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Sample records for acceptable cancer risk

  1. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-10-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility.

  2. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  3. Accepting space radiation risks.

    PubMed

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2010-08-01

    The human exploration of space inevitably involves exposure to radiation. Associated with this exposure are multiple risks, i.e., probabilities that certain aspects of an astronaut's health or performance will be degraded. The management of these risks requires that such probabilities be accurately predicted, that the actual exposures be verified, and that comprehensive records be maintained. Implicit in these actions is the fact that, at some point, a decision has been made to accept a certain level of risk. This paper examines ethical and practical considerations involved in arriving at a determination that risks are acceptable, roles that the parties involved may play, and obligations arising out of reliance on the informed consent paradigm seen as the basis for ethical radiation risk acceptance in space.

  4. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  5. Science and Safety: 'Acceptable' Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Stresses ways to answer questions related to widespread publicity - are nuclear reactors safe, will dangerous research in genetic manipulation be banned? - with emphasis on true meaning of safety as related to risks. (EB)

  6. Approaches to acceptable risk: a critical guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fischhoff, B.; Lichtenstein, S.; Slovic, P.; Keeney, R.; Derby, S.

    1980-12-01

    Acceptable-risk decisions are an essential step in the management of technological hazards. In many situations, they constitute the weak (or missing) link in the management process. The absence of an adequate decision-making methodology often produces indecision, inconsistency, and dissatisfaction. The result is neither good for hazard management nor good for society. This report offers a critical analysis of the viability of various approaches as guides to acceptable-risk decisions. This report seeks to define acceptable-risk decisions and to examine some frequently proposed, but inappropriate, solutions. 255 refs., 22 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. Development of quantitative risk acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmeyer, J. M.; Okrent, D.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the major considerations for effective management of risk are discussed, with particular emphasis on risks due to nuclear power plant operations. Although there are impacts associated with the rest of the fuel cycle, they are not addressed here. Several previously published proposals for quantitative risk criteria are reviewed. They range from a simple acceptance criterion on individual risk of death to a quantitative risk management framework. The final section discussed some of the problems in the establishment of a framework for the quantitative management of risk.

  8. Natural hazard losses and acceptable risk criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaleghy Rad, M.; Evans, S. G.; Nadim, F.; Lacasse, S.

    2009-12-01

    The criteria for the definition of acceptable risk to the lives of members of a society (commonly called societal risk) resulting from exposure to natural hazards are based in most countries on the frequency and characteristics of industrial accidents, e.g., nuclear power plants. However, historical records indicate that the frequency of natural hazard events is much higher than those involved in industrial hazards and their consequences are far greater. We find that the risk from natural hazards is unacceptable in the current risk criteria framework, i.e., they are an unacceptable risk with respect to the acceptable risk criteria based on the frequency and consequences of industrial accidents. According to a definition of risk, there are two main components; first, the probability of occurrence of the hazard and second, the consequence of the hazard. The occurrence of industrial accident events (hazard) can be controlled to a large extent in contrast to that of natural hazards. However, we can control natural hazard risk, in some cases by engineering solutions to control hazard and by reducing the consequences of the events by mitigating, risk management, warning and monitoring techniques. With reference to natural hazards reducing risk is mainly effected by reducing consequences. The FN-curve is a tool commonly used in societal risk assessment. It is built on a series of frequency-loss data associated with a particular process in a given period of time. It is also used to set acceptable risk criteria for countries or sub-national jurisdictions, by defining slopes and intercepts for plots of a particular (or group of) processes. The intercept of the acceptable risk curve is usually arbitrarily defined in the order of 10-7-10-1 deaths per year, and the slope criteria is based on an adopted aversion factor of the society to accident and disaster losses.The imposed slope criteria is usually between -1 and -2 whereas the slope of FN-curves based on real natural

  9. Acceptability of risk from radiation: Application to human space flight

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-30

    This one of NASA`s sponsored activities of the NCRP. In 1983, NASA asked NCRP to examine radiation risks in space and to make recommendations about career radiation limits for astronauts (with cancer considered as the principal risk). In conjunction with that effort, NCRP was asked to convene this symposium; objective is to examine the technical, strategic, and philosophical issues pertaining to acceptable risk and radiation in space. Nine papers are included together with panel discussions and a summary. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Defining "Acceptable Risk" for Earthquakes Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B.

    2001-05-01

    The greatest and most rapidly growing earthquake risk for mortality is in developing countries. Further, earthquake risk management actions of the last 50 years have reduced the average lethality of earthquakes in earthquake-threatened industrialized countries. (This is separate from the trend of the increasing fiscal cost of earthquakes there.) Despite these clear trends, every new earthquake in developing countries is described in the media as a "wake up" call, announcing the risk these countries face. GeoHazards International (GHI) works at both the community and the policy levels to try to reduce earthquake risk. GHI reduces death and injury by helping vulnerable communities recognize their risk and the methods to manage it, by raising awareness of its risk, building local institutions to manage that risk, and strengthening schools to protect and train the community's future generations. At the policy level, GHI, in collaboration with research partners, is examining whether "acceptance" of these large risks by people in these countries and by international aid and development organizations explains the lack of activity in reducing these risks. The goal of this pilot project - The Global Earthquake Safety Initiative (GESI) - is to develop and evaluate a means of measuring the risk and the effectiveness of risk mitigation actions in the world's largest, most vulnerable cities: in short, to develop an earthquake risk index. One application of this index is to compare the risk and the risk mitigation effort of "comparable" cities. By this means, Lima, for example, can compare the risk of its citizens dying due to earthquakes with the risk of citizens in Santiago and Guayaquil. The authorities of Delhi and Islamabad can compare the relative risk from earthquakes of their school children. This index can be used to measure the effectiveness of alternate mitigation projects, to set goals for mitigation projects, and to plot progress meeting those goals. The preliminary

  11. Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to astronauts on the International Space Station and for future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Methods used to project risks on Earth need to be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting cancer risks from space radiation, and thus impact safety factors. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts: The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in the radiation cancer projection model. NASA s acceptable level of risk for ISS and their new lunar program have been set at the point-estimate of a 3-percent risk of exposure induced death (REID). Tissue-averaged organ dose-equivalents are combined with age at exposure and gender-dependent risk coefficients to project the cumulative occupational radiation risks incurred by astronauts. The 95% CL criteria in practice is a stronger criterion than ALARA, but not an absolute cut-off as is applied to a point projection of a 3% REID. We describe the most recent astronaut dose limits, and present a historical review of astronaut organ doses estimates from the Mercury through the current ISS program, and future projections for lunar and Mars missions. NASA s 95% CL criteria is linked to a vibrant ground based radiobiology program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and heavy ions. The near-term goal of research is new knowledge leading to the reduction of uncertainties in projection models. Risk projections involve a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. The current model for projecting space radiation

  12. A Positive View of Peer Acceptance in Aggressive Youth: Risk for Future Peer Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Cavell, Timothy A.; Prasad-Gaur, Archna

    2001-01-01

    Uses longitudinal data to determine whether a positive view of perceived peer acceptance is a risk factor for continued aggression and social rejection for aggressive children. Results indicate that perceived peer acceptance did not predict aggression. However, children who reported higher levels of perceived peer acceptance received lower actual…

  13. 14 CFR 415.35 - Acceptable flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Launch Range § 415.35 Acceptable flight risk. (a) Flight risk through orbital insertion or impact. Acceptable flight risk through orbital insertion for an orbital launch vehicle, and through impact for a... collective members of the public exposed to debris hazards from any one launch. To obtain safety approval,...

  14. 14 CFR 415.35 - Acceptable flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Launch Range § 415.35 Acceptable flight risk. (a) Flight risk through orbital insertion or impact. Acceptable flight risk through orbital insertion for an orbital launch vehicle, and through impact for a... collective members of the public exposed to debris hazards from any one launch. To obtain safety approval,...

  15. 14 CFR 415.35 - Acceptable flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Launch Range § 415.35 Acceptable flight risk. (a) Flight risk through orbital insertion or impact. Acceptable flight risk through orbital insertion for an orbital launch vehicle, and through impact for a... collective members of the public exposed to debris hazards from any one launch. To obtain safety approval,...

  16. 14 CFR 415.35 - Acceptable flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Launch Range § 415.35 Acceptable flight risk. (a) Flight risk through orbital insertion or impact. Acceptable flight risk through orbital insertion for an orbital launch vehicle, and through impact for a... collective members of the public exposed to debris hazards from any one launch. To obtain safety approval,...

  17. 14 CFR 415.35 - Acceptable flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Launch Range § 415.35 Acceptable flight risk. (a) Flight risk through orbital insertion or impact. Acceptable flight risk through orbital insertion for an orbital launch vehicle, and through impact for a... collective members of the public exposed to debris hazards from any one launch. To obtain safety approval,...

  18. Avoiding Cancer Risk Information

    PubMed Central

    Emanuel, Amber S.; Kiviniemi, Marc T.; Howell, Jennifer L.; Hay, Jennifer L.; Waters, Erika A.; Orom, Heather; Shepperd, James A.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE Perceived risk for health problems such as cancer is a central construct in many models of health decision making and a target for behavior change interventions. However, some portion of the population actively avoids cancer risk information. The prevalence of, explanations for, and consequences of such avoidance are not well understood. OBJECTIVE We examined the prevalence and demographic and psychosocial correlates of cancer risk information avoidance preference in a nationally representative sample. We also examined whether avoidance of cancer risk information corresponds with avoidance of cancer screening. RESULTS Based on our representative sample, 39% of the population indicated that they agreed or strongly agreed that they would “rather not know [their] chance of getting cancer.” This preference was stronger among older participants, female participants, and participants with lower levels of education. Preferring to avoid cancer risk information was stronger among participants who agreed with the beliefs that everything causes cancer, that there’s not much one can do to prevent cancer, and that there are too many recommendations to follow. Finally, the preference to avoid cancer risk information was associated with lower levels of screening for colon cancer. CONCLUSION These findings suggest that cancer risk information avoidance is a multi-determined phenomenon that is associated with demographic characteristics and psychosocial individual differences and also relates to engagement in cancer screening. PMID:26560410

  19. Launch Risk Acceptability: The Public Speaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, Jerold M.; Lamoreaux, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    The perspective of those assuming risk has become increasingly important to launch agencies. The IAASS white paper "An ICAO for Space?" proposed four ultimate goals of any international regulatory framework. The first of these was to "Ensure that citizens of all nations are equally protected from "unreasonable levels" of risk from overflight by missiles, launch vehicles and returning spacecraft". A key component of this concept is the issue of what is an "unreasonable level" of risk from the perspective of those assuming the risk.

  20. Asbestos and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Category Cancer A-Z What Causes Cancer? Asbestos and Cancer Risk What is asbestos? Asbestos is a group of minerals that occur ... in some countries. How are people exposed to asbestos? People can be exposed to asbestos in different ...

  1. A systematic review of patient acceptance of screening for oral cancer outside of dental care settings.

    PubMed

    Paudyal, Priyamvada; Flohr, Francesca D; Llewellyn, Carrie D

    2014-10-01

    This systematic review summarised the literature on patient acceptability of screening for oral cancer outside dental care settings. A comprehensive search of relevant literature was performed in EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHAL, psycINFO, CANCERLIT and BNI to identify relevant articles published between 1975 and Dec 2013. Studies reporting acceptability of oral cancer screening to undiagnosed individuals attending non-dental settings were eligible for inclusion. A total of 2935 references were initially identified from the computerised search but 2217 were excluded after screening the titles. From the abstracts of the remaining 178 articles, 47 full text articles were retrieved for further scrutiny, and 12 studies were found to be eligible for inclusion. In these studies, knowledge about oral cancer, anxiety related to the screening process, preference for care provision, and financial cost were influencing factors for the acceptance of screening. Written information provided to patients in primary care was reported to boost immediate knowledge levels of oral cancer, lessen anxiety, and increase intentions for screening. The majority of screening methods were entirely acceptable to patients; lack of acceptability from the patients' viewpoint was not a significant barrier to carrying out opportunistic screening of high-risk populations. In conclusion, the available evidence suggests that acceptance of, and satisfaction with oral cancer screening is high, particularly where patients have previously been educated about oral cancer. Further research focusing on patient's preferences would enable streamlining of the approach to oral cancer screening taken by any national programme.

  2. Flood risk acceptability and economic value of evacuation.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Guofang; Ikeda, Saburo

    2006-06-01

    The economic value of evacuation and its relationship with flood risk acceptability in Japan were studied by applying the contingent valuation method (CVM). Flood risk acceptability here refers to the extent to which people accept the occurrence of floods, in terms of scale and frequency. The economic value of evacuation refers to people's willingness to pay (WTP) for avoiding evacuation inconvenience because of its inconvenience and the potential for certain losses as a result of evacuation. Our main finding was that over half of the people (56%) who actually evacuated in a real flood situation reported inconvenience. The greatest inconveniences were the shortages of information and food. Evacuation inconvenience can be regarded as an important factor causing the low rate of evacuation in Japan. The WTP for avoiding current inconvenience was approximately half of the estimated economic value of evacuation, implying that the current budget for evacuation is too small and should be increased to improve the conditions of evacuation sites. The economic value of evacuation can be taken into consideration in the risk assessment process in order to evaluate the efficiency of risk reduction measures. Flood risk acceptability and home ownership are two major statistically significantly determinants of the WTP. Considering that those who accept flood risk have a lower WTP for flood risk control (ex ante measures) than those who reject it, it is reasonable to think that there may be a tradeoff between the public WTPs for ex ante or ex post measures.

  3. Estimating Radiogenic Cancer Risks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document presents a revised methodology for EPA's estimation of cancer risks due to low-LET radiation exposures developed in light of information that has become available, especially new information on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

  4. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... common than normal in children who lived near Chernobyl, the site of a 1986 nuclear plant accident ... exposure was much, much lower than that around Chernobyl. A higher risk of thyroid cancer has not ...

  5. Values, perceived risks and benefits, and acceptability of nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Judith I M; Steg, Linda; Poortinga, Wouter

    2013-02-01

    We examined how personal values and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with the acceptability of nuclear energy (NE). A theoretical model is tested in which beliefs about the risks and benefits of NE mediate the relationship between values and acceptability. The results showed that egoistic values are positively related to the perceived benefits and acceptability of NE. In contrast, altruistic and biospheric values were positively related to the perceived risks of NE. Although it has been argued that NE may help to combat climate change through lower CO(2) emissions, these environmental benefits were not acknowledged by people with strong biospheric values. Furthermore, results confirmed that the more risks respondents perceived, the less they were inclined to accept NE. In contrast, the more a person believed that NE has beneficial consequences, the more acceptable NE was. Finally, as expected, perceived risks and benefits were found to partly mediate the relationship between personal values and acceptability. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  6. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    Colon cancer - prevention; Colon cancer - screening ... We do not know what causes colon cancer, but we do know some of the things that may increase the risk of getting it, such as: Age. Your risk increases after ...

  7. Knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Martha P; Dune, Tanaka; Shetty, Prasanna K; Shetty, Avinash K

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in India; however, participation in prevention and screening is low and the reasons for this are not well understood. In a cross-sectional survey in August 2008, 202 healthy women in Karnataka, India completed a questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Factors associated with vaccination and Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening acceptance were explored. Thirty-six percent of women had heard of HPV while 15% had heard of cervical cancer. Five percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, and 4% of women felt at risk of HPV infection. Forty-six percent of women were accepting of vaccination, but fewer (21%) were willing to have a Pap smear. Overall, knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer topics was low. Women with negative attitudes toward HPV infection were 5.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10) times more likely to accept vaccination but were not significantly more likely to accept Pap smear (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.0). Cost and a low level of perceived risk were the most frequent factors cited as potential barriers. Improving awareness of HPV and cervical cancer through health care providers in addition to increasing access to vaccination and screening through government-sponsored programs may be feasible and effective methods to reduce cervical cancer burden in India.

  8. Cancer Risk Assessment Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidala, Jim

    1985-01-01

    Describes the scientific basis of cancer risk assessment, outlining the dominant controversies surrounding the use of different methods for identifying carcinogens (short-term tests, animal bioassays, and epidemiological studies). Points out that risk assessment is as much an art as it is a science. (DH)

  9. Risk Acceptance in Multiple Sclerosis Patients on Natalizumab Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tur, Carmen; Tintoré, Mar; Vidal-Jordana, Ángela; Bichuetti, Denis; Nieto González, Pablo; Arévalo, María Jesús; Arrambide, Georgina; Anglada, Elisenda; Galán, Ingrid; Castilló, Joaquín; Nos, Carlos; Río, Jordi; Martín, María Isabel; Comabella, Manuel; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Montalban, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the ability of natalizumab (NTZ)-treated patients to assume treatment-associated risks and the factors involved in such risk acceptance. Methods From a total of 185 patients, 114 patients on NTZ as of July 2011 carried out a comprehensive survey. We obtained disease severity perception scores, personality traits’ scores, and risk-acceptance scores (RAS) so that higher RAS indicated higher risk acceptance. We recorded JC virus status (JCV+/-), prior immunosuppression, NTZ treatment duration, and clinical characteristics. NTZ patients were split into subgroups (A-E), depending on their individual PML risk. Some 22 MS patients on first-line drugs (DMD) acted as controls. Results No differences between treatment groups were observed in disease severity perception and personality traits. RAS were higher in NTZ than in DMD patients (p<0.01). Perception of the own disease as a more severe condition tended to predict higher RAS (p=0.07). Higher neuroticism scores predicted higher RAS in the NTZ group as a whole (p=0.04), and in high PML-risk subgroups (A-B) (p=0.02). In low PML-risk subgroups (C-E), higher RAS were associated with a JCV+ status (p=0.01). Neither disability scores nor pre-treatment relapse rate predicted RAS in either group. Conclusions Risk acceptance is a multifactorial phenomenon, which might be partly explained by an adaptive process, in light of the higher risk acceptance amongst NTZ-treated patients and, especially, amongst those who are JCV seropositive but still have low PML risk, but which seems also intimately related to personality traits. PMID:24340060

  10. Understanding your prostate cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000931.htm Understanding your prostate cancer risk To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. Are you at risk for developing prostate cancer in your lifetime? Learn about the risk factors ...

  11. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000830.htm Understanding your breast cancer risk To use the sharing features on this page, ... you can do to help prevent breast cancer. Risk Factors You Cannot Control Risk factors you cannot ...

  12. Acceptability of telemedicine and other cancer genetic counseling models of service delivery in geographically remote settings.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Eileen; Lamb, Amanda; Grillo, Barbara; Lucas, Lee; Miesfeldt, Susan

    2014-04-01

    This work examined acceptability of cancer genetic counseling models of service delivery among Maine residents at risk for hereditary cancer susceptibility disorders. Pre-counseling, participants ranked characteristics reflecting models of care from most to least important including: mode-of-communication (in-person versus telegenetics), provider level of training (genetic specialty versus some training/experience), delivery format (one-on-one versus group counseling), and location (local versus tertiary service requiring travel). Associations between models of care characteristic rankings and patient characteristics, including rural residence, perceived cancer risk, and perceived risk for a hereditary cancer risk susceptibility disorder were examined. A total of 149/300 (49.7% response rate) individuals from 11/16 Maine counties responded; 30.8% were from rural counties; 92.2% indicated that an important/the most important model of care characteristic is provider professional qualifications. Among other characteristics, 65.1% ranked one-on-one counseling as important/the most important. In-person and local counseling were ranked the two least important characteristics (51.8% and 52.1% important/the most important, respectively). Responses did not vary by patient characteristics with the exception of greater acceptance of group counseling among those at perceived high personal cancer risk. Cancer telegenetic services hold promise for access to expert providers in a one-on-one format for rurally remote clients.

  13. Lifestyle and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2010-11-01

    The main behavioural and environmental risk factors for cancer mortality in the world are related to diet and physical inactivity, use of addictive substances, sexual and reproductive health, exposure to air pollution and use of contaminated needles. The population attributable fraction for all cancer sites worldwide considering the joint effect of these factors is about 35% (34 % for low-and middle-income countries and 37% for high-income countries). Seventy-one percent(71%) of lung cancer deaths are caused by tobacco use (lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally). The combined effects of tobacco use, low fruit and vegetable intake, urban air pollution, and indoor smoke from household use of solid fuels cause 76% of lung cancer deaths. Exposure to these behavioural and environmental factors is preventable; modifications in lifestyle could have a large impact in reducing the cancer burden worldwide (WHO, 2009). The evidence of association between lifestyle factors and cancer, as well as the main international recommendations for prevention are briefly reviewed and commented upon here.

  14. Acceptability of Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audet, Carolyn M.; Matos, Carla Silva; Blevins, Meridith; Cardoso, Aventina; Moon, Troy D.; Sidat, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    In Zambezia province, Mozambique, cervical cancer (CC) screening was introduced to rural communities in 2010. Our study sought to determine whether women would accept screening via pelvic examination and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) at two clinical sites near the onset of a new CC screening program. A cross-sectional descriptive study…

  15. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... continue reading this guide. ‹ Salivary Gland Cancer - Medical Illustrations up Salivary Gland Cancer - Screening › f t k ... Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Screening Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Subtypes ...

  16. [Environment and cancer risk].

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    Several environmental factors, defined as pollutants present in air, water or other media, have been shown to be carcinogenic, including residential exposure to asbestos and radon, second-hand tobacco smoke, diesel engine emissions, and arsenic contamination of drinking water. Other factors, such as outdoor air pollution and water chlorination byproducts, are suspected carcinogens. In the case of pesticides and electromagnetic fields, including the use of cell phones, the available evidence does not suggest an increased risk of cancer. Overall, environmental causes of cancer are responsible for a limited proportion of the total burden of cancer in France and other high-income countries. Because of the involuntary nature of the exposure and the possibility to implement preventive measures, research into environmental cancer remains an important priority.

  17. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  18. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: Cognitive bases acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, T. C.; Lindell, M. K.; Rankin, W. L.; Nealey, S. M.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies; and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: short term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), long term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  19. Cancer Risk Prediction and Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer prediction models provide an important approach to assessing risk and prognosis by identifying individuals at high risk, facilitating the design and planning of clinical cancer trials, fostering the development of benefit-risk indices, and enabling estimates of the population burden and cost of cancer.

  20. Risk Perception and the Public Acceptance of Drones.

    PubMed

    Clothier, Reece A; Greer, Dominique A; Greer, Duncan G; Mehta, Amisha M

    2015-06-01

    Unmanned aircraft, or drones, are a rapidly emerging sector of the aviation industry. There has been limited substantive research, however, into the public perception and acceptance of drones. This article presents the results from two surveys of the Australian public designed to investigate (1) whether the public perceive drones to be riskier than existing manned aviation, (2) whether the terminology used to describe the technology influences public perception, and (3) what the broader concerns are that may influence public acceptance of the technology. We find that the Australian public currently hold a relatively neutral attitude toward drones. Respondents did not consider the technology to be overly unsafe, risky, beneficial, or threatening. Drones are largely viewed as being of comparable risk to that of existing manned aviation. Furthermore, terminology had a minimal effect on the perception of the risks or acceptability of the technology. The neutral response is likely due to a lack of knowledge about the technology, which was also identified as the most prevalent public concern as opposed to the risks associated with its use. Privacy, military use, and misuse (e.g., terrorism) were also significant public concerns. The results suggest that society is yet to form an opinion of drones. As public knowledge increases, the current position is likely to change. Industry communication and media coverage will likely influence the ultimate position adopted by the public, which can be difficult to change once established.

  1. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  2. End-To-End Risk Assesment: From Genes and Protein to Acceptable Radiation Risks for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Schimmerling, Walter

    2000-01-01

    The human exploration of Mars will impose unavoidable health risks from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and possibly solar particle events (SPE). It is the goal of NASA's Space Radiation Health Program to develop the capability to predict health risks with significant accuracy to ensure that risks are well below acceptable levels and to allow for mitigation approaches to be effective at reasonable costs. End-to-End risk assessment is the approach being followed to understand proton and heavy ion damage at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels in order to predict the probability of the major health risk including cancer, neurological disorders, hereditary effects, cataracts, and acute radiation sickness and to develop countermeasures for mitigating risks.

  3. Acceptability of Fitbit for physical activity tracking within clinical care among men with prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Dori; Kadokura, Elyse A; Bouldin, Erin D; Miyawaki, Christina E; Higano, Celestia S.; Hartzler, Andrea L.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has not examined the acceptability of commercially available fitness tracking devices in men with prostate cancer, many of whom are at risk for conditions that physical activity could alleviate. We conducted an exploratory 3-week field study to examine acceptability of the Fitbit Zip and attitudes towards integrating fitness tracking into clinical care among men with prostate cancer. Twenty-six men used the Fitbit Zip for a one-week baseline phase followed by a 2-week optional use phase and then completed in-depth interviews. Interview data was analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Participants found the device comfortable and easy to wear. Barriers to use included health and technology difficulties. Participants expressed value in sharing Fitbit data with their health care team. Findings support the use of easy to use and simple fitness trackers among men with prostate cancer and there could be opportunities to integrate fitness tracker data into clinical care. PMID:28269902

  4. Acceptability of Fitbit for physical activity tracking within clinical care among men with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Dori; Kadokura, Elyse A; Bouldin, Erin D; Miyawaki, Christina E; Higano, Celestia S; Hartzler, Andrea L

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has not examined the acceptability of commercially available fitness tracking devices in men with prostate cancer, many of whom are at risk for conditions that physical activity could alleviate. We conducted an exploratory 3-week field study to examine acceptability of the Fitbit Zip and attitudes towards integrating fitness tracking into clinical care among men with prostate cancer. Twenty-six men used the Fitbit Zip for a one-week baseline phase followed by a 2-week optional use phase and then completed in-depth interviews. Interview data was analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Participants found the device comfortable and easy to wear. Barriers to use included health and technology difficulties. Participants expressed value in sharing Fitbit data with their health care team. Findings support the use of easy to use and simple fitness trackers among men with prostate cancer and there could be opportunities to integrate fitness tracker data into clinical care.

  5. Breast cancer risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  6. Environmental cancer risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In a long-awaited report (‘Assessment of Technologies for Determining Cancer Risks From the Environment’), the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) has evaluated the role of environmental factors in cancer diseases. Environment is interpreted broadly as encompassing anything that interacts with humans, including the natural environment, food, radiation, the workplace, etc. Geologic factors range from geographic location to radiation and specific minerals. The report, however, is based on an inadequate data base in most instances, and its major recommendations are related to the establishment of a national cancer registry to record cancer statistics, as is done for many other diseases. Presently, hard statistics are lacking in the establishment of some association between the cause-effect relationship of most environmental factors and most carcinogens. Of particular interest, but unfortunately based on unreliable data, are the effects of mineral substances such as ‘asbestos.’ USGS mineralogist Malcolm Ross will review asbestos and its effects on human health in the forthcoming Mineralogical Society of America's Short Course on the Amphiboles (Reviews in Mineralogy, 9, in press, 1981).

  7. When Failure Means Success: Accepting Risk in Aerospace Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Singer, Christopher E.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last three decades, NASA has been diligent in qualifying systems for human space flight. As the Agency transitions from operating the Space Shuttle, its employees must learn to accept higher risk levels to generate the data needed to certify its next human space flight system. The Marshall Center s Engineering workforce is developing the Ares I crew launch vehicle and designing the Ares V cargo launch vehicle for safety, reliability, and cost-effective operations. This presentation will provide a risk retrospective, using first-hand examples from the Delta Clipper-Experimental Advanced (DC-XA) and the X-33 single-stage-to-orbit flight demonstrators, while looking ahead to the upcoming Ares I-X uncrewed test flight. The DC-XA was successfully flown twice in 26 hours, setting a new turnaround-time record. Later, one of its 3 landing gears did not deploy, it tipped over, and was destroyed. During structural testing, the X-33 s advanced composite tanks were unable to withstand the forces to which it was subjected and the project was later cancelled. These are examples of successful failures, as the data generated are captured in databases used by vehicle designers today. More recently, the Ares I-X flight readiness review process was streamlined in keeping with the mission's objectives, since human lives are not at stake, which reflects the beginning of a cultural change. Failures are acceptable during testing, as they provide the lessons that actually lead to mission success. These and other examples will stimulate the discussion of when to accept risk in aerospace projects.

  8. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  9. Esophageal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing esophageal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  10. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  11. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  12. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing pancreatic cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  13. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  14. Testicular Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of testicular cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  15. Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing ovarian cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  16. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  17. Bladder Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing bladder cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  18. Liver Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing liver cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  19. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  20. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In ... cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. They concluded that having an abortion or miscarriage ...

  1. Familial risk for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kanwal, Madiha; Ding, Xiao-Ji; Cao, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer, which has a low survival rate, is a leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Smoking and air pollution are the major causes of lung cancer; however, numerous studies have demonstrated that genetic factors also contribute to the development of lung cancer. A family history of lung cancer increases the risk for the disease in both smokers and never-smokers. This review focuses on familial lung cancer, in particular on the familial aggregation of lung cancer. The development of familial lung cancer involves shared environmental and genetic factors among family members. Familial lung cancer represents a good model for investigating the association between environmental and genetic factors, as well as for identifying susceptibility genes for lung cancer. In addition, studies on familial lung cancer may help to elucidate the etiology and mechanism of lung cancer, and may identify novel biomarkers for early detection and diagnosis, targeted therapy and improved prevention strategies. This review presents the aetiology and molecular biology of lung cancer and then systematically introduces and discusses several aspects of familial lung cancer, including the characteristics of familial lung cancer, population-based studies on familial lung cancer and the genetics of familial lung cancer. PMID:28356926

  2. Infective Endocarditis and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li-Min; Wu, Jung-Nan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Day, Jen-Der; Liang, Ji-An; Liou, Li-Ren; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the possible relationship between endocarditis and overall and individual cancer risk among study participants in Taiwan. We used data from the National Health Insurance program of Taiwan to conduct a population-based, observational, and retrospective cohort study. The case group consisted of 14,534 patients who were diagnosed with endocarditis between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. For the control group, 4 patients without endocarditis were frequency matched to each endocarditis patient according to age, sex, and index year. Competing risks regression analysis was conducted to determine the effect of endocarditis on cancer risk. A large difference was noted in Charlson comorbidity index between endocarditis and nonendocarditis patients. In patients with endocarditis, the risk for developing overall cancer was significant and 119% higher than in patients without endocarditis (adjusted subhazard ratio = 2.19, 95% confidence interval = 1.98–2.42). Regarding individual cancers, in addition to head and neck, uterus, female breast and hematological malignancies, the risks of developing colorectal cancer, and some digestive tract cancers were significantly higher. Additional analyses determined that the association of cancer with endocarditis is stronger within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis. This population-based cohort study found that patients with endocarditis are at a higher risk for colorectal cancer and other cancers in Taiwan. The risk was even higher within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis. It suggested that endocarditis is an early marker of colorectal cancer and other cancers. The underlying mechanisms must still be explored and may account for a shared risk factor of infection in both endocarditis and malignancy. PMID:27015220

  3. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt with, as well as various pregnancy-associated factors, events, and perinatal outcomes. Finally, the contribution of breast feeding to a reduced breast cancer risk is discussed. PMID:25759622

  4. Bone metastasis risk factors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, Catarina; Vendrell, Inês; Ferreira, Arlindo R; Casimiro, Sandra; Mansinho, André; Alho, Irina; Costa, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Bone is the single most frequent site for bone metastasis in breast cancer patients. Patients with bone-only metastasis have a fairly good prognosis when compared with patients with visceral disease. Nevertheless, cancer-induced bone disease carries an important risk of developing skeletal related events that impact quality of life (QoL). It is therefore particularly important to stratify patients according to their risk of developing bone metastasis. In this context, several risk factors have been studied, including demographic, clinicopathological, genetic, and metabolic factors. Most of them show conflicting or non-definitive associations and are not validated for clinical use. Nonetheless, tumour intrinsic subtype is widely accepted as a major risk factor for bone metastasis development and luminal breast cancer carries an increased risk for bone disease. Other factors such as gene signatures, expression of specific cytokines (such as bone sialoprotein and bone morphogenetic protein 7) or components of the extracellular matrix (like bone crosslinked C-telopeptide) might also influence the development of bone metastasis. Knowledge of risk factors related with bone disease is of paramount importance as it might be a prediction tool for triggering the use of targeted agents and allow for better patient selection for future clinical trials. PMID:28194227

  5. Low risk papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Brito, Juan P; Hay, Ian D; Morris, John C

    2014-06-16

    Thyroid cancer is one of the fastest growing diagnoses; more cases of thyroid cancer are found every year than all leukemias and cancers of the liver, pancreas, and stomach. Most of these incident cases are papillary in origin and are both small and localized. Patients with these small localized papillary thyroid cancers have a 99% survival rate at 20 years. In view of the excellent prognosis of these tumors, they have been denoted as low risk. The incidence of these low risk thyroid cancers is growing, probably because of the use of imaging technologies capable of exposing a large reservoir of subclinical disease. Despite their excellent prognosis, these subclinical low risk cancers are often treated aggressively. Although surgery is traditionally viewed as the cornerstone treatment for these tumors, there is less agreement about the extent of surgery (lobectomy v near total thyroidectomy) and whether prophylactic central neck dissection for removal of lymph nodes is needed. Many of these tumors are treated with radioactive iodine ablation and thyrotropin suppressive therapy, which-although effective for more aggressive forms of thyroid cancer-have not been shown to be of benefit in the management of these lesions. This review offers an evidence based approach to managing low risk papillary thyroid cancer. It also looks at the future of promising alternative surgical techniques, non-surgical minimally localized invasive therapies (ethanol ablation and laser ablation), and active surveillance, all of which form part of a more individualized treatment approach for low risk papillary thyroid tumors.

  6. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body's largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... cancer risk factors include: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  7. Canadian adolescents' perspectives of cancer risk: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Woodgate, Roberta L; Safipour, Jalal; Tailor, Ketan

    2015-09-01

    Research examining adolescents' understandings of cancer and cancer risk is limited. Accordingly, we conducted an ethnographic study that sought to extend our limited understanding of Canadian adolescents' perspectives of cancer and cancer prevention including how adolescents conceptualize and understand cancer risk. This article addresses findings specific to adolescents' perspectives of cancer risk. Seventy-five adolescents (11-19 years old) took part in the study. Two individual open-ended interviews were planned for each adolescent with the second interview occurring 4 to 5 weeks after the first interview. The second interview was complemented by the use of photovoice. Four focus groups, composed of the adolescents who took part in the individual interviews, were also conducted. Data analysis involved both thematic and content analysis. Findings revealed that adolescents conceptualized cancer risk in terms of specific risk factors, with lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking, diet/nutrition and physical inactivity) dominating their discourse. Adolescents rationalized risky health behaviours through use of cognitive strategies that included questioning and evaluating risk information, considering the benefits costs of the cancer risk, and downplaying the impact of the cancer risk. Use of these cognitive strategies helped to make cancer risks more acceptable to adolescents. While adolescents felt that cancer could not always be prevented, they did feel it was possible for individuals to delay getting cancer by lowering the impact of cancer risks through making the right choices. Although more research in this area is needed, the findings from this study may help inform cancer prevention and risk communication programmes and policies.

  8. Risk analysis for new nuclear waste sites: Will it generate public acceptance?

    SciTech Connect

    Inhaber, H.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses public acceptance of radioactive waste facilities and what seems to be increasingly militant stances against such facilities. The role of risk assessment in possibly enhancing public acceptance is investigated.

  9. Cancer risks after radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Voelz, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    A general overview of the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer induction is presented. The relationship between the degree of risk and absorbed dose is examined. Mortality from radiation-induced cancer in the US is estimated and percentages attributable to various sources are given. (ACR)

  10. The Mutable Nature of Risk and Acceptability: A Hybrid Risk Governance Framework.

    PubMed

    Wong, Catherine Mei Ling

    2015-11-01

    This article focuses on the fluid nature of risk problems and the challenges it presents to establishing acceptability in risk governance. It introduces an actor-network theory (ANT) perspective as a way to deal with the mutable nature of risk controversies and the configuration of stakeholders. To translate this into a practicable framework, the article proposes a hybrid risk governance framework that combines ANT with integrative risk governance, deliberative democracy, and responsive regulation. This addresses a number of the limitations in existing risk governance models, including: (1) the lack of more substantive public participation throughout the lifecycle of a project; (2) hijacking of deliberative forums by particular groups; and (3) the treatment of risk problems and their associated stakeholders as immutable entities. The framework constitutes a five-stage process of co-selection, co-design, co-planning, and co-regulation to facilitate the co-production of collective interests and knowledge, build capacities, and strengthen accountability in the process. The aims of this article are twofold: conceptually, it introduces a framework of risk governance that accounts for the mutable nature of risk problems and configuration of stakeholders. In practice, this article offers risk managers and practitioners of risk governance a set of procedures with which to operationalize this conceptual approach to risk and stakeholder engagement.

  11. Assessing the Acceptability, Feasibility, and Effectiveness of a Tablet-Based Cervical Cancer Educational Intervention.

    PubMed

    Caster, M M; Norris, A H; Butao, C; Carr Reese, P; Chemey, E; Phuka, J; Turner, A N

    2017-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a common and deadly disease, especially in developing countries. We developed and implemented an interactive, tablet-based educational intervention to improve cervical cancer knowledge among women in rural Malawi. Chichewa-speaking adult women in six rural villages participated. Each woman took a pretest, participated in the lesson, and then took a posttest. The lesson included information on cervical cancer symptoms, causes, risk factors, prevention, and treatment. Over the 6-month study period, 243 women participated. Women ranged in age from 18 to 77 years. Only 15 % had education beyond primary school. Nearly half of participants (48 %) had heard of cervical cancer prior to viewing the lesson. For these women, the median number of correct responses on the pretest was 11 out of 20; after the lesson, they had a median of 18 correct responses (p < 0.001). After the intervention, 93 % of women indicated a desire for cervical cancer screening. Despite lack of familiarity with computers (96 %), most women (94 %) found the tablet easy to use. A tablet-based educational program was an effective, feasible, and acceptable strategy to disseminate cervical cancer information to women with low education in rural Malawi. This method may be appropriate to distribute health information about other health topics in low-resource settings.

  12. 14 CFR 435.35 - Acceptable reentry risk for reentry of a reentry vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Acceptable reentry risk for reentry of a reentry vehicle. To obtain safety approval for reentry, an applicant must demonstrate that risk for the proposed reentry, when assessed in combination with launch of the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptable reentry risk for reentry of...

  13. Occupational risk for laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Flanders, W D; Rothman, K J

    1982-04-01

    In a case-control analysis, we studied the effects of type of employment on laryngeal cancer risk using the interview data from the Third National Cancer Survey. Effects were measured relative to the risk for those employed in a group of arbitrarily defined industries and occupations with low risk. We excluded females and controlled for age, tobacco use, alcohol use, and race in the analysis. We found ratio estimates above 3.0 for workers in the railroad industry and the lumber industry; and for sheetmetal workers, grinding wheel operators, and automobile mechanics.

  14. 24 CFR 266.300 - HFAs accepting 50 percent or more of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY... acceptability of the proposed mortgagor and management agent; (4) Approve the Affirmative Fair Housing...

  15. 24 CFR 266.300 - HFAs accepting 50 percent or more of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY... acceptability of the proposed mortgagor and management agent; (4) Approve the Affirmative Fair Housing...

  16. 24 CFR 266.305 - HFAs accepting less than 50 percent of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY... acceptability of the proposed mortgagor and management agent; (4) Approve the Affirmative Fair Housing...

  17. Affect and Acceptability: Exploring Teachers' Technology-Related Risk Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Sarah K.

    2011-01-01

    Educational change, such as technology integration, involves risk. Teachers are encouraged to "take risks", but what risks they are asked to take and how do they perceive these risks? Developing an understanding of teachers' technology-related risk perceptions can help explain their choices and behaviours. This paper presents a way to…

  18. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral cavity (excluding the lips), pharynx (throat), and larynx (voice box) ( 4 ). People who consume 50 or ... developing cancers of the oral cavity , pharynx (throat), larynx , and esophagus than people who use either alcohol ...

  19. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... age at the time of diagnosis is 71. Gender Men are slightly more likely to develop pancreatic ... would like to unsubscribe/opt out from our communications, please follow this link: http://www.cancer.org/ ...

  20. Developmental environment affects risk-acceptance in the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sandeep; Logue, David M; Abiola, Ife O; Cade, William H

    2011-02-01

    Consistent individual differences in the tendency to accept risk have been demonstrated in invertebrates, fish, birds, and mammals, including humans. These individual differences have been associated with size, growth rate, survival, and reproductive success. Little research, however, has investigated the effect of developmental environment on individual differences in risk-acceptance. Competing hypotheses offer different explanations of how variation in the quality of the developmental environment affects risk-acceptance in adults. The first hypothesis states that individuals developing in poor quality environments take risks because such behavior is their only means of obtaining adequate fitness returns. The second hypothesis states that individuals developing in poor environments avoid risk because their poor physical condition makes them especially vulnerable to injury or death. We measured several forms of risk-accepting behavior (exploration, foraging, and recovery after disturbance) in male hissing cockroaches (Gromphadorhina portentosa) that had developed in nutritional and social environments of varying quality. Individuals raised on poor nutrition diets exhibited lower levels of risk-acceptance than those raised on high nutrition diets. Risk-acceptance among individuals that developed on poor nutrition diets was negatively correlated with body size. We conclude that quality of developmental environment affects risk-acceptance across behavioral contexts in male hissing cockroaches. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that condition-dependent vulnerability mediates the relationship between developmental environment and risk-acceptance.

  1. Cancer risk assessment of toxaphene.

    PubMed

    Buranatrevedh, Surasak

    2004-07-01

    The primary purpose is to do cancer risk assessment of toxaphene by using four steps of risk assessment proposed by the United States National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC). Four steps of risk assessment including hazard identification, dose-response relationship, exposure assessment, and risk characterization were used to evaluate cancer risk of toxaphene. Toxaphene was the most heavily used insecticide in many parts of the world before it was banned in 1982. It increased incidence of neoplasms of liver and uterus in mice and increased incidence of neoplasms of endocrine organs, thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, mammary glands, and reproductive systems in rats. From mice's and rats' study, slope factor for toxaphene is 0.8557 (mg/ kg/day)(-1). Lifetime average daily dose (LADD) of toxaphene from ambient air, surface water, soil, and fish were 1.08 x 10(-6), 5.71 x 10(-6), 3.43 x 10(-7), and 7.96 x 10(-5) mg/kg/day, respectively. Cancer risk of toxaphene for average exposure is 7.42 x 10(-5). From this study, toxaphene might have carcinogenic risk among humans.

  2. 24 CFR 266.305 - HFAs accepting less than 50 percent of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HFAs accepting less than 50 percent... PROJECT LOANS Processing, Development, and Approval § 266.305 HFAs accepting less than 50 percent of risk... electing to take less than 50 percent of the risk on certain projects are subject to review,...

  3. CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR CHLOROFORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chloroform is a common chlorination by-product in drinking water. EPA has regulated chloroform as a probable human carcinogen under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The cancer risk estimate via ingestion was based on the 1985 Jorgenson study identifying kidney tumors in male Osborne ...

  4. Comparative research on NIMBY risk acceptability between Chinese and Japanese college students.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunqing; Zhai, Guofang; Li, Shasha; Ren, Chongqiang; Tsuchida, Shoji

    2014-10-01

    Along with the progressive acceleration of urbanization, the need to identify potentially troublesome "Not In My Back Yard" (NIMBY) facilities in the city is inevitable. To resolve NIMBY conflict, it is important to know people's NIMBY risk acceptability for these facilities. A questionnaire survey was used among Chinese and Japanese college students to identify NIMBY risk acceptability. LISREL was used to construct a structural equation model to analyze the difference in NIMBY risk acceptability between the Chinese and Japanese college students. Factors that may affect NIMBY risk acceptability were analyzed: "perceiving utility," "perceiving risk," "trust in government," "reasonable compensation," and "procedural justice." The findings show that Japanese students' concerns were greater than Chinese students' concerns. Perceiving utility and perceiving risk were the most important factors that affect people's NIMBY risk acceptability, followed by procedural justice, trust in government, and reasonable compensation. There is a difference between the different cultural backgrounds in confronting the risk: Chinese students focus more on the reputation and value of real estate, while Japanese students pay more attention to environmental pollution and damage to health. Furthermore, cultural influences play a role in students' risk perception. To improve the risk acceptability for NIMBY facilities and provide a basis for resolving NIMBY conflicts, it is necessary to ensure the benefits of the NIMBY facility while reducing environmental pollution. The findings of this study may be of interest for policy makers and practitioners to devise future NIMBY strategies.

  5. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Cancer.gov

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  6. The Department of Defense and the Power of Cloud Computing: Weighing Acceptable Cost Versus Acceptable Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    DISA is leading the way for the development of a private DOD cloud computing environment in conjunction with the Army. Operational in 2008, DISA...significant opportunities and security challenges when implementing a cloud computing environment . The transformation of DOD information technology...is this shared pool of resources, espe- cially shared resources in a commercial environment , that also creates numerous risks not usually seen in

  7. What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... Cancer? Can Thymus Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  8. Diabetes mellitus: influences on cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Szablewski, Leszek

    2014-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus and cancer are common conditions, and their co-diagnosis in the same individual is not infrequent. The relative risks associated with type 2 diabetes are greater than twofold for hepatic, pancreatic, and endometrial cancers. The relative risk is somewhat lower, at 1.2-1.5-fold for colorectal, breast, and bladder cancers. In comparison, the relative risk of lung cancer is less than 1. The evidence for other malignancies (e.g. kidney, non-Hodgkin lymphoma) is inconclusive, whereas prostatic cancer occurs less frequently in male patients with diabetes. The potential biologic links between the two diseases are incompletely understood. Evidence from observational studies suggests that some medications used to treat hyperglycemia are associated with either increased or reduced risk of cancer. Whereas anti-diabetic drugs have a minor influence on cancer risk, drugs used to treat cancer may either cause diabetes or worsen pre-existing diabetes. If hyperinsulinemia acts as a critical link between the observed increased cancer risk and type 2 diabetes, one would predict that patients with type 1 diabetes would have a different cancer risk pattern than patients with type 2 diabetes because the former patients are exposed to lower levels of exogenous administered insulin. Obtained results showed that patients with type 1 diabetes had elevated risks of cancers of the stomach, cervix, and endometrium. Type 1 diabetes is associated with a modest excess cancer risk overall and risks of specific cancers that differ from those associated with type 2 diabetes.

  9. Cumulative Family Risk Predicts Sibling Adjustment to Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Long, Kristin A.; Marsland, Anna L.; Alderfer, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prolonged, intensive treatment regimens often disrupt families of children with cancer. Siblings are at increased risk for distress, but factors underlying this risk have received limited empirical attention. This study examined associations between the family context and sibling distress. Methods Siblings of children with cancer (ages 8–18, N=209) and parents (186 mothers, 70 fathers) completed measures of sibling distress, family functioning, parenting, and parent posttraumatic stress. Associations between sibling distress and each family risk factor were evaluated. Then, family risks were considered simultaneously by calculating cumulative family risk index scores. Results After controlling for socio-demographic covariates, greater sibling distress was associated with more sibling-reported problems with family functioning and parental psychological control, lower sibling-reported maternal acceptance, and lower paternal self-reported acceptance. When risk factors were considered together, results supported a quadratic model in which associations between family risk and sibling distress were stronger at higher levels of risk. Conclusions Findings support a contextual model of sibling adjustment to childhood cancer in which elevated distress is predicted by family risk factors, alone and in combination. PMID:23576115

  10. Space Reactor Launch Safety--An Acceptably Low Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzberg, Abraham; Wright, Steven

    2008-01-21

    Results from previous space reactor and radioisotope power source risk assessments were combined to provide a scoping assessment of the possible risks from the launch of a reactor power system for use on the surface of the moon or Mars. It is assumed that future reactor power system launches would be subject to the same rigorous safety analysis and launch approval process as past nuclear payload launches. Using the same methodology that has gained approval of past launches, it was determined that the mission risk would be 0.029 person-rem worldwide which translates to 1.5*10{sup -5} latent health effects. It is seen that the only significant sources of radiological risks from a non-operating reactor are possible inadvertent criticality accidents and the consequences of such events have been shown to be extremely low. Passive means such as spectral shift poisons or high reactor core length/diameter ratios have been shown to be able to reduce or eliminate the possibility of the more credible criticality accidents, such as flooding or sand burial. This paper advances the premise that, for design purposes, future space reactor surface-power designs should primarily address the credible accidents and not the hypothetical accidents. For launch accidents and other safety assessments, a probabilistic risk assessment approach will have to be used to assess the safety impact of all types of accidents, including the hypothetical accidents. With this approach, the design of the system will not be burdened with design features that are based on hypothetical criticality accidents having negligible risk. Moreover, there is little chance of convincingly demonstrating that these design features can substantially reduce or eliminated the risk associated with hypothetical criticality accidents.

  11. Pernicious anaemia and cancer risk in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Mellemkjaer, L.; Gridley, G.; Møller, H.; Hsing, A. W.; Linet, M. S.; Brinton, L. A.; Olsen, J. H.

    1996-01-01

    A cohort of 5072 patients with pernicious anaemia was identified in the Danish Hospital Discharge Register from 1977 to 1989 and, through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry, the occurrence of cancer in the cohort was determined up to 1991. Observed numbers of cancer cases during 1-15 years of follow-up were compared with expected numbers based on national incidence rates. Besides the well-established increased risk for stomach cancer, the analysis also revealed a 2-fold increase in the relative risk for cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx among pernicious anaemia patients in accordance with previous studies; previously reported elevated risks for other digestive tract cancers were not confirmed. There was a non-significantly increased risk for lymphatic and haematological malignancy but the risk tended to disappear after 5 years of follow-up, indicating a possible selection bias. Decreased risks for cervical cancer and non-melanoma skin cancer were also seen. PMID:8611439

  12. Breast Cancer Risk – Genes, Environment and Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Fasching, P. A.; Ekici, A. B.; Adamietz, B. R.; Wachter, D. L.; Hein, A.; Bayer, C. M.; Häberle, L.; Loehberg, C. R.; Jud, S. M.; Heusinger, K.; Rübner, M.; Rauh, C.; Bani, M. R.; Lux, M. P.; Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Hartmann, A.; Beckmann, M. W.

    2011-01-01

    The information available about breast cancer risk factors has increased dramatically during the last 10 years. In particular, studies of low-penetrance genes and mammographic density have improved our understanding of breast cancer risk. In addition, initial steps have been taken in investigating interactions between genes and environmental factors. This review concerns with actual data on this topic. Several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) with a case–control design, as well as large-scale validation studies, have identified and validated more than a dozen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer risk. They are located not only in or close to genes known to be involved in cancer pathogenesis, but also in genes not previously associated with breast cancer pathogenesis, or may even not be related to any genes. SNPs have also been identified that alter the lifetime risk in BRCA mutation carriers. With regard to nongenetic risk factors, studies of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have revealed important information on how to weigh up the risks and benefits of HRT. Mammographic density (MD) has become an accepted and important breast cancer risk factor. Lifestyle and nutritional considerations have become an integral part of most studies of breast cancer risk, and some improvements have been made in this field as well. More than 10 years after the publication of the first breast cancer prevention studies with tamoxifen, other substances such as raloxifene and aromatase inhibitors have been investigated and have also been shown to have preventive potential. Finally, mammographic screening systems have been implemented in most Western countries during the last decade. These may be developed further by including more individualized methods of predicting the patientʼs breast cancer risk. PMID:25253900

  13. Cancer: a family at risk

    PubMed Central

    Iżycki, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of cancer is a family experience that changes the lives of all its members, bringing an immense amount of stress and many challenging situations. The daily routine, common activities and distribution of duties all have to change. Family members follow the phases of the disease, very often suffering comparable or greater distress than the patient. They use various coping methods which aim at helping both the sick relative and themselves. These methods, together with emotional responses, change over time according to the phase of the disease. Cancer puts the family at risk since it imposes an alternation in the relations among family members. It affects the couple's relationship, their sex life, and it can also be a cause of major trauma among their children and adolescents. The diagnosis of cancer brings also individual risks for the family members in terms of psychological and physical health impairment. Family caregivers often feel overloaded with the additional obligations and roles they have to pick up. They find it increasingly burdening to care full-time for the household and provide emotional support for the patient. The family's problems and the way family members regard the disease may be also a result of the family system they are in. This article describes the nature of caregiving to a patient with cancer and the biggest concerns for the family. PMID:26327863

  14. The First Rotavirus Vaccine and the Politics of Acceptable Risk

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jason L

    2012-01-01

    Context Vaccination in the United States is a frequent source of controversy, with critics alleging failures by public health officials to adequately identify, monitor, and respond to risks associated with vaccines. In response to these charges, the case of RotaShield, a vaccine withdrawn in 1999 following confirmation of a serious adverse event associated with its use, is regularly invoked as evidence of the effectiveness of current vaccine safety activities. Methods This article examines the history of RotaShield, with particular attention paid to decision making regarding its use in the United States and internationally. I reviewed and analyzed federal advisory committee meeting transcripts, international conference reports, government and scientific publications, media coverage, and other primary and secondary source materials. I also conducted six semistructured interviews with former senior officials and advisory committee members at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention who participated in decisions regarding the vaccine. Findings Decision making regarding RotaShield, including the ultimate withdrawal of its recommendation for use, was shaped significantly by government health officials’ concern for preserving public confidence in overall U.S. vaccination efforts amid several unrelated vaccine risk controversies ongoing at that time. This attention to public perception and external pressures occurred in tandem with the evaluation of the quantitative evidence regarding the magnitude and severity of the risk associated with the vaccine. The decisions made in the United States resulted in foreseen but unintended consequences for international use of the vaccine, including in nations where the profile of risks and potential benefits was dramatically different. Conclusions As enthusiasm for evidence-based decision making grows throughout medicine and public health, greater explicit attention should be directed to the processes by which decision

  15. Early Life and Risk of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    birth weight and of growth during childhood and adolescence on risk of breast cancer. We used a unique material of school charts with information on...childhood and adolescence influence breast cancer risk. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Epidemiology, Etiology, Risk Factors, Weight, Growth 132 16...childhood and adolescence on risk of breast cancer in a cohort of more than 150,000 girls on whom information on birth weight and between 6 and 8

  16. Knowledge of cervical cancer and acceptance of HPV vaccination among secondary school students in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rashwan, Hesham; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Ni, Kiat Aun

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women in peninsular Malaysia and very prevalent worldwide. HPV vaccination and routine Pap smear testing are the best preventive measures. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge level of secondary school students from Sarawak, East Malaysia regarding cervical cancer and its prevention. Multistage random sampling with various methods in each step was employed to select the sample of 76 students. Results showed that 61.8% had poor knowledge level of cervical cancer and its prevention. There were 60.5% of students who were aware of cervical cancer with Chinese and form four students showing significantly the highest awareness (p<0.05). The main source of cervical cancer information was from their parents (25.9%). HPV vaccination acceptance among students was 22.3% and an association was found between knowledge of cervical cancer with race and HPV vaccination acceptance (p<0.05). In conclusion, the students had poor knowledge level of cervical cancer, its prevention and HPV vaccination acceptance. More efforts should be made to improve cervical cancer knowledge and awareness of the public especially secondary school students in Sarawak. This in turn will enhance the practice of prevention against cervical cancer among students.

