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Sample records for acceptable computational cost

  1. Computer acceptance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer.

  2. 7 CFR 3015.51 - Acceptable contributions and costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptable contributions and costs. 3015.51 Section... § 3015.51 Acceptable contributions and costs. A cost-sharing or a matching requirement may be satisfied... Subpart T. (b) The value of third party in-kind contributions applicable to the same period when a...

  3. Acceptable cost for the patient and society.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Georgina M; Adamson, G David; Eijkemans, Marinus J C

    2013-08-01

    Alongside the debate around clinical, scientific, and ethical aspects of assisted reproductive technology (ART), there exists a parallel debate around the economics of ART treatment and what is the most appropriate funding framework for providing safe, equitable, and cost-effective treatment. The cost of ART treatment from a patient perspective exhibits striking differences worldwide due to the costliness of underlying health care systems and the level of public and third-party subsidization. These relative cost differences affect not only who can afford to access ART treatment but how ART is practiced in terms of embryo transfer practices; in turn significantly impacting the health outcomes and costs of caring for ART conceived children. Although empirical evidence indicates that ART treatment is "good value money" from a societal and patient perspective, the challenge remains to communicate this to policy makers, primarily because fertility treatments are not easily accommodated by traditional health economic methods. Furthermore, with global demand for ART treatment likely to increase, it is important that future funding decisions are informed by what has been learned about how costs and economic incentives influence equity of access and clinical practice. In this review we provide an international perspective on the costs and consequences of ART and summarize key economic considerations from the perspective of ART patients, providers, and society as a whole in the coming decade.

  4. Cost of Computer Searching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenery, Peter J.

    1973-01-01

    The program described has the primary objective of making Federally generated technology and research information available to public and private agencies. Cost analysis, data banks, and search strategies are explained. (Author/DH)

  5. Videoconferencing a Stroke Assessment Training Workshop: Effectiveness, Acceptability, and Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Patricia A.; Huijbregts, Maria; French, Esme; Taylor, Denise; Reinikka, Kirsti; Berezny, Laura; Fry, Sherri; Grunin, Anna; Harvey, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Videoconferencing (VC) is becoming a common method for the delivery of continuing education (CE) to clinicians in remote locations. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness, acceptability, and costs of a full-day training workshop (TW) delivered through two different formats: face-to-face (FTF) and VC. The TW was…

  6. The Acceptance and Use of Computer Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzis, Vasileios; Economides, Anastasios A.

    2011-01-01

    The effective development of a computer based assessment (CBA) depends on students' acceptance. The purpose of this study is to build a model that demonstrates the constructs that affect students' behavioral intention to use a CBA. The proposed model, Computer Based Assessment Acceptance Model (CBAAM) is based on previous models of technology…

  7. Prior Computer Experience and Technology Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varma, Sonali

    2010-01-01

    Prior computer experience with information technology has been identified as a key variable (Lee, Kozar, & Larsen, 2003) that can influence an individual's future use of newer computer technology. The lack of a theory driven approach to measuring prior experience has however led to conceptually different factors being used interchangeably in…

  8. Mobile computing acceptance grows as applications evolve.

    PubMed

    Porn, Louis M; Patrick, Kelly

    2002-01-01

    Handheld devices are becoming more cost-effective to own, and their use in healthcare environments is increasing. Handheld devices currently are being used for e-prescribing, charge capture, and accessing daily schedules and reference tools. Future applications may include education on medications, dictation, order entry, and test-results reporting. Selecting the right handheld device requires careful analysis of current and future applications, as well as vendor expertise. It is important to recognize the technology will continue to evolve over the next three years. PMID:11806321

  9. Mobile computing acceptance grows as applications evolve.

    PubMed

    Porn, Louis M; Patrick, Kelly

    2002-01-01

    Handheld devices are becoming more cost-effective to own, and their use in healthcare environments is increasing. Handheld devices currently are being used for e-prescribing, charge capture, and accessing daily schedules and reference tools. Future applications may include education on medications, dictation, order entry, and test-results reporting. Selecting the right handheld device requires careful analysis of current and future applications, as well as vendor expertise. It is important to recognize the technology will continue to evolve over the next three years.

  10. Influence of Gender and Computer Teaching Efficacy on Computer Acceptance among Malaysian Student Teachers: An Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kung-Teck; Teo, Timothy; Russo, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to validate the technology acceptance model (TAM) in an educational context and explore the role of gender and computer teaching efficacy as external variables. From the literature, it appeared that only limited studies had developed models to explain statistically the chain of influence of computer teaching efficacy…

  11. An acceptable role for computers in the aircraft design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, T. J.; Roberts, L.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the reasons why the computerization trend is not wholly accepted are explored for two typical cases: computer use in the technical specialties and computer use in aircraft synthesis. The factors that limit acceptance are traced in part, to the large resources needed to understand the details of computer programs, the inability to include measured data as input to many of the theoretical programs, and the presentation of final results without supporting intermediate answers. Other factors are due solely to technical issues such as limited detail in aircraft synthesis and major simplifying assumptions in the technical specialties. These factors and others can be influenced by the technical specialist and aircraft designer. Some of these factors may become less significant as the computerization process evolves, but some issues, such as understanding large integrated systems, may remain issues in the future. Suggestions for improved acceptance include publishing computer programs so that they may be reviewed, edited, and read. Other mechanisms include extensive modularization of programs and ways to include measured information as part of the input to theoretical approaches.

  12. 10 CFR 603.545 - Acceptability of costs of prior RD&D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptability of costs of prior RD&D. 603.545 Section 603.545 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Cost Sharing § 603.545 Acceptability of costs of prior RD&D....

  13. 10 CFR 603.530 - Acceptable cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... by Federal statute to be used for cost sharing. (2) Independent research and development (IR&D) costs, as described in 48 CFR part 31.208-18, that meet all of the criteria in paragraphs (a) through (e) of... at 48 CFR part 31 allow a for-profit firm that has expenditure-based, Federal procurement...

  14. 10 CFR 603.530 - Acceptable cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... by Federal statute to be used for cost sharing. (2) Independent research and development (IR&D) costs, as described in 48 CFR part 31.208-18, that meet all of the criteria in paragraphs (a) through (e) of... at 48 CFR part 31 allow a for-profit firm that has expenditure-based, Federal procurement...

  15. 10 CFR 603.530 - Acceptable cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... by Federal statute to be used for cost sharing. (2) Independent research and development (IR&D) costs, as described in 48 CFR part 31.208-18, that meet all of the criteria in paragraphs (a) through (e) of... at 48 CFR part 31 allow a for-profit firm that has expenditure-based, Federal procurement...

  16. 10 CFR 603.530 - Acceptable cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... by Federal statute to be used for cost sharing. (2) Independent research and development (IR&D) costs, as described in 48 CFR part 31.208-18, that meet all of the criteria in paragraphs (a) through (e) of... at 48 CFR part 31 allow a for-profit firm that has expenditure-based, Federal procurement...

  17. Cut Costs with Thin Client Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Patrick H.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how school districts can considerably increase the number of administrative computers in their districts without a corresponding increase in costs by using the "Thin Client" component of the Total Cost of Ownership (TCC) model. TCC and Thin Client are described, including its software and hardware components. An example of a Thin Client…

  18. The augmented representation of the cost-effectiveness acceptability curve for economic evaluation of health technology.

    PubMed

    Araki, Daiji; Kamae, Isao

    2015-03-24

    New schemes on the cost-effectiveness acceptability curve (CEAC) were developed, which can make the CEAC augmented to be more informative regarding the types of acceptance and statistical inference. Theoretical approaches have been undertaken to address two questions: 1) how the area under the curve (AUC) can be zoned by different types of acceptance displayed on the incremental cost-effectiveness plane, and 2) how the accepted dataset of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), which are generated by simulation runs, can be statistically associated with a threshold of ICER for acceptance. To address the first question, the AUC of a typically sigmoid-shaped CEAC was divided into three zones according to the three segmentations of the scattered plots accepted at South-east, North-east and South-west quadrants on the incremental cost-effectiveness plane. A solution for the second question was "a new CEAC of the mean" (mCEAC), which is defined by plotting a pair of the mean and its occurrence probability of ICER accepted at North-east quadrant on the incremental cost-effectiveness plane. All those schemes were graphically illustrated based on hypothetical examples using the bootstrapping simulation. Our new schemes on CEAC will provide decision makers with useful information on cost-effectiveness assessment beyond the standard presentation of CEAC.

  19. Computer-Controlled HVAC -- at Low Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1974

    1974-01-01

    By tying into a computerized building-automation network, Schaumburg High School, Illinois, slashed its energy consumption by one-third. The remotely connected computer controls the mechanical system for the high school as well as other buildings in the community, with the cost being shared by all. (Author)

  20. The Hidden Costs of Wireless Computer Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Una

    2005-01-01

    Various elementary schools and middle schools across the U.S. have purchased one or more mobile laboratories. Although the wireless labs have provided more classroom computing, teachers and technology aides still have mixed views about their cost-benefit ratio. This is because the proliferation of viruses and spyware has dramatically increased…

  1. Acceptance of brain-computer interfaces in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Geronimo, Andrew; Stephens, Helen E; Schiff, Steven J; Simmons, Zachary

    2015-06-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) have the potential to permit patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to communicate even when locked in. Although as many as half of patients with ALS develop cognitive or behavioral dysfunction, the impact of these factors on acceptance of and ability to use a BCI has not been studied. We surveyed patients with ALS and their caregivers about BCIs used as assistive communication tools. The survey focused on the features of a BCI system, the desired end-use functions, and requirements. Functional, cognitive, and behavioral data were collected from patients and analyzed for their influence over decisions about BCI device use. Results showed that behavioral impairment was associated with decreased receptivity to the use of BCI technology. In addition, the operation of a BCI system during a pilot study altered patients' opinions of the utility of the system, generally in line with their perceived performance at controlling the device. In conclusion, these two findings have implications for the engineering design and clinical care phases of assistive device deployment.

  2. Computer-based electric energy cost management

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, D.C.; Gallant, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Control over electrical energy operating costs and their associated administrative overheads can be greatly improved by using a computer to manage electric service contracts. The electrical power supervision system (EPSS) is particularly effective for oil and gas producers whose electric loads are both diversified and distributed over several geographic areas. The system allows for centralized control under a trained specialist who ensures that for each production facility the contract terms and electrical costs are optimized. In addition, this approach to electric energy management effectively reduces corporate overheads by automating invoice payment procedures and enhancing lines of communication with the electric utilities.

  3. Acceptance of health technology assessment submissions with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios above the cost-effectiveness threshold

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Elizabeth A; Hendrich, Janek K; Stoddart, Samuel DR; Walsh, Sean CM

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In health technology assessment (HTA) agencies where cost-effectiveness plays a role in decision-making, an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) threshold is often used to inform reimbursement decisions. The acceptance of submissions with ICERs higher than the threshold was assessed across different agencies and across indications, in order to inform future reimbursement submissions. Methods All HTA appraisals from May 2000 to May 2014 from National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC), Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC), and Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) were assessed. Multiple technology appraisals, resubmissions, vaccination programs, and requests for advice were excluded. Submissions not reporting an ICER, or for which an ICER could not be determined were also excluded. The remaining appraisals were reviewed, and the submitted ICER, recommendation, and reasoning behind the recommendation were extracted. Results NICE recommended the highest proportion of submissions with ICERs higher than the threshold (34% accepted without restrictions; 20% with restrictions), followed by PBAC (16% accepted without restrictions; 4% with restrictions), SMC (11% accepted without restrictions; 14% accepted with restrictions), and CADTH (0% accepted without restrictions; 26% with restrictions). Overall, the majority of higher-than-threshold ICER submissions were classified into the “malignant disease and immunosuppression” therapeutic category; however, there was no notable variation in acceptance rates by disease area. Reasons for accepting submissions reporting ICERs above the threshold included high clinical benefit over the standard of care, and addressing an unmet therapeutic need. Conclusion Acceptance of submissions with higher-than-threshold ICERs varied by HTA agency and was not significantly influenced by disease category. Such submissions must be

  4. 48 CFR 227.7203-14 - Conformity, acceptance, and warranty of computer software and computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., and warranty of computer software and computer software documentation. 227.7203-14 Section 227.7203-14... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-14 Conformity, acceptance, and warranty of computer software and...

  5. 48 CFR 227.7203-14 - Conformity, acceptance, and warranty of computer software and computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., and warranty of computer software and computer software documentation. 227.7203-14 Section 227.7203-14... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-14 Conformity, acceptance, and warranty of computer software and...

  6. 48 CFR 227.7203-14 - Conformity, acceptance, and warranty of computer software and computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and warranty of computer software and computer software documentation. 227.7203-14 Section 227.7203-14... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-14 Conformity, acceptance, and warranty of computer software and...

  7. 48 CFR 227.7203-14 - Conformity, acceptance, and warranty of computer software and computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., and warranty of computer software and computer software documentation. 227.7203-14 Section 227.7203-14... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-14 Conformity, acceptance, and warranty of computer software and...

  8. 48 CFR 227.7203-14 - Conformity, acceptance, and warranty of computer software and computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., and warranty of computer software and computer software documentation. 227.7203-14 Section 227.7203-14... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-14 Conformity, acceptance, and warranty of computer software and...

  9. Cost Considerations in Nonlinear Finite-Element Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utku, S.; Melosh, R. J.; Islam, M.; Salama, M.

    1985-01-01

    Conference paper discusses computational requirements for finiteelement analysis using quasi-linear approach to nonlinear problems. Paper evaluates computational efficiency of different computer architecturtural types in terms of relative cost and computing time.

  10. 32 CFR 37.545 - May I accept costs of prior research as cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation... recipient will provide to carry out the current project (which may include pre-award costs for the current project, as described in § 37.830) are to be counted....

  11. 32 CFR 37.545 - May I accept costs of prior research as cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation... recipient will provide to carry out the current project (which may include pre-award costs for the current project, as described in § 37.830) are to be counted....

  12. CSI computer system/remote interface unit acceptance test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Dean W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The validation tests conducted on the Control/Structures Interaction (CSI) Computer System (CCS)/Remote Interface Unit (RIU) is discussed. The CCS/RIU consists of a commercially available, Langley Research Center (LaRC) programmed, space flight qualified computer and a flight data acquisition and filtering computer, developed at LaRC. The tests were performed in the Space Structures Research Laboratory (SSRL) and included open loop excitation, closed loop control, safing, RIU digital filtering, and RIU stand alone testing with the CSI Evolutionary Model (CEM) Phase-0 testbed. The test results indicated that the CCS/RIU system is comparable to ground based systems in performing real-time control-structure experiments.

  13. Modeling Computer Usage Intentions of Tertiary Students in a Developing Country through the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afari-Kumah, Eben; Achampong, Akwasi Kyere

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the computer usage intentions of Ghanaian Tertiary Students. The Technology Acceptance Model was adopted as the theoretical framework to ascertain whether it could help explain behavioral intentions of individuals to accept and use technology. Factor analysis was used to assess the construct validity of the initial…

  14. The Impact of Iranian Teachers Cultural Values on Computer Technology Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Karim; Saribagloo, Javad Amani; Aghdam, Samad Hanifepour; Mahmoudi, Hojjat

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of testing the technology acceptance model and the impact of Hofstede cultural values (masculinity/femininity, uncertainty avoidance, individualism/collectivism, and power distance) on computer technology acceptance among teachers at Urmia city (Iran) using the structural equation modeling approach. From among…

  15. Are the lowest-cost healthful food plans culturally and socially acceptable?

    PubMed Central

    Maillot, Matthieu; Darmon, Nicole; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nutritious yet inexpensive foods do exist. However, many such foods are rejected by the low-income consumer. Is it because their use violates unspoken social norms? The present study was designed to assess the variety and cost of the lowest-cost market basket of foods that simultaneously met required dietary standards and progressively stricter consumption constraints. Design A mathematical optimisation model was used to develop the lowest-cost food plans to meet three levels of nutritional requirements and seven levels of consumption constraints. Subjects: The nationally representative INCA (National Individual Survey of Food Consumption) dietary survey study of 1332 adults provided population estimates of food consumption patterns in France. Food plan costs were based on retail food prices. Results The lowest-cost food plans that provided 9204 kJ/d (2200 kcal/d) for men and 7531 kJ/d (1800 kcal/d) for women and met specified dietary standards could be obtained for ,1?50 h/d. The progressive imposition of consumption constraints designed to create more mainstream French diets sharply increased food plan costs, without improving nutritional value. Conclusions Minimising diet costs, while meeting nutrition standards only, led to food plans that provided little variety and deviated substantially from social norms. Aligning the food plan with mainstream consumption led to higher costs. Food plans designed for low-income groups need to be socially acceptable as well as affordable and nutritious. PMID:20105388

  16. Efficacy, acceptability and cost effectiveness of four therapeutic agents for treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Raheem, Talal A; Méabed, Eman M H; Nasef, Ghada A; Abdel Wahed, Wafaa Y; Rohaim, Rania M A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate four drug regimens for treatment of scabies as regard their efficacy, acceptability and cost effectiveness. Two hundred cases with ordinary scabies were randomized into four groups. First group received ivermectin 200 μg/kg body weight single oral dose, repeated after one week. The second received benzyl benzoate 20% cream. The third received permethrin 2.5%-5% lotion, whereas the fourth group received 5-10% sulfur ointment. Topical treatments were applied for five consecutive nights. Patients were followed up for two weeks for cure rate and adverse effects. At the end of the study, permethrin provided a significant efficacy of 88% and acceptability in 100% of cases, but had higher cost to treat one case (20.25 LE). Ivermectin provided efficacy and acceptability rates of 84% and 96%, respectively, and had a cheaper cost (9.5 LE). Benzyl benzoate provided 80% for both rates and was the cheapest drug. Sulfur ointment provided the least rates, and it was the most expensive. Treatment choice will depend on the age, the general condition of cases, patient compliance to topical treatment and his ability to stick to its roles, and the economic condition of the patient.

  17. Efficacy, acceptability and cost effectiveness of four therapeutic agents for treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Raheem, Talal A; Méabed, Eman M H; Nasef, Ghada A; Abdel Wahed, Wafaa Y; Rohaim, Rania M A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate four drug regimens for treatment of scabies as regard their efficacy, acceptability and cost effectiveness. Two hundred cases with ordinary scabies were randomized into four groups. First group received ivermectin 200 μg/kg body weight single oral dose, repeated after one week. The second received benzyl benzoate 20% cream. The third received permethrin 2.5%-5% lotion, whereas the fourth group received 5-10% sulfur ointment. Topical treatments were applied for five consecutive nights. Patients were followed up for two weeks for cure rate and adverse effects. At the end of the study, permethrin provided a significant efficacy of 88% and acceptability in 100% of cases, but had higher cost to treat one case (20.25 LE). Ivermectin provided efficacy and acceptability rates of 84% and 96%, respectively, and had a cheaper cost (9.5 LE). Benzyl benzoate provided 80% for both rates and was the cheapest drug. Sulfur ointment provided the least rates, and it was the most expensive. Treatment choice will depend on the age, the general condition of cases, patient compliance to topical treatment and his ability to stick to its roles, and the economic condition of the patient. PMID:27027929

  18. 38 CFR 36.4404 - Computation of cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cost of adaptations. Under section 2101(b) of Chapter 21, for the purpose of computing the amount of... market value of the adaptations, including installation costs, determined to be reasonably necessary,...

  19. Cutting Technology Costs with Refurbished Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Many district administrators are finding that they can save money on computers by buying preowned ones instead of new ones. The practice has other benefits as well: It allows districts to give more computers to more students who need them, and it also promotes good environmental practices by keeping the machines out of landfills, where they…

  20. Understanding Acceptable Level of Risk: Incorporating the Economic Cost of Under-Managing Invasive Species

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Alisha D.; Hewitt, Chad L.; Kashian, Donna R.

    2015-01-01

    Management of nonindigenous species includes prevention, early detection and rapid response and control. Early detection and rapid response depend on prioritizing and monitoring sites at risk for arrival or secondary spread of nonindigenous species. Such monitoring efforts require sufficient biosecurity budgets to be effective and meet management or policy directives for reduced risk of introduction. Such consideration of risk reduction is rarely considered, however. Here, we review the concepts of acceptable level of risk (ALOR) and associated costs with respect to nonindigenous species and present a framework for aligning risk reduction priorities with available biosecurity resources. We conclude that available biosecurity resources may be insufficient to attain stated and desired risk reduction. This outcome highlights the need to consider policy and management directives when beginning a biosecurity program to determine the feasibility of risk reduction goals, given available resources. PMID:26536244

  1. 32 CFR 37.530 - What criteria do I use in deciding whether to accept a recipient's cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Award Business Evaluation Cost Sharing § 37.530 What criteria do I use in deciding whether to accept a... commitment to the success of the research project. Cash contributions clearly demonstrate commitment and they... accomplishment of the research project's objectives. (c) They are costs that may be charged to the project...

  2. 32 CFR 37.530 - What criteria do I use in deciding whether to accept a recipient's cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Award Business Evaluation Cost Sharing § 37.530 What criteria do I use in deciding whether to accept a... commitment to the success of the research project. Cash contributions clearly demonstrate commitment and they... accomplishment of the research project's objectives. (c) They are costs that may be charged to the project...

  3. 32 CFR 37.530 - What criteria do I use in deciding whether to accept a recipient's cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and development (IR&D) costs, as described at 32 CFR 34.13(a)(5)(ii), that meet all of the criteria in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section. IR&D is acceptable as cost sharing, even though it may be... principles at 48 CFR part 31 allow a for-profit firm that has expenditure-based, Federal...

  4. 32 CFR 37.530 - What criteria do I use in deciding whether to accept a recipient's cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and development (IR&D) costs, as described at 32 CFR 34.13(a)(5)(ii), that meet all of the criteria in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section. IR&D is acceptable as cost sharing, even though it may be... principles at 48 CFR part 31 allow a for-profit firm that has expenditure-based, Federal...

  5. 32 CFR 37.530 - What criteria do I use in deciding whether to accept a recipient's cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and development (IR&D) costs, as described at 32 CFR 34.13(a)(5)(ii), that meet all of the criteria in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section. IR&D is acceptable as cost sharing, even though it may be... principles at 48 CFR part 31 allow a for-profit firm that has expenditure-based, Federal...

  6. Low-Cost Computers for Education in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the distribution of computer use in a comparison between two of the most dominant suppliers of low-cost computers for education in developing countries (partly because they involve diametrically opposite ways of tackling the problem). The comparison is made in the context of an analytical framework which traces the changing…

  7. Thermodynamic cost of computation, algorithmic complexity and the information metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurek, W. H.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithmic complexity is discussed as a computational counterpart to the second law of thermodynamics. It is shown that algorithmic complexity, which is a measure of randomness, sets limits on the thermodynamic cost of computations and casts a new light on the limitations of Maxwell's demon. Algorithmic complexity can also be used to define distance between binary strings.

  8. Development of a Cost-Effective Educational Tool to Promote Acceptance of the HPV Vaccination by Hispanic Mothers.

    PubMed

    Brueggmann, Doerthe; Opper, Neisha; Felix, Juan; Groneberg, David A; Mishell, Daniel R; Jaque, Jenny M

    2016-06-01

    Although vaccination against the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) reduces the risk of related morbidities, the vaccine uptake remains low in adolescents. This has been attributed to limited parental knowledge and misconceptions. In this cross sectional study, we assessed the (1) clarity of educational material informing Hispanic mothers about HPV, cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine, (2) determined vaccination acceptability and (3) identified predictors of vaccine acceptance in an underserved health setting. 418 Hispanic mothers received the educational material and completed an anonymous survey. 91 % of participants understood most or all of the information provided. 77 % of participants reported vaccine acceptance for their children; this increased to 84 % when only those with children eligible to receive vaccination were included. Significant positive predictors of maternal acceptance of the HPV vaccine for their children were understanding most or all of the provided information, older age and acceptance of the HPV vaccine for themselves. Concerns about safety and general dislike of vaccines were negatively associated with HPV vaccine acceptance. Prior knowledge, level of education, previous relevant gynecologic history, general willingness to vaccinate and other general beliefs about vaccines were not significantly associated with HPV vaccine acceptance. The majority of participants reported understanding of the provided educational material. Vaccine acceptability was fairly high, but was even higher among those who understood the information. This study documents a cost-effective way to provide Hispanic mothers with easy-to-understand HPV-related information that could increase parental vaccine acceptability and future vaccine uptake among their children.

  9. Quantifying the Cost-Benefits of Computer Dental Management Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, David R.

    1982-01-01

    There is little literature that attempts to quantify the cost benefits of computers in dental practice. This study surveyed eighteen vendors to establish a typical computer dental management system. Estimating the labor savings of such computers, the rate of return of these systems was calculated using the methodology employed in a study by Arthur Young and Company. Sensitivity to adjusted initial investment, applications and clerical salary was also calculated. Unlike the findings of the Young study which assumed a fully automated office, this study found that the typical uses of most computer dental management systems does not give an adequate return on investment.

  10. Software Requirements for a System to Compute Mean Failure Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Aissa, Anis Ben; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2010-01-01

    In earlier works, we presented a computational infrastructure that allows an analyst to estimate the security of a system in terms of the loss that each stakeholder. We also demonstrated this infrastructure through the results of security breakdowns for the ecommerce case. In this paper, we illustrate this infrastructure by an application that supports the computation of the Mean Failure Cost (MFC) for each stakeholder.

  11. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Computer Resources for Machine Learning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Champion, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Machine learning describes pattern-recognition algorithms - in this case, probabilistic neural networks (PNNs). These can be computationally intensive, in part because of the nonlinear optimizer, a numerical process that calibrates the PNN by minimizing a sum of squared errors. This report suggests efficiencies that are expressed as cost and benefit. The cost is computer time needed to calibrate the PNN, and the benefit is goodness-of-fit, how well the PNN learns the pattern in the data. There may be a point of diminishing returns where a further expenditure of computer resources does not produce additional benefits. Sampling is suggested as a cost-reduction strategy. One consideration is how many points to select for calibration and another is the geometric distribution of the points. The data points may be nonuniformly distributed across space, so that sampling at some locations provides additional benefit while sampling at other locations does not. A stratified sampling strategy can be designed to select more points in regions where they reduce the calibration error and fewer points in regions where they do not. Goodness-of-fit tests ensure that the sampling does not introduce bias. This approach is illustrated by statistical experiments for computing correlations between measures of roadless area and population density for the San Francisco Bay Area. The alternative to training efficiencies is to rely on high-performance computer systems. These may require specialized programming and algorithms that are optimized for parallel performance.

  12. Development of a Cost-Effective Educational Tool to Promote Acceptance of the HPV Vaccination by Hispanic Mothers.

    PubMed

    Brueggmann, Doerthe; Opper, Neisha; Felix, Juan; Groneberg, David A; Mishell, Daniel R; Jaque, Jenny M

    2016-06-01

    Although vaccination against the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) reduces the risk of related morbidities, the vaccine uptake remains low in adolescents. This has been attributed to limited parental knowledge and misconceptions. In this cross sectional study, we assessed the (1) clarity of educational material informing Hispanic mothers about HPV, cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine, (2) determined vaccination acceptability and (3) identified predictors of vaccine acceptance in an underserved health setting. 418 Hispanic mothers received the educational material and completed an anonymous survey. 91 % of participants understood most or all of the information provided. 77 % of participants reported vaccine acceptance for their children; this increased to 84 % when only those with children eligible to receive vaccination were included. Significant positive predictors of maternal acceptance of the HPV vaccine for their children were understanding most or all of the provided information, older age and acceptance of the HPV vaccine for themselves. Concerns about safety and general dislike of vaccines were negatively associated with HPV vaccine acceptance. Prior knowledge, level of education, previous relevant gynecologic history, general willingness to vaccinate and other general beliefs about vaccines were not significantly associated with HPV vaccine acceptance. The majority of participants reported understanding of the provided educational material. Vaccine acceptability was fairly high, but was even higher among those who understood the information. This study documents a cost-effective way to provide Hispanic mothers with easy-to-understand HPV-related information that could increase parental vaccine acceptability and future vaccine uptake among their children. PMID:26516016

  13. Acceptability of an Embodied Conversational Agent-based Computer Application for Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kristen J.; Vázquez-Otero, Coralia; Bredice, Marissa; Meade, Cathy D.; Chaet, Alexis; Rivera, Maria I.; Arroyo, Gloria; Proctor, Sara K.; Barnes, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    There are few Spanish language interactive, technology-driven health education programs. Objectives of this feasibility study were to: 1) learn more about computer and technology usage among Hispanic women living in a rural community; and 2) evaluate acceptability of the concept of using an embodied conversational agent (ECA) computer application among this population. A survey about computer usage history and interest in computers was administered to a convenience sample of 26 women. A sample video prototype of a hospital discharge ECA was administered followed by questions to gauge opinion about the ECA. Data indicate women exhibited both a high level of computer experience and enthusiasm for the ECA. Feedback from community is essential to ensure equity in state of the art dissemination of health information. Hay algunos programas interactivos en español que usan la tecnología para educar sobre la salud. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: 1) aprender más sobre el uso de computadoras y tecnología entre mujeres Hispanas que viven en comunidades rurales y 2) evaluar la aceptabilidad del concepto de usar un programa de computadora utilizando un agente de conversación encarnado (ECA) en esta población. Se administro una encuesta sobre el historial de uso y del interés de aprender sobre computadoras fue a 26 mujeres por muestreo de conveniencia. Un ejemplo del prototipo ECA en forma de video de un alta hospitalaria fue administrado y fue seguido por preguntas sobre la opinión que tenían del ECA. Los datos indican que las mujeres mostraron un alto nivel de experiencia con las computadoras y un alto nivel de entusiasmo sobre el ECA. La retroalimentación de la comunidad es esencial para asegurar equidad en la diseminación de información sobre la salud con tecnología de punta. PMID:26671558

  14. Research on Teletraining: Student Acceptance, Learning Effectiveness and Cost Benefits in the Corporate Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chute, Alan G.

    The Sales and Marketing Education organization of AT&T Communications conducts ongoing research to monitor the impact of their National Teletraining Network (NTN) programs for professional sales personnel on: (1) learning, (2) student acceptance of courses and instructors, and (3) student willingness to take additional teletrained programs. During…

  15. 32 CFR 37.550 - May I accept intellectual property as cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... software) as cost sharing, because: (1) It is difficult to assign values to these intangible contributions... offer the use of commercially available software for which there is an established license fee for use of the product. The costs of the development of the software would not be a reasonable basis...

  16. 32 CFR 37.550 - May I accept intellectual property as cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... software) as cost sharing, because: (1) It is difficult to assign values to these intangible contributions... offer the use of commercially available software for which there is an established license fee for use of the product. The costs of the development of the software would not be a reasonable basis...

  17. Computational model of collective nest selection by ants with heterogeneous acceptance thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Naoki; O'shea-Wheller, Thomas A.; Doran, Carolina; Franks, Nigel R.

    2015-01-01

    Collective decision-making is a characteristic of societies ranging from ants to humans. The ant Temnothorax albipennis is known to use quorum sensing to collectively decide on a new home; emigration to a new nest site occurs when the number of ants favouring the new site becomes quorate. There are several possible mechanisms by which ant colonies can select the best nest site among alternatives based on a quorum mechanism. In this study, we use computational models to examine the implications of heterogeneous acceptance thresholds across individual ants in collective nest choice behaviour. We take a minimalist approach to develop a differential equation model and a corresponding non-spatial agent-based model. We show, consistent with existing empirical evidence, that heterogeneity in acceptance thresholds is a viable mechanism for efficient nest choice behaviour. In particular, we show that the proposed models show speed–accuracy trade-offs and speed–cohesion trade-offs when we vary the number of scouts or the quorum threshold. PMID:26543578

  18. Computational model of collective nest selection by ants with heterogeneous acceptance thresholds.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Naoki; O'shea-Wheller, Thomas A; Doran, Carolina; Franks, Nigel R

    2015-06-01

    Collective decision-making is a characteristic of societies ranging from ants to humans. The ant Temnothorax albipennis is known to use quorum sensing to collectively decide on a new home; emigration to a new nest site occurs when the number of ants favouring the new site becomes quorate. There are several possible mechanisms by which ant colonies can select the best nest site among alternatives based on a quorum mechanism. In this study, we use computational models to examine the implications of heterogeneous acceptance thresholds across individual ants in collective nest choice behaviour. We take a minimalist approach to develop a differential equation model and a corresponding non-spatial agent-based model. We show, consistent with existing empirical evidence, that heterogeneity in acceptance thresholds is a viable mechanism for efficient nest choice behaviour. In particular, we show that the proposed models show speed-accuracy trade-offs and speed-cohesion trade-offs when we vary the number of scouts or the quorum threshold. PMID:26543578

  19. Comparing user acceptance of a computer system in two pediatric offices: a qualitative study.

    PubMed Central

    Travers, D. A.; Downs, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine user acceptance of a clinical computer system in two pediatric practices in the southeast. Data were gathered through interviews with practice and IS staff, observations in the clinical area, and review of system implementation records. Five months after implementation, Practice A continued to use the system but Practice B had quit using it because it was unacceptable to the users. The results are presented here, in relation to a conceptual framework, which was originally developed to describe the process of successful implementation of research findings into practice. Five main themes were identified relative to the differences in user acceptance at the two practices: 1) Benefits versus expense of system use varied, 2) Organizational cultures differed, 3) IS staff's relationship with practices differed, 4) Post-implementation experiences differed, and 5) Transfer of technology from the academic center to private practice proved challenging in Practice B. The findings indicate a need for the development and validation of tools to measure healthcare organizational climate and readiness for change. PMID:11080005

  20. Examining Peer Acceptance in Verbal and Non-Verbal Interaction during Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: Implications for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavrou, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of peer acceptance in a study investigating the interactions of pairs of disabled and non-disabled pupils working together on computer-based tasks in mainstream primary schools in Cyprus. Twenty dyads of pupils were observed and videotaped while working together at the computer. Data analyses were based on the…

  1. 32 CFR 37.550 - May I accept intellectual property as cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation... the same cost of lost opportunity to a recipient as contributions of cash or tangible assets....

  2. A Behavioral Test of Accepting Benefits that Cost Others: Associations with Conduct Problems and Callous-Unemotionality

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Joseph T.; Dalwani, Manish S.; Gelhorn, Heather L.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Youth with conduct problems (CP) often make decisions which value self-interest over the interests of others. Self-benefiting behavior despite loss to others is especially common among youth with CP and callous-unemotional traits (CU). Such behavioral tendencies are generally measured using self- or observer-report. We are unaware of attempts to measure this tendency with a behavioral paradigm. Methods/Principal Findings In our AlAn's (altruism-antisocial) game a computer program presents subjects with a series of offers in which they will receive money but a planned actual charity donation will be reduced; subjects decide to accept or reject each offer. We tested (1) whether adolescent patients with CP (n = 20) compared with adolescent controls (n = 19) differed on AlAn's game outcomes, (2) whether youths with CP and CU differed significantly from controls without CP or CU, and (3) whether AlAn's game outcomes correlated significantly with CP and separately, CU severity. Patients with CP and CU compared with controls without these problems took significantly more money for themselves and left significantly less money in the charity donation; AlAn's game outcomes were significantly correlated with CU, but not CP. Conclusions/Significance In the AlAn's game adolescents with conduct problems and CU traits, compared with controls without CP/CU, are disposed to benefit themselves while costing others even in a novel situation, devoid of peer influences, where anonymity is assured, reciprocity or retribution are impossible, intoxication is absent and when the “other” to be harmed is considered beneficent. AlAn's game outcomes are associated with measures of CU. Results suggest that the AlAn's game provides an objective means of capturing information about CU traits. The AlAn's game, which was designed for future use in the MRI environment, may be used in studies attempting to identify the neural correlates of self-benefiting decision-making. PMID

  3. An Integrated BIM and Cost Estimating Blended Learning Model--Acceptance Differences between Experts and Novice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Wen, Ming-Hui; Chen, Ching-Ming; Hsu, I-Ting

    2016-01-01

    "Building information technology" and "cost estimating" are two core skills of construction education. However, in traditional education, students learn these two important subjects in separate courses. This study proposes a blended learning environment which can provide students with support for their face-to-face learning…

  4. 10 CFR 603.545 - Acceptability of costs of prior RD&D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....545 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS... the additional resources that the recipient will provide to carry out the current project (which may include pre-award costs for the current project, as described in § 603.830) are to be counted....

  5. Identifying Ghanaian Pre-Service Teachers' Readiness for Computer Use: A Technology Acceptance Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyamfi, Stephen Adu

    2016-01-01

    This study extends the technology acceptance model to identify factors that influence technology acceptance among pre-service teachers in Ghana. Data from 380 usable questionnaires were tested against the research model. Utilising the extended technology acceptance model (TAM) as a research framework, the study found that: pre-service teachers'…

  6. The effectiveness, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for maltreated children and adolescents: an evidence synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Geraldine; Livingstone, Nuala; Hanratty, Jennifer; McCartan, Claire; Cotmore, Richard; Cary, Maria; Glaser, Danya; Byford, Sarah; Welton, Nicky J; Bosqui, Tania; Bowes, Lucy; Audrey, Suzanne; Mezey, Gill; Fisher, Helen L; Riches, Wendy; Churchill, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Child maltreatment is a substantial social problem that affects large numbers of children and young people in the UK, resulting in a range of significant short- and long-term psychosocial problems. OBJECTIVES To synthesise evidence of the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of interventions addressing the adverse consequences of child maltreatment. STUDY DESIGN For effectiveness, we included any controlled study. Other study designs were considered for economic decision modelling. For acceptability, we included any study that asked participants for their views. PARTICIPANTS Children and young people up to 24 years 11 months, who had experienced maltreatment before the age of 17 years 11 months. INTERVENTIONS Any psychosocial intervention provided in any setting aiming to address the consequences of maltreatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Psychological distress [particularly post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety, and self-harm], behaviour, social functioning, quality of life and acceptability. METHODS Young Persons and Professional Advisory Groups guided the project, which was conducted in accordance with Cochrane Collaboration and NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidance. Departures from the published protocol were recorded and explained. Meta-analyses and cost-effectiveness analyses of available data were undertaken where possible. RESULTS We identified 198 effectiveness studies (including 62 randomised trials); six economic evaluations (five using trial data and one decision-analytic model); and 73 studies investigating treatment acceptability. Pooled data on cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for sexual abuse suggested post-treatment reductions in PTSD [standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.44 (95% CI -4.43 to -1.53)], depression [mean difference -2.83 (95% CI -4.53 to -1.13)] and anxiety [SMD -0.23 (95% CI -0.03 to -0.42)]. No differences were observed for post-treatment sexualised behaviour

  7. Computer-aided feature extraction, classification, and acceptance processing of digital NDE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildreth, Joseph H.

    1996-11-01

    As part of the advanced Launch System technology development effort begun in 1989, the Air Force initiated a program to automate, to the extent possible, the processing of NDE data from the inspection of slid rocket motors during fabrication. The computerized system, called the Automated NDE Data Evaluation System or ANDES, was developed under contract to Martin Marietta, now Lockheed Martin. The ANDES system is generic in structure and is highly tailorable. The system can be configured to process digital or digitized data from any source, to process data from a single or from multiple acquisition systems, and to function as a single stand-alone system or in a multiple workstation distributed network. The system can maintain multiple configurations from which the user can select. In large measure, a configuration is defined through the system's user interface and is stored in the system's data base to be recalled by the user at any time. Three operational systems are currently in use. These systems ar located at Hill AFB in Ogden, Utah, Kelly AFB in San Antonio, TX, and the Phillips Laboratory at Edwards AFB in California. Each of these systems is configured to process x-ray computed tomography, CT, images. The Hill AFB installation supports the aging surveillance effort on Minuteman third stage rocket motors. The Kelly AFB system supports the acceptance inspection of airframe and engine components and torpedo housing components. The installation at Edwards AFB provides technical support to the other two locations.

