA in a criminal proceeding.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Kun, Teri J; Netzel, Linda R; Wictum, Elizabeth E; Halverson, Joy L

    2014-11-01

    Shed hair from domestic animals readily adheres to clothing and other contact items, providing a source of transfer evidence for criminal investigations. Mitochondrial DNA is often the only option for DNA analysis of shed hair. Human mitochondrial DNA analysis has been accepted in the US court system since 1996. The murder trial of the State of Missouri versus Henry L. Polk, Jr. represents the first legal proceeding where cat mitochondrial DNA analysis was introduced into evidence. The mitochondrial DNA evidence was initially considered inadmissible due to concerns about the cat dataset and the scientific acceptance of the marker. Those concerns were subsequently addressed, and the evidence was deemed admissible. This report reviews the case in regards to the cat biological evidence and its ultimate admission as generally accepted and reliable. Expansion and saturation analysis of the cat mitochondrial DNA control region dataset supported the initial interpretation of the evidence. PMID:25086413

  12. Duration of activity of the microbial larvicide VectoLex CG (Bacillus sphaericus) in Illinois catch basins and waste tires.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J P; Novak, R J

    1999-09-01

    The duration of activity of a formulation of Bacillus sphaericus, VectoLex CG, for control of Culex species was evaluated in 338 catch basins in Urbana, IL, and compared to Altosid in 346 catch basins in Champaign, IL. The activity of VectoLex in car and truck waste tires was evaluated in a tire dump located in Pembroke Township, IL. In catch basins, 1 g of VectoLex per catch basin gave the same control as one Altosid briquet. Both larvicides were effective against Culex sp. in catch basins for 1 month, and the duration of control with VectoLex lasted 44 days in one catch basin. VectoLex was considerably cheaper to apply than Altosid briquets, at 0.64 cents per catch basin compared to 90.75 cents, respectively. However, the Altosid briquets were judged to be easier to apply from a vehicle than VectoLex granules. VectoLex (22.6 kg) was used to treat approximately 6,000 car and truck tires; some of the tires were in direct sunlight whereas others were shaded. Aedes triseriatus was the dominant species in these tires. Tires treated with VectoLex contained significantly fewer mosquitoes than control tires, and even 65 days after application, control tires were 16.7 times more likely to contain larvae. We conclude that VectoLex was effective when used in Illinois catch basins and tire dumps, and emphasize that it is more appropriate to base tire treatment rates on the total number of tires present than on a kilogram per hectare basis.

  13. Diurnal variation in invertebrate catch rates by sticky traps: Potential for biased indices of piping plover forage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, M.J.; Sherfy, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Measuring abundance of invertebrate forage for piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plovers), a federally listed species in the USA, is an important component of research and monitoring targeted toward species recovery. Sticky traps are commonly used to passively sample invertebrates, but catch rates may vary diurnally or in response to weather. We examined diurnal variation in catch rates of invertebrates using an experiment on reservoir shoreline and riverine sandbar habitats of the Upper Missouri River in 2006 and 2008. Highest catch rates of large invertebrates (>3 mm) on dry sand habitats occurred during 08:00-11:00 Central Daylight Time (CDT) on the reservoir and 08:00-14:00 CDT on the river. On wet sand habitats, catch rates were lowest during 17:00-20:00 on both the reservoir and the river. Catch rates decreased 24% for every 10 kph increase in wind. Sticky traps deployed continuously for 12 h or more had lower catch rates than four consecutive-composited 3-hour deployments, suggesting that trap effectiveness declined for >3-hour deployments. Thus, if sticky traps are used to index plover forage abundance without controlling for time of day and wind speed, data may be highly variable or estimates could be biased. ?? 2010 Society of Wetland Scientists.

  14. Structural basis for a hand-like site in the calcium sensor CatchER with fast kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ying; Reddish, Florence; Tang, Shen; Zhuo, You; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Yang, Jenny J.; Weber, Irene T.

    2013-12-01

    High-resolution crystal structures of the designed calcium sensor CatchER revealed snapshots of calcium and gadolinium ions binding within the designed site in agreement with its fast kinetics. Calcium ions, which are important signaling molecules, can be detected in the endoplasmic reticulum by an engineered mutant of green fluorescent protein (GFP) designated CatchER with a fast off-rate. High resolution (1.78–1.20 Å) crystal structures were analyzed for CatchER in the apo form and in complexes with calcium or gadolinium to probe the binding site for metal ions. While CatchER exhibits a 1:1 binding stoichiometry in solution, two positions were observed for each of the metal ions bound within the hand-like site formed by the carboxylate side chains of the mutated residues S147E, S202D, Q204E, F223E and T225E that may be responsible for its fast kinetic properties. Comparison of the structures of CatchER, wild-type GFP and enhanced GFP confirmed that different conformations of Thr203 and Glu222 are associated with the two forms of Tyr66 of the chromophore which are responsible for the absorbance wavelengths of the different proteins. Calcium binding to CatchER may shift the equilibrium for conformational population of the Glu222 side chain and lead to further changes in its optical properties.

  15. Gaze behavior in one-handed catching and its relation with interceptive performance: what the eyes can't tell.

    PubMed

    Cesqui, Benedetta; Mezzetti, Maura; Lacquaniti, Francesco; d'Avella, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In ball sports, it is usually acknowledged that expert athletes track the ball more accurately than novices. However, there is also evidence that keeping the eyes on the ball is not always necessary for interception. Here we aimed at gaining new insights on the extent to which ocular pursuit performance is related to catching performance. To this end, we analyzed eye and head movements of nine subjects catching a ball projected by an actuated launching apparatus. Four different ball flight durations and two different ball arrival heights were tested and the quality of ocular pursuit was characterized by means of several timing and accuracy parameters. Catching performance differed across subjects and depended on ball flight characteristics. All subjects showed a similar sequence of eye movement events and a similar modulation of the timing of these events in relation to the characteristics of the ball trajectory. On a trial-by-trial basis there was a significant relationship only between pursuit duration and catching performance, confirming that keeping the eyes on the ball longer increases catching success probability. Ocular pursuit parameters values and their dependence on flight conditions as well as the eye and head contributions to gaze shift differed across subjects. However, the observed average individual ocular behavior and the eye-head coordination patterns were not directly related to the individual catching performance. These results suggest that several oculomotor strategies may be used to gather information on ball motion, and that factors unrelated to eye movements may underlie the observed differences in interceptive performance.

  16. Timing a one-handed catch. II. Adaptation to telestereoscopic viewing.

    PubMed

    van der Kamp, J; Bennett, S J; Savelsbergh, G J; Davids, K

    1999-12-01

    A pre-exposure, exposure, post-exposure design was used to assess the adaptation of the timing of a one-handed catch during telestereoscopic viewing. More specifically, it was examined whether the adaptation involved: (1) ignoring binocular sources of information and selecting other information, or (2) a recalibration of the coupling between the effected binocular information and the catching movement, and (3), if it is recalibration, whether it is restricted to the manipulated binocular information. To test these hypotheses, subjects (n=16) were assigned to one of two groups, each group performing three blocks of 15 trials in the dark with only the ball visible. In the exposure condition, both groups were required to catch balls under binocular telestereoscopic viewing. In the pre-exposure and post-exposure conditions, subjects performed under binocular and monocular viewing, respectively. Kinematics of the grasping movement were recorded. It was predicted that, in the case of a selection process, no after effects would occur in the post-exposure condition, whereas, in the case of recalibration, aftereffects would occur. Moreover, if the recalibration is restricted to the manipulated information, only the group that was provided with binocular vision during the pre- exposure and post-exposure conditions would show aftereffects. Significant condition (pre-exposure, exposure, post-exposure) by block (first three trials, last three trials) effects were found for the moments of grasp onset, peak opening velocity and hand closure, indicating that the hand was opened and closed earlier in the first three trials of telestereoscopic viewing. This coincided with an increase in catching failures. In addition, for the moments of hand closure and peak closing velocity, negative aftereffects were found in the post-exposure condition. The hand was closed later in the first three trials after removal of telestereoscope. With respect to the presence of the aftereffects, no