  17. PARALLELS OF RADIATION- AND FINANCIAL-RISK MANAGEMENT ON PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.

    2010-01-04

    The financial collapse of 2007 provides an opportunity for a cross-discipline comparison of risk assessments. Flaws in financial risk assessments bear part of the blame for the financial collapse. There may be a potential for similar flaws to be made in radiological risk assessments. Risk assessments in finance and health physics are discussed in the context of a broader view of the risk management environment. Flawed risk assessments can adversely influence public acceptance of radiological technologies, so the importance of quality is magnified.

  18. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  19. Knowledge of Saudi female university students regarding cervical cancer and acceptance of the human papilloma virus vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer K.; Almussaed, Eman M.; Fayed, Amel A.; Khan, Farida H.; Syed, Sadiqa B.; Al-Tamimi, Tahani N.; Elmorshedy, Hala N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer and the acceptance of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine among Saudi female students in health colleges. Methods: This cross-sectional study of a convenient sample encompassed 1400 students in Health Colleges at Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was conducted between December 2013 and February 2014. A self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to all participants. Data collected included socio-demographic data, knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors and clinical presentation, Pap smear, and HPV vaccine acceptance. The questionnaire reliability as tested by Cronbach’s alpha was 0.82. Results: The response rate was 89.9%, and data analysis revealed that 95.7% of students had poor knowledge level. The Pap smear was poorly recognized as a screening tool, with 46.7% of students having heard of the test. Senior and medical students had a significantly higher knowledge score. Father’s health profession, high monthly income, and presence of cervical cancer among family members or friends increased the level of knowledge. Vaccine acceptance is influenced by its price, approximately 80% of students thought that an affordable vaccine price should not exceed 300 Saudi Riyals. Perceived barriers to the vaccine were fear of injections and vaccine side effects. Conclusion: There is a lack of knowledge and misinformation regarding cervical cancer, Pap smear, and HPV as a major risk factor for cancer of the cervix. These data can be used as a benchmark to formulate effective awareness programs. PMID:25316467

  20. Clinical implications of genomics for cancer risk genetics.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David M; James, Paul A; Ballinger, Mandy L

    2015-06-01

    The study of human genetics has provided substantial insight into cancer biology. With an increase in sequencing capacity and a reduction in sequencing costs, genomics will probably transform clinical cancer genetics. A heritable basis for many cancers is accepted, but so far less than half the genetic drivers have been identified. Genomics will increasingly be applied to populations irrespective of family history, which will change the framework of phenotype-directed genetic testing. Panel testing and whole genome sequencing will identify novel, polygenic, and de-novo determinants of cancer risk, often with lower penetrance, which will challenge present binary clinical classification systems and management algorithms. In the future, genotype-stratified public screening and prevention programmes could form part of tailored population risk management. The integration of research with clinical practice will result in so-called discovery cohorts that will help identify clinically significant genetic variation.

  1. Adaptation of the chronic disease self-management program for cancer survivors: feasibility, acceptability, and lessons for implementation.

    PubMed

    Risendal, B; Dwyer, A; Seidel, R; Lorig, K; Katzenmeyer, C; Coombs, L; Kellar-Guenther, Y; Warren, L; Franco, A; Ory, M

    2014-12-01

    Self-management in chronic disease has been shown to improve patient-reported and health care-related outcomes. However, relatively little information about its utility in cancer survivorship is known. We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of the delivery of an adaptation of the evidence-based Chronic Disease Self-management Program (Stanford) called Cancer Thriving and Surviving (CTS). Triangulated mixed methods were used to capture baseline characteristics and post-program experiences using a combination of closed- and open-ended survey items; emergent coding and simple descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Twenty-seven workshops were delivered by 22 CTS leaders to 244 participants between August 2011 and January 2013 in a variety of settings (48 % community, 30 % health care, 22 % regional/community cancer center). Representing a variety of cancer types, about half the participants were 1-3 years post-diagnosis and 45 % were 4 or more years from diagnosis. Program attendance was high with 84 % of participants attending four or more of the six sessions in the workshop. Overall, 95 % of the participants were satisfied with the program content and leaders, and would recommend the program to friends and family. These results confirm the feasibility and acceptability of delivery of a high-fidelity, peer-led model for self-management support for cancer survivors. Expansion of the CTS represents a powerful tool toward improving health-related outcomes in this at-risk population.

  2. Skin cancer: causes and groups at risk.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Rachel Louise

    This second in a two-part series focuses on the causes and risk factors of skin cancer, highlighting risk factors among the general population as well as in high-risk groups. Part 1, published last week, outlined the main types of skin cancer and the treatment options available for each type; this article stresses the importance of early identification and patient education to prevent skin cancer.

  3. Diet and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diet may play a role in both promoting and inhibiting human breast cancer development. In this review, nutritional risk factors such as consumption of dietary fat, meat, fiber, and alcohol, and intake of phytoestrogen, vitamin D, iron, and folate associated with breast cancer are reviewed. These nutritional factors have a variety of associations with breast cancer risk. Type of fat consumed has different effects on risk of breast cancer: consumption of meat is associated with heterocyclic amine (HCA) exposure; different types of plant fiber have various effects on breast cancer risk; alcohol consumption may increase the risk of breast cancer by producing acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS); intake of phytoestrogen may reduce risk of breast cancer through genomic and non-genomic action; vitamin D can reduce the risk of breast cancer by inhibiting the process of cancer invasion and metastasis; intake of dietary iron may lead to oxidative stress, DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation; and lower intake of folate may be linked to a higher risk of breast cancer. PMID:27095934

  4. Risk perception and public acceptance toward a highly protested Waste-to-Energy facility.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiangyu; Che, Yue; Yang, Kai; Tao, Yun

    2016-02-01

    The application of Waste-to-Energy treatment in Municipal Solid Waste faces strong protest by local communities, especially in cities with high population densities. This study introduces insight into the public awareness, acceptance and risk perception toward Waste-to-Energy through a structured questionnaire survey around a Waste-to-Energy facility in Shanghai, China. The Dichotomous-Choice contingent valuation method was applied to study the willingness to accept of residents as an indicator of risk perception and tolerance. The factors influencing risk perception and the protest response choice were analyzed. The geographical distributions of the acceptance of Waste-to-Energy facility and protest response were explored using geographical information systems. The findings of the research indicated an encouraging vision of promoting Waste-to-Energy, considering its benefits of renewable energy and the conservation of land. A high percentage of protest willingness to accept (50.94%) was highlighted with the effect of income, opinion about Waste-to-Energy, gender and perceived impact. The fuzzy classification among people with different opinions on compensation (valid 0, positive or protest willingness to accept) revealed the existing yet rejected demand of compensation among protesters. Geographical distribution in the public attitude can also be observed. Finally significant statistical relation between knowledge and risk perception indicates the need of risk communication, as well as involving public into whole management process.

  5. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  6. Cancer risk assessment foundation unraveling: new historical evidence reveals that the US National Academy of Sciences (US NAS), Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation (BEAR) Committee Genetics Panel falsified the research record to promote acceptance of the LNT.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2015-04-01

    The NAS Genetics Panel (1956) recommended a switch from a threshold to a linear dose response for radiation risk assessment. To support this recommendation, geneticists on the panel provided individual estimates of the number of children in subsequent generations (one to ten) that would be adversely affected due to transgenerational reproductive cell mutations. It was hoped that there would be close agreement among the individual risk estimates. However, extremely large ranges of variability and uncertainty characterized the wildly divergent expert estimates. The panel members believed that sharing these estimates with the scientific community and general public would strongly undercut their linearity recommendation, as it would have only highlighted their own substantial uncertainties. Essentially, their technical report in the journal Science omitted and misrepresented key adverse reproductive findings in an effort to ensure support for their linearity recommendation. These omissions and misrepresentations not only belie the notion of an impartial and independent appraisal by the NAS Panel, but also amount to falsification and fabrication of the research record at the highest possible level, leading ultimately to the adoption of LNT by governments worldwide. Based on previously unexamined correspondence among panel members and Genetics Panel meeting transcripts, this paper provides the first documentation of these historical developments.

  7. Pain Intensity and Patients’ Acceptance of Surgical Complication Risks With Lumbar Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Bono, Christopher M.; Harris, Mitchel B.; Warholic, Natalie; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Carreras, Edward; White, Andrew; Schmitz, Miguel; Wood, Kirkham B.; Losina, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study with prospective recruitment Objective To determine the relationship of pain intensity (back and leg) on patients’ acceptance of surgical complication risks when deciding whether or not to undergo lumbar spinal fusion. Background To formulate informed decisions regarding lumbar fusion surgery, preoperative discussions should include a review of the risk of complications balanced with the likelihood of symptom relief. Pain intensity has the potential to influence a patient’s decision to consent to lumbar fusion. We hypothesized that pain intensity is associated with a patient’s acceptance of surgical complication risks. Methods Patients being seen for the first time by a spine surgeon for treatment of a non-traumatic or non-neoplastic spinal disorder completed a structured questionnaire. It posed 24 scenarios, each presenting a combination of risks of 3 complications (nerve damage, wound infection, nonunion) and probabilities of symptom relief. For each scenario, the patient indicated whether he/she would/would not consent to a fusion for low back pain (LBP). The sum of the scenarios in which the patient responded that he or she would elect surgery was calculated to represent acceptance of surgical complication risks. A variety of other data were also recorded, including age, gender, education level, race, history of non-spinal surgery, duration of pain, and history of spinal injections. Data were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multivariate regression analyses. Results The mean number of scenarios accepted by 118 enrolled subjects was 10.2 (median 8, standard deviation 8.5, range 0 to 24, or 42.5% of scenarios). In general, subjects were more likely to accept scenarios with lower risks and higher efficacy. Spearman’s rank correlation estimates demonstrated a moderate association between the LBP intensity and acceptance of surgical complication risks (r=0.37, p=0.0001) while leg pain intensity had a weak but positive

  8. Perception and acceptance of risk from radiation exposure in space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Slovic, P.

    1997-04-30

    There are a number of factors that influence how a person views a particular risk. These include whether the risk is judged to be voluntary and/or controllable, whether the effects are immediate or delayed, and the magnitude of the benefits that are to be gained as a result of being exposed to the risk. An important aspect of the last factor is whether those who suffer the risks are also those who stand to reap the benefits. The manner in which risk is viewed is also significantly influenced by the manner in which it is framed and presented. In short, risk does not exist in the world independent of our minds and cultures, waiting to be measured. Assessments of risk are based on models whose structure is subjective and associated evaluations are laden with assumptions whose inputs are dependent on judgments. In fact, subjectivity permeates every aspect of risk assessment. The assessment of radiation risks in space is no exception. The structuring of the problem includes judgments related to the probability, magnitude, and effects of the various types of radiation likely to be encountered and assumptions related to the quantitative relationship between dose and a range of specific effects, all of which have associated uncertainties. For these reasons, there is no magic formula that will lead us to a precise level of acceptable risk from exposure to radiation in space. Acceptable risk levels must evolve through a process of negotiation that integrates a large number of social, technical, and economic factors. In the end, a risk that is deemed to be acceptable will be the outgrowth of the weighing of risks and benefits and the selection of the option that appears to be best.

  9. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Binukumar, Bhaskarapillai; Mathew, Aleyamma

    2005-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern. PMID:16022739

  10. Cancer associated thrombosis: risk factors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Deep vein thrombosis of the leg and pulmonary embolism are frequent diseases and cancer is one of their most important risk factors. Patients with cancer also have a higher prevalence of venous thrombosis located in other parts than in the legs and/or in unusual sites including upper extremity, splanchnic or cerebral veins. Cancer also affects the risk of arterial thrombotic events particularly in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor recipients. Several risk factors need to interact to trigger thrombosis. In addition to common risk factors such as surgery, hospitalisation, infection and genetic coagulation disorders, the thrombotic risk is also driven and modified by cancer-specific factors including type, histology, and stage of the malignancy, cancer treatment and certain biomarkers. A venous thrombotic event in a cancer patient has serious consequences as the risk of recurrent thrombosis, the risk of bleeding during anticoagulation and hospitalisation rates are all increased. Survival of cancer patients with thrombosis is worse compared to that of cancer patients without thrombosis, and thrombosis is a leading direct cause of death in cancer patients.

  11. [Risk factors of main cancer sites].

    PubMed

    Uleckiene, Saule; Didziapetriene, Janina; Griciūte, Liudvika Laima; Urbeliene, Janina; Kasiulevicius, Vytautas; Sapoka, Virginijus

    2008-01-01

    Cancer prevention is a system of various measures devoted to avoid this disease. Primary cancer prevention means the identification, avoidance, or destruction of known risk factors. The main risk factors are smoking, diet, alcohol consumption, occupational factors, environmental pollution, electromagnetic radiation, infection, medicines, reproductive hormones, and lack of physical activity. Approximately one-third of cancers can be avoided by implementing various preventive measures. The aim of this article was to acquaint medical students, family doctors with risk factors of main cancer sites (lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate).

  12. Coffee and cancer risk: a summary overview.

    PubMed

    Alicandro, Gianfranco; Tavani, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2017-03-10

    We reviewed available evidence on coffee drinking and the risk of all cancers and selected cancers updated to May 2016. Coffee consumption is not associated with overall cancer risk. A meta-analysis reported a pooled relative risk (RR) for an increment of 1 cup of coffee/day of 1.00 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-1.01] for all cancers. Coffee drinking is associated with a reduced risk of liver cancer. A meta-analysis of cohort studies found an RR for an increment of consumption of 1 cup/day of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81-0.90) for liver cancer and a favorable effect on liver enzymes and cirrhosis. Another meta-analysis showed an inverse relation for endometrial cancer risk, with an RR of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88-0.96) for an increment of 1 cup/day. A possible decreased risk was found in some studies for oral/pharyngeal cancer and for advanced prostate cancer. Although data are mixed, overall, there seems to be some favorable effect of coffee drinking on colorectal cancer in case-control studies, in the absence of a consistent relation in cohort studies. For bladder cancer, the results are not consistent; however, any possible direct association is not dose and duration related, and might depend on a residual confounding effect of smoking. A few studies suggest an increased risk of childhood leukemia after maternal coffee drinking during pregnancy, but data are limited and inconsistent. Although the results of studies are mixed, the overall evidence suggests no association of coffee intake with cancers of the stomach, pancreas, lung, breast, ovary, and prostate overall. Data are limited, with RR close to unity for other neoplasms, including those of the esophagus, small intestine, gallbladder and biliary tract, skin, kidney, brain, thyroid, as well as for soft tissue sarcoma and lymphohematopoietic cancer.

  13. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... cases of cervical cancer and the number of deaths due to cervical cancer since 1950. Cervical dysplasia ... for cervical cancer helps decrease the number of deaths from the disease. Regular screening of women between ...

  14. What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... not cancer). Other risk factors Family history of kidney cancer People with a strong family history of ...

  15. Aromatase Inhibitors and Other Compounds for Lowering Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Risk and Prevention Aromatase Inhibitors for Lowering Breast Cancer Risk Aromatase inhibitors (drugs that lower estrogen levels) ... day. Can aromatase inhibitors lower the risk of breast cancer? Aromatase inhibitors are used mainly to treat hormone ...

  16. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men? A risk factor is anything that ... old when they are diagnosed. Family history of breast cancer Breast cancer risk is increased if other members ...

  17. The acceptability of vaginal smear self-collection for screening for cervical cancer: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Braz, Natalia Serrano Doratioto Faria; Lorenzi, Noely Paula Cristina; Sorpreso, Isabel Cristina Esposito; de Aguiar, Lana Maria; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Soares, José Maria

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of death in adult women. However, many women do not undergo cervical cancer screening for the following reasons: fear, shame, physical limitations, cultural or religious considerations and lack of access to health care services. Self-collected vaginal smears maybe an alternative means of including more women in cervical cancer screening programs. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the acceptability of vaginal smear self-collection for cervical cancer screening. We selected articles from PubMed, the Cochrane Library and Embase that were published between January 1995 and April 2016. Studies written in English, French, Italian, Portuguese or Spanish that involved women between 18 and 69 years of age who had engaged in sexual intercourse were included in this review. The review was performed in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. Nineteen studies were ultimately evaluated in this review. Most of the included studies (n=17) demonstrated that the self-collection method exhibited outstanding acceptability among women with respect to cervical cancer screening, and only two studies indicated that self-collection exhibited low acceptability among women in this context. The acceptability of self-collection was determined subjectively (without standardized questionnaires) in 10 studies (53%) and via structured and validated questionnaires in the remaining studies. The results of our review suggest that the self-collection method is well-accepted and may therefore encourage greater participation in cervical cancer screening programs. However, additional studies are required to verify these results. PMID:28355365

  18. Understanding Acceptable Level of Risk: Incorporating the Economic Cost of Under-Managing Invasive Species

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Alisha D.; Hewitt, Chad L.; Kashian, Donna R.

    2015-01-01

    Management of nonindigenous species includes prevention, early detection and rapid response and control. Early detection and rapid response depend on prioritizing and monitoring sites at risk for arrival or secondary spread of nonindigenous species. Such monitoring efforts require sufficient biosecurity budgets to be effective and meet management or policy directives for reduced risk of introduction. Such consideration of risk reduction is rarely considered, however. Here, we review the concepts of acceptable level of risk (ALOR) and associated costs with respect to nonindigenous species and present a framework for aligning risk reduction priorities with available biosecurity resources. We conclude that available biosecurity resources may be insufficient to attain stated and desired risk reduction. This outcome highlights the need to consider policy and management directives when beginning a biosecurity program to determine the feasibility of risk reduction goals, given available resources. PMID:26536244

  19. Participation in Counseling Programs: High-Risk Participants Are Reluctant to Accept HIV-Prevention Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Earl, Allison; Albarracín, Dolores; Durantini, Marta R.; Gunnoe, Joann B.; Leeper, Josh; Levitt, Justin H.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-prevention intervention effectiveness depends on understanding whether clients with highest need for HIV-prevention counseling accept it. With this objective, a field study with a high-risk community sample from the southeastern United States (N = 350) investigated whether initial knowledge about HIV, motivation to use condoms, condom-use-relevant behavioral skills, and prior condom use correlate with subsequent acceptance of an HIV-prevention counseling session. Ironically, participants with high (vs. low) motivation to use condoms, high (vs. low) condom-use-relevant behavioral skills, and high (vs. low) prior condom use were more likely to accept the HIV-prevention counseling. Moreover, the influence of motivation to use condoms, condom-use-relevant behavioral skills, and prior condom use on acceptance of the counseling was mediated by expectations that the counseling session would be useful. Methods to reduce barriers to recruitment of clients for counseling programs are discussed. PMID:19634960

  20. [Cancer screening and risk communication].

    PubMed

    Wegwarth, Odette

    2013-04-01

    In most psychological and medical research, patients are assumed to have difficulties with health statistics but clinicians not. However, studies indicate that most doctors have problems in understanding health statistics, including those of their own speciality. For example, only two out of 20 urologists knew the information relevant for a patient to make an informed decision about whether to take PSA screening for prostate cancer, just 14 out of 65 physicians in internal medicine understood that 5-year survival rates do not tell anything about screening's benefit, and merely 34 out of 160 gynecologists were able to interpret the meaning of a positive test result. This statistical illiteracy has a direct effect on patients understanding and interpretation of medical issues. Not rarely their own limited health literacy and their doctors' misinformation make them suffer through a time of emotional distress and unnecessary anxiety. The main reasons for doctors' statistical illiteracy are medical schools that ignore the importance of teaching risk communication. With little effort doctors could taught the simple techniques of risk communication, which would make most of their statistical confusion disappear.

  1. Participation in Counseling Programs: High-Risk Participants are Reluctant to Accept HIV-Prevention Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, Allison; Albarracin, Dolores; Durantini, Marta R.; Gunnoe, Joann B.; Leeper, Josh; Levitt, Justin H.

    2009-01-01

    HIV-prevention intervention effectiveness depends on understanding whether clients with highest need for HIV-prevention counseling accept it. With this objective, a field study with a high-risk community sample from the southeastern United States (N = 350) investigated whether initial knowledge about HIV, motivation to use condoms,…

  2. Cognitive Processes Underlying Women's Risk Judgments: Associations with Sexual Victimization History and Rape Myth Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Treat, Teresa A.; Viken, Richard J.; McFall, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effects of sexual victimization history, rape myth acceptance, implicit attention, and recent learning on the cognitive processes underlying undergraduate women's explicit risk judgments. Method: Participants were 194 undergraduate women between 18 and 24 years of age. The sample was ethnically diverse and…

  3. Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y; Eliassen, A. Heather; Willett, Walter C

    2015-01-01

    The breast is particularly vulnerable to carcinogenic influences during adolescence due to rapid proliferation of mammary cells and lack of terminal differentiation. We investigated consumption of adolescent red meat and other protein sources in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. We followed prospectively 44,231 women aged 33-52 years who, in 1998, completed a detailed questionnaire about diet during adolescence. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. We documented 1132 breast cancer cases during 13-year follow-up. In multivariable Cox regression models with major breast cancer risk factors adjustment, greater consumption of adolescent total red meat was significantly associated with higher premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs lowest quintiles, RR, 1.42; 95%CI, 1.05-1.94; Ptrend=0.007), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. Adolescent poultry intake was associated with lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.75; 95%CI, 0.59-0.96; for each serving/day). Adolescent intakes of iron, heme iron, fish, eggs, legumes and nuts were not associated with breast cancer. Replacement of one serving/day of total red meat with one serving of combination of poultry, fish, legumes, and nuts was associated with a 16% lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.84; 95%CI, 0.74-0.96) and a 24% lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR, 0.76; 95%CI, 0.64-0.92). Higher consumption of red meat during adolescence was associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Substituting other dietary protein sources for red meat in adolescent diet may decrease premenopausal breast cancer risk. PMID:25220168

  4. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fenga, Concettina

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer.

  5. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer. PMID:26998264

  6. Risk determination and prevention of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Howell, Anthony; Anderson, Annie S; Clarke, Robert B; Duffy, Stephen W; Evans, D Gareth; Garcia-Closas, Montserat; Gescher, Andy J; Key, Timothy J; Saxton, John M; Harvie, Michelle N

    2014-09-28

    Breast cancer is an increasing public health problem. Substantial advances have been made in the treatment of breast cancer, but the introduction of methods to predict women at elevated risk and prevent the disease has been less successful. Here, we summarize recent data on newer approaches to risk prediction, available approaches to prevention, how new approaches may be made, and the difficult problem of using what we already know to prevent breast cancer in populations. During 2012, the Breast Cancer Campaign facilitated a series of workshops, each covering a specialty area of breast cancer to identify gaps in our knowledge. The risk-and-prevention panel involved in this exercise was asked to expand and update its report and review recent relevant peer-reviewed literature. The enlarged position paper presented here highlights the key gaps in risk-and-prevention research that were identified, together with recommendations for action. The panel estimated from the relevant literature that potentially 50% of breast cancer could be prevented in the subgroup of women at high and moderate risk of breast cancer by using current chemoprevention (tamoxifen, raloxifene, exemestane, and anastrozole) and that, in all women, lifestyle measures, including weight control, exercise, and moderating alcohol intake, could reduce breast cancer risk by about 30%. Risk may be estimated by standard models potentially with the addition of, for example, mammographic density and appropriate single-nucleotide polymorphisms. This review expands on four areas: (a) the prediction of breast cancer risk, (b) the evidence for the effectiveness of preventive therapy and lifestyle approaches to prevention, (c) how understanding the biology of the breast may lead to new targets for prevention, and (d) a summary of published guidelines for preventive approaches and measures required for their implementation. We hope that efforts to fill these and other gaps will lead to considerable advances in our

  7. Body Mass Index Genetic Risk Score and Endometrial Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Jennifer; Setiawan, Veronica W.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schumacher, Fredrick; Yu, Herbert; Delahanty, Ryan; Bernstein, Leslie; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Chu; Cook, Linda S.; Friedenreich, Christine; Garcia-Closas, Monserrat; Haiman, Christopher A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Olson, Sara H.; Risch, Harvey A.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ursin, Giske; Yang, Hannah P.; Kraft, Peter; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common variants that predispose individuals to a higher body mass index (BMI), an independent risk factor for endometrial cancer. Composite genotype risk scores (GRS) based on the joint effect of published BMI risk loci were used to explore whether endometrial cancer shares a genetic background with obesity. Genotype and risk factor data were available on 3,376 endometrial cancer case and 3,867 control participants of European ancestry from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium GWAS. A BMI GRS was calculated by summing the number of BMI risk alleles at 97 independent loci. For exploratory analyses, additional GRSs were based on subsets of risk loci within putative etiologic BMI pathways. The BMI GRS was statistically significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk (P = 0.002). For every 10 BMI risk alleles a woman had a 13% increased endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 4%, 22%). However, after adjusting for BMI, the BMI GRS was no longer associated with risk (per 10 BMI risk alleles OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.07; P = 0.78). Heterogeneity by BMI did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06), and no effect modification was noted by age, GWAS Stage, study design or between studies (P≥0.58). In exploratory analyses, the GRS defined by variants at loci containing monogenic obesity syndrome genes was associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk independent of BMI (per BMI risk allele OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96; P = 2.1 x 10−5). Possessing a large number of BMI risk alleles does not increase endometrial cancer risk above that conferred by excess body weight among women of European descent. Thus, the GRS based on all current established BMI loci does not provide added value independent of BMI. Future studies are required to validate the unexpected observed relation between monogenic obesity syndrome genetic variants and endometrial cancer risk. PMID:26606540

  8. Radon exposure and oropharyngeal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Espinosa, Tania; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer is a multifactorial disease. Alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors. Radon is a human carcinogen linked to lung cancer risk, but its influence in other cancers is not well known. We aim to assess the effect of radon exposure on the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer through a systematic review of the scientific literature. This review performs a qualitative analysis of the available studies. 13 cohort studies were included, most of them mortality studies, which analysed the relationship between occupational or residential radon exposure with oropharyngeal cancer mortality or incidence. Most of the included studies found no association between radon exposure and oral and pharyngeal cancer. This lack of effect was observed in miners studies and in general population studies. Further research is necessary to quantify if this association really exists and its magnitude, specially performing studies in general population, preferably living in areas with high radon levels.

  9. HIFU therapy for patients with high risk prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovov, V. A.; Vozdvizhenskiy, M. O.; Matysh, Y. S.

    2017-03-01

    Objectives. Patients with high-risk prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) combined with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or ADT alone. The widely accepted definition of high-risk prostate was first proposed by D'Amico based on a pretreatment Gleason score of ≥8, clinical stage T3, PSA level ≥20 ng/mL. There is no trial that compares traditional methods of treatment of such patients with HIFU therapy. Here we explored the effectiveness of the HIFU in multimodal treatment for patients with high risk prostate cancer. Materials & Methods. 701 patients with high risk prostate cancer were treated in our center between September 2007 and December 2013. Gleason score were 8-10, stage T3N0M0, age 69 (58-86) years, mean PSA before treatment 43.3 (22.1-92.9) ng/ml, mean prostate volume - 59.3 (38-123) cc. 248 patients were treated by HIFU. We compare this group of patients with patients who undertook EBRT: number 196, and ADT: number 257. Mean follow-up time 58 months (6-72). Results. The 5-year overall survival rates in patients after HIFU were 73.8 %, after EBRT - 63.0 % and after ADT - 18.1%. Conclusions. Our experience showed that HIFU therapy in combined treatment were successful for high risk prostate cancer.

  10. Risk of cancer among paper recycling workers.

    PubMed Central

    Rix, B A; Villadsen, E; Engholm, G; Lynge, E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Studies in traditional paper mills have indicated an excess cancer risk, and mutagenic compounds have been identified in the industry. No studies have reported on risk of cancer in paper recycling. Therefore the cancer incidence in Danish paper recycling mills was investigated. METHODS: 5377 employees in five paper recycling plants were included in a historical cohort study. The workers had been employed in paper recycling in 1965-90, and the cohort was followed up until 31 December 1993. The expected number of cancer cases was calculated from national rates. RESULTS: There was significantly more pharyngeal cancer among male workers (seven observed (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 3.33, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.34 to 6.87)). There was slightly more lung cancer among male workers in production (39 observed, SIR 1.21, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.65). Risk of Hodgkin's disease was doubled in male production worker (four observed, SIR 1.90, 95% CI 0.51 to 4.85). CONCLUSIONS: The increased risk of pharyngeal cancer found in this study is interesting but may be influenced by confounders such as smoking and alcohol intake. This study also indicates an excess risk of Hodgkin's disease, which is in accordance with some studies in the traditional paper mills. As this is the first report on risk of cancer in paper recycling, further studies are needed. PMID:9404320

  11. Feasibility and Acceptability of Cell Phone Diaries to Measure HIV Risk Behavior Among Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Garfein, Richard S.; Gunn, Jayleen K. L.; Wiehe, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Individual, social, and structural factors affecting HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) are difficult to assess using retrospective surveys methods. To test the feasibility and acceptability of cell phone diaries to collect information about sexual events, we recruited 26 FSWs in Indianapolis, Indiana (US). Over 4 weeks, FSWs completed twice daily digital diaries about their mood, drug use, sexual interactions, and daily activities. Feasibility was assessed using repeated measures general linear modeling and descriptive statistics examined event-level contextual information and acceptability. Of 1,420 diaries expected, 90.3 % were completed by participants and compliance was stable over time (p > .05 for linear trend). Sexual behavior was captured in 22 % of diaries and participant satisfaction with diary data collection was high. These data provide insight into event-level factors impacting HIV risk among FSWs. We discuss implications for models of sexual behavior and individually tailored interventions to prevent HIV in this high-risk group. PMID:24643312

  12. Feasibility and acceptability of cell phone diaries to measure HIV risk behavior among female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Roth, Alexis M; Hensel, Devon J; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Garfein, Richard S; Gunn, Jayleen K L; Wiehe, Sarah E

    2014-12-01

    Individual, social, and structural factors affecting HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) are difficult to assess using retrospective surveys methods. To test the feasibility and acceptability of cell phone diaries to collect information about sexual events, we recruited 26 FSWs in Indianapolis, Indiana (US). Over 4 weeks, FSWs completed twice daily digital diaries about their mood, drug use, sexual interactions, and daily activities. Feasibility was assessed using repeated measures general linear modeling and descriptive statistics examined event-level contextual information and acceptability. Of 1,420 diaries expected, 90.3 % were completed by participants and compliance was stable over time (p > .05 for linear trend). Sexual behavior was captured in 22 % of diaries and participant satisfaction with diary data collection was high. These data provide insight into event-level factors impacting HIV risk among FSWs. We discuss implications for models of sexual behavior and individually tailored interventions to prevent HIV in this high-risk group.

  13. Cervical cancer and HPV: Awareness and vaccine acceptability among parents in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Mouallif, Mustapha; Bowyer, Harriet L; Festali, Soukaina; Albert, Adelin; Filali-Zegzouti, Younes; Guenin, Samuel; Delvenne, Philippe; Waller, Jo; Ennaji, Moulay Mustapha

    2014-01-09

    Cervical cancer is a major public health concern in Morocco where it represents the second most common and lethal cancer in women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have been licensed in Morocco since 2008 but there are no available data on their acceptability. This study aimed to assess awareness of HPV and the vaccine, and to identify factors associated with acceptability of the vaccine among parents in Morocco. We carried out a questionnaire-based survey using face-to-face interviews in a sample of 852 parents (670 mothers and 182 fathers) with at least one unmarried daughter ≤26 years. We collected data within public and private health centres and clinics in four regions in Morocco between July and August 2012. The main outcome measure was parental acceptability of the HPV vaccine for their daughter(s). Responses revealed very low awareness of HPV infection (4.7%) and the HPV vaccine (14.3%). None of the participants had vaccinated their daughter(s) against HPV and vaccine acceptability was low among mothers (32%) and fathers (45%). Higher education and income, previous awareness of the HPV vaccine and endorsement of the belief that a recommendation from the Ministry of Health or a doctor to have the vaccine would be encouraging, were associated with mothers' HPV vaccine acceptability. Non-acceptability among mothers was associated with having more than two daughters, believing the vaccine was expensive, lack of information and believing that whatever happens to an individual's health is God's will. The only factor associated with the fathers' acceptability of the vaccine was the cost of the vaccine. Increasing HPV and HPV vaccine awareness through educational campaigns, along with active recommendation by physicians and a publically funded vaccination programme could increase parental acceptability of the HPV vaccine in Morocco.

  14. Social trust, risk perceptions and public acceptance of recycled water: testing a social-psychological model.

    PubMed

    Ross, Victoria L; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R

    2014-05-01

    Faced with a severe drought, the residents of the regional city of Toowoomba, in South East Queensland, Australia were asked to consider a potable wastewater reuse scheme to supplement drinking water supplies. As public risk perceptions and trust have been shown to be key factors in acceptance of potable reuse projects, this research developed and tested a social-psychological model of trust, risk perceptions and acceptance. Participants (N = 380) were surveyed a few weeks before a referendum was held in which residents voted against the controversial scheme. Analysis using structural equation modelling showed that the more community members perceived that the water authority used fair procedures (e.g., consulting with the community and providing accurate information), the greater their sense of shared identity with the water authority. Shared social identity in turn influenced trust via increased source credibility, that is, perceptions that the water authority is competent and has the community's interest at heart. The findings also support past research showing that higher levels of trust in the water authority were associated with lower perceptions of risk, which in turn were associated with higher levels of acceptance, and vice versa. The findings have a practical application for improving public acceptance of potable recycled water schemes.

  15. Communicating cancer risk in print journalism.

    PubMed

    Brody, J E

    1999-01-01

    The current barrage of information about real and potential cancer risks has created undue fears and misplaced concerns about cancer hazards faced by Americans. Most members of the general public are far more worried about minuscule, hypothetical risks presented by environmental contaminants than about the far greater well-established hazards that they inflict on themselves, for example, through smoking, dietary imbalance, and inactivity. It is the job of the print media to help set the record straight and to help place in perspective the myriad cancer risks that are aired almost weekly in 30-second radio and television broadcasts.

  16. Serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Dezhong; Liu, Chun; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Some observational studies have shown that elevated serum selenium levels are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk; however, not all published studies support these results. A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Library up until September 2016 identified 17 studies suitable for further investigation. A meta-analysis was conducted on these studies to investigate the association between serum selenium levels and subsequent prostate cancer risk. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the overall OR of prostate cancer for the highest versus the lowest levels of serum selenium. We found a pooled OR (95% CI) of 0.76 (0.64, 0.91; P < 0.05). In subgroup analysis, an inverse association between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk was found in each of case–control studies, current and former smokers, high-grade cancer cases, advanced cancer cases, and different populations. Such correlations were not found for subgroups containing each of cohort studies, nonsmokers, low-grade cancer cases, and early stage cancer cases. In conclusion, our study suggests an inverse relationship between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk. However, further cohort studies and randomized control trials based on non-Western populations are required. PMID:28151881

  17. [Infertility, fertility treatment and breast cancer risk].

    PubMed

    Riskin-Mashiah, Shlomit

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in Israel and throughout the world. It is the leading cause of death from cancer in women. The cause of breast cancer is unknown; however gynecological history and hormonal factors have a major impact on the risk to develop breast cancer. Infertility affects 15-20% of couples in developed countries and most of them will need fertility treatment. The variety of fertility treatments and their use has been widespread during the last 50 years and especially since the introduction of in vitro fertilization. During fertility treatment, and depending on the type of treatment, there is ovarian hyperstimulation with maturation of several follicles and higher than normal estradiol levels. This article reviews the leading studies that evaluated the possible link between fertility treatment and the development of breast cancer. Most studies showed no association between fertility drugs and breast cancer. Whereas other researchers demonstrated a possible link between some fertility drugs and increased risk for breast cancer in certain subgroups. Therefore, larger studies with longer follow-up periods and better control for all possible confounding factors are needed in order to confirm the safety of fertility treatments in the long run. The combination of infertility and fertility treatment might cause harm, such as an increased risk for breast cancer Therefore, one has to consider carefully, together with the woman, the need for fertility treatment and give the lowest possible dosage for the shortest duration in order to minimize the risk.

  18. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to Cancer Research Leadership Director's Page Previous ... Information Legislative Activities Hearings & Testimonies Current Congress Legislative History Committees of Interest Legislative Resources Recent Public Laws ...

  19. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... trials is available from the NCI website . Three tests are used by health care providers to screen for breast cancer: Mammogram Mammography is the most common screening test for breast cancer . A mammogram is an x- ...

  20. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical care even if there are symptoms. False-positive test results can occur. Screening test results may ... even though no cancer is present. A false-positive test result (one that shows there is cancer ...

  1. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical care even if she has symptoms. False-positive test results can occur. Screening test results may ... even though no cancer is present. A false-positive test result (one that shows there is cancer ...

  2. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical care even if there are symptoms. False-positive test results can occur. Screening test results may ... even though no cancer is present. A false-positive test result (one that shows there is cancer ...

  3. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to Cancer Research Leadership Director's Page Previous NCI Directors NCI Organization Advisory ... History of NCI Contributing to Cancer Research Senior Leadership Director Previous Directors NCI Organization Divisions, Offices & Centers ...

  4. HIV Infection and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... some subtypes of non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma . Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical cancer and some types of anal , penile , vaginal , vulvar , and head and neck cancer . Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and ...

  5. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Donkena, Krishna Vanaja; Young, Charles Y. F.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR), and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention. PMID:21991434

  6. Iron and the risk of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G.

    1989-09-01

    Four epidemiological studies have been performed that are generally consistent with the hypothesis that increased available body iron stores increase the risk of cancer or of general mortality. In a study based on the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the United States (NHANES), 232 men who developed cancer over a ten year period had a mean transferrin saturation of 33.1% at least 4 years before diagnosis, whereas 3113 men who did not develop cancer had a transferrin saturation of 30.7% (p = 0.002). The hypothesis is based on two possible biological mechanisms. First, iron can catalyze the production of oxygen radicals and these may be proximate carcinogens. Second, iron may be a limiting nutrient to the growth and replication of a cancer cell. There are at least five areas of potential research related to iron and cancer based on these biological mechanisms: etiology of cancer; etiology of radiation-induced cancer; prognosis after cancer diagnosis; cancer risk resulting from therapy; and interactions with other biochemical factors. An unexpected finding of the human studies done to date has been a highly significant negative association of serum albumin and long term cancer risk. Serum albumin is lower in smokers and older people, however, the negative association persists after controlling for these factors. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. An Analytical Framework for Flood Water Conservation Considering Forecast Uncertainty and Acceptable Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, W.; Zhang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoir water levels are usually not allowed to exceed the flood limited water level (FLWL) during flood season, which neglects the meteorological and real-time forecast information and leads to the great waste of water resources. With the development of weather forecasting, hydrologic modeling, and hydro-climatic teleconnection, the streamflow forecast precision have improved a lot, which provides the technical support for the flood water utilization. This paper addresses how much flood water can be conserved for use after the flood season through the operation of reservoir based on uncertain forecast information by taking into account the residual flood control capacity (the difference between flood conveyance capacity and the expected inflow in a lead time). A two-stage model for dynamic control of the flood limited water level (the maximum allowed water level during the flood season, DC-FLWL) is established considering forecast uncertainty and acceptable flood risk. It is found that DC-FLWL is applicable when the reservoir inflow ranges from small to medium levels of the historical records, while both forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk in the downstream affect the feasible space of DC-FLWL. As forecast uncertainty increases (under a given risk level) or as acceptable risk level decreases (under a given forecast uncertainty level), the minimum required safety margin for flood control increases, and the chance for DC-FLWL decreases. The derived hedging rules from the modeling framework illustrate either the dominant role of water conservation or flood control or the tradeoff between the two objectives under different levels of forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk. These rules may provide useful guidelines for conserving water from flood, especially in the area with heavy water stress.

  8. Use of mobile phones and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Ayanda, Olushola S; Baba, Alafara A; Ayanda, Omolola T

    2012-01-01

    Mobile phones work by transmitting and receiving radio frequency microwave radiation. The radio frequency (RF) emitted by mobile phones is stronger than FM radio signal which are known to cause cancer. Though research and evidence available on the risk of cancer by mobile phones does not provide a clear and direct support that mobile phones cause cancers. Evidence does not also support an association between exposure to radio frequency and microwave radiation from mobile phones and direct effects on health. It is however clear that lack of available evidence of cancer as regards the use of mobile phone should not be interpreted as proof of absence of cancer risk, so that excessive use of mobile phones should be taken very seriously and with caution to prevent cancer.

  9. Cancer risks related to electricity production.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, P; Cardis, E; Vainio, H; Coleman, M P; Kogevinas, M; Nordberg, G; Parkin, D M; Partensky, C; Shuker, D; Tomatis, L

    1991-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has previously evaluated the cancer risks associated with fossil fuel-based industrial processes such as coal gastification and coke production, substances and mixtures such as coal tars, coal tar pitch and mineral oils, and a number of substances emitted from fossil-fuelled plants such as benzo[a]pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead and formaldehyde. Based on these evaluations and other evidence from the literature, the carcinogenic risks to the general population and occupational groups from the fossil fuel cycle, the nuclear fuel cycle and renewable cycles are reviewed. Cancer risks from waste disposal, accidents and misuses, and electricity distribution are also considered. No cycle appears to be totally free from cancer risk, but the quantification of the effects of such exposures (in particular of those involving potential exposure to large amounts of carcinogens, such as coal, oil and nuclear) requires the application of methods which are subject to considerable margins of error. Uncertainties due to inadequate data and unconfirmed assumptions are discussed. Cancer risks related to the operation of renewable energy sources are negligible, although there may be some risks from construction of such installations. The elements of knowledge at our disposal do not encourage any attempt toward a quantitative comparative risk assessment. However, even in the absence of an accurate quantification of risk, qualitative indication of carcinogenic hazards should lead to preventive measures.

  10. Circadian Genes and Risk for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to determine if finasteride (an inhibitor of androgen bioactivation) could prevent prostate cancer...and that this risk differed between men who took finasteride versus those who took the placebo. The strongest association was seen for a cluster of 9...SNPs in NPAS2, which was associated with total prostate cancer risk in the finasteride group but not in the placebo group. The most significant NPAS2

  11. Circadian Genes and Risk for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    placebo-controlled clinical trial to determine if finasteride (an inhibitor of androgen bioactivation) could prevent prostate cancer. In Year 3 of the...risk. Our study is nested within the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to determine if finasteride

  12. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer – either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents. PMID:25520574

  13. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco.

    PubMed

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer - either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents.

  14. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Tai Chi Chih Randomized Controlled Trial in Senior Female Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Rebecca A.; O’Connor, Kathleen; Light, Kathleen C.; Nakamura, Yoshio; Lipschitz, David; LaStayo, Paul C.; Pappas, Lisa; Boucher, Kenneth; Irwin, Michael R.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Kinney, Anita Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Tai Chi Chih (TCC) is associated with improved physical functioning and psychological benefits in breast cancer survivors and healthy older adults; thus, may also be beneficial for senior cancer survivors with physical functioning declines. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a Tai Chi Chih (TCC) intervention in senior female cancer survivors, with physical functioning limitations, as well as, its effects on QOL. Design This was a two-armed, parallel group, RCT with 12-weeks of Tai Chi Chih or Health Education Control. Methods Sixty-three senior (M age=67 years, SD=7.15) female cancer survivors (83% breast cancer, stages I–III) with physical functioning limitations (SF-12 Health Survey role physical & physical functioning subscales) were randomized to 12-weeks of TCC or Health Education control (HEC). Primary outcomes were feasibility and acceptability. Secondary outcomes included quality of life (SF-36 Health Survey), and participants’ qualitative feedback on intervention. Results Retention (TCC = 91%; HEC = 81%) and class attendance (TCC =79%; HEC = 83%) rates, and satisfaction levels for both study arms were high, but did not significantly differ from one another. At one-week post-intervention, none of the SF-36 scores differed between the TCC and HEC arms. Within-group analyses revealed significant improvements in the mental component summary score in TCC (p = 0.01), but not in HEC. Qualitative analyses indicated that the TCC group felt they received mental and physical benefits, whereas HEC group reported on social support benefits and information received. Conclusion A TCC intervention was found to be a feasible and acceptable modality for senior female cancer survivors. Future, larger definitive trials are needed to clarify TCC dosage effects on QOL in this vulnerable population. PMID:23620504

  15. Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Home What Are the Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Your risk of getting colorectal cancer increases as you get older. More than 90% ...

  16. What Are the Risk Factors for Vulvar Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... is anything that changes a person's chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, exposing skin to strong sunlight is a risk factor for skin cancer. Smoking ...

  17. Cancer Risk in Patients With Empyema

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Chung-Jen; Hu, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate cancer risk and possible risk factors in patients diagnosed with empyema. A total of 31,636 patients with newly diagnosed empyema between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2010 were included in this study. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare the cancer incidence in these empyema patients to that in the general population. Adjusted hazard ratios were also calculated to investigate whether characteristics increased cancer risk. During the 12-year study period, 2,654 cancers occurred in 31,636 patients with empyema, yielding an SIR of 2.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.57–2.78). We excluded cancer that occurred within 1 year to avoid surveillance bias. The cancer risk remained significantly increased (SIR 1.50, 95% CI 1.41–1.58). Specifically, patients with empyema had higher SIR of cancers of the head and neck (1.50, 95% CI 1.41–1.58), esophagus (2.56, 95% CI 1.92–3.33), stomach (1.49, 95% CI 1.16–1.89), liver and biliary tract (2.18, 95% CI 1.93–2.45), and lung and mediastinum (1.62, 95% CI 1.39–1.86). Age ≥ 60, male sex, diabetes mellitus, and liver cirrhosis were independent risk factors for cancer development. Our study demonstrates an increased incidence of cancer development in patients with empyema, and patients’ age ≥ 60, men, and those with diabetes mellitus and liver cirrhosis showed a higher incidence of developing cancer compared to the general population. The association between such kind of infection and secondary malignancy may be elucidated by further study. PMID:26945399

  18. Acceptance of Genetic Testing for Hereditary Breast Ovarian Cancer Among Study Enrollees from an African American Kindred

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, Sara Ellis; Baty, Bonnie Jeanne; Mandal, Diptasri; Neuhausen, Susan L; Seggar, Kate; Holubkov, Rich; Smith, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Clinical availability of genetic testing for cancer predisposition genes is generating a major challenge for U.S. health care systems to provide relevant genetic services to underserved populations. Here we present rates of study enrollment and utilization of genetic testing in a research study on BRCA1 testing acceptance in one large kindred. We also present data on baseline access to genetic information as well as enabling and obstructing factors to study enrollment. The study population included female and male members of an African-American kindred based in the rural southern United States with an identified BRCA1 mutation. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed. Of the 160 living, eligible and locatable kindred members, 105 (66%) enrolled in the study. Family, personal, and educational motivations were the most commonly endorsed reasons for study participation. The most commonly cited reasons for refusal to participate in the study were: lack of interest, time constraints, and negative experiences with prior participation in genetic research. Eighty three percent of the participants underwent BRCA1 testing. In multiple logistic regression analysis, age 40-49 (odds ratio (OR) = 6.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-39.5), increased perceived cancer risk (OR = 4.1; 95% CI = 1.1-14.6), and high cancer genetics knowledge levels (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1-2.3) were associated with BRCA1 testing acceptance. The results of this study indicate that cognitive and demographic factors may influence genetic research participation and genetic testing decisions among African Americans who are at increased risk of carrying a deleterious BRCA1 mutation. PMID:16523520

  19. The Potential Utility of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for Reducing Stress and Improving Wellbeing in Cancer Patients in Kolkata.

    PubMed

    Datta, Arunima; Aditya, Chandana; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Das, Priyabrata; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis

    2016-12-01

    As soon as a patient comes to know that he/she has cancer, the stress starts and psychological intervention is required. The authors assessed how well a cancer patient can manage stress over the course of the psychological intervention. Data was collected among 107 patients during pre and post intervention and at 2 months follow-up. Intervention was required to measures include acceptance of the disease, managing stress, well -being, and meaning of life. Finally, effects of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) were defined in acceptance measured in terms of a significant difference between pre and post intervention scores in the meaning of life and the acceptance level. This acceptance and commitment therapy can be an effective intervention approach for cancer patients that increases acceptance regarding disease and simultaneously leads to improvement in the meaning of life.

  20. Venous thromboembolism and cancer: risks and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Agnes Y Y; Levine, Mark N

    2003-06-17

    Cancer and its treatments are well-recognized risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Evidence suggests that the absolute risk depends on the tumor type, the stage or extent of the cancer, and treatment with antineoplastic agents. Furthermore, age, surgery, immobilization, and other comorbid features will also influence the overall likelihood of thrombotic complications, as they do in patients without cancer. The role of hereditary thrombophilia in patients with cancer and thrombosis is still unclear, and screening for this condition in cancer patients is not indicated. The most common malignancies associated with thrombosis are those of the breast, colon, and lung, reflecting the prevalence of these malignancies in the general population. When adjusted for disease prevalence, the cancers most strongly associated with thrombotic complications are those of the pancreas, ovary, and brain. Idiopathic thrombosis can be the first manifestation of an occult malignancy. However, intensive screening for cancer in patients with VTE often does not improve survival and is not generally warranted. Independently of the timing of cancer diagnosis (before or after the VTE), the life expectancy of cancer patients with VTE is relatively short, because of both deaths from recurrent VTE and the cancer itself. Patients with cancer and acute VTE who take anticoagulants for an extended period are at increased risk of recurrent VTE and bleeding. A recent randomized trial, the Randomized Comparison of Low Molecular Weight Heparin versus Oral Anticoagulant Therapy for Long-Term Anticoagulation in Cancer Patients with Venous Thromboembolism (CLOT) study, showed that low molecular weight heparin may be a better treatment option for this group of patients. The antineoplastic effects of anticoagulants are being actively investigated with promising preliminary results.

  1. Willingness-to-accept reductions in HIV risks: conditional economic incentives in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Galárraga, Omar; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G.; Infante, César; Gertler, Paul J.; Bertozzi, Stefano M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure willingness-to-accept (WTA) reductions in risks for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) using conditional economic incentives (CEI) among men who have sex with men (MSM), including male sex workers (MSW) in Mexico City. A survey experiment was conducted with 1,745 MSM and MSW (18-25 years of age) who received incentive offers to decide first whether to accept monthly prevention talks and STI testing; and then a second set of offers to accept to stay free of STIs (verified by quarterly biological testing). The survey used random-starting-point and iterative offers. WTA was estimated with a maximum likelihood double-bounded dichotomous choice model. The average acceptance probabilities were: 73.9% for the monthly model, and 80.4% for the quarterly model. The incentive-elasticity of participation in the monthly model was 0.222, and it was 0.515 in the quarterly model. For a combination program with monthly prevention talks, and staying free of curable STI, the implied WTA was USD$288 per person per year, but it was lower for MSW: USD$156 per person per year. Thus, some of the populations at highest risk of HIV infection (MSM & MSW) seem well disposed to participate in a CEI program for HIV and STI prevention in Mexico. The average willingness-to-accept estimate is within the range of feasible allocations for prevention in the local context. Given the potential impact, Mexico, a leader in conditional cash transfers for human development and poverty reduction, could extend that successful model for targeted HIV/STI prevention. PMID:23377757

  2. Risk stratification in prostate cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Roobol, Monique J; Carlsson, Sigrid V

    2013-01-01

    Screening for prostate cancer is a controversial topic within the field of urology. The US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial did not demonstrate any difference in prostate-cancer-related mortality rates between men screened annually rather than on an 'opportunistic' basis. However, in the world's largest trial to date--the European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer--screening every 2-4 years was associated with a 21% reduction in prostate-cancer-related mortality rate after 11 years. Citing the uncertain ratio between potential harm and potential benefit, the US Preventive Services Task Force recently recommended against serum PSA screening. Although this ratio has yet to be elucidated, PSA testing--and early tumour detection--is undoubtedly beneficial for some individuals. Instead of adopting a 'one size fits all' approach, physicians are likely to perform personalized risk assessment to minimize the risk of negative consequences, such as anxiety, unnecessary testing and biopsies, overdiagnosis, and overtreatment. The PSA test needs to be combined with other predictive factors or be used in a more thoughtful way to identify men at risk of symptomatic or life-threatening cancer, without overdiagnosing indolent disease. A risk-adapted approach is needed, whereby PSA testing is tailored to individual risk.

  3. Risk of lung cancer in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xin; Luo, Xiaoguang; Xie, Mingliang; Liu, Yang; Wu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Recently, growing evidence has revealed the significant association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and cancer. However, controversy still exists concerning the association between PD and lung cancer. A comprehensive article search for relevant studies published was performed using the following online databases: PubMed, Web of Science and Embase up to August 31, 2016. The pooled risk ratio (RR) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using the method of inverse variance with the random-effects model. Fifteen studies comprising 348,780 PD patients were included in this study. The pooled result indicated that patients with PD were significantly associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer (RR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.41−0.70, P < 0.001). In addition, subgroup analyses performed in Western population also confirmed the significant inverse relationship between PD and risk of lung cancer (RR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.39−0.60, P < 0.001). In the subgroup analysis, a reduced risk of lung cancer in PD patients from Western population was consistent regardless of study design, gender, or study quality. In conclusion, PD patients were significantly associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer in Western population. The relationship between them in Asian population needs to be confirmed by future studies. PMID:27801674

  4. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  5. Identification of cancer risk lncRNAs and cancer risk pathways regulated by cancer risk lncRNAs based on genome sequencing data in human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiran; Li, Wan; Liang, Binhua; Li, Liansheng; Wang, Li; Huang, Hao; Guo, Shanshan; Wang, Yahui; He, Yuehan; Chen, Lina; He, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. The complexity of cancer can be reduced to a small number of underlying principles like cancer hallmarks which could govern the transformation of normal cells to cancer. Besides, the growth and metastasis of cancer often relate to combined effects of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Here, we performed comprehensive analysis for lncRNA expression profiles and clinical data of six types of human cancer patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and identified six risk pathways and twenty three lncRNAs. In addition, twenty three cancer risk lncRNAs which were closely related to the occurrence or development of cancer had a good classification performance for samples of testing datasets of six cancer datasets. More important, these lncRNAs were able to separate samples in the entire cancer dataset into high-risk group and low-risk group with significantly different overall survival (OS), which was further validated in ten validation datasets. In our study, the robust and effective cancer biomarkers were obtained from cancer datasets which had information of normal-tumor samples. Overall, our research can provide a new perspective for the further study of clinical diagnosis and treatment of cancer. PMID:27991568

  6. Identification of cancer risk lncRNAs and cancer risk pathways regulated by cancer risk lncRNAs based on genome sequencing data in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiran; Li, Wan; Liang, Binhua; Li, Liansheng; Wang, Li; Huang, Hao; Guo, Shanshan; Wang, Yahui; He, Yuehan; Chen, Lina; He, Weiming

    2016-12-19

    Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. The complexity of cancer can be reduced to a small number of underlying principles like cancer hallmarks which could govern the transformation of normal cells to cancer. Besides, the growth and metastasis of cancer often relate to combined effects of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Here, we performed comprehensive analysis for lncRNA expression profiles and clinical data of six types of human cancer patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and identified six risk pathways and twenty three lncRNAs. In addition, twenty three cancer risk lncRNAs which were closely related to the occurrence or development of cancer had a good classification performance for samples of testing datasets of six cancer datasets. More important, these lncRNAs were able to separate samples in the entire cancer dataset into high-risk group and low-risk group with significantly different overall survival (OS), which was further validated in ten validation datasets. In our study, the robust and effective cancer biomarkers were obtained from cancer datasets which had information of normal-tumor samples. Overall, our research can provide a new perspective for the further study of clinical diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

  7. The effect of marriage and HIV risks on condom use acceptability in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Anglewicz, Philip; Clark, Shelley

    2013-11-01

    A large and increasing proportion of HIV transmissions in sub-Saharan Africa occur within marriage. Condom use within marriage could, therefore, be an important prevention strategy, but there is considerable debate about whether married couples would be willing to use condoms. This paper contributes to this debate by identifying key factors that affect the acceptability of condom use within marriage and actual condom use among men and women in rural Malawi, using three waves of longitudinal data from 2004, 2006 and 2008. Specifically, we focused on the effect of (1) entry into first marriage, (2) respondent's HIV status, HIV perceptions, and risk behaviors, and (3) spouse's HIV characteristics on condom use acceptability within marriage and actual condom use with a spouse or steady partner. Using fixed-effects regression, we found that getting married coincides with a pronounced attitudinal shift regarding the acceptability of condom use within marriage that cannot be explained by differences in fertility status or selection into marriage. In addition, we found that, for women, perceived HIV status of the respondent and spouse generally had greater influence than actual HIV status on the acceptability of condom use within marriage and actual condom use with a spouse or steady partner, even after HIV status is known; while actual HIV status and HIV risk behaviors are generally more important among men. Although condom use within marriage remained low, these findings suggest that attitudes about and use of condoms are susceptible to change and that both marital status and perceptions of risk are important influences on condom use.