  8. Pupillary dynamics reveal computational cost in sentence planning.

    PubMed

    Sevilla, Yamila; Maldonado, Mora; Shalóm, Diego E

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the computational cost associated with grammatical planning in sentence production. We measured people's pupillary responses as they produced spoken descriptions of depicted events. We manipulated the syntactic structure of the target by training subjects to use different types of sentences following a colour cue. The results showed higher increase in pupil size for the production of passive and object dislocated sentences than for active canonical subject-verb-object sentences, indicating that more cognitive effort is associated with more complex noncanonical thematic order. We also manipulated the time at which the cue that triggered structure-building processes was presented. Differential increase in pupil diameter for more complex sentences was shown to rise earlier as the colour cue was presented earlier, suggesting that the observed pupillary changes are due to differential demands in relatively independent structure-building processes during grammatical planning. Task-evoked pupillary responses provide a reliable measure to study the cognitive processes involved in sentence production.

  9. The performance of low-cost commercial cloud computing as an alternative in computational chemistry.

    PubMed

    Thackston, Russell; Fortenberry, Ryan C

    2015-05-01

    The growth of commercial cloud computing (CCC) as a viable means of computational infrastructure is largely unexplored for the purposes of quantum chemistry. In this work, the PSI4 suite of computational chemistry programs is installed on five different types of Amazon World Services CCC platforms. The performance for a set of electronically excited state single-point energies is compared between these CCC platforms and typical, "in-house" physical machines. Further considerations are made for the number of cores or virtual CPUs (vCPUs, for the CCC platforms), but no considerations are made for full parallelization of the program (even though parallelization of the BLAS library is implemented), complete high-performance computing cluster utilization, or steal time. Even with this most pessimistic view of the computations, CCC resources are shown to be more cost effective for significant numbers of typical quantum chemistry computations. Large numbers of large computations are still best utilized by more traditional means, but smaller-scale research may be more effectively undertaken through CCC services. PMID:25753841

  10. The performance of low-cost commercial cloud computing as an alternative in computational chemistry.

    PubMed

    Thackston, Russell; Fortenberry, Ryan C

    2015-05-01

    The growth of commercial cloud computing (CCC) as a viable means of computational infrastructure is largely unexplored for the purposes of quantum chemistry. In this work, the PSI4 suite of computational chemistry programs is installed on five different types of Amazon World Services CCC platforms. The performance for a set of electronically excited state single-point energies is compared between these CCC platforms and typical, "in-house" physical machines. Further considerations are made for the number of cores or virtual CPUs (vCPUs, for the CCC platforms), but no considerations are made for full parallelization of the program (even though parallelization of the BLAS library is implemented), complete high-performance computing cluster utilization, or steal time. Even with this most pessimistic view of the computations, CCC resources are shown to be more cost effective for significant numbers of typical quantum chemistry computations. Large numbers of large computations are still best utilized by more traditional means, but smaller-scale research may be more effectively undertaken through CCC services.

  11. Consumer Security Perceptions and the Perceived Influence on Adopting Cloud Computing: A Quantitative Study Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquet, Katherine G.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing may provide cost benefits for organizations by eliminating the overhead costs of software, hardware, and maintenance (e.g., license renewals, upgrading software, servers and their physical storage space, administration along with funding a large IT department). In addition to the promised savings, the organization may require…

  12. Manual of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant cost model and computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, C. Y.; Alkasab, K. A.

    1984-01-01

    Cost analysis of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant includes two parts: a method for estimation of system capital costs, and an economic analysis which determines the levelized annual cost of operating the system used in the capital cost estimation. A FORTRAN computer has been developed for this cost analysis.

  13. Predicting Cloud Computing Technology Adoption by Organizations: An Empirical Integration of Technology Acceptance Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekufu, ThankGod K.

    2012-01-01

    Organizations are finding it difficult in today's economy to implement the vast information technology infrastructure required to effectively conduct their business operations. Despite the fact that some of these organizations are leveraging on the computational powers and the cost-saving benefits of computing on the Internet cloud, others…

  14. Cost analysis for computer supported multiple-choice paper examinations

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Alexander; Hörnlein, Alexander; Ifland, Marianus; Lüneburg, Edeltraud; Deckert, Jürgen; Puppe, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Multiple-choice-examinations are still fundamental for assessment in medical degree programs. In addition to content related research, the optimization of the technical procedure is an important question. Medical examiners face three options: paper-based examinations with or without computer support or completely electronic examinations. Critical aspects are the effort for formatting, the logistic effort during the actual examination, quality, promptness and effort of the correction, the time for making the documents available for inspection by the students, and the statistical analysis of the examination results. Methods: Since three semesters a computer program for input and formatting of MC-questions in medical and other paper-based examinations is used and continuously improved at Wuerzburg University. In the winter semester (WS) 2009/10 eleven, in the summer semester (SS) 2010 twelve and in WS 2010/11 thirteen medical examinations were accomplished with the program and automatically evaluated. For the last two semesters the remaining manual workload was recorded. Results: The cost of the formatting and the subsequent analysis including adjustments of the analysis of an average examination with about 140 participants and about 35 questions was 5-7 hours for exams without complications in the winter semester 2009/2010, about 2 hours in SS 2010 and about 1.5 hours in the winter semester 2010/11. Including exams with complications, the average time was about 3 hours per exam in SS 2010 and 2.67 hours for the WS 10/11. Discussion: For conventional multiple-choice exams the computer-based formatting and evaluation of paper-based exams offers a significant time reduction for lecturers in comparison with the manual correction of paper-based exams and compared to purely electronically conducted exams it needs a much simpler technological infrastructure and fewer staff during the exam. PMID:22205913

  15. Low-cost monitoring of patients during unsupervised robot/computer assisted motivating stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michelle J; Shakya, Yuniya; Strachota, Elaine; Ahamed, Sheikh Iqbal

    2011-02-01

    There is a need for effective stroke rehabilitation systems that can be used in undersupervised/unsupervised environments such as the home to assist in improving and/or sustaining functional outcomes. We determined the stability, accuracy and usability of an extremely low-cost mobile robot for use with a robot/computer motivating rehabilitation device, TheraDrive. The robot provided cues to discourage excessive trunk movements and to encourage arm movements. The mobile robot system was positively received by potential users, and it was accurate and stable over time. Feedback from users suggests that finding the optimal frequency and type of encouragement and corrective feedback given by the robot helper will be critical for long-term acceptance.

  16. Building on safety, feasibility, and acceptability: the impact and cost of community health worker provision of injectable contraception

    PubMed Central

    Chin-Quee, Dawn; Bratt, John; Malkin, Morrisa; Nduna, Mavis Mwale; Otterness, Conrad; Jumbe, Lydia; Mbewe, Reuben Kamoto

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: A critical shortage of doctors, nurses, and midwives in many sub-Saharan African countries inhibits efforts to expand access to family planning services, especially in rural areas. One way to fill this gap is for community health workers (CHWs) to provide injectable contraceptives, an intervention for which there is growing evidence and international support. In 2009, with approval from the Government of Zambia (GoZ), FHI 360 collaborated with ChildFund Zambia to design and implement such an intervention as part of its existing CHW family planning program. Methods: The safety of CHW provision of injectable DMPA (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) was measured by client reports and by a 21-item structured observation checklist. Feasibility and acceptability were measured by interviews with CHWs and a subset of DMPA clients. The impact of adding DMPA to pill and condom provision was assessed by family planning uptake among the clients of trained CHWs from February 2010 to February 2011. Costs were documented using spreadsheets over the period November 2009 to February 2011. Results: Scores were high on all measures of safety, feasibility, and acceptability. Couple-years of protection (CYP, protection from pregnancy for 1 year) was provided to 51 condom clients, 391 pill clients, and 2,206 DMPA clients. Of the 1,739 clients new to family planning, 85% chose injectable DMPA, while 13% chose pills and 2% chose condoms. Continuation rates were also high, at 63% after 1 year as compared with 47% for pill users. Incremental costs per couple-year were US$21.24 if 50% of users continue with CHW-provided DMPA. Conclusion: The study affirms that the provision of injectable contraceptives by CHWs is safe, acceptable, and feasible in the Zambian context, with very high rates of uptake in hard-to-reach areas. High continuation rates among clients mean that costs of the intervention can be low when added to an existing community-based distribution program

  17. Acceptability, Feasibility, and Cost of Telemedicine for Nonacute Headaches: A Randomized Study Comparing Video and Traditional Consultations

    PubMed Central

    Alstadhaug, Karl Bjørnar; Bekkelund, Svein Ivar

    2016-01-01

    Background The feasibility of telemedicine in diagnosing and treating nonacute headaches, such as primary headaches (migraine and tension-type) and medication-overuse headaches has not been previously investigated. By eliminating the need of travel to specialists, telemedicine may offer significant time and money savings. Objectives Our objective was to estimate the acceptance of telemedicine and investigate the feasibility and cost savings of telemedicine consultations in diagnosing and treating nonacute headaches. Methods From September 2012 to March 2015, nonacute headache patients from Northern Norway who were referred to neurologists through an electronic application system were consecutively screened and randomized to participate in either telemedicine or traditional specialist visits. All patients were consulted by two neurologists at the neurological department in Tromsø University Hospital. Feasibility outcomes were compared between telemedicine and traditional groups. Baseline characteristics and costs were then compared between rural and urban patients. Travel costs were calculated by using the probabilistic method of the Norwegian traveling agency: the cheapest means of public transport for each study participant. Loss of pay was calculated based on the Norwegian full-time employee’s average salary: < 3.5 hours=a half day’s salary, > 3.5 hours spent on travel and consultation=one day’s salary. Distance and time spent on travel were estimated by using Google Maps. Results Of 557 headache patients screened, 479 were found eligible and 402 accepted telemedicine participation (83.9%, 402/479) and were included in the final analyses. Of these, 202 received traditional specialist consultations and 200 received telemedicine. All patients in the telemedicine group were satisfied with the video quality, and 198 (99%, 198/200) were satisfied with the sound quality. The baseline characteristics as well as headache diagnostics and follow-up appointments, and

  18. 42 CFR 417.588 - Computation of adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Computation of adjusted average per capita cost... of adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC). (a) Basic data. In computing the AAPCC, CMS uses the U.S. per capita incurred cost and adjusts it by the factors specified in paragraph (c) of this section...

  19. 42 CFR 417.588 - Computation of adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Computation of adjusted average per capita cost... of adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC). (a) Basic data. In computing the AAPCC, CMS uses the U.S. per capita incurred cost and adjusts it by the factors specified in paragraph (c) of this section...

  20. 42 CFR 417.588 - Computation of adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Computation of adjusted average per capita cost... adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC). (a) Basic data. In computing the AAPCC, CMS uses the U.S. per capita incurred cost and adjusts it by the factors specified in paragraph (c) of this section...

  1. 42 CFR 417.588 - Computation of adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Computation of adjusted average per capita cost... of adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC). (a) Basic data. In computing the AAPCC, CMS uses the U.S. per capita incurred cost and adjusts it by the factors specified in paragraph (c) of this section...

  2. Teaching with Technology: The Classroom Manager. Cost-Conscious Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rhea; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Teachers discuss how to make the most of technology in the classroom during a tight economy. Ideas include recycling computer printer ribbons, buying replacement batteries for computer power supply packs, upgrading via software, and soliciting donated computer equipment. (SM)

  3. Gender-based Outcomes and Acceptability of a Computer-assisted Psychosocial Intervention for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Nunes, Edward V.; Pavlicova, Martina; Hatch-Maillette, Mary; Hu, Mei-Chen; Bailey, Genie L.; Sugarman, Dawn E.; Miele, Gloria M.; Rieckmann, Traci; Shores-Wilson, Kathy; Turrigiano, Eva; Greenfield, Shelly F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Digital technologies show promise for increasing treatment accessibility and improving quality of care, but little is known about gender differences. This secondary analysis uses data from a multi-site effectiveness trial of a computer-assisted behavioral intervention, conducted within NIDA's National Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network, to explore gender differences in intervention acceptability and treatment outcomes. Methods Men (n=314) and women (n=192) were randomly assigned to 12-weeks of treatment-as-usual (TAU) or modified TAU + Therapeutic Education System (TES), whereby TES substituted for 2 hours of TAU per week. TES is comprised of 62 web-delivered, multimedia modules, covering skills for achieving and maintaining abstinence plus prize-based incentives contingent on abstinence and treatment adherence. Outcomes were: (1) abstinence from drugs and heavy drinking in the last 4 weeks of treatment, (2) retention, (3) social functioning, and (4) drug and alcohol craving. Acceptability was the mean score across five indicators (i.e., interesting, useful, novel, easy to understand, and satisfaction). Results Gender did not moderate the effect of treatment on any outcome. Women reported higher acceptability scores at week 4 (p=.02), but no gender differences were detected at weeks 8 or 12. Acceptability was positively associated with abstinence, but only among women (p=.01). Conclusions Findings suggest that men and women derive similar benefits from participating in a computer-assisted intervention, a promising outcome as technology-based treatments expand. Acceptability was associated with abstinence outcomes among women. Future research should explore characteristics of women who report less satisfaction with this modality of treatment and ways to improve overall acceptability. PMID:25613105

  4. Understanding Pre-Service Teachers' Computer Attitudes: Applying and Extending the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, T.; Lee, C. B.; Chai, C. S.

    2008-01-01

    Computers are increasingly widespread, influencing many aspects of our social and work lives. As we move into a technology-based society, it is important that classroom experiences with computers are made available for all students. The purpose of this study is to examine pre-service teachers' attitudes towards computers. This study extends the…

  5. Staff Views of Acceptability and Appropriateness of a Computer-Delivered Brief Intervention for Moderate Drug and Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Monico, Laura B; Gryczynski, Jan; O'Grady, Kevin E; Schwartz, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    The use of computers for identifying and intervening with stigmatized behaviors, such as drug use, offers promise for underserved, rural areas; however, the acceptability and appropriateness of using computerized brief intervention (CBIs) must be taken into consideration. In the present study, 12 staff members representing a range of clinic roles in two rural, federally qualified health centers completed semi-structured interviews in a qualitative investigation of CBI vs. counselor-delivered individual brief intervention (IBI). Thematic content analysis was conducted using a constant comparative method, examining the range of responses within each interview as well as data across interview respondents. Overall, staff found the idea of providing CBIs both acceptable and appropriate for their patient population. Acceptability by clinic staff centered on the ready availability of the CBI. Staff also believed that patients might be more forthcoming in response to a computer program than a personal interview. However, some staff voiced reservations concerning the appropriateness of CBIs for subsets of patients, including older patients, illiterate individuals, or those unfamiliar with computers. Findings support the potential suitability and potential benefits of providing CBIs to patients in rural health centers.

  6. Quantitative Prediction of Computational Quality (so the S and C Folks will Accept it)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemsch, Michael J.; Luckring, James M.; Morrison, Joseph H.

    2004-01-01

    Our choice of title may seem strange but we mean each word. In this talk, we are not going to be concerned with computations made "after the fact", i.e. those for which data are available and which are being conducted for explanation and insight. Here we are interested in preventing S&C design problems by finding them through computation before data are available. For such a computation to have any credibility with those who absorb the risk, it is necessary to quantitatively PREDICT the quality of the computational results.

  7. Can low-cost VOR and Omega receivers suffice for RNAV - A new computer-based navigation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollaar, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that although RNAV is particularly valuable for the personal transportation segment of general aviation, it has not gained complete acceptance. This is due, in part, to its high cost and the necessary special-handling air traffic control. VOR/DME RNAV calculations are ideally suited for analog computers, and the use of microprocessor technology has been suggested for reducing RNAV costs. Three navigation systems, VOR, Omega, and DR, are compared for common navigational difficulties, such as station geometry, siting errors, ground disturbances, and terminal area coverage. The Kalman filtering technique is described with reference to the disadvantages when using a system including standard microprocessors. An integrated navigation system, using input data from various low-cost sensor systems, is presented and current simulation studies are noted.

  8. A Quantitative Study of Factors Affecting Learner Acceptance of a Computer-Based Training Support Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, G. Dale; Flannery, Daniele D.

    2004-01-01

    This study identifies and empirically tests factors that may influence learners' use of a computer-based training support system (TSS). The areas of research and theory were drawn from human-computer interaction, information and business management, and adult education. The factors suggested in the literature that may affect learner's use of a TSS…

  9. A single reflection approach to HCPV: Very high concentration ratio and wide acceptance angles using low cost materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Nardis, Davide

    2012-10-01

    The Italian engineering company Becar (Beghelli SpA group) presents its latest HCPV module currently sold under the brand name "Life Tree". The module is characterized by an efficiency of 26% that is in line with systems having higher complexity. The high efficiency and flexibility of the system are reached thanks to the single reflection scheme of the optical system. The module characterized by high acceptance angles comprises a metalized plastic primary reflector and a secondary optical element. The latter being a crucial technical feature of the Becar's system. This secondary optic element has been developed and manufactured by the German group Evonik Industries, which markets the product under the trade name SAVOSIL(TM). This technology, compared to other optics available in the market, offer high transparency in the whole solar spectrum and it is manufactured with an innovative sol-gel process that guarantees a precision in the micron range, at a fraction of the other approaches cost . Those two important features boost the light harvesting power of the Beghelli's systems. The article shows also the results of extensive in-field tests carried out to confirm reliability, performance and easy maintenance of the system.

  10. Air-stripper design and costing computer program

    SciTech Connect

    Dzombak, D.A.; Roy, S.B. ); Fang, H.J. )

    1993-10-01

    Packed-tower, countercurrent air-stripping is widely used to remove volatile organic compounds from contaminated water. An air stripper is designed using a well-developed mathematical model of the process. However, the number of variables in the model exceeds the number of constraining equations by two, with the result that a number of alternative air-stripper designs are possible for a particular water treatment objective. To select one or several designs associated with minimum capital and operating costs, it is necessary to develop a large number of possible designs and to estimate the costs associated with each. The air-stripper design and costing (ASDC) program, a microcomputer-based public-domain program, automates the iterative design and cost calculations and thus enables rapid, preliminary evaluation of alternative air-stripper designs and associated costs. In this article, the design methodology and cost-estimation techniques incorporated in ASDC are described, and ASDC cost predictions are compared with costs reported for actual operating air strippers.

  11. Cost-Effective Applications of Computer-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avner, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Cost effective applications of CBE do exist; however, they demand detailed cost information for all appropriate alternatives to CAI, a thorough understanding of instructional design, and an expert knowledge of the relative capabilities of alternative media in supporting particular instructional approaches. (Author/RAO)

  12. Reducing Computer Costs of Students Using the SPSS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soley, Lawrence C.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Compares the cost of using the general mode and the integer mode of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Indicates that the integer mode is generally more cost efficient and should be learned by journalism students planning to analyze research data. (TJ)

  13. 42 CFR 417.588 - Computation of adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computation of adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC). 417.588 Section 417.588 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC). (a) Basic data. In computing the AAPCC, CMS uses the U.S....

  14. Some Useful Cost-Benefit Criteria for Evaluating Computer-Based Test Delivery Models and Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luecht, Richard M.

    2005-01-01

    Computer-based testing (CBT) is typically implemented using one of three general test delivery models: (1) multiple fixed testing (MFT); (2) computer-adaptive testing (CAT); or (3) multistage testing (MSTs). This article reviews some of the real cost drivers associated with CBT implementation--focusing on item production costs, the costs…

  15. The Adoption of Grid Computing Technology by Organizations: A Quantitative Study Using Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udoh, Emmanuel E.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in grid technology have enabled some organizations to harness enormous computational power on demand. However, the prediction of widespread adoption of the grid technology has not materialized despite the obvious grid advantages. This situation has encouraged intense efforts to close the research gap in the grid adoption process. In this…

  16. Evaluating the Acceptance of Cloud-Based Productivity Computer Solutions in Small and Medium Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing has emerged as a new paradigm for on-demand delivery and consumption of shared IT resources over the Internet. Research has predicted that small and medium organizations (SMEs) would be among the earliest adopters of cloud solutions; however, this projection has not materialized. This study set out to investigate if behavior…

  17. Developing Specifications for a Low-Cost Computer System for Secondary Schools. PREP 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiner, George

    More and more secondary schools are becoming interested in introducing their students to computers and computer concepts. A central problem for such schools, however, is obtaining reliable computer service with capacity for all the students who are interested, but at a cost the school can afford. Although many schools use commercial or small-scale…

  18. Maintaining Privacy in Pervasive Computing - Enabling Acceptance of Sensor-based Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soppera, A.; Burbridge, T.

    During the 1980s, Mark Weiser [1] predicted a world in which computing was so pervasive that devices embedded in the environment could sense their relationship to us and to each other. These tiny ubiquitous devices would continually feed information from the physical world into the information world. Twenty years ago, this vision was the exclusive territory of academic computer scientists and science fiction writers. Today this subject has become of interest to business, government, and society. Governmental authorities exercise their power through the networked environment. Credit card databases maintain our credit history and decide whether we are allowed to rent a house or obtain a loan. Mobile telephones can locate us in real time so that we do not miss calls. Within another 10 years, all sorts of devices will be connected through the network. Our fridge, our food, together with our health information, may all be networked for the purpose of maintaining diet and well-being. The Internet will move from being an infrastructure to connect computers, to being an infrastructure to connect everything [2, 3].

  19. Energy Drain by Computers Stifles Efforts at Cost Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Josh

    2009-01-01

    The high price of storing and processing data is hurting colleges and universities across the country. In response, some institutions are embracing greener technologies to keep costs down and help the environment. But compared with other industries, colleges and universities have been slow to understand the problem and to adopt energy-saving…

  20. Computer-Based Demonstrations in Cognitive Psychology: Benefits and Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, David E.; Scott, Jenna R.; Houska, Jeremy Ashton

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the costs and benefits of using demonstrations in an upper level psychology course. For 6 topics, half of the class read a chapter that explained the concept and theoretical explanations for the described effects, and the other half participated in a demonstration in addition to the reading. Students overwhelmingly reported…

  1. A Low Cost Microcomputer Laboratory for Investigating Computer Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Eugene E., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a microcomputer laboratory at the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, which provides easy access to non-volatile memory and a single input/output file system for 16 microcomputer laboratory positions. A microcomputer network that has a centralized data base is implemented using the concepts of computer network…

  2. Computers and Social Knowledge; Opportunities and Opportunity Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartoonian, Michael

    Educators must use computers to move society beyond the information age and toward the age of wisdom. The movement toward knowledge and wisdom constitutes an evolution beyond the "third wave" or electronic/information age, the phase of history in which, according to Alvin Toffler, we are now living. We are already moving into a fourth wave, the…

  3. Usability and Acceptability of ASSESS MS: Assessment of Motor Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis Using Depth-Sensing Computer Vision

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Jonas F; Burggraaff, Jessica; Kamm, Christian Philipp; Steinheimer, Saskia Marie; Kontschieder, Peter; Criminisi, Antonio; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Dahlke, Frank; Kappos, Ludwig; Sellen, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Background Sensor-based recordings of human movements are becoming increasingly important for the assessment of motor symptoms in neurological disorders beyond rehabilitative purposes. ASSESS MS is a movement recording and analysis system being developed to automate the classification of motor dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) using depth-sensing computer vision. It aims to provide a more consistent and finer-grained measurement of motor dysfunction than currently possible. Objective To test the usability and acceptability of ASSESS MS with health professionals and patients with MS. Methods A prospective, mixed-methods study was carried out at 3 centers. After a 1-hour training session, a convenience sample of 12 health professionals (6 neurologists and 6 nurses) used ASSESS MS to capture recordings of standardized movements performed by 51 volunteer patients. Metrics for effectiveness, efficiency, and acceptability were defined and used to analyze data captured by ASSESS MS, video recordings of each examination, feedback questionnaires, and follow-up interviews. Results All health professionals were able to complete recordings using ASSESS MS, achieving high levels of standardization on 3 of 4 metrics (movement performance, lateral positioning, and clear camera view but not distance positioning). Results were unaffected by patients’ level of physical or cognitive disability. ASSESS MS was perceived as easy to use by both patients and health professionals with high scores on the Likert-scale questions and positive interview commentary. ASSESS MS was highly acceptable to patients on all dimensions considered, including attitudes to future use, interaction (with health professionals), and overall perceptions of ASSESS MS. Health professionals also accepted ASSESS MS, but with greater ambivalence arising from the need to alter patient interaction styles. There was little variation in results across participating centers, and no differences between

  4. Estimating development cost for a tailored interactive computer program to enhance colorectal cancer screening compliance.

    PubMed

    Lairson, David R; Chang, Yu-Chia; Bettencourt, Judith L; Vernon, Sally W; Greisinger, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The authors used an actual-work estimate method to estimate the cost of developing a tailored interactive computer education program to improve compliance with colorectal cancer screening guidelines in a large multi-specialty group medical practice. Resource use was prospectively collected from time logs, administrative records, and a design and computing subcontract. Sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the uncertainty of the overhead cost rate and other parameters. The cost of developing the system was Dollars 328,866. The development cost was Dollars 52.79 per patient when amortized over a 7-year period with a cohort of 1,000 persons. About 20% of the cost was incurred in defining the theoretic framework and supporting literature, constructing the variables and survey, and conducting focus groups. About 41% of the cost was for developing the messages, algorithms, and constructing program elements, and the remaining cost was to create and test the computer education program. About 69% of the cost was attributable to personnel expenses. Development cost is rarely estimated but is important for feasibility studies and ex-ante economic evaluations of alternative interventions. The findings from this study may aid decision makers in planning, assessing, budgeting, and pricing development of tailored interactive computer-based interventions. PMID:16799126

  5. Method for computing marginal costs associated with on-site energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, R.; Davitian, H.

    1980-08-01

    A method for calculating long-run marginal costs for an electric utility is described. The method is especially suitable for computing the marginal costs associated with the use of small on-site energy technologies, i.e., cogenerators, solar heating and hot water systems, wind generators, etc., which are interconnected with electric utilities. In particular, both the costs a utility avoids when power is delivered to it from a facility with an on-site generator and marginal cost to the utility of supplementary power sold to the facility can be calculated. A utility capacity expansion model is used to compute changes in the utility's costs when loads are modified by the use of the on-site technology. Changes in capacity-related costs and production costs are thus computed in an internally consistent manner. The variable nature of the generation/load pattern of the on-site technology is treated explicitly. The method yields several measures of utility costs that can be used to develop rates based on marginal avoided costs for on-site technologies as well as marginal cost rates for conventional utility customers.

  6. Performance, Agility and Cost of Cloud Computing Services for NASA GES DISC Giovanni Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, L.; Chen, A.; Wharton, S.; Winter, E. L.; Lynnes, C.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is investigating the performance, agility and cost of Cloud computing for GES DISC applications. Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure), one of the core applications at the GES DISC for online climate-related Earth science data access, subsetting, analysis, visualization, and downloading, was used to evaluate the feasibility and effort of porting an application to the Amazon Cloud Services platform. The performance and the cost of running Giovanni on the Amazon Cloud were compared to similar parameters for the GES DISC local operational system. A Giovanni Time-Series analysis of aerosol absorption optical depth (388nm) from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument)/Aura was selected for these comparisons. All required data were pre-cached in both the Cloud and local system to avoid data transfer delays. The 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month data were used for analysis on the Cloud and local system respectively, and the processing times for the analysis were used to evaluate system performance. To investigate application agility, Giovanni was installed and tested on multiple Cloud platforms. The cost of using a Cloud computing platform mainly consists of: computing, storage, data requests, and data transfer in/out. The Cloud computing cost is calculated based on the hourly rate, and the storage cost is calculated based on the rate of Gigabytes per month. Cost for incoming data transfer is free, and for data transfer out, the cost is based on the rate in Gigabytes. The costs for a local server system consist of buying hardware/software, system maintenance/updating, and operating cost. The results showed that the Cloud platform had a 38% better performance and cost 36% less than the local system. This investigation shows the potential of cloud computing to increase system performance and lower the overall cost of system management.

  7. Estimating pressurized water reactor decommissioning costs: A user`s manual for the PWR Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software. Draft report for comment

    SciTech Connect

    Bierschbach, M.C.; Mencinsky, G.J.

    1993-10-01

    With the issuance of the Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1988), nuclear power plant licensees are required to submit to the US Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. This user`s manual and the accompanying Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software provide a cost-calculating methodology to the NRC staff that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals. The CECP, designed to be used on a personnel computer, provides estimates for the cost of decommissioning PWR plant stations to the point of license termination. Such cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial costs; and manpower costs. In addition to costs, the CECP also calculates burial volumes, person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning.

  8. Estimating boiling water reactor decommissioning costs. A user`s manual for the BWR Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software: Draft report for comment

    SciTech Connect

    Bierschbach, M.C.

    1994-12-01

    With the issuance of the Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1988), nuclear power plant licensees are required to submit to the U.S. Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. This user`s manual and the accompanying Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software provide a cost-calculating methodology to the NRC staff that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals. The CECP, designed to be used on a personal computer, provides estimates for the cost of decommissioning BWR power stations to the point of license termination. Such cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial costs; and manpower costs. In addition to costs, the CECP also calculates burial volumes, person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning.

  9. Estimating boiling water reactor decommissioning costs: A user`s manual for the BWR Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bierschbach, M.C.

    1996-06-01

    Nuclear power plant licensees are required to submit to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review their decommissioning cost estimates. This user`s manual and the accompanying Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software provide a cost-calculating methodology to the NRC staff that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals. The CECP, designed to be used on a personal computer, provides estimates for the cost of decommissioning boiling water reactor (BWR) power stations to the point of license termination. Such cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial costs; and manpower costs. In addition to costs, the CECP also calculates burial volumes, person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning.

  10. A Mathematical Model for Project Planning and Cost Analysis in Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, William F.

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) has become sufficiently widespread to require attention to the relationships between its costs, administration and benefits. Despite difficulties in instituting them, quantifiable cost-effectiveness analyses offer several advantages. They allow educators to specify with precision anticipated instructional loads,…

  11. Two Computer Programs for Equipment Cost Estimation and Economic Evaluation of Chemical Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuri, Carlos J.; Corripio, Armando B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes two computer programs for use in process design courses: an easy-to-use equipment cost estimation program based on latest cost correlations available and an economic evaluation program which calculates two profitability indices. Comparisons between programed and hand-calculated results are included. (JM)

  12. Minnesota Computer Aided Library System (MCALS); University of Minnesota Subsystem Cost/Benefits Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourey, Eugene D., Comp.

    The Minnesota Computer Aided Library System (MCALS) provides a basis of unification for library service program development in Minnesota for eventual linkage to the national information network. A prototype plan for communications functions is illustrated. A cost/benefits analysis was made to show the cost/effectiveness potential for MCALS. System…

  13. An Evaluation of the Costs of Computer-Assisted Instruction. Program Report No. 80-B7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.; Woo, Louis

    Cost data were collected from a study on the effectiveness of computer assisted instruction (CAI) for culturally disadvantaged children in the Los Angeles Unified School District. Based upon the resource ingredients approach to measuring costs, it was found that up to three daily 10-minute sessions of drill and practice could be provided for each…

  14. The Ruggedized STD Bus Microcomputer - A low cost computer suitable for Space Shuttle experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budney, T. J.; Stone, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Previous space flight computers have been costly in terms of both hardware and software. The Ruggedized STD Bus Microcomputer is based on the commercial Mostek/Pro-Log STD Bus. Ruggedized PC cards can be based on commercial cards from more than 60 manufacturers, reducing hardware cost and design time. Software costs are minimized by using standard 8-bit microprocessors and by debugging code using commercial versions of the ruggedized flight boards while the flight hardware is being fabricated.

  15. A Web-Based Computer-Tailored Alcohol Prevention Program for Adolescents: Cost-Effectiveness and Intersectoral Costs and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Preventing excessive alcohol use among adolescents is important not only to foster individual and public health, but also to reduce alcohol-related costs inside and outside the health care sector. Computer tailoring can be both effective and cost-effective for working with many lifestyle behaviors, yet the available information on the cost-effectiveness of computer tailoring for reducing alcohol use by adolescents is limited as is information on the costs and benefits pertaining to sectors outside the health care sector, also known as intersectoral costs and benefits (ICBs). Objective The aim was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a Web-based computer-tailored intervention for reducing alcohol use and binge drinking by adolescents from a health care perspective (excluding ICBs) and from a societal perspective (including ICBs). Methods Data used were from the Alcoholic Alert study, a cluster randomized controlled trial with randomization at the level of schools into two conditions. Participants either played a game with tailored feedback on alcohol awareness after the baseline assessment (intervention condition) or received care as usual (CAU), meaning that they had the opportunity to play the game subsequent to the final measurement (waiting list control condition). Data were recorded at baseline (T0=January/February 2014) and after 4 months (T1=May/June 2014) and were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), both from a health care perspective and a societal perspective. Stochastic uncertainty in the data was dealt with by using nonparametric bootstraps (5000 simulated replications). Additional sensitivity analyses were conducted based on excluding cost outliers. Subgroup cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted based on several background variables, including gender, age, educational level, religion, and ethnicity. Results From both the health care perspective and the societal perspective for both outcome measures, the

  16. Costs incurred by applying computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing techniques for the reconstruction of maxillofacial defects.

    PubMed

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Melenberg, Alex; Sari-Rieger, Aynur

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the additional costs incurred by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique for reconstructing maxillofacial defects by analyzing typical cases. The medical charts of 11 consecutive patients who were subjected to the CAD/CAM technique were considered, and invoices from the companies providing the CAD/CAM devices were reviewed for every case. The number of devices used was significantly correlated with cost (r = 0.880; p < 0.001). Significant differences in mean costs were found between cases in which prebent reconstruction plates were used (€3346.00 ± €29.00) and cases in which they were not (€2534.22 ± €264.48; p < 0.001). Significant differences were also obtained between the costs of two, three and four devices, even when ignoring the cost of reconstruction plates. Additional fees provided by statutory health insurance covered a mean of 171.5% ± 25.6% of the cost of the CAD/CAM devices. Since the additional fees provide financial compensation, we believe that the CAD/CAM technique is suited for wide application and not restricted to complex cases. Where additional fees/funds are not available, the CAD/CAM technique might be unprofitable, so the decision whether or not to use it remains a case-to-case decision with respect to cost versus benefit.

  17. hPIN/hTAN: Low-Cost e-Banking Secure against Untrusted Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shujun; Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza; Schmitz, Roland

    We propose hPIN/hTAN, a low-cost token-based e-banking protection scheme when the adversary has full control over the user's computer. Compared with existing hardware-based solutions, hPIN/hTAN depends on neither second trusted channel, nor secure keypad, nor computationally expensive encryption module.

  18. Using a small/low cost computer in an information center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilde, D. U.

    1972-01-01

    Small/low cost computers are available with I/O capacities that make them suitable for SDI and retrospective searching on any of the many commercially available data bases. A small two-tape computer system is assumed, and an analysis of its run-time equations leads to a three-step search procedure. Run times and costs are shown as a function of file size, number of search terms, and input transmission rates. Actual examples verify that it is economically feasible for an information center to consider its own small, dedicated computer system.

  19. Usability of a Low-Cost Head Tracking Computer Access Method following Stroke.

    PubMed

    Mah, Jasmine; Jutai, Jeffrey W; Finestone, Hillel; Mckee, Hilary; Carter, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Assistive technology devices for computer access can facilitate social reintegration and promote independence for people who have had a stroke. This work describes the exploration of the usefulness and acceptability of a new computer access device called the Nouse™ (Nose-as-mouse). The device uses standard webcam and video recognition algorithms to map the movement of the user's nose to a computer cursor, thereby allowing hands-free computer operation. Ten participants receiving in- or outpatient stroke rehabilitation completed a series of standardized and everyday computer tasks using the Nouse™ and then completed a device usability questionnaire. Task completion rates were high (90%) for computer activities only in the absence of time constraints. Most of the participants were satisfied with ease of use (70%) and liked using the Nouse™ (60%), indicating they could resume most of their usual computer activities apart from word-processing using the device. The findings suggest that hands-free computer access devices like the Nouse™ may be an option for people who experience upper motor impairment caused by stroke and are highly motivated to resume personal computing. More research is necessary to further evaluate the effectiveness of this technology, especially in relation to other computer access assistive technology devices. PMID:26427744

  20. Plant process computer replacements - techniques to limit installation schedules and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.D.; Olson, J.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Plant process computer systems, a standard fixture in all nuclear power plants, are used to monitor and display important plant process parameters. Scanning thousands of field sensors and alarming out-of-limit values, these computer systems are heavily relied on by control room operators. The original nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) vendor for the power plant often supplied the plant process computer. Designed using sixties and seventies technology, a plant's original process computer has been obsolete for some time. Driven by increased maintenance costs and new US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations such as NUREG-0737, Suppl. 1, many utilities have replaced their process computers with more modern computer systems. Given that computer systems are by their nature prone to rapid obsolescence, this replacement cycle will likely repeat. A process computer replacement project can be a significant capital expenditure and must be performed during a scheduled refueling outage. The object of the installation process is to install a working system on schedule. Experience gained by supervising several computer replacement installations has taught lessons that, if applied, will shorten the schedule and limit the risk of costly delays. Examples illustrating this technique are given. This paper and these examples deal only with the installation process and assume that the replacement computer system has been adequately designed, and development and factory tested.

  1. The Effects of a Computer-Assisted Instruction Program on Peer Acceptance, Teacher Acceptance, and Self-Concept of Mildly Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leles, Sam; Culliver, Concetta C.

    A study was undertaken to determine the effects of a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program on the self-concept of mainstreamed, mildly handicapped fifth-grade students (labeled learning disabled, emotionally conflicted, and educable mentally retarded) attending 13 different elementary schools in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama. A control group…

  2. 43 CFR 404.31 - What forms of non-Federal cost-share payment are acceptable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Principles of the Office of Management and Budget, codified at 2 CFR 220, 225, and 230, and in the Federal... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What forms of non-Federal cost-share... BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM...

  3. 43 CFR 404.31 - What forms of non-Federal cost-share payment are acceptable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Principles of the Office of Management and Budget, codified at 2 CFR 220, 225, and 230, and in the Federal... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true What forms of non-Federal cost-share... BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM...

  4. 43 CFR 404.31 - What forms of non-Federal cost-share payment are acceptable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Principles of the Office of Management and Budget, codified at 2 CFR 220, 225, and 230, and in the Federal... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What forms of non-Federal cost-share... BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM...

  5. 43 CFR 404.31 - What forms of non-Federal cost-share payment are acceptable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Principles of the Office of Management and Budget, codified at 2 CFR 220, 225, and 230, and in the Federal... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What forms of non-Federal cost-share... BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM...

  6. Computer program to perform cost and weight analysis of transport aircraft. Volume 2: Technical volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An improved method for estimating aircraft weight and cost using a unique and fundamental approach was developed. The results of this study were integrated into a comprehensive digital computer program, which is intended for use at the preliminary design stage of aircraft development. The program provides a means of computing absolute values for weight and cost, and enables the user to perform trade studies with a sensitivity to detail design and overall structural arrangement. Both batch and interactive graphics modes of program operation are available.

  7. A low-cost vector processor boosting compute-intensive image processing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adorf, Hans-Martin

    1992-01-01

    Low-cost vector processing (VP) is within reach of everyone seriously engaged in scientific computing. The advent of affordable add-on VP-boards for standard workstations complemented by mathematical/statistical libraries is beginning to impact compute-intensive tasks such as image processing. A case in point in the restoration of distorted images from the Hubble Space Telescope. A low-cost implementation is presented of the standard Tarasko-Richardson-Lucy restoration algorithm on an Intel i860-based VP-board which is seamlessly interfaced to a commercial, interactive image processing system. First experience is reported (including some benchmarks for standalone FFT's) and some conclusions are drawn.