  17. Angler effort and catch within a spatially complex system of small lakes.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Kevin L.; Chizinski, Christopher J.; Martin, Dustin R.; Barada, Tony J.; Schuckman, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial layout of waterbodies and waterbody size can affect a creel clerk’s ability to intercept anglers for interviews and to accurately count anglers, which will affect the accuracy and precision of estimates of effort and catch. This study aimed to quantify angling effort and catch across a spatially complex system of 19 small (<100 ha) lakes, the Fremont lakes. Total (±SE) angling effort (hours) on individual lakes ranged from 0 (0) to 7,137 (305). Bank anglers utilized 18 of the 19 lakes, and their mean (±SE) trip lengths (hours) ranged from 0.80 (0.31) to 7.75 (6.75), depending on the waterbody. In contrast, boat anglers utilized 14 of the 19 lakes, and their trip lengths ranged from 1.39 (0.24) to 4.25 (0.71), depending on the waterbody. The most sought fishes, as indexed by number of lakes on which effort was exerted, were anything (17 of 19 lakes), largemouth bassMicropterus salmoides (15 of 19 lakes), and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (13 of 19 lakes). Bluegill Lepomis machrochirus, crappie Pomoxis spp., and largemouth bass were caught most frequently across the lakes, but catch rates varied considerably by lake. Of the 1,138 parties interviewed, most parties (93%) visited a single lake but there were 77 (7%) parties that indicated that they had visited multiple lakes during a single day. The contingent of parties that visited more than one lake a day were primarily (87%) bank anglers.. The number of lake-to-lake connections made by anglers visiting more than one waterbody during a single day was related to catch rates and total angling effort. The greater resolution that was achieved with a lake specific creel survey at Fremont lakes revealed a system of lakes with a large degree of spatial variation in angler effort and catch that would be missed by a coarser, system-wide survey that did not differentiate individual lakes.

  18. Biological Technicians

    MedlinePlus

    ... Biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a closely related field. It is important ... Biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a closely related field. It is important ...

  19. College Students' Use of Science Content during Socioscientific Issues Negotiation: Impact of Evolution Understanding and Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Samantha R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the evolution science content used during college students' negotiation of biology-based socioscientific issues (SSI) and examine how it related to students' conceptual understanding and acceptance of biological evolution. Specific research questions were, (1a) what specific evolutionary science content do…

  20. Computer acceptance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer.

  1. Market study: Biological isolation garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The biological isolation garment was originally designed for Apollo astronauts to wear upon their return to earth from the moon to avoid the possibility of their contaminating the environment. The concept has been adapted for medical use to protect certain patients from environmental contamination and the risk of infection. The nature and size of the anticipated market are examined with certain findings and conclusions relative to clinical acceptability and potential commercial viability of the biological isolation garment.

  2. Heterogeneous Disease Trajectories Explain Variable Radiographic, Function and Quality of Life Outcomes in the Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort (CATCH)

    PubMed Central

    Barnabe, Cheryl; Sun, Ye; Boire, Gilles; Hitchon, Carol A.; Haraoui, Boulos; Thorne, J. Carter; Tin, Diane; van der Heijde, Désirée; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Jamal, Shahin; Pope, Janet E.; Keystone, Edward C.; Bartlett, Susan; Bykerk, Vivian P.

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to identify distinct trajectories of disease activity state (DAS) and assess variation in radiographic progression, function and quality of life over the first two years of early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA). The CATCH (Canadian early ArThritis CoHort) is a prospective study recruiting ERA patients from academic and community rheumatology clinics in Canada. Sequential DAS28 scores were used to identify five mutually exclusive groups in the cohort (n = 1,586) using growth-based trajectory modeling. Distinguishing baseline sociodemographic and disease variables, treatment required, and differences in radiographic progression and quality of life measures over two years were assessed. The trajectory groups are characterized as: Group 1 (20%) initial high DAS improving rapidly to remission (REM); Group 2 (21%) initial moderate DAS improving rapidly to REM; Group 3 (30%) initial moderate DAS improving gradually to low DAS; Group 4 (19%) initial high DAS improving continuously to low DAS; and Group 5 (10%) initial high DAS improving gradually only to moderate DAS. Groups differed significantly in age, sex, race, education, employment, income and presence of comorbidities. Group 5 had persistent steroid requirements and the highest biologic therapy use. Group 2 had lower odds (OR 0.22, 95%CI 0.09 to 0.58) and Group 4 higher odds (OR 1.94, 95%CI 0.90 to 4.20) of radiographic progression compared to Group 1. Group 1 had the best improvement in physical function (Health Assessment Questionnaire 1.08 (SD 0.68) units), Physical Component Score (16.4 (SD 10.2) units), Mental Component Score (9.7 (SD 12.5) units) and fatigue (4.1 (SD 3.3) units). In conclusion, distinct disease activity state trajectories explain variable outcomes in ERA. Early prediction of disease course to tailor therapy and addressing social determinants of health could optimize outcomes. PMID:26301589

  3. Artisanal Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, Fishery of Caribbean Nicaragua: I. Catch Rates and Trends, 1991–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lagueux, Cynthia J.; Campbell, Cathi L.; Strindberg, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    This is the first assessment of catch rates for the legal, artisanal green turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery in Caribbean Nicaragua. Data were collected by community members, monitoring up to 14 landing sites from 1991 to 2011. We examined take levels, and temporal and spatial variability in catch rates for the overall fishery, by region, and community using General Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). More than 171,556 green turtles were killed during the period, with a mean estimated minimum 8,169±2,182 annually. There was a statistically significant decline in catch rates overall. Catch rates peaked in 1997 and 2002, followed by a downward trend, particularly from mid-2008 to the end of the study period. Similar downward trends were evident in both study regions. Community specific catch rate trends also indicated declines with decreases ranging from 21% to 90%. Decrease in catch rates in Nicaragua is cause for concern even though the principal source rookery at Tortuguero, Costa Rica, shows an increase in nesting activity. Explanations for the apparent discrepancy between the increasing trend at Tortuguero and decreasing catch rate trends in Nicaragua include: i) an increase in reproductive output, ii) insufficient time has passed to observe the impact of the fishery on the rookery due to a time lag, iii) changes in other segments of the population have not been detected since only nesting activity is monitored, iv) the expansive northern Nicaragua foraging ground may provide a refuge for a sufficient portion of the Tortuguero rookery, and/or v) a larger than expected contribution of non-Tortuguero rookeries occurring in Nicaragua turtle fishing areas. Our results highlight the need for close monitoring of rookeries and in-water aggregations in the Caribbean. Where consumptive use still occurs, nations sharing this resource should implement scientifically based limits on exploitation to ensure sustainability and mitigate impacts to regional population diversity. PMID

  4. Artisanal Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery of Caribbean Nicaragua: I. Catch rates and trends, 1991-2011.

    PubMed

    Lagueux, Cynthia J; Campbell, Cathi L; Strindberg, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    This is the first assessment of catch rates for the legal, artisanal green turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery in Caribbean Nicaragua. Data were collected by community members, monitoring up to 14 landing sites from 1991 to 2011. We examined take levels, and temporal and spatial variability in catch rates for the overall fishery, by region, and community using General Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). More than 171,556 green turtles were killed during the period, with a mean estimated minimum 8,169±2,182 annually. There was a statistically significant decline in catch rates overall. Catch rates peaked in 1997 and 2002, followed by a downward trend, particularly from mid-2008 to the end of the study period. Similar downward trends were evident in both study regions. Community specific catch rate trends also indicated declines with decreases ranging from 21% to 90%. Decrease in catch rates in Nicaragua is cause for concern even though the principal source rookery at Tortuguero, Costa Rica, shows an increase in nesting activity. Explanations for the apparent discrepancy between the increasing trend at Tortuguero and decreasing catch rate trends in Nicaragua include: i) an increase in reproductive output, ii) insufficient time has passed to observe the impact of the fishery on the rookery due to a time lag, iii) changes in other segments of the population have not been detected since only nesting activity is monitored, iv) the expansive northern Nicaragua foraging ground may provide a refuge for a sufficient portion of the Tortuguero rookery, and/or v) a larger than expected contribution of non-Tortuguero rookeries occurring in Nicaragua turtle fishing areas. Our results highlight the need for close monitoring of rookeries and in-water aggregations in the Caribbean. Where consumptive use still occurs, nations sharing this resource should implement scientifically based limits on exploitation to ensure sustainability and mitigate impacts to regional population diversity.