  8. Screening for Psychosocial Risk in Pediatric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kazak, Anne E.; Brier, Moriah; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Reilly, Anne; Parker, Stephanie Fooks; Rogerwick, Stephanie; Ditaranto, Susan; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2012-01-01

    Major professional organizations have called for psychosocial risk screening to identify specific psychosocial needs of children with cancer and their families and facilitate the delivery of appropriate evidence-based care to address these concerns. However, systematic screening of risk factors at diagnosis is rare in pediatric oncology practice. Subsequent to a brief summary of psychosocial risks in pediatric cancer and the rationale for screening, this review identified three screening models and two screening approaches (Distress Thermometer [DT], Psychosocial Assessment Tool [PAT]), among many more papers calling for screening. Implications of broadly implemented screening for all patients across treatment settings are discussed. PMID:22492662

  9. Screening for psychosocial risk in pediatric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kazak, Anne E; Brier, Moriah; Alderfer, Melissa A; Reilly, Anne; Fooks Parker, Stephanie; Rogerwick, Stephanie; Ditaranto, Susan; Barakat, Lamia P

    2012-11-01

    Major professional organizations have called for psychosocial risk screening to identify specific psychosocial needs of children with cancer and their families and facilitate the delivery of appropriate evidence-based care to address these concerns. However, systematic screening of risk factors at diagnosis is rare in pediatric oncology practice. Subsequent to a brief summary of psychosocial risks in pediatric cancer and the rationale for screening, this review identified three screening models and two screening approaches [Distress Thermometer (DT), Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT)], among many more articles calling for screening. Implications of broadly implemented screening for all patients across treatment settings are discussed.

  10. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P < 0.05), although no associations were observed for other DNA repair SNPs. Interactions of six SNPs in multiple DNA repair pathways with physical activity were evident prior to correction for FDR, following which there was support for only one of the interaction terms (P < 0.05). No consistent associations between variants in DNA repair genes and breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed.

  11. Referral for cancer genetics consultation: a review and compilation of risk assessment criteria

    PubMed Central

    Hampel, H; Sweet, K; Westman, J; Offit, K; Eng, C

    2004-01-01

    Methods: The criteria were based on a comprehensive review of publications describing diagnostic criteria for hereditary cancer syndromes and risk to first degree relatives of cancer patients. Priority was given to diagnostic criteria from consensus statements (for example, those from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network). Expert opinion from study personnel was then used to adopt a single set of criteria from other publications whenever guidelines differed. Results: Based on family history, a set of criteria was developed to identify patients at risk for a hereditary cancer susceptibility syndrome, patients with moderate risk who might benefit from increased cancer surveillance, and patients who are at average risk. The criteria were applied to 4360 individuals who provided their cancer family history between July 1999 and April 2002, using a touch screen computer system in the lobby of a comprehensive cancer centre. They categorised an acceptable number of users into each risk level: 14.9% high risk, 13.7% moderate risk, and 59.6% average risk; 11.8% provided insufficient information for risk assessment. Conclusions: These criteria should improve ease of referral and promote consistency across centres when evaluating patients for referral to cancer genetics specialists. PMID:14757853

  12. Dietary Fat, Eicosanoids and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    risk of sex. hormone mediated cancer, such as breast canoer. A high intake oftotal fat and omega -6 fatty acids increases risk while omega -3 (03...Era ofHope meeting. No manuscripts have yet been gtmm’ated. dietary fat, omega -3 fatty acids ,. eicosanoids, sex ho~nes 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF... fatty acids are associated with risk reduction. Our proposal is testi~g the effect ofdietary fat and fatty acids on sex homwne . concentrations in post

  13. What Are the Risk Factors for Eye Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Eye Cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... or no known risk factors. Risk factors for eye melanoma Race/ethnicity The risk of intraocular melanoma ...

  14. On Sinking and Swimming: The Dialectic of Hope, Hopelessness, and Acceptance in Terminal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Emily; Kolva, Elissa; Pessin, Hayley; Rosenfeld, Barry; Breitbart, William

    2016-01-01

    For terminally ill cancer patients, hope and hopelessness are constructs that significantly impact the quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hope and hopelessness in advanced cancer and to identify factors that maintain hope and increase vulnerability to hopelessness. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 22 terminally ill cancer patients. Interview transcripts were analyzed using thematic content analysis to identify patient definitions of these terms and associated cognitions and emotions. Hope and hopelessness were identified as distinct, often co-occurring, and dialectically interacting constructs. The relationship between hope and hopelessness often balanced on acceptance, perceived as diametrically opposed to hopelessness, and conducive to redirecting hope toward new goals. Positive interpersonal relationships enhanced hope, and uncontrolled physical pain increased vulnerability to hopelessness. PMID:22556280

  15. On sinking and swimming: the dialectic of hope, hopelessness, and acceptance in terminal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Emily; Kolva, Elissa; Pessin, Hayley; Rosenfeld, Barry; Breitbart, William

    2013-03-01

    For terminally ill cancer patients, hope and hopelessness are constructs that significantly impact quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hope and hopelessness in advanced cancer and to identify factors that maintain hope and increase vulnerability to hopelessness. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 22 terminally ill cancer patients. Interview transcripts were analyzed using thematic content analysis to identify patient definitions of these terms and associated cognitions and emotions. Hope and hopelessness were identified as distinct, often co-occurring, and dialectically interacting constructs. The relationship between hope and hopelessness often balanced on acceptance, perceived as diametrically opposed to hopelessness, and conducive to redirecting hope toward new goals. Positive interpersonal relationships enhanced hope, and uncontrolled physical pain increased vulnerability to hopelessness.

  16. Breast Cancer Risk Among Klinefelter Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    Brinton, Louise A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate male breast cancer (MBC) risk among Klinefelter Syndrome (KS) patients and relate this to possible biologic explanations. Methods A literature review was conducted to identify case series and epidemiologic studies that have evaluated MBC risk among KS patients. Results Case reports without expected values have often led to false impressions of risk. Problems include that a diagnosis of cancer can prompt a karyotypic evaluation and that many cases of KS are unrecognized, resulting in incomplete denominators. Few carefully conducted epidemiologic studies have been undertaken given that both KS and male breast cancer are rare events. The largest study found 19.2- and 57.8-fold increases in incidence and mortality, respectively, with particularly high risks among 47,XXY mosaics. These risks were still approximately 30% lower than among females, contradicting case reports that KS patients have breast cancer rates similar to females. Altered hormone levels (especially the ratio of estrogens to androgens), administration of exogenous androgens, gynecomastia, and genetic factors have been offered as possible explanations for the high risks. Conclusions Additional well-designed epidemiologic studies are needed to clarify which KS patients are at a high risk of developing MBC and to distinguish between possible predisposing factors, including altered endogenous hormones. PMID:21241366

  17. Impact of radiotherapy in the risk of esophageal cancer as subsequent primary cancer after breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Salminen, Eeva K. . E-mail: eevsal@utu.fi; Pukkala, Eero; Kiel, Krys D.; Hakulinen, Timo T.

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the risk of esophageal cancer as second cancer among breast-cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The records of the Finnish Cancer Registry from 1953 to 2000 were used to assess the risk of esophageal cancer as second cancer among 75,849 breast-cancer patients. Patients were treated with surgery (n = 33,672), radiotherapy (n = 35,057), chemotherapy and radiotherapy (n = 4673), or chemotherapy (n = 2,447). The risk of a new primary cancer was expressed as standardized incidence ratio (SIR), defined as the ratio of observed to expected cases. Results: By the end of 2000, the number of observed cases esophageal cancers was 80 vs. 72 expected cases (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.1, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.9 to 1.5). Among patients followed for 15 years and treated with radiotherapy, the SIR for esophageal cancer was 2.3 (95% CI = 1.4 to 5.4). No increase in risk was seen for patients treated without radiotherapy. The risk of esophageal cancer was increased among patients diagnosed during 1953 to 1974, although age at the treatment did not have marked effect on the risk estimate. Conclusion: Increased risk of second cancer in the esophagus was observed for breast-cancer patients in Finland, especially among patients with over 15 years of follow-up and treated in the earliest period, which may relate to the type of radiotherapy.

  18. HEALTHY EATING INDEX AND OVARIAN CANCER RISK

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V.; Williams-King, Melony G.; Paddock, Lisa E.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Lu, Shou-En; Faulkner, Shameka; Pulick, Katherine; Olson, Sara H.

    2011-01-01

    The evidence for a role of diet on ovarian cancer prevention remains inconclusive. While many studies have evaluated individual foods and food groups, the evaluation of a comprehensive dietary quality index for predicting cancer risk has received little attention. This study investigates the association between the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), which reflects adherence to the current USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in New Jersey. A total of 205 cases and 390 controls completed the Block 98.2 Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) in addition to reporting on potential risk factors for ovarian cancer. FFQ data were then utilized to calculate the HEI score, and cup, ounce, gram, or caloric equivalents for the 12 different food groups comprising the index. In multivariate models the OR for the highest tertile of the HEI score compared to the lowest (reflecting a better diet compared to a worse diet) was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.55–1.47). There was limited evidence for a statistically significant association between any of the 12 individual food components and ovarian cancer risk. Based on this study’s results, neither individual food groups nor dietary quality showed potential for preventing ovarian cancer. PMID:21286802

  19. Glucocorticoid therapy and risk of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, K; Schned, A; Fortuny, J; Heaney, J; Marsit, C; Kelsey, K T; Karagas, M R

    2009-01-01

    Background: Use of immunosuppressive drugs post organ transplantation, and prolonged use of glucorticoids for other conditions have been associated with subsequent risk of certain malignancies, that is, skin cancers and lymphoma. There is evidence that the incidence of bladder cancer is also elevated among organ transplant recipients, however, it is unknown whether other groups of patients, that is, those taking oral glucocorticoids, likewise are at an increased risk. Methods: In a population-based case–control study in New Hampshire, USA, we compared the use of glucocorticoids in 786 bladder cancer cases and in 1083 controls. We used unconditional logistic regression analysis to compute adjusted odds ratios (ORs) associated with oral glucocorticoid use. Results: In our analysis, the risk of bladder cancer was related to a history of prolonged oral glucocorticoid use (OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.24–2.76, adjusted for age, gender and smoking). Associations with oral glucocorticoid use were stronger for invasive tumours (OR=2.12, 95% CI=1.17–3.85) and tumours with high (3+) p53 staining intensity (OR=2.35, 95% CI=1.26–4.36). Conclusion: Our results raise the possibility of an increased risk of bladder cancer from systemic use of glucocorticoids, and a potential role of immune surveillance in bladder cancer aetiology. PMID:19773763

  20. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Key, T J

    2011-01-04

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes.

  1. Cancer risks in the optical manufacturing industry.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J D; Wegman, D H; Smith, T J

    1983-01-01

    A mortality odds ratio (MOR) study has been conducted to explore the cancer risks of exposures experienced in the production of optical lenses and metal spectacle frames. Male death certificates were obtained from a Massachusetts town where a large optical industry is located. Craftsmen, foremen, and operatives of non-optical industries, such as woollen textile workers and workers in the optical company with short-term or no exposure, were chosen as reference workers their incomes were similar to those of the exposed workers. Cardiovascular disease (total 714) is chosen as the reference disease to explore cancers (total 232). An excess risk of total cancers observed = 70, expected = 48) has formed among lens workers. The excess may be accounted for mainly by the excess risk of gastrointestinal cancers; the standardised MORs (sMOR) for medium and long-term exposure were 2.2 and 2.5. The excess was especially evident for colorectal cancers; the sMORs for medium and long-term exposures were 3.2 and 2.6. Excess risks of gastrointestinal cancers (sMOR = 2.9) and colorectal cancers (sMOR = 3.4) were found among metal frame workers with long-term (employed for more than 29 years) exposure, but the number of exposed cases was small (9 and 6 respectively). These results suggest that exposure to abrasives or cutting oil mists or both, possibly by ingestion, might increase the risk of gastrointestinal (especially colorectal) cancers among lens and metal spectacle frame manufacturers. PMID:6830714

  2. A Risk Model for Lung Cancer Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Hoggart, Clive; Brennan, Paul; Tjonneland, Anne; Vogel, Ulla; Overvad, Kim; Østergaard, Jane Nautrup; Kaaks, Rudolf; Canzian, Federico; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Johansson, Mattias; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Lund, Eiliv; Gram, Inger Torhild; Braaten, Tonje; Rodríguez, Laudina; Agudo, Antonio; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Arriola, Larraitz; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Rasmuson, Torgny; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Allen, Naomi E.; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Risk models for lung cancer incidence would be useful for prioritizing individuals for screening and participation in clinical trials of chemoprevention. We present a risk model for lung cancer built using prospective cohort data from a general population which predicts individual incidence in a given time period. We build separate risk models for current and former smokers using 169,035 ever smokers from the multicenter European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and considered a model for never smokers. The data set was split into independent training and test sets. Lung cancer incidence was modeled using survival analysis, stratifying by age started smoking, and for former smokers, also smoking duration. Other risk factors considered were smoking intensity, 10 occupational/environmental exposures previously implicated with lung cancer, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms at two loci identified by genome-wide association studies of lung cancer. Individual risk in the test set was measured by the predicted probability of lung cancer incidence in the year preceding last follow-up time, predictive accuracy was measured by the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). Using smoking information alone gave good predictive accuracy: the AUC and 95% confidence interval in ever smokers was 0.843 (0.810–0.875), the Bach model applied to the same data gave an AUC of 0.775 (0.737–0.813). Other risk factors had negligible effect on the AUC, including never smokers for whom prediction was poor. Our model is generalizable and straightforward to implement. Its accuracy can be attributed to its modeling of lifetime exposure to smoking. PMID:22496387

  3. Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and Perceived Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0493 TITLE: Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and...SUBTITLE Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and Perceived Stress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Perceived Stress...relationship between stress and ovarian cancer has never been evaluated in humans. In our analysis of self-reported stress and risk of ovarian cancer , we

  4. Family history and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Lesko, S M; Rosenberg, L; Shapiro, S

    1996-12-01

    The authors examined the relation between family history of prostate cancer and the risk of this cancer in a population-based case-control study conducted in Massachusetts between December 1992 and October 1994. Cases were all incident cases of prostate cancer in men younger than 70 years (n = 563); controls were men with no history of the disease matched to the cases on age and town of residence (n = 703). Prostate cancer risk was increased among men who reported a history of this cancer in either their fathers or brothers (odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-3.3). Risk varied with the number of relatives affected and their relationship to the case. For a history of prostate cancer in one relative, the OR was 2.2 (95% CI 1.5-3.2); if two or more relatives were affected, it was 3.9 (95% CI 1.7-5.2). For prostate cancer in the father, the OR was 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-3.0); for prostate cancer in a brother, it was 3.0 (95% CI 1.8-4.9). Risk was inversely related to the subject's age and to age at diagnosis of prostate cancer in his affected relative. Among probands younger than 60 years, the OR was 5.3 (95% CI 2.5-12); for those 60-64 years of age, the OR was 2.7 (95% CI 1.3-5.5); and for those 65 years of age and older, the OR was 1.6 (95% CI 1.0-2.5). For prostate cancer diagnosed in a relative before age 65, the OR was 4.1 (95% CI 2.3-7.3); for detection of the disease after age 74, the OR was 0.76 (95% CI 0.38-1.5). The association was present both among men with local and advanced stage disease and among men whose prostate cancer was detected either by screening or because of symptoms. These data provide evidence that after controlling for diet and other potential confounders, familial factors are significantly associated with the risk of prostate cancer.

  5. Investigation of risk factors of psychological acceptance and burnout syndrome among nurses in China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yongcheng; Yao, Wu; Wang, Wei; Li, Hong; Lan, Yajia

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine reliability of Chinese version of Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), the relationship between psychological acceptance (PA), and burnout syndrome and their risk factors among nurses in China. The reliability of AAQ-II in Chinese was evaluated first by testing on 111 doctors and 108 nurses in China. On the number of 845 nurses selected from nine city hospitals by using stratified cluster sampling method, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was administered to establish the presence of burnout, and the AAQ-II was used to measure their PA. Results showed that the AAQ-II in Chinese had a good test-retest reliability. PA was statistically significantly negatively correlated to the three dimensionalities of burnout among nurses in China. Male and female nurses had a significant difference in PA. Risk factors for burnout were age (25-44 years), marital status (married), gender (male), hospital department (emergency) and position (primary title) as well as PA. The findings provide insights into the risk factors of burnout in Chinese nurses and may have clinical implications in preventing burnout in Chinese nurses.

  6. Body mass index, lifetime smoking intensity and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    El-Zein, Mariam; Parent, Marie-Elise; Nicolau, Belinda; Koushik, Anita; Siemiatycki, Jack; Rousseau, Marie-Claude

    2013-10-01

    There is as yet no generally accepted explanation for the common finding that low body mass index (BMI) is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. We investigated this association in a Canadian population-based case-control study (1996-2002) with a particular view to assessing the hypothesis that the observed association was due to residual confounding by smoking. Analyses were based on 1,076 cases and 1,439 controls who provided their height at enrollment and their weight at two points in time, at age 20 and 2 years before enrollment. BMI, in kg/m(2) , was classified into underweight (<18.5), normal (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), and obese (≥30). Smoking history was synthesized into a comprehensive smoking index (CSI) that integrated duration, intensity and time since quitting. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for BMI-lung cancer associations were estimated, adjusting for CSI as well as several sociodemographic, lifestyle and occupational factors. The normal BMI category was used as the reference. Among those who were underweight at age 20, there was a lower risk of lung cancer (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50-0.95). Conversely, lung cancer risk was increased among those who were underweight 2 years before enrollment (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.30-4.10). The results were almost identical when stratifying analyses based on smoking history into never/lighter and heavier smokers. The inverse association between recent BMI and lung cancer is unlikely to be largely attributable to residual confounding by smoking. Reverse causality or a true relationship between BMI and lung cancer remain plausible.

  7. Occupation-related risks for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Spiegelman, D; Wegman, D H

    1985-11-01

    Several population data bases were used to generate hypotheses about associations between colorectal cancer and workplace exposures. The Third National Cancer Survey interview sample was used to select 343 male and 208 female cases and 626 male and 1,235 female cancer controls. Potential work exposures were assigned with the use of data from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Hazard Survey. Dietary factors were modeled from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Work-related stress was considered with the use of a model based on the U.S. Department of Labor's Quality of Employment Survey. Other risk factors included age, race, ponderosity, and menopausal status. Logistic analysis yielded hypotheses for colon cancer risk in males with potentially high exposure to solvents, abrasives, and fuel oil and in those in jobs with high demand and low control (high "stress"). Hypotheses emerged for females with potentially high exposure to dyes, solvents, and grinding wheel dust.

  8. Assessing the cancer risk from environmental PCBs.

    PubMed Central

    Cogliano, V J

    1998-01-01

    A new approach to assessing the cancer risk from environmental polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) considers both toxicity and environmental processes to make distinctions among environmental mixtures. New toxicity information from a 1996 cancer study of four commercial mixtures strengthens the case that all PCB mixtures can cause cancer, although different mixtures have different potencies. Environmental processes alter PCB mixtures through partitioning, chemical transformation, and preferential bioaccumulation; these processes can increase or decrease toxicity considerably. Bioaccumulated PCBs are of greatest concern because they appear to be more toxic than commercial PCBs and more persistent in the body. The new approach uses toxicity studies of commercial mixtures to develop a range of cancer potency estimates and then considers the effect of environmental processes to choose appropriate values for representative classes of environmental mixtures. Guidance is given for assessing risks from different exposure pathways, less-than-lifetime and early-life exposures, and mixtures containing dioxinlike compounds. PMID:9618347

  9. Genetic counseling for prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Nieder, A M; Taneja, S S; Zeegers, M P A; Ostrer, H

    2003-03-01

    Major risk factors for developing prostate cancer, including positive family history and African-American ethnicity, can be quantified for genetic counseling. Factors increasing familial risk for prostate cancer are closer degree of kinship, number of affected relatives, and early age of onset (< 50 years) among the affected relatives. Genetic testing may be useful for modification of risk, but currently should be performed only within the context of a well-designed research study that will determine penetrance and genotype-phenotype correlation of specific mutations. Even in the absence of genetic testing, African-American men and men with a strong family history of prostate cancer may opt to initiate screening by prostate specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal exam (DRE) screening at age 40.

  10. Epigenetic Testing for Breast Cancer Risk Stratification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    no detectable methylation in lymphocytes. As part of this project we obtained RP-FNA samples from Carol Fabian. Dr. Fabian expels her RP-FNA samples...1943. 8. Lewis CM, Cler LR, Bu DW, et al. Promoter hypermethylation in benign breast epithelium in relation to predicted breast cancer risk. Clin...American Society of Preventive Oncology. May 2008;17(5):1051-1059. 10. Bu D, Lewis CM, Sarode V, et al. Identification of breast cancer DNA methylation

  11. Lifetime growth and risk of testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Richiardi, Lorenzo; Vizzini, Loredana; Pastore, Guido; Segnan, Nereo; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Fiano, Valentina; Grasso, Chiara; Ciuffreda, Libero; Lista, Patrizia; Pearce, Neil; Merletti, Franco

    2014-08-01

    Adult height is associated with testicular cancer risk. We studied to what extent this association is explained by parental height, childhood height and age at puberty. We conducted a case-control study on germ-cell testicular cancer patients diagnosed in 1997-2008 and resident in the Province of Turin. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires in 2008-2011. Specifically, we asked for adult height (in cm), height at age 9 and 13 (compared to peers) and age at puberty (compared to peers). We also asked for paternal and maternal height (in cm) as indicators of genetic components of adult height. The analysis included 255 cases and 459 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) of testicular cancer were estimated for the different anthropometric variables. Adult height was associated with testicular cancer risk [OR: 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.31 per 5-cm increase]. The risk of testicular cancer was only slightly increased for being taller vs. shorter than peers at age 9 (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 0.91-2.64) or age 13 (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 0.78-2.01), and parental height was not associated with testicular cancer risk. The OR for adult height was 1.32 (95% CI: 1.12-1.56) after adjustment for parental height. Among participants with small average parental height (<167 cm or less), the OR of testicular cancer for tall (>180 cm) vs. short (<174 cm) subjects was 3.47 (95% CI: 1.60-7.51). These results suggest that the association between height and testicular cancer is likely to be explained by environmental factors affecting growth in early life, childhood and adolescence.

  12. Dietary Fat, Eicosanoids and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    eicosanoid balance, and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. The study objectives are to: 1) evaluate the effects of total fat and omega -3 fatty acid ...Dietary fat, omega -3 fatty acids , eicosanoids, sex hormones 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...Eicosanoids, and Breast Cancer Risk”, is a dietary intervention aimed at evaluating the effects of total fat intake and omega -3 fatty acids on breast

  13. Melatonin, sleep disturbance and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Blask, David E

    2009-08-01

    The pineal hormone melatonin is involved in the circadian regulation and facilitation of sleep, the inhibition of cancer development and growth, and the enhancement of immune function. Individuals, such as night shift workers, who are exposed to light at night on a regular basis experience biological rhythm (i.e., circadian) disruption including circadian phase shifts, nocturnal melatonin suppression, and sleep disturbances. Additionally, these individuals are not only immune suppressed, but they are also at an increased risk of developing a number of different types of cancer. There is a reciprocal interaction and regulation between sleep and the immune system quite independent of melatonin. Sleep disturbances can lead to immune suppression and a shift to the predominance in cancer-stimulatory cytokines. Some studies suggest that a shortened duration of nocturnal sleep is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer development. The relative individual contributions of sleep disturbance, circadian disruption due to light at night exposure, and related impairments of melatonin production and immune function to the initiation and promotion of cancer in high-risk individuals such as night shift workers are unknown. The mutual reinforcement of interacting circadian rhythms of melatonin production, the sleep/wake cycle and immune function may indicate a new role for undisturbed, high quality sleep, and perhaps even more importantly, uninterrupted darkness, as a previously unappreciated endogenous mechanism of cancer prevention.

  14. Circulating Adiponectin and Risk of Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qiaoli; Wu, Haijian; Cao, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced by adipocytes. It has been suggested to be involved in endometrial tumorigenesis. Published data have shown inconsistent results for the association between circulating adiponectin levels and endometrial cancer. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the predictive value of circulating adiponectin levels on the development of endometrial cancer. Methods PubMed, Embase, ISI web of knowledge, and Cochrane databases were searched for all eligible studies, and the summary relative risk (SRR) was calculated. Additionally, we performed dose-response analysis with eight eligible studies. Results A total of 1,955 cases and 3,458 controls from 12 studies were included. The SRR for the ‘highest’ vs ‘lowest’ adiponectin levels indicated high adiponectin level reduced the risk of endometrial cancer [SRR = 0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.33–0.66]. Results from the subgroup analyses were consistent with the overall analysis. The SRR for each 1 µg/ml increase of adiponectin indicated a 3% reduction in endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 2%–4%), and a 14% reduction for each increase of 5 µg/ml (95% CI: 9%–19%). No evidence of publication bias was found. Conclusions This meta-analysis demonstrates that low level of circulating adiponectin is a risk factor for endometrial cancer. PMID:26030130

  15. Integrating Patient-Reported Outcome Measures into Routine Cancer Care: Cancer Patients’ and Clinicians’ Perceptions of Acceptability and Value

    PubMed Central

    Stover, Angela; Irwin, Debra E.; Chen, Ronald C.; Chera, Bhishamjit S.; Mayer, Deborah K.; Muss, Hyman B.; Rosenstein, Donald L.; Shea, Thomas C.; Wood, William A.; Lyons, Jessica C.; Reeve, Bryce B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Despite growing interest in integrating patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures of symptoms and functional status into routine cancer care, little attention has been paid to patients’ and clinicians’ perceptions of acceptability and value. Methods: A two-phase qualitative study was conducted to develop a web-based PRO screening system with 21 items assessing symptoms (e.g., nausea) and functional status. Phase 1 involved cognitive interviews with 35 cancer outpatients (n=9 breast chemotherapy, radiation for prostate (n=8) or head and neck cancer (n=10), and n=8 bone marrow transplant [BMT]). In Phase 2, we evaluated the acceptability and perceived value of reviewing a PRO measure during real-time clinical encounters with 39 additional outpatients (n=10 breast, n=9 head and neck, n=10 prostate, n=10 BMT) and 12 clinicians (n=3 breast, n=2 head and neck, n=4 prostate, n=3 BMT). At least 20% of patients were ≥60 years, African American, or ≤ high school. Results: Patients felt that their PRO summary of symptoms and functional status was helpful in discussing health issues with clinicians (92%), wanted to review their results with clinicians during future visits (82%), and would recommend it to other patients (87%). Clinicians found the PRO summary to be easy to interpret (83%), most helpful for documenting the Review of Symptoms (92%), and would recommend it to future patients (92%). Over 90% of clinicians reported that consultation time did not increase. Conclusion: Both cancer patients and clinicians reported that discussing a PRO summary of symptoms and functional status during an outpatient visit was useful, acceptable, and feasible. PMID:26557724

  16. Gene polymorphisms, apoptotic capacity and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Imyanitov, Evgeny N

    2009-04-01

    Programmed cell death has been implicated in various aspects of cancer development. Apoptotic capacity is a subject of significant interindividual variations, which are largely attributed to hereditary traits. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within cell death genes may influence cancer risk in various ways. Low activity of apoptosis may favor cancer development because of the failure to eliminate cellular clones carrying DNA damage and propensity to inflammation, but may also protect against malignancy due to preservation of antitumor immune cells. Phenotyping studies assessing cell death rate in cancer patients versus healthy controls are limited in number and produced controversial results. TP53 R72P polymorphism is the only SNP whose functional impact on apoptotic response has been replicated in independent investigations. Intriguingly, meta-analysis of TP53 genotyping studies has provided evidence for the association between apoptosis-deficient TP53 genotype and tumor susceptibility. Systematic analysis of cancer-predisposing relevance of other apoptotic gene SNPs remains to be done.

  17. Epidemiology and risk factors for kidney cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wong-Ho; Dong, Linda M.; Devesa, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    After over two decades of increasing rates, kidney cancer incidence trends worldwide show signs of plateauing or decreases in recent years. In the United States, rates for renal cell cancer, the predominant form of kidney cancer in adults, continue to rise but mainly for early stage tumors. Incidence rates for renal pelvis cancer have declined, while kidney cancer mortality rates overall have leveled. These patterns are consistent with reports of incidental diagnosis and downward shift of tumor stage and size in clinical series. The changing prevalence of known risk factors for renal cell cancer, including cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension, may also be influencing the incidence trends, although their relative impact may differ in various populations,. Evidence is accumulating to suggest an etiologic role for physical activity, alcohol consumption, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, and high parity among women, but causal conclusions are not yet supported. Genetic susceptibility and its interaction with environmental exposures are believed to influence renal cell cancer risk, but limited studies based on candidate gene approaches have not produced conclusive results. Large consortium efforts employing genome-wide scanning technology are underway, which hold promise for novel discoveries in renal carcinogenesis. PMID:20448658

  18. Breast cancer and spaceflight: risk and management.

    PubMed

    Barr, Yael R; Bacal, Kira; Jones, Jeffrey A; Hamilton, Douglas R

    2007-04-01

    Spaceflight exposes astronauts to a host of environmental factors which could increase their risk for cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown an increased incidence of breast cancer in female commercial flight attendants, with occupational risk factors as one of the proposed mechanisms for the higher incidence in this cohort. Since female astronauts are exposed to similar occupational conditions as flight attendants, they too may be at an increased risk for breast cancer. With the planning of exploration class missions to the Moon and to Mars it is important to assess and minimize the risk for breast malignancy, and to have a well-defined protocol for the diagnosis and treatment of a breast mass discovered during a mission. Risk factors for development of breast cancer in the female astronaut include ionizing radiation, disrupted melatonin homeostasis secondary to circadian shifting, chemical exposure, and changes in immune function. Preflight, in-flight, and postflight screening and management modalities include imaging and fine needle aspiration (FNA). Employing such a strategy may provide a viable management approach in the case of a newly diagnosed breast mass inflight.

  19. Feasibility and acceptability of a multiple risk factor intervention: The Step Up randomized pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Interventions are needed which can successfully modify more than one disease risk factor at a time, but much remains to be learned about the acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of multiple risk factor (MRF) interventions. To address these issues and inform future intervention development, we conducted a randomized pilot trial (n = 52). This study was designed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the Step Up program, a MRF cognitive-behavioral program designed to improve participants' mental and physical well-being by reducing depressive symptoms, promoting smoking cessation, and increasing physical activity. Methods Participants were recruited from a large health care organization and randomized to receive usual care treatment for depression, smoking, and physical activity promotion or the phone-based Step Up counseling program plus usual care. Participants were assessed at baseline, three and six months. Results The intervention was acceptable to participants and feasible to offer within a healthcare system. The pilot also offered important insights into the optimal design of a MRF program. While not powered to detect clinically significant outcomes, changes in target behaviors indicated positive trends at six month follow-up and statistically significant improvement was also observed for depression. Significantly more experimental participants reported a clinically significant improvement (50% reduction) in their baseline depression score at four months (54% vs. 26%, OR = 3.35, 95% CI [1.01- 12.10], p = 0.05) and 6 months (52% vs. 13%, OR = 7.27, 95% CI [1.85 - 37.30], p = 0.004) Conclusions Overall, results suggest the Step Up program warrants additional research, although some program enhancements may be beneficial. Key lessons learned from this research are shared to promote the understanding of others working in this field. Trial registration The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00644995). PMID:21414216

  20. Assessment of pain, acceptance of illness, adjustment to life with cancer, and coping strategies in colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Religioni, Urszula; Deptała, Andrzej; Walewska-Zielecka, Bożena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Every year more than 15,000 newly diagnosed cases of colorectal carcinoma are recorded in Poland. Aim The objective of the study was an assessment of coping strategies and pain management, acceptance of illness, and adjustment to cancer in patients diagnosed with colorectal carcinoma. The analysis was extended to include the effect of socioeconomic variables on the above-mentioned issues. Material and methods The study included 238 colorectal cancer patients treated on an outpatient basis at the Centre of Oncology, the Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute in Warsaw in the year 2013. The questionnaire interview comprised demographic questions (socioeconomic variables) and the following four psychometric tests: BPCQ (Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire), CSQ (Coping Strategies Questionnaire), AIS questionnaire (Acceptance of Illness Scale), and the Mini-Mac scale (Mental Adjustment to Cancer). Results The source of pain control depends on the respondent's level of education. An increase in patient income was associated with a lower mean result in the “power of doctors” subscale. The coping self-statements and increased behavioural activity are the two most frequently selected strategies of coping with pain. The most commonly followed ways of mental adjustment to cancer in the study group were a fighting spirit (23.42) and positive re-evaluation (22.31). Conclusions Colorectal cancer patients believe that the greatest role in pain management is played by internal factors. The locus of pain control depends on the level of education. The study patients feature a constructive way of struggling with disease differentiated by the place of residence, professional status, and income. PMID:27350836

  1. Occupational risks of sinonasal cancer in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Olsen, J H

    1988-05-01

    A new comprehensive data linkage system for the detailed investigation of occupational cancer has been established in the Danish Cancer Registry, providing employment histories back to 1964. All 382 cases of cancers of the sinonasal cavities diagnosed between 1970 and 1984 and kept on file in this data linkage system were analysed using standardised proportional incidence ratios (SPIR) to screen for industrial high risk areas for these malignancies in Denmark. Excess risks were confirmed among men and women employed in the manufacture of footwear and other leather products and of wooden furniture. No risk significantly above expectancy was observed among wood workers outside the furniture making industry. Excess risks were also seen among men in all areas of basic metal industries (SPIR = 184-562) and in a subset of workers in industries producing metal containers (SPIR = 329-600). Most unexpected were raised risks among employees of both sexes in making cocoa, chocolate, and sugar confectionery (SPIR = 535 for men and 860 for women); these, in combination with the observed risks among female employees in canning and preserving fruits and vegetables (SPIR = 778) and in farming (SPIR = 735) may point to a common aetiology. The obscuring effect of mass significance may, however, be another explanation. The new associations discovered in this large scale linkage study must therefore await further confirmation.

  2. Occupational risks of sinonasal cancer in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J H

    1988-01-01

    A new comprehensive data linkage system for the detailed investigation of occupational cancer has been established in the Danish Cancer Registry, providing employment histories back to 1964. All 382 cases of cancers of the sinonasal cavities diagnosed between 1970 and 1984 and kept on file in this data linkage system were analysed using standardised proportional incidence ratios (SPIR) to screen for industrial high risk areas for these malignancies in Denmark. Excess risks were confirmed among men and women employed in the manufacture of footwear and other leather products and of wooden furniture. No risk significantly above expectancy was observed among wood workers outside the furniture making industry. Excess risks were also seen among men in all areas of basic metal industries (SPIR = 184-562) and in a subset of workers in industries producing metal containers (SPIR = 329-600). Most unexpected were raised risks among employees of both sexes in making cocoa, chocolate, and sugar confectionery (SPIR = 535 for men and 860 for women); these, in combination with the observed risks among female employees in canning and preserving fruits and vegetables (SPIR = 778) and in farming (SPIR = 735) may point to a common aetiology. The obscuring effect of mass significance may, however, be another explanation. The new associations discovered in this large scale linkage study must therefore await further confirmation. PMID:3378013

  3. Perceptions of Risk of Developing Skin Cancer for Diverse Audiences: Enhancing Relevance of Sun Protection to Reduce the Risk

    PubMed Central

    Friedewald, John; Gordon, Elisa J.

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-five percent of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) develop squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Perceptions of risk of developing skin cancer, amelioration of this risk with sun protection, and having choices among sun protection strategies may enhance sun protection use by KTRS, who are at greater risk than the general population. Thirty KTRs stratified among non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanic/Latinos evaluated three versions of the interactive, web-based, electronic sun protection program and suggested refinements. The sequence of content presentation prepared the participant to accept the credibility, accuracy, and relevance of the message. Beginning with informing participants that using sun protection reduces the chance of developing skin cancer made the information credible to KTRs. Showing skin cancer on all skin types and patient testimonials enhanced participants' awareness of their susceptibility to develop skin cancer and primed patients to receive their personal risk of developing skin cancer. Coupling presentation of knowledge about the benefits of sun protection in reducing the risk of developing skin cancer with the personal risk of getting the disease was essential to KTRs believing that they could influence their health outcome. PMID:26209181

  4. Perceptions of Risk of Developing Skin Cancer for Diverse Audiences: Enhancing Relevance of Sun Protection to Reduce the Risk.

    PubMed

    Robinson, June K; Friedewald, John; Gordon, Elisa J

    2016-03-01

    Sixty-five percent of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) develop squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Perceptions of risk of developing skin cancer, amelioration of this risk with sun protection, and having choices among sun protection strategies may enhance sun protection use by KTRS, who are at greater risk than the general population. Thirty KTRs stratified among non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanic/Latinos evaluated three versions of the interactive, web-based, electronic sun protection program and suggested refinements. The sequence of content presentation prepared the participant to accept the credibility, accuracy, and relevance of the message. Beginning with informing participants that using sun protection reduces the chance of developing skin cancer made the information credible to KTRs. Showing skin cancer on all skin types and patient testimonials enhanced participants' awareness of their susceptibility to develop skin cancer and primed patients to receive their personal risk of developing skin cancer. Coupling presentation of knowledge about the benefits of sun protection in reducing the risk of developing skin cancer with the personal risk of getting the disease was essential to KTRs believing that they could influence their health outcome.

  5. Exercise Programme in Endometrial Cancer; Protocol of the Feasibility and Acceptability Survivorship Trial (EPEC-FAST)

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Anke; Lopes, Alberto; Das, Nagindra; Bekkers, Ruud; Massuger, Leon; Galaal, Khadra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Obesity has been associated with impaired quality of life and poorer outcomes in endometrial cancer survivors. Lifestyle interventions promoting exercise and weight reduction have been proposed for survivorship care. However, studies evaluating exercise programmes for endometrial cancer survivors are lacking. Purpose The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of an individualised exercise intervention for endometrial cancer survivors to improve quality of life. Methods and analysis This is a feasibility study in which women will undergo a 10-week exercise programme with a personal trainer. The study population comprises women with confirmed diagnosis of endometrial cancer, who have completed surgical treatment with curative intent, and are aged 18 years or older. The study will take place at the Royal Cornwall Hospital Trust, UK. Feasibility will be evaluated in terms of recruitment, adherence and compliance to the programme. Secondary outcomes are quality of life, psychological distress, fatigue, pain and complication rates. In addition, the acceptability of the programme will be assessed. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained through the Exeter NRES Committee. The study results will be used to optimise the intervention content, and may serve as the foundation for a larger definitive trial. Results will be disseminated through peer-review journals, congresses, relevant clinical groups and presented on the Trust's website. Trial registration number: NCT02367950; pre-results. PMID:26674498

  6. Defining chromosomal translocation risks in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hogenbirk, Marc A.; Heideman, Marinus R.; de Rink, Iris; Velds, Arno; Kerkhoven, Ron M.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Jacobs, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations are a hallmark of cancer. Unraveling the molecular mechanism of these rare genetic events requires a clear distinction between correlative and causative risk-determinants, where technical and analytical issues can be excluded. To meet this goal, we performed in-depth analyses of publicly available genome-wide datasets. In contrast to several recent reports, we demonstrate that chromosomal translocation risk is causally unrelated to promoter stalling (Spt5), transcriptional activity, or off-targeting activity of the activation-induced cytidine deaminase. Rather, an open chromatin configuration, which is not promoter-specific, explained the elevated translocation risk of promoter regions. Furthermore, the fact that gene size directly correlates with the translocation risk in mice and human cancers further demonstrated the general irrelevance of promoter-specific activities. Interestingly, a subset of translocations observed in cancer patients likely initiates from double-strand breaks induced by an access-independent process. Together, these unexpected and novel insights are fundamental in understanding the origin of chromosome translocations and, consequently, cancer. PMID:27303044

  7. Nutrition and Gastric Cancer Risk: An Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from epidemiologic, experimental, and animal studies indicate that diet plays an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer. High intake of fresh fruit and vegetable, lycopene and lycopene-containing food products, and potentially vitamin C and selenium may reduce the risk for gastric can...

  8. Gene variant linked to lung cancer risk

    Cancer.gov

    A variation of the gene NFKB1, called rs4648127, is associated with an estimated 44 percent reduction in lung cancer risk. When this information, derived from samples obtained as part of a large NCI-sponsored prevention clinical trial, was compared with d

  9. Oral cancer risk factors in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Yakin, Muhammed; Gavidi, Ratu Osea; Cox, Brian; Rich, Alison

    2017-03-03

    Oral cancer constitutes the majority of head and neck cancers, which are the fifth most common malignancy worldwide, accounting for an estimated 984,430 cases in 2012. Between 2000 and 2010, there were 1,916 cases of OSCC in New Zealand with a male to female ratio of 1.85:1, and an age-standardised incidence rate of 42 persons per 1,000,000 population. This article presents an overview of the main risk factors for oral and oropharyngeal cancers and their prevalence in New Zealand. Alcohol consumption is the most prevalent risk factor in New Zealand, followed by tobacco. Given the high prevalence of these two risk factors and their synergistic effect, it is important for doctors and dentists to encourage smoking cessation in smokers and to recommend judicious alcohol intake. Research is needed to determine the prevalence of use of oral preparations of tobacco and water-pipe smoking in New Zealand, especially due to changing demography and increases in migrant populations. UV radiation is also an important risk factor. Further investigations are also needed to determine the prevalence of oral and oropharyngeal cancers attributable to oncogenic HPV infection.

  10. Light pollution, reproductive function and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, Vladimir N

    2006-01-01

    At present, light pollution (exposure to light-at-night) both in the form of occupational exposure during night work and as a personal choice and life style, is experienced by numerous night-active members of our society. Disruption of the circadian rhythms induced by light pollution has been associated with cancer in humans. There are epidemiological evidences of increased breast and colon cancer risk in shift workers. An inhibition of the pineal gland function with exposure to the constant light (LL) regimen promoted carcinogenesis whereas the light deprivation inhibits the carcinogenesis. Treatment with pineal indole hormone melatonin inhibits carcinogenesis in pinealectomized rats or animals kept at the standard light/dark regimen (LD) or at the LL regimen. These observations might lead to use melatonin for cancer prevention in groups of humans at risk of light pollution.

  11. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  12. Breast Cancer Risk Assessment SAS Macro (Gail Model)

    Cancer.gov

    A SAS macro (commonly referred to as the Gail Model) that projects absolute risk of invasive breast cancer according to NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) algorithm for specified race/ethnic groups and age intervals.

  13. [IBD and increased risk of cancer: what is the reality?].

    PubMed

    Beaugerie, Laurent

    2014-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases can favour the occurrence of colon cancer while their treatments can increase the risk of certain other cancers. The doctor's skill lies in striking the right benefit-risk balance of the treatments.

  14. Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors Face Risk of Second Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 164059.html Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors Face Risk of Second Cancer: Study Those diagnosed at younger age or ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The risk of developing a second type of cancer may be high among Hodgkin ...

  15. Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Genomic Resources Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Screening. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. February 2016. Family Health History, Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk, and ...

  16. Acceptability of an Electronic Self-Report Assessment Program for patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Wolpin, Seth; Berry, Donna; Austin-Seymour, Mary; Bush, Nigel; Fann, Jesse R; Halpenny, Barbara; Lober, William B; McCorkle, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Eliciting symptom and quality of life information from patients is an important component of medical and nursing care processes. Traditionally, this information has been collected with paper and pencil. However, this approach presents several barriers, including delays in receiving information, difficulty in integrating responses with electronic records, and the time required to manually score questionnaires for measurement purposes. One solution that addresses many of these barriers is the adoption of computerized screening for symptom and quality-of-life information. This research explored the acceptability of asking symptom and quality-of-life questions using the Electronic Self Report Assessment-Cancer program on wireless laptops equipped with touch-screen format. Acceptability data were explored with respect to whether any differences may be attributed to demographics and symptom and quality-of-life levels, such as depression and cognitive and emotional functioning. This evaluation used descriptive and univariate statistics to examine data from 342 participants from the ongoing ESRA-C randomized clinical trial. Research participants for the ESRA-C study were recruited from the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, a consortium among the University of Washington Medical Center, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and Children's Hospital and Regional Medical Center in Seattle, WA. The sample consisted of 342 adult participants who completed both baseline and follow-up survey sessions. Medical oncology represented the largest recruitment group (45.3%), followed by stem cell transplant (34.5%) and radiation oncology (20.2%). The primary finding was that patients were generally able to use ESRA-C quickly and without difficulty in a real-world clinical setting and that they were overall quite satisfied with the ESRA-C program. Significant differences were found in several acceptability areas with respect to demographics and quality of life measures such as age, sex, and

  17. Acceptance of hospital diets and nutritional status among inpatients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Daiane; Guimarães, Tessa Gomes; Marcadenti, Aline

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To verify acceptance of hospital diets as to the nutritional status among patients admitted to the Oncology/Hematology Unit of a tertiary care hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted among 100 patients, aged ≥18 years, of both genders. Body mass index and subjective global nutritional evaluation by patients were used to detect the nutritional status. The rest-ingestion index was used to evaluate diet acceptance, and the reasons for non-acceptance were identified by means of a questionnaire. Data were expressed in means and standard deviation, or medians and percentages. Comparisons were made using the Student's t test, Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test, and Pearson's χ2 test. Results: A total of 59% of patients were males, and mean age was 51.6±13.5 years. According to the global subjective nutritional evaluation done by the patients themselves, 33% of the participants were considered malnourished and the body mass index detected 6.3% of malnutrition. The main symptoms reported were lack of appetite, xerostomia (dry mouth), constipation, dysgeusia, odor-related nausea, and early satiety. The rest-ingestion index was approximately 37% and significantly greater among the malnourished relative to the well-nourished (58.8 versus 46.4%; p=0.04). The primary reasons reported for non-acceptance of the diet offered were lack of flavor, monotonous preparations, large quantities offered, lack of appetite, and inappropriate temperature of the meal. Conclusion: A high the rest-ingestion index was seen among the patients with cancer, especially those who were malnourished according to the global nutritional evaluation produced by the patient. PMID:23579742

  18. Hereditary cancer risk assessment: essential tools for a better approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary cancer risk assessment (HCRA) is a multidisciplinary process of estimating probabilities of germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes and assessing empiric risks of cancer, based on personal and family history. It includes genetic counseling, testing and management of at-risk individuals so that they can make well-informed choices about cancer surveillance, surgical treatment and chemopreventive measures, including biomolecular cancer therapies. Providing patients and family members with an appropriate HCRA will contribute to a better process of making decisions about their personal and family risks of cancer. Following individuals at high risk through screening protocols, reassuring those at low risk, and referring those at increased risk of hereditary cancer to a cancer genetics center may be the best suitable approach of HCRA. PMID:24165150

  19. Risk of Ovarian Cancer Relapse Score

    PubMed Central

    Rizzuto, Ivana; Stavraka, Chara; Chatterjee, Jayanta; Borley, Jane; Hopkins, Thomas Glass; Gabra, Hani; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Huson, Les; Blagden, Sarah P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to construct a prognostic index that predicts risk of relapse in women who have completed first-line treatment for ovarian cancer (OC). Methods A database of OC cases from 2000 to 2010 was interrogated for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, grade and histological subtype of cancer, preoperative and posttreatment CA-125 level, presence or absence of residual disease after cytoreductive surgery and on postchemotherapy computed tomography scan, and time to progression and death. The strongest predictors of relapse were included into an algorithm, the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Relapse (ROVAR) score. Results Three hundred fifty-four cases of OC were analyzed to generate the ROVAR score. Factors selected were preoperative serum CA-125, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage and grade of cancer, and presence of residual disease at posttreatment computed tomography scan. In the validation data set, the ROVAR score had a sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 61%, respectively. The concordance index for the validation data set was 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.96). The score allows patient stratification into low (<0.33), intermediate (0.34–0.67), and high (>0.67) probability of relapse. Conclusions The ROVAR score stratifies patients according to their risk of relapse following first-line treatment for OC. This can broadly facilitate the appropriate tailoring of posttreatment care and support. PMID:25647256

  20. Assessing and Managing Breast Cancer Risk: Clinical Tools for Advising Patients

    PubMed Central

    Friedenson, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Using breast cancer risk assessment tools and going through the process of assessing breast cancer risk can answer many women's questions about what puts them at relatively higher or lower risk. This effectively engages both the clinician and the patient in a discussion about breast cancer, the chances of getting it, and the family's involvement — making the process as important as the actual tools. Examples of selected case histories demonstrate risk assessment using available tools such as the Gail-NCI and the Claus models. For some women, such as those considering tamoxifen or prophylactic surgeries, it may be desirable to prescreen for the inheritance of hereditary mutations and to follow with genetic testing, if indicated. Testing for mutations of breast cancer susceptibility genes or for their diminished expression adds to our ability to assess breast cancer risk at an individual level. The literature contains general interventions that are widely accepted to reduce the severity and the burden of breast cancer, and these are brought together here. The risk assessment process is an important part of a risk reduction program and can help motivate women to engage in prevention activities. This paper uses 2 hypothetical but fact-based and typical case histories to discuss the utility of risk assessment tools for informing women about their options. PMID:15208521

  1. Risk factors for male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, K; Bross, D S; Kessler, I I

    1985-02-01

    To investigate risk factors in male breast cancer, a case-control study of 52 histologically diagnosed cases and 52 controls--matched for age, race, marital status, and hospital--was conducted in 5 U.S. metropolitan areas. Cases were significantly more likely to be Jewish than were the controls, supporting earlier suggestions of an increased risk in Jewish males. A significant association of male breast cancer with mumps infections at age 20 years or older, along with the possible association with antecedent testicular injury and the excess frequency of mumps orchitis among cases, suggests that testicular factors may be important in the development of breast cancer among males. An increased frequency of breast cancer among persons who have worked in blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills is of interest because of the possible testicular effect of high environmental temperatures. The observed association between breast cancer and a prior history of swollen breast is difficult to interpret because of potential recall bias, and a possible relationship with military service needs further confirmation.

  2. Policy on acceptable levels of earthquake risk for California gas and electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Earthquake specialists from the major California gas and electric power utilities have prepared a policy statement and associated implementation program as a framework for assessing and achieving acceptable levels of earthquake risk. The policy states: ``Each California gas and electric power utility system shall withstand earthquakes to provide reasonable protection of life, to limit damage to property, and to provide for resumption of utility system functions in a reasonable and timely manner.`` The policy scope is broad, to permit its application to utilities in the differing seismic hazard regions of the State. Because each utility also has its own unique earthquake vulnerabilities, it also has it own long-term seismic safety implementation plan. It is the goal of this policy that each utility meet its responsibilities to provide reasonable public safety and customer service. Compliance will not prevent all loss of life, property damage, or loss of utility function. Experience with recent earthquakes in California suggests that implementing this policy through long-term implementation plans is an effective and practical means of reducing earthquake vulnerability to acceptable levels.

  3. Coverage and acceptability of cholera vaccine among high-risk population of urban Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Jasim; Wahed, Tasnuva; Saha, Nirod Chandra; Kaukab, Sheikh Shah Tanvir; Khan, Iqbal Ansary; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Saha, Amit; Chowdhury, Fahima; Clemens, John David; Qadri, Firdausi

    2014-09-29

    The oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol), along with other interventions, is a potential new measure to prevent or control cholera. A mass cholera-vaccination programme was launched in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh, during February-April 2011 targeting about 173,041 people who are at high risk of cholera. This cross-sectional, descriptive study assessed the coverage and acceptability of the vaccine. The study used a quantitative household survey and qualitative data-collection techniques comprising focus-group discussions, in-depth interviews, and observations for assessment. The findings revealed that 88% of the target population received the first dose of the vaccine, and 79% received the second dose. Absence of persons at home was a prominent cause of not administering the first (71%) and the second dose (67%). Thirty-three percent of the respondents (n=9308) did not like the taste of the vaccine. Only 1.3% and 3% recipients of the first dose and the second dose of the vaccine respectively reported adverse effects within 28 days of vaccination, and the adverse effects included vomiting or vomiting tendency and diarrhoea. To improve the coverage of the cholera vaccine, exploration of effective solutions to reach the unvaccinated population is required. The vaccine may be more acceptable to the community through changing its taste.

  4. E-mail to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening Within Social Networks: Acceptability and Content.

    PubMed

    Cutrona, Sarah L; Wagner, Joann; Roblin, Douglas W; Gaglio, Bridget; Williams, Andrew; Torres-Stone, Rosalie; Mazor, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Effective techniques to encourage colorectal cancer screening in underscreened populations have included social support interventions and e-mail reminders from physicians. Personalized e-mail messages to promote colorectal cancer screening within social networks could be even more effective but have not been studied. The authors interviewed 387 e-mail users, aged 42-73 years in Georgia, Hawaii, and Massachusetts. Participants were asked to edit a sample message in which the sender shares a recent colonoscopy experience and urges the recipient to discuss colorectal cancer screening with a doctor. For those reporting willingness to send this message, changes to the message and suggested subject lines were recorded. Edited text was analyzed for content and concordance with original message. The majority of participants (74.4%) were willing to e-mail a modifiable message. Of those willing, 63.5% edited the message. Common edits included deletion (17.7%) or modification (17.4%) of a negatively framed sentence on colon cancer risks and addition or modification of personalizing words (15.6%). Few edits changed the meaning of the message (5.6%), and even fewer introduced factual inaccuracies (1.7%). Modifiable e-mail messages offer a way for screened individuals to promote colorectal cancer screening to social network members. The accuracy and effects of such messages should be further studied.