  8. Spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel bearing components: characterization, disposal cost estimates, and proposed repository acceptance requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Luksic, A.T.; McKee, R.W.; Daling, P.M.; Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Purcell, W.L.

    1986-10-01

    There are two categories of waste considered in this report. The first is the spent fuel disassembly (SFD) hardware. This consists of the hardware remaining after the fuel pins have been removed from the fuel assembly. This includes end fittings, spacer grids, water rods (BWR) or guide tubes (PWR) as appropriate, and assorted springs, fasteners, etc. The second category is other non-fuel-bearing (NFB) components the DOE has agreed to accept for disposal, such as control rods, fuel channels, etc., under Appendix E of the standard utiltiy contract (10 CFR 961). It is estimated that there will be approximately 150 kg of SFD and NFB waste per average metric ton of uranium (MTU) of spent uranium. PWR fuel accounts for approximately two-thirds of the average spent-fuel mass but only 50 kg of the SFD and NFB waste, with most of that being spent fuel disassembly hardware. BWR fuel accounts for one-third of the average spent-fuel mass and the remaining 100 kg of the waste. The relatively large contribution of waste hardware in BWR fuel, will be non-fuel-bearing components, primarily consisting of the fuel channels. Chapters are devoted to a description of spent fuel disassembly hardware and non-fuel assembly components, characterization of activated components, disposal considerations (regulatory requirements, economic analysis, and projected annual waste quantities), and proposed acceptance requirements for spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel assembly components at a geologic repository. The economic analysis indicates that there is a large incentive for volume reduction.

  9. The economics of time shared computing: Congestion, user costs and capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    Time shared systems permit the fixed costs of computing resources to be spread over large numbers of users. However, bottleneck results in the theory of closed queueing networks can be used to show that this economy of scale will be offset by the increased congestion that results as more users are added to the system. If one considers the total costs, including the congestion cost, there is an optimal number of users for a system which equals the saturation value usually used to define system capacity.

  10. Evaluation of the Acceptability and Feasibility of a Computer-Tailored Intervention to Increase Human Papillomavirus Vaccination among Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paiva, Andrea L.; Lipschitz, Jessica M.; Fernandez, Anne C.; Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine acceptability and feasibility of a Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based computer-tailored intervention (CTI) for increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in college-aged women. Participants: Two hundred forty-three women aged 18-26 were recruited between February and May of 2011. Methods: Participants completed the…

  11. The Impact of Subjective Norm and Facilitating Conditions on Pre-Service Teachers' Attitude toward Computer Use: A Structural Equation Modeling of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    This study examined pre-service teachers' self-report on their attitude toward computer use. Participants were 285 pre-service teachers at a teacher training institution in Singapore. They completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to five constructs which formed a research model using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as a…

  12. A Path Analysis of Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes to Computer Use: Applying and Extending the Technology Acceptance Model in an Educational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine pre-service teachers' attitudes to computers. This study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) framework by adding subjective norm, facilitating conditions, and technological complexity as external variables. Results show that the TAM and subjective norm, facilitating conditions, and technological…

  13. Exploring Attitudes towards Computer Use among Pre-Service Teachers from Singapore and the UK: A Multi-Group Invariance Test of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy; Noyes, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to compare the pre-service teachers from Singapore and the UK on their self-reported attitude towards computer use (ATCU) by employing the technology acceptance model (TAM) as the research framework. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 395 pre-service teachers completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses…

  14. Open-source meteor detection software for low-cost single-board computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vida, D.; Zubović, D.; Šegon, D.; Gural, P.; Cupec, R.

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to overcome the current price threshold of meteor stations which can sometimes deter meteor enthusiasts from owning one. In recent years small card-sized computers became widely available and are used for numerous applications. To utilize such computers for meteor work, software which can run on them is needed. In this paper we present a detailed description of newly-developed open-source software for fireball and meteor detection optimized for running on low-cost single board computers. Furthermore, an update on the development of automated open-source software which will handle video capture, fireball and meteor detection, astrometry and photometry is given.

  15. An Application of the Phosphorus Consistent Rule for Environmentally Acceptable Cost-Efficient Management of Broiler Litter in Crop Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Adhikari, Murali; Martin, Neil R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    We calculated the profitability of using broiler litter as a source of plant nutrients using the phosphorus consistent litter application rule. The cost saving by using litter is 37% over the use of chemical fertilizer-only option to meet the nutrient needs of major crops grown in Alabama. In the optimal solution, only a few routes of all the possible routes developed were used for inter- and intra- county litter hauling. If litter is not adopted as the sole source of crop nutrients, the best environmental policy may be to pair the phosphorus consistent rule with taxes, marketable permits, and subsidies.flaws

  16. Effectiveness of Multimedia Elements in Computer Supported Instruction: Analysis of Personalization Effects, Students' Performances and Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidel, Mark; Luo, XiaoHui

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the efficiency of multimedia instruction at the college level by comparing the effectiveness of multimedia elements used in the computer supported learning with the cost of their preparation. Among the various technologies that advance learning, instructors and students generally identify interactive multimedia elements as…

  17. Cost-Effective Computing: Making the Most of Your PC Dollars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Walt

    1992-01-01

    Lists 27 suggestions for making cost-effective decisions when buying personal computers. Topics covered include physical comfort; modem speed; color graphics; institutional discounts; direct-order firms; brand names; replacing versus upgrading; expanding hard disk capacity; printers; software; wants versus needs; and RLIN (Research Libraries…

  18. Computational cost of full QCD simulations experienced by CP-PACS and JLQCD Collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukawa, A.

    We summarize the experience of the CP-PACS and JLQCD Collaborations on the computational cost of two-flavor full QCD simulations with improved gauge and Wilson-type quark actions. Based on the experience, estimates are made on the Tflops.years necessary for advancing full QCD studies.

  19. Computer-Based Instruction: A Background Paper on its Status, Cost/Effectiveness and Telecommunications Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Jai P.; Morgan, Robert P.

    In the slightly over twelve years since its inception, computer-based instruction (CBI) has shown the promise of being more cost-effective than traditional instruction for certain educational applications. Pilot experiments are underway to evaluate various CBI systems. Should these tests prove successful, a major problem confronting advocates of…

  20. Effects of Acceptability on Teachers' Implementation of Curriculum-Based Measurement and Student Achievement in Mathematics Computation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allinder, Rose M.; Oats, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    A study of 12 special education teachers who had a high acceptance of curriculum-based assessment and 9 teachers who had a low acceptance found they differed on two of five implementation measures. Also, there was a significant difference in the rate of growth affected by their students in math. (Author/CR)

  1. Low-cost space-varying FIR filter architecture for computational imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Guotong; Shoaib, Mohammed; Schwartz, Edward L.; Dirk Robinson, M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates the advantage of designing electro-optical imaging systems by jointly optimizing the optical and digital subsystems. The optical systems designed using this joint approach intentionally introduce large and often space-varying optical aberrations that produce blurry optical images. Digital sharpening restores reduced contrast due to these intentional optical aberrations. Computational imaging systems designed in this fashion have several advantages including extended depth-of-field, lower system costs, and improved low-light performance. Currently, most consumer imaging systems lack the necessary computational resources to compensate for these optical systems with large aberrations in the digital processor. Hence, the exploitation of the advantages of the jointly designed computational imaging system requires low-complexity algorithms enabling space-varying sharpening. In this paper, we describe a low-cost algorithmic framework and associated hardware enabling the space-varying finite impulse response (FIR) sharpening required to restore largely aberrated optical images. Our framework leverages the space-varying properties of optical images formed using rotationally-symmetric optical lens elements. First, we describe an approach to leverage the rotational symmetry of the point spread function (PSF) about the optical axis allowing computational savings. Second, we employ a specially designed bank of sharpening filters tuned to the specific radial variation common to optical aberrations. We evaluate the computational efficiency and image quality achieved by using this low-cost space-varying FIR filter architecture.

  2. Cost effectiveness of a computer-delivered intervention to improve HIV medication adherence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High levels of adherence to medications for HIV infection are essential for optimal clinical outcomes and to reduce viral transmission, but many patients do not achieve required levels. Clinician-delivered interventions can improve patients’ adherence, but usually require substantial effort by trained individuals and may not be widely available. Computer-delivered interventions can address this problem by reducing required staff time for delivery and by making the interventions widely available via the Internet. We previously developed a computer-delivered intervention designed to improve patients’ level of health literacy as a strategy to improve their HIV medication adherence. The intervention was shown to increase patients’ adherence, but it was not clear that the benefits resulting from the increase in adherence could justify the costs of developing and deploying the intervention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation of development and deployment costs to the effectiveness of the intervention. Methods Costs of intervention development were drawn from accounting reports for the grant under which its development was supported, adjusted for costs primarily resulting from the project’s research purpose. Effectiveness of the intervention was drawn from results of the parent study. The relation of the intervention’s effects to changes in health status, expressed as utilities, was also evaluated in order to assess the net cost of the intervention in terms of quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Sensitivity analyses evaluated ranges of possible intervention effectiveness and durations of its effects, and costs were evaluated over several deployment scenarios. Results The intervention’s cost effectiveness depends largely on the number of persons using it and the duration of its effectiveness. Even with modest effects for a small number of patients the intervention was associated with net cost savings in some scenarios and for

  3. A performance/cost evaluation for a GPU-based drug discovery application on volunteer computing.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Ginés D; Imbernón, Baldomero; Pérez-Sánchez, Horacio; Sanz, Francisco; García, José M; Cecilia, José M

    2014-01-01

    Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research field that develops tools for the analysis of large biological databases, and, thus, the use of high performance computing (HPC) platforms is mandatory for the generation of useful biological knowledge. The latest generation of graphics processing units (GPUs) has democratized the use of HPC as they push desktop computers to cluster-level performance. Many applications within this field have been developed to leverage these powerful and low-cost architectures. However, these applications still need to scale to larger GPU-based systems to enable remarkable advances in the fields of healthcare, drug discovery, genome research, etc. The inclusion of GPUs in HPC systems exacerbates power and temperature issues, increasing the total cost of ownership (TCO). This paper explores the benefits of volunteer computing to scale bioinformatics applications as an alternative to own large GPU-based local infrastructures. We use as a benchmark a GPU-based drug discovery application called BINDSURF that their computational requirements go beyond a single desktop machine. Volunteer computing is presented as a cheap and valid HPC system for those bioinformatics applications that need to process huge amounts of data and where the response time is not a critical factor.

  4. A Performance/Cost Evaluation for a GPU-Based Drug Discovery Application on Volunteer Computing

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Ginés D.; Imbernón, Baldomero; García, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research field that develops tools for the analysis of large biological databases, and, thus, the use of high performance computing (HPC) platforms is mandatory for the generation of useful biological knowledge. The latest generation of graphics processing units (GPUs) has democratized the use of HPC as they push desktop computers to cluster-level performance. Many applications within this field have been developed to leverage these powerful and low-cost architectures. However, these applications still need to scale to larger GPU-based systems to enable remarkable advances in the fields of healthcare, drug discovery, genome research, etc. The inclusion of GPUs in HPC systems exacerbates power and temperature issues, increasing the total cost of ownership (TCO). This paper explores the benefits of volunteer computing to scale bioinformatics applications as an alternative to own large GPU-based local infrastructures. We use as a benchmark a GPU-based drug discovery application called BINDSURF that their computational requirements go beyond a single desktop machine. Volunteer computing is presented as a cheap and valid HPC system for those bioinformatics applications that need to process huge amounts of data and where the response time is not a critical factor. PMID:25025055

  5. On Training Efficiency and Computational Costs of a Feed Forward Neural Network: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Laudani, Antonino; Lozito, Gabriele Maria; Riganti Fulginei, Francesco; Salvini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive review on the problem of choosing a suitable activation function for the hidden layer of a feed forward neural network has been widely investigated. Since the nonlinear component of a neural network is the main contributor to the network mapping capabilities, the different choices that may lead to enhanced performances, in terms of training, generalization, or computational costs, are analyzed, both in general-purpose and in embedded computing environments. Finally, a strategy to convert a network configuration between different activation functions without altering the network mapping capabilities will be presented. PMID:26417368

  6. An assessment of electric vehicles: technology, infrastructure requirements, greenhouse-gas emissions, petroleum use, material use, lifetime cost, consumer acceptance and policy initiatives.

    PubMed

    Delucchi, M A; Yang, C; Burke, A F; Ogden, J M; Kurani, K; Kessler, J; Sperling, D

    2014-01-13

    Concerns about climate change, urban air pollution and dependence on unstable and expensive supplies of foreign oil have led policy-makers and researchers to investigate alternatives to conventional petroleum-fuelled internal-combustion-engine vehicles in transportation. Because vehicles that get some or all of their power from an electric drivetrain can have low or even zero emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air pollutants, and can consume little or no petroleum, there is considerable interest in developing and evaluating advanced electric vehicles (EVs), including pure battery-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles. To help researchers and policy-makers assess the potential of EVs to mitigate climate change and reduce petroleum use, this paper discusses the technology of EVs, the infrastructure needed for their development, impacts on emissions of GHGs, petroleum use, materials use, lifetime costs, consumer acceptance and policy considerations. PMID:24298079

  7. An assessment of electric vehicles: technology, infrastructure requirements, greenhouse-gas emissions, petroleum use, material use, lifetime cost, consumer acceptance and policy initiatives.

    PubMed

    Delucchi, M A; Yang, C; Burke, A F; Ogden, J M; Kurani, K; Kessler, J; Sperling, D

    2014-01-13

    Concerns about climate change, urban air pollution and dependence on unstable and expensive supplies of foreign oil have led policy-makers and researchers to investigate alternatives to conventional petroleum-fuelled internal-combustion-engine vehicles in transportation. Because vehicles that get some or all of their power from an electric drivetrain can have low or even zero emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air pollutants, and can consume little or no petroleum, there is considerable interest in developing and evaluating advanced electric vehicles (EVs), including pure battery-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles. To help researchers and policy-makers assess the potential of EVs to mitigate climate change and reduce petroleum use, this paper discusses the technology of EVs, the infrastructure needed for their development, impacts on emissions of GHGs, petroleum use, materials use, lifetime costs, consumer acceptance and policy considerations.

  8. Costs and benefits of children's physical and relational aggression trajectories on peer rejection, acceptance, and friendships: Variations by aggression subtypes, gender, and age.

    PubMed

    Ettekal, Idean; Ladd, Gary W

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the associations between children's co-occurring relational and physical aggression trajectories and their peer relations (i.e., peer rejection, peer acceptance, and reciprocated friendships) from late childhood (Grade 4; Mage = 10.0) to early adolescence (Grade 8; Mage = 13.9). Using a sample of 477 children (240 girls), the findings indicated there were multiple heterogeneous subgroups of children who followed distinct co-occurring aggression trajectories. For each of these subgroups, multiple indices of their relational development were assessed and findings revealed notable group differences. These results have implications about the potential costs and benefits of aggression, and how its associations with children's peer relationships may vary as a function of aggression subtype, developmental timing, and gender.

  9. Computer program to perform cost and weight analysis of transport aircraft. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A digital computer program for evaluating the weight and costs of advanced transport designs was developed. The resultant program, intended for use at the preliminary design level, incorporates both batch mode and interactive graphics run capability. The basis of the weight and cost estimation method developed is a unique way of predicting the physical design of each detail part of a vehicle structure at a time when only configuration concept drawings are available. In addition, the technique relies on methods to predict the precise manufacturing processes and the associated material required to produce each detail part. Weight data are generated in four areas of the program. Overall vehicle system weights are derived on a statistical basis as part of the vehicle sizing process. Theoretical weights, actual weights, and the weight of the raw material to be purchased are derived as part of the structural synthesis and part definition processes based on the computed part geometry.

  10. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 226 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions K Appendix K to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED..., App. K Appendix K to Part 226—Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 226 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions K Appendix K to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED..., App. K Appendix K to Part 226—Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse...

  12. Computers in Secondary Schools in Developing Countries: Costs and Other Issues (Including Original Data from South Africa and Zimbabwe).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawthera, Andy

    This research is mainly concerned with the costs of computers in schools in developing countries. It starts with a brief overview of the information revolution and its consequences. It then briefly examines some of the arguments for the use of computers in schools in developing countries, before reviewing previous work undertaken on the costs of…

  13. Application of a single-board computer as a low-cost pulse generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedrizzi, Marcus; Soria, Julio

    2015-09-01

    A BeagleBone Black (BBB) single-board open-source computer was implemented as a low-cost fully programmable pulse generator. The pulse generator makes use of the BBB Programmable Real-Time Unit (PRU) subsystem to achieve a deterministic temporal resolution of 5 ns, an RMS jitter of 290 ps and a timebase stability on the order of 10 ppm. A Python-based software framework has also been developed to simplify the usage of the pulse generator.

  14. Fermilab Central Computing Facility: Energy conservation report and mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis study

    SciTech Connect

    Krstulovich, S.F.

    1986-11-12

    This report is developed as part of the Fermilab Central Computing Facility Project Title II Design Documentation Update under the provisions of DOE Document 6430.1, Chapter XIII-21, Section 14, paragraph a. As such, it concentrates primarily on HVAC mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis and should be considered as a supplement to the Title I Design Report date March 1986 wherein energy related issues are discussed pertaining to building envelope and orientation as well as electrical systems design.

  15. Predicting Cost/Performance Trade-Offs for Whitney: A Commodity Computing Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Jeffrey C.; Nitzberg, Bill; VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances in low-end processor and network technology have made it possible to build a "supercomputer" out of commodity components. We develop simple models of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks version 2 (NPB 2) to explore the cost/performance trade-offs involved in building a balanced parallel computer supporting a scientific workload. We develop closed form expressions detailing the number and size of messages sent by each benchmark. Coupling these with measured single processor performance, network latency, and network bandwidth, our models predict benchmark performance to within 30%. A comparison based on total system cost reveals that current commodity technology (200 MHz Pentium Pros with 100baseT Ethernet) is well balanced for the NPBs up to a total system cost of around $1,000,000.

  16. Reducing annotation cost and uncertainty in computer-aided diagnosis through selective iterative classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riely, Amelia; Sablan, Kyle; Xiaotao, Thomas; Furst, Jacob; Raicu, Daniela

    2015-03-01

    Medical imaging technology has always provided radiologists with the opportunity to view and keep records of anatomy of the patient. With the development of machine learning and intelligent computing, these images can be used to create Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems, which can assist radiologists in analyzing image data in various ways to provide better health care to patients. This paper looks at increasing accuracy and reducing cost in creating CAD systems, specifically in predicting the malignancy of lung nodules in the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC). Much of the cost in creating an accurate CAD system stems from the need for multiple radiologist diagnoses or annotations of each image, since there is rarely a ground truth diagnosis and even different radiologists' diagnoses of the same nodule often disagree. To resolve this issue, this paper outlines an method of selective iterative classification that predicts lung nodule malignancy by using multiple radiologist diagnoses only for cases that can benefit from them. Our method achieved 81% accuracy while costing only 46% of the method that indiscriminately used all annotations, which achieved a lower accuracy of 70%, while costing more.

  17. The cost-effectiveness and consumer acceptability of taxation strategies to reduce rates of overweight and obesity among children in Australia: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a recognised public health problem and around 25% of Australian children are overweight or obese. A major contributor is the obesogenic environment which encourages over consumption of energy dense nutrient poor food. Taxation is commonly proposed as a mechanism to reduce consumption of poor food choices and hence reduce rates of obesity and overweight in the community. Methods/Design An economic model will be developed to assess the lifetime benefits and costs to a cohort of Australian children by reducing energy dense nutrient poor food consumption through taxation mechanisms. The model inputs will be derived from a series of smaller studies. Food options for taxation will be derived from literature and expert opinion, the acceptability and impact of price changes will be explored through a Citizen’s Jury and a discrete choice experiment and price elasticities will be derived from the discrete choice experiment and consumption data. Discussion The health care costs of managing rising levels of obesity are a challenge for all governments. This study will provide a unique contribution to the international knowledge base by engaging a variety of robust research techniques, with a multidisciplinary focus and be responsive to consumers from diverse socio-economic backgrounds. PMID:24330325

  18. An Empirical Examination of EFL Learners' Perceptual Learning Styles and Acceptance of ASR-Based Computer-Assisted Pronunciation Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Liwei

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the structural relationships among the variables of EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' perceptual learning styles and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Three hundred and forty-one (n = 341) EFL learners were invited to join a self-regulated English pronunciation training program through automatic speech…

  19. Experiments with a low-cost system for computer graphics material model acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushmeier, Holly; Lockerman, Yitzhak; Cartwright, Luke; Pitera, David

    2015-03-01

    We consider the design of an inexpensive system for acquiring material models for computer graphics rendering applications in animation, games and conceptual design. To be useful in these applications a system must be able to model a rich range of appearances in a computationally tractable form. The range of appearance of interest in computer graphics includes materials that have spatially varying properties, directionality, small-scale geometric structure, and subsurface scattering. To be computationally tractable, material models for graphics must be compact, editable, and efficient to numerically evaluate for ray tracing importance sampling. To construct appropriate models for a range of interesting materials, we take the approach of separating out directly and indirectly scattered light using high spatial frequency patterns introduced by Nayar et al. in 2006. To acquire the data at low cost, we use a set of Raspberry Pi computers and cameras clamped to miniature projectors. We explore techniques to separate out surface and subsurface indirect lighting. This separation would allow the fitting of simple, and so tractable, analytical models to features of the appearance model. The goal of the system is to provide models for physically accurate renderings that are visually equivalent to viewing the original physical materials.

  20. Evolutionary adaptive eye tracking for low-cost human computer interaction applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yan; Shin, Hak Chul; Sung, Won Jun; Khim, Sarang; Kim, Honglak; Rhee, Phill Kyu

    2013-01-01

    We present an evolutionary adaptive eye-tracking framework aiming for low-cost human computer interaction. The main focus is to guarantee eye-tracking performance without using high-cost devices and strongly controlled situations. The performance optimization of eye tracking is formulated into the dynamic control problem of deciding on an eye tracking algorithm structure and associated thresholds/parameters, where the dynamic control space is denoted by genotype and phenotype spaces. The evolutionary algorithm is responsible for exploring the genotype control space, and the reinforcement learning algorithm organizes the evolved genotype into a reactive phenotype. The evolutionary algorithm encodes an eye-tracking scheme as a genetic code based on image variation analysis. Then, the reinforcement learning algorithm defines internal states in a phenotype control space limited by the perceived genetic code and carries out interactive adaptations. The proposed method can achieve optimal performance by compromising the difficulty in the real-time performance of the evolutionary algorithm and the drawback of the huge search space of the reinforcement learning algorithm. Extensive experiments were carried out using webcam image sequences and yielded very encouraging results. The framework can be readily applied to other low-cost vision-based human computer interactions in solving their intrinsic brittleness in unstable operational environments.

  1. Students Perception towards the Implementation of Computer Graphics Technology in Class via Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binti Shamsuddin, Norsila

    Technology advancement and development in a higher learning institution is a chance for students to be motivated to learn in depth in the information technology areas. Students should take hold of the opportunity to blend their skills towards these technologies as preparation for them when graduating. The curriculum itself can rise up the students' interest and persuade them to be directly involved in the evolvement of the technology. The aim of this study is to see how deep is the students' involvement as well as their acceptance towards the adoption of the technology used in Computer Graphics and Image Processing subjects. The study will be towards the Bachelor students in Faculty of Industrial Information Technology (FIIT), Universiti Industri Selangor (UNISEL); Bac. In Multimedia Industry, BSc. Computer Science and BSc. Computer Science (Software Engineering). This study utilizes the new Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to further validate the model and enhance our understanding of the adoption of Computer Graphics and Image Processing Technologies. Four (4) out of eight (8) independent factors in UTAUT will be studied towards the dependent factor.

  2. Dealing with electronic waste: modeling the costs and environmental benefits of computer monitor disposal.

    PubMed

    Macauley, Molly; Palmer, Karen; Shih, Jhih-Shyang

    2003-05-01

    The importance of information technology to the world economy has brought about a surge in demand for electronic equipment. With rapid technological change, a growing fraction of the increasing stock of many types of electronics becomes obsolete each year. We model the costs and benefits of policies to manage 'e-waste' by focusing on a large component of the electronic waste stream-computer monitors-and the environmental concerns associated with disposal of the lead embodied in cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used in most monitors. We find that the benefits of avoiding health effects associated with CRT disposal appear far outweighed by the costs for a wide range of policies. For the stock of monitors disposed of in the United States in 1998, we find that policies restricting or banning some popular disposal options would increase disposal costs from about US dollar 1 per monitor to between US dollars 3 and US dollars 20 per monitor. Policies to promote a modest amount of recycling of monitor parts, including lead, can be less expensive. In all cases, however, the costs of the policies exceed the value of the avoided health effects of CRT disposal.

  3. ESF-X: a low-cost modular experiment computer for space flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sell, Steven; Zapetis, Joseph; Littlefield, Jim; Vining, Joanne

    2004-08-01

    The high cost associated with spaceflight research often compels experimenters to scale back their research goals significantly purely for budgetary reasons; among experiment systems, control and data collection electronics are a major contributor to total project cost. ESF-X was developed as an architecture demonstration in response to this need: it is a highly capable, radiation-protected experiment support computer, designed to be configurable on demand to each investigator's particular experiment needs, and operational in LEO for missions lasting up to several years (e.g., ISS EXPRESS) without scheduled service or maintenance. ESF-X can accommodate up to 255 data channels (I/O, A/D, D/A, etc.), allocated per customer request, with data rates up to 40kHz. Additionally, ESF-X can be programmed using the graphical block-diagram based programming languages Simulink and MATLAB. This represents a major cost saving opportunity for future investigators, who can now obtain a customized, space-qualified experiment controller at steeply reduced cost compared to 'new' design, and without the performance compromises associated with using preexisting 'generic' systems. This paper documents the functional benchtop prototype, which utilizes a combination of COTS and space-qualified components, along with unit-gravity-specific provisions appropriate to laboratory environment evaluation of the ESF-X design concept and its physical implementation.

  4. Computing confidence intervals on solution costs for stochastic grid generation expansion problems.

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, David L..; Watson, Jean-Paul

    2010-12-01

    A range of core operations and planning problems for the national electrical grid are naturally formulated and solved as stochastic programming problems, which minimize expected costs subject to a range of uncertain outcomes relating to, for example, uncertain demands or generator output. A critical decision issue relating to such stochastic programs is: How many scenarios are required to ensure a specific error bound on the solution cost? Scenarios are the key mechanism used to sample from the uncertainty space, and the number of scenarios drives computational difficultly. We explore this question in the context of a long-term grid generation expansion problem, using a bounding procedure introduced by Mak, Morton, and Wood. We discuss experimental results using problem formulations independently minimizing expected cost and down-side risk. Our results indicate that we can use a surprisingly small number of scenarios to yield tight error bounds in the case of expected cost minimization, which has key practical implications. In contrast, error bounds in the case of risk minimization are significantly larger, suggesting more research is required in this area in order to achieve rigorous solutions for decision makers.

  5. User's guide to SERICPAC: A computer program for calculating electric-utility avoided costs rates

    SciTech Connect

    Wirtshafter, R.; Abrash, M.; Koved, M.; Feldman, S.

    1982-05-01

    SERICPAC is a computer program developed to calculate average avoided cost rates for decentralized power producers and cogenerators that sell electricity to electric utilities. SERICPAC works in tandem with SERICOST, a program to calculate avoided costs, and determines the appropriate rates for buying and selling of electricity from electric utilities to qualifying facilities (QF) as stipulated under Section 210 of PURA. SERICPAC contains simulation models for eight technologies including wind, hydro, biogas, and cogeneration. The simulations are converted in a diversified utility production which can be either gross production or net production, which accounts for an internal electricity usage by the QF. The program allows for adjustments to the production to be made for scheduled and forced outages. The final output of the model is a technology-specific average annual rate. The report contains a description of the technologies and the simulations as well as complete user's guide to SERICPAC.

  6. Versatile, low-cost, computer-controlled, sample positioning system for vacuum applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas-Aburto, Carlos; Liff, Dale R.

    1991-01-01

    A versatile, low-cost, easy to implement, microprocessor-based motorized positioning system (MPS) suitable for accurate sample manipulation in a Second Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) system, and for other ultra-high vacuum (UHV) applications was designed and built at NASA LeRC. The system can be operated manually or under computer control. In the latter case, local, as well as remote operation is possible via the IEEE-488 bus. The position of the sample can be controlled in three linear orthogonal and one angular coordinates.

  7. Novel low-cost 2D/3D switchable autostereoscopic system for notebook computers and other portable devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichenlaub, Jesse B.

    1995-03-01

    Mounting a lenticular lens in front of a flat panel display is a well known, inexpensive, and easy way to create an autostereoscopic system. Such a lens produces half resolution 3D images because half the pixels on the LCD are seen by the left eye and half by the right eye. This may be acceptable for graphics, but it makes full resolution text, as displayed by common software, nearly unreadable. Very fine alignment tolerances normally preclude the possibility of removing and replacing the lens in order to switch between 2D and 3D applications. Lenticular lens based displays are therefore limited to use as dedicated 3D devices. DTI has devised a technique which removes this limitation, allowing switching between full resolution 2D and half resolution 3D imaging modes. A second element, in the form of a concave lenticular lens array whose shape is exactly the negative of the first lens, is mounted on a hinge so that it can be swung down over the first lens array. When so positioned the two lenses cancel optically, allowing the user to see full resolution 2D for text or numerical applications. The two lenses, having complementary shapes, naturally tend to nestle together and snap into perfect alignment when pressed together--thus obviating any need for user operated alignment mechanisms. This system represents an ideal solution for laptop and notebook computer applications. It was devised to meet the stringent requirements of a laptop computer manufacturer including very compact size, very low cost, little impact on existing manufacturing or assembly procedures, and compatibility with existing full resolution 2D text- oriented software as well as 3D graphics. Similar requirements apply to high and electronic calculators, several models of which now use LCDs for the display of graphics.

  8. Computer Therapy for the Anxiety and Depressive Disorders Is Effective, Acceptable and Practical Health Care: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Gavin; Cuijpers, Pim; Craske, Michelle G.; McEvoy, Peter; Titov, Nickolai

    2010-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety disorders are common and treatable with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), but access to this therapy is limited. Objective Review evidence that computerized CBT for the anxiety and depressive disorders is acceptable to patients and effective in the short and longer term. Method Systematic reviews and data bases were searched for randomized controlled trials of computerized cognitive behavior therapy versus a treatment or control condition in people who met diagnostic criteria for major depression, panic disorder, social phobia or generalized anxiety disorder. Number randomized, superiority of treatment versus control (Hedges g) on primary outcome measure, risk of bias, length of follow up, patient adherence and satisfaction were extracted. Principal Findings 22 studies of comparisons with a control group were identified. The mean effect size superiority was 0.88 (NNT 2.13), and the benefit was evident across all four disorders. Improvement from computerized CBT was maintained for a median of 26 weeks follow-up. Acceptability, as indicated by adherence and satisfaction, was good. Research probity was good and bias risk low. Effect sizes were non-significantly higher in comparisons with waitlist than with active treatment control conditions. Five studies comparing computerized CBT with traditional face-to-face CBT were identified, and both modes of treatment appeared equally beneficial. Conclusions Computerized CBT for anxiety and depressive disorders, especially via the internet, has the capacity to provide effective acceptable and practical health care for those who might otherwise remain untreated. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000030077 PMID:20967242

  9. Commodity CPU-GPU System for Low-Cost , High-Performance Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, S.; Weiss, R. M.; Barnett, G. A.; Yuen, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    We have put together a desktop computer system for under 2.5 K dollars from commodity components that consist of one quad-core CPU (Intel Core 2 Quad Q6600 Kentsfield 2.4GHz) and two high end GPUs (nVidia's GeForce GTX 295 and Tesla C1060). A 1200 watt power supply is required. On this commodity system, we have constructed an easy-to-use hybrid computing environment, in which Message Passing Interface (MPI) is used for managing the working loads, for transferring the data among different GPU devices, and for minimizing the need of CPU’s memory. The test runs using the MAGMA (Matrix Algebra on GPU and Multicore Architectures) library show that the speed ups for double precision calculations can be greater than 10 (GPU vs. CPU) and they are bigger (> 20) for single precision calculations. In addition we have enabled the combination of Matlab with CUDA for interactive visualization through MPI, i.e., two GPU devices are used for simulation and one GPU device is used for visualizing the computing results as the simulation goes. Our experience with this commodity system has shown that running multiple applications on one GPU device or running one application across multiple GPU devices can be done as conveniently as on CPUs. With NVIDIA CEO Jen-Hsun Huang's claim that over the next 6 years GPU processing power will increase by 570x compared to the 3x for CPUs, future low-cost commodity computers such as ours may be a remedy for the long wait queues of the world's supercomputers, especially for small- and mid-scale computation. Our goal here is to explore the limits and capabilities of this emerging technology and to get ourselves ready to run large-scale simulations on the next generation of computing environment, which we believe will hybridize CPU and GPU architectures.

  10. Demonstration of Cost-Effective, High-Performance Computing at Performance and Reliability Levels Equivalent to a 1994 Vector Supercomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babrauckas, Theresa

    2000-01-01

    The Affordable High Performance Computing (AHPC) project demonstrated that high-performance computing based on a distributed network of computer workstations is a cost-effective alternative to vector supercomputers for running CPU and memory intensive design and analysis tools. The AHPC project created an integrated system called a Network Supercomputer. By connecting computer work-stations through a network and utilizing the workstations when they are idle, the resulting distributed-workstation environment has the same performance and reliability levels as the Cray C90 vector Supercomputer at less than 25 percent of the C90 cost. In fact, the cost comparison between a Cray C90 Supercomputer and Sun workstations showed that the number of distributed networked workstations equivalent to a C90 costs approximately 8 percent of the C90.

  11. Low-cost computer-controlled current stimulator for the student laboratory.

    PubMed

    Güçlü, Burak

    2007-06-01

    Electrical stimulation of nerve and muscle tissues is frequently used for teaching core concepts in physiology. It is usually expensive to provide every student group in the laboratory with an individual stimulator. This article presents the design and application of a low-cost [about $100 (U.S.)] isolated stimulator that can be controlled by two analog-output channels (e.g., output channels of a data-acquisition card or onboard audio channels) of a computer. The device is based on a voltage-to-current converter circuit and can produce accurate monopolar and bipolar current pulses, pulse trains, arbitrary current waveforms, and a trigger output. The compliance of the current source is +/-15 V, and the maximum available current is +/-1.5 mA. The device was electrically tested by using the audio output of a personal computer. In this condition, the device had a dynamic range of 46 dB and the available pulse-width range was 0.1-10 ms. The device is easily programmable, and a freeware MATLAB script is posted on the World Wide Web. The practical use of the device was demonstrated by electrically stimulating the sciatic nerve of a frog and recording compound action potentials. The newly designed current stimulator is a flexible and effective tool for teaching in the physiology laboratory, and it can increase the efficiency of learning by maximizing performance-to-cost ratio.

  12. A novel cost based model for energy consumption in cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Horri, A; Dastghaibyfard, Gh

    2015-01-01

    Cloud data centers consume enormous amounts of electrical energy. To support green cloud computing, providers also need to minimize cloud infrastructure energy consumption while conducting the QoS. In this study, for cloud environments an energy consumption model is proposed for time-shared policy in virtualization layer. The cost and energy usage of time-shared policy were modeled in the CloudSim simulator based upon the results obtained from the real system and then proposed model was evaluated by different scenarios. In the proposed model, the cache interference costs were considered. These costs were based upon the size of data. The proposed model was implemented in the CloudSim simulator and the related simulation results indicate that the energy consumption may be considerable and that it can vary with different parameters such as the quantum parameter, data size, and the number of VMs on a host. Measured results validate the model and demonstrate that there is a tradeoff between energy consumption and QoS in the cloud environment. Also, measured results validate the model and demonstrate that there is a tradeoff between energy consumption and QoS in the cloud environment.

  13. A novel cost based model for energy consumption in cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Horri, A; Dastghaibyfard, Gh

    2015-01-01

    Cloud data centers consume enormous amounts of electrical energy. To support green cloud computing, providers also need to minimize cloud infrastructure energy consumption while conducting the QoS. In this study, for cloud environments an energy consumption model is proposed for time-shared policy in virtualization layer. The cost and energy usage of time-shared policy were modeled in the CloudSim simulator based upon the results obtained from the real system and then proposed model was evaluated by different scenarios. In the proposed model, the cache interference costs were considered. These costs were based upon the size of data. The proposed model was implemented in the CloudSim simulator and the related simulation results indicate that the energy consumption may be considerable and that it can vary with different parameters such as the quantum parameter, data size, and the number of VMs on a host. Measured results validate the model and demonstrate that there is a tradeoff between energy consumption and QoS in the cloud environment. Also, measured results validate the model and demonstrate that there is a tradeoff between energy consumption and QoS in the cloud environment. PMID:25705716

  14. A Novel Cost Based Model for Energy Consumption in Cloud Computing

    PubMed Central

    Horri, A.; Dastghaibyfard, Gh.

    2015-01-01

    Cloud data centers consume enormous amounts of electrical energy. To support green cloud computing, providers also need to minimize cloud infrastructure energy consumption while conducting the QoS. In this study, for cloud environments an energy consumption model is proposed for time-shared policy in virtualization layer. The cost and energy usage of time-shared policy were modeled in the CloudSim simulator based upon the results obtained from the real system and then proposed model was evaluated by different scenarios. In the proposed model, the cache interference costs were considered. These costs were based upon the size of data. The proposed model was implemented in the CloudSim simulator and the related simulation results indicate that the energy consumption may be considerable and that it can vary with different parameters such as the quantum parameter, data size, and the number of VMs on a host. Measured results validate the model and demonstrate that there is a tradeoff between energy consumption and QoS in the cloud environment. Also, measured results validate the model and demonstrate that there is a tradeoff between energy consumption and QoS in the cloud environment. PMID:25705716

  15. A Comprehensive and Cost-Effective Computer Infrastructure for K-12 Schools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, G. P.; Seaton, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1993, NASA Langley Research Center has been developing and implementing a low-cost Internet connection model, including system architecture, training, and support, to provide Internet access for an entire network of computers. This infrastructure allows local area networks which exceed 50 machines per school to independently access the complete functionality of the Internet by connecting to a central site, using state-of-the-art commercial modem technology, through a single standard telephone line. By locating high-cost resources at this central site and sharing these resources and their costs among the school districts throughout a region, a practical, efficient, and affordable infrastructure for providing scale-able Internet connectivity has been developed. As the demand for faster Internet access grows, the model has a simple expansion path that eliminates the need to replace major system components and re-train personnel. Observations of optical Internet usage within an environment, particularly school classrooms, have shown that after an initial period of 'surfing,' the Internet traffic becomes repetitive. By automatically storing requested Internet information on a high-capacity networked disk drive at the local site (network based disk caching), then updating this information only when it changes, well over 80 percent of the Internet traffic that leaves a location can be eliminated by retrieving the information from the local disk cache.

  16. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 226 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. L Appendix L to Part 226—Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates (a)...

  17. An Example of the Application of Cost-Effectiveness Techniques in a Computer-Based Study Management System Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Hervey W.