  5. Artisanal Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery of Caribbean Nicaragua: I. Catch rates and trends, 1991-2011.

    PubMed

    Lagueux, Cynthia J; Campbell, Cathi L; Strindberg, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    This is the first assessment of catch rates for the legal, artisanal green turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery in Caribbean Nicaragua. Data were collected by community members, monitoring up to 14 landing sites from 1991 to 2011. We examined take levels, and temporal and spatial variability in catch rates for the overall fishery, by region, and community using General Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). More than 171,556 green turtles were killed during the period, with a mean estimated minimum 8,169±2,182 annually. There was a statistically significant decline in catch rates overall. Catch rates peaked in 1997 and 2002, followed by a downward trend, particularly from mid-2008 to the end of the study period. Similar downward trends were evident in both study regions. Community specific catch rate trends also indicated declines with decreases ranging from 21% to 90%. Decrease in catch rates in Nicaragua is cause for concern even though the principal source rookery at Tortuguero, Costa Rica, shows an increase in nesting activity. Explanations for the apparent discrepancy between the increasing trend at Tortuguero and decreasing catch rate trends in Nicaragua include: i) an increase in reproductive output, ii) insufficient time has passed to observe the impact of the fishery on the rookery due to a time lag, iii) changes in other segments of the population have not been detected since only nesting activity is monitored, iv) the expansive northern Nicaragua foraging ground may provide a refuge for a sufficient portion of the Tortuguero rookery, and/or v) a larger than expected contribution of non-Tortuguero rookeries occurring in Nicaragua turtle fishing areas. Our results highlight the need for close monitoring of rookeries and in-water aggregations in the Caribbean. Where consumptive use still occurs, nations sharing this resource should implement scientifically based limits on exploitation to ensure sustainability and mitigate impacts to regional population diversity. PMID

  6. Evaluation of geostatistical estimators and their applicability to characterise the spatial patterns of recreational fishing catch rates

    PubMed Central

    Aidoo, Eric N.; Mueller, Ute; Goovaerts, Pierre; Hyndes, Glenn A.

    2015-01-01

    Western Australians are heavily engaged in recreational fishing activities with a participation rate of approximately 30%. An accurate estimation of the spatial distribution of recreational catch per unit effort (catch rates) is an integral component for monitoring fish population changes and to develop strategies for ecosystem-based marine management. Geostatistical techniques such as kriging can provide useful tools for characterising the spatial distributions of recreational catch rates. However, most recreational fishery data are highly skewed, zero-inflated and when expressed as ratios are impacted by the small number problem which can influence the estimates obtained from the traditional kriging. The applicability of ordinary, indicator and Poisson kriging to recreational catch rate data was evaluated for three aquatic species with different behaviours and distribution patterns. The prediction performance of each estimator was assessed based on cross-validation. For all three species, the accuracy plot of the indicator kriging (IK) showed a better agreement between expected and empirical proportions of catch rate data falling within probability intervals of increasing size, as measured by the goodness statistic. Also, indicator kriging was found to be better in predicting the latent catch rate for the three species compared to ordinary and Poisson kriging. For each species, the spatial maps from the three estimators displayed similar patterns but Poisson kriging produced smoother spatial distributions. We show that the IK estimator may be preferable for the spatial modelling of catch rate data exhibiting these characteristics, and has the best prediction performance regardless of the life history and distribution patterns of those three species. PMID:26120221

  7. Phosphorylation of a twitchin-related protein controls catch and calcium sensitivity of force production in invertebrate smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Siegman, Marion J.; Funabara, Daisuke; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Watabe, Shugo; Hartshorne, David J.; Butler, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    “Catch” is a condition of prolonged, high-force maintenance at resting intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]) and very low energy usage, occurring in invertebrate smooth muscles, including the anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) of Mytilus edulis. Relaxation from catch is rapid on serotonergic nerve stimulation in intact muscles and application of cAMP in permeabilized muscles. This release of catch occurs by protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of a high (≈600 kDa) molecular mass protein, the regulator of catch. Here, we identify the catch-regulating protein as a homologue of the mini-titin, twitchin, based on (i) a partial cDNA of the purified isolated protein showing 77% amino acid sequence identity to the kinase domain of Aplysia californica twitchin; (ii) a polyclonal antibody to a synthetic peptide in this sequence reacting with the phosphorylated catch-regulating protein band from permeabilized ABRM; and (iii) the similarity of the amino acid composition and molecular weight of the protein to twitchin. In permeabilized ABRM, at all but maximum [Ca2+], phosphorylation of twitchin results in a decreased calcium sensitivity of force production (half-maximum at 2.5 vs. 1.3 μM calcium). At a given submaximal force, with equal numbers of force generators, twitchin phosphorylation increased unloaded shortening velocity ≈2-fold. These data suggest that aspects of the catch state exist not only at resting [Ca2+], but also at higher submaximal [Ca2+]. The mechanism that gives rise to force maintenance in catch probably operates together, to some extent, with that of cycling myosin crossbridges. PMID:9560285

  8. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an agency... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance....

  9. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  10. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  11. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  12. Apollo experience report environmental acceptance testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubach, C. H. M.

    1976-01-01

    Environmental acceptance testing was used extensively to screen selected spacecraft hardware for workmanship defects and manufacturing flaws. The minimum acceptance levels and durations and methods for their establishment are described. Component selection and test monitoring, as well as test implementation requirements, are included. Apollo spacecraft environmental acceptance test results are summarized, and recommendations for future programs are presented.

  13. 48 CFR 245.606-3 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 245.606-3..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 245.606-3 Acceptance. (a) If the schedules are acceptable, the plant clearance...

  14. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  15. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  16. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  17. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  18. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  19. Catching Butterflies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maisha T.

    2008-01-01

    Playmaking for Girls, founded by Rachel May and directed by Susie Spear Purcell, assembles a diverse ensemble of teaching artists committed to using playwriting and performance to help with incarcerated and formerly incarcerated teen girls to help them "think and thus act for themselves" (Freden, 2001, p. 70). These teaching artists, with the…

  20. Computer-aided tracking and characterization of homicides and sexual assaults (CATCH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangas, Lars J.; Terrones, Kristine M.; Keppel, Robert D.; La Moria, Robert D.

    1999-03-01

    When a serial offender strikes, it usually means that the investigation is unprecedented for that police agency. The volume of incoming leads and pieces of information in the case(s) can be overwhelming as evidenced by the thousands of leads gathered in the Ted Bundy Murders, Atlanta Child Murders, and the Green River Murders. Serial cases can be long term investigations in which the suspect remains unknown and continues to perpetrate crimes. With state and local murder investigative systems beginning to crop up, it will become important to manage that information in a timely and efficient way by developing computer programs to assist in that task. One vital function will be to compare violent crime cases from different jurisdictions so investigators can approach the investigation knowing that similar cases exist. CATCH (Computer Aided Tracking and Characterization of Homicides) is being developed to assist crime investigations by assessing likely characteristics of unknown offenders, by relating a specific crime case to other cases, and by providing a tool for clustering similar cases that may be attributed to the same offenders. CATCH is a collection of tools that assist the crime analyst in the investigation process by providing advanced data mining and visualization capabilities.These tools include clustering maps, query tools, geographic maps, timelines, etc. Each tool is designed to give the crime analyst a different view of the case data. The clustering tools in CATCH are based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). The ANNs learn to cluster similar cases from approximately 5000 murders and 3000 sexual assaults residing in a database. The clustering algorithm is applied to parameters describing modus operandi (MO), signature characteristics of the offenders, and other parameters describing the victim and offender. The proximity of cases within a two-dimensional representation of the clusters allows the analyst to identify similar or serial murders and sexual