  5. Association of Breast Cancer Risk loci with Breast Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Giles, Graham G.; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E.; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J.; Joshi, Amit D.; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I-Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María-José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of evidence suggest that alleles influencing breast cancer risk might also be associated with breast cancer survival. We examined the associations between 35 breast cancer susceptibility loci and the disease over-all survival (OS) in 10,255 breast cancer patients from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) of which 1,379 died, including 754 of breast cancer. We also conducted a meta-analysis of almost 35,000 patients and 5,000 deaths, combining results from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and performed in silico analyses of SNPs with significant associations. In BPC3, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was significantly associated with improved OS (HRper-allele=0.70; 95% CI: 0.58–0.85; Ptrend=2.84×10−4; HRheterozygotes=0.71; 95% CI: 0.55–0.92; HRhomozygotes=0.48; 95% CI: 0.31–0.76; P2DF=1.45×10−3). In silico, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was predicted to increase expression of the tumor suppressor cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C). In the meta-analysis, TNRC9-rs3803662 was significantly associated with increased death hazard (HRMETA =1.09; 95% CI: 1.04–1.15; Ptrend=6.6×10−4; HRheterozygotes=0.96 95% CI: 0.90–1.03; HRhomozygotes= 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09–1.35; P2DF=1.25×10−4). In conclusion, we show that there is little overlap between the breast cancer risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified so far and the SNPs associated with breast cancer prognosis, with the possible exceptions of LSP1-rs3817198 and TNRC9-rs3803662. PMID:25611573

  6. Substantial contribution of extrinsic risk factors to cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Song; Powers, Scott; Zhu, Wei; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent research has highlighted a strong correlation between tissue-specific cancer risk and the lifetime number of tissue-specific stem cell divisions. Whether such correlation implies a high unavoidable intrinsic cancer risk has become a key public health debate with dissemination of the ‘bad luck’ hypothesis. Here we provide evidence that intrinsic risk factors contribute only modestly (<10~30%) to cancer development. First, we demonstrate that the correlation between stem-cell division and cancer risk does not distinguish between the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Next, we show that intrinsic risk is better estimated by the lower bound risk controlling for total stem cell divisions. Finally, we show that the rates of endogenous mutation accumulation by intrinsic processes are not sufficient to account for the observed cancer risks. Collectively, we conclude that cancer risk is heavily influenced by extrinsic factors. These results carry immense consequences for strategizing cancer prevention, research, and public health. PMID:26675728

  7. The Psychological Impact of the SARS Epidemic on Hospital Employees in China: Exposure, Risk Perception, and Altruistic Acceptance of Risk

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ping; Fang, Yunyun; Guan, Zhiqiang; Fan, Bin; Kong, Junhui; Yao, Zhongling; Liu, Xinhua; Fuller, Cordelia J; Susser, Ezra; Lu, Jin; Hoven, Christina W

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined the psychological impact of the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) on hospital employees in Beijing, China. Methods In 2006, randomly selected employees (n = 549) of a hospital in Beijing were surveyed concerning their exposure to the 2003 SARS outbreak, and the ways in which the outbreak had affected their mental health. Results About 10% of the respondents had experienced high levels of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms since the SARS outbreak. Respondents who had been quarantined, or worked in high-risk locations such as SARS wards, or had friends or close relatives who contracted SARS, were 2 to 3 times more likely to have high PTS symptom levels, than those without these exposures. Respondents’ perceptions of SARS-related risks were significantly positively associated with PTS symptom levels and partially mediated the effects of exposure. Altruistic acceptance of work-related risks was negatively related to PTS levels. Conclusions The psychological impact of stressful events related to an infectious disease outbreak may be mediated by peoples’ perceptions of those events; altruism may help to protect some health care workers against these negative impacts. PMID:19497162

  8. Microbicide Acceptability Among High-Risk Urban U.S. Women: Experiences and Perceptions of Sexually Transmitted HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Margaret R.; Mosack, Katie E.; Abbott, Maryann; Sylla, Laurie Novick; Valdes, Barbara; Prince, Mary

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY A study of microbicide acceptability among high-risk African American, Puerto Rican, non-Hispanic White, and other women in Hartford, Connecticut indicated limited experience with vaginal contraceptives but significant interest in and willingness to adopt vaginal microbicides for HIV/STI prevention. Objectives To measure microbicide acceptability among high-risk women in Hartford, Connecticut and contextual factors likely to affect acceptability and use. Goal To assess usefulness of microbicides for HIV/STI prevention for high-risk women. Study Design Ethnographic interviews (n=75) and a survey (n=471) explored women’s perspectives on HIV/STI prevention, vaginal contraceptives similar to microbicides, and microbicide acceptability. Participants (n=94) in a two-week behavioral trial used an over-the-counter vaginal moisturizer to simulate microbicide use during sex with primary, casual, and/or paying partners. Results Findings showed limited experience with vaginal contraceptives, but high interest in microbicides as an alternative to condoms, indicated by an acceptability index score of 2.73 (SD .49, scale 1–4) in the overall sample. General microbicide acceptability varied by ethnicity, prior contraceptive and violence/abuse experiences, relationship power, and other attitudinal factors. The simulation trial indicated significant willingness to use the product in various locations and with all types of partners. Conclusions Vaginal microbicides may improve prevention outcomes for high-risk inner-city women. PMID:15502677

  9. Risk of Recurrence in Laryngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sørum Falk, Ragnhild; Folkvard Evensen, Jan; Boysen, Morten; Brøndbo, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    A cohort study was undertaken to analyze the risk of recurrence among 1616 patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx from 1983 to 2010 at a single, tertiary academic center in Oslo, Norway. The cohort was followed from the date of diagnosis to September 2011. Competing risk regression analysis assessed the association between various risk factors and the risk of recurrence, where death was considered a competing event. Recurrence was observed in 368 patients (23%) during the study period. The majority (71%) of recurrences involved the location of the primary tumor. The overall risk of recurrence during the first three years after initiating treatment was 20.5%. Increased risk of recurrence was observed in patients with supraglottic cancer, younger patients, those with T2–T3 tumors and in patients treated in the earlier part of the study period. Significant factors for recurrence in glottic carcinomas were age, treatment in the earlier part of the study and T-status, whereas age was a significant factor in supraglottic cancer. N-status appeared less significant. In conclusion, follow-up of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma should place particular emphasis on the site of the primary tumor, younger patients, cases of supraglottic cancer and T2-T4 primary tumors, especially during the first three years after treatment. More studies are needed to assess the impact of surgical versus non-surgical treatment, and eventually the significance of recurrence, for disease-specific and overall survival in cases of advanced laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27716797

  10. Perceived risk for cancer in an urban sexual minority

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jennifer L.; Coups, Elliot; Warren, Barbara; Li, Yuelin; Ostroff, Jamie S.

    2013-01-01

    Lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals are a sexual minority experiencing elevated cancer risk factors and health disaparites, e.g., elevated tobacco use, disproportionate rates of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Little attention has been paid to cancer prevention, education, and control in sexual minorities. This study describes cancer risk perceptions and their correlates so as to generate testable hypotheses and provide a foundation for targeting cancer prevention and risk reduction efforts in this high risk population. A cross-sectional survey of affiliates of a large urban community center serving sexual minority persons yielded a study sample of 247 anonymous persons. The survey assessed demographics, absolute perceived cancer risk, cancer risk behaviors, desired lifestyle changes to reduce cancer risk, and psychosocial variables including stress, depression, and stigma. Univariate and multivariate nonparametric statistics were used for analyses. The sample was primarily white non-Hispanic, middle-aged, and > 80% had at least a high school education. Mean values for absolute perceived cancer risk (range 0–100% risk), were 43.0 (SD = 25.4) for females, and for males, 49.3 (SD = 24.3). For females, although the multivariate regression model for absolute perceived cancer risk was statistically significant (P < .05), no single model variable was significant. For men, the multivariate regression model was significant (P < .001), with endorsement of “don't smoke/quit smoking” to reduce personal cancer risk (P < .001), and greater number of sexual partners (P = .054), positively associated with absolute perceived risk for cancer. This study provides novel data on cancer risk perceptions in sexual minorities, identifying correlates of absolute perceived cancer risk for each gender and several potential foci for cancer prevention interventions with this at-risk group. PMID:20872174

  11. Occupational exposure and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Kvåle, G; Bjelke, E; Heuch, I

    1986-02-15

    The importance of occupation held longest as a risk factor for lung cancer was examined in a prospective study in Norway of 11,995 men, among whom 125 cases occurred in a follow-up from 1966 through 1978. Based on information about occupation held longest, the respondents were classified into 3 groups according to suspected exposure to respiratory carcinogens at the workplace. After stratification for age, place of residence and cigarette smoking, we found a highly significant relative risk of 2.6 for those judged to have experienced definite exposure versus the group with no workplace exposure. The apparent risk-enhancing effect of occupational exposure was observed for all histologic subtypes. Stratification including a socioeconomic factor score led to a moderate reduction in the relative risk estimate. High risk estimates still obtained, however, for a limited number of occupations, the highest for workers in the mining and quarrying industries. Although the interpretation of the observed effect associated with a crude index of occupational exposure may be difficult, our results suggest that between 13 and 27% of the lung cancer cases observed among Norwegian men in the relevant time period can be attributed to harmful work-place exposure.

  12. The Careful Puppet Master: Reducing risk and fortifying acceptance testing with Jenkins CI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jason A.; Richman, Gabriel; DeStefano, John; Pryor, James; Rao, Tejas; Strecker-Kellogg, William; Wong, Tony

    2015-12-01

    Centralized configuration management, including the use of automation tools such as Puppet, can greatly increase provisioning speed and efficiency when configuring new systems or making changes to existing systems, reduce duplication of work, and improve automated processes. However, centralized management also brings with it a level of inherent risk: a single change in just one file can quickly be pushed out to thousands of computers and, if that change is not properly and thoroughly tested and contains an error, could result in catastrophic damage to many services, potentially bringing an entire computer facility offline. Change management procedures can—and should—be formalized in order to prevent such accidents. However, like the configuration management process itself, if such procedures are not automated, they can be difficult to enforce strictly. Therefore, to reduce the risk of merging potentially harmful changes into our production Puppet environment, we have created an automated testing system, which includes the Jenkins CI tool, to manage our Puppet testing process. This system includes the proposed changes and runs Puppet on a pool of dozens of RedHat Enterprise Virtualization (RHEV) virtual machines (VMs) that replicate most of our important production services for the purpose of testing. This paper describes our automated test system and how it hooks into our production approval process for automatic acceptance testing. All pending changes that have been pushed to production must pass this validation process before they can be approved and merged into production.

  13. Aerobic Exercise, Estrogens, and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    women as a result of a structured exercise regimen. Results from this study will allow us to determine whether physical activity is really capable...cause of death in this population.1 In recent systematic literature reviews, physical activity has been shown to be significantly associated with...proposed mechanisms by which physical activity might lead to reductions in breast cancer risk.4 Specifically, this research project is a randomized

  14. Inflammatory Markers and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    06- 1 -0533 TITLE: Inflammatory Markers and Breast Cancer Risk PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Brenda Diergaarde...0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing...FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1 . REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  15. Dietary Fat, Eicosanoids and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    postmenopausal women. The study objectives are to: 1) evaluate the effects of total fat and omega -3 fatty acid intake on plasma and urinary sex hormone...associated with reducing breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Dietary fat, omega -3 fatty acids , eicosanoids, sex hormones 16...candidate in September, 2007. • Preliminary data from plasma sex hormone analysis supports low fat, high omega -3 fatty acid diet in prevention of breast

  16. Multiple births and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dietz, A T; Newcomb, P A; Storer, B E; Longnecker, M P; Mittendorf, R

    1995-07-17

    Data from a large, multicenter, population-based case-control study were analyzed to investigate the relation between multiple birth pregnancies and subsequent breast-cancer risk in the gravidas. Women less than 75 years old who had breast cancer were identified from statewide tumor registries in Wisconsin, western Massachusetts, Maine and New Hampshire. Controls aged less than 65 years were selected randomly from lists of licensed drivers, and controls aged between 65 and 74 were selected randomly from lists of Medicare beneficiaries. Information on reproductive history and other factors was obtained by means of telephone interviews. After excluding nulliparous women, 5,880 case subjects and 8,217 controls remained for analysis. Multiple birth pregnancies occurred in 146 cases and 218 controls. Adjusted for the number of full-term pregnancies and other confounders, the odds ratio (OR) for any multiple birth pregnancy was 0.94 (95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 1.17). The null association between multiple birth pregnancies and breast cancer remained if the mother's first pregnancy or last pregnancy resulted in a multiple birth. In addition, no trend in risk emerged for age at first multiple birth or time since last multiple birth. While other investigators have suggested biological mechanisms to explain both protective and detrimental effects of multiple births and subsequent development of breast cancer, this study does not support either assertion.

  17. Inhalation cancer risk assessment of cobalt metal.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mina; Thompson, Chad M; Brorby, Gregory P; Mittal, Liz; Proctor, Deborah M

    2016-08-01

    Cobalt compounds (metal, salts, hard metals, oxides, and alloys) are used widely in various industrial, medical and military applications. Chronic inhalation exposure to cobalt metal and cobalt sulfate has caused lung cancer in rats and mice, as well as systemic tumors in rats. Cobalt compounds are listed as probable or possible human carcinogens by some agencies, and there is a need for quantitative cancer toxicity criteria. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has derived a provisional inhalation unit risk (IUR) of 0.009 per μg/m(3) based on a chronic inhalation study of soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate; however, a recent 2-year cancer bioassay affords the opportunity to derive IURs specifically for cobalt metal. The mechanistic data support that the carcinogenic mode of action (MOA) is likely to involve oxidative stress, and thus, non-linear/threshold mechanisms. However, the lack of a detailed MOA and use of high, toxic exposure concentrations in the bioassay (≥1.25 mg/m(3)) preclude derivation of a reference concentration (RfC) protective of cancer. Several analyses resulted in an IUR of 0.003 per μg/m(3) for cobalt metal, which is ∼3-fold less potent than the provisional IUR. Future research should focus on establishing the exposure-response for key precursor events to improve cobalt metal risk assessment.

  18. Oxidative Stress, DNA Repair, and Prostate Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    have concluded that DRC is not a risk factor for prostate cancer microRNA prostate cancer Hua.Zhao@RoswellPark.org Table of Contents...known and suspected risk factors for prostate cancer are associated with elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (advancing age, inflammation...association between DNA repair capacity and prostate cancer risk might be due to the fact of using surrogate tissues , not the target tissues . In this study

  19. Safety, Efficacy, and Patient Acceptability of Everolimus in the Treatment of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lousberg, Laurence; Jerusalem, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Everolimus combined with exemestane is an important treatment option for patients suffering from estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, advanced breast cancer (ABC) who have been previously treated with a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI). After presentation of phase III registration trial BOLERO-2, several phase IIIb trials have been started to evaluate this regimen in a more real-world setting. Here, we review the efficacy and safety data published or presented at selected international meetings. These studies confirmed the outcome observed in the BOLERO-2 trial. Patient acceptance rate is also discussed by focusing on the permanent everolimus discontinuation rate in these trials. Factors influencing the safety profile are also reported, including the impact of age. The optimal sequence of combined therapy approaches associating targeted and endocrine therapy (ET) has yet to be determined as new treatment options such as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors become available. However, everolimus–exemestane remains an important treatment option with a major impact on progression-free survival (PFS) and an acceptable safety profile. PMID:28096680

  20. Safety, Efficacy, and Patient Acceptability of Everolimus in the Treatment of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lousberg, Laurence; Jerusalem, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Everolimus combined with exemestane is an important treatment option for patients suffering from estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, advanced breast cancer (ABC) who have been previously treated with a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI). After presentation of phase III registration trial BOLERO-2, several phase IIIb trials have been started to evaluate this regimen in a more real-world setting. Here, we review the efficacy and safety data published or presented at selected international meetings. These studies confirmed the outcome observed in the BOLERO-2 trial. Patient acceptance rate is also discussed by focusing on the permanent everolimus discontinuation rate in these trials. Factors influencing the safety profile are also reported, including the impact of age. The optimal sequence of combined therapy approaches associating targeted and endocrine therapy (ET) has yet to be determined as new treatment options such as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors become available. However, everolimus-exemestane remains an important treatment option with a major impact on progression-free survival (PFS) and an acceptable safety profile.

  1. Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  2. Blood Type Influences Pancreatic Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    A variation in the gene that determines ABO blood type influences the risk of pancreatic cancer, according to the results of the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) for this highly lethal disease. The genetic variation, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), was discovered in a region of chromosome 9 that harbors the gene that determines blood type, the researchers reported August 2 online in Nature Genetics. |

  3. Cancer Risks in Aluminum Reduction Plant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Labrèche, France

    2014-01-01

    Objective and Methods: This review examines epidemiological evidence relating to cancers in the primary aluminum industry where most of what is known relates to Söderberg operations or to mixed Söderberg/prebake operations. Results and Conclusions: Increased lung and bladder cancer risks have been reported in Söderberg workers from several countries, but not in all. After adjustment for smoking, these cancer risks still increase with cumulative exposure to benzo(a)pyrene, used as an index of coal tar pitch volatiles exposure. Limited evidence has been gathered in several cohorts for an increased risk of tumors at other sites, including stomach, pancreas, rectum/rectosigmoid junction, larynx, buccal cavity/pharynx, kidney, brain/nervous system, prostate, and lymphatic/hematopoietic tissues (in particular non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, and leukemia). Nevertheless, for most of these tumor sites, the relationship with specific exposures has not been demonstrated clearly and further follow-up of workers is warranted. PMID:24806725

  4. Genomic Biomarkers for Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Michael F.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Couch, Fergus J.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical risk assessment for cancer predisposition includes a three-generation pedigree and physical examination to identify inherited syndromes. Additionally genetic and genomic biomarkers may identify individuals with a constitutional basis for their disease that may not be evident clinically. Genomic biomarker testing may detect molecular variations in single genes, panels of genes, or entire genomes. The strength of evidence for the association of a genomic biomarker with disease risk may be weak or strong. The factors contributing to clinical validity and utility of genomic biomarkers include functional laboratory analyses and genetic epidemiologic evidence. Genomic biomarkers may be further classified as low, moderate or highly penetrant based on the likelihood of disease. Genomic biomarkers for breast cancer are comprised of rare highly penetrant mutations of genes such as BRCA1 or BRCA2, moderately penetrant mutations of genes such as CHEK2, as well as more common genomic variants, including single nucleotide polymorphisms, associated with modest effect sizes. When applied in the context of appropriate counseling and interpretation, identification of genomic biomarkers of inherited risk for breast cancer may decrease morbidity and mortality, allow for definitive prevention through assisted reproduction, and serve as a guide to targeted therapy. PMID:26987529

  5. The meaning of risk to first degree relatives of women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sheinfeld Gorin, Sherri; Albert, Steven M

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer represents a serious health concern for women. It is estimated that hereditary breast cancer accounts for approximately 5-10% of all breast cancer cases and as many as 25% of early-onset cases. We conducted a qualitative study of 26 first degree relatives of women with breast cancer (FDRs) in order to gain a deeper understanding of the effect of risk perception on their screening adherence. The method relied upon semi-structured, in-depth, face-to-face interviews with first degree relatives of women with breast cancer. We characterized FDRs by their response to a single query about their perceived risk. "Risk adopters" (N = 13) were defined as those who expressed a lifetime risk of breast cancer of 50% or more, and "normalizers" (N = 13) were those who indicated a lifetime risk of 49% or less. We conducted content analysis on the responses to the open-ended queries concerning perceived risk for breast cancer, searching for consistent themes among the responses. Surveillance behaviors were high among these FDRs relative to population-based comparisons. The difference between perceived and objective risk for breast cancer was significantly greater among risk adopters than normalizers (p < .0001). Three themes, derived from a content analysis of the FDR's natural language, further distinguish the two groups of women from one another: (1) causal attributions; (2) acceptance of labeling by the physician or other health care provider; and (3) current or remembered surveillance reminders from salient members of the social support network. We suggest different health care provider approaches to FDRs who are normalizers and those who are risk adopters, as well as additional studies of the impact of risk status (as manifest in the FDR's natural language) and surveillance behaviors, over time, among more diverse subgroups.

  6. Development of an Internet Intervention to Address Behaviors Associated with Skin Cancer Risk among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn; Darlow, Susan; Munshi, Teja; Caruso, Carolyn; Ritterband, Lee; Raivitch, Stephanie; Fleisher, Linda; Manne, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the US, and its incidence is increasing. The major risk factor for skin cancer is exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV). Young adults tend to expose themselves to large amounts of UV and engage in minimal skin protection, which increases their skin cancer risk. Interventions are needed to address risk behaviors among young adults that may lead to skin cancer. The nternet offers a cost-effective way to widely disseminate efficacious interventions. The current paper describes the development of an online skin cancer risk reduction intervention (UV4.me) for young adults. Procedures The iterative development process for UV4.me followed best-practice guidelines and included the following activities: individual interviews, focus groups, content development by the expert team, acceptability testing, cognitive interviewing for questionnaires, quality control testing, usability testing, and a pilot randomized controlled trial. Participant acceptability and usability feedback was assessed. Principal Results The development process produced an evidence-informed intervention that is individually-tailored, interactive, and multimedia in nature based on the Integrative Model of Behavior Prediction, a model for internet interventions, and other best-practice recommendations, expert input, as well as user acceptability and usability feedback gathered before, during, and after development. Major Conclusions Development of an acceptable intervention intended to have a significant public health impact requires a relatively large investment in time, money, expertise, and ongoing user input. Lessons learned and recommendations are discussed. The comprehensive process used may help prepare others interested in creating similar behavioral health interventions. PMID:26640776

  7. Erlotinib and the Risk of Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    William, William N.; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Lee, J. Jack; Mao, Li; Cohen, Ezra E.W.; Lin, Heather Y.; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Martin, Jack W.; Lingen, Mark W.; Boyle, Jay O.; Shin, Dong M.; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Shinn, Nancy; Heymach, John V.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Tang, Ximing; Kim, Edward S.; Saintigny, Pierre; Blair, Elizabeth A.; Meiller, Timothy; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Myers, Jeffrey; El-Naggar, Adel; Lippman, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Standard molecularly based strategies to predict and/or prevent oral cancer development in patients with oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) are lacking. OBJECTIVE To test if the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib would reduce oral cancer development in patients with high-risk OPLs defined by specific loss of heterozygosity (LOH) profiles. Secondary objectives included prospective determination of LOH as a prognostic marker in OPLs. DESIGN The Erlotinib Prevention of Oral Cancer (EPOC) study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-bind trial. Accrual occurred from November 2006 through July 2012, with a median follow-up time of 35 months in an ambulatory care setting in 5 US academic referral institutions. Patients with OPLs were enrolled in the protocol, and each underwent LOH profiling (N = 379); they were classified as high-risk (LOH-positive) or low-risk (LOH-negative) patients based on their LOH profiles and oral cancer history. The randomized sample consisted of 150 LOH-positive patients. INTERVENTIONS Oral erlotinib treatment (150mg/d) or placebo for 12 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Oral cancer–free survival (CFS). RESULTS A total of 395 participants were classified with LOH profiles, and 254 were classified LOH positive. Of these, 150 (59%) were randomized, 75 each to the placebo and erlotinib groups. The 3-year CFS rates in placebo- and erlotinib-treated patients were 74%and 70%, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95%CI, 0.68–2.38; P = .45). The 3-year CFS was significantly lower for LOH-positive compared with LOH-negative groups (74%vs 87%, HR, 2.19; 95%CI, 1.25–3.83; P = .01). Increased EGFR gene copy number correlated with LOH-positive status (P < .001) and lower CFS (P = .01). The EGFR gene copy number was not predictive of erlotinib efficacy. Erlotinib-induced skin rash was associated with improved CFS (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this trial, LOH was validated as a marker of oral cancer risk and

  8. Risk Acceptance Personality Paradigm: How We View What We Don't Know We Don't Know

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, Michael J.; Morris, A. Terry

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of integrated hazard analyses, probabilistic risk assessments, failure modes and effects analyses, fault trees and many other similar tools is to give managers of a program some idea of the risks associated with their program. All risk tools establish a set of undesired events and then try to evaluate the risk to the program by assessing the severity of the undesired event and the likelihood of that event occurring. Some tools provide qualitative results, some provide quantitative results and some do both. However, in the end the program manager and his/her team must decide which risks are acceptable and which are not. Even with a wide array of analysis tools available, risk acceptance is often a controversial and difficult decision making process. And yet, today's space exploration programs are moving toward more risk based design approaches. Thus, risk identification and good risk assessment is becoming even more vital to the engineering development process. This paper explores how known and unknown information influences risk-based decisions by looking at how the various parts of our personalities are affected by what they know and what they don't know. This paper then offers some criteria for consideration when making risk-based decisions.

  9. Lung Cancer Risk Models for Screening (R package: lcrisks)

    Cancer.gov

    In both the absence and presence of screening, the R package lcrisks, calculates individual risks of lung cancer and lung cancer death based on covariates: age, education, sex, race, smoking intensity/duration/quit-years, Body Mass Index, family history of lung-cancer, and self-reported emphysema. In the presence of CT screening akin to the NLST (3 yearly screens, 5 years of follow-up), it uses the covariates to estimate risk of false-positive CT screen as well as the reduction in risk of lung cancer death and increase in risk of lung cancer screening.

  10. Screening for colorectal cancer: possible improvements by risk assessment evaluation?

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Hans J; Jakobsen, Karen V; Christensen, Ib J; Brünner, Nils

    2011-11-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including colono- and sigmoidoscopy, CT- and MR-colonography, capsule endoscopy, DNA and occult blood in feces, and so on. The pros and cons of the various tests, including economic issues, are debated. Although a plethora of evaluated and validated tests even with high specificities and reasonable sensitivities are available, an international consensus on screening procedures is still not established. The rather limited compliance in present screening procedures is a significant drawback. Furthermore, some of the procedures are costly and, therefore, selection methods for these procedures are needed. Current research into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among the screening populations, and thereby improve the compliances. Furthermore, the involvement of the media, including social media, may add even more individuals to the screening programs. Implementation of validated RAE and progressively improved screening methods may reform the cost/benefit of screening procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest.

  11. Increased cancer risk among Swedish female alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Sigvardsson, S; Hardell, L; Przybeck, T R; Cloninger, R

    1996-03-01

    We evaluated site-specific cancer risks in alcoholic women. We identified 15,508 alcoholic women from the records of the Temperance Boards in Sweden and obtained a comparison group by selecting for each alcoholic woman one female individual matched for region and day of birth. We obtained incidence data from the Swedish Cancer Registry. We found an increased relative risk (RR) for any cancer [RR = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-1.8]; site-specific risks were increased for tongue (RR = 8.5; 95% CI = 2.0-37), mouth (RR = 12; 95% CI = 1.6-92), tonsil (RR = 11; 95% CI = 1.4-85), hypopharynx (RR = 9.0; 95% CI = 1.1-71), larynx (RR = 7.0; 95% CI = 0.9-57), liver (RR = 4.6; 95% CI = 1.8-12), pancreas (RR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.6-4.6), lung (RR = 5.0; 95% CI = 3.3-7.5), breast (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.2-1.7), cervix uteri (RR = 3.9; 95% CI = 2.8-5.4), and vulva, vagina, and unspecified female genital organs (RR = 4.0; 95% CI = 1.3-12). We found a decreased risk for malignant melanoma of the skin (RR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.3-1.0). Since this was a register study, the results may be confounded by differences in smoking, dietary habits, and/or other factors in the cohort of alcoholic women and the comparison group.

  12. Social Network and Risk-Taking Behavior Most Associated with Rapid HIV Testing, Circumcision, and Preexposure Prophylaxis Acceptability Among High-Risk Indian Men

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rupali; Dandona, Rakhi; Kumar, Prem; Kumar, Anil; Lakshmi, Vemu; Laumann, Edward; Mayer, Kenneth; Dandona, Lalit

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Indian truck drivers and their younger apprentice drivers are at increased risk of HIV infection. We determine network and risk practices associated with willingness to adopt HIV prevention interventions currently not being used in India: rapid HIV testing, circumcision, and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in order to inform the National AIDS Control Program (NACP). Truck drivers and truck cleaners were systematically recruited to participate in a social network and risk survey in Hyderabad, Southern India. Three separate composite measures of acceptability of rapid HIV testing, circumcision, and PrEP acceptability were utilized to independently assess the relationship of these prevention interventions with risk-practices and social network characteristics. An 89% participation rate yielded 1602 truck drivers and truck cleaners with 54.2% younger than 30 years of age and 2.8% HIV infected. Twenty-five percent of respondents reported sex with female sex workers (FSW) and 5% with men (MSM). Rapid testing, circumcision, and PrEP acceptability were 97.4%, 9.1%, and 85.9%, respectively. Participants reporting prosocial network characteristics were more accepting of rapid testing (adjusted odds ratio [AORs] 3.07–6.71; p<0.05) and demonstrated variable PrEP acceptability (AORs 0.08–2.22; p<0.001). Sex with FSWs was associated with PrEP acceptability (AOR 4.27; p<0.001); sex with MSM was associated with circumcision acceptability only (AOR 2.66; p<0.01). Social network factors and risk-practices were associated with novel prevention acceptability, but not consistently across intervention type and with variable directionality. The NACP will need to consider that intervention uptake may likely be most successful when efforts are targeted to individuals with specific behavior and social network characteristics. PMID:22973951

  13. Cancer Risk Assessment for Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert C.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Predicting the occurrence of human cancer following exposure to any agent causing genetic damage is a difficult task. This is because the uncertainty of uniform exposure to the damaging agent, and the uncertainty of uniform processing of that damage within a complex set of biological variables, degrade the confidence of predicting the delayed expression of cancer as a relatively rare event within any given clinically normal individual. The radiation health research priorities for enabling long-duration human exploration of space were established in the 1996 NRC Report entitled "Radiation Hazards to Crews of Interplanetary Missions: Biological Issues and Research Strategies". This report emphasized that a 15-fold uncertainty in predicting radiation-induced cancer incidence must be reduced before NASA can commit humans to extended interplanetary missions. That report concluded that the great majority of this uncertainty is biologically based, while a minority is physically based due to uncertainties in radiation dosimetry and radiation transport codes. Since that report, the biologically based uncertainty has remained large, and the relatively small uncertainty associated with radiation dosimetry has increased due to the considerations raised by concepts of microdosimetry. In a practical sense, however, the additional uncertainties introduced by microdosimetry are encouraging since they are in a direction of lowered effective dose absorbed through infrequent interactions of any given cell with the high energy particle component of space radiation. The biological uncertainty in predicting cancer risk for space radiation derives from two primary facts. 1) One animal tumor study has been reported that includes a relevant spectrum of particle radiation energies, and that is the Harderian gland model in mice. Fact #1: Extension of cancer risk from animal models, and especially from a single study in an animal model, to humans is inherently uncertain. 2) One human database

  14. Asphalt and risk of cancer in man.

    PubMed Central

    Chiazze, L; Watkins, D K; Amsel, J

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiological publications regarding the carcinogenic potential of asphalt (bitumen) are reviewed. In 1984 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) stated that there is "inadequate evidence that bitumens alone are carcinogenic to humans." They did, however, conclude that animal data provided sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of certain extracts of steam refined and air refined bitumens. In the absence of data on man, IARC considered it reasonable to regard chemicals with sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals as if they presented a carcinogenic risk to man. Epidemiological data for man accumulated since the IARC report do not fulfil the criteria for showing a causal association between exposure to asphalt and development of cancer. The studies cited all suffer from a lack of data on exposure or potential confounders, which are necessary to establish whether or not such an association may or may not exist. In view of the evidence (or lack thereof) regarding asphalt today, an appropriate public health attitude suggests at least that action be taken to protect those working with asphalt by monitoring the workplace, taking whatever steps are possible to minimise exposures and to inform workers of potential hazards. At the same time, a need exists for well designed analytical epidemiological studies to determine whether a risk of cancer in man exists from exposure to asphalt. PMID:1878310

  15. Feasibility and Acceptability of the PROMIS Measures in Children and Adolescents in Active Cancer Treatment and Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Menard, Johanna C.; Hinds, Pamela S.; Jacobs, Shana S.; Cranston, Katie; Wang, Jichuan; DeWalt, Darren A.; Gross, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) related to symptoms, function, and quality of life during and following cancer treatment can guide care for pediatric cancer patients. To advance the science of PROs, the National Institutes of Health funded the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Objective To assess feasibility and acceptability of the PROMIS pediatric measures, as defined by enrollment and attrition rates as well as missingness by measure, item, participant, and assessment time point. Methods 8-to-18 year olds participated in two studies: PROMIS I, a cross-sectional study of children in active cancer treatment or survivorship, and PROMIS II, a longitudinal study with 3 assessment time points for children receiving curative treatment. Results PROMIS I (n=200) and PROMIS II (n=94) had enrollment rates of 92.5% and 89.7%, respectively. For PROMIS I, measure missingness was acceptable (8% missed any measures) and was not related to other study variables. For PROMIS II, measure missingness was minimal (0.8%), and item-level missingness was relatively low. In general, items that were skipped asked about experiences that participants had not encountered in the past 7 days. Conclusions In both studies, the PROMIS instruments demonstrated good feasibility and acceptability among pediatric cancer patients. Overall, we had high enrollment, low attrition, and acceptable rates of measure and item missingness. Implications for Practice Our results demonstrate that PROMIS measures are acceptable to 8-to-18 year-olds in different points of cancer care and feasible for use in pediatric cancer inpatient and outpatient settings. PMID:24036439

  16. Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  17. Colorectal cancer risk in hamartomatous polyposis syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme; Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world, and approximately 5% of them develop in a context of inherited mutations leading to some form of familial colon cancer syndromes. Recognition and characterization of these patients have contributed to elucidate the genetic basis of CRC. Polyposis Syndromes may be categorized by the predominant histological structure found within the polyps. The aim of the present paper is to review the most important clinical features of the Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes, a rare group of genetic disorders formed by the peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenil polyposis syndrome and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome (Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalacaba and Cowden Syndromes). A literature search was performed in order to retrieve the most recent and important papers (articles, reviews, clinical cases and clinical guidelines) regarding the studied subject. We searched for terms such as “hamartomatous polyposis syndromes”, “Peutz-Jeghers syndrome”, “juvenile polyposis syndrome”, “juvenile polyp”, and “PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome” (Cowden syndrome, Bananyan-Riley-Ruvalcaba). The present article reports the wide spectrum of disease severity and extraintestinal manifestations, with a special focus on their potential to develop colorectal and other neoplasia. In the literature, the reported colorectal cancer risk for Juvenile Polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndromes are 39%-68%, 39%-57% and 18%, respectively. A review regarding cancer surveillance recommendations is also presented. PMID:25848489

  18. Primary care physicians' cancer screening recommendation practices and perceptions of cancer risk of Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Harry T; Ma, Grace X; Gold, Robert S; Atkinson, Nancy L; Wang, Min Qi

    2013-01-01

    Asian Americans experience disproportionate incidence and mortality rates of certain cancers, compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Primary care physicians are a critical source for cancer screening recommendations and play a significant role in increasing cancer screening of their patients. This study assessed primary care physicians' perceptions of cancer risk in Asians and screening recommendation practices. Primary care physicians practicing in New Jersey and New York City (n=100) completed a 30-question survey on medical practice characteristics, Asian patient communication, cancer screening guidelines, and Asian cancer risk. Liver cancer and stomach cancer were perceived as higher cancer risks among Asian Americans than among the general population, and breast and prostate cancer were perceived as lower risks. Physicians are integral public health liaisons who can be both influential and resourceful toward educating Asian Americans about specific cancer awareness and screening information.

  19. What Are the Risk Factors for Bladder Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... increased risk of urothelial cancers, including bladder cancer. Arsenic in drinking water Arsenic in drinking water has been linked with a ... the world. The chance of being exposed to arsenic depends on where you live and whether you ...

  20. Nutrients and risk of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinfu; La Vecchia, Carlo; Gibbons, Laurrie; Negri, Eva; Mery, Les

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the association between intake of protein, fats, cholesterol, and carbohydrates and the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). Between 1994 and 1997, in 8 Canadian provinces, mailed questionnaires were completed by 1,797 incident, histologically confirmed cases of PCa and 2,547 population controls. Information was collected on socioeconomic status, lifestyle habits, and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire provided data on eating habits 2 yr before the study. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using unconditional logistic regression, including terms for sociodemographic factors, body mass index, alcohol, and total energy intake. Intake of trans fat was associated with the risk of PCa; the OR for the highest vs. the lowest quartile was 1.45 (95% CI = 1.16-1.81); the association was apparently stronger in subjects aged less than 65, normal weight men, and ever smokers. An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose and disaccharides. In contrast, men in the highest quartile of cholesterol intake were at lower risk of PCa. No association was found with intake of total proteins, total fat, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, monosaccharides, and total carbohydrates. The findings provide evidence that a diet low in trans fat could reduce PCa risk.

  1. Why Breast Cancer Risk by the Numbers Is Not Enough: Evaluation of a Decision Aid in Multi-Ethnic, Low-Numerate Women

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Haeseung; Xiao, Tong; Thomas, Parijatham; Aguirre, Alejandra; Smalletz, Cindy; David, Raven; Crew, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer risk assessment including genetic testing can be used to classify people into different risk groups with screening and preventive interventions tailored to the needs of each group, yet the implementation of risk-stratified breast cancer prevention in primary care settings is complex. Objective To address barriers to breast cancer risk assessment, risk communication, and prevention strategies in primary care settings, we developed a Web-based decision aid, RealRisks, that aims to improve preference-based decision-making for breast cancer prevention, particularly in low-numerate women. Methods RealRisks incorporates experience-based dynamic interfaces to communicate risk aimed at reducing inaccurate risk perceptions, with modules on breast cancer risk, genetic testing, and chemoprevention that are tailored. To begin, participants learn about risk by interacting with two games of experience-based risk interfaces, demonstrating average 5-year and lifetime breast cancer risk. We conducted four focus groups in English-speaking women (age ≥18 years), a questionnaire completed before and after interacting with the decision aid, and a semistructured group discussion. We employed a mixed-methods approach to assess accuracy of perceived breast cancer risk and acceptability of RealRisks. The qualitative analysis of the semistructured discussions assessed understanding of risk, risk models, and risk appropriate prevention strategies. Results Among 34 participants, mean age was 53.4 years, 62% (21/34) were Hispanic, and 41% (14/34) demonstrated low numeracy. According to the Gail breast cancer risk assessment tool (BCRAT), the mean 5-year and lifetime breast cancer risk were 1.11% (SD 0.77) and 7.46% (SD 2.87), respectively. After interacting with RealRisks, the difference in perceived and estimated breast cancer risk according to BCRAT improved for 5-year risk (P=.008). In the qualitative analysis, we identified potential barriers to adopting risk

  2. Cancer risk and preventive behavior: persuasion as an intervention strategy.

    PubMed

    Tonani, Marcela; Carvalho, Emilia Campos de

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of interventions for health promotion, protection, and early diagnosis may include the process of persuasion employed. This study aims to evaluate the risk level of developing cancer, considering the pertinent risk factors, and the presence of persuasion and characteristics in communication regarding cancer prevention and early detection. It is an observational study, conducted among 110 inhabitants of a neighborhood in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil. It was confirmed that there are high risks for colon/rectum, cervical, and endometrial cancer; and moderate risks for the above as well as lung and breast cancer. In terms of persuasion, it was observed that cancer information was spread but not sustained for long periods. Moreover, there was no reinforcement. In view of cancer risk and the identified preventive behaviors, persuasion is considered a useful strategy to reduce these risks, as well as to encourage and sustain preventive behaviors, since it indicates routes to be followed.

  3. Psychosocial factors influencing breast cancer risk appraisal among older women.

    PubMed

    Wood, Robin Y; Della-Monica, Nola R

    2011-06-01

    Although the incidence of breast cancer increases with age, many older women are uninformed about the increased risk and have lower mammography screening rates than younger women. Understanding older women's perceptions of risk might assist health care providers in offering appropriate resources that result in screening. In this study, we explored psychosocial components influencing older women's breast cancer risk appraisal. To identify key psychosocial components of breast cancer risk appraisal, we conducted focus group interviews. Data saturation occurred with four groups (N = 36) of older Black (58%) and White (42%) women with no prior history of breast cancer. On analysis of the data, we found three themes representing psychosocial factors influencing breast cancer risk appraisal with this cohort. Our findings revealed that worry/fear/anxiety, self-regulating empowerment, and realistic optimism were psychosocial mechanisms older Black and White women in this sample used in appraising breast cancer risk.

  4. Lycopene and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ping; Zhang, Wenhao; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Keke; Negi, Devendra Singh; Zhuo, Li; Qi, Mao; Wang, Xinghuan; Zhang, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common illness for aging males. Lycopene has been identified as an antioxidant agent with potential anticancer properties. Studies investigating the relation between lycopene and PCa risk have produced inconsistent results. This study aims to determine dietary lycopene consumption/circulating concentration and any potential dose–response associations with the risk of PCa. Eligible studies published in English up to April 10, 2014, were searched and identified from Pubmed, Sciencedirect Online, Wiley online library databases and hand searching. The STATA (version 12.0) was applied to process the dose–response meta-analysis. Random effects models were used to calculate pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and to incorporate variation between studies. The linear and nonlinear dose–response relations were evaluated with data from categories of lycopene consumption/circulating concentrations. Twenty-six studies were included with 17,517 cases of PCa reported from 563,299 participants. Although inverse association between lycopene consumption and PCa risk was not found in all studies, there was a trend that with higher lycopene intake, there was reduced incidence of PCa (P = 0.078). Removal of one Chinese study in sensitivity analysis, or recalculation using data from only high-quality studies for subgroup analysis, indicated that higher lycopene consumption significantly lowered PCa risk. Furthermore, our dose–response meta-analysis demonstrated that higher lycopene consumption was linearly associated with a reduced risk of PCa with a threshold between 9 and 21 mg/day. Consistently, higher circulating lycopene levels significantly reduced the risk of PCa. Interestingly, the concentration of circulating lycopene between 2.17 and 85 μg/dL was linearly inversed with PCa risk whereas there was no linear association >85 μg/dL. In addition, greater efficacy for the circulating lycopene

  5. Food groups and colorectal cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Levi, F; Pasche, C; La Vecchia, C; Lucchini, F; Franceschi, S

    1999-01-01

    Most studies of diet and colorectal cancer have considered nutrients and micronutrients, but the role of foods or food groups remains open to debate. To elucidate the issue, we examined data from a case–control study conducted between 1992 and 1997 in the Swiss canton of Vaud. Cases were 223 patients (142 men, 81 women) with incident, histologically confirmed colon (n = 119) or rectal (n = 104) cancer (median age 63 years), linked with the Cancer Registry of the Swiss Canton of Vaud, and controls were 491 subjects (211 men, 280 women, median age 58 years) admitted to the same university hospital for a wide spectrum of acute non-neoplastic conditions unrelated to long-term modifications of diet. Odds ratios (OR) were obtained after allowance for age, sex, education, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, physical activity and total energy intake. Significant associations were observed for refined grain (OR = 1.32 for an increase of one serving per day), and red meat (OR = 1.54), pork and processed meat (OR = 1.27), alcohol (OR = 1.28), and significant protections for whole grain (OR = 0.85), raw (OR = 0.85) and cooked vegetables (OR = 0.69), citrus (OR = 0.86) and other fruits (OR = 0.85), and for coffee (OR = 0.73). Garlic was also protective (OR = 0.32 for the highest tertile of intake). These findings in a central European population support the hypothesis that a diet rich in refined grains and red meat increases the risk of colorectal cancer; they, therefore, support the recommendation to substitute whole grains for refined grain, to limit meat intake, and to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10098773

  6. Acne and risk of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Giovannucci, Edward; Isaacs, William B; Willett, Walter C; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2007-12-15

    In a recent study, prostatectomy specimens from which Propionibacterium acnes was cultured were more likely to have inflammation than culture-negative specimens or specimens positive for other bacteria, leading the authors to hypothesize that P. acnes-mediated inflammation may contribute to prostate carcinogenesis. To indirectly explore associations between P. acnes and prostate cancer, we investigated severe acne, as measured by tetracycline use for 4 or more years, in relation to incident prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. On the 1992 follow-up questionnaire, participants were asked whether they had ever used "tetracycline for at least 2 months at a time (e.g., for acne or other reason)" and their duration of use. Prostate cancer diagnoses were ascertained on each subsequent biennial questionnaire and confirmed by medical record review. Between 1992 and 2002, 2,147 cases of prostate cancer were reported among 34,629 eligible participants. Men who used tetracycline for 4 or more years had a significantly higher risk of prostate cancer (16 cases, 1,569 person-years) than men who did not use tetracycline (2,071 cases, 304,822 person-years, multivariable-adjusted RR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.03-2.80). Although intriguing, this finding should be viewed cautiously because of the small number of exposed cases, indirect assessment of severe acne, and complex etiology of acne, which is not limited to P. acnes infection. Therefore, additional biologic and epidemiologic studies are necessary to determine and elucidate the possible role of P. acnes infection in prostate carcinogenesis.

  7. Cervical Cancer and Human Papilloma Virus Knowledge and Acceptance of Vaccination among Medical Students in Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adejuyigbe, Funmilayo F; Balogun, M R; Balogun, Balogun R; Sekoni, Adekemi O; Adegbola, Adebukola A

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the commonest viral sexually transmitted infection in the world and the leading cause of cervical cancer. Medical students as future healthcare providers will play a role in influencing patients' decision to receive HPV vaccination. This study was aimed at determining the knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV as well as the acceptance of HPV vaccination among medical students of the University of Lagos. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 280 medical students sampled using stratified sampling technique. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect relevant data. Most respondents were aware of cervical cancer (95.4%), HPV (85.4%) and HPV vaccination (69.3%) and the most common source of information was school teaching. Good knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccination was demonstrated by 51.8%, 67.1% and 21.1% respectively; only 39.6% fully accepted HPV vaccination. Inadequate information and high costs were the obstacles identified to receiving vaccine and recommending it to others. Older age and higher levels of study were significantly associated with good knowledge of HPV. Good knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccination respectively were significantly associated with full acceptance of vaccination. There is need for more education on cervical cancer, HPV infection and HPV vaccination for the medical students via school teaching and other media, and inclusion of the HPV vaccine in the National Program on Immunization to improve access.

  8. The Relationship Between Endocrine Factors and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-01

    that breast cancer risk was influenced by waist circumference (OR=1.166; 95% CI: 1.051,1.308), education (OR--1.286; 95% CI: 1.062,1.594), insulin...consistent with previous studies that show a positive association between high waist circumference , hyperinsulinemia and breast cancer risk, and a...protective effect of physical activity early in life and breast cancer risk. Our findings suggest that high levels of insulin and a high waist

  9. Using risk communication to disclose the outcome of a participatory decision-making process: effects on the perceived acceptability of risk-policy decisions.

    PubMed

    Arvai, Joseph L

    2003-04-01

    It has been suggested that public participation during decision making about risks can lead to more widely accepted risk policies. This article discusses an experiment to determine if this is true when people are made aware of the fact that a participatory decision-making process has taken place only through information disclosed during a subsequent risk communication effort. The results from this experiment showed that, after receiving information during risk communication that cast risk policies about space exploration as the product of a participatory decision process, participants in the study felt more supportive of the resulting decisions than did participants in a control group. This result coincided with the participants in the study group perceiving the risks associated with the decision to be lower and the benefits higher. Responses from these participants also showed that they were more satisfied with the decision-making process than they were with the outcome of the decision itself Therefore, it may be premature to view the objective of participatory decision-making approaches-and the risk communication efforts that discuss them-as a means of making risk policies more widely acceptable to the public at large. Rather, it may be better to view the benefits of these approaches in terms of their ability to help lead to higher quality decisions that are the product of more widely accepted decision processes.

  10. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    SciTech Connect

    Boukheris, Houda; Stovall, Marilyn; Gilbert, Ethel S.; Stratton, Kayla L.; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita; Hammond, Sue; Mertens, Ann C.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  11. Assessing Abuse Risk beyond Self-Report: Analog Task of Acceptability of Parent-Child Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Russa, Mary Bower; Harmon, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The present investigation reports on the development and initial validation of a new analog task, the Parent-Child Aggression Acceptability Movie Task (P-CAAM), intended to assess respondents' acceptance of parent-child aggression, including both physical discipline and physical abuse. Methods: Two independent samples were utilized to…

  12. Oral cancer: Etiology and risk factors: A review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Malay; Nanavati, Ronak; Modi, Tapan G; Dobariya, Chintan

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy in the world. Oral cancer is of major concern in Southeast Asia primarily because of the prevalent oral habits of betel quid chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Despite recent advances in cancer diagnoses and therapies, the 5.year survival rate of oral cancer patients has remained at a dismal 50% in the last few decades. This paper is an overview of the various etiological agents and risk factors implicated in the development of oral cancer.

  13. Risk of subsequent cancer following a primary CNS tumor.

    PubMed

    Strodtbeck, Kyle; Sloan, Andrew; Rogers, Lisa; Fisher, Paul Graham; Stearns, Duncan; Campbell, Laura; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill

    2013-04-01

    Improvements in survival among central nervous system (CNS) tumor patients has made the risk of developing a subsequent cancer an important survivorship issue. Such a risk is likely influenced by histological and treatment differences between CNS tumors. De-identified data for 41,159 patients with a primary CNS tumor diagnosis from 9 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registries were used to calculate potential risk for subsequent cancer development. Relative risk (RR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) of subsequent cancer was calculated using SEER*Stat 7.0.9, comparing observed number of subsequent cancers versus expected in the general United States population. For all CNS tumors studied, there were 830 subsequent cancers with a RR of 1.26 (95 % CI, 1.18-1.35). Subsequent cancers were observed in the CNS, digestive system, bones/joints, soft tissue, thyroid and leukemia. Radiotherapy was associated with an elevated risk, particularly in patients diagnosed with a medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (MPNET). MPNET patients who received radiotherapy were at a significant risk for development of cancers of the digestive system, leukemia, bone/joint and cranial nerves. Glioblastoma multiforme patients who received radiotherapy were at lower risks for female breast and prostate cancers, though at an elevated risk for cancers of the thyroid and brain. Radiotherapy is associated with subsequent cancer development, particularly for sites within the field of radiation, though host susceptibility and post-treatment status underlie this risk. Variation in subsequent cancer risk among different CNS tumor histological subtypes indicate a complex interplay between risk factors in subsequent cancer development.

  14. NBS1 Heterozygosity and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    di Masi, Alessandra; Antoccia, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Biallelic mutations in the NBS1 gene are responsible for the Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by chromosome instability and hypersensitivity to ionising radiation (IR). Epidemiological data evidence that the NBS1 gene can be considered a susceptibility factor for cancer development, as demonstrated by the fact that almost 40% of NBS patients have developed a malignancy before the age of 21. Interestingly, also NBS1 heterozygotes, which are clinically asymptomatic, display an elevated risk to develop some types of malignant tumours, especially breast, prostate and colorectal cancers, lymphoblastic leukaemia, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). So far, nine mutations in the NBS1 gene have been found, at the heterozygous state, in cancer patients. Among them, the 657del5, the I171V and the R215W mutations are the most frequently described. The pathogenicity of these mutations is presumably connected with their occurrence in the highly conserved BRCT tandem domains of the NBS1 protein, which are present in a large superfamily of proteins, and are recognized as major mediators of processes related to cell-cycle checkpoint and DNA repair. This review will focus on the current state-of-knowledge regarding the correlation between carriers of NBS1 gene mutations and the proneness to the development of malignant tumours. PMID:19452044

  15. Visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a well established link between obesity and cancer. Emerging research is characterising this relationship further and delineating the specific role of excess visceral adiposity, as opposed to simple obesity, in promoting tumorigenesis. This review summarises the evidence from an epidemiological and pathophysiological perspective. Methods Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Results Numerous epidemiological studies consistently identify increased risk of developing carcinoma in the obese. Adipose tissue, particularly viscerally located fat, is metabolically active and exerts systemic endocrine effects. Putative pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and carcinogenesis include the paracrine effects of adipose tissue and systemic alterations associated with obesity. Systemic changes in the obese state include chronic inflammation and alterations in adipokines and sex steroids. Insulin and the insulin-like growth factor axis influence tumorigenesis and also have a complex relationship with adiposity. There is evidence to suggest that insulin and the IGF axis play an important role in mediating obesity associated malignancy. Conclusions There is much evidence to support a role for obesity in cancer progression, however further research is warranted to determine the specific effect of excess visceral adipose tissue on tumorigenesis. Investigation of the potential mechanisms underpinning the association, including the role of insulin and the IGF axis, will improve understanding of the obesity and cancer link and may uncover targets for intervention. PMID:21696633

  16. Morbidity, mortality, and categorization of the risk of perioperative complications in lung cancer patients*

    PubMed Central

    Stanzani, Fabiana; Paisani, Denise de Moraes; de Oliveira, Anderson; de Souza, Rodrigo Caetano; Perfeito, João Aléssio Juliano; Faresin, Sonia Maria

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine morbidity and mortality rates by risk category in accordance with the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines, to determine what role pulmonary function tests play in this categorization process, and to identify risk factors for perioperative complications (PCs). METHODS: This was a historical cohort study based on preoperative and postoperative data collected for cases of lung cancer diagnosed or suspected between 2001 and 2010. RESULTS: Of the 239 patients evaluated, only 13 (5.4%) were classified as being at high risk of PCs. Predicted postoperative FEV1 (FEV1ppo) was sufficient to define the risk level in 156 patients (65.3%); however, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) was necessary for identifying those at high risk. Lung resection was performed in 145 patients. Overall morbidity and mortality rates were similar to those reported in other studies. However, morbidity and mortality rates for patients at an acceptable risk of PCs were 31.6% and 4.3%, respectively, whereas those for patients at high risk were 83.3% and 33.3%. Advanced age, COPD, lobe resection, and lower FEV1ppo were correlated with PCs. CONCLUSIONS: Although spirometry was sufficient for risk assessment in the majority of the population studied, CPET played a key role in the identification of high-risk patients, among whom the mortality rate was seven times higher than was that observed for those at an acceptable risk of PCs. The risk factors related to PCs coincided with those reported in previous studies. PMID:24626266

  17. E-mail to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening Within Social Networks: Acceptability and Content

    PubMed Central

    CUTRONA, SARAH L.; WAGNER, JOANN; ROBLIN, DOUGLAS W.; GAGLIO, BRIDGET; WILLIAMS, ANDREW; TORRES-STONE, ROSALIE; MAZOR, KATHLEEN M.