    This paper considers some of the problems in implementing a cost-effectiveness analysis in training and education, and provides a specific example of an analysis that partially meets the cost-effectiveness analysis requirements. A computer-based study management system (SMS), which was implemented on a limited basis, was evaluated in the context…

  18. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 504 - Procedures for the Computation of the Real Cost of Capital

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (a) The firm's real after-tax weighted average marginal cost of capital (K) is computed with equation... common stock expressed as a fraction. t=Marginal federal income tax rate for the current year. (b...% (B) The “beta” coefficient is computed with regression analysis techniques. The regression...

  19. Assessment of wear and periacetabular osteolysis using dual energy computed tomography on a pig cadaver to identify the lowest acceptable radiation dose

    PubMed Central

    Skorpil, M.; Nowik, P.; Olivecrona, H.; Crafoord, J.; Weidenhielm, L.; Persson, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in evaluating wear and periacetabular osteolysis (PAO) in total hip replacements. One concern with CT is the high radiation exposure since standard pelvic CT provides approximately 3.5 millisieverts (mSv) of radiation exposure, whereas a planar radiographic examination with three projections totals approximately 0.5 mSv. The objective of this study was to evaluate the lowest acceptable radiation dose for dual-energy CT (DECT) images when measuring wear and periacetabular osteolysis in uncemented metal components. Materials and Methods A porcine pelvis with bilateral uncemented hip prostheses and with known linear wear and acetabular bone defects was examined in a third-generation multidetector DECT scanner. The examinations were performed with four different radiation levels both with and without iterative reconstruction techniques. From the high and low peak kilo voltage acquisitions, polychrmoatic images were created together with virtual monochromatic images of energies 100 kiloelectron volts (keV) and 150 keV. Results We could assess wear and PAO while substantially lowering the effective radiation dose to 0.7 mSv for a total pelvic view with an accuracy of around 0.5 mm for linear wear and 2 mm to 3 mm for PAO. Conclusion CT for detection of prosthetic wear and PAO could be used with clinically acceptable accuracy at a radiation exposure level equal to plain radiographic exposures. Cite this article: B. Sandgren, M. Skorpil, P. Nowik, H. Olivecrona, J. Crafoord, L. Weidenhielm, A. Persson. Assessment of wear and periacetabular osteolysis using dual energy computed tomography on a pig cadaver to identify the lowest acceptable radiation dose. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:307–313. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.57.2000566. PMID:27445358

  20. Cost justification for an interactive Computer-Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing system

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1980-09-23

    Many factors influence the capital investment decision. System costs and benefits are weighed by methods of financial analysis to determine the advisability of an investment. Capital, expense, and benefits as related to Interactive Computer-Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing (CADD/M) Systems are discussed and model calculations are included. An example is treated by the simple payback method and the more sophisticated methods of Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR). The NPV and IRR approaches include in the calculation the time value of money and provide a sounder foundation on which to base the purchase decision. It is hoped that an understanding of these techniques by technical personnel will make an optimum system purchase more likely.

  1. Multiple sequence alignment with arbitrary gap costs: computing an optimal solution using polyhedral combinatorics.

    PubMed

    Althaus, Ernst; Caprara, Alberto; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Reinert, Knut

    2002-01-01

    Multiple sequence alignment is one of the dominant problems in computational molecular biology. Numerous scoring functions and methods have been proposed, most of which result in NP-hard problems. In this paper we propose for the first time a general formulation for multiple alignment with arbitrary gap-costs based on an integer linear program (ILP). In addition we describe a branch-and-cut algorithm to effectively solve the ILP to optimality. We evaluate the performances of our approach in terms of running time and quality of the alignments using the BAliBase database of reference alignments. The results show that our implementation ranks amongst the best programs developed so far.

  2. Processing power limits social group size: computational evidence for the cognitive costs of sociality.

    PubMed

    Dávid-Barrett, T; Dunbar, R I M

    2013-08-22

    Sociality is primarily a coordination problem. However, the social (or communication) complexity hypothesis suggests that the kinds of information that can be acquired and processed may limit the size and/or complexity of social groups that a species can maintain. We use an agent-based model to test the hypothesis that the complexity of information processed influences the computational demands involved. We show that successive increases in the kinds of information processed allow organisms to break through the glass ceilings that otherwise limit the size of social groups: larger groups can only be achieved at the cost of more sophisticated kinds of information processing that are disadvantageous when optimal group size is small. These results simultaneously support both the social brain and the social complexity hypotheses.

  3. Processing power limits social group size: computational evidence for the cognitive costs of sociality

    PubMed Central

    Dávid-Barrett, T.; Dunbar, R. I. M.

    2013-01-01

    Sociality is primarily a coordination problem. However, the social (or communication) complexity hypothesis suggests that the kinds of information that can be acquired and processed may limit the size and/or complexity of social groups that a species can maintain. We use an agent-based model to test the hypothesis that the complexity of information processed influences the computational demands involved. We show that successive increases in the kinds of information processed allow organisms to break through the glass ceilings that otherwise limit the size of social groups: larger groups can only be achieved at the cost of more sophisticated kinds of information processing that are disadvantageous when optimal group size is small. These results simultaneously support both the social brain and the social complexity hypotheses. PMID:23804623

  4. A simple, low-cost, data logging pendulum built from a computer mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Gintautas, Vadas; Hubler, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Lessons and homework problems involving a pendulum are often a big part of introductory physics classes and laboratory courses from high school to undergraduate levels. Although laboratory equipment for pendulum experiments is commercially available, it is often expensive and may not be affordable for teachers on fixed budgets, particularly in developing countries. We present a low-cost, easy-to-build rotary sensor pendulum using the existing hardware in a ball-type computer mouse. We demonstrate how this apparatus may be used to measure both the frequency and coefficient of damping of a simple physical pendulum. This easily constructed laboratory equipment makes it possible for all students to have hands-on experience with one of the most important simple physical systems.

  5. Low cost, highly effective parallel computing achieved through a Beowulf cluster.

    PubMed

    Bitner, Marc; Skelton, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    A Beowulf cluster is a means of bringing together several computers and using software and network components to make this cluster of computers appear and function as one computer with multiple parallel computing processors. A cluster of computers can provide comparable computing power usually found only in very expensive super computers or servers.

  6. Low-cost, high-performance and efficiency computational photometer design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewert, Sam B.; Shihadeh, Jeries; Myers, Randall; Khandhar, Jay; Ivanov, Vitaly

    2014-05-01

    Researchers at the University of Alaska Anchorage and University of Colorado Boulder have built a low cost high performance and efficiency drop-in-place Computational Photometer (CP) to test in field applications ranging from port security and safety monitoring to environmental compliance monitoring and surveying. The CP integrates off-the-shelf visible spectrum cameras with near to long wavelength infrared detectors and high resolution digital snapshots in a single device. The proof of concept combines three or more detectors into a single multichannel imaging system that can time correlate read-out, capture, and image process all of the channels concurrently with high performance and energy efficiency. The dual-channel continuous read-out is combined with a third high definition digital snapshot capability and has been designed using an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) to capture, decimate, down-convert, re-encode, and transform images from two standard definition CCD (Charge Coupled Device) cameras at 30Hz. The continuous stereo vision can be time correlated to megapixel high definition snapshots. This proof of concept has been fabricated as a fourlayer PCB (Printed Circuit Board) suitable for use in education and research for low cost high efficiency field monitoring applications that need multispectral and three dimensional imaging capabilities. Initial testing is in progress and includes field testing in ports, potential test flights in un-manned aerial systems, and future planned missions to image harsh environments in the arctic including volcanic plumes, ice formation, and arctic marine life.

  7. Transport Sector Marginal Abatement Cost Curves in Computable General Equilibrium Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippichai, Atit; Fukuda, Atsushi; Morisugi, Hisayoshi

    In the last decade, computable general equilibrium (CGE) models have emerged a standard tool for climate policy evaluation due to their abilities to prospectively elucidate the character and magnitude of the economic impacts of energy and environmental policies. Furthermore, marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves which represent GHG emissions reduction potentials and costs can be derived from these top-down economic models. However, most studies have never address MAC curves for a specific sector that have a large coverage of countries which are needed for allocation of optimal emission reductions. This paper aims to explicitly describe the meaning and character of MAC curves for transport sector in a CGE context through using the AIM/CGE Model developed by Toshihiko Masui. It found that the MAC curves derived in this study are the inverse of the general equilibrium reduction function for CO2 emissions. Moreover, the transport sector MAC curves for six regions including USA, EU-15, Japan, China, India, and Brazil, derived from this study are compared to the reduction potentials under 100 USD/tCO2 in 2020 from a bottom-up study. The results showed that the ranking of the regional reduction potentials in transport sector from this study are almost same with the bottom-up study except the ranks of the EU-15 and China. In addition, the range of the reduction potentials from this study is wider and only the USA has higher potentials than those derived from the bottom-up study.

  8. Use of Respiratory-Correlated Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography to Determine Acceptable Treatment Margins for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Seth D.; Ford, Eric C.; Duhon, Mario; McNutt, Todd; Wong, John; Herman, Joseph M.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: Respiratory-induced excursions of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma could affect dose delivery. This study quantified tumor motion and evaluated standard treatment margins. Methods and Materials: Respiratory-correlated four-dimensional computed tomography images were obtained on 30 patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma; 15 of whom underwent repeat scanning before cone-down treatment. Treatment planning software was used to contour the gross tumor volume (GTV), bilateral kidneys, and biliary stent. Excursions were calculated according to the centroid of the contoured volumes. Results: The mean +- standard deviation GTV excursion in the superoinferior (SI) direction was 0.55 +- 0.23 cm; an expansion of 1.0 cm adequately accounted for the GTV motion in 97% of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients. Motion GTVs were generated and resulted in a 25% average volume increase compared with the static GTV. Of the 30 patients, 17 had biliary stents. The mean SI stent excursion was 0.84 +- 0.32 cm, significantly greater than the GTV motion. The xiphoid process moved an average of 0.35 +- 0.12 cm, significantly less than the GTV. The mean SI motion of the left and right kidneys was 0.65 +- 0.27 cm and 0.77 +- 0.30 cm, respectively. At repeat scanning, no significant changes were seen in the mean GTV size (p = .8) or excursion (p = .3). Conclusion: These data suggest that an asymmetric expansion of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.6 cm along the respective SI, anteroposterior, and medial-lateral directions is recommended if a respiratory-correlated four-dimensional computed tomography scan is not available to evaluate the tumor motion during treatment planning. Surrogates of tumor motion, such as biliary stents or external markers, should be used with caution.

  9. Least-squares reverse-time migration with cost-effective computation and memory storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuejian; Liu, Yike; Huang, Xiaogang; Li, Peng

    2016-06-01

    Least-squares reverse-time migration (LSRTM), which involves several iterations of reverse-time migration (RTM) and Born modeling procedures, can provide subsurface images with better balanced amplitudes, higher resolution and fewer artifacts than standard migration. However, the same source wavefield is repetitively computed during the Born modeling and RTM procedures of different iterations. We developed a new LSRTM method with modified excitation-amplitude imaging conditions, where the source wavefield for RTM is forward propagated only once while the maximum amplitude and its excitation-time at each grid are stored. Then, the RTM procedure of different iterations only involves: (1) backward propagation of the residual between Born modeled and acquired data, and (2) implementation of the modified excitation-amplitude imaging condition by multiplying the maximum amplitude by the back propagated data residuals only at the grids that satisfy the imaging time at each time-step. For a complex model, 2 or 3 local peak-amplitudes and corresponding traveltimes should be confirmed and stored for all the grids so that multiarrival information of the source wavefield can be utilized for imaging. Numerical experiments on a three-layer and the Marmousi2 model demonstrate that the proposed LSRTM method saves huge computation and memory cost.

  10. Comparison between Utsu's and Vere-Jones' aftershocks model by means of a computer simulation based on the acceptance-rejection sampling of von Neumann

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, J.; Morales-Esteban, A.; González, E.; Martínez-Álvarez, F.

    2016-07-01

    In this research, a new algorithm for generating a stochastic earthquake catalog is presented. The algorithm is based on the acceptance-rejection sampling of von Neumann. The result is a computer simulation of earthquakes based on the calculated statistical properties of each zone. Vere-Jones states that an earthquake sequence can be modeled as a series of random events. This is the model used in the proposed simulation. Contrariwise, Utsu indicates that the mainshocks are special geophysical events. The algorithm has been applied to zones of Chile, China, Spain, Japan, and the USA. This allows classifying the zones according to Vere-Jones' or Utsu's model. The results have been quantified relating the mainshock with the largest aftershock within the next 5 days (which has been named as Bath event). The results show that some zones fit Utsu's model and others Vere-Jones'. Finally, the fraction of seismic events that satisfy certain properties of magnitude and occurrence is analyzed.

  11. The Applications of Computers in Education in Developing Countries--with Specific Reference to the Cost-Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Kwok-Wing

    Designed to examine the application and cost-effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for secondary education in developing countries, this document is divided into eight chapters. A general introduction defines the research problem, describes the research methodology, and provides definitions of key terms used throughout the paper.…

  12. Accounting for polarization cost when using fixed charge force fields. II. Method and application for computing effect of polarization cost on free energy of hydration.

    PubMed

    Swope, William C; Horn, Hans W; Rice, Julia E

    2010-07-01

    Polarization cost is the energy needed to distort the wave function of a molecule from one appropriate to the gas phase to one appropriate for some condensed phase. Although it is not currently standard practice, polarization cost should be considered when deriving improved fixed charge force fields based on fits to certain types of experimental data and when using such force fields to compute observables that involve changes in molecular polarization. Building on earlier work, we present mathematical expressions and a method to estimate the effect of polarization cost on free energy and enthalpy implied by a charge model meant to represent a solvated state. The charge model can be any combination of point charges, higher-order multipoles, or even distributed charge densities, as long as they do not change in response to environment. The method is illustrated by computing the effect of polarization cost on free energies of hydration for the neutral amino acid side chain analogues as predicted using two popular fixed charge force fields and one based on electron densities computed using quantum chemistry techniques that employ an implicit model to represent aqueous solvent. From comparison of the computed and experimental hydration free energies, we find that two commonly used force fields are too underpolarized in their description of the solute-water interaction. On the other hand, a charge model based on the charge density from a hybrid density functional calculation that used an implicit model for aqueous solvent performs well for hydration free energies of these molecules after the correction for dipole polarization is applied. As such, an improved description of the density (e.g., B3LYP, MP2) in conjunction with an implicit solvent (e.g., PCM) or explicit solvent (e.g., QM/MM) approach may offer promise as a starting point for the development of improved fixed charge models for force fields.

  13. Phase Transition in Computing Cost of Overconstrained NP-Complete 3-SAT Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodson, Adam; O'Donnell, Thomas; Maniloff, Peter

    2002-03-01

    Many intractable, NP-Complete problems such as Traveling Salesmen (TSP) and 3-Satisfiability (3-Sat) which arise in hundreds of computer science, industrial and commercial applications, are now known to exhibit phase transitions in computational cost. While these problems appear to not have any structure which would make them amenable to attack with quantum computing, their critical behavior may allow physical insights derived from statistical mechanics and critical theory to shed light on these computationally ``hardest" of problems. While computational theory indicates that ``the intractability of the NP-Complete class resides solely in the exponential growth of the possible solutions" with the number of variables, n, the present work instead investigates the complex patterns of ``overlap" amongst 3-SAT clauses (their combined effects) when n-tuples of these act in succession to reduce the space of valid solutions. An exhaustive-search algorithm was used to eliminate `bad' states from amongst the `good' states residing within the spaces of all 2^n--possible solutions of randomly generated 3-Sat problems. No backtracking nor optimization heuristics were employed, nor was problem structure exploited (i.e., phtypical cases were generated), and the (k=3)-Sat propositional logic problems generated were in standard, conjunctive normal form (CNF). Each problem had an effectively infinite number of clauses, m (i.e., with r = m/n >= 10), to insure every problem would not be satisfiable (i.e. that each would fail), and duplicate clauses were not permitted. This process was repeated for each of several low values of n (i.e., 4 <= n <= 20). The entire history of solution-states elimination as successive clauses were applied was archived until, in each instance, sufficient clauses were applied to kill all possible solutions . An asymmetric, sigmoid-shaped phase transition is observed in Fg = F_g(m'/n), the fraction of the original 2^n ``good" solutions remaining valid as a

  14. A Low-Cost Computer-Controlled Arduino-Based Educational Laboratory System for Teaching the Fundamentals of Photovoltaic Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachariadou, K.; Yiasemides, K.; Trougkakos, N.

    2012-01-01

    We present a low-cost, fully computer-controlled, Arduino-based, educational laboratory (SolarInsight) to be used in undergraduate university courses concerned with electrical engineering and physics. The major goal of the system is to provide students with the necessary instrumentation, software tools and methodology in order to learn fundamental…

  15. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 226 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App....

  16. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 226 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Reverse Mortgage Transactions K Appendix K to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. K Appendix K to Part 226—Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 1026 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions K Appendix K to Part 1026 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 1026, App. K Appendix K to Part 1026—Total Annual Loan...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 1026 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions K Appendix K to Part 1026 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 1026, App. K Appendix K to Part 1026—Total Annual Loan...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 226 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Reverse Mortgage Transactions K Appendix K to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. K Appendix K to Part 226—Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 226 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Reverse Mortgage Transactions K Appendix K to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. K Appendix K to Part 226—Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions...

  1. Costs and Benefits of Children's Physical and Relational Aggression Trajectories on Peer Rejection, Acceptance, and Friendships: Variations by Aggression Subtypes, Gender, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettekal, Idean; Ladd, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations between children's co-occurring relational and physical aggression trajectories and their peer relations (i.e., peer rejection, peer acceptance, and reciprocated friendships) from late childhood (Grade 4; M[subscript age] = 10.0) to early adolescence (Grade 8; M[subscript age] = 13.9). Using a sample of 477…

  2. Resource Utilization and Costs during the Initial Years of Lung Cancer Screening with Computed Tomography in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Stephen; Tammemagi, Martin C.; Evans, William K.; Leighl, Natasha B.; Regier, Dean A.; Bolbocean, Corneliu; Shepherd, Frances A.; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Manos, Daria; Liu, Geoffrey; Atkar-Khattra, Sukhinder; Cromwell, Ian; Johnston, Michael R.; Mayo, John R.; McWilliams, Annette; Couture, Christian; English, John C.; Goffin, John; Hwang, David M.; Puksa, Serge; Roberts, Heidi; Tremblay, Alain; MacEachern, Paul; Burrowes, Paul; Bhatia, Rick; Finley, Richard J.; Goss, Glenwood D.; Nicholas, Garth; Seely, Jean M.; Sekhon, Harmanjatinder S.; Yee, John; Amjadi, Kayvan; Cutz, Jean-Claude; Ionescu, Diana N.; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Martel, Simon; Soghrati, Kamyar; Sin, Don D.; Tan, Wan C.; Urbanski, Stefan; Xu, Zhaolin; Peacock, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is estimated that millions of North Americans would qualify for lung cancer screening and that billions of dollars of national health expenditures would be required to support population-based computed tomography lung cancer screening programs. The decision to implement such programs should be informed by data on resource utilization and costs. Methods: Resource utilization data were collected prospectively from 2059 participants in the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). Participants who had 2% or greater lung cancer risk over 3 years using a risk prediction tool were recruited from seven major cities across Canada. A cost analysis was conducted from the Canadian public payer’s perspective for resources that were used for the screening and treatment of lung cancer in the initial years of the study. Results: The average per-person cost for screening individuals with LDCT was $453 (95% confidence interval [CI], $400–$505) for the initial 18-months of screening following a baseline scan. The screening costs were highly dependent on the detected lung nodule size, presence of cancer, screening intervention, and the screening center. The mean per-person cost of treating lung cancer with curative surgery was $33,344 (95% CI, $31,553–$34,935) over 2 years. This was lower than the cost of treating advanced-stage lung cancer with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or supportive care alone, ($47,792; 95% CI, $43,254–$52,200; p = 0.061). Conclusion: In the Pan-Canadian study, the average cost to screen individuals with a high risk for developing lung cancer using LDCT and the average initial cost of curative intent treatment were lower than the average per-person cost of treating advanced stage lung cancer which infrequently results in a cure. PMID:25105438

  3. Using the net benefit regression framework to construct cost-effectiveness acceptability curves: an example using data from a trial of external loop recorders versus Holter monitoring for ambulatory monitoring of "community acquired" syncope

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Jeffrey S; Rockx, Marie Antoinette; Krahn, Andrew D

    2006-01-01

    Background Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs) describe the probability that a new treatment or intervention is cost-effective. The net benefit regression framework (NBRF) allows cost-effectiveness analysis to be done in a simple regression framework. The objective of the paper is to illustrate how net benefit regression can be used to construct a CEAC. Methods One hundred patients referred for ambulatory monitoring with syncope or presyncope were randomized to a one-month external loop recorder (n = 49) or 48-hour Holter monitor (n = 51). The primary endpoint was symptom-rhythm correlation during monitoring. Direct costs were calculated based on the 2003 Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP) fee schedule combined with hospital case costing of labour, materials, service and overhead costs for diagnostic testing and related equipment. Results In the loop recorder group, 63.27% of patients (31/49) had symptom recurrence and successful activation, compared to 23.53% in the Holter group (12/51). The cost in US dollars for loop recording was $648.50 and $212.92 for Holter monitoring. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the loop recorder was $1,096 per extra successful diagnosis. The probability that the loop recorder was cost-effective compared to the Holter monitor was estimated using net benefit regression and plotted on a CEAC. In a sensitivity analysis, bootstrapping was used to examine the effect of distributional assumptions. Conclusion The NBRF is straightforward to use and interpret. The resulting uncertainty surrounding the regression coefficient relates to the CEAC. When the link from the regression's p-value to the probability of cost-effectiveness is tentative, bootstrapping may be used. PMID:16756680

  4. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  5. Studies in short haul air transportation in the California corridor: Effects of design runway length; community acceptance; impact of return on investment and fuel cost increases, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevell, R. S.; Jones, D. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of design runway length on the economics and traffic demand of a 1985 short haul air transportation system in the California Corridor was investigated. The community acceptance of new commercial airports for short haul service was studied. The following subjects were analyzed: (1) travel demand, (2) vehicle technology, (3) infrastructure, (4) systems analysis, and (5) effects on the community. The operation of the short haul system is compared with conventional airline operations.

  6. Low cost computer subsystem for the Solar Electric Propulsion Stage (SEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Solar Electric Propulsion Stage (SEPS) subsystem which consists of the computer, custom input/output (I/O) unit, and tape recorder for mass storage of telemetry data was studied. Computer software and interface requirements were developed along with computer and I/O unit design parameters. Redundancy implementation was emphasized. Reliability analysis was performed for the complete command computer sybsystem. A SEPS fault tolerant memory breadboard was constructed and its operation demonstrated.

  7. Development of Specifications for a Low Cost Computer System for Secondary Schools. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiner, George

    The last few years have seen more and more secondary schools introduce computer concepts and some form of computer resource into their educational program--usually a commercial time-sharing service with a modest initial expenditure--but almost invariably the demand for terminal availability and computer usage suggest the need for alternatives.…

  8. Scaled opposite-spin CC2 for ground and excited states with fourth order scaling computational costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Nina O. C.; Hättig, Christof

    2011-05-01

    An implementation of scaled opposite-spin CC2 (SOS-CC2) for ground and excited state energies is presented that requires only fourth order scaling computational costs. The SOS-CC2 method yields results with an accuracy comparable to the unscaled method. Furthermore the time-determining fifth order scaling steps in the algorithm can be replaced by only fourth order scaling computational costs using a "resolution of the identity" approximation for the electron repulsion integrals and a Laplace transformation of the orbital energy denominators. This leads to a significant reduction of computational costs especially for large systems. Timings for ground and excited state calculations are shown and the error of the Laplace transformation is investigated. An application to a chlorophyll molecule with 134 atoms results in a speed-up by a factor of five and demonstrates how the new implementation extends the applicability of the method. A SOS variant of the algebraic diagrammatic construction through second order ADC(2), which arises from a simplification of the SOS-CC2 model, is also presented. The SOS-ADC(2) model is a cost-efficient alternative in particular for future extensions to spectral intensities and excited state structure optimizations.

  9. Development and Validation of a Fast, Accurate and Cost-Effective Aeroservoelastic Method on Advanced Parallel Computing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Sabine A.; Raj, P.

    1999-01-01

    Progress to date towards the development and validation of a fast, accurate and cost-effective aeroelastic method for advanced parallel computing platforms such as the IBM SP2 and the SGI Origin 2000 is presented in this paper. The ENSAERO code, developed at the NASA-Ames Research Center has been selected for this effort. The code allows for the computation of aeroelastic responses by simultaneously integrating the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations and the modal structural equations of motion. To assess the computational performance and accuracy of the ENSAERO code, this paper reports the results of the Navier-Stokes simulations of the transonic flow over a flexible aeroelastic wing body configuration. In addition, a forced harmonic oscillation analysis in the frequency domain and an analysis in the time domain are done on a wing undergoing a rigid pitch and plunge motion. Finally, to demonstrate the ENSAERO flutter-analysis capability, aeroelastic Euler and Navier-Stokes computations on an L-1011 wind tunnel model including pylon, nacelle and empennage are underway. All computational solutions are compared with experimental data to assess the level of accuracy of ENSAERO. As the computations described above are performed, a meticulous log of computational performance in terms of wall clock time, execution speed, memory and disk storage is kept. Code scalability is also demonstrated by studying the impact of varying the number of processors on computational performance on the IBM SP2 and the Origin 2000 systems.

  10. Selecting an Architecture for a Safety-Critical Distributed Computer System with Power, Weight and Cost Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2014-01-01

    This report presents an example of the application of multi-criteria decision analysis to the selection of an architecture for a safety-critical distributed computer system. The design problem includes constraints on minimum system availability and integrity, and the decision is based on the optimal balance of power, weight and cost. The analysis process includes the generation of alternative architectures, evaluation of individual decision criteria, and the selection of an alternative based on overall value. In this example presented here, iterative application of the quantitative evaluation process made it possible to deliberately generate an alternative architecture that is superior to all others regardless of the relative importance of cost.

  11. Low-Cost Magnetic Stirrer from Recycled Computer Parts with Optional Hot Plate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guidote, Armando M., Jr.; Pacot, Giselle Mae M.; Cabacungan, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic stirrers and hot plates are key components of science laboratories. However, these are not readily available in many developing countries due to their high cost. This article describes the design of a low-cost magnetic stirrer with hot plate from recycled materials. Some of the materials used are neodymium magnets and CPU fans from…

  12. An investigation of promotional mix considerations for mail-order prescriptions: facilitating the market's acceptance of a partial health care-cost remedy.

    PubMed

    Strutton, D; Pelton, L E; True, S L

    1993-01-01

    While the U.S. health care system is confronted by a daunting assortment of problems, the foremost crisis almost certainly involves the excessive costs of health care. Mail-order prescriptions offer a modest, albeit worthwhile, measure of relief from high health care costs. This study investigates the information search behaviors and product perceptions that characterize current users and nonusers of mail-order prescriptions. Implications and recommendations concerned with the development of promotional strategies for mail-order prescriptions are derived from the findings.

  13. The application of cloud computing to scientific workflows: a study of cost and performance.

    PubMed

    Berriman, G Bruce; Deelman, Ewa; Juve, Gideon; Rynge, Mats; Vöckler, Jens-S

    2013-01-28

    The current model of transferring data from data centres to desktops for analysis will soon be rendered impractical by the accelerating growth in the volume of science datasets. Processing will instead often take place on high-performance servers co-located with data. Evaluations of how new technologies such as cloud computing would support such a new distributed computing model are urgently needed. Cloud computing is a new way of purchasing computing and storage resources on demand through virtualization technologies. We report here the results of investigations of the applicability of commercial cloud computing to scientific computing, with an emphasis on astronomy, including investigations of what types of applications can be run cheaply and efficiently on the cloud, and an example of an application well suited to the cloud: processing a large dataset to create a new science product.

  14. Reduction of computer usage costs in predicting unsteady aerodynamic loadings caused by control surface motions: Computer program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrarca, J. R.; Harrison, B. A.; Redman, M. C.; Rowe, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    A digital computer program was developed to calculate unsteady loadings caused by motions of lifting surfaces with leading edge and trailing edge controls based on the subsonic kernel function approach. The pressure singularities at hinge line and side edges were extracted analytically as a preliminary step to solving the integral equation of collocation. The program calculates generalized aerodynamic forces for user supplied deflection modes. Optional intermediate output includes pressure at an array of points, and sectional generalized forces. From one to six controls on the half span can be accomodated.

  15. A nearly-linear computational-cost scheme for the forward dynamics of an N-body pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jack C. K.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic equations of motion of an n-body pendulum with spherical joints are derived to be a mixed system of differential and algebraic equations (DAE's). The DAE's are kept in implicit form to save arithmetic and preserve the sparsity of the system and are solved by the robust implicit integration method. At each solution point, the predicted solution is corrected to its exact solution within given tolerance using Newton's iterative method. For each iteration, a linear system of the form J delta X = E has to be solved. The computational cost for solving this linear system directly by LU factorization is O(n exp 3), and it can be reduced significantly by exploring the structure of J. It is shown that by recognizing the recursive patterns and exploiting the sparsity of the system the multiplicative and additive computational costs for solving J delta X = E are O(n) and O(n exp 2), respectively. The formulation and solution method for an n-body pendulum is presented. The computational cost is shown to be nearly linearly proportional to the number of bodies.

  16. Design and implementation of a reliable and cost-effective cloud computing infrastructure: the INFN Napoli experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, V.; Esposito, R.; Pardi, S.; Taurino, F.; Tortone, G.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last few years we have seen an increasing number of services and applications needed to manage and maintain cloud computing facilities. This is particularly true for computing in high energy physics, which often requires complex configurations and distributed infrastructures. In this scenario a cost effective rationalization and consolidation strategy is the key to success in terms of scalability and reliability. In this work we describe an IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) cloud computing system, with high availability and redundancy features, which is currently in production at INFN-Naples and ATLAS Tier-2 data centre. The main goal we intended to achieve was a simplified method to manage our computing resources and deliver reliable user services, reusing existing hardware without incurring heavy costs. A combined usage of virtualization and clustering technologies allowed us to consolidate our services on a small number of physical machines, reducing electric power costs. As a result of our efforts we developed a complete solution for data and computing centres that can be easily replicated using commodity hardware. Our architecture consists of 2 main subsystems: a clustered storage solution, built on top of disk servers running GlusterFS file system, and a virtual machines execution environment. GlusterFS is a network file system able to perform parallel writes on multiple disk servers, providing this way live replication of data. High availability is also achieved via a network configuration using redundant switches and multiple paths between hypervisor hosts and disk servers. We also developed a set of management scripts to easily perform basic system administration tasks such as automatic deployment of new virtual machines, adaptive scheduling of virtual machines on hypervisor hosts, live migration and automated restart in case of hypervisor failures.

  17. Evaluating Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Systems: A Critique of the Differential Feature-Cost Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Laurel W.

    1990-01-01

    Finds the feature-cost analysis method (Sampson et al., CE 521 972) a useful tool, but suggests that users need to determine which criteria are most important to them on the basis of a needs assessment. (SK)

  18. Model implementation for dynamic computation of system cost for advanced life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, J. A.; Vaccari, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Life support system designs for long-duration space missions have a multitude of requirements drivers, such as mission objectives, political considerations, cost, crew wellness, inherent mission attributes, as well as many other influences. Evaluation of requirements satisfaction can be difficult, particularly at an early stage of mission design. Because launch cost is a critical factor and relatively easy to quantify, it is a point of focus in early mission design. The method used to determine launch cost influences the accuracy of the estimate. This paper discusses the appropriateness of dynamic mission simulation in estimating the launch cost of a life support system. This paper also provides an abbreviated example of a dynamic simulation life support model and possible ways in which such a model might be utilized for design improvement. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thoracoabdominal Computed Tomography in Trauma Patients: A Cost-Consequences Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Vugt, Raoul; Kool, Digna R.; Brink, Monique; Dekker, Helena M.; Deunk, Jaap; Edwards, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: CT is increasingly used during the initial evaluation of blunt trauma patients. In this era of increasing cost-awareness, the pros and cons of CT have to be assessed. Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate cost-consequences of different diagnostic algorithms that use thoracoabdominal CT in primary evaluation of adult patients with high-energy blunt trauma. Materials and Methods: We compared three different algorithms in which CT was applied as an immediate diagnostic tool (rush CT), a diagnostic tool after limited conventional work-up (routine CT), and a selective tool (selective CT). Probabilities of detecting and missing clinically relevant injuries were retrospectively derived. We collected data on radiation exposure and performed a micro-cost analysis on a reference case-based approach. Results: Both rush and routine CT detected all thoracoabdominal injuries in 99.1% of the patients during primary evaluation (n = 1040). Selective CT missed one or more diagnoses in 11% of the patients in which a change of treatment was necessary in 4.8%. Rush CT algorithm costed € 2676 (US$ 3660) per patient with a mean radiation dose of 26.40 mSv per patient. Routine CT costed € 2815 (US$ 3850) and resulted in the same radiation exposure. Selective CT resulted in less radiation dose (23.23 mSv) and costed € 2771 (US$ 3790). Conclusions: Rush CT seems to result in the least costs and is comparable in terms of radiation dose exposure and diagnostic certainty with routine CT after a limited conventional work-up. However, selective CT results in less radiation dose exposure but a slightly higher cost and less certainty. PMID:25337521

  20. [Should IQWiG revise its methods of cost-effectiveness analysis in order to comply with more widely accepted health economical evaluation standards?].

    PubMed

    Lübbe, W

    2010-03-01

    IQWiG, Germany's equivalent to Britain's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), has adopted an unorthodox method of cost-effectiveness analysis. The method does not use QALYs (quality adjusted life years). Its main point is that it tries to avoid comparative judgement on the relative value of treatment effects in different medical areas. The present contribution assesses the controversy that has arisen over IQWiG's methods by discussing a) whether comparative judgements will at least implicitly be made anyway as soon as the IQWiG makes reimbursement recommendations in more than one medical area, and b) whether the well-known fairness objections against QALY maximization can plausibly be dealt with by equity weigthing or, generally, by moving on to "societal value" maximization, which tries to include fairness values in addition to cost-effectiveness. It is concluded that the answer is "No" for both points, which leads to a "No" for the title question as well.

  1. Accuracy of a Low-Cost Novel Computer-Vision Dynamic Movement Assessment: Potential Limitations and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGroarty, M.; Giblin, S.; Meldrum, D.; Wetterling, F.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to perform a preliminary validation of a low cost markerless motion capture system (CAPTURE) against an industry gold standard (Vicon). Measurements of knee valgus and flexion during the performance of a countermovement jump (CMJ) between CAPTURE and Vicon were compared. After correction algorithms were applied to the raw CAPTURE data acceptable levels of accuracy and precision were achieved. The knee flexion angle measured for three trials using Capture deviated by -3.8° ± 3° (left) and 1.7° ± 2.8° (right) compared to Vicon. The findings suggest that low-cost markerless motion capture has potential to provide an objective method for assessing lower limb jump and landing mechanics in an applied sports setting. Furthermore, the outcome of the study warrants the need for future research to examine more fully the potential implications of the use of low-cost markerless motion capture in the evaluation of dynamic movement for injury prevention.

  2. Rural road characteristics and vehicle operating costs in developing countries. [Computer Aided Rural Transport Analysis (C. A. R. T. A. )

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, C.P.

    1981-12-01

    The primary phase of transportation at the smallholder level, from village to local market, is a particularly important aspect of increasing agricultural production in developing countries. The realistic prediction of vehicle operating costs on the (largely) unsurface roads in this sector is a useful input to development planning and a computer program has been developed to produce such predictions from first principles. When compared with survey results obtained by the Transport and Road Research Laboratory in Kenya, it is found that correlation is satisfactorily close. The program can also be used to predict the effects, on the operating costs of various vehicles, of changing road characteristics (gradient, curvature, roughness, rolling resistance and traction). It is found that rolling resistance and road roughness are the factors most likely to influence operating costs, due to their effects on vehicle speeds, fuel consumption and service/repair costs. Small, cheap machines are not necessarily superior to larger vehicles in terms of costs per ton kilometer and fuel, particularly where the available load is sufficient to allow the larger vehicle to be utilized reasonably fully. 11 refs.

  3. Comparison of different strategies in prenatal screening for Down’s syndrome: cost effectiveness analysis of computer simulation

    PubMed Central

    Gagné, Geneviève; Bujold, Emmanuel; Douillard, Daniel; Forest, Jean-Claude; Reinharz, Daniel; Rousseau, François

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To assess and compare the cost effectiveness of three different strategies for prenatal screening for Down’s syndrome (integrated test, sequential screening, and contingent screenings) and to determine the most useful cut-off values for risk. Design Computer simulations to study integrated, sequential, and contingent screening strategies with various cut-offs leading to 19 potential screening algorithms. Data sources The computer simulation was populated with data from the Serum Urine and Ultrasound Screening Study (SURUSS), real unit costs for healthcare interventions, and a population of 110 948 pregnancies from the province of Québec for the year 2001. Main outcome measures Cost effectiveness ratios, incremental cost effectiveness ratios, and screening options’ outcomes. Results The contingent screening strategy dominated all other screening options: it had the best cost effectiveness ratio ($C26 833 per case of Down’s syndrome) with fewer procedure related euploid miscarriages and unnecessary terminations (respectively, 6 and 16 per 100 000 pregnancies). It also outperformed serum screening at the second trimester. In terms of the incremental cost effectiveness ratio, contingent screening was still dominant: compared with screening based on maternal age alone, the savings were $C30 963 per additional birth with Down’s syndrome averted. Contingent screening was the only screening strategy that offered early reassurance to the majority of women (77.81%) in first trimester and minimised costs by limiting retesting during the second trimester (21.05%). For the contingent and sequential screening strategies, the choice of cut-off value for risk in the first trimester test significantly affected the cost effectiveness ratios (respectively, from $C26 833 to $C37 260 and from $C35 215 to $C45 314 per case of Down’s syndrome), the number of procedure related euploid miscarriages (from 6 to 46 and from 6 to 45 per 100 000

  4. Low-Cost Computer-Controlled Current Stimulator for the Student Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guclu, Burak

    2007-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of nerve and muscle tissues is frequently used for teaching core concepts in physiology. It is usually expensive to provide every student group in the laboratory with an individual stimulator. This article presents the design and application of a low-cost [about $100 (U.S.)] isolated stimulator that can be controlled by two…

  5. Grading Multiple Choice Exams with Low-Cost and Portable Computer-Vision Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisteus, Jesus Arias; Pardo, Abelardo; García, Norberto Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Although technology for automatic grading of multiple choice exams has existed for several decades, it is not yet as widely available or affordable as it should be. The main reasons preventing this adoption are the cost and the complexity of the setup procedures. In this paper, "Eyegrade," a system for automatic grading of multiple…

  6. Robotic lower limb prosthesis design through simultaneous computer optimizations of human and prosthesis costs

    PubMed Central

    Handford, Matthew L.; Srinivasan, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Robotic lower limb prostheses can improve the quality of life for amputees. Development of such devices, currently dominated by long prototyping periods, could be sped up by predictive simulations. In contrast to some amputee simulations which track experimentally determined non-amputee walking kinematics, here, we explicitly model the human-prosthesis interaction to produce a prediction of the user’s walking kinematics. We obtain simulations of an amputee using an ankle-foot prosthesis by simultaneously optimizing human movements and prosthesis actuation, minimizing a weighted sum of human metabolic and prosthesis costs. The resulting Pareto optimal solutions predict that increasing prosthesis energy cost, decreasing prosthesis mass, and allowing asymmetric gaits all decrease human metabolic rate for a given speed and alter human kinematics. The metabolic rates increase monotonically with speed. Remarkably, by performing an analogous optimization for a non-amputee human, we predict that an amputee walking with an appropriately optimized robotic prosthesis can have a lower metabolic cost – even lower than assuming that the non-amputee’s ankle torques are cost-free. PMID:26857747

  7. Virtual Grower: Estimating Greenhouse Energy Costs and Plant Growth Using New Computer Software

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse crop production is a complex, integrated system wherein a change in one component inevitably influences different, sometimes seemingly disparate components. For example, growers may modify their heating schedules to reduce energy costs, but a cooler temperature set-point can delay crop d...