  1. Big catch, little sharks: Insight into Peruvian small-scale longline fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Philip D; Alfaro-Shigueto, Joanna; Hodgson, David J; Mangel, Jeffrey C; Witt, Matthew J; Godley, Brendan J

    2014-01-01

    Shark take, driven by vast demand for meat and fins, is increasing. We set out to gain insights into the impact of small-scale longline fisheries in Peru. Onboard observers were used to document catch from 145 longline fishing trips (1668 fishing days) originating from Ilo, southern Peru. Fishing effort is divided into two seasons: targeting dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus; December to February) and sharks (March to November). A total of 16,610 sharks were observed caught, with 11,166 identified to species level. Of these, 70.6% were blue sharks (Prionace glauca), 28.4% short-fin mako sharks (Isurus oxyrinchus), and 1% were other species (including thresher (Alopias vulpinus), hammerhead (Sphyrna zygaena), porbeagle (Lamnus nasus), and other Carcharhinidae species (Carcharhinus brachyurus, Carcharhinus falciformis, Galeorhinus galeus). Mean ± SD catch per unit effort of 33.6 ± 10.9 sharks per 1000 hooks was calculated for the shark season and 1.9 ± 3.1 sharks per 1000 hooks were caught in the dolphinfish season. An average of 83.7% of sharks caught (74.7% blue sharks; 93.3% mako sharks) were deemed sexually immature and under the legal minimum landing size, which for species exhibiting k-selected life history traits can result in susceptibility to over exploitation. As these growing fisheries operate along the entire Peruvian coast and may catch millions of sharks per annum, we conclude that their continued expansion, along with ineffective legislative approaches resulting in removal of immature individuals, has the potential to threaten the sustainability of the fishery, its target species, and ecosystem. There is a need for additional monitoring and research to inform novel management strategies for sharks while maintaining fisher livelihoods. PMID:25360274

  2. Projected Scenarios for Coastal First Nations’ Fisheries Catch Potential under Climate Change: Management Challenges and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Weatherdon, Lauren V.; Ota, Yoshitaka; Jones, Miranda C.; Close, David A.; Cheung, William W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated ways in which climate-related shifts in the distributions and relative abundances of marine species are expected to alter the dynamics and catch potential of global fisheries. While these studies assess impacts on large-scale commercial fisheries, few efforts have been made to quantitatively project impacts on small-scale subsistence and commercial fisheries that are economically, socially and culturally important to many coastal communities. This study uses a dynamic bioclimate envelope model to project scenarios of climate-related changes in the relative abundance, distribution and richness of 98 exploited marine fishes and invertebrates of commercial and cultural importance to First Nations in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Declines in abundance are projected for most of the sampled species under both the lower (Representative Concentration Pathway [RCP] 2.6) and higher (RCP 8.5) emission scenarios (-15.0% to -20.8%, respectively), with poleward range shifts occurring at a median rate of 10.3 to 18.0 km decade-1 by 2050 relative to 2000. While a cumulative decline in catch potential is projected coastwide (-4.5 to -10.7%), estimates suggest a strong positive correlation between the change in relative catch potential and latitude, with First Nations’ territories along the northern and central coasts of British Columbia likely to experience less severe declines than those to the south. Furthermore, a strong negative correlation is projected between latitude and the number of species exhibiting declining abundance. These trends are shown to be robust to alternative species distribution models. This study concludes by discussing corresponding management challenges that are likely to be encountered under climate change, and by highlighting the value of joint-management frameworks and traditional fisheries management approaches that could aid in offsetting impacts and developing site-specific mitigation and adaptation strategies derived

  3. Projected Scenarios for Coastal First Nations' Fisheries Catch Potential under Climate Change: Management Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Weatherdon, Lauren V; Ota, Yoshitaka; Jones, Miranda C; Close, David A; Cheung, William W L

    2016-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated ways in which climate-related shifts in the distributions and relative abundances of marine species are expected to alter the dynamics and catch potential of global fisheries. While these studies assess impacts on large-scale commercial fisheries, few efforts have been made to quantitatively project impacts on small-scale subsistence and commercial fisheries that are economically, socially and culturally important to many coastal communities. This study uses a dynamic bioclimate envelope model to project scenarios of climate-related changes in the relative abundance, distribution and richness of 98 exploited marine fishes and invertebrates of commercial and cultural importance to First Nations in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Declines in abundance are projected for most of the sampled species under both the lower (Representative Concentration Pathway [RCP] 2.6) and higher (RCP 8.5) emission scenarios (-15.0% to -20.8%, respectively), with poleward range shifts occurring at a median rate of 10.3 to 18.0 km decade(-1) by 2050 relative to 2000. While a cumulative decline in catch potential is projected coastwide (-4.5 to -10.7%), estimates suggest a strong positive correlation between the change in relative catch potential and latitude, with First Nations' territories along the northern and central coasts of British Columbia likely to experience less severe declines than those to the south. Furthermore, a strong negative correlation is projected between latitude and the number of species exhibiting declining abundance. These trends are shown to be robust to alternative species distribution models. This study concludes by discussing corresponding management challenges that are likely to be encountered under climate change, and by highlighting the value of joint-management frameworks and traditional fisheries management approaches that could aid in offsetting impacts and developing site-specific mitigation and adaptation strategies derived

  4. Big catch, little sharks: Insight into Peruvian small-scale longline fisheries.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Philip D; Alfaro-Shigueto, Joanna; Hodgson, David J; Mangel, Jeffrey C; Witt, Matthew J; Godley, Brendan J

    2014-06-01

    Shark take, driven by vast demand for meat and fins, is increasing. We set out to gain insights into the impact of small-scale longline fisheries in Peru. Onboard observers were used to document catch from 145 longline fishing trips (1668 fishing days) originating from Ilo, southern Peru. Fishing effort is divided into two seasons: targeting dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus; December to February) and sharks (March to November). A total of 16,610 sharks were observed caught, with 11,166 identified to species level. Of these, 70.6% were blue sharks (Prionace glauca), 28.4% short-fin mako sharks (Isurus oxyrinchus), and 1% were other species (including thresher (Alopias vulpinus), hammerhead (Sphyrna zygaena), porbeagle (Lamnus nasus), and other Carcharhinidae species (Carcharhinus brachyurus, Carcharhinus falciformis, Galeorhinus galeus). Mean ± SD catch per unit effort of 33.6 ± 10.9 sharks per 1000 hooks was calculated for the shark season and 1.9 ± 3.1 sharks per 1000 hooks were caught in the dolphinfish season. An average of 83.7% of sharks caught (74.7% blue sharks; 93.3% mako sharks) were deemed sexually immature and under the legal minimum landing size, which for species exhibiting k-selected life history traits can result in susceptibility to over exploitation. As these growing fisheries operate along the entire Peruvian coast and may catch millions of sharks per annum, we conclude that their continued expansion, along with ineffective legislative approaches resulting in removal of immature individuals, has the potential to threaten the sustainability of the fishery, its target species, and ecosystem. There is a need for additional monitoring and research to inform novel management strategies for sharks while maintaining fisher livelihoods. PMID:25360274

  5. Big catch, little sharks: Insight into Peruvian small-scale longline fisheries.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Philip D; Alfaro-Shigueto, Joanna; Hodgson, David J; Mangel, Jeffrey C; Witt, Matthew J; Godley, Brendan J

    2014-06-01

    Shark take, driven by vast demand for meat and fins, is increasing. We set out to gain insights into the impact of small-scale longline fisheries in Peru. Onboard observers were used to document catch from 145 longline fishing trips (1668 fishing days) originating from Ilo, southern Peru. Fishing effort is divided into two seasons: targeting dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus; December to February) and sharks (March to November). A total of 16,610 sharks were observed caught, with 11,166 identified to species level. Of these, 70.6% were blue sharks (Prionace glauca), 28.4% short-fin mako sharks (Isurus oxyrinchus), and 1% were other species (including thresher (Alopias vulpinus), hammerhead (Sphyrna zygaena), porbeagle (Lamnus nasus), and other Carcharhinidae species (Carcharhinus brachyurus, Carcharhinus falciformis, Galeorhinus galeus). Mean ± SD catch per unit effort of 33.6 ± 10.9 sharks per 1000 hooks was calculated for the shark season and 1.9 ± 3.1 sharks per 1000 hooks were caught in the dolphinfish season. An average of 83.7% of sharks caught (74.7% blue sharks; 93.3% mako sharks) were deemed sexually immature and under the legal minimum landing size, which for species exhibiting k-selected life history traits can result in susceptibility to over exploitation. As these growing fisheries operate along the entire Peruvian coast and may catch millions of sharks per annum, we conclude that their continued expansion, along with ineffective legislative approaches resulting in removal of immature individuals, has the potential to threaten the sustainability of the fishery, its target species, and ecosystem. There is a need for additional monitoring and research to inform novel management strategies for sharks while maintaining fisher livelihoods.