    2016-01-01

    Effective techniques to encourage colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in underscreened populations have included social support interventions and email reminders from physicians. Personalized email messages to promote CRC screening within social networks could be even more effective, but have not been studied. We interviewed 387 email users, aged 42-73 years in Massachusetts, Hawaii, and Georgia. Participants were asked to edit a sample message in which the sender shares a recent colonoscopy experience and urges the recipient to discuss CRC screening with a doctor. For those reporting willingness to send this message, changes to the message and suggested subject lines were recorded. Edited text was analyzed for content and concordance with original message. The majority of participants (74.4%) were willing to email a modifiable message. Of those willing, 63.5% edited the message. Common edits included deletion (17.7%) or modification (17.4%) of a negatively framed sentence on colon cancer risks and addition or modification of personalizing words (15.6%). Few edits changed the meaning of the message (5.6%) and even fewer introduced factual inaccuracies (1.7%). Modifiable email messages offer a way for screened individuals to promote CRC screening to social network members. Accuracy and impact of such messages should be further studied. PMID:25839968

  18. Effect of Psychosocial Factors on Cancer Risk and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Nakaya, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial factors such as personality traits and depression may alter immune and endocrine function, with possible effects on cancer incidence and survival. Although these factors have been extensively studied as risk and prognostic factors for cancer, the associations remain unclear. The author used data from prospective cohort studies in population-based and clinical databases to investigate these relations. The findings do not support the hypotheses that personality traits and depression are direct risk factors for cancer and cancer survival. Some researchers have recently reported that cancer affects the psychological status of the partners and family members of cancer patients. The mechanisms underlying this hypothesis imply the existence of not only psychological distress from caregiving and grief but also a shared unhealthy lifestyle. Only a few studies have suggested that major psychosocial problems develop in partners of cancer patients. The present study used nationwide population-based data to investigate depression risk among male partners of women with breast cancer. The results support the hypothesis that such men are at increased risk of depression. In conclusion, the effects of personality traits and depression on cancer risk and survival appear to be extremely small. In addition, partners of cancer patients were at increased risk of depression. Screening partners and family members of cancer patients for depressive symptoms is therefore an important concern for research in psycho-oncology. PMID:24270060

  19. Guidance on the establishment of acceptable daily exposure limits (ADE) to support Risk-Based Manufacture of Pharmaceutical Products.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Edward V; Faria, Ellen; Pfister, Thomas; Sussman, Robert G

    2013-03-01

    Health-based limits for active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) referred to as acceptable daily exposures (ADEs) are necessary to the pharmaceutical industry and used to derive acceptance limits for cleaning validation purposes and evaluating cross-carryover. ADEs represent a dose of an API unlikely to cause adverse effects if an individual is exposed, by any route, at or below this dose every day over a lifetime. Derivations of ADEs need to be consistent with ICH Q9 as well as other scientific approaches for the derivation of health-based limits that help to manage risks to both product quality and operator safety during the manufacture of pharmaceutical products. Previous methods for the establishment of acceptance limits in cleaning validation programs are considered arbitrary and have largely ignored the available clinical and toxicological data available for a drug substance. Since the ADE utilizes all available pharmaceutical data and applies scientifically acceptable risk assessment methodology it is more holistic and consistent with other quantitative risk assessments purposes such derivation of occupational exposure limits. Processes for hazard identification, dose response assessment, uncertainty factor analysis and documentation are reviewed.

  20. Epidemiology of endocrine-related risk factors for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Leslie

    2002-01-01

    Ovarian and other hormones are major determinants of breast cancer risk. Particularly important is the accumulative exposure of the breast to circulating levels of the ovarian hormones estradiol and progesterone. A number of breast cancer risk factors can be understood in light of how they affect women's hormone profiles. Age is a marker for the onset and cessation of ovarian activity. Racial differences in hormone profiles correlate with breast cancer incidence patterns. Age at menarche not only serves as the chronological indicator of the onset of ovarian activity, but as a predictor of ovulatory frequency during adolescence and hormone levels in young adults, and has a long-lasting influence on risk. Age at menopause, another established breast cancer risk factor, marks the cessation of ovarian activity. Pregnancy history and lactation experience also are hormonal markers of breast cancer risk. Postmenopausal obesity, which is associated with higher levels of estrogen following cessation of ovarian activity, increases breast cancer risk, whereas physical activity, which can limit menstrual function, reduces risk. A relatively recent area of investigation is prenatal exposures like preeclampsia and low birth weight; both may be associated with lower in utero exposure to estrogen and also may predict lower breast cancer risk as an adult. Improved understanding of these exposures and their potential interactions with breast cancer susceptibility genes may, in the future, improve our prospects for breast cancer prevention.

  1. Individualized Risk Prediction Model for Lung Cancer in Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohee; Nam, Byung-Ho; Yang, Hye-Ryung; Lee, Ji An; Lim, Hyunsun; Han, Jun Tae; Park, Il Su; Shin, Hai-Rim; Lee, Jin Soo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Korea. The objective of the present study was to develop an individualized risk prediction model for lung cancer in Korean men using population-based cohort data. Methods From a population-based cohort study of 1,324,804 Korean men free of cancer at baseline, the individualized absolute risk of developing lung cancer was estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. We checked the validity of the model using C statistics and the Hosmer–Lemeshow chi-square test on an external validation dataset. Results The risk prediction model for lung cancer in Korean men included smoking exposure, age at smoking initiation, body mass index, physical activity, and fasting glucose levels. The model showed excellent performance (C statistic = 0.871, 95% CI = 0.867–0.876). Smoking was significantly associated with the risk of lung cancer in Korean men, with a four-fold increased risk in current smokers consuming more than one pack a day relative to non-smokers. Age at smoking initiation was also a significant predictor for developing lung cancer; a younger age at initiation was associated with a higher risk of developing lung cancer. Conclusion This is the first study to provide an individualized risk prediction model for lung cancer in an Asian population with very good model performance. In addition to current smoking status, earlier exposure to smoking was a very important factor for developing lung cancer. Since most of the risk factors are modifiable, this model can be used to identify those who are at a higher risk and who can subsequently modify their lifestyle choices to lower their risk of lung cancer. PMID:23408946

  2. Tea, Coffee, and Milk Consumption and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Green, Chadwick John; de Dauwe, Palina; Boyle, Terry; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Fritschi, Lin; Heyworth, Jane Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Background Data regarding the effects of tea, coffee, and milk on the risk of colorectal cancer are inconsistent. We investigated associations of tea, coffee, and milk consumption with colorectal cancer risk and attempted to determine if these exposures were differentially associated with the risks of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancers. Methods Data from 854 incident cases and 948 controls were analyzed in a case-control study of colorectal cancer in Western Australia during 2005–07. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the associations of black tea (with and without milk), green tea, herbal tea, hot coffee, iced coffee, and milk with colorectal cancer. Results Consumption of 1 or more cups of herbal tea per week was associated with a significantly decreased risk of distal colon cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16–0.82; PTrend = 0.044), and consumption of 1 or more cups of iced coffee per week was associated with increased risk of rectal cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.91–2.54; PTrend = 0.004). Neither herbal tea nor iced coffee was associated with the risk of proximal colon cancer. Hot coffee was associated with a possible increased risk of distal colon cancer. Black tea (with or without milk), green tea, decaffeinated coffee, and milk were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Conclusions Consumption of herbal tea was associated with reduced risk of distal colon cancer, and consumption of iced coffee was associated with increased rectal cancer risk. PMID:24531002

  3. Substantial contribution of extrinsic risk factors to cancer development | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Recent research has highlighted a strong correlation between tissue-specific cancer risk and the lifetime number of tissue-specific stem-cell divisions. Whether such correlation implies a high unavoidable intrinsic cancer risk has become a key public health debate with the dissemination of the 'bad luck' hypothesis. Here we provide evidence that intrinsic risk factors contribute only modestly (less than ~10-30% of lifetime risk) to cancer development.

  4. 77 FR 37803 - Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, and Clearing Member Risk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Clearing, and Clearing Member Risk Management; Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated... Clearing Member Risk Management, and Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated Contract...

  5. Breast cancer risk assessment using genetic variants and risk factors in a Singapore Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Genetic variants for breast cancer risk identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Western populations require further testing in Asian populations. A risk assessment model incorporating both validated genetic variants and established risk factors may improve its performance in risk prediction of Asian women. Methods A nested case-control study of female breast cancer (411 cases and 1,212 controls) within the Singapore Chinese Health Study was conducted to investigate the effects of 51 genetic variants identified in previous GWAS on breast cancer risk. The independent effect of these genetic variants was assessed by creating a summed genetic risk score (GRS) after adjustment for body mass index and the Gail model risk factors for breast cancer. Results The GRS was an independent predictor of breast cancer risk in Chinese women. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of breast cancer for the second, third, and fourth quartiles of the GRS were 1.26 (0.90 to 1.76), 1.47 (1.06 to 2.04) and 1.75 (1.27 to 2.41) respectively (P for trend <0.001). In addition to established risk factors, the GRS improved the classification of 6.2% of women for their absolute risk of breast cancer in the next five years. Conclusions Genetic variants on top of conventional risk factors can improve the risk prediction of breast cancer in Chinese women. PMID:24941967

  6. Risk of second primary cancer following prostate cancer radiotherapy: DVH analysis using the competitive risk model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takam, R.; Bezak, E.; Yeoh, E. E.

    2009-02-01

    This study aimed to estimate the risk of developing second primary cancer (SPC) corresponding to various radiation treatment techniques for prostate cancer. Estimation of SPC was done by analysing differential dose-volume histograms (DDVH) of normal tissues such as rectum, bladder and urethra with the competitive risk model. Differential DVHs were obtained from treatment planning systems for external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), low-dose-rate (LDR) and high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy techniques. The average risk of developing SPC was no greater than 0.6% for all treatment techniques but was lower with either LDR or HDR brachytherapy alone compared with any EBRT technique. For LDR and HDR brachytherapy alone, the risk of SPC for the rectum was 2.0 × 10-4% and 8.3 × 10-5% respectively compared with 0.2% for EBRT using five-field 3D-CRT to a total dose of 74 Gy. Overall, the risk of developing SPC for urethra following all radiation treatment techniques was very low compared with the rectum and bladder. Treatment plans which deliver equivalent doses of around 3-5 Gy to normal tissues were associated with higher risks of development of SPC.

  7. The relation of vasectomy to the risk of cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, L; Palmer, J R; Zauber, A G; Warshauer, M E; Strom, B L; Harlap, S; Shapiro, S

    1994-09-01

    We previously reported a strong positive association between vasectomy and the risk of prostatic cancer that arose in multiple comparisons made within data collected from 1976 to 1988 in an ongoing hospital-based surveillance study of many exposures and diseases. We have reassessed this association with data collected in the surveillance study during 1988-1992 from a new set of patients (355 cases of prostatic cancer and 2,048 controls with nonmalignant conditions). Because some studies have reported increased relative risks of lung cancer and testicular cancer in vasectomized men, we also used the surveillance database (4,126 men with various cancers, 7,027 men with nonmalignant conditions) to assess the relation of vasectomy to the risk of these and other cancers. In the newly collected data, the multivariate relative risk estimate for prostatic cancer in vasectomized men was 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6-2.7). For lung cancer and testicular cancer, the relative risk estimates were 1.3 (95% CI 0.8-2.1) and 0.8 (95% CI 0.4-1.9), respectively; for lung cancer occurring > or = 15 years after vasectomy, the relative risk estimate was 1.9 but it was not statistically significant (95% CI 0.7-5.0). For pancreatic cancer, the relative risk estimate was 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.1). For each of the other cancers considered--malignant melanoma, large bowel cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, lymphoma, leukemia, and other cancers--the relative risk estimate was 1.3 or less and compatible with a value of 1.0. The present data provide little support for an association of vasectomy with the risk of prostatic cancer or other cancers. In addition, the data from two sets of cases of prostatic cancer and controls interviewed consecutively illustrate that increased relative risks detected in screening for statistically significant associations may tend to have an upward bias and to be lower in subsequent data.

  8. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M; Brown, Tim W C

    2015-01-01

    The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one's own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed.

  9. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M.; Brown, Tim W. C.

    2015-01-01

    The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one's own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed. PMID:26229540

  10. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, glycemic control, and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Onitilo, Adedayo A; Stankowski, Rachel V; Berg, Richard L; Engel, Jessica M; Glurich, Ingrid; Williams, Gail M; Doi, Suhail A

    2014-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by prolonged hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and progressive hyperglycemia. Disease management relies on glycemic control through diet, exercise, and pharmacological intervention. The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of glycemic control and the use of glucose-lowering medication on the risk of breast, prostate, and colon cancer. Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (N=9486) between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2009 were identified and data on glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c, glucose), glucose-lowering medication use (insulin, metformin, sulfonylurea), age, BMI, date of diabetes diagnosis, insurance status, comorbidities, smoking history, location of residence, and cancer diagnoses were electronically abstracted. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to examine the relationship between glycemic control, including medication use, and cancer risk. The results varied by cancer type and medication exposure. There was no association between glycemic control and breast or colon cancer; however, prostate cancer risk was significantly higher with better glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c ≤ 7.0%). Insulin use was associated with increased colon cancer incidence in women, but not with colon cancer in men or breast or prostate cancer risk. Metformin exposure was associated with reduced breast and prostate cancer incidence, but had no association with colon cancer risk. Sulfonylurea exposure was not associated with risk of any type of cancer. The data reported here support hyperinsulinemia, rather than hyperglycemia, as a major diabetes-related factor associated with increased risk of breast and colon cancer. In contrast, hyperglycemia appears to be protective in the case of prostate cancer.

  11. Cancer recurrence worry, risk perception, and informational-coping styles among Appalachian cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kimberly M; Shedlosky-Shoemaker, Randi; Porter, Kyle; Desimone, Philip; Andrykowski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the psychosocial impact of the threat of cancer recurrence, underserved populations, such as those from the Appalachian region, have been understudied. To examine worry and perceived risk in cancer survivors, Appalachian and non-Appalachian cancer patients at an ambulatory oncology clinic in a university hospital were surveyed. Appalachians had significantly higher worry than non-Appalachians. Cancer type and lower need for cognition were associated with greater worry. Those with missing perceived risk data were generally older, less educated, and lower in monitoring, blunting, and health literacy. Additional resources are needed to assist Appalachians and those with cancers with poor prognoses (e.g., liver cancer, pancreatic cancer) to cope with worry associated with developing cancer again. More attention for cancer prevention is critical to improve quality of life in underserved populations where risk of cancer is greater.

  12. Milk and the risk and progression of cancer.

    PubMed

    Rock, Cheryl L

    2011-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that nutritional factors contribute to a substantial proportion of cancer cases, and milk contains numerous bioactive substances that could affect risk and progression of cancer. Cancer results from multiple genetic and epigenetic events over time, so demonstrating a specific effect of nutrients or other bioactive food components in human cancer is challenging. Epidemiological evidence consistently suggests that milk intake is protective against colorectal cancer. Calcium supplements have been shown to reduce risk for recurrence of adenomatous polyps. Calcium supplementation has not been observed to reduce risk for colon cancer, although long latency and baseline calcium intake affect interpretation of these results. High calcium intake from both food and supplements is associated with increased risk for advanced or fatal prostate cancer. Results from epidemiological studies examining the relationship between intake of dairy foods and breast or ovarian cancer risk are not consistent. Animal studies have suggested that galactose may be toxic to ovarian cells, but results from epidemiological studies that have examined ovarian cancer risk and milk and/or lactose intakes are mixed. Dietary guidelines for cancer prevention encourage meeting recommended levels of calcium intake primarily through food choices rather than supplements, and choosing low-fat or nonfat dairy foods.

  13. Skin cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Gumaste, P V; Penn, L A; Cymerman, R M; Kirchhoff, T; Polsky, D; McLellan, B

    2015-06-01

    Women with BRCA1/2 mutations have an elevated risk of breast and ovarian cancer. These patients and their clinicians are often concerned about their risk for other cancers, including skin cancer. Research evaluating the association between BRCA1/2 mutations and skin cancer is limited and has produced inconsistent results. Herein, we review the current literature on the risk of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. No studies have shown a statistically significant risk of melanoma in BRCA1 families. BRCA2 mutations have been linked to melanoma in large breast and ovarian cancer families, though a statistically significant elevated risk was reported in only one study. Five additional studies have shown some association between BRCA2 mutations and melanoma, while four studies did not find any association. With respect to nonmelanoma skin cancers, studies have produced conflicting results. Given the current state of medical knowledge, there is insufficient evidence to warrant increased skin cancer surveillance of patients with a confirmed BRCA1/2 mutation or a family history of a BRCA1/2 mutation, in the absence of standard risk factors. Nonetheless, suspected BRCA1/2 mutation carriers should be counselled about skin cancer risks and may benefit from yearly full skin examinations.

  14. The associations between MDM4 gene polymorphisms and cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-Liang; Yao, Guo-Liang; Liu, Rui-Ping; Zhao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Considerable studies have investigated the associations between MDM4 gene polymorphisms and cancer risk recently, but with contradictory results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the associations between MDM4 gene polymorphisms and cancer risk. Relevant studies were identified by a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and CNKI databases. Crude odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to describe the strength of the associations. Fifty-six studies published in 11 publications involving 18,910 cases and 51,609 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Five MDM4 gene polymorphisms were evaluated: rs4245739, rs1563828, rs11801299, rs10900598, and rs1380576. Our analyses suggested that the rs4245739 polymorphism was significantly associated with overall cancer risk. Furthermore, stratification analyses of ethnicity indicated that rs4245739 decreased the risk of cancer among the Asian population, and stratification analyses of smoking status indicated that rs4245739 decreased the risk of cancer among nonsmokers. However, stratification analyses of cancer type and sex suggested that rs4245739 was not related to cancer risk. There were no associations of rs1563828, rs11801299, rs10900598, or rs1380576 with overall cancer risk. In conclusion, our analyses indicated that rs4245739 polymorphism in the MDM4 gene may play an important role in the etiology of cancer. PMID:27742919

  15. Exploring perceptions of cancer risk, neighborhood environmental risks, and health behaviors of blacks.

    PubMed

    Rice, LaShanta J; Brandt, Heather M; Hardin, James W; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Wilson, Sacoby M

    2015-06-01

    Cancer risk perceptions and cancer worry are shaped by race/ethnicity, and social, economic, and environmental factors, which in turn shape health decision-making. A paucity of studies has explored risk perceptions and worry in metropolitan areas with disparate environmental conditions and cancer outcomes. This study examined perceptions of cancer risk, neighborhood environmental health risks, and risk-reducing health behaviors among Blacks. A 59-item survey was administered to respondents in Metropolitan Charleston, South Carolina from March to September 2013. A convenience sample of males and females was recruited at local venues and community events. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses (Chi square tests), and logistic regression models were estimated using SAS 9.3 software. Respondents (N = 405) were 100% Black, 81% female (n = 323), and ranged from 18 to 87 years of age (M = 49.55, SD = 15.27). Most respondents reported lower perceptions of cancer risk (37%) and equated their cancer beliefs to direct or indirect (i.e. personal or family) experiences. Low perceived cancer risk (absolute risk) was significantly associated (p < .05) with non-alcohol consumption, having a colon cancer screening test, being female, and being age 25-44 or 45-64. Cancer worry was significantly associated (p < .05) with being a current smoker, having a "fair" diet, non-alcohol consumption, and having any colon cancer screening test. Perceived cancer risk is an important indicator of health behaviors among Blacks. Direct or indirect experiences with cancer and/or the environment and awareness of family history of cancer may explain cancer risk perceptions.

  16. Cancer risks in Nairobi (2000-2014) by ethnic group.

    PubMed

    Korir, Anne; Yu Wang, Emma; Sasieni, Peter; Okerosi, Nathan; Ronoh, Victor; Maxwell Parkin, D

    2017-02-15

    We investigated the ethnic differences in the risk of several cancers in the population of Nairobi, Kenya, using data from the Nairobi Cancer Registry. The registry records the variable "Tribe" for each case, a categorisation that includes, as well as 22 tribal groups, categories for Kenyans of European and of Asian origin, and non-Kenyan Africans. Tribes included in the final analysis were Kikuyu, Kamba, Kisii, Kalenjin, Luo, Luhya, Somalis, Asians, non-Kenyans, Caucasians, Other tribes and unknown. The largest group was taken as the reference category for the calculation of odds ratios; this was African Kenyans (for comparisons by race), and Kikuyus (the tribe with the largest numbers of cancer registrations (38% of the total)) for comparisons between the Kenyan tribes. P-values are obtained from the Wald test. Cancers that were more common among the white population than in black Kenyans were skin cancers and cancers of the bladder, while cancers that are more common in Kenyan Asians include colorectal, lung, breast, ovary, corpus uteri and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancers that were less common among Asians and Caucasians were oesophagus, stomach and cervix cancer. Within the African population, there were marked differences in cancer risk by tribe. Among the tribes of Bantu ethnicity, the Kamba had higher risks of melanoma, Kaposi sarcoma, liver and cervix cancer, and lower risks of oesophagus, stomach, corpus uteri and nervous system cancers. Luo and Luhya had much higher odds of Kaposi sarcoma and Burkitt lymphoma.

  17. Oxidative Stress, DNA Repair and Prostate Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    progressed smoothly for all three specific aims. 15. SUBJECT TERMS microRNA ovarian cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION... factors for prostate cancer are associated with elevated levels of ROS (advancing age, inflammation, androgen, high-fat diet), or decreased...TITLE: Oxidative Stress, DNA Repair and Prostate Cancer Risk PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Hua Zhao, Ph.D

  18. Establishment of the Fox Chase Network Breast Cancer Risk Registry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    basic, clinical, epidemiological, behavioral and bioethical research needs to be done. B. Purpose The ability to systematically study the diverse...sensitive to cultural , ethnic and racial differences which will promote positive outcomes to breast cancer risk information, including the results of...interventions which are sensitive to cultural , ethnic and racial differences, which will promote positive outcomes to breast cancer risk information

  19. Risk Prediction Models for Other Cancers or Multiple Sites

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing other multiple cancers over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  20. Review of screening for pancreatic cancer in high risk individuals.

    PubMed

    Stoita, Alina; Penman, Ian D; Williams, David B

    2011-05-21

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and is associated with a very poor survival. Ten percent of pancreatic cancers result from genetic susceptibility and/or familial aggregation. Individuals from families with multiple affected first-degree relatives and those with a known cancer-causing genetic mutation have been shown to be at much higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Recent efforts have focused on detecting disease at an earlier stage to improve survival in these high-risk groups. This article reviews high-risk groups, screening methods, and current screening programs and their results.

  1. Review of screening for pancreatic cancer in high risk individuals

    PubMed Central

    Stoita, Alina; Penman, Ian D; Williams, David B

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and is associated with a very poor survival. Ten percent of pancreatic cancers result from genetic susceptibility and/or familial aggregation. Individuals from families with multiple affected first-degree relatives and those with a known cancer-causing genetic mutation have been shown to be at much higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Recent efforts have focused on detecting disease at an earlier stage to improve survival in these high-risk groups. This article reviews high-risk groups, screening methods, and current screening programs and their results. PMID:21633635

  2. Occupational Risks of Bladder Cancer in the United States. 1. White Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    occupations in which workers could be at increased risk of Received April 3, 1989; revised June 22, 1989; accepted July 27, 1989. bladder cancer . Most of...20892. Journal of the National Cancer Institute91 7 05 110 ented. First, workers within each industry were grouped by Results occupational code. Second...Miscellaneous a priori suspect occupations Dyer 7 21 0.6 0.2-1.4 Textile worker 38 I1I 0.6 0.4-0.9 Rubber processing worker 28 36 1.3 0.8-2.2 Leather

  3. Breast cancer messaging for younger women: gender, femininity, and risk.

    PubMed

    Haines, Rebecca J; Bottorff, Joan L; Barclay McKeown, Stephanie; Ptolemy, Erin; Carey, Joanne; Sullivan, Kelli

    2010-06-01

    Evidence linking both active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure to premenopausal breast cancer makes the development of health messages specific to younger women a pressing priority. To determine how to communicate information about this modifiable breast cancer risk to young women, we analyzed a selection of 32 recent English-language breast cancer messages and campaigns that targeted young women. In addition, we obtained young women's responses to three breast cancer campaign images during focus group discussions. A visual analysis of messages points to an explicitly gendered discourse within contemporary campaigns, one that entails conflicting messages regarding breast cancer, health, feminine beauty, and risk. Although the intent might be to educate and empower young women to "fight" against breast cancer, paradoxically, the messages employ imagery that sexually objectifies young women's breasts and bodies. Recommendations are made for messaging about tobacco and breast cancer risk to avoid reproducing one-dimensional or stereotypical presentations of gender and femininity.

  4. Clinical validity and utility of genetic risk scores in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Helfand, Brian T; Kearns, James; Conran, Carly; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Current issues related to prostate cancer (PCa) clinical care (e.g., over-screening, over-diagnosis, and over-treatment of nonaggressive PCa) call for risk assessment tools that can be combined with family history (FH) to stratify disease risk among men in the general population. Since 2007, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified more than 100 SNPs associated with PCa susceptibility. In this review, we discuss (1) the validity of these PCa risk-associated SNPs, individually and collectively; (2) the various methods used for measuring the cumulative effect of multiple SNPs, including genetic risk score (GRS); (3) the adequate number of SNPs needed for risk assessment; (4) reclassification of risk based on evolving numbers of SNPs used to calculate genetic risk, (5) risk assessment for men from various racial groups, and (6) the clinical utility of genetic risk assessment. In conclusion, data available to date support the clinical validity of PCa risk-associated SNPs and GRS in risk assessment among men with or without FH. PCa risk-associated SNPs are not intended for diagnostic use; rather, they should be used the same way as FH. Combining GRS and FH can significantly improve the performance of risk assessment. Improved risk assessment may have important clinical utility in targeted PCa testing. However, clinical trials are urgently needed to evaluate this clinical utility as well as the acceptance of GRS by patients and physicians. PMID:27297129

  5. Racial/ethnic differences in cancer risk after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hall, E C; Segev, D L; Engels, E A

    2013-03-01

    Transplant recipients have elevated cancer risk, but it is unknown if cancer risk differs across race and ethnicity as in the general population. US kidney recipients (N = 87,895) in the Transplant Cancer Match Study between 1992 and 2008 were evaluated for racial/ethnic differences in risk for six common cancers after transplantation. Compared to white recipients, black recipients had lower incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 0.60, p<0.001) and higher incidence of kidney (aIRR 2.09, p<0.001) and prostate cancer (aIRR 2.14, p<0.001); Hispanic recipients had lower incidence of NHL (aIRR 0.64, p = 0.001), lung (aIRR 0.41, p < 0.001), breast (aIRR 0.53, p = 0.003) and prostate cancer (aIRR 0.72, p = 0.05). Colorectal cancer incidence was similar across groups. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) measured the effect of transplantation on cancer risk and were similar for most cancers (p≥0.1). However, black and Hispanic recipients had larger increases in kidney cancer risk with transplantation (SIRs: 8.96 in blacks, 5.95 in Hispanics vs. 4.44 in whites), and only blacks had elevated prostate cancer risk following transplantation (SIR: 1.21). Racial/ethnic differences in cancer risk after transplantation mirror general population patterns, except for kidney and prostate cancers where differences reflect the effects of end-stage renal disease or transplantation.

  6. Radiation treatment for patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mayadev, Jyoti S.; Valicenti, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    Around 70% of men presenting with prostate cancer will have organ-confined disease, with the majority presenting with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer. This article reviews the evidence supporting the current standard of care in radiation oncology for the evaluation and management of men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Dose escalation, hormonal therapy, combined modality therapy, and modern techniques for the delivery of radiation therapy are reviewed. PMID:22654963

  7. Breast cancer risk and the BRCA1 interacting protein CTIP.

    PubMed

    Gorringe, Kylie L; Choong, David Y H; Lindeman, Geoffrey J; Visvader, Jane E; Campbell, Ian G

    2008-11-01

    Mutations in BRCA1 predispose to breast cancer. CTIP interacts with BRCA1 and so could also be associated with increased risk. We screened CTIP for germline mutations in 210 probands of breast cancer families including 129 families with no mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. No coding variants were detected in CTIP, therefore, it is unlikely to be involved in breast cancer risk.

  8. Another Obesity Downside: Higher Esophageal Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... In the United States, esophageal cancer is rare, accounting for only 1 percent of all new cancers ... advanced stage. Stomach cancer, likewise, is also rare, accounting for fewer than 2 percent of all new ...

  9. Cancer risks for MLH1 and MSH2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Dowty, James G; Win, Aung K; Buchanan, Daniel D; Lindor, Noralane M; Macrae, Finlay A; Clendenning, Mark; Antill, Yoland C; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Casey, Graham; Gallinger, Steve; Marchand, Loic Le; Newcomb, Polly A; Haile, Robert W; Young, Graeme P; James, Paul A; Giles, Graham G; Gunawardena, Shanaka R; Leggett, Barbara A; Gattas, Michael; Boussioutas, Alex; Ahnen, Dennis J; Baron, John A; Parry, Susan; Goldblatt, Jack; Young, Joanne P; Hopper, John L; Jenkins, Mark A

    2013-03-01

    We studied 17,576 members of 166 MLH1 and 224 MSH2 mutation-carrying families from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Average cumulative risks of colorectal cancer (CRC), endometrial cancer (EC), and other cancers for carriers were estimated using modified segregation analysis conditioned on ascertainment criteria. Heterogeneity in risks was investigated using a polygenic risk modifier. Average CRC cumulative risks at the age of 70 years (95% confidence intervals) for MLH1 and MSH2 mutation carriers, respectively, were estimated to be 34% (25%-50%) and 47% (36%-60%) for male carriers and 36% (25%-51%) and 37% (27%-50%) for female carriers. Corresponding EC risks were 18% (9.1%-34%) and 30% (18%-45%). A high level of CRC risk heterogeneity was observed (P < 0.001), with cumulative risks at the age of 70 years estimated to follow U-shaped distributions. For example, 17% of male MSH2 mutation carriers have estimated lifetime risks of 0%-10% and 18% have risks of 90%-100%. Therefore, average risks are similar for the two genes but there is so much individual variation about the average that large proportions of carriers have either very low or very high lifetime cancer risks. Our estimates of CRC and EC cumulative risks for MLH1 and MSH2 mutation carriers are the most precise currently available.

  10. Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-08-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15-17, 18-19 and 20-24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on 'protecting others' from breast cancer to catch smokers' attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed.

  11. Light deficiency confers breast cancer risk by endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Suba, Zsuzsanna

    2012-09-01

    North-America and northern European countries exhibit the highest incidence rate of breast cancer, whereas women in southern regions are relatively protected. Immigrants from low cancer incidence regions to high-incidence areas might exhibit similarly higher or excessive cancer risk as compared with the inhabitants of their adoptive country. Additional cancer risk may be conferred by incongruence between their biological characteristics and foreign environment. Many studies established the racial/ethnic disparities in the risk and nature of female breast cancer in United States between African-American and Caucasian women. Mammary tumors in black women are diagnosed at earlier age, and are associated with higher rate of mortality as compared with cancers of white cases. Results of studies on these ethnic/racial differences in breast cancer incidence suggest that excessive pigmentation of dark skinned women results in a relative light-deficiency. Poor light exposure may explain the deleterious metabolic and hormonal alterations; such as insulin resistance, deficiencies of estrogen, thyroxin and vitamin-D conferring excessive cancer risk. The more northern the location of an adoptive country the higher the cancer risk for dark skinned immigrants. Recognition of the deleterious systemic effects of darkness and excessive melatonin synthesis enables cancer protection treatment for people living in light-deficient environment. Recent patents provide new methods for the prevention of hormonal and metabolic abnormities.

  12. Counseling women at high risk for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Stefanek, M E

    1990-01-01

    Cancer risk analysis is a relatively new clinical service that has developed as more precise information has become available regarding specific risk factors. Both epidemiological and genetic factors contribute substantially to the identification of women at higher risk for developing breast cancer. The definition of what constitutes risk, an understanding of which factors influence risk, and the ability to present risk information clearly are critical features. In addition to providing information about risk and assessing each woman's perception of risk, the emotional issues must be addressed. The focus of intervention should center upon the benefits of early detection, assessment of breast self-examination skills, individualized breast cancer screening recommendations, such as mammography and physical exams, and recommendations for life style changes for possible prevention.

  13. Examining intuitive risk perceptions for cancer in diverse populations

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jennifer L.; Baser, Raymond; Weinstein, Neil D.; Li, Yuelin; Primavera, Louis; Kemeny, M. Margaret

    2014-01-01

    In this article we examine intuitive dimensions of personal cancer risk likelihood, which theory and empirical evidence indicate may be important elements in the risk perception process. We draw on data from a study of risk perceptions in three social groups, university students, men living in the community, and primary care patients living in urban area. The study took place in 2007-2011, in New York State (Garden City and New York City) and Boston, Massachusetts. This study used items developed from categories identified in prior qualitative research specifying emotions and attitudes activated in cancer risk determination to examine perception of cancer risks. Across three samples - university students (N=568), community men (N=182), and diverse, urban primary care patients (N=127) - we conducted exploratory factor and construct analyses. We found that the most reliable two factors within the five-factor solution were Cognitive Causation, tapping beliefs that risk thoughts may encourage cancer development, and Negative Affect in Risk, assessing negative feelings generated during the risk perception process. For these factors, there were high levels of item endorsement, especially in minority groups, and only modest associations with established cancer risk perception and worry assessments, indicating novel content. These items may prove useful in measuring and comparing intuitive cancer risk perceptions across diverse population subgroups. PMID:24999304

  14. Examining intuitive risk perceptions for cancer in diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Hay, Jennifer L; Baser, Raymond; Weinstein, Neil D; Li, Yuelin; Primavera, Louis; Kemeny, M Margaret

    2014-01-01

    In this article we examine intuitive dimensions of personal cancer risk likelihood, which theory and empirical evidence indicate may be important elements in the risk perception process. We draw on data from a study of risk perceptions in three social groups, university students, men living in the community, and primary care patients living in urban area. The study took place in 2007-2011, in New York State (Garden City and New York City) and Boston, Massachusetts. This study used items developed from categories identified in prior qualitative research specifying emotions and attitudes activated in cancer risk determination to examine perception of cancer risks. Across three samples - university students (N=568), community men (N=182), and diverse, urban primary care patients (N=127) - we conducted exploratory factor and construct analyses. We found that the most reliable two factors within the five-factor solution were Cognitive Causation, tapping beliefs that risk thoughts may encourage cancer development, and Negative Affect in Risk, assessing negative feelings generated during the risk perception process. For these factors, there were high levels of item endorsement, especially in minority groups, and only modest associations with established cancer risk perception and worry assessments, indicating novel content. These items may prove useful in measuring and comparing intuitive cancer risk perceptions across diverse population subgroups.

  15. Literature review on cancer risk in children born after fertility treatment suggests increased risk of haematological cancers.

    PubMed

    Reigstad, Marte M; Oldereid, Nan B; Omland, Anne K; Storeng, Ritsa

    2017-01-27

    Medically assisted fertility treatment, including assisted reproductive technology (ART), is increasingly being used and the subsequent child health outcomes are of interest. Some studies have suggested an elevated risk of somatic morbidity, while others have reported an elevated cancer risk. This review summarises the literature on fertility treatments and childhood cancer, based on 23 cohort and case-control studies.

  16. Evaluation of skin cancer risk for lunar and Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. Y.; George, K. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    Methods for estimating the probability of excess incidence of skin cancer from space radiation exposure, must consider the variability of skin doses at specific anatomical areas, and the individual factors that may contribute to risk projection models, including skin pigment, and synergistic effects from combined ionizing radiation and UV exposure. Using the multiplicative risk model for transferring the Japanese survivor data to the US population, epidemiological data for the increased risk for skin locations exposed to combined UV and ionizing radiation, and models of space radiation environments, transport, and anatomical shielding, we estimate the skin cancer risk for future lunar and Mars missions. Our model projects that individual variations in the probability for increased skin cancer risk varies more than 10-fold and that an excess cancer risk greater than 1% could occur for astronauts with light skin and hair color exposed to medium class solar particle events during future lunar base operations, or from galactic cosmic rays on Mars missions.

  17. Exemestane Reduces Breast Cancer Risk in High-Risk Postmenopausal Women

    Cancer.gov

    Clinical trial results presented at the 2011 ASCO annual meeting showed that the aromatase inhibitor exemestane—used to treat early and advanced breast cancer—substantially reduced the risk of invasive breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number Is Associated with Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Thyagarajan, Bharat; Wang, Renwei; Nelson, Heather; Barcelo, Helene; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in peripheral blood is associated with increased risk of several cancers. However, data from prospective studies on mtDNA copy number and breast cancer risk are lacking. We evaluated the association between mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood and breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study of 183 breast cancer cases with pre-diagnostic blood samples and 529 individually matched controls among participants of the Singapore Chinese Health Study. The mtDNA copy number was measured using real time PCR. Conditional logistic regression analyses showed that there was an overall positive association between mtDNA copy number and breast cancer risk (Ptrend = 0.01). The elevated risk for higher mtDNA copy numbers was primarily seen for women with <3 years between blood draw and cancer diagnosis; ORs (95% CIs) for 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th quintile of mtDNA copy number were 1.52 (0.61, 3.82), 2.52 (1.03, 6.12), 3.12 (1.31, 7.43), and 3.06 (1.25, 7.47), respectively, compared with the 1st quintile (Ptrend = 0.004). There was no association between mtDNA copy number and breast cancer risk among women who donated a blood sample ≥3 years before breast cancer diagnosis (Ptrend = 0.41). This study supports a prospective association between increased mtDNA copy number and breast cancer risk that is dependent on the time interval between blood collection and breast cancer diagnosis. Future studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to elucidate the biological role of mtDNA copy number in breast cancer risk. PMID:23776581

  19. Cancer genetic counseling: when to refer for cancer risk assessment and genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Barbara; Marty, Denise; Baker-Lange, Katherine

    2012-10-01

    Identifying hereditary cancer risk saves lives through individualized surveillance and prevention efforts. Advances in testing technologies and genetic knowledge are providing us with new tools for identifying individuals and families who are at highest risk for cancer. This article reviews our current genetic testing abilities, describes the role of genetic counselors, and offers guidance and resources for physicians as they determine who ought to be referred for genetic cancer risk assessment and testing.

  20. 77 FR 21277 - Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, and Clearing Member Risk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ...The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``Commission'' or ``CFTC'') is adopting rules to implement new statutory provisions enacted by Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. These rules address: The documentation between a customer and a futures commission merchant that clears on behalf of the customer; the timing of acceptance or rejection of trades for......

  1. Evaluating Shielding Effectiveness for Reducing Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ren, Lei

    2007-01-01

    We discuss calculations of probability distribution functions (PDF) representing uncertainties in projecting fatal cancer risk from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). The PDF s are used in significance tests of the effectiveness of potential radiation shielding approaches. Uncertainties in risk coefficients determined from epidemiology data, dose and dose-rate reduction factors, quality factors, and physics models of radiation environments are considered in models of cancer risk PDF s. Competing mortality risks and functional correlations in radiation quality factor uncertainties are treated in the calculations. We show that the cancer risk uncertainty, defined as the ratio of the 95% confidence level (CL) to the point estimate is about 4-fold for lunar and Mars mission risk projections. For short-stay lunar missions (<180 d), SPE s present the most significant risk, however one that is mitigated effectively by shielding, especially for carbon composites structures with high hydrogen content. In contrast, for long duration lunar (>180 d) or Mars missions, GCR risks may exceed radiation risk limits, with 95% CL s exceeding 10% fatal risk for males and females on a Mars mission. For reducing GCR cancer risks, shielding materials are marginally effective because of the penetrating nature of GCR and secondary radiation produced in tissue by relativistic particles. At the present time, polyethylene or carbon composite shielding can not be shown to significantly reduce risk compared to aluminum shielding based on a significance test that accounts for radiobiology uncertainties in GCR risk projection.

  2. Salpingectomy as a Means to Reduce Ovarian Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Mary B.; Dresher, Charles W.; Yates, Melinda S.; Jeter, Joanne M.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Alberts, David S.; Lu, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) has become the standard of care for risk reduction in women at hereditary risk of ovarian cancer. While this procedure significantly decreases both the incidence of and mortality from ovarian cancer, it impacts quality of life, and the premature cessation of ovarian function may have long term health hazards. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular pathways of ovarian cancer point to the fallopian tube epithelium as the origin of most high grade serous cancers (HGSC). This evolving appreciation of the role of the fallopian tube in HGSC has led to the consideration of salpingectomy alone as an option for risk management, especially in premenopausal women. In addition, it is postulated that bilateral salpingectomy with ovarian retention (BSOR), may have a public health benefit for women undergoing benign gynecologic surgery. In this review we provide the rationale for salpingectomy as an ovarian cancer risk reduction strategy. PMID:25586903

  3. Shared Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Ryan J.; Prizment, Anna E.; Blaes, Anne; Konety, Suma H.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are the two leading causes of death worldwide. Although commonly thought of as two separate disease entities, CVD and cancer possess various similarities and possible interactions, including a number of similar risk factors (e.g. obesity, diabetes), suggesting a shared biology for which there is emerging evidence. While chronic inflammation is an indispensible feature of the pathogenesis and progression of both CVD and cancer, additional mechanisms can be found at their intersection. Therapeutic advances, despite improving longevity, have increased the overlap between these diseases, but there are now millions of cancer survivors at risk of developing CVD. Cardiac risk factors have a major impact on subsequent treatment-related cardiotoxicity. In this review, we explore the risk factors common to both CVD and cancer, highlighting the major epidemiologic studies and potential biological mechanisms that account for them. PMID:26976915

  4. Novel concepts for risk stratification in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Patel, Keval M; Gnanapragasam, Vincent J

    2016-12-01

    Since Partin introduced the analysis of prostate-specific antigen, clinical T-stage and Gleason scores to estimate the risk of progression in men with localised prostate cancer, our understanding of factors that modify this risk has changed drastically. There are now multiple risk stratification tools available, including look-up tables, risk stratification/classification analyses, regression-tree analyses, nomograms and artificial neural networks. Concurrently, descriptions of novel biopsy strategies, imaging modalities and biomarkers are frequently published with the aim of improving risk stratification. With an abundance of new information available, incorporating advances into clinical practice can be confusing. This article aims to outline the major novel concepts in prostate cancer risk stratification for men with biopsy confirmed prostate cancer. We will detail which of these novel techniques and tools are likely to be adopted to aid treatment decisions and enable more accurate post-diagnosis, pretreatment risk stratification.

  5. Novel concepts for risk stratification in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Keval M; Gnanapragasam, Vincent J

    2016-01-01

    Since Partin introduced the analysis of prostate-specific antigen, clinical T-stage and Gleason scores to estimate the risk of progression in men with localised prostate cancer, our understanding of factors that modify this risk has changed drastically. There are now multiple risk stratification tools available, including look-up tables, risk stratification/classification analyses, regression-tree analyses, nomograms and artificial neural networks. Concurrently, descriptions of novel biopsy strategies, imaging modalities and biomarkers are frequently published with the aim of improving risk stratification. With an abundance of new information available, incorporating advances into clinical practice can be confusing. This article aims to outline the major novel concepts in prostate cancer risk stratification for men with biopsy confirmed prostate cancer. We will detail which of these novel techniques and tools are likely to be adopted to aid treatment decisions and enable more accurate post-diagnosis, pretreatment risk stratification.

  6. Circulating Adipokines and Inflammatory Markers and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Cushman, Mary; Xue, Xiaonan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Strickler, Howard D.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; McTiernan, Anne; Kaplan, Robert C.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Snetselaar, Linda; Wang, Dan; Ho, Gloria Y. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adipokines and inflammation may provide a mechanistic link between obesity and postmenopausal breast cancer, yet epidemiologic data on their associations with breast cancer risk are limited. Methods: In a case-cohort analysis nested within the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study, a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women, baseline plasma samples from 875 incident breast cancer case patients and 839 subcohort participants were tested for levels of seven adipokines, namely leptin, adiponectin, resistin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, hepatocyte growth factor, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and for C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker. Data were analyzed by multivariable Cox modeling that included established breast cancer risk factors and previously measured estradiol and insulin levels. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The association between plasma CRP levels and breast cancer risk was dependent on hormone therapy (HT) use at baseline (P interaction = .003). In a model that controlled for multiple breast cancer risk factors including body mass index (BMI), estradiol, and insulin, CRP level was positively associated with breast cancer risk among HT nonusers (hazard ratio for high vs low CRP levels = 1.67, 95% confidence interval = 1.04 to 2.68, P trend = .029). None of the other adipokines were statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Following inclusion of CRP, insulin, and estradiol in a multivariable model, the association of BMI with breast cancer was attenuated by 115%. Conclusion: These data indicate that CRP is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer among HT nonusers. Inflammatory mediators, together with insulin and estrogen, may play a role in the obesity–breast cancer relation. PMID:26185195

  7. Lung cancer risk prediction: a tool for early detection.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Adrian; Duffy, Stephen W; Myles, Jonathan P; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Field, John K

    2007-01-01

    Although 45% of men and 39% of women will be diagnosed with cancer in their lifetime, it is difficult to predict which individuals will be affected. For some cancers, substantial progress in individual risk estimation has already been made. However, relatively few models have been developed to predict lung cancer risk beyond effects of age and smoking. This paper reviews published models for lung cancer risk prediction, discusses their potential contribution to clinical and research settings and suggests improvements to the risk modeling strategy for lung cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of existing cancer risk models is less than optimal. Improvement in individual risk prediction is important for selection of individuals for prevention or early detection interventions. In addition to smoking, factors related to occupational exposure, personal medical history and family history of cancer can add to the predictive power. A good risk prediction model is one that can identify a small fraction of the population in which a large proportion of the disease cases will occur. In the future, genetic and other biological markers are likely to be useful, although they will require rigorous evaluation. Validation is essential to establish the predictive effect and for ongoing monitoring of the model's continued relevance.

  8. Trajectory of body shape across the lifespan and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Song, Mingyang; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B; Spiegelman, Donna; Must, Aviva; Wu, Kana; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-05-15

    The influence of adiposity over life course on cancer risk remains poorly understood. We assessed trajectories of body shape from age 5 up to 60 using a group-based modeling approach among 73,581 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 32,632 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. After a median of approximately 10 years of follow-up, we compared incidence of total and obesity-related cancers (cancers of the esophagus [adenocarcinoma only], colorectum, pancreas, breast [after menopause], endometrium, ovaries, prostate [advanced only], kidney, liver and gallbladder) between these trajectories. We identified five distinct trajectories of body shape: lean-stable, lean-moderate increase, lean-marked increase, medium-stable, and heavy-stable/increase. Compared with women in the lean-stable trajectory, those in the lean-marked increase and heavy-stable/increase trajectories had a higher cancer risk in the colorectum, esophagus, pancreas, kidney, and endometrium (relative risk [RR] ranged from 1.22 to 2.56). Early life adiposity was inversely while late life adiposity was positively associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk. In men, increased body fatness at any life period was associated with a higher risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma and colorectal cancer (RR ranged from 1.23 to 3.01), and the heavy-stable/increase trajectory was associated with a higher risk of pancreatic cancer, but lower risk of advanced prostate cancer. The trajectory-cancer associations were generally stronger for non-smokers and women who did not use menopausal hormone therapy. In conclusion, trajectories of body shape throughout life were related to cancer risk with varied patterns by sex and organ, indicating a role for lifetime adiposity in carcinogenesis.

  9. Do Environmental Factors Modify the Genetic Risk of Prostate Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy; Peskoe, Sarah B.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Huang, Wen-Yi; Hayes, Richard B.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Isaacs, William B.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many SNPs influence prostate cancer risk. To what extent genetic risk can be reduced by environmental factors is unknown. Methods We evaluated effect modification by environmental factors of the association between susceptibility SNPs and prostate cancer in 1,230 incident prostate cancer cases and 1,361 controls, all white and similar ages, nested in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Trial. Genetic risk scores were calculated as number of risk alleles for 20 validated SNPs. We estimated the association between higher genetic risk (≥ 12 SNPs) and prostate cancer within environmental factor strata and tested for interaction. Results Men with ≥12 risk alleles had 1.98, 2.04, and 1.91 times the odds of total, advanced, and nonadvanced prostate cancer, respectively. These associations were attenuated with the use of selenium supplements, aspirin, ibuprofen, and higher vegetable intake. For selenium, the attenuation was most striking for advanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and no selenium, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67–2.55] in nonusers and 0.99 (0.38–2.58) in users (Pinteraction = 0.031). Aspirin had the most marked attenuation for nonadvanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and nonusers, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.25 (1.69–3.00) in nonusers and 1.70 (1.25–2.32) in users (Pinteraction = 0.009). This pattern was similar for ibuprofen (Pinteraction = 0.023) and vegetables (Pinteraction = 0.010). Conclusions This study suggests that selenium supplements may reduce genetic risk of advanced prostate cancer, whereas aspirin, ibuprofen, and vegetables may reduce genetic risk of nonadvanced prostate cancer. PMID:25342390

  10. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Using Framingham Risk Score in Korean Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    So, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Jin-Young; Park, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to investigate the modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors and 10-year probability of the disease based on the Framingham risk score in cancer survivors, compared with the general population. Methods A total of 1,225 cancer survivors and 5,196 non-cancer controls who participated in the 2007–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were enrolled. We assessed modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors including smoking, body mass index, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and elevated blood glucose level. The 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease was determined by applying the Framingham cardiovascular disease risk equation among cancer survivors and non-cancer controls, ranging from 30 to 74 years old who had no overt cardiovascular diseases. Results The proportion of subjects who had higher fasting glucose levels, hemoglobin A1c levels, systolic blood pressure, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and those who had lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was significantly higher in the cancer survivors than in the non-cancer controls. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease among the cancer survivors was higher than that in the non-cancer controls in both men and women. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease in relation to the cancer type was significantly higher in patients with hepatic, colon, lung, breast, and gastric cancer. Conclusion Cancer survivors have a higher cardiovascular disease risk and 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease than non-cancer controls. Control of cardiovascular disease risk factors and implementation of a well-defined cardiovascular disease prevention program are needed for treating cancer survivors. PMID:27468342

  11. Feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a technology-assisted psychosocial intervention for racially diverse men with advanced prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yanez, Betina; McGinty, Heather L.; Mohr, David C.; Begale, Mark J.; Dahn, Jason R.; Flury, Sarah; Perry, Kent; Penedo, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The utility of psychosocial interventions in reducing symptom burden and improving health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for men with localized prostate cancer has been demonstrated. However, studies have yet to demonstrate the efficacy of interventions in advanced prostate cancer (APC). This study examined the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a technology-assisted 10-week group-based psychosocial intervention for diverse men with APC. Methods Participants were 74 men (mean age = 68.84 years, 57% Non-Hispanic White and 40.5% Black) who were randomized to a cognitive behavioral stress management treatment (CBSM) or health promotion (HP) attention control condition. Participants were assessed at baseline, weekly throughout the 10-week program, and 6 months post-baseline. Outcomes were assessed using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System along with established measures of HRQOL, CBSM intervention targets (e.g., relaxation skills), and patient-reported acceptability. Results Feasibility was demonstrated through good retention rates (> 85%), acceptable average attendance rates (> 70%), and acceptability was demonstrated through very favorable weekly session evaluations (mean score 4/5) and exit surveys (mean score 3.6/4). Men randomized to the CBSM condition reported significant reductions (p < .05) in depressive symptoms and improvements in relaxation self-efficacy (p < .05) at the 6-month follow up. CBSM participants reported trends for improvement in distress and functional well-being (ps < .08) relative to those in the HP condition. Effect sizes ranged from medium (0.54) to large (1.87) and in some instances were clinically meaningful. Conclusions Technology-based CBSM interventions among diverse men with APC may be feasible, acceptable, and efficacious. PMID:26348661

  12. Pleiotropic effects of genetic risk variants for other cancers on colorectal cancer risk: PAGE, GECCO, and CCFR Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Iona; Kocarnik, Jonathan M; Dumitrescu, Logan; Lindor, Noralane M; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Avery, Christy L.; Caberto, Christian P; Love, Shelly-Ann; Slattery, Martha L; Chan, Andrew T; Baron, John A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Park, Sungshim Lani; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Hoffmeister, Michael; Kraft, Peter; Butler, Anne; Duggan, David; Hou, Lifang; Carlson, Chris S; Monroe, Kristine R; Lin, Yi; Carty, Cara L; Mann, Sue; Ma, Jing; Giovannucci, Edward L; Fuchs, Charles S; Newcomb, Polly A; Jenkins, Mark A; Hopper, John L; Haile, Robert W; Conti, David V; Campbell, Peter T; Potter, John D; Caan, Bette J; Schoen, Robert E; Hayes, Richard B; Chanock, Stephen J; Berndt, Sonja I; Kury, Sebastien; Bezieau, Stephane; Ambite, Jose Luis; Kumaraguruparan, Gowri; Richardson, Danielle; Goodloe, Robert J; Dilks, Holli H; Baker, Paxton; Zanke, Brent W; Lemire, Mathieu; Gallinger, Steven; Hsu, Li; Jiao, Shuo; Harrison, Tabitha; Seminara, Daniela; Haiman, Christopher A; Kooperberg, Charles; Wilkens, Lynne R; Hutter, Carolyn M; White, Emily; Crawford, Dana C; Heiss, Gerardo; Hudson, Thomas J; Brenner, Hermann; Bush, William S; Casey, Graham; Marchand, Loic Le; Peters, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Objective Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with a wide array of cancer sites. Several of these variants demonstrate associations with multiple cancers, suggesting pleiotropic effects and shared biological mechanisms across some cancers. We hypothesized that SNPs previously associated with other cancers may additionally be associated with colorectal cancer. In a large-scale study, we examined 171 SNPs previously associated with 18 different cancers for their associations with colorectal cancer. Design We examined 13,338 colorectal cancer cases and 40,967 controls from three consortia: Population Architecture using Genetics and Epidemiology (PAGE), Genetic Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (GECCO), and the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR). Study-specific logistic regression results, adjusted for age, sex, principal components of genetic ancestry, and/or study specific factors (as relevant) were combined using fixed-effect meta-analyses to evaluate the association between each SNP and colorectal cancer risk. A Bonferroni-corrected p-value of 2.92×10−4 was used to determine statistical significance of the associations. Results Two correlated SNPs— rs10090154 and rs4242382—in Region 1 of chromosome 8q24, a prostate cancer susceptibility region, demonstrated statistically significant associations with colorectal cancer risk. The most significant association was observed with rs4242382 (meta-analysis OR=1.12; 95% CI: 1.07–1.18; P=1.74×10−5), which also demonstrated similar associations across racial/ethnic populations and anatomical sub-sites. Conclusion This is the first study to clearly demonstrate Region 1 of chromosome 8q24 as a susceptibility locus for colorectal cancer, thus adding colorectal cancer to the list of cancer sites linked to this particular multi-cancer risk region at 8q24. PMID:23935004

  13. Obesity and Diabetes: The Increased Risk of Cancer and Cancer-Related Mortality

    PubMed Central

    LeRoith, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, and both are associated with an increased incidence and mortality from many cancers. The metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes develop many years before the onset of diabetes and, therefore, may be contributing to cancer risk before individuals are aware that they are at risk. Multiple factors potentially contribute to the progression of cancer in obesity and type 2 diabetes, including hyperinsulinemia and insulin-like growth factor I, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, adipokines and cytokines, and the gut microbiome. These metabolic changes may contribute directly or indirectly to cancer progression. Intentional weight loss may protect against cancer development, and therapies for diabetes may prove to be effective adjuvant agents in reducing cancer progression. In this review we discuss the current epidemiology, basic science, and clinical data that link obesity, diabetes, and cancer and how treating obesity and type 2 diabetes could also reduce cancer risk and improve outcomes. PMID:26084689

  14. Cancer trends and risk factors in Cyprus

    PubMed Central

    Farazi, Paraskevi A.