  8. Enhancing simulation of efficiency with analytical tools. [combining computer simulation and analytical techniques for cost reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seltzer, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    Some means of combining both computer simulation and anlytical techniques are indicated in order to mutually enhance their efficiency as design tools and to motivate those involved in engineering design to consider using such combinations. While the idea is not new, heavy reliance on computers often seems to overshadow the potential utility of analytical tools. Although the example used is drawn from the area of dynamics and control, the principles espoused are applicable to other fields. In the example the parameter plane stability analysis technique is described briefly and extended beyond that reported in the literature to increase its utility (through a simple set of recursive formulas) and its applicability (through the portrayal of the effect of varying the sampling period of the computer). The numerical values that were rapidly selected by analysis were found to be correct for the hybrid computer simulation for which they were needed. This obviated the need for cut-and-try methods to choose the numerical values, thereby saving both time and computer utilization.

  9. Computer analysis of effects of altering jet fuel properties on refinery costs and yields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breton, T.; Dunbar, D.

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the adequacy of future U.S. jet fuel supplies, the potential for large increases in the cost of jet fuel, and to what extent a relaxation in jet fuel properties would remedy these potential problems. The results of the study indicate that refiners should be able to meet jet fuel output requirements in all regions of the country within the current Jet A specifications during the 1990-2010 period. The results also indicate that it will be more difficult to meet Jet A specifications on the West Coast, because the feedstock quality is worse and the required jet fuel yield (jet fuel/crude refined) is higher than in the East. The results show that jet fuel production costs could be reduced by relaxing fuel properties. Potential cost savings in the East (PADDs I-IV) through property relaxation were found to be about 1.3 cents/liter (5 cents/gallon) in January 1, 1981 dollars between 1990 and 2010. However, the savings from property relaxation were all obtained within the range of current Jet A specifications, so there is no financial incentive to relax Jet A fuel specifications in the East. In the West (PADD V) the potential cost savings from lowering fuel quality were considerably greater than in the East. Cost savings from 2.7 to 3.7 cents/liter (10-14 cents/gallon) were found. In contrast to the East, on the West Coast a significant part of the savings was obtained through relaxation of the current Jet A fuel specifications.

  10. An Assessment of Security Vulnerabilities Comprehension of Cloud Computing Environments: A Quantitative Study Using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkatesh, Vijay P.

    2013-01-01

    The current computing landscape owes its roots to the birth of hardware and software technologies from the 1940s and 1950s. Since then, the advent of mainframes, miniaturized computing, and internetworking has given rise to the now prevalent cloud computing era. In the past few months just after 2010, cloud computing adoption has picked up pace…

  11. Low cost SCR lamp driver indicates contents of digital computer registers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, R. A.

    1967-01-01

    Silicon Controlled Rectifier /SCR/ lamp driver is adapted for use in integrated circuit digital computers where it indicates the contents of the various registers. The threshold voltage at which visual indication begins is very sharply defined and can be adjusted to suit particular system requirements.

  12. Computer program to assess impact of fatigue and fracture criteria on weight and cost of transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, C. J.; Kruse, G. S.; Oman, B. H.

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary design analysis tool for rapidly performing trade-off studies involving fatigue, fracture, static strength, weight, and cost is presented. Analysis subprograms were developed for fatigue life, crack growth life, and residual strength; and linked to a structural synthesis module which in turn was integrated into a computer program. The part definition module of a cost and weight analysis program was expanded to be compatible with the upgraded structural synthesis capability. The resultant vehicle design and evaluation program is named VDEP-2. It is an accurate and useful tool for estimating purposes at the preliminary design stage of airframe development. A sample case along with an explanation of program applications and input preparation is presented.

  13. Quantification of uncertainty in machining operations for on-machine acceptance.

    SciTech Connect

    Claudet, Andre A.; Tran, Hy D.; Su, Jiann-Chemg

    2008-09-01

    Manufactured parts are designed with acceptance tolerances, i.e. deviations from ideal design conditions, due to unavoidable errors in the manufacturing process. It is necessary to measure and evaluate the manufactured part, compared to the nominal design, to determine whether the part meets design specifications. The scope of this research project is dimensional acceptance of machined parts; specifically, parts machined using numerically controlled (NC, or also CNC for Computer Numerically Controlled) machines. In the design/build/accept cycle, the designer will specify both a nominal value, and an acceptable tolerance. As part of the typical design/build/accept business practice, it is required to verify that the part did meet acceptable values prior to acceptance. Manufacturing cost must include not only raw materials and added labor, but also the cost of ensuring conformance to specifications. Ensuring conformance is a substantial portion of the cost of manufacturing. In this project, the costs of measurements were approximately 50% of the cost of the machined part. In production, cost of measurement would be smaller, but still a substantial proportion of manufacturing cost. The results of this research project will point to a science-based approach to reducing the cost of ensuring conformance to specifications. The approach that we take is to determine, a priori, how well a CNC machine can manufacture a particular geometry from stock. Based on the knowledge of the manufacturing process, we are then able to decide features which need further measurements from features which can be accepted 'as is' from the CNC. By calibration of the machine tool, and establishing a machining accuracy ratio, we can validate the ability of CNC to fabricate to a particular level of tolerance. This will eliminate the costs of checking for conformance for relatively large tolerances.

  14. Low-cost digital image processing on a university mainframe computer. [considerations in selecting and/or designing instructional systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. H. L.

    1981-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of using university mainframe computers in digital image processing instruction are listed. Aspects to be considered when designing software for this purpose include not only two general audience, but also the capabilities of the system regarding the size of the image/subimage, preprocessing and enhancement functions, geometric correction and registration techniques; classification strategy, classification algorithm, multitemporal analysis, and ancilliary data and geographic information systems. The user/software/hardware interaction as well as acquisition and operating costs must also be considered.

  15. Development and implementation of a low cost micro computer system for LANDSAT analysis and geographic data base applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faust, N.; Jordon, L.

    1981-01-01

    Since the implementation of the GRID and IMGRID computer programs for multivariate spatial analysis in the early 1970's, geographic data analysis subsequently moved from large computers to minicomputers and now to microcomputers with radical reduction in the costs associated with planning analyses. Programs designed to process LANDSAT data to be used as one element in a geographic data base were used once NIMGRID (new IMGRID), a raster oriented geographic information system, was implemented on the microcomputer. Programs for training field selection, supervised and unsupervised classification, and image enhancement were added. Enhancements to the color graphics capabilities of the microsystem allow display of three channels of LANDSAT data in color infrared format. The basic microcomputer hardware needed to perform NIMGRID and most LANDSAT analyses is listed as well as the software available for LANDSAT processing.

  16. Improving the precision and speed of Euler angles computation from low-cost rotation sensor data.

    PubMed

    Janota, Aleš; Šimák, Vojtech; Nemec, Dušan; Hrbček, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    This article compares three different algorithms used to compute Euler angles from data obtained by the angular rate sensor (e.g., MEMS gyroscope)-the algorithms based on a rotational matrix, on transforming angular velocity to time derivations of the Euler angles and on unit quaternion expressing rotation. Algorithms are compared by their computational efficiency and accuracy of Euler angles estimation. If attitude of the object is computed only from data obtained by the gyroscope, the quaternion-based algorithm seems to be most suitable (having similar accuracy as the matrix-based algorithm, but taking approx. 30% less clock cycles on the 8-bit microcomputer). Integration of the Euler angles' time derivations has a singularity, therefore is not accurate at full range of object's attitude. Since the error in every real gyroscope system tends to increase with time due to its offset and thermal drift, we also propose some measures based on compensation by additional sensors (a magnetic compass and accelerometer). Vector data of mentioned secondary sensors has to be transformed into the inertial frame of reference. While transformation of the vector by the matrix is slightly faster than doing the same by quaternion, the compensated sensor system utilizing a matrix-based algorithm can be approximately 10% faster than the system utilizing quaternions (depending on implementation and hardware). PMID:25806874

  17. Improving the Precision and Speed of Euler Angles Computation from Low-Cost Rotation Sensor Data

    PubMed Central

    Janota, Aleš; Šimák, Vojtech; Nemec, Dušan; Hrbček, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    This article compares three different algorithms used to compute Euler angles from data obtained by the angular rate sensor (e.g., MEMS gyroscope)—the algorithms based on a rotational matrix, on transforming angular velocity to time derivations of the Euler angles and on unit quaternion expressing rotation. Algorithms are compared by their computational efficiency and accuracy of Euler angles estimation. If attitude of the object is computed only from data obtained by the gyroscope, the quaternion-based algorithm seems to be most suitable (having similar accuracy as the matrix-based algorithm, but taking approx. 30% less clock cycles on the 8-bit microcomputer). Integration of the Euler angles’ time derivations has a singularity, therefore is not accurate at full range of object’s attitude. Since the error in every real gyroscope system tends to increase with time due to its offset and thermal drift, we also propose some measures based on compensation by additional sensors (a magnetic compass and accelerometer). Vector data of mentioned secondary sensors has to be transformed into the inertial frame of reference. While transformation of the vector by the matrix is slightly faster than doing the same by quaternion, the compensated sensor system utilizing a matrix-based algorithm can be approximately 10% faster than the system utilizing quaternions (depending on implementation and hardware). PMID:25806874

  18. Improving the precision and speed of Euler angles computation from low-cost rotation sensor data.

    PubMed

    Janota, Aleš; Šimák, Vojtech; Nemec, Dušan; Hrbček, Jozef

    2015-03-23

    This article compares three different algorithms used to compute Euler angles from data obtained by the angular rate sensor (e.g., MEMS gyroscope)-the algorithms based on a rotational matrix, on transforming angular velocity to time derivations of the Euler angles and on unit quaternion expressing rotation. Algorithms are compared by their computational efficiency and accuracy of Euler angles estimation. If attitude of the object is computed only from data obtained by the gyroscope, the quaternion-based algorithm seems to be most suitable (having similar accuracy as the matrix-based algorithm, but taking approx. 30% less clock cycles on the 8-bit microcomputer). Integration of the Euler angles' time derivations has a singularity, therefore is not accurate at full range of object's attitude. Since the error in every real gyroscope system tends to increase with time due to its offset and thermal drift, we also propose some measures based on compensation by additional sensors (a magnetic compass and accelerometer). Vector data of mentioned secondary sensors has to be transformed into the inertial frame of reference. While transformation of the vector by the matrix is slightly faster than doing the same by quaternion, the compensated sensor system utilizing a matrix-based algorithm can be approximately 10% faster than the system utilizing quaternions (depending on implementation and hardware).

  19. [VALIDATION OF A COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR DETECTION OF MALNUTRITION HOSPITAL AND ANALYSIS OF HOSPITAL COSTS].

    PubMed

    Fernández Valdivia, Antonia; Rodríguez Rodríguez, José María; Valero Aguilera, Beatriz; Lobo Támer, Gabriela; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio Jesús; García Larios, José Vicente

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: uno de los métodos de diagnóstico de la desnutrición es la albúmina sérica, por la sencillez de su determinación y bajo coste. Objetivos: el objetivo principal es validar e implementar un programa informático, basado en la determinación de albúmina sérica, que permita detectar y tratar precozmente a los pacientes desnutridos o en riesgo de desnutrición, siendo otro objetivo la evaluación de costes por grupos relacionados por el diagnóstico. Métodos: el diseño del estudio es de tipo cohorte, dinámico y prospectivo, en el que se han incluido las altas hospitalarias desde noviembre del año 2012 hasta marzo del año 2014, siendo la población de estudio los pacientes mayores de 14 años que ingresen en los diversos servicios de un Hospital Médico Quirúrgico del Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Granada, cuyas cifras de albúmina sérica sean menores de 3,5 g/dL, siendo el total de 307 pacientes. Resultados: de los 307 pacientes, 141 presentan desnutrición (sensibilidad del programa: 45,9%). El 54,7% de los pacientes son hombres y el 45,3% mujeres. La edad media es de 65,68 años. La mediana de la estancia es de 16 días. El 13,4% de los pacientes han fallecido. El coste medio de los GRD es de 5.958,30 € y dicho coste medio después de detectar la desnutrición es de 11.376,48 €. Conclusiones: el algoritmo que implementa el programa informático identifica a casi la mitad de los pacientes hospitalizados desnutridos. Es fundamental registrar el diagnóstico de desnutrición.

  20. Grading Multiple Choice Exams with Low-Cost and Portable Computer-Vision Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisteus, Jesus Arias; Pardo, Abelardo; García, Norberto Fernández

    2013-08-01

    Although technology for automatic grading of multiple choice exams has existed for several decades, it is not yet as widely available or affordable as it should be. The main reasons preventing this adoption are the cost and the complexity of the setup procedures. In this paper, Eyegrade, a system for automatic grading of multiple choice exams is presented. While most current solutions are based on expensive scanners, Eyegrade offers a truly low-cost solution requiring only a regular off-the-shelf webcam. Additionally, Eyegrade performs both mark recognition as well as optical character recognition of handwritten student identification numbers, which avoids the use of bubbles in the answer sheet. When compared with similar webcam-based systems, the user interface in Eyegrade has been designed to provide a more efficient and error-free data collection procedure. The tool has been validated with a set of experiments that show the ease of use (both setup and operation), the reduction in grading time, and an increase in the reliability of the results when compared with conventional, more expensive systems.

  1. Matched filtering of gravitational waves from inspiraling compact binaries: Computational cost and template placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Benjamin J.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.

    1999-07-01

    We estimate the number of templates, computational power, and storage required for a one-step matched filtering search for gravitational waves from inspiraling compact binaries. Our estimates for the one-step search strategy should serve as benchmarks for the evaluation of more sophisticated strategies such as hierarchical searches. We use a discrete family of two-parameter wave form templates based on the second post-Newtonian approximation for binaries composed of nonspinning compact bodies in circular orbits. We present estimates for all of the large- and mid-scale interferometers now under construction: LIGO (three configurations), VIRGO, GEO600, and TAMA. To search for binaries with components more massive than mmin=0.2Msolar while losing no more than 10% of events due to coarseness of template spacing, the initial LIGO interferometers will require about 1.0×1011 flops (floating point operations per second) for data analysis to keep up with data acquisition. This is several times higher than estimated in previous work by Owen, in part because of the improved family of templates and in part because we use more realistic (higher) sampling rates. Enhanced LIGO, GEO600, and TAMA will require computational power similar to initial LIGO. Advanced LIGO will require 7.8×1011 flops, and VIRGO will require 4.8×1012 flops to take full advantage of its broad target noise spectrum. If the templates are stored rather than generated as needed, storage requirements range from 1.5×1011 real numbers for TAMA to 6.2×1014 for VIRGO. The computational power required scales roughly as m-8/3min and the storage as m-13/3min. Since these scalings are perturbed by the curvature of the parameter space at second post-Newtonian order, we also provide estimates for a search with mmin=1Msolar. Finally, we sketch and discuss an algorithm for placing the templates in the parameter space.

  2. Computational evaluation of cellular metabolic costs successfully predicts genes whose expression is deleterious

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Allon; Zarecki, Raphy; Reshef, Leah; Gochev, Camelia; Sorek, Rotem; Gophna, Uri; Ruppin, Eytan

    2013-01-01

    Gene suppression and overexpression are both fundamental tools in linking genotype to phenotype in model organisms. Computational methods have proven invaluable in studying and predicting the deleterious effects of gene deletions, and yet parallel computational methods for overexpression are still lacking. Here, we present Expression-Dependent Gene Effects (EDGE), an in silico method that can predict the deleterious effects resulting from overexpression of either native or foreign metabolic genes. We first test and validate EDGE’s predictive power in bacteria through a combination of small-scale growth experiments that we performed and analysis of extant large-scale datasets. Second, a broad cross-species analysis, ranging from microorganisms to multiple plant and human tissues, shows that genes that EDGE predicts to be deleterious when overexpressed are indeed typically down-regulated. This reflects a universal selection force keeping the expression of potentially deleterious genes in check. Third, EDGE-based analysis shows that cancer genetic reprogramming specifically suppresses genes whose overexpression impedes proliferation. The magnitude of this suppression is large enough to enable an almost perfect distinction between normal and cancerous tissues based solely on EDGE results. We expect EDGE to advance our understanding of human pathologies associated with up-regulation of particular transcripts and to facilitate the utilization of gene overexpression in metabolic engineering. PMID:24198337

  3. Taming the Electronic Structure of Diradicals through the Window of Computationally Cost Effective Multireference Perturbation Theory.

    PubMed

    Sinha Ray, Suvonil; Ghosh, Anirban; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Rajat K

    2016-07-28

    Recently a state-specific multireference perturbation theory (SSMRPT) with an improved virtual orbitals complete active space configuration interaction (IVO-CASCI) reference function has been proposed for treating electronic structures of radicals such as methylene, m-benzyne, pyridyne, and pyridynium cation. This new development in MRPT, termed as IVO-SSMRPT, ensures that it is able to describe the structure of radicaloids with reasonable accuracy even with small reference spaces. IVO-SSMRPT is also capable of predicting the correct ordering of the lowest singlet-triplet gaps. Investigation of the first three electronic states of the oxygen molecule has also been used for rating our method. The agreement of our estimates with the available far more expensive benchmark state-of-the-art ab initio calculations is creditable. The IVO-SSMRPT method provides an effective avenue with manageable cost/accuracy ratio for accurately dealing with radicaloid systems possessing varying degrees of quasidegeneracy. PMID:27355260

  4. Young Children's Affective Responses to Acceptance and Rejection from Peers: A Computer-Based Task Sensitive to Variation in Temperamental Shyness and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, Grace Z.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a novel task examining young children's affective responses to evaluative feedback--specifically, social acceptance and rejection--from peers. We aimed to determine (1) whether young children report their affective responses to hypothetical peer evaluation predictably and consistently, and (2) whether young children's responses…

  5. Avoiding the Enumeration of Infeasible Elementary Flux Modes by Including Transcriptional Regulatory Rules in the Enumeration Process Saves Computational Costs

    PubMed Central

    Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Ruckerbauer, David E.; Gerstl, Matthias P.; Hanscho, Michael; Zanghellini, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant progress made in recent years, the computation of the complete set of elementary flux modes of large or even genome-scale metabolic networks is still impossible. We introduce a novel approach to speed up the calculation of elementary flux modes by including transcriptional regulatory information into the analysis of metabolic networks. Taking into account gene regulation dramatically reduces the solution space and allows the presented algorithm to constantly eliminate biologically infeasible modes at an early stage of the computation procedure. Thereby, computational costs, such as runtime, memory usage, and disk space, are extremely reduced. Moreover, we show that the application of transcriptional rules identifies non-trivial system-wide effects on metabolism. Using the presented algorithm pushes the size of metabolic networks that can be studied by elementary flux modes to new and much higher limits without the loss of predictive quality. This makes unbiased, system-wide predictions in large scale metabolic networks possible without resorting to any optimization principle. PMID:26091045

  6. Leveraging Cloud Computing to Improve Storage Durability, Availability, and Cost for MER Maestro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, George W.; Powell, Mark W.; Callas, John L.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Shams, Khawaja S.

    2012-01-01

    The Maestro for MER (Mars Exploration Rover) software is the premiere operation and activity planning software for the Mars rovers, and it is required to deliver all of the processed image products to scientists on demand. These data span multiple storage arrays sized at 2 TB, and a backup scheme ensures data is not lost. In a catastrophe, these data would currently recover at 20 GB/hour, taking several days for a restoration. A seamless solution provides access to highly durable, highly available, scalable, and cost-effective storage capabilities. This approach also employs a novel technique that enables storage of the majority of data on the cloud and some data locally. This feature is used to store the most recent data locally in order to guarantee utmost reliability in case of an outage or disconnect from the Internet. This also obviates any changes to the software that generates the most recent data set as it still has the same interface to the file system as it did before updates

  7. CNV-ROC: A cost effective, computer-aided analytical performance evaluator of chromosomal microarrays.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Corey W; Major, Heather J; Walls, William D; Sheffield, Val C; Casavant, Thomas L; Darbro, Benjamin W

    2015-04-01

    Chromosomal microarrays (CMAs) are routinely used in both research and clinical laboratories; yet, little attention has been given to the estimation of genome-wide true and false negatives during the assessment of these assays and how such information could be used to calibrate various algorithmic metrics to improve performance. Low-throughput, locus-specific methods such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative PCR (qPCR), or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) preclude rigorous calibration of various metrics used by copy number variant (CNV) detection algorithms. To aid this task, we have established a comparative methodology, CNV-ROC, which is capable of performing a high throughput, low cost, analysis of CMAs that takes into consideration genome-wide true and false negatives. CNV-ROC uses a higher resolution microarray to confirm calls from a lower resolution microarray and provides for a true measure of genome-wide performance metrics at the resolution offered by microarray testing. CNV-ROC also provides for a very precise comparison of CNV calls between two microarray platforms without the need to establish an arbitrary degree of overlap. Comparison of CNVs across microarrays is done on a per-probe basis and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis is used to calibrate algorithmic metrics, such as log2 ratio threshold, to enhance CNV calling performance. CNV-ROC addresses a critical and consistently overlooked aspect of analytical assessments of genome-wide techniques like CMAs which is the measurement and use of genome-wide true and false negative data for the calculation of performance metrics and comparison of CNV profiles between different microarray experiments.

  8. CNV-ROC: A cost effective, computer-aided analytical performance evaluator of chromosomal microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Corey W.; Major, Heather J.; Walls, William D.; Sheffield, Val C.; Casavant, Thomas L.; Darbro, Benjamin W.

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal microarrays (CMAs) are routinely used in both research and clinical laboratories; yet, little attention has been given to the estimation of genome-wide true and false negatives during the assessment of these assays and how such information could be used to calibrate various algorithmic metrics to improve performance. Low-throughput, locus-specific methods such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative PCR (qPCR), or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) preclude rigorous calibration of various metrics used by copy number variant (CNV) detection algorithms. To aid this task, we have established a comparative methodology, CNV-ROC, which is capable of performing a high throughput, low cost, analysis of CMAs that takes into consideration genome-wide true and false negatives. CNV-ROC uses a higher resolution microarray to confirm calls from a lower resolution microarray and provides for a true measure of genome-wide performance metrics at the resolution offered by microarray testing. CNV-ROC also provides for a very precise comparison of CNV calls between two microarray platforms without the need to establish an arbitrary degree of overlap. Comparison of CNVs across microarrays is done on a per-probe basis and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis is used to calibrate algorithmic metrics, such as log2 ratio threshold, to enhance CNV calling performance. CNV-ROC addresses a critical and consistently overlooked aspect of analytical assessments of genome-wide techniques like CMAs which is the measurement and use of genome-wide true and false negative data for the calculation of performance metrics and comparison of CNV profiles between different microarray experiments. PMID:25595567

  9. Modeling the economic costs of disasters and recovery: analysis using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Hao, X.-L.

    2014-04-01

    Disaster damages have negative effects on the economy, whereas reconstruction investment has positive effects. The aim of this study is to model economic causes of disasters and recovery involving the positive effects of reconstruction activities. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is a promising approach because it can incorporate these two kinds of shocks into a unified framework and furthermore avoid the double-counting problem. In order to factor both shocks into the CGE model, direct loss is set as the amount of capital stock reduced on the supply side of the economy; a portion of investments restores the capital stock in an existing period; an investment-driven dynamic model is formulated according to available reconstruction data, and the rest of a given country's saving is set as an endogenous variable to balance the fixed investment. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake is selected as a case study to illustrate the model, and three scenarios are constructed: S0 (no disaster occurs), S1 (disaster occurs with reconstruction investment) and S2 (disaster occurs without reconstruction investment). S0 is taken as business as usual, and the differences between S1 and S0 and that between S2 and S0 can be interpreted as economic losses including reconstruction and excluding reconstruction, respectively. The study showed that output from S1 is found to be closer to real data than that from S2. Economic loss under S2 is roughly 1.5 times that under S1. The gap in the economic aggregate between S1 and S0 is reduced to 3% at the end of government-led reconstruction activity, a level that should take another four years to achieve under S2.

  10. Cost-Benefit Analysis for ECIA Chapter 1 and State DPPF Programs Comparing Groups Receiving Regular Program Instruction and Groups Receiving Computer Assisted Instruction/Computer Management System (CAI/CMS). 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Ed

    A cost benefit study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a computer assisted instruction/computer management system (CAI/CMS) as an alternative to conventional methods of teaching reading within Chapter 1 and DPPF funded programs of the Columbus (Ohio) Public Schools. The Chapter 1 funded Compensatory Language Experiences and Reading…

  11. Cost and Resource Utilization Associated with Use of Computed Tomography to Evaluate Chest Pain in the Emergency Department: The ROMICAT Study

    PubMed Central

    Hulten, Edward; Goehler, Alexander; Bittencourt, Marcio; Bamberg, Fabian; Schlett, Christopher L.; Truong, Quynh A.; Nichols, John; Nasir, Khurram; Rogers, Ian S.; Gazelle, Scott G.; Nagurney, John T.; Hoffmann, Udo; Blankstein, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Background Coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) allows for rapid non-invasive exclusion of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). However, concern exists whether implementation of cCTA in the assessment of patients presenting to the emergency room with acute chest pain will lead to increased downstream testing and costs compared to alternative strategies. Our aim was to compare observed actual costs of usual care (UC) with projected costs of a strategy including early cCTA in the evaluation of patients with acute chest pain in the Rule Out Myocardial Infarction Using Computed Tomography (ROMICAT I) study. Methods and Results We compared cost and hospital length of stay of UC observed among 368 patients enrolled in the ROMICAT I trial with projected costs of management based on cCTA. Costs of UC were determined by an electronic cost accounting system. Notably, UC was not influenced by cCTA results, as patients and caregivers were blinded to the cCTA results. Costs after early implementation cCTA were estimated assuming changes in management based on cCTA findings of presence and severity of CAD. Sensitivity analysis was used to test influence of key variables on both outcomes and costs. We determined that in comparison to UC, cCTA-guided triage whereby patients with no CAD are discharged, could reduce total hospital costs by 23%, p < 0.001. However, when the prevalence of obstructive CAD increases, index hospitalization cost increases such that when the prevalence of ≥50% stenosis is greater than 28–33%, the use of cCTA becomes more costly than UC. Conclusion cCTA may be a cost saving tool in acute chest pain populations that have a prevalence of potentially obstructive CAD lower than 30%. However, increased cost would be anticipated in populations with higher prevalence of disease. PMID:24021693

  12. Low-Dose Chest Computed Tomography for Lung Cancer Screening Among Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wattson, Daniel A.; Hunink, M.G. Myriam; DiPiro, Pamela J.; Das, Prajnan; Hodgson, David C.; Mauch, Peter M.; Ng, Andrea K.

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors face an increased risk of treatment-related lung cancer. Screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) may allow detection of early stage, resectable cancers. We developed a Markov decision-analytic and cost-effectiveness model to estimate the merits of annual LDCT screening among HL survivors. Methods and Materials: Population databases and HL-specific literature informed key model parameters, including lung cancer rates and stage distribution, cause-specific survival estimates, and utilities. Relative risks accounted for radiation therapy (RT) technique, smoking status (>10 pack-years or current smokers vs not), age at HL diagnosis, time from HL treatment, and excess radiation from LDCTs. LDCT assumptions, including expected stage-shift, false-positive rates, and likely additional workup were derived from the National Lung Screening Trial and preliminary results from an internal phase 2 protocol that performed annual LDCTs in 53 HL survivors. We assumed a 3% discount rate and a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Results: Annual LDCT screening was cost effective for all smokers. A male smoker treated with mantle RT at age 25 achieved maximum QALYs by initiating screening 12 years post-HL, with a life expectancy benefit of 2.1 months and an incremental cost of $34,841/QALY. Among nonsmokers, annual screening produced a QALY benefit in some cases, but the incremental cost was not below the WTP threshold for any patient subsets. As age at HL diagnosis increased, earlier initiation of screening improved outcomes. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the model was most sensitive to the lung cancer incidence and mortality rates and expected stage-shift from screening. Conclusions: HL survivors are an important high-risk population that may benefit from screening, especially those treated in the past with large radiation fields including mantle or involved-field RT. Screening

  13. Towards a Low-Cost Real-Time Photogrammetric Landslide Monitoring System Utilising Mobile and Cloud Computing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidburee, P.; Mills, J. P.; Miller, P. E.; Fieber, K. D.

    2016-06-01

    Close-range photogrammetric techniques offer a potentially low-cost approach in terms of implementation and operation for initial assessment and monitoring of landslide processes over small areas. In particular, the Structure-from-Motion (SfM) pipeline is now extensively used to help overcome many constraints of traditional digital photogrammetry, offering increased user-friendliness to nonexperts, as well as lower costs. However, a landslide monitoring approach based on the SfM technique also presents some potential drawbacks due to the difficulty in managing and processing a large volume of data in real-time. This research addresses the aforementioned issues by attempting to combine a mobile device with cloud computing technology to develop a photogrammetric measurement solution as part of a monitoring system for landslide hazard analysis. The research presented here focusses on (i) the development of an Android mobile application; (ii) the implementation of SfM-based open-source software in the Amazon cloud computing web service, and (iii) performance assessment through a simulated environment using data collected at a recognized landslide test site in North Yorkshire, UK. Whilst the landslide monitoring mobile application is under development, this paper describes experiments carried out to ensure effective performance of the system in the future. Investigations presented here describe the initial assessment of a cloud-implemented approach, which is developed around the well-known VisualSFM algorithm. Results are compared to point clouds obtained from alternative SfM 3D reconstruction approaches considering a commercial software solution (Agisoft PhotoScan) and a web-based system (Autodesk 123D Catch). Investigations demonstrate that the cloud-based photogrammetric measurement system is capable of providing results of centimeter-level accuracy, evidencing its potential to provide an effective approach for quantifying and analyzing landslide hazard at a local-scale.

  14. A low-cost EEG system-based hybrid brain-computer interface for humanoid robot navigation and recognition.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bongjae; Jo, Sungho

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) technique that combines the P300 potential, the steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP), and event related de-synchronization (ERD) to solve a complicated multi-task problem consisting of humanoid robot navigation and control along with object recognition using a low-cost BCI system. Our approach enables subjects to control the navigation and exploration of a humanoid robot and recognize a desired object among candidates. This study aims to demonstrate the possibility of a hybrid BCI based on a low-cost system for a realistic and complex task. It also shows that the use of a simple image processing technique, combined with BCI, can further aid in making these complex tasks simpler. An experimental scenario is proposed in which a subject remotely controls a humanoid robot in a properly sized maze. The subject sees what the surrogate robot sees through visual feedback and can navigate the surrogate robot. While navigating, the robot encounters objects located in the maze. It then recognizes if the encountered object is of interest to the subject. The subject communicates with the robot through SSVEP and ERD-based BCIs to navigate and explore with the robot, and P300-based BCI to allow the surrogate robot recognize their favorites. Using several evaluation metrics, the performances of five subjects navigating the robot were quite comparable to manual keyboard control. During object recognition mode, favorite objects were successfully selected from two to four choices. Subjects conducted humanoid navigation and recognition tasks as if they embodied the robot. Analysis of the data supports the potential usefulness of the proposed hybrid BCI system for extended applications. This work presents an important implication for the future work that a hybridization of simple BCI protocols provide extended controllability to carry out complicated tasks even with a low-cost system. PMID:24023953

  15. A low-cost EEG system-based hybrid brain-computer interface for humanoid robot navigation and recognition.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bongjae; Jo, Sungho

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) technique that combines the P300 potential, the steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP), and event related de-synchronization (ERD) to solve a complicated multi-task problem consisting of humanoid robot navigation and control along with object recognition using a low-cost BCI system. Our approach enables subjects to control the navigation and exploration of a humanoid robot and recognize a desired object among candidates. This study aims to demonstrate the possibility of a hybrid BCI based on a low-cost system for a realistic and complex task. It also shows that the use of a simple image processing technique, combined with BCI, can further aid in making these complex tasks simpler. An experimental scenario is proposed in which a subject remotely controls a humanoid robot in a properly sized maze. The subject sees what the surrogate robot sees through visual feedback and can navigate the surrogate robot. While navigating, the robot encounters objects located in the maze. It then recognizes if the encountered object is of interest to the subject. The subject communicates with the robot through SSVEP and ERD-based BCIs to navigate and explore with the robot, and P300-based BCI to allow the surrogate robot recognize their favorites. Using several evaluation metrics, the performances of five subjects navigating the robot were quite comparable to manual keyboard control. During object recognition mode, favorite objects were successfully selected from two to four choices. Subjects conducted humanoid navigation and recognition tasks as if they embodied the robot. Analysis of the data supports the potential usefulness of the proposed hybrid BCI system for extended applications. This work presents an important implication for the future work that a hybridization of simple BCI protocols provide extended controllability to carry out complicated tasks even with a low-cost system.

  16. A low-cost computer-controlled Arduino-based educational laboratory system for teaching the fundamentals of photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachariadou, K.; Yiasemides, K.; Trougkakos, N.

    2012-11-01

    We present a low-cost, fully computer-controlled, Arduino-based, educational laboratory (SolarInsight) to be used in undergraduate university courses concerned with electrical engineering and physics. The major goal of the system is to provide students with the necessary instrumentation, software tools and methodology in order to learn fundamental concepts of semiconductor physics by exploring the process of an experimental physics inquiry. The system runs under the Windows operating system and is composed of a data acquisition/control board, a power supply and processing boards, sensing elements, a graphical user interface and data analysis software. The data acquisition/control board is based on the Arduino open source electronics prototyping platform. The graphical user interface and communication with the Arduino are developed in C# and C++ programming languages respectively, by using IDE Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Professional, which is freely available to students. Finally, the data analysis is performed by using the open source, object-oriented framework ROOT. Currently the system supports five teaching activities, each one corresponding to an independent tab in the user interface. SolarInsight has been partially developed in the context of a diploma thesis conducted within the Technological Educational Institute of Piraeus under the co-supervision of the Physics and Electronic Computer Systems departments’ academic staff.

  17. Reduced computational cost, totally symmetric angular quadrature sets for discrete ordinates radiation transport. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Oder, J.M.

    1997-12-01

    Several new quadrature sets for use in the discrete ordinates method of solving the Boltzmann neutral particle transport equation are derived. These symmetric quadratures extend the traditional symmetric quadratures by allowing ordinates perpendicular to one or two of the coordinate axes. Comparable accuracy with fewer required ordinates is obtained. Quadratures up to seventh order are presented. The validity and efficiency of the quadratures is then tested and compared with the Sn level symmetric quadratures relative to a Monte Carlo benchmark solution. The criteria for comparison include current through the surface, scalar flux at the surface, volume average scalar flux, and time required for convergence. Appreciable computational cost was saved when used in an unstructured tetrahedral cell code using highly accurate characteristic methods. However, no appreciable savings in computation time was found using the new quadratures compared with traditional Sn methods on a regular Cartesian mesh using the standard diamond difference method. These quadratures are recommended for use in three-dimensional calculations on an unstructured mesh.

  18. Comparing the clinical-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an internet-delivered Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) intervention with a waiting list control among adults with chronic pain: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Sara; Hogan, Michael; Dowd, Haulie; Doherty, Edel; O'Higgins, Siobhan; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; MacNeela, Padraig; Murphy, Andrew W; Kropmans, Thomas; O'Neill, Ciaran; Newell, John; McGuire, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Internet-delivered psychological interventions among people with chronic pain have the potential to overcome environmental and economic barriers to the provision of evidence-based psychological treatment in the Irish health service context. While the use of internet-delivered cognitive–behavioural therapy programmes has been consistently shown to have small-to-moderate effects in the management of chronic pain, there is a paucity in the research regarding the effectiveness of an internet-delivered Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) programme among people with chronic pain. The current study will compare the clinical-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an online ACT intervention with a waitlist control condition in terms of the management of pain-related functional interference among people with chronic pain. Methods and analysis Participants with non-malignant pain that persists for at least 3 months will be randomised to one of two study conditions. The experimental group will undergo an eight-session internet-delivered ACT programme over an 8-week period. The control group will be a waiting list group and will be offered the ACT intervention after the 3-month follow-up period. Participants will be assessed preintervention, postintervention and at a 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome will be pain-related functional interference. Secondary outcomes will include: pain intensity, depression, global impression of change, acceptance of chronic pain and quality of life. A qualitative evaluation of the perspectives of the participants regarding the ACT intervention will be completed after the trial. Ethics and dissemination The study will be performed in agreement with the Declaration of Helsinki and is approved by the National University of Ireland Galway Research Ethics Committee (12/05/05). The results of the trial will be published according to the CONSORT statement and will be presented at conferences and reported in peer

  19. A feasibility study on direct methanol fuel cells for laptop computers based on a cost comparison with lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Jung-Ho

    This paper compares the total cost of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and lithium (Li)-ion battery systems when applied as the power supply for laptop computers in the Korean environment. The average power output and operational time of the laptop computers were assumed to be 20 W and 3000 h, respectively. Considering the status of their technologies and with certain conditions assumed, the total costs were calculated to be US140 for the Li-ion battery and US362 for DMFC. The manufacturing costs of the DMFC and Li-ion battery systems were calculated to be 16.65 W -1 and 0.77 W h -1, and the energy consumption costs to be 0.00051 W h -1 and 0.00032 W h -1, respectively. The higher fuel consumption cost of the DMFC system was due to the methanol (MeOH) crossover loss. Therefore, the requirements for DMFCs to be able to compete with Li-ion batteries in terms of energy cost include reducing the crossover level to at an order magnitude of -9 and the MeOH price to under 0.5 kg -1. Under these conditions, if the DMFC manufacturing cost could be reduced to 6.30 W -1, then the DMFC system would become at least as competitive as the Li-ion battery system for powering laptop computers in Korea.

  20. Costs Associated with Implementation of Computer-Assisted Clinical Decision Support System for Antenatal and Delivery Care: Case Study of Kassena-Nankana District of Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Dalaba, Maxwell Ayindenaba; Akweongo, Patricia; Williams, John; Saronga, Happiness Pius; Tonchev, Pencho; Sauerborn, Rainer; Mensah, Nathan; Blank, Antje; Kaltschmidt, Jens; Loukanova, Svetla

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study analyzed cost of implementing computer-assisted Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) in selected health care centres in Ghana. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in the Kassena-Nankana district (KND). CDSS was deployed in selected health centres in KND as an intervention to manage patients attending antenatal clinics and the labour ward. The CDSS users were mainly nurses who were trained. Activities and associated costs involved in the implementation of CDSS (pre-intervention and intervention) were collected for the period between 2009–2013 from the provider perspective. The ingredients approach was used for the cost analysis. Costs were grouped into personnel, trainings, overheads (recurrent costs) and equipment costs (capital cost). We calculated cost without annualizing capital cost to represent financial cost and cost with annualizing capital costs to represent economic cost. Results Twenty-two trained CDSS users (at least 2 users per health centre) participated in the study. Between April 2012 and March 2013, users managed 5,595 antenatal clients and 872 labour clients using the CDSS. We observed a decrease in the proportion of complications during delivery (pre-intervention 10.74% versus post-intervention 9.64%) and a reduction in the number of maternal deaths (pre-intervention 4 deaths versus post-intervention 1 death). The overall financial cost of CDSS implementation was US$23,316, approximately US$1,060 per CDSS user trained. Of the total cost of implementation, 48% (US$11,272) was pre-intervention cost and intervention cost was 52% (US$12,044). Equipment costs accounted for the largest proportion of financial cost: 34% (US$7,917). When economic cost was considered, total cost of implementation was US$17,128–lower than the financial cost by 26.5%. Conclusions The study provides useful information in the implementation of CDSS at health facilities to enhance health workers' adherence to practice guidelines

  1. Self-monitoring of dietary intake by young women: online food records completed on computer or smartphone are as accurate as paper-based food records but more acceptable.