  6. Conceptual Ecology of the Evolution Acceptance among Greek Education Students: Knowledge, religious practices and social influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulou, Penelope

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we explored some of the factors related to the acceptance of evolution theory among Greek university students training to be teachers in early childhood education, using conceptual ecology for biological evolution as a theoretical framework. We examined the acceptance of evolution theory and we also looked into the relationship between the acceptance and parents' education level, thinking dispositions and frequency of religious practice as independent variables. Students' moderate acceptance of evolution theory is positively correlated with the frequency of religious practices and thinking dispositions. Our findings indicate that studying a controversial issue such as the acceptance of evolution theory in a multivariate fashion, using conceptual ecology as a theoretical lens to interpret the findings, is informative. They also indicate the differences that exist between societies and how socio-cultural factors such as the nature of religion, as part of the conceptual ecology, influence acceptance of evolution and have an influence on evolution education.

  7. Net discharge anomalies drive uncertainty in catch in the world's largest inland fishery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabo, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Mekong River is one of the world's largest rivers at more than 4,600 km long and a watershed of nearly 800,000 km2. The Tonle Sap Lake (TSL) in Cambodia is believed to be one of the most productive inland fisheries in the world because of its unique hydrologic regime and large input of nutrient-rich sediment from the Mekong. The TSL is the cornerstone of food security in Cambodia yielding ~ 15% of the estimated 2.6M tonne catch in the Mekong basin and providing key nursery habitat for fishes that constitute the catch in other parts of the basin. The TSL fishery is driven by a flood pulse that occurs during and after the SE Asian Monsoon. The timing, duration and magnitude of the monsoon is thought to be a key driver of primary and secondary (fish) production in the system. All three-timing, duration and magnitude--are likely to be different under future climate and as a result of the proposed and recently constructed dams on tributaries in Vietnam and elsewhere. Here I use spectral methods to characterize the timing and magnitude of the flood pulse. Specifically, I use the Discrete Fast Fourier Transform (DFFT) to estimate the seasonal trend in daily discharge for the past 40 years at the Stung Treng gage. The whitened time series represent departures from the long term trend--anomalies--and hence implicitly capture the timing of unusual events. I hypothesize that 'timing is everything' and hence that anomalies will capture variation in the second moment of the fishery. Using a novel metric--the net annual discharge anomaly--I show that catch is significantly more variable in years with net negative flow anomalies; and quite predictable in years with net positive flow anomalies. These results suggest that changes in timing of monsoon flows alone--due to climate change or dams--can significantly increase the uncertainty in catch of a fishery that is vital for food security in the Mekong basin.

  8. Vision: are models of object recognition catching up with the brain?

    PubMed

    Poggio, Tomaso; Ullman, Shimon

    2013-12-01

    Object recognition has been a central yet elusive goal of computational vision. For many years, computer performance seemed highly deficient and unable to emulate the basic capabilities of the human recognition system. Over the past decade or so, computer scientists and neuroscientists have developed algorithms and systems-and models of visual cortex-that have come much closer to human performance in visual identification and categorization. In this personal perspective, we discuss the ongoing struggle of visual models to catch up with the visual cortex, identify key reasons for the relatively rapid improvement of artificial systems and models, and identify open problems for computational vision in this domain.

  9. How baseball outfielders determine where to run to catch fly balls.

    PubMed

    McBeath, M K; Shaffer, D M; Kaiser, M K

    1995-04-28

    Current theory proposes that baseball outfielders catch fly balls by selecting a running path to achieve optical acceleration cancellation of the ball. Yet people appear to lack the ability to discriminate accelerations accurately. This study supports the idea that outfielders convert the temporal problem to a spatial one by selecting a running path that maintains a linear optical trajectory (LOT) for the ball. The LOT model is a strategy of maintaining "control" over the relative direction of optical ball movement in a manner that is similar to simple predator tracking behavior. PMID:7725104

  10. ["Catching falcons, training and keeping healthy". A hunting related reference of the late 16th century].

    PubMed

    Giese, Martina

    2009-01-01

    The "Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek" in Vienna houses a copy of Jacques Du Fouilloux, La vénerie avec plusieurs receptes pour guerir les chiens, Poitiers 1564 (signature: *44. Q. 13), a classic of early modern hunting literature, containing handwritten german notes on the catching, training and healing of birds of prey, mostly falcons, written by the anonymous passionate falconer who owned the print in the late 16th century. These handwritten notes are an interesting document for the history of falconry and likewise for the special terminology of this field of hunting "Fachprosa". In the appendix of the article the handwritten notes are edited and commented.

  11. How baseball outfielders determine where to run to catch fly balls.

    PubMed

    McBeath, M K; Shaffer, D M; Kaiser, M K

    1995-04-28

    Current theory proposes that baseball outfielders catch fly balls by selecting a running path to achieve optical acceleration cancellation of the ball. Yet people appear to lack the ability to discriminate accelerations accurately. This study supports the idea that outfielders convert the temporal problem to a spatial one by selecting a running path that maintains a linear optical trajectory (LOT) for the ball. The LOT model is a strategy of maintaining "control" over the relative direction of optical ball movement in a manner that is similar to simple predator tracking behavior.

  12. Spatially explicit estimates of stock sizes, structure and biomass of herring and blue whiting, and catch data of bluefin tuna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huse, G.; MacKenzie, B. R.; Trenkel, V.; Doray, M.; Nøttestad, L.; Oskarsson, G.

    2015-04-01

    The North Atlantic is a productive marine region which has supported important commercial fisheries for centuries. Many of these fisheries have exploited the pelagic species, including herring, blue whiting and tuna. Here we present data on the distribution of herring and blue whiting based on the international ecosystem survey in the Nordic Seas (IESNS), the bottom trawl survey in the Bay of Biscay and Celtic Sea (EVHOE) and the pelagic survey in the Bay of Biscay (PELGAS). We also present catch data on bluefin tuna, which has been depleted for decades but historically used to be a key predator on the other pelagic stocks during summer. The results show that there were substantial changes in the herring and blue whiting distribution during the 1990s and early 2000s. The earliest bluefin tuna catches noted were in 1907. The catches in the Norwegian Sea area peaked in the 1950s and there have been very small catches since the 1980s. The reported catches in the Mediterranean, on the other hand, peaked in the late 1990s and subsequently had a strong reduction.

  13. Biological Filters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemetson, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

  14. Biological Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Z Index Contact Us FAQs What's New Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  15. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers.