    2014-01-01

    Cyprus, a European Union member state, is a small island in the Mediterranean with a population approaching 900,000 people. Cancer is the second leading cause of death; more therapeutic options for any patient with the disease are available in a central oncology centre in the capital of the island (Nicosia) and fewer therapeutic options (e.g. chemotherapy and hormone therapy only) in a few other public hospitals. Palliative care is offered in several hospices and hospitals, although the field needs improvement. With regards to screening, a national breast cancer screening programme has been in place countrywide since 2007 and is offered free of charge to women between the ages of 50 and 69 years, while colorectal and prostate cancer screening is performed on an individual basis (a pilot programme for colorectal cancer screening was recently initiated). Genetic testing is available for breast and colon cancer. To improve understanding of the causes of cancer in the country, a cancer research centre was established in 2010 (Mediterranean Centre for Cancer Research). Recent epidemiologic work has revealed increasing cancer trends in Cyprus; prostate cancer is the most common in men and breast cancer is the most common in women. Interestingly, thyroid cancer incidence in women has been rising from 1998 to 2008. Cancer of the colon and rectum is also on the rise affecting both sexes. Overall, cancer incidence in Cyprus is lower than other EuroMed countries with similar lifestyle and geography. PMID:24678344

  15. Older Adults' Perceptions of and Preferences for a Fall Risk Assessment System: Exploring Stages of Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Galambos, Colleen; Rantz, Marilyn; Back, Jessie; Jun, Jung Sim; Skubic, Marjorie; Miller, Steven J

    2017-02-09

    Aging in place is a preferred and cost-effective living option for older adults. Research indicates that technology can assist with this goal. Information on consumer preferences will help in technology development to assist older adults to age in place. The study aim was to explore the perceptions and preferences of older adults and their family members about a fall risk assessment system. Using a qualitative approach, this study examined the perceptions, attitudes, and preferences of 13 older adults and five family members about their experience living with the fall risk assessment system during five points in time. Themes emerged in relation to preferences and expectations about the technology and how it fits into daily routines. We were able to capture changes that occurred over time for older adult participants. Results indicated that there was acceptance of the technology as participants adapted to it. Two themes were present across the five points in time-safety and usefulness. Five stages of acceptance emerged from the data from preinstallation to 2 years postinstallation. Identified themes, stages of acceptance, and design and development considerations are discussed.

  16. Sampling hazelnuts for aflatoxin: effect of sample size and accept/reject limit on reducing the risk of misclassifying lots.

    PubMed

    Ozay, Guner; Seyhan, Ferda; Yilmaz, Aysun; Whitaker, Thomas B; Slate, Andrew B; Giesbrecht, Francis G

    2007-01-01

    About 100 countries have established regulatory limits for aflatoxin in food and feeds. Because these limits vary widely among regulating countries, the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants began work in 2004 to harmonize aflatoxin limits and sampling plans for aflatoxin in almonds, pistachios, hazelnuts, and Brazil nuts. Studies were developed to measure the uncertainty and distribution among replicated sample aflatoxin test results taken from aflatoxin-contaminated treenut lots. The uncertainty and distribution information is used to develop a model that can evaluate the performance (risk of misclassifying lots) of aflatoxin sampling plan designs for treenuts. Once the performance of aflatoxin sampling plans can be predicted, they can be designed to reduce the risks of misclassifying lots traded in either the domestic or export markets. A method was developed to evaluate the performance of sampling plans designed to detect aflatoxin in hazelnuts lots. Twenty hazelnut lots with varying levels of contamination were sampled according to an experimental protocol where 16 test samples were taken from each lot. The observed aflatoxin distribution among the 16 aflatoxin sample test results was compared to lognormal, compound gamma, and negative binomial distributions. The negative binomial distribution was selected to model aflatoxin distribution among sample test results because it gave acceptable fits to observed distributions among sample test results taken from a wide range of lot concentrations. Using the negative binomial distribution, computer models were developed to calculate operating characteristic curves for specific aflatoxin sampling plan designs. The effect of sample size and accept/reject limits on the chances of rejecting good lots (sellers' risk) and accepting bad lots (buyers' risk) was demonstrated for various sampling plan designs.

  17. Very high risk localized prostate cancer: definition and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sundi, Debasish; Wang, Vinson M.; Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Han, Misop; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Ball, Mark W.; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S.; Partin, Alan W.; Schaeffer, Edward M.; Ross, Ashley E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Outcomes in men with NCCN high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) can vary substantially--some will have excellent cancer-specific survival, whereas others will experience early metastasis even after aggressive local treatments. Current nomograms, which yield continuous risk probabilities, do not separate high-risk PCa into distinct sub-strata. Here we derive a binary definition of very-high-risk (VHR) localized PCa to aid in risk stratification at diagnosis and selection of therapy. Materials and Methods We queried the Johns Hopkins radical prostatectomy database to identify 753 men with NCCN high-risk localized PCa (Gleason sum 8–10, PSA >20 ng/ml, or clinical stage ≥T3). 28 alternate permutations of adverse grade, stage, and cancer volume were compared by their hazard ratios for metastasis and cancer-specific mortality. VHR criteria with top-ranking hazard ratios were further evaluated by multivariable analyses and inclusion of a clinically meaningful proportion of the high-risk cohort. Results The VHR cohort was best defined by primary pattern 5 present on biopsy, or ≥5 cores with Gleason sum 8–10, or multiple NCCN high-risk features. These criteria encompassed 15.1% of the NCCN high-risk cohort. Compared to other high-risk men, VHR men were at significantly higher risk for metastasis (H.R. 2.75) and cancer-specific mortality (H.R. 3.44) (p <0.001 for both). Among high-risk men, VHR men also had significantly worse 10-year metastasis-free survival (37% vs 78%) and cancer-specific survival (62% vs 90%). Conclusions Men who meet VHR criteria form a subgroup within the current NCCN high-risk classification who have particularly poor oncologic outcomes. Use of these characteristics to distinguish VHR localized PCa may help in counseling and selection optimal candidates for multimodal treatments or clinical trials. PMID:24189998

  18. Height-related risk factors for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Norrish, A E; McRae, C U; Holdaway, I M; Jackson, R T

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that adult height is positively associated with the risk of prostate cancer. The authors carried out a population-based case-control study involving 317 prostate cancer cases and 480 controls to further investigate the possibility that height is more strongly associated with advanced, compared with localized forms of this disease. Since the inherited endocrine factors, which in part determine height attained during the growing years, may influence the risk of familial prostate cancer later in life, the relationship with height was also investigated for familial versus sporadic prostate cancers. Adult height was not related to the risk of localized prostate cancer, but there was a moderate positive association between increasing height and the risk of advanced cancer (relative risk (RR) = 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-2.73, upper versus lowest quartile, P-trend = 0.07). Height was more strongly associated with the risk of prostate cancer in men with a positive family history compared with those reporting a negative family history. The RR of advanced prostate cancer for men in the upper height quartile with a positive family history was 7.41 (95% CI 1.68-32.67, P-trend = 0.02) compared with a reference group comprised of men in the shortest height quartile with a negative family history. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels did not correlate with height amongst men with familial or sporadic prostate cancers. These findings provide evidence for the existence of growth-related risk factors for prostate cancer, particularly for advanced and familial forms of this disease. The possible existence of inherited mechanisms affecting both somatic and tumour growth deserves further investigation.

  19. Gallbladder cancer and nutritional risk factors in Chile

    PubMed

    Navarro Rosenblatt, Deborah; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2016-02-16

    Gallbladder cancer is the most malign neoplasm of the biliary tract. Chile presents the third highest prevalence of gallbladder cancer in the Americas, being Chilean women from the city of Valdivia the ones with the highest prevalence. The main risk factors associated with gallbladder cancer are: sex, cholelithiasis, obesity, ethnicity, chronic inflammation, history of infection diseases such as Helicobacter pyloriand Salmonellaand family history of gallbladder cancer. In Chile gallbladder cancer mortality is close to prevalence level. This is related to the silent symptomatology of this cancer, as well as the lack of specific symptoms. The high prevalence of obesity and infectious diseases present in Chile are two of the main risk factors of gallbladder cancer and Chile has prevalence of obesity close to 30%. The aim of this literary review is to inform and summarize the main risk factors of gallbladder cancer that are prevalent in Chile, in order to be able to focus preventive and management interventions of this risk factor for the reduction in prevalence and mortality of gallbladder cancer in Chile.

  20. Dietary Factors and the Risk of Thyroid Cancer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wook Jin

    2014-01-01

    In the past few decades, the incidence of thyroid cancer has rapidly increased worldwide. Thyroid cancer incidence is relatively high in regions where the population's daily iodine intake is insufficient. While low dietary iodine has been considered as a risk factor for thyroid cancer development, previous studies found controversial results across different food types. Among different ethnic groups, dietary factors are influenced by various dietary patterns, eating habits, life-styles, nutrition, and other environmental factors. This review reports the association between dietary factors and thyroid cancer risk among ethnic groups living in different geologic regions. Iodine-rich food such as fish and shellfish may provide a protective role in populations with insufficient daily iodine intake. The consumption of goitrogenic food, such as cruciferous vegetables, showed a positive association with risk. While considered to be a risk factor for other cancers, alcohol intake showed a protective role against thyroid cancer. High consumption of meat such as chicken, pork, and poultry showed a positive association with the risk, but dairy products showed no significant association. Regular use of multivitamins and dietary nitrate and nitrite also showed a positive association with thyroid cancer risk. However, the study results are inconsistent and investigations into the mechanism for how dietary factors change thyroid hormone levels and influence thyroid function are required. PMID:25136535

  1. Facial flushing after alcohol consumption and the risk of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Sunfu; Song, Yanlin; Ma, Guangzhi; Meng, Yu; Ye, Zengpanpan; Ma, Xuelei; Liu, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The association between facial flushing after alcohol consumption and the risk of cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between facial flushing and cancer risk. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched for relevant literature. The patients’ baseline characteristics and estimated risks were extracted. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled to estimate the risk of facial flushing in cancer, and subgroup analysis was performed. Results: Ten studies with 89,376 participants from East Asia were included. The pooled OR of facial flushing in all cancers was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.08–1.91), with the pooled ORs of 1.94 (95% CI, 1.33–2.83) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.80–1.12) in men and women, respectively. The pooled ORs were also estimated in different cancer types. Conclusion: Our results showed that facial flushing response to alcohol was associated with higher cancer risk in men in East Asia, especially in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, yet facial flushing was not significantly associated with cancer risk among women. PMID:28353603

  2. Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lining of the stomach. The stomach is a J- ... outermost) layer. Stomach cancer begins in the cells lining the mucosal layer and spreads through the outer ...

  3. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives The RAS Initiative NCI and the Precision ... Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Read about some of NCI's major research ...

  4. Disparities in Cancer Genetic Risk Assessment and Testing.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Meghan L; Jones, Tarsha; Habin, Karleen

    2016-07-01

    Scientific and technologic advances in genomics have revolutionized genetic counseling and testing, targeted therapy, and cancer screening and prevention. Among younger women, African American and Hispanic women have a higher rate of cancers that are associated with hereditary cancer risk, such as triple-negative breast cancer, which is linked to poorer outcomes. Therefore, genetic testing is particularly important in diverse populations. Unfortunately, all races and ethnic groups are not well represented in current genetic testing practices, leading to disparities in cancer prevention and early detection.

  5. Breast cancer risk following radiotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma: modification by other risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Deirdre A.; Gilbert, Ethel; Dores, Graça M.; Gospodarowicz, Mary; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Holowaty, Eric; Glimelius, Bengt; Andersson, Michael; Wiklund, Tom; Lynch, Charles F.; van't Veer, Mars; Storm, Hans; Pukkala, Eero; Stovall, Marilyn; Curtis, Rochelle E.; Allan, James M.; Boice, John D.; Travis, Lois B.

    2005-01-01

    The importance of genetic and other risk factors in the development of breast cancer after radiotherapy (RT) for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has not been determined. We analyzed data from a breast cancer case-control study (105 patients, 266 control subjects) conducted among 3 817 survivors of HL diagnosed at age 30 years or younger in 6 population-based cancer registries. Odds ratios (ORs) and excess relative risks (ERRs) were calculated using conditional regression. Women who received RT exposure (≥ 5 Gy radiation dose to the breast) had a 2.7-fold increased breast cancer risk (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-5.2), compared with those given less than 5 Gy. RT exposure (≥ 5 Gy) was associated with an OR of 0.8 (95% CI, 0.2-3.4) among women with a first- or second-degree family history of breast or ovarian cancer, and 5.8 (95% CI, 2.1-16.3) among all other women (interaction P = .03). History of a live birth appeared to increase the breast cancer risk associated with RT among women not treated with ovarian-damaging therapies. Breast cancer risk following RT varied little according to other factors. The additional increased relative risk of breast cancer after RT for HL is unlikely to be larger among women with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer than among other women. PMID:16051739

  6. Exploring the uncertainties in cancer risk assessment using the integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) approach.

    PubMed

    Slob, Wout; Bakker, Martine I; Biesebeek, Jan Dirk Te; Bokkers, Bas G H

    2014-08-01

    Current methods for cancer risk assessment result in single values, without any quantitative information on the uncertainties in these values. Therefore, single risk values could easily be overinterpreted. In this study, we discuss a full probabilistic cancer risk assessment approach in which all the generally recognized uncertainties in both exposure and hazard assessment are quantitatively characterized and probabilistically evaluated, resulting in a confidence interval for the final risk estimate. The methodology is applied to three example chemicals (aflatoxin, N-nitrosodimethylamine, and methyleugenol). These examples illustrate that the uncertainty in a cancer risk estimate may be huge, making single value estimates of cancer risk meaningless. Further, a risk based on linear extrapolation tends to be lower than the upper 95% confidence limit of a probabilistic risk estimate, and in that sense it is not conservative. Our conceptual analysis showed that there are two possible basic approaches for cancer risk assessment, depending on the interpretation of the dose-incidence data measured in animals. However, it remains unclear which of the two interpretations is the more adequate one, adding an additional uncertainty to the already huge confidence intervals for cancer risk estimates.

  7. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and associations with cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Goode, Ellen L; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Potter, John D

    2002-12-01

    Common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may alter protein function and an individual's capacity to repair damaged DNA; deficits in repair capacity may lead to genetic instability and carcinogenesis. To establish our overall understanding of possible in vivo relationships between DNA repair polymorphisms and the development of cancer, we performed a literature review of epidemiological studies that assessed associations between such polymorphisms and risk of cancer. Thirty studies of polymorphisms in OGG1, XRCC1, ERCC1, XPC, XPD, XPF, BRCA2, and XRCC3 were identified in the April 30, 2002 MEDLINE database (National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubMed Database: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez). These studies focused on adult glioma, bladder cancer, breast cancer, esophageal cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, skin cancer (melanoma and nonmelanoma), squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, and stomach cancer. We found that a small proportion of the published studies were large and population-based. Nonetheless, published data were consistent with associations between: (a) the OGG1 S326C variant and increased risk of various types of cancer; (b) the XRCC1 R194W variant and reduced risk of various types of cancer; and (c) the BRCA2 N372H variant and increased risk of breast cancer. Suggestive results were seen for polymorphisms in other genes; however, small sample sizes may have contributed to false-positive or false-negative findings. We conclude that large, well-designed studies of common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes are needed. Such studies may benefit from analysis of multiple genes or polymorphisms and from the consideration of relevant exposures that may influence the likelihood of cancer in the presence of reduced DNA repair capacity.

  8. On the public perception of the risks from nuclear weapons: Would oralloy be more acceptable than plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Kunsman, D.M.

    1993-03-01

    We technologists generally only address risk magnitudes in our analyses, although other studies have found nineteen additional dimensions for the way the public perceives risk. These include controllability, voluntariness, catastrophic potential, and trust in the institution putting forth the risk. We and the geneml public use two different languages, and to understand what their concerns are, we need to realize that the culture surrounding nuclear weapons is completely alien to the general public. Ultimately, the acceptability of a risk is a values question, not a technical question. For most of the risk dimensions, the public would perceive no significant difference between using oralloy and plutonium. This does not mean that the suggested design change should not be proposed, only that the case for, or against, it be made comprehensively using the best information available today. The world has changed: the ending of the cold war has decreased the benefit of nuclear weapons in the minds of the public and the specter of Chernobyl has increased the perceived risks of processes that use radioactive materials. Our analyses need to incorporate the lessons pertinent to this newer world.

  9. On the public perception of the risks from nuclear weapons: Would oralloy be more acceptable than plutonium?

    SciTech Connect

    Kunsman, D.M.

    1993-03-01

    We technologists generally only address risk magnitudes in our analyses, although other studies have found nineteen additional dimensions for the way the public perceives risk. These include controllability, voluntariness, catastrophic potential, and trust in the institution putting forth the risk. We and the geneml public use two different languages, and to understand what their concerns are, we need to realize that the culture surrounding nuclear weapons is completely alien to the general public. Ultimately, the acceptability of a risk is a values question, not a technical question. For most of the risk dimensions, the public would perceive no significant difference between using oralloy and plutonium. This does not mean that the suggested design change should not be proposed, only that the case for, or against, it be made comprehensively using the best information available today. The world has changed: the ending of the cold war has decreased the benefit of nuclear weapons in the minds of the public and the specter of Chernobyl has increased the perceived risks of processes that use radioactive materials. Our analyses need to incorporate the lessons pertinent to this newer world.

  10. Native Women at Risk: Addressing Cancer Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiemann, Kay M. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses outcomes of a conference that brought together representatives from Indian tribes, state health departments, the Indian Health Service, the Mayo Clinic, and the American Cancer Society, to address the high rate of cervical cancer among American Indian women. Describes barriers to health care and plans to promote cancer screening among…

  11. Risk of breast cancer in a cohort of infertile women.

    PubMed

    Rossing, M A; Daling, J R; Weiss, N S; Moore, D E; Self, S G

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess: (1) the risk of breast cancer associated with use of ovulation-inducing agents (such as clomiphene citrate) as treatment for infertility; and (2) the risk associated with ovulatory abnormalities that result in infertility. We performed a case-cohort study among 3837 women evaluated for infertility at clinics in Seattle, Washington, at some time during 1974-1985. Computer linkage with a population-based tumor registry was used to identify women diagnosed with breast cancer before January 1, 1992. Data regarding infertility testing and treatment were abstracted from the infertility clinic medical records for women who developed breast cancer and a randomly selected subcohort. Twenty-seven women in the cohort developed in situ or invasive breast cancer, in comparison with an expected number of 28.8 cases (standardized incidence ratio, 0.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), ).6-1.4). Infertile women with evidence of an ovulatory abnormality were at a risk of breast cancer similar to that of women whose infertility was believed to be due to other causes. The risk among women who had taken clomiphene was reduced relative to infertile women who had not used this drug (adjusted relative risk, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.2-1.2), but the reduction in risk did not increase with duration of use. The possibility that use of clomiphene as treatment for infertility lowers the risk of breast cancer should be examined in other, larger studies.

  12. Risk factors for subsequent endocrine-related cancer in childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Wijnen, M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; Medici, M; Peeters, R P; van der Lely, A J; Neggers, S J C M M

    2016-06-01

    Long-term adverse health conditions, including secondary malignant neoplasms, are common in childhood cancer survivors. Although mortality attributable to secondary malignancies declined over the past decades, the risk for developing a solid secondary malignant neoplasm did not. Endocrine-related malignancies are among the most common secondary malignant neoplasms observed in childhood cancer survivors. In this systematic review, we describe risk factors for secondary malignant neoplasms of the breast and thyroid, since these are the most common secondary endocrine-related malignancies in childhood cancer survivors. Radiotherapy is the most important risk factor for secondary breast and thyroid cancer in childhood cancer survivors. Breast cancer risk is especially increased in survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma who received moderate- to high-dosed mantle field irradiation. Recent studies also demonstrated an increased risk after lower-dose irradiation in other radiation fields for other childhood cancer subtypes. Premature ovarian insufficiency may protect against radiation-induced breast cancer. Although evidence is weak, estrogen-progestin replacement therapy does not seem to be associated with an increased breast cancer risk in premature ovarian-insufficient childhood cancer survivors. Radiotherapy involving the thyroid gland increases the risk for secondary differentiated thyroid carcinoma, as well as benign thyroid nodules. Currently available studies on secondary malignant neoplasms in childhood cancer survivors are limited by short follow-up durations and assessed before treatment regimens. In addition, studies on risk-modifying effects of environmental and lifestyle factors are lacking. Risk-modifying effects of premature ovarian insufficiency and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy on radiation-induced breast cancer require further study.

  13. Estimating cancer risks to adults undergoing body CT examinations.

    PubMed

    Huda, Walter; He, Wenjun

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to estimate cancer risks from the amount of radiation used to perform body computed tomography (CT) examination. The ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator was used to compute values of organ doses for adult body CT examinations. The radiation used to perform each examination was quantified by the dose-length product (DLP). Patient organ doses were converted into corresponding age and sex dependent cancer risks using data from BEIR VII. Results are presented for cancer risks per unit DLP and unit effective dose for 11 sensitive organs, as well as estimates of the contribution from 'other organs'. For patients who differ from a standard sized adult, correction factors based on the patient weight and antero-posterior dimension are provided to adjust organ doses and the corresponding risks. At constant incident radiation intensity, for CT examinations that include the chest, risks for females are markedly higher than those for males, whereas for examinations that include the pelvis, risks in males were slightly higher than those in females. In abdominal CT scans, risks for males and female patients are very similar. For abdominal CT scans, increasing the patient age from 20 to 80 resulted in a reduction in patient risks of nearly a factor of 5. The average cancer risk for chest/abdomen/pelvis CT examinations was ∼26 % higher than the cancer risk caused by 'sensitive organs'. Doses and radiation risks in 80 kg adults were ∼10 % lower than those in 70 kg patients. Cancer risks in body CT can be estimated from the examination DLP by accounting for sex, age, as well as patient physical characteristics.

  14. Risk of secondary cancers in women with breast cancer and the influence of radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Yao; Chen, Sih-Hao; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Lee, Song-Tay; Guo, How-Ran; Kuo, Shu-Chun; Su, Shih-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide; thus, the prolongation of survival, and the incidence and risk factors, including radiotherapy, for developing secondary malignancies are important. We compared the incidence of secondary and new primary cancers in women with breast cancer (CAPos) and well-matched for age, geographic region, and monthly income cancer-free controls (CANeg). The risk for secondary cancers with and without radiotherapy was also compared in CAPos women. We enrolled 2422 CAPos patients and CANeg 12,110 controls. In a 4-year follow-up, the secondary cancers risk was significant in the CAPos group (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17–2.18). Only the risk of uterine cancer was significant compared with the controls (AHR: 6.30; 95% CI: 2.28–17.38). CAPos patients and <50 years old had a higher risk for secondary cancers. Developing secondary cancers was significant in the first follow-up year (AHR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.11–2.06). Radiotherapy had no significant effect on the CAPos group, but it was significant (P = 0.0298) in women ≥60 years old (elderly). We recommend monitoring secondary cancers in CAPos women, especially those <50 years old, and during the first year of follow-up. Radiotherapy should be used more carefully in elderly CAPos women. PMID:27930560

  15. Long-Term Survival and Risk of Second Cancers After Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Tatsuya; Kato, Shingo; Sato, Shinichiro; Fukuhisa, Kenjiro; Nakano, Takashi; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Arai, Tatsuo

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the risk of second cancers after cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy for Asian populations. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 2,167 patients with cervical cancer undergoing radiotherapy between 1961 and 1986. Intracavitary brachytherapy was performed with high-dose rate source (82%) or low-dose rate source (12%). Relative risk (RR), absolute excess risk (AR), and cumulative risk of second cancer were calculated using the Japanese disease expectancy table. For 1,031 patients, the impact of smoking habit on the increasing risk of second cancer was also evaluated. Results: The total number of person-years of follow-up was 25,771, with 60 patients being lost to follow-up. Among the 2,167 patients, 1,063 (49%) survived more than 10 years. Second cancers were observed in 210 patients, representing a significant 1.2-fold risk (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.4) of developing second cancer compared with the general population, 1.6% excess risk per person per decade of follow-up, and elevating cumulative risk up to 23.8% (95% CI, 20.3-27.3) at 30 years after radiotherapy. The RR of second cancer was 1.6-fold for patients with the smoking habit and 1.4-fold for those without. Conclusions: Small but significant increased risk of second cancer was observed among Japanese women with cervical cancer mainly treated with high-dose rate brachytherapy. Considering the fact that about half of the patients survived more than 10 years, the benefit of radiotherapy outweighs the risk of developing second cancer.

  16. The readability of online breast cancer risk assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Sarah; Milbrandt, Melissa; Kaphingst, Kimberly; James, Aimee; Colditz, Graham

    2015-11-01

    Numerous breast cancer risk assessment tools that allow users to input personal risk information and obtain a personalized breast cancer risk estimate are available on the Internet. The goal of these tools is to increase screening awareness and identify modifiable health behaviors; however, the utility of this risk information is limited by the readability of the material. We undertook this study to assess the overall readability of breast cancer risk assessment tools and accompanying information, as well as to identify areas of suggested improvement. We searched for breast cancer risk assessment tools, using five search terms, on three search engines. All searches were performed on June 12, 2014. Sites that met inclusion criteria were then assessed for readability using the suitability assessment of materials (SAM) and the SMOG readability formula (July 1, 2014–January 31, 2015). The primary outcomes are the frequency distribution of overall SAM readability category (superior, adequate, or not suitable) and mean SMOG reading grade level. The search returned 42 sites were eligible for assessment, only 9 (21.4 %) of which achieved an overall SAM superior rating, and 27 (64.3 %) were deemed adequate. The average SMOG reading grade level was grade 12.1 (SD 1.6, range 9–15). The readability of breast cancer risk assessment tools and the sites that host them is an important barrier to risk communication. This study demonstrates that most breast cancer risk assessment tools are not accessible to individuals with limited health literacy skills. More importantly, this study identifies potential areas of improvement and has the potential to heighten a physician’s awareness of the Internet resources a patient might navigate in their quest for breast cancer risk information.

  17. Risk-optimized proton therapy to minimize radiogenic second cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechner, Laura A.; Eley, John G.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Zhang, Rui; Mirkovic, Dragan; Newhauser, Wayne D.

    2015-05-01

    Proton therapy confers substantially lower predicted risk of second cancer compared with photon therapy. However, no previous studies have used an algorithmic approach to optimize beam angle or fluence-modulation for proton therapy to minimize those risks. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the feasibility of risk-optimized proton therapy and to determine the combination of beam angles and fluence weights that minimizes the risk of second cancer in the bladder and rectum for a prostate cancer patient. We used 6 risk models to predict excess relative risk of second cancer. Treatment planning utilized a combination of a commercial treatment planning system and an in-house risk-optimization algorithm. When normal-tissue dose constraints were incorporated in treatment planning, the risk model that incorporated the effects of fractionation, initiation, inactivation, repopulation and promotion selected a combination of anterior and lateral beams, which lowered the relative risk by 21% for the bladder and 30% for the rectum compared to the lateral-opposed beam arrangement. Other results were found for other risk models.

  18. Risk of Skin Cancer from Space Radiation. Chapter 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; George, Kerry A.; Wu, Hong-Lu

    2003-01-01

    We review the methods for estimating the probability of increased incidence of skin cancers from space radiation exposure, and describe some of the individual factors that may contribute to risk projection models, including skin pigment, and synergistic effects of combined ionizing and UV exposure. The steep dose gradients from trapped electrons, protons, and heavy ions radiation during EVA and limitations in EVA dosimetry are important factors for projecting skin cancer risk of astronauts. We estimate that the probability of increased skin cancer risk varies more than 10-fold for individual astronauts and that the risk of skin cancer could exceed 1 % for future lunar base operations for astronauts with light skin color and hair. Limitations in physical dosimetry in estimating the distribution of dose at the skin suggest that new biodosimetry methods be developed for responding to accidental overexposure of the skin during future space missions.

  19. Submission Form for Peer-Reviewed Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    If you have information about a peer-reviewd cancer risk prediction model that you would like to be considered for inclusion on this list, submit as much information as possible through the form on this page.

  20. Vitamin E, Selenium Don't Cut Colon Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162669.html Vitamin E, Selenium Don't Cut Colon Cancer Risk: ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, Dec. 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Taking vitamin E and selenium does not appear to reduce ...

  1. Feasibility and acceptability of a bar-based sexual risk reduction intervention for bar patrons in Tshwane, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Morojele, Neo K.; Kitleli, Naledi; Ngako, Kgalabi; Kekwaletswe, Connie T.; Nkosi, Sebenzile; Fritz, Katherine; Parry, Charles D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol consumption is a recognised risk factor for HIV infection. Alcohol serving establishments have been identified as appropriate venues in which to deliver HIV prevention interventions. This paper describes experiences and lessons learnt from implementing a combined HIV prevention intervention in bar settings in one city- and one township-based bar in Tshwane, South Africa. The intervention consisted of peer-led and brief intervention counselling sub-components. Thirty-nine bar patrons were recruited and trained, and delivered HIV and alcohol risk reduction activities to their peers as peer interventionists. At the same time, nine counsellors received training and visited the bars weekly to provide brief motivational interviewing counselling, advice, and referrals to the patrons of the bars. A responsible server sub-component that had also been planned was not delivered as it was not feasible to train the staff in the two participating bars. Over the eight-month period the counsellors were approached by and provided advice and counselling for alcohol and sexual risk-related problems to 111 bar patrons. The peer interventionists reported 1323 risk reduction interactions with their fellow bar patrons during the same period. The intervention was overall well received and suggests that bar patrons and servers can accept a myriad of intervention activities to reduce sexual risk behaviour within their drinking settings. However, HIV- and AIDS-related stigma hindered participation in certain intervention activities in some instances. The buy-in that we received from the relevant stakeholders (i.e. bar owners/managers and patrons, and the community at large) was an important contributor to the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. PMID:24750106

  2. Uneven Magnitude of Disparities in Cancer Risks from Air Toxics

    PubMed Central

    James, Wesley; Jia, Chunrong; Kedia, Satish

    2012-01-01

    This study examines race- and income-based disparities in cancer risks from air toxics in Cancer Alley, LA, USA. Risk estimates were obtained from the 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment and socioeconomic and race data from the 2005 American Community Survey, both at the census tract level. Disparities were assessed using spatially weighted ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and quantile regression (QR) for five major air toxics, each with cancer risk greater than 10−6. Spatial OLS results showed that disparities in cancer risks were significant: People in low-income tracts bore a cumulative risk 12% more than those in high-income tracts (p < 0.05), and those in black-dominant areas 16% more than in white-dominant areas (p < 0.01). Formaldehyde and benzene were the two largest contributors to the disparities. Contributions from emission sources to disparities varied by compound. Spatial QR analyses showed that magnitude of disparity became larger at the high end of exposure range, indicating worsened disparity in the poorest and most highly concentrated black areas. Cancer risk of air toxics not only disproportionately affects socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial minority communities, but there is a gradient effect within these groups with poorer and higher minority concentrated segments being more affected than their counterparts. Risk reduction strategies should target emission sources, risk driver chemicals, and especially the disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:23208297

  3. Risk assessment methodologies for passive smoking-induced lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Repace, J.L.; Lowrey, A.H. )

    1990-03-01

    Risk assessment methodologies have been successfully applied to control societal risk from outdoor air pollutants. They are now being applied to indoor air pollutants such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and radon. Nonsmokers' exposures to ETS have been assessed based on dosimetry of nicotine, its metabolite, continine, and on exposure to the particulate phase of ETS. Lung cancer responses have been based on both the epidemiology of active and of passive smoking. Nine risk assessments of nonsmokers' lung cancer risk from exposure to ETS have been performed. Some have estimated risks for lifelong nonsmokers only; others have included ex-smokers; still others have estimated total deaths from all causes. To facilitate interstudy comparison, in some cases lung cancers had to be interpolated from a total, or the authors' original estimate had to be adjusted to include ex-smokers. Further, all estimates were adjusted to 1988. Excluding one study whose estimate differs from the mean of the others by two orders of magnitude, the remaining risk assessments are in remarkable agreement. The mean estimate is approximately 5000 +/- 2400 nonsmokers' lung cancer deaths (LCDSs) per year. This is a 25% greater risk to nonsmokers than is indoor radon, and is about 57 times greater than the combined estimated cancer risk from all the hazardous outdoor air pollutants currently regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency: airborne radionuclides, asbestos, arsenic, benzene, coke oven emissions, and vinyl chloride. 48 references.

  4. Consumer acceptable risk: how cigarette companies have responded to accusations that their products are defective

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, K Michael; Brown, Anthony; Douglas, Clifford E

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe arguments used by cigarette companies to defend themselves against charges that their cigarettes were defective and that they could and should have done more to make cigarettes less hazardous. Methods The data for this paper come from the opening statements made by defendants in four court cases: two class action lawsuits (Engle 1999, and Blankenship 2001) and two individual cases (Boeken 2001, and Schwarz 2002). The transcripts of opening statements were reviewed and statements about product defect claims, product testing, and safe cigarette research were excerpted and coded. Results Responses by cigarette companies to charges that their products were defective has been presented consistently across different cases and by different companies. Essentially the arguments made by cigarette companies boil down to three claims: (1) smoking is risky, but nothing the companies have done has made cigarettes more dangerous than might otherwise be the case; (2) nothing the companies have done or said has kept someone from stopping smoking; and (3) the companies have spent lots of money to make the safest cigarette acceptable to the smoker. Conclusions Cigarette companies have argued that their products are inherently dangerous but not defective, and that they have worked hard to make their products safer by lowering the tar and nicotine content of cigarettes as recommended by members of the public health community. As a counter argument, plaintiff attorneys should focus on how cigarette design changes have actually made smoking more acceptable to smokers, thereby discouraging smoking cessation. PMID:17130628

  5. Cancer Risk Map for the Surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss calculations of the median and 95th percentile cancer risks on the surface of Mars for different solar conditions. The NASA Space Radiation Cancer Risk 2010 model is used to estimate gender and age specific cancer incidence and mortality risks for astronauts exploring Mars. Organ specific fluence spectra and doses for large solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) at various levels of solar activity are simulated using the HZETRN/QMSFRG computer code, and the 2010 version of the Badhwar and O Neill GCR model. The NASA JSC propensity model of SPE fluence and occurrence is used to consider upper bounds on SPE fluence for increasing mission lengths. In the transport of particles through the Mars atmosphere, a vertical distribution of Mars atmospheric thickness is calculated from the temperature and pressure data of Mars Global Surveyor, and the directional cosine distribution is implemented to describe the spherically distributed atmospheric distance along the slant path at each elevation on Mars. The resultant directional shielding by Mars atmosphere at each elevation is coupled with vehicle and body shielding for organ dose estimates. Astronaut cancer risks are mapped on the global topography of Mars, which was measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter. Variation of cancer risk on the surface of Mars is due to a 16-km elevation range, and the large difference is obtained between the Tharsis Montes (Ascraeus, Pavonis, and Arsia) and the Hellas impact basin. Cancer incidence risks are found to be about 2-fold higher than mortality risks with a disproportionate increase in skin and thyroid cancers for all astronauts and breast cancer risk for female astronauts. The number of safe days on Mars to be below radiation limits at the 95th percent confidence level is reported for several Mission design scenarios.

  6. CLPTM1L polymorphism and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Tang, Min; Bian, Xiaonian; Zhao, Qiuliang

    2015-01-01

    The association of Cleft Lip and Palate Transmembrane Protein 1 (CLPTM1L) rs31489 polymorphism with risk of lung cancer has been evaluated in many studies; however, the results from these studies are controversial. Thus, further analysis on association between CLPTM1L rs31489 polymorphism and risk of lung cancer is needed among a larger study population. A literature search in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Science Direct, SpringerLink, EBSCO, Wanfang, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases was carried out to identify studies investigating the association between lung cancer risk and CLPTM1L rs31489 polymorphism. The strength of the association between CLPTM1L rs31489 polymorphism and lung cancer risk was estimated by calculating odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In the overall analysis, there was significant association between CLPTM1L rs31489 polymorphism and lung cancer risk under an allele model (OR = 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06-1.18; P < 0.00001; I(2) = 57%). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity was performed. Stratified analysis by ethnicity showed that a statistically increased cancer risk was found in the Caucasian population (OR = 1.15; 95% CI, 1.10-1.21; P < 0.00001; I(2) = 22%), but there was no significant association between lung cancer risk and CLPTM1L rs31489 polymorphism in the Asian population (OR = 1.03; 95% CI, 0.97-1.08; P = 0.37; I(2) = 15%). In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrates that CLPTM1L rs31489 polymorphism significantly modified the risk of lung cancer.

  7. CLPTM1L polymorphism and lung cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Min; Bian, Xiaonian; Zhao, Qiuliang

    2015-01-01

    The association of Cleft Lip and Palate Transmembrane Protein 1 (CLPTM1L) rs31489 polymorphism with risk of lung cancer has been evaluated in many studies; however, the results from these studies are controversial. Thus, further analysis on association between CLPTM1L rs31489 polymorphism and risk of lung cancer is needed among a larger study population. A literature search in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Science Direct, SpringerLink, EBSCO, Wanfang, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases was carried out to identify studies investigating the association between lung cancer risk and CLPTM1L rs31489 polymorphism. The strength of the association between CLPTM1L rs31489 polymorphism and lung cancer risk was estimated by calculating odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In the overall analysis, there was significant association between CLPTM1L rs31489 polymorphism and lung cancer risk under an allele model (OR = 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06-1.18; P < 0.00001; I2 = 57%). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity was performed. Stratified analysis by ethnicity showed that a statistically increased cancer risk was found in the Caucasian population (OR = 1.15; 95% CI, 1.10-1.21; P < 0.00001; I2 = 22%), but there was no significant association between lung cancer risk and CLPTM1L rs31489 polymorphism in the Asian population (OR = 1.03; 95% CI, 0.97-1.08; P = 0.37; I2 = 15%). In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrates that CLPTM1L rs31489 polymorphism significantly modified the risk of lung cancer. PMID:26064290

  8. Methods to Develop Inhalation Cancer Risk Estimates for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document summarizes the approaches and rationale for the technical and scientific considerations used to derive inhalation cancer risks for emissions of chromium and nickel compounds from electric utility steam generating units. The purpose of this document is to discuss the methods used to develop inhalation cancer risk estimates associated with emissions of chromium and nickel compounds from coal- and oil-fired electric utility steam generating units (EGUs) in support of EPA's recently proposed Air Toxics Rule.

  9. Multigenerational Breast Cancer Risk Factors in African-American Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    psychosocial, reproductive, genetic and lifestyles ) related to disease risk. Cases were matched by ethnicity and age to two cancer-free women participating in a...Breast Cancer; African American, Lifestyles , Psychosocial 24 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY...have shown risk factors such as age; socio-economic class; race/ethnicity; lifestyle ; and reproductive factors increase a woman’s chance of developing

  10. Central Leptin Gene Therapy to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    W81XWH-04-1-0701 TITLE: Central Leptin Gene Therapy to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk Factors PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Urszula T. Iwaniec...CONTRACT NUMBER Central Leptin Gene Therapy to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk Factors 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0701 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...control of obesity through centrally administered, recombinant adeno-associated virus leptin gene (rAAV-lep) therapy will decrease the incidence of

  11. Imaging Radiation Doses and Associated Risks and Benefits in Subjects Participating in Breast Cancer Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Spera, Gonzalo; Meyer, Carlos; Cabral, Pablo; Mackey, John R.

    2015-01-01

    (BC) clinical trials. Most of these procedures expose patients to ionizing radiation, and the risk of second cancer development after imaging has prompted recent concerns and controversy. Using accepted calculation models, the number of malignancies were estimated that were potentially attributable to the imaging procedures performed during a patient’s participation in BC clinical trials. The results show that for patients participating in metastatic trials, the risk of imaging radiation-induced malignancies is negligible. In adjuvant trials, some second cancers due to imaging could be expected, and measures can be taken to reduce their risk. PMID:26025934

  12. Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Vitamin D Binding Protein, and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Mondul, Alison M.; Kopp, William; Rager, Helen; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported a significant positive association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the accepted biomarker of vitamin D status, and prostate cancer risk. To further elucidate this association, we examined the influence of vitamin D binding protein (DBP), the primary transporter of vitamin D compounds in the circulation. Prediagnostic serum concentrations of DBP were assayed for 950 cases and 964 matched controls with existing 25(OH)D measurements within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study of Finnish men. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), and statistical tests were two-sided. Serum DBP modified the association between serum 25(OH)D and prostate cancer, with higher risk for elevated 25(OH)D levels observed primarily among men having DBP concentrations above the median (OR=1.81, 95% CI 1.18–2.79 for highest vs. lowest quintile, p-trend = 0.001) compared to those with DBP below the median (OR=1.22, 95% CI 0.81–1.84, p-trend 0.97; p-interaction = 0.04). Serum DBP was not associated with prostate cancer risk overall (OR=0.96, 95% CI 0.70–1.33 for highest vs. lowest quintile); however, high serum DBP was associated with significantly decreased risk of prostate cancer in men with lower (risk in men with higher 25(OH)D concentrations (OR = 1.47, 95% CI 0.98–2.20, p-trend 0.10, p-interaction = 0.02). Our data suggest that the primary vitamin D carrier protein, DBP, modulates the impact of vitamin D status on prostate cancer. PMID:23180681

  13. Radiation and cancer risk in atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kodama, K; Ozasa, K; Okubo, T

    2012-03-01

    With the aim of accurately assessing the effects of radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has, over several decades, conducted studies of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, comprising 93 000 atomic-bomb survivors and 27 000 controls. Solid cancer: the recent report on solid cancer incidence found that at age 70 years following exposure at age 30 years, solid cancer rates increase by about 35%  Gy(-1) for men and 58% Gy(-1) for women. Age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. In the case of lung cancer, cigarette smoking has been found to be an important risk modifier. Radiation has similar effects on first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. Finally, radiation-associated increases in cancer rates appear to persist throughout life. Leukaemia: the recent report on leukaemia mortality suggests that radiation effects on leukaemia mortality persisted for more than 50 years. Moreover, significant dose-response for myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in Nagasaki LSS members even 40-60 years after radiation exposure. Future perspective: given the continuing solid cancer increase in the survivor population, the LSS will likely continue to provide important new information on radiation exposure and solid cancer risks for another 15-20 years, especially for those exposed at a young age.

  14. Weight Loss Tied to Lower Risk of Uterine Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... researchers said. More than 75 percent of endometrial cancers occur in women aged 55 and older. The researchers reviewed data from more than 35,000 American women between the ages of 50 and 79. The study ... risk of endometrial cancer, and that benefit was greatest in obese women, ...

  15. Alcohol and risk of breast cancer in Mexican women

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Jeannette M.; Coronado, Gloria D.; Livaudais, Jennifer; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; Ortega-Olvera, Carolina; Romieu, Isabelle; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the relationship between alcohol intake and breast cancer risk among Mexican women. This association may be modified by folate and Vitamin B12. METHODS A population-based case control study conducted in Mexico recruited 1000 incident breast cancer cases aged 35–69 and 1074 controls matched on age, region, and health care system. In-person interviews were conducted to assess breast cancer risk factors and recent diet using a food frequency questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression models estimated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS Over one-half (57%) of cases and less than one-half of controls (45%) reported any lifetime alcohol consumption. Compared with never drinkers, women reporting ever drinking (Adjusted OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.99–1.58) had a greater odds of breast cancer. There was evidence for interaction in the association between ever consuming any alcohol and breast cancer by folate (p for interaction=0.04) suggesting women with lower folate intake had a higher odds of breast cancer (Adjusted OR=1.99, 95% CI= 1.26–3.16) compared to women with higher folate intake (OR=1.12, 95% CI = 0.69–1.83). CONCLUSIONS Our findings support emerging evidence that any alcohol intake increases risk of breast cancer. Insufficient intake of folate may further elevate risk for developing breast cancer among women who consume alcohol. PMID:20155314

  16. Coffee and cancer risk, epidemiological evidence, and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bøhn, Siv Kjølsrud; Blomhoff, Rune; Paur, Ingvild

    2014-05-01

    Although early studies suggested that coffee consumption might increase risk of some cancers, more comprehensive epidemiological and experimental data now generally indicate either neutral or beneficial effects. In this review, we summarize the current evidence for associations between breast, prostate, colorectal, and liver cancers and the consumption of coffee, and discuss the experimental evidence for potential chemopreventive mechanisms of coffee and coffee constituents. The epidemiological evidence consistently indicates that coffee protects against liver cancer, and also point toward protective effects for risk of colorectal cancers (with relative risks of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.42-0.59) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75-0.92), respectively, in the most recent meta-analyses). There seems to be no association between the overall risk of breast and prostate cancer and coffee intake. However, for subgroups such as postmenopausal breast cancers, advanced prostate cancers, and breast and prostate cancer survivors, an inverse association with coffee intake is indicated. Potential mechanisms for chemopreventive effects of coffee phytochemicals includes inhibition of oxidative stress and oxidative damage, regulation of DNA repair, phase II enzymatic activity, apoptosis, inflammation, as well as having antiproliferative, antiangiogenetic effects and antimetastatic effects. The experimental evidence for effects of coffee and coffee constituents on each of these processes is discussed.

  17. DNA Repair and Ethnic Differences in Prostate Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    The questionnaire asked about demographic information, reproductive history , tobacco use, alcohol consumption, general medical history and family... history , occupational exposures, residential history , exercise, and education (see Appendix). This information was entered into an Epi Info databases...cancer develops and what the factors are that help increase cancer risk. The purpose of this study is to learn about the natural history of prostate

  18. DNA Repair and Ethnic Differences in Prostate Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    with collection of biological specimen as described below. The questionnaire asks about demographic information, reproductive history , tobacco use...alcohol consumption, general medical history and family history , occupational exposures, residential history , exercise, and education (see Appendix...increase cancer risk. The purpose of this study is to learn about the natural history of prostate cancer and its causes and treatments. This research is

  19. Douching, Talc Use, and Risk of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, NL; O’Brien, KM; D’Aloisio, AA; Sandler, DP; Weinberg, CR

    2016-01-01

    Background Douching was recently reported to be associated with elevated levels of urinary metabolites of endocrine disrupting phthalates, but there is no literature on douching in relation to ovarian cancer. Numerous case-control studies of genital talc use have reported an increased risk of ovarian cancer, but prospective cohort studies have not uniformly confirmed this association. Behavioral correlation between talc use and douching could produce confounding. Methods The Sister Study (2003–2009) enrolled and followed 50,884 women in the US and Puerto Rico who had a sister diagnosed with breast cancer. At baseline participants were asked about douching and talc use during the previous 12 months. During follow-up (median of 6.6 years) 154 participants reported a diagnosis of ovarian cancer. We computed adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ovarian cancer risk using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results There was little association between baseline perineal talc use and subsequent ovarian cancer (HR: 0.73 CI: 0.44, 1.2). Douching was more common among talc users (OR: 2.1 CI: 2.0, 2.3), and douching at baseline was associated with increased subsequent risk of ovarian cancer (HR: 1.9 CI: 1.2, 2.8). Conclusions Douching but not talc use was associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer in the Sister Study. PMID:27327020

  20. Starting Hormone Therapy at Menopause Increases Breast Cancer Risk

    Cancer.gov

    According to a January 28, 2011 article in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, women who start taking menopausal hormone therapy around the time of menopause have a higher risk of breast cancer than women who begin taking hormones a few years later.

  1. Variation in female breast cancer risk by occupation.

    PubMed

    Coogan, P F; Clapp, R W; Newcomb, P A; Mittendorf, R; Bogdan, G; Baron, J A; Longnecker, M P

    1996-10-01

    Data from a population-based case control study were used to estimate occupation-specific relative risks for female breast cancer, adjusted for established breast cancer risk factors. Breast cancer cases under age 75 were identified from tumor registries in four states. Controls were randomly selected from driver's license and Medicare beneficiary lists. Information on usual occupation and risk factors was obtained by telephone interview. Odds ratios from logistic regression adjusted for age, state, body mass index, benign breast disease, family history of breast cancer, menopausal status, age at menarche, parity, age of first birth, lactation history, education, and alcohol consumption were calculated for each of 26 occupational groups. Complete occupational information was obtained for 6,835 cases and 9,453 controls. Of 26 occupational groups, only "administrative support occupations" had a statistically significantly increased risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.06-1.24). In these data, no specific occupational group had an unusual risk of breast cancer. Increased risks reported elsewhere for nurses and teachers were not corroborated.

  2. Cancer Risks Associated with External Radiation From Diagnostic Imaging Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Linet, Martha S.; Slovis, Thomas L.; Miller, Donald L.; Kleinerman, Ruth; Lee, Choonsik; Rajaraman, Preetha; de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington

    2012-01-01

    The 600% increase in medical radiation exposure to the US population since 1980 has provided immense benefit, but potential future cancer risks to patients. Most of the increase is from diagnostic radiologic procedures. The objectives of this review are to summarize epidemiologic data on cancer risks associated with diagnostic procedures, describe how exposures from recent diagnostic procedures relate to radiation levels linked with cancer occurrence, and propose a framework of strategies to reduce radiation from diagnostic imaging in patients. We briefly review radiation dose definitions, mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis, key epidemiologic studies of medical and other radiation sources and cancer risks, and dose trends from diagnostic procedures. We describe cancer risks from experimental studies, future projected risks from current imaging procedures, and the potential for higher risks in genetically susceptible populations. To reduce future projected cancers from diagnostic procedures, we advocate widespread use of evidence-based appropriateness criteria for decisions about imaging procedures, oversight of equipment to deliver reliably the minimum radiation required to attain clinical objectives, development of electronic lifetime records of imaging procedures for patients and their physicians, and commitment by medical training programs, professional societies, and radiation protection organizations to educate all stakeholders in reducing radiation from diagnostic procedures. PMID:22307864

  3. An analysis of occupational risks for brain cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, R C; Reif, J S; Chang, J C; Davis, J R

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated the risks of brain cancer in relation to employment history in a case-control study of 312 cases and 1,248 cancer controls. Subjects were identified through the Missouri Cancer Registry for the period 1984 through 1988. Job classification was based on data routinely abstracted from hospital records. Elevated risks were identified for certain white collar occupations: for men employed in engineering, the odds ratio (OR) = 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.4, 10.3; for social science professionals, the OR = 6.1; 95% CI = 1.5, 26.1. Among occupations with potential exposure to occupational carcinogens, increased risks were observed for men employed in agricultural crop production (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.0, 2.4), printing and publishing (OR = 2.8; 95% CI = 1.0, 8.3), and brickmasons and tilesetters (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 0.5, 11.5). Most of elevated brain cancer risks were due to astrocytic cancers, but the excess among agricultural workers occurred in other cell types. No increase in risk was noted for current cigarette smokers (OR = 0.9; 95% CI = 0.7, 1.5) or ex-smokers (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.7, 1.5). This exploratory study indicates a need for further studies of occupational risks of brain cancer. PMID:2297060

  4. Overview of the risk of respiratory cancer from airborne contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Speizer, F.E.

    1986-12-01

    This overview on defining risk of respiratory cancer from airborne pollutants summarizes broad issues related to a number of the environmental agents that are discussed in the articles that follow. Lung cancer kills more than 100,000 people annually and is the major form of cancer in both sexes in middle age. Cigarette smoking is the major cause of respiratory cancer and must be taken into account in any study of the effect of an environmental agent on the risk of respiratory cancer, particularly at relatively low levels of excess risk. The agents considered in this series all have the potential for widespread community exposures, either because there is widespread long-term exposure (passive smoking), the agents are direct byproducts of energy consumption (organic particles), have ubiquitous production and use patterns (formaldehyde and fibers), or occur widely in natural settings (radon). Several issues--measurement of exposure, latency, confounding factors and bias, extrapolation from animals to humans, population at risk, and attributable risk--must be considered for each agent. A further issue related to exposure estimates is the relationship of exposure to actual dose. Understanding exposure some 25 to 40 years in the past is important because of the prolonged latency period in the development of respiratory cancers. To the degree that these agents act synergistically with smoking, the reduction of smoking or of exposure to these agents may have greater public health consequences than would be anticipated from the directly measured attributable risk of each of these agents separately.

  5. Cancer risks associated with external radiation from diagnostic imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Linet, Martha S; Slovis, Thomas L; Miller, Donald L; Kleinerman, Ruth; Lee, Choonsik; Rajaraman, Preetha; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The 600% increase in medical radiation exposure to the US population since 1980 has provided immense benefit, but increased potential future cancer risks to patients. Most of the increase is from diagnostic radiologic procedures. The objectives of this review are to summarize epidemiologic data on cancer risks associated with diagnostic procedures, describe how exposures from recent diagnostic procedures relate to radiation levels linked with cancer occurrence, and propose a framework of strategies to reduce radiation from diagnostic imaging in patients. We briefly review radiation dose definitions, mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis, key epidemiologic studies of medical and other radiation sources and cancer risks, and dose trends from diagnostic procedures. We describe cancer risks from experimental studies, future projected risks from current imaging procedures, and the potential for higher risks in genetically susceptible populations. To reduce future projected cancers from diagnostic procedures, we advocate the widespread use of evidence-based appropriateness criteria for decisions about imaging procedures; oversight of equipment to deliver reliably the minimum radiation required to attain clinical objectives; development of electronic lifetime records of imaging procedures for patients and their physicians; and commitment by medical training programs, professional societies, and radiation protection organizations to educate all stakeholders in reducing radiation from diagnostic procedures.

  6. Dietary Patterns and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pei-Ying; Shu, Long; Shen, Shan-Shan; Chen, Xu-Jiao; Zhang, Xiao-Yan

    2017-01-05

    A number of studies have examined the associations between dietary patterns and pancreatic cancer risk, but the findings have been inconclusive. Herein, we conducted this meta-analysis to assess the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of pancreatic cancer. MEDLINE (provided by the National Library of Medicine) and EBSCO (Elton B. Stephens Company) databases were searched for relevant articles published up to May 2016 that identified common dietary patterns. Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria and were finally included in this meta-analysis. A reduced risk of pancreatic cancer was shown for the highest compared with the lowest categories of healthy patterns (odds ratio, OR = 0.86; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.77-0.95; p = 0.004) and light-moderate drinking patterns (OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83-0.98; p = 0.02). There was evidence of an increased risk for pancreatic cancer in the highest compared with the lowest categories of western-type pattern (OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.06-1.45; p = 0.008) and heavy drinking pattern (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.10-1.48; p = 0.002). The results of this meta-analysis demonstrate that healthy and light-moderate drinking patterns may decrease the risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas western-type and heavy drinking patterns may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  7. Folate and alcohol consumption and the risk of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bandera, E.V.; Graham, S.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Marshall, J.R.; Haughey, B.P.; Swanson, M.; Brasure, J.; Wilkinson, G. )

    1991-03-11

    Because both folate deficiency and alcohol intake have been hypothesized to be lung cancer risk factors, the authors examined the effect of folate and alcohol consumption on risk of lung cancer in a case-control study conducted 1980-1984. Usual dietary intake of 450 histologically confirmed lung cancer cases and 902 controls, all Western New York residents, was ascertained using a modified food frequency questionnaire. Folate intake was not associated with lung cancer risk. After adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, education, and carotene intake, the odds ratio (OR) for the highest category of folate intake was 1.59 in males and 1.34 in females. There was some indication of a protective effect of folate only among women who never smoked. There was a suggestion of a positive association of alcohol intake with lung cancer risk in males, independent of age, education, cigarette smoking, and carotene. Consumers of more than 9 beers per month had an OR of 1.51 compared to non-drinkers. In both sexes, there was an indication of an interaction between beer ingestion and cigarette smoking. While folate intake did not appear to affect risk of lung cancer, the association of alcohol intake with risk independent of cigarette smoking deserves further inquiry.