    PubMed

    Hutchesson, Melinda J; Rollo, Megan E; Callister, Robin; Collins, Clare E

    2015-01-01

    Adherence and accuracy of self-monitoring of dietary intake influences success in weight management interventions. Information technologies such as computers and smartphones have the potential to improve adherence and accuracy by reducing the burden associated with monitoring dietary intake using traditional paper-based food records. We evaluated the acceptability and accuracy of three different 7-day food record methods (online accessed via computer, online accessed via smartphone, and paper-based). Young women (N=18; aged 23.4±2.9 years; body mass index 24.0±2.2) completed the three 7-day food records in random order with 7-day washout periods between each method. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was derived from resting energy expenditure (REE) measured by indirect calorimetry and physical activity level (PAL) derived from accelerometers (TEE=REE×PAL). Accuracy of the three methods was assessed by calculating absolute (energy intake [EI]-TEE) and percentage difference (EI/TEE×100) between self-reported EI and TEE. Acceptability was assessed via questionnaire. Mean±standard deviation TEE was 2,185±302 kcal/day and EI was 1,729±249 kcal/day, 1,675±287kcal/day, and 1,682±352 kcal/day for computer, smartphone, and paper records, respectively. There were no significant differences between absolute and percentage differences between EI and TEE for the three methods: computer, -510±389 kcal/day (78%); smartphone, -456±372 kcal/day (80%); and paper, -503±513 kcal/day (79%). Half of participants (n=9) preferred computer recording, 44.4% preferred smartphone, and 5.6% preferred paper-based records. Most participants (89%) least preferred the paper-based record. Because online food records completed on either computer or smartphone were as accurate as paper-based records but more acceptable to young women, they should be considered when self-monitoring of intake is recommended to young women.

  2. The clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of community-based interventions aimed at improving or maintaining quality of life in children of parents with serious mental illness: a systematic review.

    PubMed Central

    Bee, Penny; Bower, Peter; Byford, Sarah; Churchill, Rachel; Calam, Rachel; Stallard, Paul; Pryjmachuk, Steven; Berzins, Kathryn; Cary, Maria; Wan, Ming; Abel, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Serious parental mental illness poses a challenge to quality of life (QoL) in a substantial number of children and adolescents. Improving the lives of these children is a political and public health concern. OBJECTIVES To conduct an evidence synthesis of the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of community-based interventions for improving QoL in children of parents with serious mental illness (SMI). DATA SOURCES Nineteen health, allied health and educational databases, searched from database inception to May 2012, and supplemented with hand searches, reference checking, searches of grey literature, dissertations, ongoing research registers, forward citation tracking and key author contact. REVIEW METHODS Inclusion criteria required≥50% of parents to have SMI or severe depression confirmed by clinical diagnosis or baseline symptoms. Children were ≤18 years of age. Community-based interventions included any non-residential psychological/psychosocial intervention involving parents or children for the purposes of improving health or well-being. Intervention comparators were not predefined and primary outcomes were validated measures of children's QoL and emotional health. Secondary outcomes were derived from UK policy and stakeholder consultation. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers and the study quality was assessed via Cochrane criteria for randomised/non-randomised designs, Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) qualitative criteria or a standard checklist for economic evaluations. Separate syntheses were conducted for SMI and severe depression. Standardised effect size (ES) trials were pooled using random-effects modelling for which sufficient data were available. Economic data were summarised and acceptability data were synthesised via a textual narrative approach. RESULTS Three trials targeted mothers/the children of mothers with psychotic symptoms. Children were ≤12 years of age and no primary QoL or

  3. Advanced space power requirements and techniques. Task 1: Mission projections and requirements. Volume 3: Appendices. [cost estimates and computer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    Contents: (1) general study guidelines and assumptions; (2) launch vehicle performance and cost assumptions; (3) satellite programs 1959 to 1979; (4) initiative mission and design characteristics; (5) satellite listing; (6) spacecraft design model; (7) spacecraft cost model; (8) mission cost model; and (9) nominal and optimistic budget program cost summaries.

  4. Who accepts first aid training?

    PubMed

    Pearn, J; Dawson, B; Leditschke, F; Petrie, G; Nixon, J

    1980-09-01

    The percentage of individuals trained in first aid skills in the general community is inadequate. We report here a study to investigate factors which influence motivation to accept voluntary training in first aid. A group of 700 randomly selected owners of inground swimming pools (a parental high-risk group) was offered a course of formal first aid instruction. Nine per cent attended the offered training course. The time commitment involved in traditional courses (eight training nights spread over four weeks) is not a deterrent, the same percentage accepting such courses as that who accept a course of one night's instruction. Cost is an important deterrent factor, consumer resistance rising over 15 cost units (one cost unit = the price of a loaf of bread). The level of competent first aid training within the community can be raised by (a) keeping to traditional course content, but (b) by ensuring a higher acceptance rate of first aid courses by a new approach to publicity campaigns, to convince prospective students of the real worth of first aid training. Questions concerning who should be taught first aid, and factors influencing motivation, are discussed.

  5. Development of ANFIS models for air quality forecasting and input optimization for reducing the computational cost and time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Kanchan; Gorai, Amit Kumar; Goyal, Pramila

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to develop adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for forecasting of daily air pollution concentrations of five air pollutants [sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and particular matters (PM10)] in the atmosphere of a Megacity (Howrah). Air pollution in the city (Howrah) is rising in parallel with the economics and thus observing, forecasting and controlling the air pollution becomes increasingly important due to the health impact. ANFIS serve as a basis for constructing a set of fuzzy IF-THEN rules, with appropriate membership functions to generate the stipulated input-output pairs. The ANFIS model predictor considers the value of meteorological factors (pressure, temperature, relative humidity, dew point, visibility, wind speed, and precipitation) and previous day's pollutant concentration in different combinations as the inputs to predict the 1-day advance and same day air pollution concentration. The concentration value of five air pollutants and seven meteorological parameters of the Howrah city during the period 2009 to 2011 were used for development of the ANFIS model. Collinearity tests were conducted to eliminate the redundant input variables. A forward selection (FS) method is used for selecting the different subsets of input variables. Application of collinearity tests and FS techniques reduces the numbers of input variables and subsets which helps in reducing the computational cost and time. The performances of the models were evaluated on the basis of four statistical indices (coefficient of determination, normalized mean square error, index of agreement, and fractional bias).

  6. Quantum ring-polymer contraction method: Including nuclear quantum effects at no additional computational cost in comparison to ab initio molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    John, Christopher; Spura, Thomas; Habershon, Scott; Kühne, Thomas D

    2016-04-01

    We present a simple and accurate computational method which facilitates ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, where the quantum-mechanical nature of the nuclei is explicitly taken into account, at essentially no additional computational cost in comparison to the corresponding calculation using classical nuclei. The predictive power of the proposed quantum ring-polymer contraction method is demonstrated by computing various static and dynamic properties of liquid water at ambient conditions using density functional theory. This development will enable routine inclusion of nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of condensed-phase systems. PMID:27176426

  7. Quantum ring-polymer contraction method: Including nuclear quantum effects at no additional computational cost in comparison to ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Christopher; Spura, Thomas; Habershon, Scott; Kühne, Thomas D.

    2016-04-01

    We present a simple and accurate computational method which facilitates ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, where the quantum-mechanical nature of the nuclei is explicitly taken into account, at essentially no additional computational cost in comparison to the corresponding calculation using classical nuclei. The predictive power of the proposed quantum ring-polymer contraction method is demonstrated by computing various static and dynamic properties of liquid water at ambient conditions using density functional theory. This development will enable routine inclusion of nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of condensed-phase systems.

  8. Corrigendum to "Development of ANFIS model for air quality forecasting and input optimization for reducing the computational cost and time" [Atmos. Environ. 128 (2016) 246-262

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Kanchan; Gorai, Amit Kumar; Goyal, Pramila

    2016-10-01

    In the paper entitled "Development of ANFIS model for air quality forecasting and input optimization for reducing the computational cost and time" the correlation coefficient values of O3 with the other parameters (shown in Table 4) were mistakenly written from some other results. But, the analyses were done based on the actual results. The actual values are listed in the revised Table 4.

  9. JPL Energy Consumption Program (ECP) documentation: A computer model simulating heating, cooling and energy loads in buildings. [low cost solar array efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.; Chai, V. W.; Lascu, D.; Urbenajo, R.; Wong, P.

    1978-01-01

    The engineering manual provides a complete companion documentation about the structure of the main program and subroutines, the preparation of input data, the interpretation of output results, access and use of the program, and the detailed description of all the analytic, logical expressions and flow charts used in computations and program structure. A numerical example is provided and solved completely to show the sequence of computations followed. The program is carefully structured to reduce both user's time and costs without sacrificing accuracy. The user would expect a cost of CPU time of approximately $5.00 per building zone excluding printing costs. The accuracy, on the other hand, measured by deviation of simulated consumption from watt-hour meter readings, was found by many simulation tests not to exceed + or - 10 percent margin.

  10. Computer simulation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and costs for alternative methods of processing fluid milk.

    PubMed

    Tomasula, P M; Datta, N; Yee, W C F; McAloon, A J; Nutter, D W; Sampedro, F; Bonnaillie, L M

    2014-07-01

    Computer simulation is a useful tool for benchmarking electrical and fuel energy consumption and water use in a fluid milk plant. In this study, a computer simulation model of the fluid milk process based on high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization was extended to include models for processes for shelf-stable milk and extended shelf-life milk that may help prevent the loss or waste of milk that leads to increases in the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for fluid milk. The models were for UHT processing, crossflow microfiltration (MF) without HTST pasteurization, crossflow MF followed by HTST pasteurization (MF/HTST), crossflow MF/HTST with partial homogenization, and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing, and were incorporated into the existing model for the fluid milk process. Simulation trials were conducted assuming a production rate for the plants of 113.6 million liters of milk per year to produce only whole milk (3.25%) and 40% cream. Results showed that GHG emissions in the form of process-related CO₂ emissions, defined as CO₂ equivalents (e)/kg of raw milk processed (RMP), and specific energy consumptions (SEC) for electricity and natural gas use for the HTST process alone were 37.6g of CO₂e/kg of RMP, 0.14 MJ/kg of RMP, and 0.13 MJ/kg of RMP, respectively. Emissions of CO2 and SEC for electricity and natural gas use were highest for the PEF process, with values of 99.1g of CO₂e/kg of RMP, 0.44 MJ/kg of RMP, and 0.10 MJ/kg of RMP, respectively, and lowest for the UHT process at 31.4 g of CO₂e/kg of RMP, 0.10 MJ/kg of RMP, and 0.17 MJ/kg of RMP. Estimated unit production costs associated with the various processes were lowest for the HTST process and MF/HTST with partial homogenization at $0.507/L and highest for the UHT process at $0.60/L. The increase in shelf life associated with the UHT and MF processes may eliminate some of the supply chain product and consumer losses and waste of milk and compensate for the small increases in GHG

  11. Computer simulation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and costs for alternative methods of processing fluid milk.

    PubMed

    Tomasula, P M; Datta, N; Yee, W C F; McAloon, A J; Nutter, D W; Sampedro, F; Bonnaillie, L M

    2014-07-01

    Computer simulation is a useful tool for benchmarking electrical and fuel energy consumption and water use in a fluid milk plant. In this study, a computer simulation model of the fluid milk process based on high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization was extended to include models for processes for shelf-stable milk and extended shelf-life milk that may help prevent the loss or waste of milk that leads to increases in the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for fluid milk. The models were for UHT processing, crossflow microfiltration (MF) without HTST pasteurization, crossflow MF followed by HTST pasteurization (MF/HTST), crossflow MF/HTST with partial homogenization, and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing, and were incorporated into the existing model for the fluid milk process. Simulation trials were conducted assuming a production rate for the plants of 113.6 million liters of milk per year to produce only whole milk (3.25%) and 40% cream. Results showed that GHG emissions in the form of process-related CO₂ emissions, defined as CO₂ equivalents (e)/kg of raw milk processed (RMP), and specific energy consumptions (SEC) for electricity and natural gas use for the HTST process alone were 37.6g of CO₂e/kg of RMP, 0.14 MJ/kg of RMP, and 0.13 MJ/kg of RMP, respectively. Emissions of CO2 and SEC for electricity and natural gas use were highest for the PEF process, with values of 99.1g of CO₂e/kg of RMP, 0.44 MJ/kg of RMP, and 0.10 MJ/kg of RMP, respectively, and lowest for the UHT process at 31.4 g of CO₂e/kg of RMP, 0.10 MJ/kg of RMP, and 0.17 MJ/kg of RMP. Estimated unit production costs associated with the various processes were lowest for the HTST process and MF/HTST with partial homogenization at $0.507/L and highest for the UHT process at $0.60/L. The increase in shelf life associated with the UHT and MF processes may eliminate some of the supply chain product and consumer losses and waste of milk and compensate for the small increases in GHG

  12. Sweeteners: consumer acceptance in tea.

    PubMed

    Sprowl, D J; Ehrcke, L A

    1984-09-01

    Sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and saccharin were compared for consumer preference, aftertaste, and cost to determine acceptability of the sweeteners. A 23-member taste panel evaluated tea samples for preference and aftertaste. Mean retail cost of the sweeteners were calculated and adjusted to take sweetening power into consideration. Sucrose was the least expensive and most preferred sweetener. No significant difference in preference for fructose and aspartame was found, but both sweeteners were rated significantly lower than sucrose. Saccharin was the most disliked sweetener. Fructose was the most expensive sweetener and aspartame the next most expensive. Scores for aftertaste followed the same pattern as those for preference. Thus, a strong, unpleasant aftertaste seems to be associated with a dislike for a sweetener. From the results of this study, it seems that there is no completely acceptable low-calorie substitute for sucrose available to consumers.

  13. ANL/RBC: a computer code for the analysis of Rankine bottoming cyles, including system cost evaluation and off-design performance

    SciTech Connect

    McLennan, G.A.

    1986-05-01

    This report describes, and is a User's Manual for, a computer code (ANL/RBC) which calculates cycle performance for Rankine bottoming cycles extracting heat from a specified source gas stream. The code calculates cycle power and efficiency and the sizes for the heat exchangers, using tabular input of the properties of the cycle working fluid. An option is provided to calculate the costs of system components from user defined input cost functions. These cost functions may be defined in equation form or by numerical tabular data. A variety of functional forms have been included for these functions and they may be combined to create very general cost functions. An optional calculation mode can be used to calculate the off-design performance of a system when operated away from the design-point, using the heat exchanger areas calculated for the design-point.

  14. ANL/RBC: A computer code for the analysis of Rankine bottoming cycles, including system cost evaluation and off-design performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclennan, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes, and is a User's Manual for, a computer code (ANL/RBC) which calculates cycle performance for Rankine bottoming cycles extracting heat from a specified source gas stream. The code calculates cycle power and efficiency and the sizes for the heat exchangers, using tabular input of the properties of the cycle working fluid. An option is provided to calculate the costs of system components from user defined input cost functions. These cost functions may be defined in equation form or by numerical tabular data. A variety of functional forms have been included for these functions and they may be combined to create very general cost functions. An optional calculation mode can be used to determine the off-design performance of a system when operated away from the design-point, using the heat exchanger areas calculated for the design-point.

  15. An Economic Evaluation of a Video- and Text-Based Computer-Tailored Intervention for Smoking Cessation: A Cost-Effectiveness and Cost-Utility Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stanczyk, Nicola E.; Smit, Eline S.; Schulz, Daniela N.; de Vries, Hein; Bolman, Catherine; Muris, Jean W. M.; Evers, Silvia M. A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although evidence exists for the effectiveness of web-based smoking cessation interventions, information about the cost-effectiveness of these interventions is limited. Objective The study investigated the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of two web-based computer-tailored (CT) smoking cessation interventions (video- vs. text-based CT) compared to a control condition that received general text-based advice. Methods In a randomized controlled trial, respondents were allocated to the video-based condition (N = 670), the text-based condition (N = 708) or the control condition (N = 721). Societal costs, smoking status, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs; EQ-5D-3L) were assessed at baseline, six-and twelve-month follow-up. The incremental costs per abstinent respondent and per QALYs gained were calculated. To account for uncertainty, bootstrapping techniques and sensitivity analyses were carried out. Results No significant differences were found in the three conditions regarding demographics, baseline values of outcomes and societal costs over the three months prior to baseline. Analyses using prolonged abstinence as outcome measure indicated that from a willingness to pay of €1,500, the video-based intervention was likely to be the most cost-effective treatment, whereas from a willingness to pay of €50,400, the text-based intervention was likely to be the most cost-effective. With regard to cost-utilities, when quality of life was used as outcome measure, the control condition had the highest probability of being the most preferable treatment. Sensitivity analyses yielded comparable results. Conclusion The video-based CT smoking cessation intervention was the most cost-effective treatment for smoking abstinence after twelve months, varying the willingness to pay per abstinent respondent from €0 up to €80,000. With regard to cost-utility, the control condition seemed to be the most preferable treatment. Probably, more time will be

  16. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  17. Simulating smokers' acceptance of modifications in a cessation program.

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, R

    1992-01-01

    Recent research has underscored the importance of assessing barriers to smokers' acceptance of cessation programs. This paper illustrates the use of computer simulations to gauge smokers' response to program modifications which may produce barriers to participation. It also highlights methodological issues encountered in conducting this work. Computer simulations were based on conjoint analysis, a consumer research method which enables measurement of smokers' relative preference for various modifications of cessation programs. Results from two studies are presented in this paper. The primary study used a randomly selected sample of 218 adult smokers who participated in a computer-assisted phone interview. Initially, the study assessed smokers' relative utility rating of 30 features of cessation programs. Utility data were used in computer-simulated comparisons of a low-cost, self-help oriented program under development and five other existing programs. A baseline version of the program under development and two modifications (for example, use of a support group with a higher level of cost) were simulated. Both the baseline version and modifications received a favorable response vis-à-vis comparison programs. Modifications requiring higher program costs were, however, associated with moderately reduced levels of favorable consumer response. The second study used a sample of 70 smokers who responded to an expanded set of smoking cessation program features focusing on program packaging. This secondary study incorporate in-person, computer-assisted interviews at a shopping mall, with smokers viewing an artist's mock-up of various program options on display. A similar pattern of responses to simulated program modifications emerged, with monetary cost apparently playing a key role. The significance of conjoint-based computer simulation as a tool in program development or dissemination, salient methodological issues, and implications for further research are discussed

  18. Pygmalion's Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peelle, Howard A.

    Computers have undoubtedly entered the educational arena, mainly in the areas of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and artificial intelligence, but whether educators should embrace computers and exactly how they should use them are matters of great debate. The use of computers in support of educational administration is widely accepted.…

  19. Treatment acceptability among mexican american parents.

    PubMed

    Borrego, Joaquin; Ibanez, Elizabeth S; Spendlove, Stuart J; Pemberton, Joy R

    2007-09-01

    There is a void in the literature with regard to Hispanic parents' views about common interventions for children with behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment acceptability of child management techniques in a Mexican American sample. Parents' acculturation was also examined to determine if it would account for differences in treatment acceptability. Mexican American parents found response cost, a punishment-based technique, more acceptable than positive reinforcement-based techniques (e.g., differential attention). Results suggest that Mexican American parents' acculturation has little impact on acceptability of child management interventions. No association was found between mothers' acculturation and treatment acceptability. However, more acculturated Mexican American fathers viewed token economy as more acceptable than less acculturated fathers. Results are discussed in the context of clinical work and research with Mexican Americans.

  20. Price and cost estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Price and Cost Estimating Program (PACE II) was developed to prepare man-hour and material cost estimates. Versatile and flexible tool significantly reduces computation time and errors and reduces typing and reproduction time involved in preparation of cost estimates.

  1. Computer simulation to predict energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and costs for production of fluid milk using alternative processing methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Computer simulation is a useful tool for benchmarking the electrical and fuel energy consumption and water use in a fluid milk plant. In this study, a computer simulation model of the fluid milk process based on high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization was extended to include models for pr...

  2. Comparison between low-cost marker-less and high-end marker-based motion capture systems for the computer-aided assessment of working ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Patrizi, Alfredo; Pennestrì, Ettore; Valentini, Pier Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the comparison between a high-end marker-based acquisition system and a low-cost marker-less methodology for the assessment of the human posture during working tasks. The low-cost methodology is based on the use of a single Microsoft Kinect V1 device. The high-end acquisition system is the BTS SMART that requires the use of reflective markers to be placed on the subject's body. Three practical working activities involving object lifting and displacement have been investigated. The operational risk has been evaluated according to the lifting equation proposed by the American National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The results of the study show that the risk multipliers computed from the two acquisition methodologies are very close for all the analysed activities. In agreement to this outcome, the marker-less methodology based on the Microsoft Kinect V1 device seems very promising to promote the dissemination of computer-aided assessment of ergonomics while maintaining good accuracy and affordable costs. PRACTITIONER’S SUMMARY: The study is motivated by the increasing interest for on-site working ergonomics assessment. We compared a low-cost marker-less methodology with a high-end marker-based system. We tested them on three different working tasks, assessing the working risk of lifting loads. The two methodologies showed comparable precision in all the investigations.

  3. Low-cost computer classification of land cover in the Portland area, Oregon, by signature extension techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaydos, Leonard

    1978-01-01

    The cost of classifying 5,607 square kilometers (2,165 sq. mi.) in the Portland area was less than 8 cents per square kilometer ($0.0788, or $0.2041 per square mile). Besides saving in costs, this and other signature extension techniques may be useful in completing land use and land cover mapping in other large areas where multispectral and multitemporal Landsat data are available in digital form but other source materials are generally lacking.

  4. Anticipated HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Sexually Active African-American Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Julia; Cene-Kush, Clare; Conner, Alaina; Cwiak, Carrie; Haddad, Lisa; Mulligan, Mark; DiClemente, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    An HIV vaccine, once it becomes available, could reduce vulnerability to HIV among African-American women. The purpose of this study was to assess determinants of HIV vaccine acceptability among African-American women across hypothetical levels of vaccine efficacy. Participants were recruited from a hospital-based family planning clinic in Atlanta, GA serving low-income patients (N = 321). Data were collected from audio-computer assisted surveys administered in the clinic waiting room. Psychosocial survey items were guided by Risk Homeostasis Theory (RHT) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify determinants of acceptability for two hypothetical HIV vaccines with 50% and 90% efficacy. Overall, 63% of participants would accept a vaccine with 50% efficacy and 85% would accept a vaccine with 90% efficacy. In multivariate analyses, odds of acceptability for a vaccine with 50% efficacy were higher among participants with greater perceived HIV vaccine benefits (AOR = 1.13, p < 0.001) and lower among participants with more than high school education (AOR = 0.47, p = 0.033) and greater perceived costs of HIV vaccination (AOR = 0.95, p = 0.010). Odds of acceptability for a vaccine with 90% efficacy were higher among participants with greater perceived costs of unprotected sex (AOR = 1.08, p = 0.026), HIV vaccine benefits (AOR = 1.23, p < 0.001) and self-efficacy for sex refusal (AOR = 1.11, p = 0.044). HIV vaccine acceptability was high, particularly for a vaccine with 90% efficacy. Findings suggest that demographic and psychosocial factors may impact acceptability of an eventual HIV vaccine. Once an HIV vaccine is available, interventions to maximize uptake may benefit from using RHT and SCT constructs to target relevant psychosocial factors, such as perceived benefits and perceived costs of vaccination. PMID:26343960

  5. ECG boy: low-cost medical instrumentation using mass-produced, hand-held entertainment computers. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Rohde, M M; Bement, S L; Lupa, R S

    1998-01-01

    A prototype low-cost, portable ECG monitor, the "ECG Boy," is described. A mass produced hand-held video game platform is the basis for a complete three-lead, driven right-leg electrocardiogram (ECG). The ECG circuitry is planned to fit in a standard modular cartridge that is inserted in a production Nintendo "Gameboy." The combination is slightly smaller than a paperback book and weighs less than 500 g. The unit contains essential safety features such as optical isolation and is powered by 9-V and AA batteries. Functionally, the ECG Boy permits viewing ECG recordings in real time on the integrated screen. The user can select both the lead displayed on the screen and the time scale used. A 1-mV reference allows for calibration. Other ECG enhancements such as data transmission via telephone can be easily and inexpensively added to this system. The ECG Boy is intended as a proof of concept for a new class of low-cost biomedical instruments. Rising health care costs coupled with tightened funding have created an acute demand for low-cost medical equipment that satisfies safety and quality standards. A mass-produced microprocessor-based platform designed for the entertainment market can keep costs low while providing a functional basis for a biomedical instrument.

  6. Noise Threshold and Resource Cost of Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computing with Majorana Fermions in Hybrid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying

    2016-09-01

    Fault-tolerant quantum computing in systems composed of both Majorana fermions and topologically unprotected quantum systems, e.g. superconducting circuits or quantum dots, is studied in this paper. Errors caused by topologically unprotected quantum systems need to be corrected with error correction schemes, for instance, the surface code. We find that the error-correction performance of such a hybrid topological quantum computer is not superior to a normal quantum computer unless the topological charge of Majorana fermions is insusceptible to noise. If errors changing the topological charge are rare, the fault-tolerance threshold is much higher than the threshold of a normal quantum computer, and a surface-code logical qubit could be encoded in only tens of topological qubits instead of about a thousand normal qubits.

  7. Low-cost computing and network communication for a point-of-care device to perform a 3-part leukocyte differential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powless, Amy J.; Feekin, Lauren E.; Hutcheson, Joshua A.; Alapat, Daisy V.; Muldoon, Timothy J.

    2016-03-01

    Point-of-care approaches for 3-part leukocyte differentials (granulocyte, monocyte, and lymphocyte), traditionally performed using a hematology analyzer within a panel of tests called a complete blood count (CBC), are essential not only to reduce cost but to provide faster results in low resource areas. Recent developments in lab-on-a-chip devices have shown promise in reducing the size and reagents used, relating to a decrease in overall cost. Furthermore, smartphone diagnostic approaches have shown much promise in the area of point-of-care diagnostics, but the relatively high per-unit cost may limit their utility in some settings. We present here a method to reduce computing cost of a simple epi-fluorescence imaging system using a Raspberry Pi (single-board computer, <$40) to perform a 3-part leukocyte differential comparable to results from a hematology analyzer. This system uses a USB color camera in conjunction with a leukocyte-selective vital dye (acridine orange) in order to determine a leukocyte count and differential from a low volume (<20 microliters) of whole blood obtained via fingerstick. Additionally, the system utilizes a "cloud-based" approach to send image data from the Raspberry Pi to a main server and return results back to the user, exporting the bulk of the computational requirements. Six images were acquired per minute with up to 200 cells per field of view. Preliminary results showed that the differential count varied significantly in monocytes with a 1 minute time difference indicating the importance of time-gating to produce an accurate/consist differential.

  8. Acceptability of BCG vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mande, R

    1977-01-01

    The acceptability of BCG vaccination varies a great deal according to the country and to the period when the vaccine is given. The incidence of complications has not always a direct influence on this acceptability, which depends, for a very large part, on the risk of tuberculosis in a given country at a given time.

  9. ATLAS ACCEPTANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, J. C. , Jr.; Parker, J. V.; Hinckley, W. B.; Hosack, K. W.; Mills, D.; Parsons, W. M.; Scudder, D. W.; Stokes, J. L.; Tabaka, L. J.; Thompson, M. C.; Wysocki, Frederick Joseph; Campbell, T. N.; Lancaster, D. L.; Tom, C. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The acceptance test program for Atlas, a 23 MJ pulsed power facility for use in the Los Alamos High Energy Density Hydrodynamics program, has been completed. Completion of this program officially releases Atlas from the construction phase and readies it for experiments. Details of the acceptance test program results and of machine capabilities for experiments will be presented.

  10. Generalized group chain acceptance sampling plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Zakiyah; Mughal, Abdur Razzaque; Aziz, Nazrina

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we proposed an acceptance sampling plan based on generalized group chain truncated life test. The decision on acceptance of a submitted lot can be made by using the cumulative information of the immediately preceding samples. The design parameters of the proposed plan such as the minimum number of groups are found to satisfy the desired quality standard. The benefits of this plan include smaller sample size and reduced overall costs.

  11. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  12. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 504 - Procedures for the Computation of the Real Cost of Capital

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... structure which is debt. Wp=Fraction of existing capital structure which is preferred equity. We=Fraction of existing capital structure which is common equity and retained earnings. R d=Predicted nominal cost of long... sixty months of data. The first month (t=1) is sixty months before the month in which the firm's...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 504 - Procedures for the Computation of the Real Cost of Capital

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... structure which is debt. Wp=Fraction of existing capital structure which is preferred equity. We=Fraction of existing capital structure which is common equity and retained earnings. R d=Predicted nominal cost of long... sixty months of data. The first month (t=1) is sixty months before the month in which the firm's...

  14. Design and implementation of a medium speed communications interface and protocol for a low cost, refreshed display computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phyne, J. R.; Nelson, M. D.

    1975-01-01

    The design and implementation of hardware and software systems involved in using a 40,000 bit/second communication line as the connecting link between an IMLAC PDS 1-D display computer and a Univac 1108 computer system were described. The IMLAC consists of two independent processors sharing a common memory. The display processor generates the deflection and beam control currents as it interprets a program contained in the memory; the minicomputer has a general instruction set and is responsible for starting and stopping the display processor and for communicating with the outside world through the keyboard, teletype, light pen, and communication line. The processing time associated with each data byte was minimized by designing the input and output processes as finite state machines which automatically sequence from each state to the next. Several tests of the communication link and the IMLAC software were made using a special low capacity computer grade cable between the IMLAC and the Univac.

  15. Computer architecture providing high-performance and low-cost solutions for fast fMRI reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Hui; Goddard, J. Iain

    1998-07-01

    Due to the dynamic nature of brain studies in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), fast pulse sequences such as echo planar imaging (EPI) and spiral are often used for higher temporal resolution. Hundreds of frames of two- dimensional (2-D) images or multiple three-dimensional (3-D) images are often acquired to cover a larger space and time range. Therefore, fMRI often requires a much larger data storage, faster data transfer rate and higher processing power than conventional MRI. In Mercury Computer Systems' PCI-based embedded computer system, the computer architecture allows the concurrent use of a DMA engine for data transfer and CPU for data processing. This architecture allows a multicomputer to distribute processing and data with minimal time spent transferring data. Different types and numbers of processors are available to optimize system performance for the application. The fMRI reconstruction was first implemented in Mercury's PCI-based embedded computer system by using one digital signal processing (DSP) chip, with the host computer running under the Windows NTR platform. Double buffers in SRAM or cache were created for concurrent I/O and processing. The fMRI reconstruction was then implemented in parallel using multiple DSP chips. Data transfer and interprocessor synchronization were carefully managed to optimize algorithm efficiency. The image reconstruction times were measured with different numbers of processors ranging from one to 10. With one DSP chip, the timing for reconstructing 100 fMRI images measuring 128 X 64 pixels was 1.24 seconds, which is already faster than most existing commercial MRI systems. This PCI-based embedded multicomputer architecture, which has a nearly linear improvement in performance, provides high performance for fMRI processing. In summary, this embedded multicomputer system allows the choice of computer topologies to fit the specific application to achieve maximum system performance.

  16. Cost-Estimation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian

    1995-01-01

    COSTIT computer program estimates cost of electronic design by reading item-list file and file containing cost for each item. Accuracy of cost estimate based on accuracy of cost-list file. Written by use of AWK utility for Sun4-series computers running SunOS 4.x and IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. The Sun version (NPO-19587). PC version (NPO-19157).

  17. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 504 - Procedures for the Computation of the Real Cost of Capital

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... determining the current average yield on newly issued bonds—industrial or utility as appropriate—which have...—industrial or utility as appropriate—which has the same rating as the firm's most recent preferred stock...% (B) The “beta” coefficient is computed with regression analysis techniques. The regression...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 504 - Procedures for the Computation of the Real Cost of Capital

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...—industrial or utility as appropriate—which have the same rating as the firm's most recent debt issue. (3) The... newly issued preferred stock—industrial or utility as appropriate—which has the same rating as the firm... by Ibbotson and Sinquefield(1)—9.2% (B) The “beta” coefficient is computed with regression...

  19. Setting up a Low-Cost Lab Management System for a Multi-Purpose Computing Laboratory Using Virtualisation Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Heng Ngee; Lee, Yeow Leong; Tan, Wee Kiat

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how a generic computer laboratory equipped with 52 workstations is set up for teaching IT-related courses and other general purpose usage. The authors have successfully constructed a lab management system based on decentralised, client-side software virtualisation technology using Linux and free software tools from VMware that…

  20. OPTIM: Computer program to generate a vertical profile which minimizes aircraft fuel burn or direct operating cost. User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A profile of altitude, airspeed, and flight path angle as a function of range between a given set of origin and destination points for particular models of transport aircraft provided by NASA is generated. Inputs to the program include the vertical wind profile, the aircraft takeoff weight, the costs of time and fuel, certain constraint parameters and control flags. The profile can be near optimum in the sense of minimizing: (1) fuel, (2) time, or (3) a combination of fuel and time (direct operating cost (DOC)). The user can also, as an option, specify the length of time the flight is to span. The theory behind the technical details of this program is also presented.

  1. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems. Volume I. Main text

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  2. Acceptance Test Plan for ANSYS Software

    SciTech Connect

    CREA, B.A.

    2000-10-25

    This plan governs the acceptance testing of the ANSYS software (Full Mechanical Release 5.5) for use on Project Word Management Contract (PHMC) computer systems (either UNIX or Microsoft Windows/NT). There are two phases to the acceptance testing covered by this test plan: program execution in accordance with the guidance provided in installation manuals; and ensuring results of the execution are consistent with the expected physical behavior of the system being modeled.

  3. Acceptance procedures: Microfilm printer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Acceptance tests were made for a special order automatic additive color microfilm printer. Tests include film capacity, film transport, resolution, illumination uniformity, exposure range checks, and color cuing considerations.

  4. Money for Research, Not for Energy Bills: Finding Energy and Cost Savings in High Performance Computer Facility Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Drewmark Communications; Sartor, Dale; Wilson, Mark

    2010-07-01

    High-performance computing facilities in the United States consume an enormous amount of electricity, cutting into research budgets and challenging public- and private-sector efforts to reduce energy consumption and meet environmental goals. However, these facilities can greatly reduce their energy demand through energy-efficient design of the facility itself. Using a case study of a facility under design, this article discusses strategies and technologies that can be used to help achieve energy reductions.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening - an overview.

    PubMed

    Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Knudsen, Amy B; Brenner, Hermann

    2010-08-01

    There are several modalities available for a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program. When determining which CRC screening program to implement, the costs of such programs should be considered in comparison to the health benefits they are expected to provide. Cost-effectiveness analysis provides a tool to do this. In this paper we review the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of CRC screening. Published studies universally indicate that when compared with no CRC screening, all screening modalities provide additional years of life at a cost that is deemed acceptable by most industrialized nations. Many recent studies even find CRC screening to be cost-saving. However, when the alternative CRC screening strategies are compared against each other in an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis, no single optimal strategy emerges across the studies. There is consensus that the new technologies of stool DNA testing, computed tomographic colonography and capsule endoscopy are not yet cost-effective compared with the established CRC screening tests.

  6. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  7. Use of Simulation to Study Nurses Acceptance and Non-Acceptance of Clinical Decision Support Suggestions

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Vanessa E. C.; Lopez, Karen Dunn; Febretti, Alessandro; Stifter, Janet; Yao, Yingwei; Johnson, Andrew; Wilkie, Diana J.; Keenan, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Our long term goal is to ensure nurse clinical decision support (CDS) works as intended before full deployment in clinical practice. As part of a broader effort, this pilot explores factors influencing acceptance/non-acceptance of 8 CDS suggestions displayed through selecting a blinking red button in an electronic health record (EHR) based nursing plan of care software prototype. A diverse sample of 21 nurses participated in this high fidelity clinical simulation experience and completed a questionnaire to assess reasons for accepting/not accepting the CDS suggestions. Of 168 total suggestions displayed during the experiment (8 for each of the 21 nurses), 123 (73.2%) were accepted and 45 (26.8%) were not accepted. The mode number of acceptances by nurses was 7 of 8 with only 2 of 21 nurses accepting all. The main reason for CDS acceptance was the nurse’s belief that the suggestions were good for the patient (n=100%) with other features being secondarily reinforcing. Reasons for non-acceptance were less clear, with under half of the subjects indicating low confidence in the evidence. This study provides preliminary evidence that high quality simulation and targeted questionnaires about specific CDS selections offers a cost effective means for testing before full deployment in clinical practice. PMID:26361268

  8. Cost-effective pediatric head and body phantoms for computed tomography dosimetry and its evaluation using pencil ion chamber and CT dose profiler.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, A; Vaideki, K; Govindarajan, K N; Jayakumar, S; Devanand, B

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, a pediatric head and body phantom was fabricated using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) at a low cost when compared to commercially available phantoms for the purpose of computed tomography (CT) dosimetry. The dimensions of head and body phantoms were 10 cm diameter, 15 cm length and 16 cm diameter, 15 cm length, respectively. The dose from a 128-slice CT machine received by the head and body phantom at the center and periphery were measured using a 100 mm pencil ion chamber and 150 mm CT dose profiler (CTDP). Using these values, the weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDIw) and in turn the volumetric CTDI (CTDIv) were calculated for various combinations of tube voltage and current-time product. A similar study was carried out using standard calibrated phantom and the results have been compared with the fabricated ones to ascertain that the performance of the latter is equivalent to that of the former. Finally, CTDIv measured using fabricated and standard phantoms were compared with respective values displayed on the console. The difference between the values was well within the limits specified by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), India. These results indicate that the cost-effective pediatric phantom can be employed for CT dosimetry.

  9. Cost-effective pediatric head and body phantoms for computed tomography dosimetry and its evaluation using pencil ion chamber and CT dose profiler

    PubMed Central

    Saravanakumar, A.; Vaideki, K.; Govindarajan, K. N.; Jayakumar, S.; Devanand, B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, a pediatric head and body phantom was fabricated using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) at a low cost when compared to commercially available phantoms for the purpose of computed tomography (CT) dosimetry. The dimensions of head and body phantoms were 10 cm diameter, 15 cm length and 16 cm diameter, 15 cm length, respectively. The dose from a 128-slice CT machine received by the head and body phantom at the center and periphery were measured using a 100 mm pencil ion chamber and 150 mm CT dose profiler (CTDP). Using these values, the weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDIw) and in turn the volumetric CTDI (CTDIv) were calculated for various combinations of tube voltage and current-time product. A similar study was carried out using standard calibrated phantom and the results have been compared with the fabricated ones to ascertain that the performance of the latter is equivalent to that of the former. Finally, CTDIv measured using fabricated and standard phantoms were compared with respective values displayed on the console. The difference between the values was well within the limits specified by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), India. These results indicate that the cost-effective pediatric phantom can be employed for CT dosimetry. PMID:26500404

  10. Construction and field test of a programmable and self-cleaning auto-sampler controlled by a low-cost one-board computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadler, Philipp; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Zessner, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    This presentation describes in-depth how a low cost micro-computer was used for substantial improvement of established measuring systems due to the construction and implementation of a purposeful complementary device for on-site sample pretreatment. A fully automated on-site device was developed and field-tested, that enables water sampling with simultaneous filtration as well as effective cleaning procedure of the devicés components. The described auto-sampler is controlled by a low-cost one-board computer and designed for sample pre-treatment, with minimal sample alteration, to meet requirements of on-site measurement devices that cannot handle coarse suspended solids within the measurement procedure or -cycle. The automated sample pretreatment was tested for over one year for rapid and on-site enzymatic activity (beta-D-glucuronidase, GLUC) determination in sediment laden stream water. The formerly used proprietary sampling set-up was assumed to lead to a significant damping of the measurement signal due to its susceptibility to clogging, debris- and bio film accumulation. Results show that the installation of the developed apparatus considerably enhanced error-free running time of connected measurement devices and increased the measurement accuracy to an up-to-now unmatched quality.