  16. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers. PMID:27494790

  17. Synthesis of Genetic Clock with Combinational Biologic Circuits.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Kuei; Lin, Chun-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The potential of genetic clock lies in its role to triggering logic reaction for sequential biological circuits. In general, biochemical reaction of the biological system is extremely slow. However, a square wave generator used as a genetic clock the transient response should be fast enough to catch the reaction change between two logic levels. Therefore, the requirement for instantaneous changes in logic status is not likely to exist in biological systems. This paper presents a method of synthesizing a genetic clock generator based on the combination of a toggle switch with two biological logic gates. A dual repressor is used to connect the two fundamental biologic circuits. Analysis of the characteristic responses of this genetic clock with its relation to the key parameters is provided. PMID:26451832

  18. Acceptance in Romantic Relationships: The Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doss, Brian D.; Christensen, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Despite the recent emphasis on acceptance in romantic relationships, no validated measure of relationship acceptance presently exists. To fill this gap, the 20-item Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory (FAPBI; A. Christensen & N. S. Jacobson, 1997) was created to assess separately the acceptability and frequency of both…

  19. Nitrate leaching, yields and carbon sequestration after noninversion tillage, catch crops, and straw retention.

    PubMed

    Hansen, E M; Munkholm, L J; Olesen, J E; Melander, B

    2015-05-01

    Crop management factors, such as tillage, rotation, and straw retention, need to be long-term to allow conclusions on effects on crop yields, nitrate leaching, and carbon sequestration. In 2002, two field experiments, each including four cash crop rotations, were established on soils with 9 and 15% clay, under temperate, coastal climate conditions. Direct drilling and harrowing to two different depths were compared to plowing with respect to yield, nitrate N leaching, and carbon sequestration. For comparison of yields across rotations, grain and seed dry matter yields for each crop were converted to grain equivalents (GE). Leaching was compared to yields by calculating yield-scaled leaching (YSL, g N kg GE), and N balances were calculated as the N input in manure minus the N output in products removed from the fields. Direct drilling reduced yields, but no effect on leaching was found. Straw retention did not significantly increase yields, nor did it reduce leaching, while fodder radish ( L.) as a catch crop was capable of reducing nitrate leaching to a low level. Thus, YSL of winter wheat ( L.) was higher than for spring barley ( L.) grown after fodder radish due to the efficient catch crop. Soil organic carbon (SOC) did not increase significantly after 7 yr of straw incorporation or noninversion tillage. There was no correlation between N balances calculated for each growing season and N leaching measured in the following percolation period. PMID:26024267

  20. Estimating insect flight densities from attractive trap catches and flight height distributions.

    PubMed

    Byers, John A

    2012-05-01

    Methods and equations have not been developed previously to estimate insect flight densities, a key factor in decisions regarding trap and lure deployment in programs of monitoring, mass trapping, and mating disruption with semiochemicals. An equation to estimate densities of flying insects per hectare is presented that uses the standard deviation (SD) of the vertical flight distribution, trapping time, the trap's spherical effective radius (ER), catch at the mean flight height (as estimated from a best-fitting normal distribution with SD), and an estimated average flight speed. Data from previous reports were used to estimate flight densities with the equations. The same equations can use traps with pheromone lures or attractive colors with a measured effective attraction radius (EAR) instead of the ER. In practice, EAR is more useful than ER for flight density calculations since attractive traps catch higher numbers of insects and thus can measure lower populations more readily. Computer simulations in three dimensions with varying numbers of insects (density) and varying EAR were used to validate the equations for density estimates of insects in the field. Few studies have provided data to obtain EAR, SD, speed, and trapping time to estimate flight densities per hectare. However, the necessary parameters can be measured more precisely in future studies.

  1. "Catch the Stars in the Net!": Eight Years of Experience in Communicating Astronomy via New Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccato, C.; Nobili, L.; Pastore, S.; Benacchio, L.

    2005-12-01

    The authors describe their work and experience gathered in the field of Public Outreach Education (POE) and Information in Astronomy over the last 8 years, mainly but not only, through the web. "Catch the stars in the Net!" is a long term project made up of many initiatives for nearly all types of possible users: young, students, amateurs, general public or the merely curious. All the initiatives are developed within a focus group on the framework for the particular field and then, after this experimental phase, are published and managed on the web. There are more than 33 astronomica independent websites in Italian on the project webserver; all of them are reachable from one "Web door" with the name "Prendi le Stelle nella Rete!" (Catch the Stars in the Net) at the url: www.lestelle.net. We have called it a "Web door" because it is neither a simple Home Page nor a Web Portal, but presents all the related websites in a well structured way to facilitate their use by the different types of user for different purposes. Half of the 33 websites are in English, and they are all reachable from the url: www.astro2000.org. The project was born from and has developed in parallel with emerging technologies: from the first website in 1997, to the weekly news bulletin in streaming audio/video in 2000, to the last project with wireless technology for an astrophysical mobile learning programme, supported by industry, undertaken this year at primary and middle schools.

  2. CATCh, an ensemble classifier for chimera detection in 16S rRNA sequencing studies.

    PubMed

    Mysara, Mohamed; Saeys, Yvan; Leys, Natalie; Raes, Jeroen; Monsieurs, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    In ecological studies, microbial diversity is nowadays mostly assessed via the detection of phylogenetic marker genes, such as 16S rRNA. However, PCR amplification of these marker genes produces a significant amount of artificial sequences, often referred to as chimeras. Different algorithms have been developed to remove these chimeras, but efforts to combine different methodologies are limited. Therefore, two machine learning classifiers (reference-based and de novo CATCh) were developed by integrating the output of existing chimera detection tools into a new, more powerful method. When comparing our classifiers with existing tools in either the reference-based or de novo mode, a higher performance of our ensemble method was observed on a wide range of sequencing data, including simulated, 454 pyrosequencing, and Illumina MiSeq data sets. Since our algorithm combines the advantages of different individual chimera detection tools, our approach produces more robust results when challenged with chimeric sequences having a low parent divergence, short length of the chimeric range, and various numbers of parents. Additionally, it could be shown that integrating CATCh in the preprocessing pipeline has a beneficial effect on the quality of the clustering in operational taxonomic units. PMID:25527546

  3. Comprehensive analysis of soil nitrogen removal by catch crops based on growth and water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasutake, D.; Kondo, K.; Yamane, S.; Kitano, M.; Mori, M.; Fujiwara, T.

    2016-07-01

    A new methodology for comprehensive analysis of the characteristics of nitrogen (N) removal from greenhouse soil by catch crop was proposed in relation to its growth and water use. The N removal is expressed as the product of five parameters: net assimilation rate, specific leaf area, shoot dry weight, water use efficiency for N removal, and water requirement for growth. This methodology was applied to the data of a greenhouse experiment where corn was cultivated under three plant densities. We analyzed the effect of plant density and examined the effectiveness of the methodology. Higher plant densities are advantageous not only for total N removal but also for water use efficiency in N removal and growth because of the large specific leaf area, shoot dry weight, and decreased soil evaporation. On the other hand, significant positive or negative linear relationships were found between all five parameters and N removal. This should improve the understanding of the N removal mechanisms and the interactions among its components. We show the effectiveness of our analytical methodology, which can contribute to identifying the optimum plant density according to the field situations (available water amount, soil N quantity to be removed) for practical catch crop cultivation.

  4. [Catch-up vaccination of worldwide newcoming (adopted, refugee or migrant) children in France].

    PubMed

    de Monléon, J-V; Regnier, F; Ajana, F; Baptiste, C; Callamand, P; Cheymol, J; Gillet, Y; Hau-Rainsard, I; Lorrot, M; Reinert, P; Marchand, S; Okaïs, C; Picherot, G

    2014-03-01

    In France, international adoption includes around to 90,000 children since 1980 and near 300,000 immigrant children were counted in 2008. This population is heterogeneous, according to age and country of origin, and its large number. It is not easy to completely and surely assess the vaccine status of the child. Due to a great variability of individual situations, it is not possible to have systematic and unchangeable rules. This article aims to give an update of catch-up vaccination of internationally adopted or refugee or migrant children in France. The vaccination status of a child who recently arrived in France is complex and has to be adapted to his country of origin. Some of them were never vaccinated whereas the vaccine status of others is uncertain or unknown. Three parameters have to be considered: the age of the child, the country of origin, and sometimes serology in the case of doubts of his vaccine status. Catch-up vaccination of foreign children has to be adapted to French vaccine recommendations, as a reference, and to vaccines already administered to the child.