  8. Alcohol Consumption and Gastric Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ke; Baloch, Zulqarnain; He, Ting-Ting; Xia, Xueshan

    2017-01-01

    Background We sought to determine by meta-analysis the relationship between drinking alcohol and the risk of gastric cancer. Material/Methods A systematic Medline search was performed to identify all published reports of drinking alcohol and the associated risk of gastric cancer. Initially we retrieved 2,494 studies, but after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, only ten studies were found to be eligible for our meta-analysis. Results Our meta-analysis showed that alcohol consumption elevated the risk of gastric cancer with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.39 (95% CI 1.20–1.61). Additionally, subgroup analysis showed that only a nested case-control report from Sweden did not support this observation. Subgroup analysis of moderate drinking and heavy drinking also confirmed that drinking alcohol increased the risk of gastric cancer. Publication bias analysis (Begg’s and Egger’s tests) showed p values were more than 0.05, suggesting that the 10 articles included in our analysis did not have a publication bias. Conclusions The results from this meta-analysis support the hypothesis that alcohol consumption can increase the risk of gastric cancer; suggesting that effective moderation of alcohol drinking may reduce the risk of gastric cancer. PMID:28087989

  9. Cancer in first-degree relatives and risk of testicular cancer in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2011-11-15

    Familial aggregation of testicular cancer has been reported consistently, but it is less clear if there is any association between risk of testicular cancer and other cancers in the family. We conducted a population-based case-control study to examine the relationship between risk of testicular cancer and 22 different cancers in first-degree relatives. We included 3,297 cases of testicular cancer notified to the Danish Cancer Registry between 1991 and 2003. A total of 6,594 matched controls were selected from the Danish Civil Registration System, which also provided the identity of 40,104 first-degree relatives of case and controls. Familial cancer was identified by linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry, and we used conditional logistic regression to analyze whether cancer among first-degree relatives was associated with higher risk of testicular cancer. Rate ratio for testicular cancer was 4.63 (95% CI: 2.41-8.87) when a father, 8.30 (95% CI: 3.81-18.10) when a brother and 5.23 (95% CI: 1.35-20.26) when a son had testicular cancer compared to no familial testicular cancer. Results were similar when analyses were stratified by histologic subtypes of testicular cancer. Familial non-Hodgkin lymphoma and esophageal cancer were associated with testicular cancer; however, these may be chance findings. The familial aggregation of testicular and possibly other cancers may be explained by shared genes and/or shared environmental factors, but the mutual importance of each of these is difficult to determine.

  10. Native Americans and cancer risks: moving toward multifaceted solutions.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Hilary N

    2010-05-01

    Native Americans experience some of the poorest health statistics of any people in the United States, including rising cancer risks. If we are to truly understand and address health concerns among Native Americans, we need multifaceted interventions and policy solutions. Much of the current attention to Native American health issues examines behavioral health patterns and related interventions (that is, smoking rates and programs to moderate them). While such programs are necessary, they are not sufficient. It is imperative that the impact of the environment, including toxic waste exposure, be considered when examining cancer risk and moving toward solutions that reduce that risk for Native Americans. This article examines cancer risk factors related to both health behaviors and the physical environment. By examining these two areas, we can begin to understand the risks and move toward appropriate programmatic and policy solutions.

  11. Dietary consumption patterns and laryngeal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Vlastarakos, Petros V; Vassileiou, Andrianna; Delicha, Evie; Kikidis, Dimitrios; Protopapas, Dimosthenis; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a case-control study to investigate the effect of diet on laryngeal carcinogenesis. Our study population was made up of 140 participants-70 patients with laryngeal cancer (LC) and 70 controls with a non-neoplastic condition that was unrelated to diet, smoking, or alcohol. A food-frequency questionnaire determined the mean consumption of 113 different items during the 3 years prior to symptom onset. Total energy intake and cooking mode were also noted. The relative risk, odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression analysis. We found that the total energy intake was significantly higher in the LC group (p < 0.001), and that the difference remained statistically significant after logistic regression analysis (p < 0.001; OR: 118.70). Notably, meat consumption was higher in the LC group (p < 0.001), and the difference remained significant after logistic regression analysis (p = 0.029; OR: 1.16). LC patients also consumed significantly more fried food (p = 0.036); this difference also remained significant in the logistic regression model (p = 0.026; OR: 5.45). The LC group also consumed significantly more seafood (p = 0.012); the difference persisted after logistic regression analysis (p = 0.009; OR: 2.48), with the consumption of shrimp proving detrimental (p = 0.049; OR: 2.18). Finally, the intake of zinc was significantly higher in the LC group before and after logistic regression analysis (p = 0.034 and p = 0.011; OR: 30.15, respectively). Cereal consumption (including pastas) was also higher among the LC patients (p = 0.043), with logistic regression analysis showing that their negative effect was possibly associated with the sauces and dressings that traditionally accompany pasta dishes (p = 0.006; OR: 4.78). Conversely, a higher consumption of dairy products was found in controls (p < 0.05); logistic regression analysis showed that calcium appeared to be protective at the micronutrient level (p < 0

  12. Relative cancer risks of chemical contaminants in the great lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bro, Kenneth M.; Sonzogni, William C.; Hanson, Mark E.

    1987-08-01

    Anyone who drinks water or eats fish from the Great Lakes consumes potentially carcinogenic chemicals. In choosing how to respond to such pollution, it is important to put the risks these contaminants pose in perspective. Based on recent measurements of carcinogens in Great Lakes fish and water, calculations of lifetime risks of cancer indicate that consumers of sport fish face cancer risks from Great Lakes contaminants that are several orders of magnitude higher than the risks posed by drinking Great Lakes water. But drinking urban groundwater and breathing urban air may be as hazardous as frequent consumption of sport fish from the Great Lakes. Making such comparisons is difficult because of variation in types and quality of information available and in the methods for estimating risk. Much uncertainty pervades the risk assessment process in such areas as estimating carcinogenic potency and human exposure to contaminants. If risk assessment is to be made more useful, it is important to quantify this uncertainty.

  13. Non-dietary environmental risk factors in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrís-i-Tortajada, J; Berbel-Tornero, O; Garcia-i-Castell, J; López-Andreu, J.A.; Sobrino-Najul, E; Ortega-García, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim is to update and disclose the main environmental risk factors, excluding dietary factors, involved in the etiopathology of prostate cancer. Materials and methods Bibliographic review of the last 25 years of non-dietary environmental risk factors associated with prostate cancer between 1985 and 2010, obtained from MedLine, CancerLit, Science Citation Index and Embase. The search profiles were Environmental Risk Factors/Tobacco/Infectious-Inflammatory Factors/Pesticides/Vasectomy/Occupational Exposures/ Chemoprevention Agents/Radiation and Prostate Cancer. Results While some non-dietary environmental risk factors increase the risk of acquiring the disease, others decrease it. Of the former, it is worth mentioning exposal to tobacco smoke, chronic infectious-inflammatory prostatic processes and occupational exposure to cadmium, herbicides and pesticides. The first factors that reduce the risk are the use of chemopreventive drugs (Finasterida, Dutasteride) and exposure to ultraviolet solar radiation. With the current data, a vasectomy does not influence the risk of developing the disease. Conclusions The slow process of prostate carcinogenesis is the final result of the interaction of constitutional risk and environmental factors. Non-dietary environmental factors play an important role in the etiopathology of this disease. To appropriately assess the risk factors, extensive case studies that include all the possible variables must be analyzed. PMID:21439685

  14. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    PubMed

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  15. [Night shift work and cancer risk: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Brudnowska, Joanna; Pepłońska, Beata

    2011-01-01

    About 15-20% of the employees in Europe and in the USA are engaged in shift work that involves night work. Some experimental and observational data indicate that this type of work might lead to circadian disruption, including disruption in the melatonin synthesis - a hormone of anticarcinogenic and antioxidative properties. A hypothesis that there is a potential link between exposure to light at night and the risk of breast cancer was formulated for the first time by Stevens in 1987. Since then, relatively few epidemiological studies have been carried out in this area (15 studies including 8 cohort and 7 case-control studies). All of them are reviewed in this article. The majority of the epidemiological studies performed to date have focused on the association between shift work and breast cancer risk, few studies have reported an increased risk of other cancers, including colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, prostate cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In six out of ten studies, a statistically significant association between night shift work and risk of breast cancer has been shown (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.5 in nurses in Norway with > 30 years of night shift work). The increased cancer risk has been reported in nurses, radio-telephone operators, flight attendants, and women employed in the enterprises, in which 60% of employees work at night. Most of the analyses have been based on the data from the registries, with limited potential for the exposure assessment and confounders adjustment. Although some epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of breast cancer among nurses, we are still far from drawing final conclusions. Therefore, further epidemiological studies are warranted.

  16. Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information

    PubMed Central

    Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15–17, 18–19 and 20–24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on ‘protecting others’ from breast cancer to catch smokers’ attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed. PMID:20080807

  17. Cancer clinical trial participants' assessment of risk and benefit

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Connie M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Wallen, Gwenyth R.; Zhou, Qiuping (Pearl); Knafl, Kathleen; Grady, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which cancer clinical trial participants assess the benefits and risks of research participation before enrollment. Methods One hundred and ten oncology research participants enrolled in cancer clinical research in a large Northeastern cancer center responded to a self-administered questionnaire on perceptions about cancer clinical trials. Results Of the participants, 51.6% reported they did not directly assess the benefits or risks. Educational level, age, employment, treatment options, insurance, and spiritual–religious beliefs were significantly associated with whether participants assessed risk and benefits. Those who felt well informed were more likely to have assessed the benefits and risks at enrollment than those who did not feel well informed (odds ratio [OR] = 3.92, p = .014); of those who did not assess the risks and benefits, 21% did not feel well informed at enrollment (p = .001). Those who agreed that the clinical trial helped pay the costs of the care had nearly three times the odds of not assessing risks and benefits compared to those who disagreed. Conclusion Our findings have important implications for understanding the role of assessing risks and benefits in the research participation decisions of patients with cancer and call for further understanding of why participants are not assessing information believed to be essential for autonomous informed decisions. PMID:26709381

  18. Cancer risk perceptions in an urban Mediterranean population.

    PubMed

    García, Montse; Fernández, Esteve; Borràs, Josep Maria; Nieto, F Javier; Schiaffino, Anna; Peris, Mercè; Pérez, Glòria; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2005-10-20

    The objective of our study was to analyze the perceived (belief) or adopted (behavior) measures to reduce cancer risk in a Spanish population. We used cross-sectional data from the Cornella Health Interview Survey Follow-up Study (CHIS.FU). We analyzed 1,438 subjects who in 2002 answered questions about risk perceptions on cancer and related behavior (668 males and 770 females). The benefits of avoiding cigarette smoking (95.8%), sunlight exposure (94.9%) and alcohol (81.0%) were widely recognized. On the other hand, electromagnetic fields (92.1%), food coloring and other food additives (78.4%) or pesticides (69.4%), whose role in cancer occurrence, if any, remain unproven, were clearly considered as cancer risk factors in this population. Compared to men, women more frequently reported healthy behaviors, and the role of exogenous factors (i.e., environmental risk factors) were widely popular. There was a socioeconomic gradient on cancer risk perception with respect to several lifestyle or dietary factors. Individuals with higher educational level scored lower in several risk factors than those with primary or less than primary school education. Smokers reported adopting fewer healthy behaviors than former or never smokers. How people perceive health issues and risk or make choices about their own behavior does not always follow a predictable or rational pattern.

  19. Cancer risk assessment of 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed Central

    Cote, I L; Bayard, S P

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) risk assessment of 1,3-butadiene. The assessment focuses on estimation of increased cancer risk to populations living near industrial sources of 1,3-butadiene emissions rather than occupationally exposed populations. Incremental cancer risk estimates based on extrapolation from laboratory animal data are presented. Pharmacokinetic data published since the EPA's 1985 assessment are incorporated, which somewhat alters the earlier assessment of cancer risk. Characterization of emission sources, estimates of ambient air concentrations, and population exposure are also discussed. The estimate presented in this paper of excess cancer cases resulting from point source exposure to 1,3-butadiene is decreased to approximately 40% of the estimate published in 1985 from 6.4 in 10 to 2.5 chances in 10 for a lifetime exposure to 1 ppm. The current estimate is no more than eight additional cancer incidences in the general population. Increased risk to the most exposed individuals is not anticipated to be greater than 1 in 10. This reduction in the risk estimate is due to a change in the estimate of 1,3-butadiene potency (i.e., incremental unit risk estimate) based on incorporation of new pharmacokinetic data. PMID:2205485

  20. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: 12 ways to reduce your cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Schüz, Joachim; Espina, Carolina; Villain, Patricia; Herrero, Rolando; Leon, Maria E; Minozzi, Silvia; Romieu, Isabelle; Segnan, Nereo; Wardle, Jane; Wiseman, Martin; Belardelli, Filippo; Bettcher, Douglas; Cavalli, Franco; Galea, Gauden; Lenoir, Gilbert; Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Nicula, Florian Alexandru; Olsen, Jørgen H; Patnick, Julietta; Primic-Zakelj, Maja; Puska, Pekka; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Wiestler, Otmar; Zatonski, Witold

    2015-12-01

    This overview describes the principles of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer and provides an introduction to the 12 recommendations to reduce cancer risk. Among the 504.6 million inhabitants of the member states of the European Union (EU28), there are annually 2.64 million new cancer cases and 1.28 million deaths from cancer. It is estimated that this cancer burden could be reduced by up to one half if scientific knowledge on causes of cancer could be translated into successful prevention. The Code is a preventive tool aimed to reduce the cancer burden by informing people how to avoid or reduce carcinogenic exposures, adopt behaviours to reduce the cancer risk, or to participate in organised intervention programmes. The Code should also form a base to guide national health policies in cancer prevention. The 12 recommendations are: not smoking or using other tobacco products; avoiding second-hand smoke; being a healthy body weight; encouraging physical activity; having a healthy diet; limiting alcohol consumption, with not drinking alcohol being better for cancer prevention; avoiding too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation; avoiding cancer-causing agents at the workplace; reducing exposure to high levels of radon; encouraging breastfeeding; limiting the use of hormone replacement therapy; participating in organised vaccination programmes against hepatitis B for newborns and human papillomavirus for girls; and participating in organised screening programmes for bowel cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer.

  1. Insulin-Sensitizers, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Gynaecological Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lauretta, Rosa; Lanzolla, Giulia; Vici, Patrizia; Mariani, Luciano; Moretti, Costanzo

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical, early phase clinical trials and epidemiological evidence support the potential role of insulin-sensitizers in cancer prevention and treatment. Insulin-sensitizers improve the metabolic and hormonal profile in PCOS patients and may also act as anticancer agents, especially in cancers associated with hyperinsulinemia and oestrogen dependent cancers. Several lines of evidence support the protection against cancer exerted by dietary inositol, in particular inositol hexaphosphate. Metformin, thiazolidinediones, and myoinositol postreceptor signaling may exhibit direct inhibitory effects on cancer cell growth. AMPK, the main molecular target of metformin, is emerging as a target for cancer prevention and treatment. PCOS may be correlated to an increased risk for developing ovarian and endometrial cancer (up to threefold). Several studies have demonstrated an increase in mortality rate from ovarian cancer among overweight/obese PCOS women compared with normal weight women. Long-term use of metformin has been associated with lower rates of ovarian cancer. Considering the evidence supporting a higher risk of gynaecological cancer in PCOS women, we discuss the potential use of insulin-sensitizers as a potential tool for chemoprevention, hypothesizing a possible rationale through which insulin-sensitizers may inhibit tumourigenesis. PMID:27725832

  2. Genetic testing and your cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetic mutations are linked with the following cancers: Breast (male and female) Ovarian Prostate Pancreatic Bone Leukemia Adrenal gland Thyroid Endometrial Colorectal Small intestine Renal pelvis Liver ...

  3. Risk of lung cancer among former chromium smelter workers.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, K D; Stanbury, M

    1996-05-01

    Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen. Previous epidemiologic studies in the 1950s of United States workers from seven facilities producing chromium compounds from chromite ore have reported a markedly increased risk for dying from lung cancer. As part of a high risk notification project of workers from four of these facilities, a mortality study was performed. The cohort was assembled in 1990-1991 from the Social Security records of four former chromate producing facilities in northern New Jersey. The study subjects were known to have worked at these facilities some time between 1937 and 1971. Proportionate mortality and proportionate cancer mortality ratios (PCMR) were calculated. The overall risk for lung cancer was a PCMR of 1.51 (confidence limits [CL] 1.29-1.74) for white men and 1.34 (CL 1.00-1.75) for black men. These risks increased with increasing duration of employment and latency since time of first employment. The PCMR for greater than 20 years duration of work and more than 20 years since first exposure was 1.94 (CL 1.15-3.06) for white men and 3.08 (CL 1.13-6.71) for black men. The risk for lung cancer for white men remains elevated more than 20 years after exposure has ceased (PCMR, 1.29; CL 1.03-1.60). The PCMR for nasal cavity/sinus cancer was also found to be a significantly increased, 5.18 (CL 2.37-11.30). A cluster of bladder cancer was seen among black workers from one facility, (PCMR, 3.30; CL 1.42-6.51). Despite the cessation of exposure, former chromium workers remain at significantly increased risk of lung cancer. Although there have been case reports of nasal cavity/ sinus cancer in association with chromium exposure, this is the first epidemiologic study to report a significant increase in these cancers. Limitations in this study include lack of exposure data and lack of information on smoking habits. The lack of increase in other smoking-related diseases besides lung cancer indicates that the increase in lung cancer cannot be

  4. Tobacco and lung cancer: risks, trends, and outcomes in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Warren, Graham W; Cummings, K Michael

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use, primarily associated with cigarette smoking, is the largest preventable cause of cancer mortality, responsible for approximately one-third of all cancer deaths. Approximately 85% of lung cancers result from smoking, with an additional fraction caused by secondhand smoke exposure in nonsmokers. The risk of lung cancer is dose dependent, but can be dramatically reduced with tobacco cessation, especially if the person discontinues smoking early in life. The increase in lung cancer incidence in different countries around in the world parallels changes in cigarette consumption. Lung cancer risks are not reduced by switching to filters or low-tar/low-nicotine cigarettes. In patients with cancer, continued tobacco use after diagnosis is associated with poor therapeutic outcomes including increased treatment-related toxicity, increased risk of second primary cancer, decreased quality of life, and decreased survival. Tobacco cessation in patients with cancer may improve cancer treatment outcomes, but cessation support is often not provided by oncologists. Reducing the health related effects of tobacco requires coordinated efforts to reduce exposure to tobacco, accurately assess tobacco use in clinical settings, and increase access to tobacco cessation support. Lung cancer screening and coordinated international tobacco control efforts offer the promise to dramatically reduce lung cancer mortality in the coming decades.

  5. Are people willing to buy natural disaster insurance in China? Risk awareness, insurance acceptance, and willingness to pay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Liao, Chuan; Yang, Saini; Zhao, Weiting; Liu, Min; Shi, Peijun

    2012-10-01

    After the Wenchuan earthquake (magnitude 7.9, May 12, 2008), intensive debates on how China should establish a natural disaster insurance system were initiated among researchers, policymakers, and insurance professionals. Our focus was the social aspects of disaster insurance, explored in China through a nationwide survey. Our questionnaires investigated people's risk awareness, insurance acceptance, their opinions on governmental measures for disaster management, and their willingness to pay for disaster house insurance. We analyzed the results at both regional and individual scales. We found that the integrated hazard index and respondents' experience of insurance (considered objective factors), and their opinions on the importance of insurance and government responsibility (considered subjective factors) showed strong correlation with the regional overall acceptance of disaster insurance. An individual's decision to participate highly depended on his/her experience of both insurance and disaster and his/her opinion on the importance of insurance as a coping mechanism. Respondents from poverty-stricken or less-developed counties were not necessarily more reluctant to accept natural disaster insurance, though they exhibited relatively lower ability to afford insurance. In general, respondents had correct perceptions of natural disasters in their areas; however, people from regions with a greater multihazard threat showed less willingness to accept disaster insurance because they tended to expect the government to undertake to cover losses and considered insurance to be less important. People's willingness to pay for an assumed disaster house insurance was also investigated and analyzed. We consequently discuss the policy implications for developing a disaster insurance system in China.

  6. Gastric cancer risk factors in subjects with family history.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, S E; Ferraroni, M; La Vecchia, C; Decarli, A

    1997-02-01

    Until now, it has been unclear whether there are differences in various risk factor profiles for familial gastric cancer, i.e., gastric cancer among subjects with a family history of the disease. A total of 722 gastric cancer patients and 2024 controls were admitted between 1985 and 1992 to a network of hospitals in the Greater Milan area. Of these, 88 cases and 103 controls who reported a family history of gastric cancer in first degree relatives were considered in the present analysis. There was no relationship between gastric cancer risk and tobacco smoking or alcohol drinking. Shorter duration of electrical refrigerator use was related to a nonsignificant increased risk and a high daily meal frequency was associated with an increased gastric cancer risk. Significant direct trends of risk were observed for pasta (odds ratio, OR = 4.20 for the highest versus the lowest tertile), bread (OR, 2.86), red meat (OR, 3.38), and preserved meat (OR, 1.90). Inverse associations were observed for increasing consumption of selected vegetables and fruits, chiefly peppers (OR = 0.31), total fruits (OR, 0.47), and citrus fruits (OR, 0.38). With reference to selected micronutrients, a significant inverse trend in risk with increasing consumption for beta-carotene (OR, 0.27) and ascorbic acid (OR, 0.20) was observed. These results suggest that dietary risk factors for subjects with a family history of gastric cancer in first-degree relatives are not appreciably different from well-established risk factors of the disease in the general population.

  7. Psychological interventions for patients with cancer: psychological flexibility and the potential utility of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hulbert-Williams, N J; Storey, L; Wilson, K G

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is an illness affecting patients' physical and psychosocial well-being: high numbers report problematic levels of distress at many points through diagnosis, treatment and survivorship. Conclusive evidence for the long-term benefits of psychological interventions is lacking and this may be because (1) they employ a too limited scope of underlying therapeutic model; or (2) that they are too focused on improving psychopathological outcomes. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may add components not emphasised elsewhere and may provide a more suitable model of adjustment and coping. Following a comprehensive literature search a theoretical and conceptual discussion of the potential for ACT-based oncology interventions is presented. Only a small number of studies have purposively studied the application of ACT within the cancer setting, but this nonetheless presents useful pilot data. The data demonstrate potential clinical- and cost-effectiveness for a range of patients, including those with psychological comorbidity. Within the context of wider cancer adjustment, ACT offers an intervention framework to appropriately build upon the strong empirical base already established for Mindfulness within this specific patient population. The evidence available suggests that the underlying framework of ACT offers an intervention model that is potentially more suited to the individualistic nature of cancer adjustment.

  8. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, and risk of colorectal cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Purdue, Mark P.; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.; Mondul, Alison M.; Black, Amanda; Ahn, Jiyoung; Huang, Wen-Yi; Horst, Ronald L.; Kopp, William; Rager, Helen; Ziegler, Regina G.; Albanes, Demetrius

    2014-01-01

    The potential role of vitamin D in cancer prevention has generated substantial interest, and laboratory experiments indicate several anti-cancer properties for vitamin D compounds. Prospective studies of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the accepted biomarker of vitamin D status, suggest an inverse association with colorectal cancer risk, but with some inconsistencies. Furthermore, the direct or indirect impact of the key transport protein, vitamin D binding protein (DBP), has not been examined. We conducted a prospective study of serum 25(OH)D and DBP concentrations and colorectal cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, based on 476 colorectal cancer cases and 476 controls, matched on age, sex, race, and date of serum collection. All subjects underwent sigmoidoscopic screening at baseline and once during follow-up. Conditional logistic regression estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Circulating 25(OH)D was inversely associated with colorectal cancer (OR=0.60, 95% CI 0.38-0.94 for highest versus lowest quintile, p-trend 0.01). Adjusting for recognized colorectal cancer risk factors and accounting for seasonal vitamin D variation did not alter the findings. Neither circulating DBP nor the 25(OH)D:DBP molar ratio, a proxy for free circulating 25(OH)D, was associated with risk (OR=0.82, 95% CI 0.54-1.26, and OR=0.79, 95% CI 0.52-1.21, respectively), and DBP did not modify the 25(OH)D association. The current study eliminated confounding by colorectal cancer screening behavior, and supports an association between higher vitamin D status and substantially lower colorectal cancer risk, but does not indicate a direct or modifying role for DBP. PMID:25156182

  9. Available, accessible, aware, appropriate, and acceptable: a strategy to improve participation of teenagers and young adults in cancer trials.

    PubMed

    Fern, Lorna A; Lewandowski, Jennifer A; Coxon, Katy M; Whelan, Jeremy

    2014-07-01

    Under-representation of teenagers and young adults in clinical trials for cancer is acknowledged internationally and might account for the lower survival gains noted for this group. Little research has focused on strategies to increase participation of teenagers and young adults in clinical trials. We applied a conceptual framework for barriers to recruitment of under-represented populations to data for cancer clinical trials in teenagers and young adults. We did a systematic analysis of data for clinical trial enrolment in Great Britain over 6 years (2005-10), and reviewed the published work for the origins and scientific rationale of age eligibility criteria in clinical trials for cancer. Our Review revealed little scientific evidence for use of age eligibility criteria in cancer clinical trials. Participation in cancer trials fell as age increased. Between 2005 and 2010, participation rates increased for children and young people aged 0-24 years. The highest increase in participation was for teenagers aged 15-19 years, with smaller improvements in rates for 20-24 year olds. Improvements were related to five key criteria, the five As: available, accessible, aware, appropriate, and acceptable. In studies for which age eligibility criteria were appropriate for inclusion of teenagers or young adults or amended during the study period, participation rates for 15-19 year olds were similar to those for 10-14 year olds. We propose a conceptual model for a strategic approach to improve recruitment of teenagers and younger adults to clinical trials for cancer, with use of the five As, which is applicable worldwide for investigators, regulatory authorities, representatives in industry, policy makers, funders, and health-care professionals.

  10. Cancer risks from exposure to radon in homes.

    PubMed Central

    Axelson, O

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to radon and its decay products in mines is a well recognized risk of lung cancer in miners. A large number of epidemiologic studies from various countries are quite consistent in this respect even it the magnitude of the risk differs according to exposure levels. Indoor radon became a concern in the 1970s and about a dozen studies have been conducted since 1979, mainly of the case-control design. From first being of a simple pilot character, the designs have become increasingly sophisticated, especially with regard to exposure assessment. Crude exposure estimates based on type of house, building material and geological features have been supplemented or replaced by quite extensive measurements. Still, exposure assessment remains a difficult and uncertain issue in these studies, most of which indicate a lung cancer risk from indoor radon. Also a recent large scale study has confirmed a lung cancer risk from indoor radon. More recently there are also some studies, mainly of the correlation type, suggesting other cancers also to be related to indoor radon, especially leukemia, kidney cancer, and malignant melanoma, and some other cancers as well. The data are less consistent and much more uncertain than for indoor radon and lung cancer, however; and there is no clear support from studies of miners in this respect. PMID:7614945

  11. A prospective study of selenium status and breast cancer risk

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, D.J.; Stampfer, M.J.; Colditz, G.A.; Speizer, F.E.; Willett, W.C. ); Morris, J.S. )

    1990-09-05

    Low dietary intake of selenium has been proposed as a risk factor for breast cancer. To address this hypothesis, the authors collected toenail clippings from 62,641 women in the Nurses' Health Study cohort who were free from cancer in 1982 and 1983. The selenium concentration in nails has been shown to reflect dietary intake of selenium. During 53 months of follow-up, 434 cases of breast cancer were diagnosed among women who had submitted a set of toenail clippings, and they matched one control free from breast and other cancers to each case. The mean selenium level in toenails in the cases was almost identical to that of the controls. After controlling for known breast cancer risk factors, the relative risk for women in the highest quintile of selenium as compared with the lowest quintile was 1.10 and there was not trend across quintiles. Results were similar for both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Although these data do not exclude a possible influence of selenium intake before adulthood on subsequent risk of breast cancer, selenium intake later in life is not likely to be an important factor in the etiology of breast cancer.

  12. [Risk of cancer among Danish electricity workers. A cohort study].

    PubMed

    Johansen, C; Olsen, J H

    1999-04-05

    We report the incidence of cancer in a large cohort of employees identified from all 99 Danish utility companies. Personal data, and information on employment and exposure to magnetic fields and asbestos were obtained from manual files at the companies, the Danish Supplementary Pension Fund and the public payroll administration. A total of 32,006 individuals with more than three months of employment were linked with the files of the Danish Cancer Registry. Overall, 3008 cancers were observed, with 2825 expected, yielding a small but significantly increased risk of 1.06 (95% CI, 1.03-1.10). No excess was observed for all leukemias or for cancers of the brain or breast among men or women. There was no association of electromagnetic field exposure with risk of these cancers even when the level and length of exposure to magnetic fields were taken into account. Increased risks for cancers of the lung and pleural cavity were seen mainly for workers whose jobs involve exposure to asbestos. Our results do not support the hypothesis of an association between occupational exposures to magnetic fields in the electric utility industry and the risk for cancer.

  13. Risk of Cancer Among Firefighters in California, 1988–2007

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Rebecca J.; Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Schumacher, Pam; Cress, Rosemary D.; Deapen, Dennis M.; Calvert, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most studies of firefighter cancer risks were conducted prior to 1990 and do not reflect risk from advances in building materials. Methods A case–control study using California Cancer Registry data (1988–2007) was conducted to evaluate the risk of cancer among firefighters, stratified by race. Results This study identified 3,996 male firefighters with cancer. Firefighters were found to have a significantly elevated risk for melanoma (odds ratio [OR]=1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–2.1), multiple myeloma (OR 1.4; 95%CI 1.0–1.8), acute myeloid leukemia (OR 1.4; 95%CI 1.0–2.0), and cancers of the esophagus (OR 1.6;95%CI 1.2–2.1), prostate (OR 1.5; 95%CI 1.3–1.7), brain (OR 1.5; 95%CI 1.2–2.0), and kidney (OR 1.3; 95%CI 1.0–1.6). Conclusions In addition to observing cancer findings consistent with previous research, this study generated novel findings for firefighters with race/ethnicity other than white. It provides additional evidence to support the association between firefighting and several specific cancers. PMID:25943908

  14. 78 FR 52998 - Waiver to Space Exploration Technologies Corporation of Acceptable Risk Limit for Launch

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... during September.\\2\\ NASA, the ] U.S. Air Force and other U.S. National Test ranges use 0.0001 as the... Standards for National Test Ranges (2010). If the Falcon 9 v1.1's collective risk were to exceed 0.0001... from U.S. National Test Ranges is 0.0001, which, because it comprises debris, toxics, and...

  15. MINI REVIEW - EPIGENETIC PROCESSES AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment encourages the use of mechanistic data in the assessment of human cancer risk at low (environmental) exposure levels. The key events that define a particular mode of action for tumor fo...

  16. Modifiable Risk Factors for Lymphedema in Breast Cancer Survivors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0387 TITLE: Modifiable Risk Factors for Lymphedema ...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 Oct 2005 – 30 Sep 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Modifiable Risk Factors for Lymphedema in Breast...Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Lymphedema of the arm is a consequence of breast cancer

  17. Testicular cancer: risk stratification in adolescents with nonseminoma.

    PubMed

    Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2014-07-01

    Data are lacking on the role of histological risk factors (such as embryonal carcinoma and lymphovascular invasion) for occult metastasis in adolescents with testicular germ cell tumours. Investigators of a pilot study have now retrospectively reviewed a testis cancer database to identify risk stratification criteria in this population.

  18. Sun Protection Motivational Stages and Behavior: Skin Cancer Risk Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagoto, Sherry L.; McChargue, Dennis E.; Schneider, Kristin; Cook, Jessica Werth

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To create skin cancer risk profiles that could be used to predict sun protection among Midwest beachgoers. Method: Cluster analysis was used with study participants (N=239), who provided information about sun protection motivation and behavior, perceived risk, burn potential, and tan importance. Participants were clustered according to…

  19. Mitochondrial DNA variant interactions modify breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Covarrubias, Daniel; Bai, Ren-Kui; Wong, Lee-Jun C; Leal, Suzanne M

    2008-01-01

    Interactions between mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) variants and the risk of developing breast cancer were investigated using DNA samples collected from non-Jewish European American breast cancer patients and ethnically age-matched female controls. Logistic regression was used to evaluate two-way interactions between 17 mtDNA variants. To control for multiple testing, empirical P values were calculated using permutation. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to measure the contribution of variants in modifying the risk of developing breast cancer. A highly significant interaction was identified between variants 12308G and 10398G (empirical P value = 0.0028), with results suggesting these variants increase the risk of a woman developing breast cancer (OR = 3.03; 95% CI 1.53-6.11). Nominal significant P values were also observed for interactions between mtDNA variants 709A and 16189C; 4216C and 10398G; 4216C and 16189C; 10398G and 16159C; 13368A and 16189C; and 14766T and 16519C. However, after adjusting for multiple testing, the P values did not remain significant. Although it is important to elucidate the main effect of mtDNA variants on the risk of developing breast cancer, understanding gene x gene interactions will give a greater knowledge of disease etiology and aid in interpreting a woman's risk of developing breast cancer.

  20. Temporal distributions of risk for radiation-induced cancers.

    PubMed

    Land, C E

    1987-01-01

    Observations of cancer risk in irradiated human populations over time after exposure suggest that there are at least two, and perhaps more, very different patterns of temporal distribution of risk for radiation-induced cancer. The first, exemplified by bone sarcoma following therapeutic injection of 224Ra and chronic granulocytic leukemia in Japanese A-bomb survivors, is an early, wave-like pulse consisting of an increase in risk followed by a gradual decline back to baseline levels. The second, exemplified by breast cancer following a brief exposure to external gamma ray or X ray, and by lung cancer and stomach cancer in A-bomb survivors, is an increase in relative risk over about 10 years to a value which appears to remain constant over time thereafter. The first pattern suggests that tumor growth kinetics may play a central role in the temporal distribution of risk following exposure, while the second seems more consistent with multi-event models for carcinogenesis, in which radiation or some other cause of early events must be followed by one or more later events whose frequencies depend mainly on attained age. There are, however, other data that appear to conform to neither of the two models just mentioned. Influences of other cancer causes, like tobacco smoking, are potentially serious confounding factors in studies of induction period.

  1. Breast cancer risk and participation in mammographic screening.

    PubMed Central

    Taplin, S; Anderman, C; Grothaus, L

    1989-01-01

    Within the context of an organized breast cancer screening program we conducted a prospective evaluation of the relation between breast cancer risk and participation in mammographic screening. The influence on participation of known breast cancer risk factors, as well as a summary risk label, (i.e. "high", or "moderate") were examined. The overall participation rate was 71 percent among 2,422 women, 50 to 79 years of age, invited to a centralized clinic. Multivariate analyses showed participation to be somewhat decreased among women with late menopause and definitely increased among women with any of the following factors: 1) increased age; 2) a family history of breast cancer; and 3) a previous breast biopsy. Women in the high-risk group were most likely to participate but the effect of the label was stronger among women ages 50 to 59 compared to women ages 60 to 79. The study results are generally consistent with previous findings that participants in screening programs have higher rates of breast cancer. The results also suggest the possibility that providing breast cancer risk information may encourage participation in screening. PMID:2817159

  2. Unrecognized or potential risk factors for childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Van Larebeke, Nicolas A; Birnbaum, Linda S; Boogaerts, Marc A; Bracke, Marc; Davis, Devra Lee; Demarini, David M; Hooper, Kim; Huff, James; Kleinjans, Jos C; Legator, Marvin S; Schoeters, Greet; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiologic methods only seldom identify causes of childhood cancer associated with relative risks below a factor of 1 1/2-2. Children are at risk of exposure to over 15,000 high-production-volume chemicals and are certainly exposed to many carcinogens. The individual impacts of most of these agents are too small to be detected, but collectively these unrecognized factors are potentially important. Infants and children are exposed to higher levels of some environmental toxicants and may also be more sensitive. During intrauterine development and childhood, cells divide frequently, and the mutant frequency rises rapidly. Endocrine-related cancers or susceptibility to cancer may result from developmental exposures rather than from exposures existing at or near the time of diagnosis. That environmental exposures may be important causes of childhood cancers is indicated by associations of enzyme polymorphisms with risk.

  3. Circadian Genes and Risk for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to determine if finasteride (an inhibitor of androgen bioactivation) could prevent prostate cancer... finasteride  (an inhibitor of androgen bioactivation) could  prevent prostate cancer. Included in our study are approximately 1,800 case‐control pairs

  4. Cancer-related fatigue: Mechanisms, risk factors, and treatments

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Julienne E.

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment, and may persist for years after treatment completion in otherwise healthy survivors. Cancer-related fatigue causes disruption in all aspects of quality of life and may be a risk factor for reduced survival. The prevalence and course of fatigue in cancer patients has been well characterized, and there is growing understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. Inflammation has emerged as a key biological pathway for cancer-related fatigue, with studies documenting links between markers of inflammation and fatigue before, during, and particularly after treatment. There is considerable variability in the experience of cancer-related fatigue that is not explained by disease- or treatment-related characteristics, suggesting that host factors may play an important role in the development and persistence of this symptom. Indeed, longitudinal studies have begun to identify genetic, biological, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors for cancer-related fatigue. Given the multi-factorial nature of cancer-related fatigue, a variety of intervention approaches have been examined in randomized controlled trials, including physical activity, psychosocial, mind-body, and pharmacological treatments. Although there is currently no gold standard for treating fatigue, several of these approaches have shown beneficial effects and can be recommended to patients. This report provides a state of the science review of mechanisms, risk factors, and interventions for cancer-related fatigue, with a focus on recent longitudinal studies and randomized trials that have targeted fatigued patients. PMID:25113839

  5. Stomach Cancer Risk After Treatment for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Lindsay M.; Dores, Graça M.; Curtis, Rochelle E.; Lynch, Charles F.; Stovall, Marilyn; Hall, Per; Gilbert, Ethel S.; Hodgson, David C.; Storm, Hans H.; Johannesen, Tom Børge; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita E.; Andersson, Michael; Fossa, Sophie D.; Hauptmann, Michael; Holowaty, Eric J.; Joensuu, Heikki; Kaijser, Magnus; Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Langmark, Frøydis; Pukkala, Eero; Vaalavirta, Leila; van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Travis, Lois B.; Aleman, Berthe M.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear. Patients and Methods We conducted an international case-control study of stomach cancer nested in a cohort of 19,882 HL survivors diagnosed from 1953 to 2003, including 89 cases and 190 matched controls. For each patient, we quantified cumulative doses of specific alkylating agents (AAs) and reconstructed radiation dose to the stomach tumor location. Results Stomach cancer risk increased with increasing radiation dose to the stomach (Ptrend < .001) and with increasing number of AA-containing chemotherapy cycles (Ptrend = .02). Patients who received both radiation to the stomach ≥ 25 Gy and high-dose procarbazine (≥ 5,600 mg/m2) had strikingly elevated stomach cancer risk (25 cases, two controls; odds ratio [OR], 77.5; 95% CI, 14.7 to 1452) compared with those who received radiation < 25 Gy and procarbazine < 5,600 mg/m2 (Pinteraction < .001). Risk was also elevated (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3 to 6.4) among patients who received radiation to the stomach ≥ 25 Gy but procarbazine < 5,600 mg/m2; however, no procarbazine-related risk was evident with radiation < 25 Gy. Treatment with dacarbazine also increased stomach cancer risk (12 cases, nine controls; OR, 8.8; 95% CI, 2.1 to 46.6), after adjustment for radiation and procarbazine doses. Conclusion Patients with HL who received subdiaphragmatic radiotherapy had dose-dependent increased risk of stomach cancer, with marked risks for patients who also received chemotherapy containing high-dose procarbazine. For current patients, risks and benefits of exposure to both procarbazine and subdiaphragmatic radiotherapy should be weighed carefully. For patients treated previously, GI symptoms should be evaluated promptly. PMID:23980092

  6. Perceived risk of cervical cancer among low-income women

    PubMed Central

    Asiedu, Gladys B.; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Breitkopf, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Risk perception is an important predictor of cancer prevention behaviors. We examined perceived risk of cervical cancer among an ethnically diverse population of women of lower socioeconomic status. Materials and Methods Females attending a women's health clinic were recruited for a study addressing cervical cancer prevention. Survey questions evaluated lifetime perceived risk of cervical cancer (0% to 100%), beliefs about the accuracy of the Pap test, and estimated incidence of abnormal Pap test results. Risk estimates for oneself were followed with an item seeking a brief, qualitative explanation of the risk estimate. Results Surveys were completed by 338 women. The mean (M ±SD) age of respondents was 29.9 ±8.6 years. Women self-identified as Hispanic/Latina (32%, n=107), White (34%, n=116), and African American (34%, n=115). Estimated perceived lifetime risk of getting cervical cancer ranged from 0% to 100% (M=59.2 ±29.5). Risk estimates were associated with perceived prevalence of abnormal results, r=0.24, p<0.001, and perceptions regarding the accuracy of the Pap test, r=0.13, p<0.05. On average, women estimated that nearly half of all women have ever had an abnormal result (49.2 ± 26.9; n=335; range 0%-100%), with African-American women estimating a higher percentage compared to Hispanic/Latina and White women. Women who themselves experienced an abnormal Pap test result reported higher proportions of other women experiencing an abnormal result, t(333) = −3.67, p<0.01. Conclusions This study advances our understanding of misperception of risk and how women qualitatively view their risk of cervical cancer. The findings underscore areas for practitioners to enhance patient education efforts. PMID:24633172

  7. Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Calvin Y; Hayes, Richard B

    2012-03-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates human oral bacteria in the etiology of oral and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, conditions caused by oral bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. Oral bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through chronic inflammation. High-throughput genetic-based assays now make it possible to comprehensively survey the human oral microbiome, the totality of bacteria in the oral cavity. Establishing the association of the oral microbiome with cancer risk may lead to significant advances in understanding of cancer etiology, potentially opening a new research paradigm for cancer prevention.

  8. The risk of childhood cancer from intrauterine and preconceptional exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeford, R.

    1995-11-01

    The findings of studies investigating whether exposures to ionizing radiation before birth, either pre- or post-conception, increase the risk of childhood cancer have provoked much scientific controversy. An epidemiological association between the abdominal exposure or pregnant women to diagnostic X-rays and childhood cancer was first reported in the 1950s, while an association between the recorded dose of radiation received occupationally by fathers before the conception of their offspring and childhood leukemia was reported only recently in 1990. The scientific interpretation of these particular statistical associations is by no means straightforward, but the latest analyses of intrauterine irradiation and childhood cancer indicate that a causal inference is likely. Scientific committees have adopted risk coefficients for the intrauterine exposure of somatic tissues, which for childhood leukemia are comparable to those accepted for exposure in infancy, although questions remain about the level of risk of childhood solid tumors imparted by exposure to radiation in utero and shortly after birth. In contrast, the association has been found to be restricted to children born in one village, it does not extend to cancers other than leukemia, and it is markedly inconsistent with the established body of knowledge on radiation-induced hereditary disease. A causal interpretation of this association has effectively been abandoned by scientific authorities. 84 refs., 1 tab.

  9. The risk of childhood cancer from intrauterine and preconceptional exposure to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Wakeford, R

    1995-01-01

    The findings of studies investigating whether exposures to ionizing radiation before birth, either pre- or post-conception, increase the risk of childhood cancer have provoked much scientific controversy. An epidemiological association between the abdominal exposure of pregnant women to diagnostic X-rays and childhood cancer was first reported in the 1950s, while an association between the recorded dose of radiation received occupationally by fathers before the conception of their offspring and childhood leukemia was reported only recently in 1990. The scientific interpretation of these particular statistical associations is by no means straightforward, but the latest analyses of intrauterine irradiation and childhood cancer indicate that a causal inference is likely. Scientific committees have adopted risk coefficients for the intrauterine exposure of somatic tissues, which for childhood leukemia are comparable to those accepted for exposure in infancy, although questions remain about the level of risk of childhood solid tumors imparted by exposure to radiation in utero and shortly after birth. In contrast, the association between paternal preconceptional radiation dose and childhood leukemia has not been confirmed by studies using objectively determined doses. The original association has been found to be restricted to children born in one village, it does not extend to cancers other than leukemia, and it is markedly inconsistent with the established body of knowledge on radiation-induced hereditary disease. A causal interpretation of this association has effectively been abandoned by scientific authorities. Images p1018-a PMID:8605850

  10. Vitamin D Metabolic Pathway Genes and Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Arem, Hannah; Yu, Kai; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Moy, Kristin; Freedman, Neal D.; Mayne, Susan T.; Albanes, Demetrius; Arslan, Alan A.; Austin, Melissa; Bamlet, William R.; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Bracci, Paige; Canzian, Federico; Cotterchio, Michelle; Duell, Eric J.; Gallinger, Steve; Giles, Graham G.; Goggins, Michael; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Hartge, Patricia; Hassan, Manal; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Henderson, Brian; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Hoover, Robert; Jacobs, Eric J.; Kamineni, Aruna; Klein, Alison; Klein, Eric; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Li, Donghui; Malats, Núria; Männistö, Satu; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M.; Porta, Miquel; Severi, Gianluca; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Visvanathan, Kala; White, Emily; Yu, Herbert; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Maeder, Dennis; Brotzman, Michelle; Risch, Harvey; Sampson, Joshua N.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on the association between vitamin D status and pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. This inconsistency may be partially attributable to variation in vitamin D regulating genes. We selected 11 vitamin D-related genes (GC, DHCR7, CYP2R1, VDR, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP27A1, RXRA, CRP2, CASR and CUBN) totaling 213 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and examined associations with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Our study included 3,583 pancreatic cancer cases and 7,053 controls from the genome-wide association studies of pancreatic cancer PanScans-I-III. We used the Adaptive Joint Test and the Adaptive Rank Truncated Product statistic for pathway and gene analyses, and unconditional logistic regression for SNP analyses, adjusting for age, sex, study and population stratification. We examined effect modification by circulating vitamin D concentration (≤50, >50 nmol/L) for the most significant SNPs using a subset of cohort cases (n = 713) and controls (n = 878). The vitamin D metabolic pathway was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk (p = 0.830). Of the individual genes, none were associated with pancreatic cancer risk at a significance level of p<0.05. SNPs near the VDR (rs2239186), LRP2 (rs4668123), CYP24A1 (rs2762932), GC (rs2282679), and CUBN (rs1810205) genes were the top SNPs associated with pancreatic cancer (p-values 0.008–0.037), but none were statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Associations between these SNPs and pancreatic cancer were not modified by circulating concentrations of vitamin D. These findings do not support an association between vitamin D-related genes and pancreatic cancer risk. Future research should explore other pathways through which vitamin D status might be associated with pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:25799011

  11. Risk perception and psychological morbidity in men at elevated risk for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matthew, A.G.; Davidson, T.; Ochs, S.; Currie, K.L.; Petrella, A.; Finelli, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective As prostate-specific antigen (psa) makes prostate cancer (pca) screening more accessible, more men are being identified with conditions that indicate high risk for developing pca, such as elevated psa and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (hgpin). In the present study, we assessed psychological well-being and risk perception in individuals with those high-risk conditions. Methods A questionnaire consisting of a psychological symptom survey, a trait risk-aversion survey, and a cancer-specific risk perception survey was administered to 168 patients with early-stage localized pca and 69 patients at high risk for pca (n = 16 hgpin, n = 53 psa > 4 ng/mL). Analysis of variance was used to examine differences in psychological well-being and appraisal of risk between the groups. Results Compared with the pca group, the high-risk group perceived their risk of dying from something other than pca to be significantly lower (p = 0.007). However, pca patients reported significantly more clinically important psychological symptoms. Conclusions The identification of prostate conditions that predict progression to cancer might not result in the psychological symptoms commonly experienced by pca patients, but does appear to be related to a distorted perception of the disease’s mortal risk. Patients with pca experience reduced psychological well-being, but better understand the risks of pca recurrence and death. Education on the risks and outcomes of pca can help at-risk men to view health assessments with reduced worry. PMID:26715884

  12. Assessing absolute changes in breast cancer risk due to modifiable risk factors.

    PubMed

    Quante, Anne S; Herz, Julia; Whittemore, Alice S; Fischer, Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Terry, Mary Beth

    2015-07-01

    Clinical risk assessment involves absolute risk measures, but information on modifying risk and preventing cancer is often communicated in relative terms. To illustrate the potential impact of risk factor modification in model-based risk assessment, we evaluated the performance of the IBIS Breast Cancer Risk Evaluation Tool, with and without current body mass index (BMI), for predicting future breast cancer occurrence in a prospective cohort of 665 postmenopausal women. Overall, IBIS's accuracy (overall agreement between observed and assigned risks) and discrimination (AUC concordance between assigned risks and outcomes) were similar with and without the BMI information. However, in women with BMI > 25 kg/m(2), adding BMI information improved discrimination (AUC = 63.9 % and 61.4 % with and without BMI, P < 0.001). The model-assigned 10-year risk difference for a woman with high (27 kg/m(2)) versus low (21 kg/m(2)) BMI was only 0.3 % for a woman with neither affected first-degree relatives nor BRCA1 mutation, compared to 4.5 % for a mutation carrier with three such relatives. This contrast illustrates the value of using information on modifiable risk factors in risk assessment and in sharing information with patients of their absolute risks with and without modifiable risk factors.

  13. Is cancer risk of radiation workers larger than expected?

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, P; Rühm, W; Walsh, L; Blettner, M; Hammer, G; Zeeb, H

    2009-01-01

    Occupational exposures to ionising radiation mainly occur at low-dose rates and may accumulate effective doses of up to several hundred milligray. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the evidence of cancer risks from such low-dose-rate, moderate-dose (LDRMD) exposures. Our literature search for primary epidemiological studies on cancer incidence and mortality risks from LDRMD exposures included publications from 2002 to 2007, and an update of the UK National Registry for Radiation Workers study. For each (LDRMD) study we calculated the risk for the same types of cancer among the atomic bomb survivors with the same gender proportion and matched quantities for dose, mean age attained and mean age at exposure. A combined estimator of the ratio of the excess relative risk per dose from the LDRMD study to the corresponding value for the atomic bomb survivors was 1.21 (90% CI 0.51 to 1.90). The present analysis does not confirm that the cancer risk per dose for LDRMD exposures is lower than for the atomic bomb survivors. This result challenges the cancer risk values currently assumed for occupational exposures. PMID:19570756

  14. Sexual behaviour, STDs and risks for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, R B; Pottern, L M; Strickler, H; Rabkin, C; Pope, V; Swanson, G M; Greenberg, R S; Schoenberg, J B; Liff, J; Schwartz, A G; Hoover, R N; Fraumeni, J F

    2000-01-01

    A population-based case-control study was carried out among 981 men (479 black, 502 white) with pathologically confirmed prostate cancer and 1315 controls (594 black, 721 white). In-person interviews elicited information on sexual behaviour and other potential risk factors for prostate cancer. Blood was drawn for serologic studies in a subset of the cases (n = 276) and controls (n = 295). Prostate cancer risk was increased among men who reported a history of gonorrhoea or syphilis (odds ratio (OR) = 1.6; 95% confidence internal (CI) 1.2–2.1) or showed serological evidence of syphilis (MHA-TP) (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.0–3.5). Patterns of risk for gonorrhoea and syphilis were similar for blacks (OR = 1.7; 95% CI 1.2–2.2) and whites (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 0.8–3.2). Risks increased with increasing occurrences of gonorrhoea, rising to OR = 3.3 (95% CI 1.4–7.8) among subjects with three or more events (Ptrend= 0.0005). Frequent sexual encounters with prostitutes and failure to use condoms were also associated with increased risk. Syphilis, gonorrhoea, sex with prostitutes and unprotected sexual intercourse may be indicators of contact with a sexually transmissible factor that increases the risk of prostate cancer. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10682688

  15. Cancer Genetics Risk Assessment and Counseling (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary in which cancer risk perception, risk communication, and risk counseling are discussed. The summary also contains information about recording and analyzing a family history of cancer and factors to consider when offering genetic testing.

  16. Propranolol Reduces Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ping-Ying; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying; Chen, Jia-Hong; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-07-01

    β-Blockers have been reported to exhibit potential anticancer effects in cancer cell lines and animal models. However, clinical studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding cancer outcomes and cancer risk when β-blockers were used. This study investigated the association between propranolol and cancer risk.Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2011, a patient cohort was extracted from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, a subset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A propranolol cohort (propranolol usage >6 months) and nonpropranolol cohort were matched using a propensity score. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cancer associated with propranolol treatment.The study sample comprised 24,238 patients. After a 12-year follow-up period, the cumulative incidence for developing cancer was low in the propranolol cohort (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.67-0.85; P < 0.001). Patients with propranolol treatment exhibited significantly lower risks of cancers in head and neck (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35-0.95), esophagus (HR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.13-0.96), stomach (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30-0.98), colon (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49-0.93), and prostate cancers (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33-0.83). The protective effect of propranolol for head and neck, stomach, colon, and prostate cancers was most substantial when exposure duration exceeded 1000 days.This study supports the proposition that propranolol can reduce the risk of head and neck, esophagus, stomach, colon, and prostate cancers. Further prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings.

  17. A Genome-wide Pleiotropy Scan for Prostate Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotou, Orestis A; Travis, Ruth C; Campa, Daniele; Berndt, Sonja I.; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Siddiq, Afshan; Papatheodorou, Stefania I.; Stanford, Janet L.; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Kaaks, Rudolf; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Krogh, Vittorio; Overvad, Kim; Riboli, Elio; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Giovannucci, Edward; Stampfer, Meir; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian; Le Marchand, Loic; Gaziano, J. Michael; Hunter, DavidJ.; Koutros, Stella; Yeager, Meredith; Hoover, Robert N.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Wacholder, Sholom; Key, Timothy J.; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K

    2014-01-01

    Background No single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) specific for aggressive prostate cancer have been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Objective To test if SNPs associated with other traits may also affect the risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Design, setting, and participants SNPs implicated in any phenotype other than prostate cancer (p ≤ 10−7) were identified through the catalog of published GWAS and tested in 2891 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 4592 controls from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). The 40 most significant SNPs were followed up in 4872 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 24 534 controls from the Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for aggressive prostate cancer were estimated. Results and limitations A total of 4666 SNPs were evaluated by the BPC3. Two signals were seen in regions already reported for prostate cancer risk. rs7014346 at 8q24.21 was marginally associated with aggressive prostate cancer in the BPC3 trial (p = 1.6 × 10-6), whereas after meta-analysis by PRACTICAL the summary OR was 1.21 (95%CI 1.16–1.27; p = 3.22 × 10−18). rs9900242 at 17q24.3 was also marginally associated with aggressive disease in the meta-analysis (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86–0.94; p = 2.5 × 10−6). Neither of these SNPs remained statistically significant when conditioning on correlated known prostate cancer SNPs. The meta-analysis by BPC3 and PRACTICAL identified a third promising signal, marked by rs16844874 at 2q34, independent of known prostate cancer loci (OR 1.12,95% CI 1.06–1.19; p = 4.67 × 10−5); it has been shown that SNPs correlated with this signal affect glycine concentrations. The main limitation is the heterogeneity in the definition of aggressive prostate cancer between BPC3 and PRACTICAL. Conclusions We did

  18. Inorganic arsenic in Chinese food and its cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Sun, Guo-Xin; Williams, Paul N; Nunes, Luis; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2011-10-01

    Even moderate arsenic exposure may lead to health problems, and thus quantifying inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure from food for different population groups in China is essential. By analyzing the data from the China National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNNHS) and collecting reported values of iAs in major food groups, we developed a framework of calculating average iAs daily intake for different regions of China. Based on this framework, cancer risks from iAs in food was deterministically and probabilistically quantified. The article presents estimates for health risk due to the ingestion of food products contaminated with arsenic. Both per individual and for total population estimates were obtained. For the total population, daily iAs intake is around 42 μg day(-1), and rice is the largest contributor of total iAs intake accounting for about 60%. Incremental lifetime cancer risk from food iAs intake is 106 per 100,000 for adult individuals and the median population cancer risk is 177 per 100,000 varying between regions. Population in the Southern region has a higher cancer risk than that in the Northern region and the total population. Sensitive analysis indicated that cancer slope factor, ingestion rates of rice, aquatic products and iAs concentration in rice were the most relevant variables in the model, as indicated by their higher contribution to variance of the incremental lifetime cancer risk. We conclude that rice may be the largest contributor of iAs through food route for the Chinese people. The population from the South has greater cancer risk than that from the North and the whole population.