  11. Development and implementation of a low-cost phantom for quality control in cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Batista, W O; Navarro, M V T; Maia, A F

    2013-12-01

    A phantom for quality control in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners was designed and constructed, and a methodology for testing was developed. The phantom had a polymethyl methacrylate structure filled with water and plastic objects that allowed the assessment of parameters related to quality control. The phantom allowed the evaluation of essential parameters in CBCT as well as the evaluation of linear and angular dimensions. The plastics used in the phantom were chosen so that their density and linear attenuation coefficient were similar to those of human facial structures. Three types of CBCT equipment, with two different technological concepts, were evaluated. The results of the assessment of the accuracy of linear and angular dimensions agreed with the existing standards. However, other parameters such as computed tomography number accuracy, uniformity and high-contrast detail did not meet the tolerances established in current regulations or the manufacturer's specifications. The results demonstrate the importance of establishing specific protocols and phantoms, which meet the specificities of CBCT. The practicality of implementation, the quality control test results for the proposed phantom and the consistency of the results using different equipment demonstrate its adequacy.

  12. Performance, throughput, and cost of in-home training for the Army Reserve: Using asynchronous computer conferencing as an alternative to resident training

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.A. ); Ashworth, R.L. Jr.; Phelps, R.H. ); Byers, J.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Asynchronous computer conferencing (ACC) was investigated as an alternative to resident training for the Army Reserve Component (RC). Specifically, the goals were to (1) evaluate the performance and throughput of ACC as compared with traditional Resident School instruction and (2) determine the cost-effectiveness of developing and implementing ACC. Fourteen RC students took a module of the Army Engineer Officer Advanced Course (EOAC) via ACC. Course topics included Army doctrine, technical engineering subjects, leadership, and presentation skills. Resident content was adapted for presentation via ACC. The programs of instruction for ACC and the equivalent resident course were identical; only the media used for presentation were changed. Performance on tests, homework, and practical exercises; self-assessments of learning; throughput; and cost data wee the measures of interest. Comparison data were collected on RC students taking the course in residence. Results indicated that there were no performance differences between the two groups. Students taking the course via ACC perceived greater learning benefit than did students taking the course in residence. Resident throughput was superior to ACC throughput, both in terms of numbers of students completing and time to complete the course. In spite of this fact, however, ACC was more cost-effective than resident training.

  13. What Constitutes a "Good" Sensitivity Analysis? Elements and Tools for a Robust Sensitivity Analysis with Reduced Computational Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Saman; Gupta, Hoshin; Haghnegahdar, Amin

    2016-04-01

    Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) is a systems theoretic approach to characterizing the overall (average) sensitivity of one or more model responses across the factor space, by attributing the variability of those responses to different controlling (but uncertain) factors (e.g., model parameters, forcings, and boundary and initial conditions). GSA can be very helpful to improve the credibility and utility of Earth and Environmental System Models (EESMs), as these models are continually growing in complexity and dimensionality with continuous advances in understanding and computing power. However, conventional approaches to GSA suffer from (1) an ambiguous characterization of sensitivity, and (2) poor computational efficiency, particularly as the problem dimension grows. Here, we identify several important sensitivity-related characteristics of response surfaces that must be considered when investigating and interpreting the ''global sensitivity'' of a model response (e.g., a metric of model performance) to its parameters/factors. Accordingly, we present a new and general sensitivity and uncertainty analysis framework, Variogram Analysis of Response Surfaces (VARS), based on an analogy to 'variogram analysis', that characterizes a comprehensive spectrum of information on sensitivity. We prove, theoretically, that Morris (derivative-based) and Sobol (variance-based) methods and their extensions are special cases of VARS, and that their SA indices are contained within the VARS framework. We also present a practical strategy for the application of VARS to real-world problems, called STAR-VARS, including a new sampling strategy, called "star-based sampling". Our results across several case studies show the STAR-VARS approach to provide reliable and stable assessments of "global" sensitivity, while being at least 1-2 orders of magnitude more efficient than the benchmark Morris and Sobol approaches.

  14. GME: at what cost?

    PubMed

    Young, David W

    2003-11-01

    Current computing methods impede determining the real cost of graduate medical education. However, a more accurate estimate could be obtained if policy makers would allow for the application of basic cost-accounting principles, including consideration of department-level costs, unbundling of joint costs, and other factors.

  15. Consumer Acceptance of Dry Dog Food Variations

    PubMed Central

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri; Swaney-Stueve, Marianne; Chambers, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Pet owners evaluated dry dog food samples available in the US market. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Abstract The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Eight dry dog food samples available in the US market were evaluated by pet owners. In this study, consumers evaluated overall liking, aroma, and appearance liking of the products. Consumers were also asked to predict their purchase intent, their dog’s liking, and cost of the samples. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Overall liking clusters were not related to income, age, gender, or education, indicating that general consumer demographics do not appear to play a main role in individual consumer acceptance of dog food products. PMID:26480043

  16. Cost of energy evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasbrouck, T. M.

    1979-01-01

    The estimated cost per kilowatt hour, the wind resources in the utilities service area, and the reliability of the units are considered in computing the cost of energy of the wind turbine generator system.

  17. Cloud Computing Adoption and Usage in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrend, Tara S.; Wiebe, Eric N.; London, Jennifer E.; Johnson, Emily C.

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is gaining popularity in higher education settings, but the costs and benefits of this tool have gone largely unexplored. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that lead to technology adoption in a higher education setting. Specifically, we examined a range of predictors and outcomes relating to the acceptance of a…

  18. The Cambridge Face Tracker: Accurate, Low Cost Measurement of Head Posture Using Computer Vision and Face Recognition Software

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Peter B. M.; Baltrušaitis, Tadas; Robinson, Peter; Vivian, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We validate a video-based method of head posture measurement. Methods The Cambridge Face Tracker uses neural networks (constrained local neural fields) to recognize facial features in video. The relative position of these facial features is used to calculate head posture. First, we assess the accuracy of this approach against videos in three research databases where each frame is tagged with a precisely measured head posture. Second, we compare our method to a commercially available mechanical device, the Cervical Range of Motion device: four subjects each adopted 43 distinct head postures that were measured using both methods. Results The Cambridge Face Tracker achieved confident facial recognition in 92% of the approximately 38,000 frames of video from the three databases. The respective mean error in absolute head posture was 3.34°, 3.86°, and 2.81°, with a median error of 1.97°, 2.16°, and 1.96°. The accuracy decreased with more extreme head posture. Comparing The Cambridge Face Tracker to the Cervical Range of Motion Device gave correlation coefficients of 0.99 (P < 0.0001), 0.96 (P < 0.0001), and 0.99 (P < 0.0001) for yaw, pitch, and roll, respectively. Conclusions The Cambridge Face Tracker performs well under real-world conditions and within the range of normally-encountered head posture. It allows useful quantification of head posture in real time or from precaptured video. Its performance is similar to that of a clinically validated mechanical device. It has significant advantages over other approaches in that subjects do not need to wear any apparatus, and it requires only low cost, easy-to-setup consumer electronics. Translational Relevance Noncontact assessment of head posture allows more complete clinical assessment of patients, and could benefit surgical planning in future. PMID:27730008

  19. Smaller hospitals accept advertising.

    PubMed

    Mackesy, R

    1988-07-01

    Administrators at small- and medium-sized hospitals gradually have accepted the role of marketing in their organizations, albeit at a much slower rate than larger institutions. This update of a 1983 survey tracks the increasing competitiveness, complexity and specialization of providing health care and of advertising a small hospital's services. PMID:10288550

  20. Students Accepted on Probation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorberbaum, Caroline S.

    This report is a justification of the Dalton Junior College admissions policy designed to help students who had had academic and/or social difficulties at other schools. These students were accepted on probation, their problems carefully analyzed, and much effort devoted to those with low academic potential. They received extensive academic and…

  1. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  2. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  3. Ramjet cost estimating handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmons, H. T.; Norwood, D. L.; Rasmusen, J. E.; Reynolds, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    Research conducted under Air Force Contract F33615-76-C-2043 to generate cost data and to establish a cost methodology that accurately predicts the production costs of ramjet engines is presented. The cost handbook contains a description of over one hundred and twenty-five different components which are defined as baseline components. The cost estimator selects from the handbook the appropriate components to fit his ramjet assembly, computes the cost from cost computation data sheets in the handbook, and totals all of the appropriate cost elements to arrive at the total engine cost. The methodology described in the cost handbook addresses many different ramjet types from simple podded arrangements of the liquid fuel ramjet to the more complex integral rocket/ramjet configurations including solid fuel ramjets and solid ducted rockets. It is applicable to a range of sizes from 6 in diameter to 18 in diameter and to production quantities up to 5000 engines.

  4. The Frozen Cage Model: A Computationally Low-Cost Tool for Predicting the Exohedral Regioselectivity of Cycloaddition Reactions Involving Endohedral Metallofullerenes.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Borràs, Marc; Romero-Rivera, Adrian; Osuna, Sílvia; Luis, Josep M; Swart, Marcel; Solà, Miquel

    2012-05-01

    Functionalization of endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) is an active line of research that is important for obtaining nanomaterials with unique properties that might be used in a variety of fields, ranging from molecular electronics to biomedical applications. Such functionalization is commonly achieved by means of cycloaddition reactions. The scarcity of both experimental and theoretical studies analyzing the exohedral regioselectivity of cycloaddition reactions involving EMFs translates into a poor understanding of the EMF reactivity. From a theoretical point of view, the main obstacle is the high computational cost associated with this kind of studies. To alleviate the situation, we propose an approach named the frozen cage model (FCM) based on single point energy calculations at the optimized geometries of the empty cage products. The FCM represents a fast and computationally inexpensive way to perform accurate qualitative predictions of the exohedral regioselectivity of cycloaddition reactions in EMFs. Analysis of the Dimroth approximation, the activation strain or distortion/interaction model, and the noncluster energies in the Diels-Alder cycloaddition of s-cis-1,3-butadiene to X@D3h-C78 (X = Ti2C2, Sc3N, and Y3N) EMFs provides a justification of the method.

  5. Balancing act of template bank construction: Inspiral waveform template banks for gravitational-wave detectors and optimizations at fixed computational cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppel, Drew

    2013-06-01

    Gravitational-wave searches for signals from inspiraling compact binaries have relied on matched filtering banks of waveforms (called template banks) to try to extract the signal waveforms from the detector data. These template banks have been constructed using four main considerations, the region of parameter space of interest, the sensitivity of the detector, the matched filtering bandwidth, and the sensitivity one is willing to lose due to the granularity of template placement, the latter of which is governed by the minimal match. In this work we describe how the choice of the lower frequency cutoff, the lower end of the matched filter frequency band, can be optimized for detection. We also show how the minimal match can be optimally chosen in the case of limited computational resources. These techniques are applied to searches for binary neutron star signals that have been previously performed when analyzing Initial LIGO and Virgo data and will be performed analyzing Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo data using the expected detector sensitivity. By following the algorithms put forward here, the volume sensitivity of these searches is predicted to improve without increasing the computational cost of performing the search.

  6. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  7. Role of information systems in controlling costs: the electronic medical record (EMR) and the high-performance computing and communications (HPCC) efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Luis G.

    1994-12-01

    On October 18, 1991, the IEEE-USA produced an entity statement which endorsed the vital importance of the High Performance Computer and Communications Act of 1991 (HPCC) and called for the rapid implementation of all its elements. Efforts are now underway to develop a Computer Based Patient Record (CBPR), the National Information Infrastructure (NII) as part of the HPCC, and the so-called `Patient Card'. Multiple legislative initiatives which address these and related information technology issues are pending in Congress. Clearly, a national information system will greatly affect the way health care delivery is provided to the United States public. Timely and reliable information represents a critical element in any initiative to reform the health care system as well as to protect and improve the health of every person. Appropriately used, information technologies offer a vital means of improving the quality of patient care, increasing access to universal care and lowering overall costs within a national health care program. Health care reform legislation should reflect increased budgetary support and a legal mandate for the creation of a national health care information system by: (1) constructing a National Information Infrastructure; (2) building a Computer Based Patient Record System; (3) bringing the collective resources of our National Laboratories to bear in developing and implementing the NII and CBPR, as well as a security system with which to safeguard the privacy rights of patients and the physician-patient privilege; and (4) utilizing Government (e.g. DOD, DOE) capabilities (technology and human resources) to maximize resource utilization, create new jobs and accelerate technology transfer to address health care issues.

  8. 31 CFR 340.8 - Acceptance of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... time and place specified in the public notice. (b) Method of determining accepted bids. The lowest... basis cost of money will be determined by reference to a specially prepared table of bond yields, a...

  9. Maternal acceptance of human papillomavirus vaccine in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sam, I-Ching; Wong, Li-Ping; Rampal, Sanjay; Leong, Yin-Hui; Pang, Chan-Fu; Tai, Yong-Ting; Tee, Hwee-Ching; Kahar-Bador, Maria

    2009-06-01

    Acceptability rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination by 362 Malaysian mothers were 65.7% and 55.8% for daughters and sons, respectively. Younger mothers, and those who knew someone with cancer, were more willing to vaccinate their daughters. If the vaccine was routine and cost free, acceptability rate was 97.8%. PMID:19465327

  10. 10 CFR 603.550 - Acceptability of intellectual property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptability of intellectual property. 603.550 Section 603.550 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Cost Sharing § 603.550 Acceptability of intellectual property....

  11. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  12. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  13. Factors Influencing the Acceptance of Web-Based Training in Malaysia: Applying the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Junaidah

    2008-01-01

    Companies in Malaysia are beginning to use web-based training to reduce the cost of training and to provide employees with greater access to instruction. However, some people are uncomfortable with technology and prefer person-to-person methods of training. This study examines the acceptance of web-based training among a convenience sample of 261…

  14. 24 CFR 908.108 - Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... computer hardware or software, or both, the cost of contracting for those services, or the cost of... operating budget. At the HA's option, the cost of the computer software may include service contracts...

  15. 24 CFR 908.108 - Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... computer hardware or software, or both, the cost of contracting for those services, or the cost of... operating budget. At the HA's option, the cost of the computer software may include service contracts...

  16. Cost Validation Using PRICE H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, John; Kwan, Eric; Wood, Milana

    2011-01-01

    PRICE H was introduced into the JPL cost estimation tool set circa 2003. It became more available at JPL when IPAO funded the NASA-wide site license for all NASA centers. PRICE H was mainly used as one of the cost tools to validate proposal grassroots cost estimates. Program offices at JPL view PRICE H as an additional crosscheck to Team X (JPL Concurrent Engineering Design Center) estimates. PRICE H became widely accepted ca, 2007 at JPL when the program offices moved away from grassroots cost estimation for Step 1 proposals. PRICE H is now one of the key cost tools used for cost validation, cost trades, and independent cost estimates.

  17. Do Clouds Compute? A Framework for Estimating the Value of Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klems, Markus; Nimis, Jens; Tai, Stefan

    On-demand provisioning of scalable and reliable compute services, along with a cost model that charges consumers based on actual service usage, has been an objective in distributed computing research and industry for a while. Cloud Computing promises to deliver on this objective: consumers are able to rent infrastructure in the Cloud as needed, deploy applications and store data, and access them via Web protocols on a pay-per-use basis. The acceptance of Cloud Computing, however, depends on the ability for Cloud Computing providers and consumers to implement a model for business value co-creation. Therefore, a systematic approach to measure costs and benefits of Cloud Computing is needed. In this paper, we discuss the need for valuation of Cloud Computing, identify key components, and structure these components in a framework. The framework assists decision makers in estimating Cloud Computing costs and to compare these costs to conventional IT solutions. We demonstrate by means of representative use cases how our framework can be applied to real world scenarios.

  18. New Federal Cost Accounting Regulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, George J.; Handzo, Joseph J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a new set of indirect cost accounting procedures which must be followed by school districts wishing to recover any indirect costs of administering federal grants and contracts. Also discusses the amount of indirect costs that may be recovered, computing indirect costs, classifying project costs, and restricted grants. (Author/DN)

  19. 32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of...

  20. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Program Management § 74.27 Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a set of cost... organization other than a hospital and an educational institution 48 CFR part 31 Contract Cost Principles and Procedures or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to ED. (b)...

  1. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Program Management § 74.27 Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a set of cost... organization other than a hospital and an educational institution 48 CFR part 31 Contract Cost Principles and Procedures or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to ED. (b)...

  2. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Program Management § 74.27 Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a set of cost... organization other than a hospital and an educational institution 48 CFR part 31 Contract Cost Principles and Procedures or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to ED. (b)...

  3. Acceptance threshold theory can explain occurrence of homosexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Engel, Katharina C; Männer, Lisa; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Same-sex sexual behaviour (SSB) has been documented in a wide range of animals, but its evolutionary causes are not well understood. Here, we investigated SSB in the light of Reeve's acceptance threshold theory. When recognition is not error-proof, the acceptance threshold used by males to recognize potential mating partners should be flexibly adjusted to maximize the fitness pay-off between the costs of erroneously accepting males and the benefits of accepting females. By manipulating male burying beetles' search time for females and their reproductive potential, we influenced their perceived costs of making an acceptance or rejection error. As predicted, when the costs of rejecting females increased, males exhibited more permissive discrimination decisions and showed high levels of SSB; when the costs of accepting males increased, males were more restrictive and showed low levels of SSB. Our results support the idea that in animal species, in which the recognition cues of females and males overlap to a certain degree, SSB is a consequence of an adaptive discrimination strategy to avoid the costs of making rejection errors.

  4. Indirect Costs of Health Research--How They are Computed, What Actions are Needed. Report by the Comptroller General of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    A review by the General Accounting Office of various aspects of indirect costs associated with federal health research grants is presented. After an introduction detailing the scope of the review and defining indirect costs and federal participation, the report focuses on the causes of the rapid increase of indirect costs. Among findings was that…

  5. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; McCurdy, David A.

    1992-04-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  6. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  7. Handheld computers in medicine: the way forward.

    PubMed

    Horsley, A; Forster, L

    2005-07-01

    Handheld computers are now a common sight in medicine, but there are scarce data on who actually uses them and what functions are found to be most useful. This is the first study of handheld computer use in a British hospital, and shows that there is already considerable use and acceptance of the technology, with 22 of 55 (40%) physicians possessing and using such a device. Doctors in training grades are more likely to make use of medical software, particularly textbooks, calculators, and formularies. The main barriers to greater use of this technology were cost of software and poor applicability to UK practice. PMID:15998828

  8. 28 CFR 100.12 - Reasonable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS... competitive business. Reasonableness of specific costs must be examined with particular care in connection... carrier's business or the performance of this obligation; or (2) Whether it is a generally accepted...

  9. The Hidden Costs of Owning a Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDole, Thomas L.

    Before purchasing computer hardware, individuals must consider the costs associated with the setup and operation of a microcomputer system. Included among the initial costs of purchasing a computer are the costs of the computer, one or more disk drives, a monitor, and a printer as well as the costs of such optional peripheral devices as a plotter…

  10. Survey of methods for improving operator acceptance of computerized aids

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, P. R.; Kisner, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    The success of current attempts to improve the operational performance and safety of nuclear power plants by installing computerized operational aids in the control rooms is dependent, in part, on the operator's attitude toward the aid. Utility experience with process computer systems indicates that problems may already exist with operator acceptance of computerized aids. The growth of the role that computers have in nuclear power plants makes user acceptance of computer technology an important issue for the nuclear industry. The purpose of this report is to draw from the literature factors related to user acceptance of computerized equipment that may also be applicable to the acceptance of computerized aids used in the nuclear power plant control room.

  11. 10 CFR 603.530 - Acceptable cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business..., as described in 48 CFR part 31.208-18, that meet all of the criteria in paragraphs (a) through (e) of... through other awards. It is standard business practice for all for-profit firms, including...

  12. Emperical Tests of Acceptance Sampling Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. Preston, Jr.; Johnson, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance sampling is a quality control procedure applied as an alternative to 100% inspection. A random sample of items is drawn from a lot to determine the fraction of items which have a required quality characteristic. Both the number of items to be inspected and the criterion for determining conformance of the lot to the requirement are given by an appropriate sampling plan with specified risks of Type I and Type II sampling errors. In this paper, we present the results of empirical tests of the accuracy of selected sampling plans reported in the literature. These plans are for measureable quality characteristics which are known have either binomial, exponential, normal, gamma, Weibull, inverse Gaussian, or Poisson distributions. In the main, results support the accepted wisdom that variables acceptance plans are superior to attributes (binomial) acceptance plans, in the sense that these provide comparable protection against risks at reduced sampling cost. For the Gaussian and Weibull plans, however, there are ranges of the shape parameters for which the required sample sizes are in fact larger than the corresponding attributes plans, dramatically so for instances of large skew. Tests further confirm that the published inverse-Gaussian (IG) plan is flawed, as reported by White and Johnson (2011).

  13. ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL METHODS IN DOSE MODELING: APPLICATION OF COMPUTATIONAL BIOPHYSICAL TRANSPORT, COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computational toxicology (CompTox) leverages the significant gains in computing power and computational techniques (e.g., numerical approaches, structure-activity relationships, bioinformatics) realized over the last few years, thereby reducing costs and increasing efficiency i...

  14. Communications network design and costing model technical manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, K. P.; Somes, S. S.; Clark, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    This computer model provides the capability for analyzing long-haul trunking networks comprising a set of user-defined cities, traffic conditions, and tariff rates. Networks may consist of all terrestrial connectivity, all satellite connectivity, or a combination of terrestrial and satellite connectivity. Network solutions provide the least-cost routes between all cities, the least-cost network routing configuration, and terrestrial and satellite service cost totals. The CNDC model allows analyses involving three specific FCC-approved tariffs, which are uniquely structured and representative of most existing service connectivity and pricing philosophies. User-defined tariffs that can be variations of these three tariffs are accepted as input to the model and allow considerable flexibility in network problem specification. The resulting model extends the domain of network analysis from traditional fixed link cost (distance-sensitive) problems to more complex problems involving combinations of distance and traffic-sensitive tariffs.

  15. Fuzzy logic, neural networks, and soft computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zadeh, Lofti A.

    1994-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed a rapid growth of interest in a cluster of modes of modeling and computation which may be described collectively as soft computing. The distinguishing characteristic of soft computing is that its primary aims are to achieve tractability, robustness, low cost, and high MIQ (machine intelligence quotient) through an exploitation of the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty. Thus, in soft computing what is usually sought is an approximate solution to a precisely formulated problem or, more typically, an approximate solution to an imprecisely formulated problem. A simple case in point is the problem of parking a car. Generally, humans can park a car rather easily because the final position of the car is not specified exactly. If it were specified to within, say, a few millimeters and a fraction of a degree, it would take hours or days of maneuvering and precise measurements of distance and angular position to solve the problem. What this simple example points to is the fact that, in general, high precision carries a high cost. The challenge, then, is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision by devising methods of computation which lead to an acceptable solution at low cost. By its nature, soft computing is much closer to human reasoning than the traditional modes of computation. At this juncture, the major components of soft computing are fuzzy logic (FL), neural network theory (NN), and probabilistic reasoning techniques (PR), including genetic algorithms, chaos theory, and part of learning theory. Increasingly, these techniques are used in combination to achieve significant improvement in performance and adaptability. Among the important application areas for soft computing are control systems, expert systems, data compression techniques, image processing, and decision support systems. It may be argued that it is soft computing, rather than the traditional hard computing, that should be viewed as the foundation for artificial

  16. Cone penetrometer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Boechler, G.N.

    1996-09-19

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATR-151. Included in this report is a summary of the tests, the results and issues, the signature and sign- off ATP pages, and a summarized table of the specification vs. ATP section that satisfied the specification.

  17. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is...

  18. 50 CFR 85.41 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable Federal cost principles in 43 CFR 12.60(b). Purchase of informational signs, program signs, and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 85.41 Section 85.41... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.41 Allowable costs. (a) Allowable grant costs are limited to those...

  19. 50 CFR 85.40 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.40 Cost sharing. (a) The Federal share shall not exceed 75% of total costs approved in the grant agreement. (b) The provisions of 43 CFR 12.64 apply to cost sharing or... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost sharing. 85.40 Section 85.40...

  20. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 13.22... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency....

  1. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 13.22... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency....

  2. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 13.22... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency....

  3. Dissolution test acceptance sampling plans.

    PubMed

    Tsong, Y; Hammerstrom, T; Lin, K; Ong, T E

    1995-07-01

    The U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) general monograph provides a standard for dissolution compliance with the requirements as stated in the individual USP monograph for a tablet or capsule dosage form. The acceptance rules recommended by USP have important roles in the quality control process. The USP rules and their modifications are often used as an industrial lot release sampling plan, where a lot is accepted when the tablets or capsules sampled are accepted as proof of compliance with the requirement. In this paper, the operating characteristics of the USP acceptance rules are reviewed and compared to a selected modification. The operating characteristics curves show that the USP acceptance rules are sensitive to the true mean dissolution and do not reject a lot or batch that has a large percentage of tablets that dissolve with less than the dissolution specification.

  4. College students' acceptance of potential treatments for ADHD.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stacy L

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the influence that the professional occupation of a consultant making a treatment recommendation may have on college students' (82 women and 52 men) acceptance of a proposed treatment for a child displaying characteristics of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Consultants were special education teachers, school psychologists, or physicians. The study also examined college students' ratings of treatment acceptability associated with three frequently implemented interventions of either nonspecific medication, token economy with response cost, or time-out for children with characteristics of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Analysis indicated college students found a token economy intervention was the least acceptable recommendation by a physician.

  5. Designing for Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Edwin B.; Unal, Resit

    1991-01-01

    Designing for cost is a state of mind. Of course, a lot of technical knowledge is required and the use of appropriate tools will improve the process. Unfortunately, the extensive use of weight based cost estimating relationships has generated a perception in the aerospace community that the primary way to reduce cost is to reduce weight. Wrong! Based upon an approximation of an industry accepted formula, the PRICE H (tm) production-production equation, Dean demonstrated theoretically that the optimal trajectory for cost reduction is predominantly in the direction of system complexity reduction, not system weight reduction. Thus the phrase "keep it simple" is a primary state of mind required for reducing cost throughout the design process.

  6. Inventory of available methods and processes for assessing the benefits, costs, and impacts of demand-side options: Volume 3 -- Description and review of computer tools for integrated planning. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, G.; Johansen, S.; Limaye, D.; Rose, M.; McDonald, C.

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe computer models and tools that are being used in different countries by utilities and governments to address various issues related to the planning, analysis, and forecasting of the benefits, costs, and impacts of demand-side management (DSM) options. A wide range of models are surveyed, including those for: load forecasting (energy and peak, load shapes, and consumption); identification of DSM options; identity planning/assessment criteria; screening of DSM options; assessing technical and economic DSM potential; collecting data on customer needs and characteristics; market assessment and market penetration analysis; estimating achievable DSM potential; designing DSM programs; measuring and evaluating DSM program impacts; performing benefit/cost analysis; conducting production costing and capacity expansion analysis of supply options; and integration of supply and demand options. Many of the tools described are used for several of these activities. Most tools are commercial available.

  7. Results of an Experimental Program to Provide Low Cost Computer Searches of the NASA Information File to University Graduate Students in the Southeast. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Frederick O.; Phillips, Dennis M.

    In an effort to increase dissemination of scientific and technological information, a program was undertaken whereby graduate students in science and engineering could request a computer-produced bibliography and/or abstracts of documents identified by the computer. The principal resource was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration…

  8. Acceptability of HPV vaccine implementation among parents in India

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Proma; Tanner, Amanda E.; Gravitt, Patti E.; Vijayaraghavan, K; Shah, Keerti V.; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Due to high cervical cancer rates and limited research on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptability in India, the research team examined parental attitudes towards HPV vaccines. Thirty-six interviews with parents were conducted to assess STI-related knowledge and HPV-specific vaccine awareness and acceptability. Despite limited knowledge, parents had positive views toward HPV vaccines. Common barriers included: concerns about side effects, vaccine cost, and missing work to receive vaccine. Parents were strongly influenced by healthcare providers’ recommendations. Our findings suggest that addressing parental concerns, health worker training and polices, and efforts to minimize cost will be central to successful HPV vaccine implementation. PMID:23611111

  9. Acceptability of HPV vaccine implementation among parents in India.

    PubMed

    Paul, Proma; Tanner, Amanda E; Gravitt, Patti E; Vijayaraghavan, K; Shah, Keerti V; Zimet, Gregory D; Study Group, Catch

    2014-01-01

    Due to high cervical cancer rates and limited research on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptability in India, the research team examined parental attitudes toward HPV vaccines. Thirty-six interviews with parents were conducted to assess sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related knowledge and HPV-specific vaccine awareness and acceptability. Despite limited knowledge, parents had positive views toward HPV vaccines. Common barriers included concerns about side effects, vaccine cost, and missing work to receive the vaccine. Parents were strongly influenced by health care providers' recommendations. Our findings suggest that addressing parental concerns, health worker training and polices, and efforts to minimize cost will be central to successful HPV vaccine implementation. PMID:23611111

  10. Extending the Technology Acceptance Model: Policy Acceptance Model (PAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Tamra

    There has been extensive research on how new ideas and technologies are accepted in society. This has resulted in the creation of many models that are used to discover and assess the contributing factors. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is one that is a widely accepted model. This model examines people's acceptance of new technologies based on variables that directly correlate to how the end user views the product. This paper introduces the Policy Acceptance Model (PAM), an expansion of TAM, which is designed for the analysis and evaluation of acceptance of new policy implementation. PAM includes the traditional constructs of TAM and adds the variables of age, ethnicity, and family. The model is demonstrated using a survey of people's attitude toward the upcoming healthcare reform in the United States (US) from 72 survey respondents. The aim is that the theory behind this model can be used as a framework that will be applicable to studies looking at the introduction of any new or modified policies.

  11. [Acceptance check and quality control of SPECT].

    PubMed

    Sun, L M; Liu, C B

    2001-05-01

    This paper explains the testing of SPECT, especially the new SPECT with double digital detector and spiral scanning frames that has been introduced to China recently, in the acceptance check, proceeding from the physical functions of the system to its mechanical functions, to the NEMA standard functions, and then to the computer hardware specified in the contract. A brief introduction is also given of the quality control of SPECT in terms of its spatial resolution, energy resolution, spatial linearity, sensitivity, and center of rotation. PMID:12583289

  12. Acceptance Criteria Framework for Autonomous Biological Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Dzenitis, J M

    2006-12-12

    The purpose of this study was to examine a set of user acceptance criteria for autonomous biological detection systems for application in high-traffic, public facilities. The test case for the acceptance criteria was the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) operating in high-traffic facilities in New York City (NYC). However, the acceptance criteria were designed to be generally applicable to other biological detection systems in other locations. For such detection systems, ''users'' will include local authorities (e.g., facility operators, public health officials, and law enforcement personnel) and national authorities [including personnel from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the BioWatch Program, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)]. The panel members brought expertise from a broad range of backgrounds to complete this picture. The goals of this document are: (1) To serve as informal guidance for users in considering the benefits and costs of these systems. (2) To serve as informal guidance for developers in understanding the needs of users. In follow-up work, this framework will be used to systematically document the APDS for appropriateness and readiness for use in NYC.

  13. GeoComputation 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Yong; Hoffman, Forrest M; Liu, Dingsheng

    2009-01-01

    The tremendous computing requirements of today's algorithms and the high costs of high-performance supercomputers drive us to share computing resources. The emerging computational Grid technologies are expected to make feasible the creation of a computational environment handling many PetaBytes of distributed data, tens of thousands of heterogeneous computing resources, and thousands of simultaneous users from multiple research institutions.

  14. Costs of dispersal.

    PubMed

    Bonte, Dries; Van Dyck, Hans; Bullock, James M; Coulon, Aurélie; Delgado, Maria; Gibbs, Melanie; Lehouck, Valerie; Matthysen, Erik; Mustin, Karin; Saastamoinen, Marjo; Schtickzelle, Nicolas; Stevens, Virginie M; Vandewoestijne, Sofie; Baguette, Michel; Barton, Kamil; Benton, Tim G; Chaput-Bardy, Audrey; Clobert, Jean; Dytham, Calvin; Hovestadt, Thomas; Meier, Christoph M; Palmer, Steve C F; Turlure, Camille; Travis, Justin M J

    2012-05-01

    Dispersal costs can be classified into energetic, time, risk and opportunity costs and may be levied directly or deferred during departure, transfer and settlement. They may equally be incurred during life stages before the actual dispersal event through investments in special morphologies. Because costs will eventually determine the performance of dispersing individuals and the evolution of dispersal, we here provide an extensive review on the different cost types that occur during dispersal in a wide array of organisms, ranging from micro-organisms to plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. In general, costs of transfer have been more widely documented in actively dispersing organisms, in contrast to a greater focus on costs during departure and settlement in plants and animals with a passive transfer phase. Costs related to the development of specific dispersal attributes appear to be much more prominent than previously accepted. Because costs induce trade-offs, they give rise to covariation between dispersal and other life-history traits at different scales of organismal organisation. The consequences of (i) the presence and magnitude of different costs during different phases of the dispersal process, and (ii) their internal organisation through covariation with other life-history traits, are synthesised with respect to potential consequences for species conservation and the need for development of a new generation of spatial simulation models. PMID:21929715

  15. L-286 Acceptance Test Record

    SciTech Connect

    HARMON, B.C.

    2000-01-14

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  16. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  17. User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume I. Main text

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. GEOCITY simulates the complete geothermal heating and cooling system, which consists of two principal parts: the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system. The reservoir and fluid transmission submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the reservoir and fluid transmission system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. Geothermal space heating is assumed to be provided by circulating hot water through radiators, convectors, fan-coil units, or other in-house heating systems. Geothermal process heating is provided by directly using the hot water or by circulating it through a process heat exchanger. Geothermal space or process cooling is simulated by circulating hot water through lithium bromide/water absorption chillers located at each building. Retrofit costs for both heating and cooling applications can be input by the user. The life-cycle cost of thermal energy from the reservoir and fluid transmission system to the distribution system and the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) to the end-users are calculated using discounted cash flow analysis.

  18. PUREX SAMCONS uninterruptible power supply (UPS) acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Blackaby, W.B.

    1997-10-07

    This Acceptance Test Report for the PUREX Surveillance and Monitoring and Control System (SAMCONS) Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) Acceptance Test Procedure validates the operation of the UPS, all alarming and display functions and the ability of the UPS to supply power to the SAMCONS as designed. The proper installation of the PUREX SAMCONS Trailer UPS components and wiring will be systematically evaluated by performance of this procedure. Proper operation of the SAMCONS computer UPS will be verified by performance of a timed functional load test, and verification of associated alarms and trouble indications. This test procedure will be performed in the SAMCONS Trailer and will include verification of receipt of alarms at the SAMCONS computer stations. This test may be performed at any time after the completion of HNF-SD-CP-ATP-083, PUREX Surveillance and Monitoring and Control System (SAMCONS) Acceptance Test Procedure, when computer display and alarm functions have been proven to operate correctly.

  19. Middleware enabling computational self-reflection: exploring the need for and some costs of selfreflecting networks with application to homeland defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Michael J.; Bellman, Kirstie L.; Landauer, Christopher

    2002-07-01

    This paper will review and examine the definitions of Self-Reflection and Active Middleware. Then it will illustrate a conceptual framework for understanding and enumerating the costs of Self-Reflection and Active Middleware at increasing levels of Application. Then it will review some application of Self-Reflection and Active Middleware to simulations. Finally it will consider the application and additional kinds of costs applying Self-Reflection and Active Middleware to sharing information among the organizations expected to participate in Homeland Defense.

  20. Guidelines for application of learning/cost improvement curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    The differences between the terms learning curve and improvement curve are noted, as well as the differences between the Wright system and the Crawford system. Learning curve computational techniques were reviewed along with a method to arrive at a composite learning curve for a system given detail curves either by the functional techniques classification or simply categorized by subsystem. Techniques are discussed for determination of the theoretical first unit (TFU) cost using several of the currently accepted methods. Sometimes TFU cost is referred to as simply number one cost. A tabular presentation of the various learning curve slope values is given. A discussion of the various trends in the application of learning/improvement curves and an outlook for the future are presented.

  1. 32 CFR 148.1 - Intergency reciprocal acceptance .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reciprocal acceptance of security policies and procedures for approving, accrediting, and maintaining the secure posture of shared facilities will reduce aggregate costs, promote interoperability of agency security systems, preserve vitality of the U.S. industrial base, and advance national security objectives....

  2. 48 CFR 570.402-5 - Potential acceptable locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY Special Aspects of Contracting for Continued Space Requirements 570.402-5 Potential acceptable locations. If the contracting... cost-benefit analysis following the procedures in 570.402-6. Based on the results of the...

  3. Which Factors Form Older Adults' Acceptance of Mobile Information and Communication Technologies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkowska, Wiktoria; Ziefle, Martina

    Technology acceptance has become a key concept for the successful rollout of technical devices. Though the concept is intensively studied for nearly 20 years now, still, many open questions remain. This especially applies to technology acceptance of older users, which are known to be very sensitive to suboptimal interfaces and show considerable reservations towards the usage of new technology. This study investigates long- und short-term effects on technology acceptance for a personal digital assistant (PDA) in older users. We examined the influence of users' personal factors (computer expertise, technical self-confidence) on acceptance (long-term effects). To assess short-term effects on acceptance, PDA acceptance was measured, after participants were given a PDA tutor training and interacted with a simulated PDA. According to the findings, individual factors largely determine people's acceptance showing that acceptance is mainly influenced by the individuals' learning history with technology. Though, also the tutorial training significantly affected acceptance outcomes, especially in the older group.

  4. Educational Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert

    Problems in educational cost accounting and a new cost accounting approach are described in this paper. The limitations of the individualized cost (student units) approach and the comparative cost approach (in the form of fund-function-object) are illustrated. A new strategy, an activity-based system of accounting, is advocated. Borrowed from…

  5. From requirements to acceptance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Lionel; Pasquier, Helene

    1993-01-01

    From user requirements definition to accepted software system, the software project management wants to be sure that the system will meet the requirements. For the development of a telecommunication satellites Control Centre, C.N.E.S. has used new rules to make the use of tracing matrix easier. From Requirements to Acceptance Tests, each item of a document must have an identifier. A unique matrix traces the system and allows the tracking of the consequences of a change in the requirements. A tool has been developed, to import documents into a relational data base. Each record of the data base corresponds to an item of a document, the access key is the item identifier. Tracing matrix is also processed, providing automatically links between the different documents. It enables the reading on the same screen of traced items. For example one can read simultaneously the User Requirements items, the corresponding Software Requirements items and the Acceptance Tests.