  5. Should We Promote Catch-Up Growth or Growth Acceleration in Low-Birthweight Infants?

    PubMed

    Singhal, Atul

    2015-01-01

    The idea that catch-up growth or growth acceleration has adverse effects on long-term health has generated much debate. This pattern of growth is most commonly seen after birth in infants of low birthweight; a global problem affecting over 20 million newborns a year. Faster postnatal growth may have short-term benefits but increases the long-term risk of aging, obesity and metabolic disease. Consequently, the optimal pattern of postnatal growth is unclear and is likely to differ in different populations. In infants born prematurely, faster postnatal growth improves long-term cognitive function but is associated with later risk factors for cardiovascular disease. So, on balance, the current policy is to promote faster growth by increasing nutrient intake (e.g. using higher-nutrient preterm formulas). Whether the same policy should apply to larger preterm infants is not known. Similarly, in infants from impoverished environments, the short-term benefits of faster postnatal growth may outweigh long-term disadvantages. However, whether similar considerations apply to infants from countries in transition is uncertain. For term infants from developed countries, promoting catch-up growth by nutritional supplementation has few advantages for short- or long-term health. Overall therefore, a 'one size fits all' solution for the optimal pattern of postnatal growth is unlikely. PMID:26111563

  6. Implicit advance knowledge effects on the interplay between arm movements and postural adjustments in catching.

    PubMed

    Tijtgat, Pieter; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Bennett, Simon J; De Clercq, Dirk; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2012-06-19

    This study examined if, and how, implicit advance knowledge of upcoming ball speed influences the interplay between arm movements and concomitant postural adjustments in one-handed catching. While standing, subjects were asked to catch balls that were presented with or without implicit advance knowledge of four different ball speeds. Full body kinematics and ground reaction forces were measured, which allowed the assessment of arm movements and postural adjustments through the momentum of the arm, rest of the body and whole body. Providing implicit advance knowledge induced a forward arm raising movement scaled to ball speed in the initial transport phase. However, the accompanying backward postural adjustments were unaffected, which is suggestive of a passive control mechanism. In the subsequent grasping phase, the scaling of arm raising movement exhibited in the presence of implicit advance knowledge resulted in a reduced need for postural adjustments, particularly at the highest ball speed. Together, these findings suggest that cortical involvement based on previous experience not only shapes the arm movements but also the subsequent interplaying postural responses.

  7. Catch up growth in low birth weight infants: striking a healthy balance.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vandana; Singhal, Atul

    2012-06-01

    Catch-up growth in the first few months of life is seen almost ubiquitously in infants born small for their gestational age and conventionally considered highly desirable as it erases the growth deficit. However, recently such growth has been linked to an increased risk of later adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in both low income and high-income countries. In India, a third of all babies are born with a low birth weight, but the optimal growth pattern for such infants is uncertain. As a response to the high rates of infectious morbidities, undernutrition and stunting in children, the current policy is to promote rapid growth in infancy. However, with socio-economic transition and urbanization making the Indian environment more obesogenic, and the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, affecting progressively younger population, the long term adverse programming effect of fast/excessive weight gain in infancy on later body composition and metabolism may outweigh short-term benefits. This review discusses the above issues focusing on the need to strike a healthy balance between the risks and benefits of catch-up growth in Indian infants.

  8. Evaluating methodological assumptions of a catch-curve survival estimation of unmarked precocial shorebird chickes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, Conor P.; Gardner, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Estimating productivity for precocial species can be difficult because young birds leave their nest within hours or days of hatching and detectability thereafter can be very low. Recently, a method for using a modified catch-curve to estimate precocial chick daily survival for age based count data was presented using Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) data from the Missouri River. However, many of the assumptions of the catch-curve approach were not fully evaluated for precocial chicks. We developed a simulation model to mimic Piping Plovers, a fairly representative shorebird, and age-based count-data collection. Using the simulated data, we calculated daily survival estimates and compared them with the known daily survival rates from the simulation model. We conducted these comparisons under different sampling scenarios where the ecological and statistical assumptions had been violated. Overall, the daily survival estimates calculated from the simulated data corresponded well with true survival rates of the simulation. Violating the accurate aging and the independence assumptions did not result in biased daily survival estimates, whereas unequal detection for younger or older birds and violating the birth death equilibrium did result in estimator bias. Assuring that all ages are equally detectable and timing data collection to approximately meet the birth death equilibrium are key to the successful use of this method for precocial shorebirds.

  9. The role of catch-bonds in acto-myosin mechanics and cell mechano-sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akalp, Umut; Vernerey, Franck J.

    Contraction and spreading of adherent cells are important phenomena in range of cellular processes such as differentiation, morphogenesis, and healing. In this presentation, we propose a novel mechanism of adherent cell mechano-sensing, based on the idea that the contractile acto-myosin machinery behaves as a catch-bond. For this, we construct a simplified model of the acto-myosin structure that constitute the building block of stress fibers and express the stability of cross-bridges in terms of the force-dependent bonding energy of the acto-myosin bond. Consistent with experimental measurements, we then consider that the energy barrier of the acto-myosin bond increases for tension and show that this response is enough to explain the force-induced stabilization of an SF. The resulting model eventually takes the form of a force-sensitive, active visco-elastic material, powered by ATP hydrolysis. The model is used to investigate the organization and contraction of the actin cytoskeleton of cells laying on arrays of microposts. Upon comparison with experimental observations and measurements, simulations show that the catch-bond hypothesis is satisfactory to predict the sensitivity of adherent cells to substrate stiffness as well as the complex organization of the actin cytoskeleton.

  10. Should We Promote Catch-Up Growth or Growth Acceleration in Low-Birthweight Infants?

    PubMed

    Singhal, Atul

    2015-01-01

    The idea that catch-up growth or growth acceleration has adverse effects on long-term health has generated much debate. This pattern of growth is most commonly seen after birth in infants of low birthweight; a global problem affecting over 20 million newborns a year. Faster postnatal growth may have short-term benefits but increases the long-term risk of aging, obesity and metabolic disease. Consequently, the optimal pattern of postnatal growth is unclear and is likely to differ in different populations. In infants born prematurely, faster postnatal growth improves long-term cognitive function but is associated with later risk factors for cardiovascular disease. So, on balance, the current policy is to promote faster growth by increasing nutrient intake (e.g. using higher-nutrient preterm formulas). Whether the same policy should apply to larger preterm infants is not known. Similarly, in infants from impoverished environments, the short-term benefits of faster postnatal growth may outweigh long-term disadvantages. However, whether similar considerations apply to infants from countries in transition is uncertain. For term infants from developed countries, promoting catch-up growth by nutritional supplementation has few advantages for short- or long-term health. Overall therefore, a 'one size fits all' solution for the optimal pattern of postnatal growth is unlikely.

  11. Catching and correcting near misses: the collective vigilance and individual accountability trade-off.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, Lianne Patricia; Lingard, Lorelei; Berta, Whitney; Baker, G Ross

    2012-03-01

    Despite the focus on patient safety and quality health care for the last two decades, there is still limited understanding of how interprofessional interactions at an organizational or work unit level influence how clinicians perceive and respond to safety events and errors. Within the rubric of safety events, there has been a growing interest in near misses as precursors to adverse events in health care. Given the interactive nature of the variety of professionals working together in the delivery of health care, understanding how the different clinicians experience and respond to near misses in practice is important. A constructivist grounded theory approach was employed for this study which included semi-structured interviews with 24 participants in a large teaching hospital in Canada. Findings from this study provide a deeper understanding into how different clinicians experience and respond to near misses in clinical practice. This understanding indicates that collective vigilance can potentially create risk by eroding individual professional accountability through reliance on other team members to catch and correct their errors. Further research is needed to explore in more depth the trade-offs between collective vigilance and individual accountability by relying on others to catch and correct the potentially harmful errors and avert negative outcomes. PMID:22214406

  12. The story catches you and you fall down: tragedy, ethnography, and "cultural competence".

    PubMed

    Taylor, Janelle S

    2003-06-01

    Anne Fadiman's The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures (Noonday Press, 1997) is widely used in "cultural competence" efforts within U.S. medical school curricula. This article addresses the relationship between theory, narrative form, and teaching through a close critical reading of that book that is informed by theories of tragedy and ethnographies of medicine. I argue that The Spirit Catches You is so influential as ethnography because it is so moving as a story; it is so moving as a story because it works so well as tragedy; and it works so well as tragedy precisely because of the static, reified, essentialist understanding of "culture" from which it proceeds. If professional anthropologists wish our own best work to speak to "apparitions of culture" within medicine and other "cultures of no culture," I suggest that we must find compelling new narrative forms in which to convey more complex understandings of "culture."