  19. Tool Weighs Benefits, Risks of Raloxifene or Tamoxifen to Prevent Breast Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have developed a benefit-risk index to help guide decisions on whether postmenopausal women at increased risk of developing breast cancer should take raloxifene or tamoxifen to reduce that risk. |

  20. Perceived ambiguity about cancer prevention recommendations: relationship to perceptions of cancer preventability, risk, and worry.

    PubMed

    Han, Paul K J; Moser, Richard P; Klein, William M P

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we apply the concept of "ambiguity," as developed in the decision theory literature, to an analysis of potential psychological consequences of uncertainty about cancer prevention recommendations. We used Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2003 data to examine how perceived ambiguity about cancer prevention recommendations relates to three other cognitive variables known to influence cancer-protective behavior: perceived cancer preventability, perceived cancer risk, and cancer-related worry. Using logistic regression analyses, we tested several predictions derived from a review of literature on the effects of ambiguity perceptions on decision making, cognitions, and emotions. We found perceived ambiguity to have a strong negative relationship with perceived cancer preventability, consistent with "ambiguity aversion"-a pessimistic bias in the interpretation of ambiguity. Cancer worry moderated this relationship; ambiguity aversion increased with higher levels of worry. At the same time, perceived ambiguity was positively related to both perceived cancer risk and cancer worry. Furthermore, perceived risk partially mediated the relationship between perceived ambiguity and worry. These findings suggest that perceived ambiguity about cancer prevention recommendations may have broad and important effects on other health cognitions. We discuss ethical implications of these findings for health communication efforts, and propose a tentative causal model to guide future research.

  1. Perceived Ambiguity About Cancer Prevention Recommendations: Relationship to Perceptions of Cancer Preventability, Risk, and Worry

    PubMed Central

    Han, Paul K. J.; Moser, Richard P.; Klein, William M. P.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we apply the concept of “ambiguity,” as developed in the decision theory literature, to an analysis of potential psychological consequences of uncertainty about cancer prevention recommendations. We used Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2003 data to examine how perceived ambiguity about cancer prevention recommendations relates to three other cognitive variables known to influence cancer-protective behavior: perceived cancer preventability, perceived cancer risk, and cancer-related worry. Using logistic regression analyses, we tested several predictions derived from a review of literature on the effects of ambiguity perceptions on decision making, cognitions, and emotions. We found perceived ambiguity to have a strong negative relationship with perceived cancer preventability, consistent with “ambiguity aversion”—a pessimistic bias in the interpretation of ambiguity. Cancer worry moderated this relationship; ambiguity aversion increased with higher levels of worry. At the same time, perceived ambiguity was positively related to both perceived cancer risk and cancer worry. Furthermore, perceived risk partially mediated the relationship between perceived ambiguity and worry. These findings suggest that perceived ambiguity about cancer prevention recommendations may have broad and important effects on other health cognitions. We discuss ethical implications of these findings for health communication efforts, and propose a tentative causal model to guide future research. PMID:16641074

  2. Quality of Life Factor as Breast Cancer Risks

    PubMed Central

    Gledo, Ibrahim; Pranjic, Nurka; Parsko, Subhija

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have observed risk factors for breast cancer. We investigated the association between quality life factors as breast cancer risks in a case-control study in industrial Zenica- Doboj Canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: The case-control study was included 200 women, 100 without (control subjects) and 100 women with diagnosed breast cancer. We used questionnaires about breast cancer risks“ as study tool. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and a full assessment of confounding was included in analysis. Results: Breast cancer was positive associated with increasing age of life (from 45 years and more; OR= 1.25); further relative breast cancer history (OR= 4.42; 95%CI, 0.483-4.043); exposure to CT (OR=2.02; 95%CI, 1,254-3.261); never birth child (OR= 1.394; 95%CI, 0.808-2,407); used replacement hormonal therapy (OR= 1.826; 95%CI, 1.637-10.590); arrival time of menstruation (OR=2.651; 95%CI, 1.303-1.571); length of smoking status (OR=1.534; 95%CI, 0.756-3.098), alcohol consumption (OR=1.728; 95% CI, 0.396-7.533); exposure to CT per year (p=0.009), routine physical inactivity (p=0.009) and replacement hormones treatment (p=0.036). Conclusion: Inverse associations of breast cancer and poverty, arival time of menopause were observed. The link between breast cancer and a distant-cousin- degree family history of breast cancer was inverse association with breast cancer too. These results provide further evidence that, for most women, physical activity may reduce the risk of invasive breast cancer. PMID:23922526

  3. Cognitive Problems Among Breast Cancer Survivors: Loneliness Enhances Risk

    PubMed Central

    Jaremka, Lisa M.; Peng, Juan; Bornstein, Robert; Alfano, Catherine M.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Povoski, Stephen P.; Lipari, Adele M.; Agnese, Doreen M.; Farrar, William B.; Yee, Lisa D.; Carson, William E.; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cancer survivors often experience cognitive difficulties after treatment completion. Although chemotherapy enhances risk for cognitive problems, it is likely only one piece of a complex puzzle that explains survivors’ cognitive functioning. Loneliness may be one psychosocial risk factor. The current studies included both subjective and objective cognitive measures and tested whether lonelier breast cancer survivors would have more concentration and memory complaints and experience more concentration difficulties than their less lonely counterparts. Methods The relationship between loneliness and cognitive function was tested among three samples of breast cancer survivors. Study 1 was a sample of breast cancer survivors (N=200) who reported their concentration and memory problems. Study 2a was a sample of breast cancer survivors (n=184) and non-cancer controls (n=92) who reported their concentration and memory problems. Study 2b was a subsample of Study 2a breast cancer survivors (n=22) and non-cancer controls (n=21) who completed a standardized neuropsychological test assessing concentration. Results Studies 1 and 2a revealed that lonelier women reported more concentration and memory problems than less lonely women. Study 2b utilized a standardized neuropsychological continuous performance test and demonstrated that lonelier women experienced more concentration problems than their less lonely counterparts. Conclusions This study demonstrated that loneliness is linked to concentration and memory complaints and the experience of concentration problems among breast cancer survivors. The results were also highly consistent across three samples of breast cancer survivors. These data suggest that loneliness may be a risk factor for cognitive difficulties among cancer survivors. PMID:24729533

  4. Germline Mutations in HOXB13 and Prostate-Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, Charles M.; Ray, Anna M.; Lange, Ethan M.; Zuhlke, Kimberly A.; Robbins, Christiane M.; Tembe, Waibhav D.; Wiley, Kathleen E.; Isaacs, Sarah D.; Johng, Dorhyun; Wang, Yunfei; Bizon, Chris; Yan, Guifang; Gielzak, Marta; Partin, Alan W.; Shanmugam, Vijayalakshmi; Izatt, Tyler; Sinari, Shripad; Craig, David W.; Zheng, S. Lilly; Walsh, Patrick C.; Montie, James E.; Xu, Jianfeng; Carpten, John D.; Isaacs, William B.; Cooney, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Family history is a significant risk factor for prostate cancer, although the molecular basis for this association is poorly understood. Linkage studies have implicated chromosome 17q21-22 as a possible location of a prostate-cancer susceptibility gene. METHODS We screened more than 200 genes in the 17q21-22 region by sequencing germline DNA from 94 unrelated patients with prostate cancer from families selected for linkage to the candidate region. We tested family members, additional case subjects, and control subjects to characterize the frequency of the identified mutations. RESULTS Probands from four families were discovered to have a rare but recurrent mutation (G84E) in HOXB13 (rs138213197), a homeobox transcription factor gene that is important in prostate development. All 18 men with prostate cancer and available DNA in these four families carried the mutation. The carrier rate of the G84E mutation was increased by a factor of approximately 20 in 5083 unrelated subjects of European descent who had prostate cancer, with the mutation found in 72 subjects (1.4%), as compared with 1 in 1401 control subjects (0.1%) (P = 8.5×10−7). The mutation was significantly more common in men with early-onset, familial prostate cancer (3.1%) than in those with late-onset, nonfamilial prostate cancer (0.6%) (P = 2.0×10−6). CONCLUSIONS The novel HOXB13 G84E variant is associated with a significantly increased risk of hereditary prostate cancer. Although the variant accounts for a small fraction of all prostate cancers, this finding has implications for prostate-cancer risk assessment and may provide new mechanistic insights into this common cancer. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.) PMID:22236224

  5. Oxidative stress: a new risk factor for thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mingzhao

    2012-02-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is a state of excessive free radicals and reactive metabolites among which the most important class is reactive oxygen species (ROS) - radicals derived from oxygen - as represented by the superoxide anion radical (O2(·-)) and its reactive metabolites, hydroxyl radical (·OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). In essence, OS represents an imbalance between the production of oxidants - ROS - and their elimination by antioxidative systems in the body. Many studies have linked OS to thyroid cancer by showing its association with abnormally regulated oxidative or antioxidative molecules. The study by Wang et al. in the December 2011 issue of Endocrine-Related Cancer (18, 773-782) further supports this relationship by demonstrating a high total oxidant status and OS index in thyroid cancer patients. The origin of ROS in thyroid cancer patients has not been defined, but thyroid cancer itself can be one since inflammation, a major event in it, is a classical source of ROS. ROS may in turn enhance the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathways, forming a vicious cycle propelling thyroid tumorigenesis. Regardless of the mechanism, the clinical implication of the association of OS with thyroid cancer is severalfold: one, OS is a new risk factor for thyroid cancer; two, OS confers thyroid cancer patients an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases, degenerative neurological disorders, and other cancers that are classically associated with OS; and three, interference with OS may reduce this risk and be therapeutically beneficial to thyroid cancer itself in thyroid cancer patients. These interesting possibilities deserve further studies.

  6. Gallstones, cholecystectomy, and risk of digestive system cancers.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Leticia; Freedman, Neal D; Engels, Eric A; Warren, Joan L; Castro, Felipe; Koshiol, Jill

    2014-03-15

    Gallstones and cholecystectomy may be related to digestive system cancer through inflammation, altered bile flux, and changes in metabolic hormone levels. Although gallstones are recognized causes of gallbladder cancer, associations with other cancers of the digestive system are poorly established. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database (1992-2005), which includes 17 cancer registries that cover approximately 26% of the US population, to identify first primary cancers (n = 236,850) occurring in persons aged ≥66 years and 100,000 cancer-free population-based controls frequency-matched by calendar year, age, and gender. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression analysis, adjusting for the matching factors. Gallstones and cholecystectomy were associated with increased risk of noncardia gastric cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 1.21 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 1.32) and OR = 1.26 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.40), respectively), small-intestine carcinoid (OR = 1.27 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.60) and OR = 1.78 (95% CI: 1.41, 2.25)), liver cancer (OR = 2.35 (95% CI: 2.18, 2.54) and OR = 1.26 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.41)), and pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.31) and OR = 1.23 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.33)). Colorectal cancer risk associated with gallstones and cholecystectomy decreased with increasing distance from the common bile duct (P-trend < 0.001). Hence, gallstones and cholecystectomy are associated with the risk of cancers occurring throughout the digestive tract.

  7. Breast cancer disparities: high-risk breast cancer and African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lisa A

    2014-07-01

    African American women have a lower lifetime incidence of breast cancer than white/Caucasian Americans yet have a higher risk of breast cancer mortality. African American women are also more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer at young ages, and they have higher risk for the biologically more aggressive triple-negative breast cancers. These features are also more common among women from western, sub-Saharan Africa who share ancestry with African Americans, and this prompts questions regarding an association between African ancestry and inherited susceptibility for certain patterns of mammary carcinogenesis.

  8. Colonoscopy Reduces Risk of Death from Colorectal Cancer in High-Risk Patients

    Cancer.gov

    Long-term results from the National Polyp Study confirm that removing precancerous adenomas not only reduces the risk of colorectal cancer but also reduces the number of deaths from the disease by more than half.

  9. Occupation and risk of stomach cancer in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Krstev, S; Dosemeci, M; Lissowska, J; Chow, W; Zatonski, W; Ward, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: In spite of the dramatic decline in the incidence of stomach cancer in the twentieth century, Poland has one of the highest rates in the world. Aims: To evaluate the risk of stomach cancer by grouped occupations and industries, as well as by some specific occupational exposures. Methods: Cases (n = 443) were newly diagnosed with stomach adenocarcinomas between 1994 and 1996. Controls (n = 479) were randomly selected from the general population in Warsaw. Results: Only a few occupations and industries were associated with significantly increased risks of stomach cancer. The most suggestive finding was for work in the leather goods industry. Risk was also significantly increased among men working in fabricated metal production and among women ever employed as managers and governmental officials. Men ever employed as teaching professionals and women employed as technical and science professionals had significantly decreased risks of stomach cancer. Among men, a significant positive trend in risk with duration of employment was observed for work in the leather industry and special trade construction. No significantly increased risks were observed for specific exposures assessed by a job-exposure matrix or by self-reports. However among men there were non-significantly increased risks with 10 or more years exposure to asbestos, metal dust, and nitrosamines assessed by a job-exposure matrix. Conclusions: Employment in the leather goods industry, special trade construction, and metal fabrication was associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer among men. However, there were only weak associations with specific exposures. Occupational exposures do not contribute substantially to the high rates of stomach cancer in Poland. PMID:15837853

  10. Taking a "leap of faith": acceptance and value of a cancer program-sponsored spiritual event.

    PubMed

    Dann, Nancy J; Mertens, Wilson C

    2004-01-01

    Investigations of spiritual interventions for cancer patients are disproportionately few compared to the reported importance of religion to Americans. We report on the implementation and evaluation of a spiritual, community-based intervention developed with interdenominational community clergy. Approximately 1200 people attended a total of 3 gatherings: 2 at Roman Catholic and another at a Protestant Church. Respondents to questionnaires evaluating attendee characteristics and satisfaction (n = 209) were predominantly women (85%); 50% were patients and 45% were aged 60 years and older. Men were more likely to be currently under treatment for cancer, while women were more likely to be past patients or friends. Fewer than 2% felt anger or anxiety; attendees felt the service was very (90%) or somewhat (9.5%) helpful and expressed appreciation for cancer program clinician attendance and for hospital sponsorship of the event. Components in order of preference were prayer, music, Scripture, and litany. Logistic regression models reveal that music was most appreciated by previously treated patients, and prayer by currently treated patients. Secular healthcare systems can offer a religious service that comforts and links attendees to a broader community, including clergy and cancer program clinicians. Surveys can identify service components that appeal to differing groups and can facilitate service development.

  11. What is breast cancer risk with Depo-Provera?

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    A recent World Health Organization (WHO) study found that women using Depo-Provera have only a slight increased risk of breast cancer. WHO examined case-control data from 5 hospitals in Africa, Mexico, and Thailand. The study revealed a 1.21 relative risk of breast cancer among all women in the study who had used Depo-Provera (a relative risk of 1.0 means that there is neither an increased or decreased likelihood to develop the disease in question). A relative risk of 1.21 indicates that there is a 21% increased likelihood of developing the disease, but any relative risk of less than 2.0 is considered slight. The study also found that among the diagnosed breast cancer cases, 12.5% had ever used Depo-Provera, compared to 12.2% among the control patients. Although an increased risk of breast cancer among women--especially women under 35--within the first 4 years of exposure to Depo-Provera was found, the risk did not increase with the duration of use, and it did not increase among women who had used the drug for more than 5 years. WHO explains that the risk of breast cancer among Depo-Provera user is similar to that found among oral contraceptives users, whose relative risk ranges from 1.0-1.42. Based on their findings, WHO investigators estimate that there would be 7-8 new cases of breast cancer per 100,000 Depo-Provera users annually, compared to 5 new cases annually among women who had not used the drug. As a recent commentary by Family Health International (FHI) points out, this increased risk of breast cancer must be weighted against the benefits provided by Depo-Provera. FHI concludes that there is a net gain for women using Depo-Provera, since despite the slight risk of breast cancer, it would result in a higher life expectancy compared to women not using contraception.

  12. Green tea and the risk of gastric cancer: epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Hou, I-Chun; Amarnani, Saral; Chong, Mok T; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-06-28

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world. Numerous efforts are being made to find chemoprotective agents able to reduce its risk. Amongst these, green tea has been reported to have a protective effect against stomach cancer. This article aims to critically evaluate all epidemiological studies reporting an association between green tea consumption and GC risk. MEDLINE, EBSCOHOST and Google Scholar were used to search for clinical trials of green tea and its correlation to stomach cancer. Studies include cohort and case-control studies. Outcome of interests are inverse association, no association, and positive association. Seventeen epidemiologic studies were reviewed. Eleven studies were conducted in Japan, five in China, and one with Japanese descendent in Hawaii. Ten case-control studies and seven cohort studies were included. The relative risks or odds ratio of GC for the highest level of green tea consumption was compared. Seven studies suggested no association, eight an inverse association, and one a positive association. One study had shown a significantly lowered GC risk when tea was served warm to cold. Another study also showed a significantly risk with lukewarm tea. All studies that analyzed men and women separately have suggested a reduced risk in women than in men, albeit no significant difference. This review demonstrates that there is insufficient information to support green tea consumption reduces the risk of GC. More studies on the subject matter are warranted.

  13. Green tea and the risk of gastric cancer: Epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Hou, I-Chun; Amarnani, Saral; Chong, Mok T; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world. Numerous efforts are being made to find chemoprotective agents able to reduce its risk. Amongst these, green tea has been reported to have a protective effect against stomach cancer. This article aims to critically evaluate all epidemiological studies reporting an association between green tea consumption and GC risk. MEDLINE, EBSCOHOST and Google Scholar were used to search for clinical trials of green tea and its correlation to stomach cancer. Studies include cohort and case-control studies. Outcome of interests are inverse association, no association, and positive association. Seventeen epidemiologic studies were reviewed. Eleven studies were conducted in Japan, five in China, and one with Japanese descendent in Hawaii. Ten case-control studies and seven cohort studies were included. The relative risks or odds ratio of GC for the highest level of green tea consumption was compared. Seven studies suggested no association, eight an inverse association, and one a positive association. One study had shown a significantly lowered GC risk when tea was served warm to cold. Another study also showed a significantly risk with lukewarm tea. All studies that analyzed men and women separately have suggested a reduced risk in women than in men, albeit no significant difference. This review demonstrates that there is insufficient information to support green tea consumption reduces the risk of GC. More studies on the subject matter are warranted. PMID:23840110

  14. Epidemiologic review of marijuana use and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hashibe, Mia; Straif, Kurt; Tashkin, Donald P; Morgenstern, Hal; Greenland, Sander; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2005-04-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug in the United States and is considered by young adults to be the illicit drug with the least risk. On the other hand, marijuana smoke contains several of the same carcinogens and co-carcinogens as the tar from tobacco, raising concerns that smoking of marijuana may be a risk factor for tobacco-related cancers. We reviewed two cohort studies and 14 case-control studies with assessment of the association of marijuana use and cancer risk. In the cohort studies, increased risks of lung or colorectal cancer due to marijuana smoking were not observed, but increased risks of prostate and cervical cancers among non-tobacco smokers, as well as adult-onset glioma among tobacco and non-tobacco smokers, were observed. The 14 case-control studies included four studies on head and neck cancers, two studies on lung cancer, two studies on non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, one study on anal cancer, one study on penile cancer, and four studies on childhood cancers with assessment of parental exposures. Zhang and colleagues reported that marijuana use may increase risk of head and neck cancers in a hospital-based case-control study in the United States, with dose-response relations for both frequency and duration of use. However, Rosenblatt and co-workers reported no association between oral cancer and marijuana use in a population-based case-control study. An eightfold increase in risk among marijuana users was observed in a lung cancer study in Tunisia. However, there was no assessment of the dose response, and marijuana may have been mixed with tobacco. Parental marijuana use during gestation was associated with increased risks of childhood leukemia, astrocytoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma, but dose-response relations were not assessed. In summary, sufficient studies are not available to adequately evaluate marijuana impact on cancer risk. Several limitations of previous studies include possible underreporting where marijuana use is illegal, small

  15. Dietary flavonoids and gastric cancer risk in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Lee, Jeonghee; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Lee, Jong Yeul; Kwon, Oran; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-11-10

    Gastric cancer is the most common cancer among men in Korea, and dietary factors are closely associated with gastric cancer risk. We performed a case-control study using 334 cases and 334 matched controls aged 35-75 years. Significant associations were observed in total dietary flavonoids and their subclasses, with the exception of anthocyanidins and isoflavones (OR (95% CI): 0.49 (0.31-0.76), p trend = 0.007 for total flavonoids). However, these associations were not significant after further adjustment for fruits and vegetable consumption (OR (95% CI): 0.62 (0.36-1.09), p trend = 0.458 for total flavonoids). Total flavonoids and their subclasses, except for isoflavones, were significantly associated with a reduced risk gastric cancer in women (OR (95% CI): 0.33 (0.15-0.73), p trend = 0.001 for total flavonoids) but not in men (OR (95% CI): 0.70 (0.39-1.24), p trend = 0.393 for total flavonoids). A significant inverse association with gastric cancer risk was observed in flavones, even after additional adjustment for fruits and vegetable consumption in women. No significantly different effects of flavonoids were observed between H. pylori-positive and negative subjects. In conclusion, dietary flavonoids were inversely associated with gastric cancer risk, and these protective effects of dietary flavonoids were prominent in women. No clear differences were observed in the subgroup analysis of H. pylori and smoking status.

  16. Cancer risk and residential proximity to cranberry cultivation in Massachusetts.

    PubMed Central

    Aschengrau, A; Ozonoff, D; Coogan, P; Vezina, R; Heeren, T; Zhang, Y

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the relationship between cancer risk and residential proximity to cranberry cultivation. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted. Cases, diagnosed during 1983 through 1986 among residents of the Upper Cape Cod area of Massachusetts, involved incident cancers of the lung (n = 252), breast (n = 265), colon-rectum (n = 326), bladder (n = 63), kidney (n = 35), pancreas (n = 37), and brain (n = 37), along with leukemia (n = 35). Control subjects were randomly selected from among telephone subscribers (n = 184), Medicare beneficiaries (n = 464), and deceased individuals (n = 723). RESULTS: No meaningful increases in risk were seen for any of the cancer sites except for the brain. When latency was considered, subjects who had ever lived within 2600 ft (780 m) of a cranberry bog had a twofold increased risk of brain cancer overall (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.8, 4.9) and a 6.7-fold increased risk of astrocytoma (95% CI = 1.6, 27.8). CONCLUSIONS: Residential proximity to cranberry bog cultivation was not associated with seven of the eight cancers investigated; however, an association was observed with brain cancer, particularly astrocytoma. Larger, more detailed studies are necessary to elucidate this relationship. PMID:8806382

  17. Childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Niehoff, Nicole M.; Nichols, Hazel B; White, Alexandra J.; Parks, Christine G.; D’Aloisio, Aimee A; Sandler, Dale P.

    2016-01-01

    Background To date, epidemiological studies have not strongly supported an association between pesticide exposure and breast cancer. However, few previous studies had the ability to assess specific time periods of exposure. Studies that relied on adult serum levels of metabolites of organochlorine pesticides may not accurately reflect exposure during developmental periods. Further, exposure assessment often occurred after diagnosis and key tumor characteristics, such as hormone receptor status, have rarely been available to evaluate tumor-subtype specific associations. We examine the association between pesticide exposure during childhood and adolescence and breast cancer risk in the prospective Sister Study cohort (N=50,844 women) to assess this relation by tumor subtype. Methods During an average 5-year follow-up, 2,134 incident invasive and in situ breast cancer diagnoses were identified. Residential and farm exposure to pesticides were self-reported at study enrollment during standardized interviews. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for breast cancer risk were calculated with Cox proportional hazards regression. Results HRs were near null for the association between childhood/adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk overall or among ER+/PR+ invasive tumors. However, among women who were ages 0–18 before the ban of DDT in the U.S., exposure to fogger trucks or planes was associated with a HR=1.3 for premenopausal breast cancer (95% CI: 0.92, 1.7). Conclusion These findings do not support an overall association between childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk. However, modest increases in breast cancer risk were associated with acute events in a subgroup of young women. PMID:26808595

  18. Plasma matrix metalloproteinase 2 levels and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Aroner, Sarah A; Rosner, Bernard A; Tamimi, Rulla M; Tworoger, Shelley S; Baur, Nadja; Joos, Thomas O; Hankinson, Susan E

    2015-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) is an enzyme with important functions in breast cancer invasion and metastasis. However, it is unclear whether circulating MMP2 levels may predict breast cancer risk. We conducted a prospective nested case-control analysis in the Nurses' Health Study among 1136 cases who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 2004 and 1136 matched controls. All participants provided blood samples in 1989-1990, and a subset (170 cases, 170 controls) contributed an additional sample in 2000-2002. Pre-diagnostic plasma MMP2 levels were measured via immunoassay, and conditional logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), adjusted for breast cancer risk factors. No association was observed between plasma MMP2 levels and risk of total invasive breast cancer (top vs. bottom quartile, OR=1.0; 95% CI: 0.7, 1.2; p-trend=0.89). Findings did not vary significantly by time since blood draw, body mass index, postmenopausal hormone use, or menopausal status at either blood draw or breast cancer diagnosis. MMP2 was associated with a greater risk of nodal metastases at diagnosis (top vs. bottom quartile, OR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2; p-heterogeneity, any vs. no lymph nodes=0.002), but no significant associations were observed with other tumor characteristics or with recurrent or fatal cancers. Plasma MMP2 levels do not appear to be predictive of total invasive breast cancer risk, although associations with aggressive disease warrant further study.

  19. Association Between Cd Exposure and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ju-Kun, Song; Yuan, Dong-Bo; Rao, Hao-Fu; Chen, Tian-Fei; Luan, Bo-Shi; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Fu-Neng; Zhong, Wei-De; Zhu, Jian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several observational studies on the association between Cd exposure and risk of prostate cancer have yielded inconsistent results. To address this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the correlation between Cd exposure and risk of prostate cancer. Relevant studies in PubMed and Embase databases were retrieved until October 2015. We compared the highest and lowest meta-analyses to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between Cd exposure and risk of prostate cancer. Summary estimates were obtained using a random-effects model. In the general population, high Cd exposure was not associated with increased prostate cancer (OR 1.21; 95% CI 0.91–1.64), whereas the combined standardized mortality ratio of the association between Cd exposure and risk of prostate cancer was 1.66 (95% CI 1.10–2.50) in populations exposed to occupational Cd. In addition, high D-Cd intake (OR 1.07; 95% CI 0.96–1.20) and U-Cd concentration (OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.48–1.55) among the general population was not related to the increased risk of prostate cancer. In the dose analysis, the summary relative risk was 1.07 (95% CI 0.73–1.57) for each 0.5 μg/g creatinine increase in U-Cd and 1.02 (95% CI 0.99–1.06) for each 10 μg/day increase of dietary Cd intake. However, compared with nonoccupational exposure, high occupational Cd exposure may be associated with the increased risk of prostate cancer. This meta-analysis suggests high Cd exposure as a risk factor for prostate cancer in occupational rather than nonoccupational populations. However, these results should be carefully interpreted because of the significant heterogeneity among studies. Additional large-scale and high-quality prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between Cd exposure and risk of prostate cancer. PMID:26871808

  20. Risk Stratification in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: An Ongoing Process.

    PubMed

    Omry-Orbach, Gal

    2016-01-28

    Thyroid cancer is an increasingly common malignancy, with a rapidly rising prevalence worldwide. The social and economic ramifications of the increase in thyroid cancer are multiple. Though mortality from thyroid cancer is low, and most patients will do well, the risk of recurrence is not insignificant, up to 30%. Therefore, it is important to accurately identify those patients who are more or less likely to be burdened by their disease over years and tailor their treatment plan accordingly. The goal of risk stratification is to do just that. The risk stratification process generally starts postoperatively with histopathologic staging, based on the AJCC/UICC staging system as well as others designed to predict mortality. These do not, however, accurately assess the risk of recurrence/persistence. Patients initially considered to be at high risk may ultimately do very well yet be burdened by frequent unnecessary monitoring. Conversely, patients initially thought to be low risk, may not respond to their initial treatment as expected and, if left unmonitored, may have higher morbidity. The concept of risk-adaptive management has been adopted, with an understanding that risk stratification for differentiated thyroid cancer is dynamic and ongoing. A multitude of variables not included in AJCC/UICC staging are used initially to classify patients as low, intermediate, or high risk for recurrence. Over the course of time, a response-to-therapy variable is incorporated, and patients essentially undergo continuous risk stratification. Additional tools such as biochemical markers, genetic mutations, and molecular markers have been added to this complex risk stratification process such that this is essentially a continuum of risk. In recent years, additional considerations have been discussed with a suggestion of pre-operative risk stratification based on certain clinical and/or biologic characteristics. With the increasing prevalence of thyroid cancer but stable mortality

  1. Population Cancer Risks Associated with Coal Mining: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Wiley D.; Christian, W. Jay; Mueller, Georgia; Robbins, K. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Coal is produced across 25 states and provides 42% of US energy. With production expected to increase 7.6% by 2035, proximate populations remain at risk of exposure to carcinogenic coal products such as silica dust and organic compounds. It is unclear if population exposure is associated with increased risk, or even which cancers have been studied in this regard. Methods We performed a systematic review of English-language manuscripts published since 1980 to determine if coal mining exposure was associated with increased cancer risk (incidence and mortality). Results Of 34 studies identified, 27 studied coal mining as an occupational exposure (coal miner cohort or as a retrospective risk factor) but only seven explored health effects in surrounding populations. Overall, risk assessments were reported for 20 cancer site categories, but their results and frequency varied considerably. Incidence and mortality risk assessments were: negative (no increase) for 12 sites; positive for 1 site; and discordant for 7 sites (e.g. lung, gastric). However, 10 sites had only a single study reporting incidence risk (4 sites had none), and 11 sites had only a single study reporting mortality risk (2 sites had none). The ecological study data were particularly meager, reporting assessments for only 9 sites. While mortality assessments were reported for each, 6 had only a single report and only 2 sites had reported incidence assessments. Conclusions The reported assessments are too meager, and at times contradictory, to make definitive conclusions about population cancer risk due to coal mining. However, the preponderance of this and other data support many of Hill’s criteria for causation. The paucity of data regarding population exposure and risk, the widespread geographical extent of coal mining activity, and the continuing importance of coal for US energy, warrant further studies of population exposure and risk. PMID:23977014

  2. [Could Helicobacter pylori treatment reduce stomach cancer risk?].

    PubMed

    Bretagne, Jean-François

    2003-03-01

    Despite its dramatic decline in incidence in developed countries, gastric cancer is a major public health issue in the world. Accumulating evidence for considering H. pylori as a causal factor for gastric cancer comes from recent epidemiologic studies, the advent of an animal model of gastric cancer and from new insights into the biological mechanisms for gastric carcinogenesis. The stomach cancer risk for people infected with H. pylori is rather low, inferior to 1%. It depends on genotypic polymorphisms of both the bacterium and the host. Environmental risk factors such as smoking habits, salt intake, and the amount of antioxidants in diet may interfere with H. pylori and modify the cancer risk. There is no definite clinical evidence of the benefit of eradication on cancer risk in humans due to the lack of randomized controlled studies in large populations. The occurrence of gastric adenocarcinomas in patients after complete remission of gastric MALT lymphoma induced by H. pylori eradication suggests also the limits of the preventive strategy against gastric cancer. Furthermore, the effectiveness of eradication to reverse precancerous gastric lesions such as severe atrophy and intestinal metaplasia is questionable. For many reasons discussed in our review, population-based screening and routine eradication of H. pylori infection seem to be an unrealistic goal and cannot be recommended in France. By waiting for effective anti-H. pylori vaccine, public health measures such as dietary modification should be promoted to further decrease the gastric cancer incidence. On the individual basis the specialist has a role in the diagnosis of gastric precancerous lesions by endoscopy and also in the prevention of gastric cancer by selecting indications for H. pylori therapy.

  3. Reproductive factors associated with breast cancer risk in northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Hajian-Tilaki, K O; Kaveh-Ahangar, T

    2011-06-01

    Breast cancer is a common malignancy for women in most parts of the world and the incidence in Iranian women is growing. The patients are relatively younger than their western counterparts. The aim of study was to investigate the roles of reproductive factors for breast cancer in Babol. In a case-control study in Babol, we recruited a total of 100 new patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer and 200 age-matched controls selected from outpatient clinics. Demographic and reproductive factors were ascertained by in-person interview using a constructed questionnaire. Several potential confounding factors were adjusted using multiple logistic model. The adjusted odds ratio showed that having higher age at first pregnancy and abortion were associated with increased breast cancer risk (the adjusted OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.3-13.2 and 2.93, 95% CI: 1.64-5.24, respectively). By increasing parity, the risk had reduced significantly; among women with parity ≥ 5, the adjusted OR was 0.09 (95% CI 0.01-0.7) compared with nulliparous women, and also for each additional parity, the risk reduced by 50% (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.34-0.71). The duration of breast feeding was inversely associated with breast cancer risk, while after additional adjustment for parity, no longer the protective effect of breast feeding was observed. Nulliparity, late age at first birth and abortion were the most important reproductive factors associated with breast cancer risk; therefore, it is recommended to women with these risk factors to perform breast cancer screening tests earlier.

  4. Risk adjusting survival outcomes of hospitals that treat cancer patients without information on cancer stage

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, David G.; Rubin, David M.; Elkin, Elena B.; Neill, Ushma S.; Duck, Elaine; Radzyner, Mark; Bach, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Instituting widespread measurement of outcomes for cancer hospitals using administrative data is difficult due to the lack of cancer specific information such as disease stage. Objective To evaluate the performance of hospitals that treat cancer patients using Medicare data for outcome ascertainment and risk adjustment, and to assess whether hospital rankings based on these measures are influenced by the addition of cancer-specific information. Design Risk adjusted cumulative mortality of patients with cancer captured in Medicare claims from 2005–2009 nationally were assessed at the hospital level. Similar analyses were conducted in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result (SEER)-Medicare data for the subset of the US covered by the SEER program to determine whether the exclusion of cancer specific information (only available in cancer registries) from risk adjustment altered measured hospital performance. Setting Administrative claims data and SEER cancer registry data Participants Sample of 729,279 fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries treated for cancer in 2006 at hospitals treating 10+ patients with each of the following cancers, according to Medicare claims: lung, prostate, breast, colon. An additional sample of 18,677 similar patients in SEER-Medicare administrative data. Main Outcomes and Measures Risk-adjusted mortality overall and by cancer type, stratified by type of hospital; measures of correlation and agreement between hospital-level outcomes risk adjusted using Medicare data alone and Medicare data with SEER data. Results There were large outcome differences between different types of hospitals that treat Medicare patients with cancer. At one year, cumulative mortality for Medicare-prospective-payment-system exempt hospitals was 10% lower than at community hospitals (18% versus 28%) across all cancers, the pattern persisted through five years of follow-up and within specific cancer types. Performance ranking of hospitals was

  5. Occupation and lung cancer risk in Leningrad Province, Russia.

    PubMed

    Baccarelli, A; Tretiakova, Maria; Gorbanev, S; Lomtev, A; Klimkina, Irina; Tchibissov, V; Averkina, Olga; Dosemeci, M

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the association between occupation and lung cancer risk in Leningrad Province, Russia, we identified 540 pathologically diagnosed lung cancer cases (474 males and 66 females) and 582 controls (453 males and 129 females) from the 1993-1998 autopsy records of the 88 state hospitals of the Province. Lifetime occupational histories were obtained from personal records coded according to the standard Russian occupational classification system. Lung cancer risk was increased in workers in the manufacturing industry, particularly in the food industry and wholesale/retail trade and in the miscellaneous manufacturing industry. An increased risk was also found in subjects employed in chemical and metal production for 10 years or more. When we considered the association between specific occupations and lung cancer, waste incineration operators and loaders exhibited an excess risk that increased with employment duration. The present study, which is the first to evaluate the risk of lung cancer by occupation in Russia, suggests the presence in Leningrad Province of exposure in the workplace to lung carcinogens that require further characterization to develop targeted and effective preventive measures.

  6. Acceptable Interventions to Reduce Syphilis Transmission Among High-Risk Men Who Have Sex With Men in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Plant, Aaron; Javanbakht, Marjan; Cross, John; Montoya, Jorge A.; Bolan, Robert; Kerndt, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined perceptions of and attitudes toward existing and potential syphilis interventions, including case management and Web-based programs, to increase syphilis testing among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. Between October 2010 and June 2011, we conducted in-depth interviews with 19 MSM in Los Angeles, California, with repeat early syphilis infections (primary, secondary, and early latent syphilis) within the previous 5 years. We analyzed the interviews inductively to determine the most acceptable potential interventions. Results. Experiences with health department and community-based standard of care case management were generally positive. The most popular interventions among respondents included a Web site providing information on syphilis and syphilis testing, automated Web reminders to test, being paid to test, free online home testing kits, and preexposure prophylactic medication. Respondents’ beliefs that they would continue to practice high-risk sexual behaviors reinforced their reasons for wanting increased accessibility and convenient testing strategies. Conclusions. Public health officials should consider participant responses to potential interventions for syphilis, which suggest that high-risk MSM would consider testing more often or using other interventions. PMID:25602881

  7. Cancer risk in dermatomyositis: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Di Rollo, D; Abeni, D; Tracanna, M; Capo, A; Amerio, P

    2014-10-01

    The association between idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) and cancer has been extensively studied in adults. Many epidemiological studies demonstrated this association, which appears stronger for dermatomyositis (DM) than for polymyositis (PM). The first case suggesting an association between cancer and DM was reported in 1916. At present the reported incidence of cancer association with DM varies widely, from less than 7% to over 30%. Many early evidences came from case reports, but this association was later confirmed in case-control as well as in population-based studies. Ovarian cancer or breast cancer in females and lung cancer in males are the main malignancies associated with DM. Given the frequency of the association of dermatomyositis with cancer, for cost-effectiveness reasons it might be important to develop simple and appropriate diagnostic tests for identification of patients with DM, who may be at higher risk of developing a malignancy. Clinicians should plan follow-up schedules to optimize both cancer detection and treatment, and thus to improve patient survival. Many different clinical and serological signs have been suggested as possible predictive factors for malignancy in dermatomyositis: age, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), presence of cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis, cutaneous rash and skin lesions as cutaneous necrosis and periungueal erythemas, neoplastic markers or dysphagia. The results of the different studies are quite discordant. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature to evaluate the level of the risk of cancer in patients with dermatomyositis and to explore whether certain patient characteristics may be linked to different levels of cancer risk.

  8. Heart Risks May Boost Women's Colon Cancer Risk, Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal-weight individuals, the study authors noted. Having "metabolic syndrome" means you have three or more of these ... they had two or more risk factors of metabolic syndrome. The researchers didn't include waist measurement as ...

  9. Is Month of Birth a Risk Factor for Colorectal Cancer?

    PubMed

    Francis, N K; Curtis, N J; Noble, E; Cortina-Borja, M; Salib, E

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis and season of birth have been linked to a wide variety of later life conditions including cancer. Whether any relationship between month and season of birth and colorectal cancer exists is unknown. Methods. A case-control study was performed with month of birth extracted from a dedicated colorectal cancer database. Age and gender matched patients were used as a control group. Generalised linear models were fitted with Poisson and negative binomial responses and logarithmic links. A forward stepwise approach was followed adding seasonal components with 6- and 12-month periods. Results. 1019 colorectal cancer patients and 1277 randomly selected age and gender matched controls were included. For both men and women there is an excess of colorectal cancer in those born in autumn and a corresponding reduction of risk among those born in spring (p = 0.026). For the identified September peak, the excess risk for colorectal cancer was 14.8% (95% CI 5.6-32.3%) larger than the spring trough. Conclusion. There is a seasonal effect in the monthly birth rates of people who are operated for colorectal cancer with a disproportionate excess of cancer in those born in September. Further large studies are required to validate these findings.

  10. Is Month of Birth a Risk Factor for Colorectal Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, N. J.; Noble, E.; Cortina-Borja, M.; Salib, E.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis and season of birth have been linked to a wide variety of later life conditions including cancer. Whether any relationship between month and season of birth and colorectal cancer exists is unknown. Methods. A case-control study was performed with month of birth extracted from a dedicated colorectal cancer database. Age and gender matched patients were used as a control group. Generalised linear models were fitted with Poisson and negative binomial responses and logarithmic links. A forward stepwise approach was followed adding seasonal components with 6- and 12-month periods. Results. 1019 colorectal cancer patients and 1277 randomly selected age and gender matched controls were included. For both men and women there is an excess of colorectal cancer in those born in autumn and a corresponding reduction of risk among those born in spring (p = 0.026). For the identified September peak, the excess risk for colorectal cancer was 14.8% (95% CI 5.6–32.3%) larger than the spring trough. Conclusion. There is a seasonal effect in the monthly birth rates of people who are operated for colorectal cancer with a disproportionate excess of cancer in those born in September. Further large studies are required to validate these findings. PMID:28133478

  11. Ethics, Risk, and Media Intervention: Women's Breast Cancer in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are of concern among Latin American women, mainly due to the growing prevalence of this disease and the lack of compliance to proper breast cancer screening and treatment. Focusing on Venezuelan women and the challenges and barriers that interact with their health communication, this paper looks into issues surrounding women's breast cancer, such as the challenges and barriers to breast cancer care, the relevant ethics and responsibilities, the right to health, breast cancer risk perception and risk communication, and the media interventions that affect Venezuelan women's perceptions and actions pertaining to this disease. In particular, it describes an action-oriented research project in Venezuela that was conducted over a four-year period of collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include positive indications on more effective interactions between physicians and patients, increasing satisfactions about issues of ethical treatment in providing healthcare services, more sufficient and responsible media coverage of breast cancer healthcare services and information, a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela, and the creation of a code of ethics for the Venezuelan NGO that led the expansion of networking in support of women's breast cancer healthcare.

  12. PALB2 and the risks for cancer: implications for clinical care.

    PubMed

    Smith, Edith C

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the PALB2 gene are responsible for a small but significant percentage of cancer risks in familial breast and pancreatic cancer families. PALB2 mutations may be associated with an increase in other cancer risks as well. This article will provide an overview of the PALB2 gene, cancer risks associated with carrying a PALB2 mutation, and implications for patient care.

  13. Risk of second primary cancers after testicular cancer in East and West Germany: a focus on contralateral testicular cancers.

    PubMed

    Rusner, Carsten; Streller, Brigitte; Stegmaier, Christa; Trocchi, Pietro; Kuss, Oliver; McGlynn, Katherine A; Trabert, Britton; Stang, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer survival rates improved dramatically after cisplatin-based therapy was introduced in the 1970s. However, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are potentially carcinogenic. The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of developing second primary cancers including the risk associated with primary histologic type (seminoma and non-seminoma) among testicular cancer survivors in Germany. We identified 16 990 and 1401 cases of testicular cancer in population-based cancer registries of East Germany (1961-1989 and 1996-2008) and Saarland (a federal state in West Germany; 1970-2008), respectively. We estimated the risk of a second primary cancer using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). To determine trends, we plotted model-based estimated annual SIRs. In East Germany, a total of 301 second primary cancers of any location were observed between 1961 and 1989 (SIR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.7-2.1), and 159 cancers (any location) were observed between 1996 and 2008 (SIR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4-2.0). The SIRs for contralateral testicular cancer were increased in the registries with a range from 6.0 in Saarland to 13.9 in East Germany. The SIR for seminoma, in particular, was higher in East Germany compared to the other registries. We observed constant trends in the model-based SIRs for contralateral testicular cancers. The majority of reported SIRs of other cancer sites including histology-specific risks showed low precisions of estimated effects, likely due to small sample sizes. Testicular cancer patients are at increased risk especially for cancers of the contralateral testis and should receive intensive follow-ups.

  14. Risk of Second Cancers According to Radiation Therapy Technique and Modality in Prostate Cancer Survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Wong, Jeannette; Kleinerman, Ruth; Kim, Clara; Morton, Lindsay; Bekelman, Justin E.

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) techniques for prostate cancer are evolving rapidly, but the impact of these changes on risk of second cancers, which are an uncommon but serious consequence of RT, are uncertain. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of risks of second cancer according to RT technique (>10 MV vs ≤10 MV and 3-dimensional [3D] vs 2D RT) and modality (external beam RT, brachytherapy, and combined modes) in a large cohort of prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The cohort was constructed using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database. We included cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in patients 66 to 84 years of age from 1992 to 2004 and followed through 2009. We used Poisson regression analysis to compare rates of second cancer across RT groups with adjustment for age, follow-up, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and comorbidities. Analyses of second solid cancers were based on the number of 5-year survivors (n=38,733), and analyses of leukemia were based on number of 2-year survivors (n=52,515) to account for the minimum latency period for radiation-related cancer. Results: During an average of 4.4 years' follow-up among 5-year prostate cancer survivors (2DRT = 5.5 years; 3DRT = 3.9 years; and brachytherapy = 2.7 years), 2933 second solid cancers were diagnosed. There were no significant differences in second solid cancer rates overall between 3DRT and 2DRT patients (relative risk [RR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91-1.09), but second rectal cancer rates were significantly lower after 3DRT (RR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.40-0.88). Rates of second solid cancers for higher- and lower-energy RT were similar overall (RR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.06), as were rates for site-specific cancers. There were significant reductions in colon cancer and leukemia rates in the first decade after brachytherapy compared to those after external beam RT. Conclusions: Advanced treatment planning may have reduced rectal

  15. Updating Risk Prediction Tools: A Case Study in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ankerst, Donna P.; Koniarski, Tim; Liang, Yuanyuan; Leach, Robin J.; Feng, Ziding; Sanda, Martin G.; Partin, Alan W.; Chan, Daniel W; Kagan, Jacob; Sokoll, Lori; Wei, John T; Thompson, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Online risk prediction tools for common cancers are now easily accessible and widely used by patients and doctors for informed decision-making concerning screening and diagnosis. A practical problem is as cancer research moves forward and new biomarkers and risk factors are discovered, there is a need to update the risk algorithms to include them. Typically the new markers and risk factors cannot be retrospectively measured on the same study participants used to develop the original prediction tool, necessitating the merging of a separate study of different participants, which may be much smaller in sample size and of a different design. Validation of the updated tool on a third independent data set is warranted before the updated tool can go online. This article reports on the application of Bayes rule for updating risk prediction tools to include a set of biomarkers measured in an external study to the original study used to develop the risk prediction tool. The procedure is illustrated in the context of updating the online Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator to incorporate the new markers %freePSA and [−2]proPSA measured on an external case control study performed in Texas, U.S.. Recent state-of-the art methods in validation of risk prediction tools and evaluation of the improvement of updated to original tools are implemented using an external validation set provided by the U.S. Early Detection Research Network. PMID:22095849

  16. Toxic chemical hazard classification and risk acceptance guidelines for use in DOE facilities. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, D.K.; Davis, J.S.; Prowse, J.; Hoffman, P.W.

    1995-03-24

    The concentration-limit guidelines presented in this document apply to airborne releases of chemicals evaluated with respect to human health effects for the purposes of hazard classification and categorization, risk assessment and safety analysis. They apply to all DOE facilities and operations involving the use of potentially hazardous chemicals. The guidelines do not address other nonradiological hazards such as fire, pressure releases (including explosions), and chemical reactivity, but the guidelines are applicable to hazardous chemical releases resulting from these events. This report presents the subcommittee`s evaluation and recommendations regarding analyses of accidentally released toxic chemicals. The premise upon which these recommendations are based is that the mechanism of action of toxic chemicals is fundamentally different from that associated with radionuclides, with the exception of carcinogens. The recommendations reported herein are restricted to the airborne pathway because in an accident scenario this typically represents the most immediately significant route of public exposure. However, the subcommittee recognizes that exposure to chemicals through other pathways, in particular waterborne, can have significant impacts on human health and the environment. Although there are a number of chemicals for which absorption through the skin can contribute measurably to the total dose in chronic (e.g., occupational) exposure situations, this pathway has not been considered for the acute exposure scenarios considered in this report. Later studies. will address these issues if it appears desirable.

  17. Evaluation of skin cancer risk for lunar and Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; George, Kerry A.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    Methods used to estimate the probability of excess incidence of skin cancer from space radiation exposure must take into consideration the variability of dose to different areas of the body and the individual factors that may contribute to increased risk, including skin pigment and synergistic effects from combined ionizing and UV exposure. We have estimated the skin cancer risk for future lunar and Mars missions using: (1) the multiplicative risk model for transferring the Japanese survivor data to the US population, (2) epidemiological data for the increased risk for skin locations exposed to combined UV and ionizing radiation, and (3) models of space radiation environments, transport, and anatomical shielding for 5260 skin loci. We have estimated that the probability for increased skin cancer risk from solar particle events varies more than 10-fold depending on the individual and area of skin exposed. We show that a skin cancer risk greater than 1% could occur for astronauts with light skin and hair color following exposure to medium or large class solar particle events during future lunar base operations, or from exposure to galactic cosmic rays during Mars missions.

  18. Infectious and dietary risk factors of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Meurman, Jukka H

    2010-06-01

    In addition to the classic risk factors of oral cancer, namely alcohol and tobacco, other factors both infectious and environmental are thought to be associated with the development of oral malignancy. Infections in the oral cavity may be an important preventable cause of cancer. Poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, chronic candidiasis, human papilloma virus (HPV) and herpesvirus infections link statistically with cancer but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Infections may trigger cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis, interfere with cellular signaling mechanisms and up-regulate tumor promoters. In addition, several oral micro-organisms metabolize alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde thus explaining the association between poor oral hygiene, alcohol consumption and carcinogenesis. With regards to dietary factors the Mediterranean-type fruit and vegetable rich diet has been shown to reduce the risk of oral cancer but the evidence is weak, the effect of individual food components and trace elements on carcinogenesis remains unclear at present.

  19. Risk factors for lung cancer among nonsmoking Illinois residents.

    PubMed

    Keller, J E; Howe, H L

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine possible risk factors for lung cancer among nonsmokers. The Illinois State Cancer Registry was used to identify all nonsmoking lung cancer cases diagnosed between 1985 and 1987. Subjects were classified as nonsmokers only if their medical record specifically stated that they had never smoked during their lifetime. These cases were compared with nonsmoking colon cancer cases. White male nonsmoking lung cancer cases were more likely to have worked in the construction industry than controls [odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-2.3] and to have worked in the bus service and urban transit industry (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.0-6.9), in the trucking service industry (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3-3.6), and in blast furnaces, steelworks, and rolling and finishing mills (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.0-3.6). White female cases were more likely to have worked as registered nurses than were the controls (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.0-3.5). Negative associations between lung cancer and farming were found in both white males (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.5-0.7) and white females (OR = 0.1, 95% CI = 0.01-0.6). Several other less plausible associations between employment and lung cancer were also found. To determine whether urban residence and associated air pollution increased the risk of lung cancer for nonsmokers, rates among nonsmokers in Cook County were compared with those in the remainder of Illinois. Cook County rates of nonsmoking lung cancer were elevated among white females and nonwhite females, but not among males. Residences of the white female and nonwhite female lung cancer cases were mapped to determine whether clustering within Chicago had occurred. The absence of observable clustering suggests that the excess of female lung cancer cases in Cook County is not attributable to pollution.

  20. Risk of testicular cancer in cohort of boys with cryptorchidism.

    PubMed Central

    Swerdlow, A. J.; Higgins, C. D.; Pike, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of testicular cancer in relation to undescended testis and its treatment based on recorded details of the maldescent, treatment, and biopsy from case notes. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, London. SUBJECTS: 1075 boys with cryptorchidism treated by orchidopexy or hormones at the hospital during 1951-64. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risk of testicular cancer in the cohort compared with men in the general population. RESULTS: 12 testicular cancers occurred in 11 of the patients during follow up to mid-1990 (relative risk of cancer in males with cryptorchidism = 7.5 (95% confidence interval 3.9 to 12.8)). The relative risk fell significantly beyond 15 years after orchidopexy but did not decrease with younger age at orchidopexy. Risk was significantly raised in testes that had had biopsy samples removed during orchidopexy (relative risk = 66.7 (23.9 to 143.3) compared with a testis in a man in the general population) and was significantly greater in these testes than in undescended testes that had not had biopsy samples taken at orchidopexy (6.7 (2.7 to 13.5)). No reasons for biopsy or distinguishing clinical aspects of the testes that had had biopsy samples taken and later developed malignancies were evident in the case notes. No histological abnormalities were evident at initial biopsy except in one testis that had features of dysgenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Biopsy seems to be a stronger risk factor for testicular cancer than any factor previously identified. The trauma of open biopsy may contribute substantially to risk of malignancy or the testes may have been selected for biopsy on the basis of clinical factors predictive of malignancy but not mentioned in the case notes. PMID:9169396

  1. Tobacco Road Finland - how did an accepted pleasure turn into an avoidable risk behaviour?

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Pekka

    2013-12-01

    Smoking was once defined as an appropriate recreational substance or life comfort, but is now understood as a serious health risk and a public health problem important enough to be controlled by society. In this article the changed social position and development of tobacco regulations in Finland are studied from a perspective of social constructionism. The emergence of recent tobacco controls can be seen as a process whereby tobacco came to be defined as a social problem. I will argue that there were three primary definitions which played a decisive role in this process. Put in historical order, these three definitions contained (1) claims about harms to smokers, (2) claims about harms to others, and (3) claims about tobacco as a highly addictive drug. These conceptions together drove a complementary and mutually reinforcing re-conception of tobacco harms. Consequently, the emergence of these definitions led to the founding of new institutions, practices, and treatments. The leading value in the claim-making process was public health, which transferred the state's interest away from fiscal revenues towards lowering the costs caused by tobacco diseases. Correspondingly, medical science and medical doctors gained a position as the leading authority in the defining the tobacco issue. The latest conceptual innovation is the idea of a tobacco-free Finland by 2040, representing