  13. Catching and correcting near misses: the collective vigilance and individual accountability trade-off.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, Lianne Patricia; Lingard, Lorelei; Berta, Whitney; Baker, G Ross

    2012-03-01

    Despite the focus on patient safety and quality health care for the last two decades, there is still limited understanding of how interprofessional interactions at an organizational or work unit level influence how clinicians perceive and respond to safety events and errors. Within the rubric of safety events, there has been a growing interest in near misses as precursors to adverse events in health care. Given the interactive nature of the variety of professionals working together in the delivery of health care, understanding how the different clinicians experience and respond to near misses in practice is important. A constructivist grounded theory approach was employed for this study which included semi-structured interviews with 24 participants in a large teaching hospital in Canada. Findings from this study provide a deeper understanding into how different clinicians experience and respond to near misses in clinical practice. This understanding indicates that collective vigilance can potentially create risk by eroding individual professional accountability through reliance on other team members to catch and correct their errors. Further research is needed to explore in more depth the trade-offs between collective vigilance and individual accountability by relying on others to catch and correct the potentially harmful errors and avert negative outcomes.

  14. The three viewpoints for raising a child's natural science literacy -Catch, Touch and Watch -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, K.; Matsumoto, I.

    2012-12-01

    There are few opportunities to go out for field study, and the difficulty of letting a child and student get an understanding accompanied with realization, in Primary and Junior high schools of Japan (e.g. JST, 2010; 2011). Performing field study using nature near around school is a good opportunity to force the essence of everything. Moreover, it is very important also on the concept formation of the natural science over the things phenomenon of a child and student. In this presentation, I clarify the appearance of the child who wants to educate from a viewpoint of field study, and observe three viewpoints of "Catch", "Touch", and "Watch" which heightens the education effect in the field (nature). In the presentation of this meeting last year (Yoshida and Matsumoto, 2011), I outlined that three viewpoint of "Catch", "Touch", and "Watch" is important. In response to it, I carried out More-Options arrangement about the "natural science literacy" to the child of each viewpoint this time. For that purpose, teacher effective support is required to educate to a child. That is, the focusing to the details in the inside of a large nature, prepare of teaching materials and teaching tools, and a teacher's own independence study are important.

  15. Behaviour of fish by-catch in the mouth of a crustacean trawl.

    PubMed

    Queirolo, D; Gaete, E; Montenegro, I; Soriguer, M C; Erzini, K

    2012-06-01

    The behaviour of fish by-catch was recorded and characterized by in situ observations in the mouth of a crustacean trawl using an underwater camera system with artificial light, at depths between 106 and 461 m, along the central coast of Chile. The groups or species studied were rattails (family Macrouridae), Chilean hake Merluccius gayi gayi, sharks (orders Carcharhiniformes and Squaliformes), skates (family Rajidae), flatfishes (genus Hippoglossina) and small benthopelagic and demersal fishes (orders Osmeriformes, Stomiiformes, Gadiformes, Ophidiiformes and Perciformes). The fish behaviour was categorized in terms of (1) position in the water column, (2) initial orientation with respect to the trawl, (3) locomotion and (4) swimming speed with respect to the trawl. Rattails, sharks, skates and flatfishes were passive in response to the trawl and showed similar behavioural patterns, with most fishes observed sitting or touching the bottom with no swimming or other activity. Merluccius gayi gayi was the most active species, displaying a wide combination of behavioural responses when the trawl approached. This species showed several behavioural patterns, mainly characterized by swimming forward at variable speed. A fraction of small bentho-pelagic and demersal fishes also showed an active behaviour but always at lower speed than the trawl. The species-specific differences in behaviour in the mouth of the trawl suggest that improvements at the level of the footrope can be made to reduce by-catch, especially of passive species.

  16. Catch-bond mechanism of the bacterial adhesin FimH

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Maximilian M.; Jakob, Roman P.; Eras, Jonathan; Baday, Sefer; Eriş, Deniz; Navarra, Giulio; Bernèche, Simon; Ernst, Beat; Maier, Timm; Glockshuber, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    Ligand–receptor interactions that are reinforced by mechanical stress, so-called catch-bonds, play a major role in cell–cell adhesion. They critically contribute to widespread urinary tract infections by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. These pathogens attach to host epithelia via the adhesin FimH, a two-domain protein at the tip of type I pili recognizing terminal mannoses on epithelial glycoproteins. Here we establish peptide-complemented FimH as a model system for fimbrial FimH function. We reveal a three-state mechanism of FimH catch-bond formation based on crystal structures of all states, kinetic analysis of ligand interaction and molecular dynamics simulations. In the absence of tensile force, the FimH pilin domain allosterically accelerates spontaneous ligand dissociation from the FimH lectin domain by 100,000-fold, resulting in weak affinity. Separation of the FimH domains under stress abolishes allosteric interplay and increases the affinity of the lectin domain. Cell tracking demonstrates that rapid ligand dissociation from FimH supports motility of piliated E. coli on mannosylated surfaces in the absence of shear force. PMID:26948702

  17. Effects of adhesive thickness on the Lamb wave pitch-catch signal using bonded piezoelectric wafer transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. M.; Huang, H.

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the effects of adhesive layer on Lamb wave ultrasound pitch-catch signals that are excited and sensed by piezoelectric wafer transducers bonded on a slender structure. Analytical models were established to simulate the longitudinal and flexural vibrations of the structures separately and parametric studies of the bonding layer properties, i.e. the shear transfer parameter, adhesive thickness, and shear modulus, were performed. The parametric studies indicate that there exists an optimal adhesive layer thickness that generates maximum ultrasound pitch-catch signal for both wave modes. This prediction was subsequently validated by measurements. In addition, an improved match between the measured and simulated pitch-catch signals was achieved by adjusting the adhesive layer parameters.

  18. Influence of a baseball glove on the nature of errors produced in simple one-hand catching.

    PubMed

    Fischman, M G; Mucci, W G

    1989-09-01

    The influence of a baseball glove on the positioning and grasping components of one-hand catching was studied under both vision impaired and unimpaired conditions. Skilled softball and baseball players (N = 20) caught tennis balls barehand and softballs with a fielder's glove. In half of the trials, a screen positioned alongside the subject's head blocked vision of the catching hand. All trials were videotaped and errors were categorized by type (position or grasp). Results indicated that with the glove performance was essentially perfect, regardless of the screen condition. Barehand grasping performance, however, was affected by the subject's inability to see his hand to a much greater extent than barehand positioning. We argue that the baseball glove functions to reduce both the positioning accuracy requirements and the grasp timing requirements in simple catching. Peripheral vision of the limb, however, is necessary for controlling the barehand grasp phase.

  19. [Biological weapons].

    PubMed

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

    2010-08-01

    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage.

  20. Gaze Behavior in One-Handed Catching and Its Relation with Interceptive Performance: What the Eyes Can't Tell

    PubMed Central

    Cesqui, Benedetta; Mezzetti, Maura; Lacquaniti, Francesco; d'Avella, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In ball sports, it is usually acknowledged that expert athletes track the ball more accurately than novices. However, there is also evidence that keeping the eyes on the ball is not always necessary for interception. Here we aimed at gaining new insights on the extent to which ocular pursuit performance is related to catching performance. To this end, we analyzed eye and head movements of nine subjects catching a ball projected by an actuated launching apparatus. Four different ball flight durations and two different ball arrival heights were tested and the quality of ocular pursuit was characterized by means of several timing and accuracy parameters. Catching performance differed across subjects and depended on ball flight characteristics. All subjects showed a similar sequence of eye movement events and a similar modulation of the timing of these events in relation to the characteristics of the ball trajectory. On a trial-by-trial basis there was a significant relationship only between pursuit duration and catching performance, confirming that keeping the eyes on the ball longer increases catching success probability. Ocular pursuit parameters values and their dependence on flight conditions as well as the eye and head contributions to gaze shift differed across subjects. However, the observed average individual ocular behavior and the eye-head coordination patterns were not directly related to the individual catching performance. These results suggest that several oculomotor strategies may be used to gather information on ball motion, and that factors unrelated to eye movements may underlie the observed differences in interceptive performance. PMID:25793989