  6. Requester's Acceptance and Non-Acceptance of the Refusal of the Initial Request: How to Improve the Door-in-the-Face Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrier, Lohyd; Joule, Robert-Vincent; Marfaing, Benedicte

    2011-01-01

    The door-in-the-face technique (Cialdini, Vincent, Lewis, Catalan, Wheeler & Darby, 1975) increases the likelihood that subjects will comply with a target request after they have been submitted first to a request too costly to for agreement. This study tests the effects of the requester's acceptance versus non-acceptance of the refusal of the…

  7. Accelerating rejection-based simulation of biochemical reactions with bounded acceptance probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanh, Vo Hong; Priami, Corrado; Zunino, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Stochastic simulation of large biochemical reaction networks is often computationally expensive due to the disparate reaction rates and high variability of population of chemical species. An approach to accelerate the simulation is to allow multiple reaction firings before performing update by assuming that reaction propensities are changing of a negligible amount during a time interval. Species with small population in the firings of fast reactions significantly affect both performance and accuracy of this simulation approach. It is even worse when these small population species are involved in a large number of reactions. We present in this paper a new approximate algorithm to cope with this problem. It is based on bounding the acceptance probability of a reaction selected by the exact rejection-based simulation algorithm, which employs propensity bounds of reactions and the rejection-based mechanism to select next reaction firings. The reaction is ensured to be selected to fire with an acceptance rate greater than a predefined probability in which the selection becomes exact if the probability is set to one. Our new algorithm improves the computational cost for selecting the next reaction firing and reduces the updating the propensities of reactions.

  8. ENERGY COSTS OF IAQ CONTROL THROUGH INCREASED VENTILATION IN A SMALL OFFICE IN A WARM, HUMID CLIMATE: PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS USING THE DOE-2 COMPUTER MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a series of computer runs using the DOE-2.1E building energy model, simulating a small office in a hot, humid climate (Miami). These simulations assessed the energy and relative humidity (RH) penalties when the outdoor air (OA) ventilation rate is inc...

  9. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal... principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining...

  10. 40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency....

  11. 40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency....

  12. 40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency....

  13. Imaginary Companions and Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Tracy R.

    2004-01-01

    Early research on imaginary companions suggests that children who create them do so to compensate for poor social relationships. Consequently, the peer acceptance of children with imaginary companions was compared to that of their peers. Sociometrics were conducted on 88 preschool-aged children; 11 had invisible companions, 16 had personified…

  14. Acceptance of Others (Number Form).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, James R.; Laverty, Grace E.

    As part of the instrumentation to assess the effectiveness of the Schools Without Failure (SWF) program in 10 elementary schools in the New Castle, Pa. School District, the Acceptance of Others (Number Form) was prepared to determine pupil's attitudes toward classmates. Given a list of all class members, pupils are asked to circle a number from 1…

  15. W-025, acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Roscha, V.

    1994-10-04

    This acceptance test report (ATR) has been prepared to establish the results of the field testing conducted on W-025 to demonstrate that the electrical/instrumentation systems functioned as intended by design. This is part of the RMW Land Disposal Facility.

  16. Euthanasia Acceptance: An Attitudinal Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.

    The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…

  17. Helping Our Children Accept Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Mae

    1984-01-01

    Parents of a child with muscular dystrophy recount their reactions to learning of the diagnosis, their gradual acceptance, and their son's resistance, which was gradually lessened when he was provided with more information and treated more normally as a member of the family. (CL)

  18. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This is the introductory article to a special series in Cognitive and Behavioral Practice on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Instead of each article herein reviewing the basics of ACT, this article contains that review. This article provides a description of where ACT fits within the larger category of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT):…

  19. What does an MRI scan cost?

    PubMed

    Young, David W

    2015-11-01

    Historically, hospital departments have computed the costs of individual tests or procedures using the ratio of cost to charges (RCC) method, which can produce inaccurate results. To determine a more accurate cost of a test or procedure, the activity-based costing (ABC) method must be used. Accurate cost calculations will ensure reliable information about the profitability of a hospital's DRGs. PMID:26685437

  20. 24 CFR 908.108 - Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cost. 908.108 Section 908.108..., RENTAL VOUCHER, AND MODERATE REHABILITATION PROGRAMS § 908.108 Cost. (a) General. The costs of the... computer hardware or software, or both, the cost of contracting for those services, or the cost...

  1. 24 CFR 908.108 - Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost. 908.108 Section 908.108..., RENTAL VOUCHER, AND MODERATE REHABILITATION PROGRAMS § 908.108 Cost. (a) General. The costs of the... computer hardware or software, or both, the cost of contracting for those services, or the cost...

  2. Optimising colorectal cancer screening acceptance: a review.

    PubMed

    Senore, Carlo; Inadomi, John; Segnan, Nereo; Bellisario, Cristina; Hassan, Cesare

    2015-07-01

    The study aims to review available evidence concerning effective interventions to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening acceptance. We performed a literature search of randomised trials designed to increase individuals' use of CRC screening on PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Small (≤ 100 subjects per arm) studies and those reporting results of interventions implemented before publication of the large faecal occult blood test trials were excluded. Interventions were categorised following the Continuum of Cancer Care and the PRECEDE-PROCEED models and studies were grouped by screening model (opportunistic vs organised). Multifactor interventions targeting multiple levels of care and considering factors outside the individual clinician control, represent the most effective strategy to enhance CRC screening acceptance. Removing financial barriers, implementing methods allowing a systematic contact of the whole target population, using personal invitation letters, preferably signed by the reference care provider, and reminders mailed to all non-attendees are highly effective in enhancing CRC screening acceptance. Physician reminders may support the diffusion of screening, but they can be effective only for individuals who have access to and make use of healthcare services. Educational interventions for patients and providers are effective, but the implementation of organisational measures may be necessary to favour their impact. Available evidence indicates that organised programmes allow to achieve an extensive coverage and to enhance equity of access, while maximising the health impact of screening. They provide at the same time an infrastructure allowing to achieve a more favourable cost-effectiveness profile of potentially effective strategies, which would not be sustainable in opportunistic settings. PMID:26059765

  3. 48 CFR 1845.7101-3 - Unit acquisition cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... acquisition cost is under $100,000, it shall be reported as under $100,000. (g) Software acquisition costs include software costs incurred up through acceptance testing and material internal costs incurred to implement the software and otherwise make the software ready for use. Costs incurred after...

  4. 48 CFR 1845.7101-3 - Unit acquisition cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... acquisition cost is under $100,000, it shall be reported as under $100,000. (g) Software acquisition costs include software costs incurred up through acceptance testing and material internal costs incurred to implement the software and otherwise make the software ready for use. Costs incurred after...

  5. 48 CFR 1845.7101-3 - Unit acquisition cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... production costs (for assets produced or constructed). (5) Engineering, architectural, and other outside... acquisition cost is under $100,000, it shall be reported as under $100,000. (g) Software acquisition costs include software costs incurred up through acceptance testing and material internal costs incurred...

  6. Examining Acceptance of an Integrated Personal Health Record (PHR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Alicia A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this project was to examine the practice question, "What are the factors influencing acceptance of integrated PHRs for self-care management among the Howard University Hospital (HUH) Diabetes Treatment Clinic (DTC) patients?" These factors include a) demographic characteristics, b) computer access/use/experience,…

  7. Students' Acceptance of Tablet PCs in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifenthaler, Dirk; Schweinbenz, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In recent years digital technologies, such as tablet personal computers (TPCs), have become an integral part of a school's infrastructure and are seen as a promising way to facilitate students' learning processes. This study empirically tested a theoretical model derived from the technology acceptance model containing key constructs developed in…

  8. A Causal Model of Teacher Acceptance of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Jui-Ling; Lieu, Pang-Tien; Liang, Jung-Hui; Liu, Hsiang-Te; Wong, Seng-lee

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a causal model for investigating teacher acceptance of technology. We received 258 effective replies from teachers at public and private universities in Taiwan. A questionnaire survey was utilized to test the proposed model. The Lisrel was applied to test the proposed hypotheses. The result shows that computer self-efficacy has…

  9. Cost goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goal activities for the point focusing parabolic dish program are reported. Cost goals involve three tasks: (1) determination of the value of the dish systems to potential users; (2) the cost targets of the dish system are set out; (3) the value side and cost side are integrated to provide information concerning the potential size of the market for parabolic dishes. The latter two activities are emphasized.

  10. Tracking Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

  11. On the accuracy of the GIAO-DFT calculation of 15N NMR chemical shifts of the nitrogen-containing heterocycles--a gateway to better agreement with experiment at lower computational cost.

    PubMed

    Samultsev, Dmitry O; Semenov, Valentin A; Krivdin, Leonid B

    2014-05-01

    The main factors affecting the accuracy and computational cost of the gauge-independent atomic orbital density functional theory (GIAO-DFT) calculation of (15)N NMR chemical shifts in the representative series of key nitrogen-containing heterocycles--azoles and azines--have been systematically analyzed. In the calculation of (15)N NMR chemical shifts, the best result has been achieved with the KT3 functional used in combination with Jensen's pcS-3 basis set (GIAO-DFT-KT3/pcS-3) resulting in the value of mean absolute error as small as 5 ppm for a range exceeding 270 ppm in a benchmark series of 23 compounds with an overall number of 41 different (15)N NMR chemical shifts. Another essential finding is that basically, the application of the locally dense basis set approach is justified in the calculation of (15)N NMR chemical shifts within the 3-4 ppm error that results in a dramatic decrease in computational cost. Based on the present data, we recommend GIAO-DFT-KT3/pcS-3//pc-2 as one of the most effective locally dense basis set schemes for the calculation of (15)N NMR chemical shifts.

  12. Designers' unified cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, W.; Ilcewicz, L.; Swanson, G.; Gutowski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The Structures Technology Program Office (STPO) at NASA LaRC has initiated development of a conceptual and preliminary designers' cost prediction model. The model will provide a technically sound method for evaluating the relative cost of different composite structural designs, fabrication processes, and assembly methods that can be compared to equivalent metallic parts or assemblies. The feasibility of developing cost prediction software in a modular form for interfacing with state-of-the-art preliminary design tools and computer aided design programs is being evaluated. The goal of this task is to establish theoretical cost functions that relate geometric design features to summed material cost and labor content in terms of process mechanics and physics. The output of the designers' present analytical tools will be input for the designers' cost prediction model to provide the designer with a database and deterministic cost methodology that allows one to trade and synthesize designs with both cost and weight as objective functions for optimization. This paper presents the team members, approach, goals, plans, and progress to date for development of COSTADE (Cost Optimization Software for Transport Aircraft Design Evaluation).

  13. ''When Cost Measures Contradict''

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P. M.

    2003-05-09

    When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes empirically these two properties of different costs measures as they pertain to assessing the costs of the carbon abatement policies, especially the Kyoto Protocol, under alternative assumptions about implementation.

  14. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it does not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  15. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  16. 2 CFR 200.2 - Acquisition cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... acquisition cost in accordance with the non-Federal entity's regular accounting practices. ... and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT... accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). Ancillary charges, such as taxes,...

  17. 48 CFR 12.402 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 12.402 Section... Acceptance. (a) The acceptance paragraph in 52.212-4 is based upon the assumption that the Government will rely on the contractor's assurances that the commercial item tendered for acceptance conforms to...

  18. The Economics of Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, William F.

    A microeconomic theory is applied in this book to computer services and costs and for the benefit of those who are decision-makers in the selection, financing, and use of computers. Subtopics of the theory discussed include value and demand; revenue and profits; time and risk; and costs, inputs, and outputs. Application of the theory is explained…

  19. 48 CFR 3452.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... scientific, cost and other data needed to support the bids, proposals and applications. Bid and proposal... practice is to treat these costs by some other method, they may be accepted if they are found to...

  20. 48 CFR 3452.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... scientific, cost, and other data needed to support the bids, proposals, and applications. Bid and proposal... practice is to treat these costs by some other method, they may be accepted if they are found to...

  1. 48 CFR 352.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Federal contracts, grants, and agreements, including the development of scientific, cost, and other data... method, they may be accepted if they are found to be reasonable and equitable. (4) B & P costs do...

  2. Cutting Transportation Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara

    1982-01-01

    Beginning on the front cover, this article tells how school districts are reducing their transportation costs. Particularly effective measures include the use of computers for bus maintenance and scheduling, school board ownership of buses, and the conversion of gasoline-powered buses to alternative fuels. (Author/MLF)

  3. 10 CFR 603.540 - Acceptability of fully depreciated real property or equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptability of fully depreciated real property or equipment. 603.540 Section 603.540 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Cost Sharing § 603.540 Acceptability of fully...

  4. Parent's Acceptance of Behavioral Interventions for Children with Behavior and Communication Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boothe, Jennifer L.; Borrego, Joaquin

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine what parents find as acceptable treatment options for children with behavior problems in a communication disorders population. Parents' acceptability of seven treatment options, including positive reinforcement, time-out, response cost, spanking, overcorrection, differential attention, and medication were…

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of online hemodiafiltration versus high-flux hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Ramponi, Francesco; Ronco, Claudio; Mason, Giacomo; Rettore, Enrico; Marcelli, Daniele; Martino, Francesca; Neri, Mauro; Martin-Malo, Alejandro; Canaud, Bernard; Locatelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical studies suggest that hemodiafiltration (HDF) may lead to better clinical outcomes than high-flux hemodialysis (HF-HD), but concerns have been raised about the cost-effectiveness of HDF versus HF-HD. Aim of this study was to investigate whether clinical benefits, in terms of longer survival and better health-related quality of life, are worth the possibly higher costs of HDF compared to HF-HD. Methods The analysis comprised a simulation based on the combined results of previous published studies, with the following steps: 1) estimation of the survival function of HF-HD patients from a clinical trial and of HDF patients using the risk reduction estimated in a meta-analysis; 2) simulation of the survival of the same sample of patients as if allocated to HF-HD or HDF using three-state Markov models; and 3) application of state-specific health-related quality of life coefficients and differential costs derived from the literature. Several Monte Carlo simulations were performed, including simulations for patients with different risk profiles, for example, by age (patients aged 40, 50, and 60 years), sex, and diabetic status. Scatter plots of simulations in the cost-effectiveness plane were produced, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated, and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves were computed. Results An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €6,982/quality-adjusted life years (QALY) was estimated for the baseline cohort of 50-year-old male patients. Given the commonly accepted threshold of €40,000/QALY, HDF is cost-effective. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that HDF is cost-effective with a probability of ~81% at a threshold of €40,000/QALY. It is fundamental to measure the outcome also in terms of quality of life. HDF is more cost-effective for younger patients. Conclusion HDF can be considered cost-effective compared to HF-HD. PMID:27703388

  6. Modeling costs of plastics recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This article describes TCM, a computer spreadsheet technique to simulate process costs. In a technical cost model, cost is assigned to each unit operation in a process flow diagram. Costs are summarized corresponding to unit operations, each representing a single machine or station with an associated production rate. Each station is characterized by factors including number of laborers, equipment and tooling costs, and other investment and operating costs. Technical cost models can be used to: simulate costs of manufacturing; establish direct comparisons between material, process, and design alternatives; investigate the effect of changes in the process options on overall cost; identify limiting process steps and parameters; determine merits of specific process and design improvements.

  7. Computer automated design and computer automated manufacture.

    PubMed

    Brncick, M

    2000-08-01

    The introduction of computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing into the field of prosthetics and orthotics did not arrive without concern. Many prosthetists feared that the computer would provide other allied health practitioners who had little or no experience in prosthetics the ability to fit and manage amputees. Technicians in the field felt their jobs may be jeopardized by automated fabrication techniques. This has not turned out to be the case. Prosthetists who use CAD-CAM techniques are finding they have more time for patient care and clinical assessment. CAD-CAM is another tool for them to provide better care for the patients/clients they serve. One of the factors that deterred the acceptance of CAD-CAM techniques in its early stages was that of cost. It took a significant investment in software and hardware for the prosthetists to begin to use the new systems. This new technique was not reimbursed by insurance coverage. Practitioners did not have enough information about this new technique to make a sound decision on their investment of time and money. Ironically, it is the need to hold health care costs down that may prove to be the catalyst for the increased use of CAD-CAM in the field. Providing orthoses and prostheses to patients who require them is a very labor intensive process. Practitioners are looking for better, faster, and more economical ways in which to provide their services under the pressure of managed care. CAD-CAM may be the answer. The author foresees shape sensing departments in hospitals where patients would be sent to be digitized, similar to someone going for radiograph or ultrasound. Afterwards, an orthosis or prosthesis could be provided from a central fabrication facility at a remote site, most likely on the same day. Not long ago, highly skilled practitioners with extensive technical ability would custom make almost every orthosis. One now practices in an atmosphere where off-the-shelf orthoses are the standard. This

  8. Computational Tracking of Mental Health in Youth: Latin American Contributions to a Low-Cost and Effective Solution for Early Psychiatric Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mota, Natália Bezerra; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2016-06-01

    The early onset of mental disorders can lead to serious cognitive damage, and timely interventions are needed in order to prevent them. In patients of low socioeconomic status, as is common in Latin America, it can be hard to identify children at risk. Here, we briefly introduce the problem by reviewing the scarce epidemiological data from Latin America regarding the onset of mental disorders, and discussing the difficulties associated with early diagnosis. Then we present computational psychiatry, a new field to which we and other Latin American researchers have contributed methods particularly relevant for the quantitative investigation of psychopathologies manifested during childhood. We focus on new technologies that help to identify mental disease and provide prodromal evaluation, so as to promote early differential diagnosis and intervention. To conclude, we discuss the application of these methods to clinical and educational practice. A comprehensive and quantitative characterization of verbal behavior in children, from hospitals and laboratories to homes and schools, may lead to more effective pedagogical and medical intervention. PMID:27254827

  9. Computer security in DOE distributed computing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hunteman, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    The modernization of DOE facilities amid limited funding is creating pressure on DOE facilities to find innovative approaches to their daily activities. Distributed computing systems are becoming cost-effective solutions to improved productivity. This paper defines and describes typical distributed computing systems in the DOE. The special computer security problems present in distributed computing systems are identified and compared with traditional computer systems. The existing DOE computer security policy supports only basic networks and traditional computer systems and does not address distributed computing systems. A review of the existing policy requirements is followed by an analysis of the policy as it applies to distributed computing systems. Suggested changes in the DOE computer security policy are identified and discussed. The long lead time in updating DOE policy will require guidelines for applying the existing policy to distributed systems. Some possible interim approaches are identified and discussed. 2 refs.

  10. Energy and cost analysis of a solar-hydrogen combined heat and power system for remote power supply using a computer simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Shabani, Bahman; Andrews, John; Watkins, Simon

    2010-01-15

    A simulation program, based on Visual Pascal, for sizing and techno-economic analysis of the performance of solar-hydrogen combined heat and power systems for remote applications is described. The accuracy of the submodels is checked by comparing the real performances of the system's components obtained from experimental measurements with model outputs. The use of the heat generated by the PEM fuel cell, and any unused excess hydrogen, is investigated for hot water production or space heating while the solar-hydrogen system is supplying electricity. A 5 kWh daily demand profile and the solar radiation profile of Melbourne have been used in a case study to investigate the typical techno-economic characteristics of the system to supply a remote household. The simulation shows that by harnessing both thermal load and excess hydrogen it is possible to increase the average yearly energy efficiency of the fuel cell in the solar-hydrogen system from just below 40% up to about 80% in both heat and power generation (based on the high heating value of hydrogen). The fuel cell in the system is conventionally sized to meet the peak of the demand profile. However, an economic optimisation analysis illustrates that installing a larger fuel cell could lead to up to a 15% reduction in the unit cost of the electricity to an average of just below 90 c/kWh over the assessment period of 30 years. Further, for an economically optimal size of the fuel cell, nearly a half the yearly energy demand for hot water of the remote household could be supplied by heat recovery from the fuel cell and utilising unused hydrogen in the exit stream. Such a system could then complement a conventional solar water heating system by providing the boosting energy (usually in the order of 40% of the total) normally obtained from gas or electricity. (author)

  11. FeO2/MgO(1 0 0) supported cluster: Computational pursual for a low-cost and low-temperature CO nanocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, A. Y.; Reveles, J. U.; Mejia-Olvera, R.; Baruah, T.; Zope, R. R.

    2014-09-01

    We study the electronic and catalytic properties of FeO2 adsorbed on a MgO(1 0 0) surface which shows potential as a novel low-cost and low-temperature CO nanocatalyst in an overall exothermic reaction. The CO oxidation may be separated into two steps, namely (1) oxidation of CO by the metal oxide leaving a reduced metal oxide and (2) oxidation of the reduced metal by oxygen to regenerate the active metal oxide. It is found that CO and O2 adsorption energies are the driving force for the CO oxidation by providing the energy required to surmount the activation energies along the reaction path. A low CO chemisorption binding energy (of the order of 0.4 eV) that avoids the blocking of the active metal sites (CO poisoning) for processes following the LH reaction mechanism, and Low energy barriers (around 0.6 eV) along the reaction path that enable the reaction to occur at low temperatures (∼100 °C). Examples of catalyst formulations that fulfill the above requirements and remain stable under moisture, are Aux nanoparticles adsorbed on base transition metal oxides [21], and Co3O4 nanorods [13]. In a recent report, Li et al. [22] proposed Fe-anchored graphene oxide as a low-cost CO catalyst. Having found that the LH mechanism presents a large energy barrier of 2 eV, Li et al. proposed an Eley-Rideal mechanism, in which CO reacted with an adsorbed and activated O2 molecule to form a carbonate-like intermediate with an energy barrier of only 0.6 eV. Martynova et al. [23] studied the low-temperature CO oxidation of Ruthenium oxide films, finding that the reaction sets in only when the oxygen coverage exceeded 1 monolayer (1 ML) and presents a low energy barrier of 0.6 eV in the range of 127-197 °C. Xie. et al. [13] experimentally studied the low-temperature oxidation of CO catalyzed by Co3O4 nanorods. It was found that the nanorods preferentially exposed the {1 1 0} planes, favoring the presence of active Co3+ species at the surface and with an activating energy toward

  12. Research to Support the Determination of Spacecraft Maximum Acceptable Concentrations of Potential Atmospheric Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, John L.

    1997-01-01

    In many ways, the typical approach to the handling of bibliographic material for generating review articles and similar manuscripts has changed little since the use of xerographic reproduction has become widespread. The basic approach is to collect reprints of the relevant material and place it in folders or stacks based on its dominant content. As the amount of information available increases with the passage of time, the viability of this mechanical approach to bibliographic management decreases. The personal computer revolution has changed the way we deal with many familiar tasks. For example, word processing on personal computers has supplanted the typewriter for many applications. Similarly, spreadsheets have not only replaced many routine uses of calculators but have also made possible new applications because the cost of calculation is extremely low. Objective The objective of this research was to use personal computer bibliographic software technology to support the determination of spacecraft maximum acceptable concentration (SMAC) values. Specific Aims The specific aims were to produce draft SMAC documents for hydrogen sulfide and tetrachloroethylene taking maximum advantage of the bibliographic software.

  13. Automated Water Analyser Computer Supported System (AWACSS) Part II: Intelligent, remote-controlled, cost-effective, on-line, water-monitoring measurement system.

    PubMed

    Tschmelak, Jens; Proll, Guenther; Riedt, Johannes; Kaiser, Joachim; Kraemmer, Peter; Bárzaga, Luis; Wilkinson, James S; Hua, Ping; Hole, J Patrick; Nudd, Richard; Jackson, Michael; Abuknesha, Ram; Barceló, Damià; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; de Alda, Maria J López; Sacher, Frank; Stien, Jan; Slobodník, Jaroslav; Oswald, Peter; Kozmenko, Helena; Korenková, Eva; Tóthová, Lívia; Krascsenits, Zoltan; Gauglitz, Guenter

    2005-02-15

    A novel analytical system AWACSS (Automated Water Analyser Computer Supported System) based on immunochemical technology has been evaluated that can measure several organic pollutants at low nanogram per litre level in a single few-minutes analysis without any prior sample pre-concentration or pre-treatment steps. Having in mind actual needs of water-sector managers related to the implementation of the Drinking Water Directive (DWD) [98/83/EC, 1998. Council Directive (98/83/EC) of 3 November 1998 relating to the quality of water intended for human consumption. Off. J. Eur. Commun. L330, 32-54] and Water Framework Directive (WFD) [2000/60/EC, 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. Off. J. Eur. Commun. L327, 1-72], drinking, ground, surface, and waste waters were major media used for the evaluation of the system performance. The first part article gave the reader an overview of the aims and scope of the AWACSS project as well as details about basic technology, immunoassays, software, and networking developed and utilised within the research project. The second part reports on the system performance, first real sample measurements, and an international collaborative trial (inter-laboratory tests) to compare the biosensor with conventional anayltical methods. The systems' capability for analysing a wide range of environmental organic micro-pollutants, such as modern pesticides, endocrine disrupting compounds and pharmaceuticals in surface, ground, drinking and waste water is shown. In addition, a protocol using reconstitution of extracts of solid samples, developed and applied for analysis of river sediments and food samples, is presented. Finally, the overall performance of the AWACSS system in comparison to the conventional analytical techniques, which included liquid and gas chromatographic systems with diode-array UV and mass

  14. The use of personal computers in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Tello, R; Potter, J E; Hill, T C

    1994-01-01

    Consolidating personal computers (PCs) with nuclear medicine technology can create high computational power comparable with that produced by vendor-specific computer equipment, and at more affordable prices. The integration of a standard platform and operating system with a large installed base has enabled our department to maintain itself at the cutting edge of technology with minimal expense. Along with the savings from the purchase of PC software and hardware come the added advantage of rapid training of staff with minimal in-house effort, especially given the vast educational support in the general community. The integration of a standard platform and operating system with a large installed base has provided the nuclear medicine department with computational resources once unheard of because of economies of scale. The acceptance and integration of a pervasive, flexible technology into nuclear medicine have shown that state-of-the-art studies can be performed at low cost. PMID:8122130

  15. Acceptability of a Virtual Patient Educator for Hispanic Women.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kristen J; Vàzquez-Otero, Coralia; Bredice, Marissa; Meade, Cathy D; Chaet, Alexis; Rivera, Maria I; Arroyo, Gloria; Proctor, Sara K; Barnes, Laura E

    2015-01-01

    There are few Spanish language interactive, technology-driven health education programs. Objectives of this feasibility study were to (a) learn more about computer and technology usage among Hispanic women living in a rural community and (b) evaluate acceptability of the concept of using an embodied conversational agent (ECA) computer application among this population. A survey about computer usage history and interest in computers was administered to a convenience sample of 26 women. A sample video prototype of a hospital discharge ECA was administered followed by questions to gauge opinion about the ECA. Data indicate women exhibited both a high level of computer experience and enthusiasm for the ECA. Feedback from community is essential to ensure equity in state of the art dissemination of health information.

  16. FeO2/MgO(1 0 0) supported cluster: Computational pursual for a low-cost and low-temperature CO nanocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, A. Y.; Reveles, J. U.; Mejia-Olvera, R.; Baruah, T.; Zope, R. R.

    2014-09-01

    We study the electronic and catalytic properties of FeO2 adsorbed on a MgO(1 0 0) surface which shows potential as a novel low-cost and low-temperature CO nanocatalyst in an overall exothermic reaction. The CO oxidation may be separated into two steps, namely (1) oxidation of CO by the metal oxide leaving a reduced metal oxide and (2) oxidation of the reduced metal by oxygen to regenerate the active metal oxide. It is found that CO and O2 adsorption energies are the driving force for the CO oxidation by providing the energy required to surmount the activation energies along the reaction path. A low CO chemisorption binding energy (of the order of 0.4 eV) that avoids the blocking of the active metal sites (CO poisoning) for processes following the LH reaction mechanism, and Low energy barriers (around 0.6 eV) along the reaction path that enable the reaction to occur at low temperatures (∼100 °C). Examples of catalyst formulations that fulfill the above requirements and remain stable under moisture, are Aux nanoparticles adsorbed on base transition metal oxides [21], and Co3O4 nanorods [13]. In a recent report, Li et al. [22] proposed Fe-anchored graphene oxide as a low-cost CO catalyst. Having found that the LH mechanism presents a large energy barrier of 2 eV, Li et al. proposed an Eley-Rideal mechanism, in which CO reacted with an adsorbed and activated O2 molecule to form a carbonate-like intermediate with an energy barrier of only 0.6 eV. Martynova et al. [23] studied the low-temperature CO oxidation of Ruthenium oxide films, finding that the reaction sets in only when the oxygen coverage exceeded 1 monolayer (1 ML) and presents a low energy barrier of 0.6 eV in the range of 127-197 °C. Xie. et al. [13] experimentally studied the low-temperature oxidation of CO catalyzed by Co3O4 nanorods. It was found that the nanorods preferentially exposed the {1 1 0} planes, favoring the presence of active Co3+ species at the surface and with an activating energy toward

  17. Risk acceptance criterion for tanker oil spill risk reduction measures.

    PubMed

    Psarros, George; Skjong, Rolf; Vanem, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This paper is aimed at investigating whether there is ample support for the view that the acceptance criterion for evaluating measures for prevention of oil spills from tankers should be based on cost-effectiveness considerations. One such criterion can be reflected by the Cost of Averting a Tonne of oil Spilt (CATS) whereas its target value is updated by elaborating the inherent uncertainties of oil spill costs and establishing a value for the criterion's assurance factor. To this end, a value of $80,000/t is proposed as a sensible CATS criterion and the proposed value for the assurance factor F=1.5 is supported by the retrieved Protection and Indemnity (P&I) Clubs' Annual Reports. It is envisaged that this criterion would allow the conversion of direct and indirect costs into a non-market value for the optimal allocation of resources between the various parties investing in shipping. A review of previous cost estimation models on oil spills is presented and a probability distribution (log-normal) is fitted on the available oil spill cost data, where it should be made abundantly clear that the mean value of the distribution is used for deriving the updated CATS criterion value. However, the difference between the initial and the updated CATS criterion in the percentiles of the distribution is small. It is found through the current analysis that results are partly lower than the predicted values from the published estimation models. The costs are also found to depend on the type of accident, which is in agreement with the results of previous studies. Other proposals on acceptance criteria are reviewed and it is asserted that the CATS criterion can be considered as the best candidate. Evidence is provided that the CATS approach is practical and meaningful by including examples of successful applications in actual risk assessments. Finally, it is suggested that the criterion may be refined subject to more readily available cost data and experience gained from future

  18. Automated Water Analyser Computer Supported System (AWACSS) Part II: Intelligent, remote-controlled, cost-effective, on-line, water-monitoring measurement system.

    PubMed

    Tschmelak, Jens; Proll, Guenther; Riedt, Johannes; Kaiser, Joachim; Kraemmer, Peter; Bárzaga, Luis; Wilkinson, James S; Hua, Ping; Hole, J Patrick; Nudd, Richard; Jackson, Michael; Abuknesha, Ram; Barceló, Damià; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; de Alda, Maria J López; Sacher, Frank; Stien, Jan; Slobodník, Jaroslav; Oswald, Peter; Kozmenko, Helena; Korenková, Eva; Tóthová, Lívia; Krascsenits, Zoltan; Gauglitz, Guenter

    2005-02-15

    A novel analytical system AWACSS (Automated Water Analyser Computer Supported System) based on immunochemical technology has been evaluated that can measure several organic pollutants at low nanogram per litre level in a single few-minutes analysis without any prior sample pre-concentration or pre-treatment steps. Having in mind actual needs of water-sector managers related to the implementation of the Drinking Water Directive (DWD) [98/83/EC, 1998. Council Directive (98/83/EC) of 3 November 1998 relating to the quality of water intended for human consumption. Off. J. Eur. Commun. L330, 32-54] and Water Framework Directive (WFD) [2000/60/EC, 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. Off. J. Eur. Commun. L327, 1-72], drinking, ground, surface, and waste waters were major media used for the evaluation of the system performance. The first part article gave the reader an overview of the aims and scope of the AWACSS project as well as details about basic technology, immunoassays, software, and networking developed and utilised within the research project. The second part reports on the system performance, first real sample measurements, and an international collaborative trial (inter-laboratory tests) to compare the biosensor with conventional anayltical methods. The systems' capability for analysing a wide range of environmental organic micro-pollutants, such as modern pesticides, endocrine disrupting compounds and pharmaceuticals in surface, ground, drinking and waste water is shown. In addition, a protocol using reconstitution of extracts of solid samples, developed and applied for analysis of river sediments and food samples, is presented. Finally, the overall performance of the AWACSS system in comparison to the conventional analytical techniques, which included liquid and gas chromatographic systems with diode-array UV and mass

  19. Cloud Computing for radiologists.

    PubMed

    Kharat, Amit T; Safvi, Amjad; Thind, Ss; Singh, Amarjit

    2012-07-01

    Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as applications, client, infrastructure, storage, services, and processing power, Cloud computing can help imaging units rapidly scale and descale operations and avoid huge spending on maintenance of costly applications and storage. Cloud computing allows flexibility in imaging. It sets free radiology from the confines of a hospital and creates a virtual mobile office. The downsides to Cloud computing involve security and privacy issues which need to be addressed to ensure the success of Cloud computing in the future.

  20. Troubleshooting Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

    Seventy-six million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States alone. Medical and lost productivity costs of the most common pathogens are estimated to be 5.6-9.4 billion. Product recalls, whether from foodborne illness or spoilage, result in added costs to manufacturers in a variety of ways. These may include expenses associated with lawsuits from real or allegedly stricken individuals and lawsuits from shorted customers. Other costs include those associated with efforts involved in finding the source of the contamination and eliminating it and include time when lines are shut down and therefore non-productive, additional non-routine testing, consultant fees, time and personnel required to overhaul the entire food safety system, lost market share to competitors, and the cost associated with redesign of the factory and redesign or acquisition of more hygienic equipment. The cost associated with an effective quality assurance plan is well worth the effort to prevent the situations described.

  1. Testing the Cost Yardstick in Cost-Quality Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, James N.

    1967-01-01

    To discover how costs affect quality, 16 different methods of computing educational costs are developed and correlated with a cluster of "quality related" factors (QRC). Data for the correlation were obtained from 1,055 city school districts in 48 states. The QRC is composed of staffing adequacy variables, measures of teacher quality, and…

  2. 49 CFR 1139.3 - Cost study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (d) Where cost studies are developed through the use of computer processing techniques, there shall... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost study. 1139.3 Section 1139.3 Transportation... Commodities § 1139.3 Cost study. (a) The respondents shall submit a cost study. Highway Form B may be used...

  3. CAI: Its Cost and Its Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressman, Israel; Rosenbloom, Bruce

    1984-01-01

    Describes and evaluates costs of hardware, software, training, and maintenance for computer assisted instruction (CAI) as they relate to total system cost. An example of an educational system provides an illustration of CAI cost analysis. Future developments, cost effectiveness, affordability, and applications in public and private environments…

  4. The Challenge of Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leger, Guy

    Computers may change teachers' lifestyles, teaching styles, and perhaps even their personal values. A brief survey of the history of computers demonstrates the incredible pace at which computer technology is moving ahead. The cost and size of microchips will continue to decline dramatically over the next 20 years, while the capability and variety…

  5. Information Communication Technologies in the Classroom: Expanding TAM to Examine Instructor Acceptance and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntington, Heidi; Worrell, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Studies show that use of computer-based information communication technologies (ICTs) can have positive impacts on student motivation and learning. The present study examines the issue of ICT adoption in the classroom by expanding the Technology Acceptance Model to identify factors that contribute to teacher acceptance and use of these…

  6. A Quantitative Examination of User Experience as an Antecedent to Student Perception in Technology Acceptance Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Rory

    2013-01-01

    Internet-enabled mobile devices have increased the accessibility of learning content for students. Given the ubiquitous nature of mobile computing technology, a thorough understanding of the acceptance factors that impact a learner's intention to use mobile technology as an augment to their studies is warranted. Student acceptance of mobile…

  7. Influence of Teachers' Perceived E-Portfolio Acceptance on Teacher Evaluation Effectiveness in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chun-Mei

    2012-01-01

    This study examines technological and vocational school teachers' perceived e-portfolio acceptance, computer self-efficacy, and evaluation effectiveness in Taiwan. Teachers' perceived e-portfolios acceptance includes four factors, namely, staff commitment, performance expectancy, performance expectancy, and technology training. Computer…

  8. Technology Acceptance in Social Work Education: Implications for the Field Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Alex Don; Bullock, Angela N.

    2014-01-01

    The exponential growth and sophistication of new information and computer technology (ICT) have greatly influenced human interactions and provided new metaphors for understanding the world. The acceptance and integration of ICT into social work field education are examined here using the technological acceptance model. This article also explores…

  9. Activity-based costing management in a private practice setting.

    PubMed

    Carlomagno, M; Draper, V

    1997-01-01

    Activity-based costing is a method of calculating cost of a service, focusing on operations. It gives quick and tangible cost information to operations and financial managers. While this method has be used more in the manufacturing area, it is gaining acceptance in the medical practice. This article describes activity-based costing and illustrates how to start utilizing it in a practice.

  10. 41 CFR 105-71.122 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 105-71... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency....

  11. 41 CFR 105-71.122 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 105-71... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency....

  12. Costing imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Bretland, P M

    1988-01-01

    The existing National Health Service financial system makes comprehensive costing of any service very difficult. A method of costing using modern commercial methods has been devised, classifying costs into variable, semi-variable and fixed and using the principle of overhead absorption for expenditure not readily allocated to individual procedures. It proved possible to establish a cost spectrum over the financial year 1984-85. The cheapest examinations were plain radiographs outside normal working hours, followed by plain radiographs, ultrasound, special procedures, fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, angiography and angiographic interventional procedures in normal working hours. This differs from some published figures, particularly those in the Körner report. There was some overlap between fluoroscopic interventional and the cheaper nuclear medicine procedures, and between some of the more expensive nuclear medicine procedures and the cheaper angiographic ones. Only angiographic and the few more expensive nuclear medicine procedures exceed the cost of the inpatient day. The total cost of the imaging service to the district was about 4% of total hospital expenditure. It is shown that where more procedures are undertaken, the semi-variable and fixed (including capital) elements of the cost decrease (and vice versa) so that careful study is required to assess the value of proposed economies. The method is initially time-consuming and requires a computer system with 512 Kb of memory, but once the basic costing system is established in a department, detailed financial monitoring should become practicable. The necessity for a standard comprehensive costing procedure of this nature, based on sound cost accounting principles, appears inescapable, particularly in view of its potential application to management budgeting. PMID:3349241

  13. Costing imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Bretland, P M

    1988-01-01

    The existing National Health Service financial system makes comprehensive costing of any service very difficult. A method of costing using modern commercial methods has been devised, classifying costs into variable, semi-variable and fixed and using the principle of overhead absorption for expenditure not readily allocated to individual procedures. It proved possible to establish a cost spectrum over the financial year 1984-85. The cheapest examinations were plain radiographs outside normal working hours, followed by plain radiographs, ultrasound, special procedures, fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, angiography and angiographic interventional procedures in normal working hours. This differs from some published figures, particularly those in the Körner report. There was some overlap between fluoroscopic interventional and the cheaper nuclear medicine procedures, and between some of the more expensive nuclear medicine procedures and the cheaper angiographic ones. Only angiographic and the few more expensive nuclear medicine procedures exceed the cost of the inpatient day. The total cost of the imaging service to the district was about 4% of total hospital expenditure. It is shown that where more procedures are undertaken, the semi-variable and fixed (including capital) elements of the cost decrease (and vice versa) so that careful study is required to assess the value of proposed economies. The method is initially time-consuming and requires a computer system with 512 Kb of memory, but once the basic costing system is established in a department, detailed financial monitoring should become practicable. The necessity for a standard comprehensive costing procedure of this nature, based on sound cost accounting principles, appears inescapable, particularly in view of its potential application to management budgeting.

  14. Progress Toward Automated Cost Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Joseph A.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses efforts to develop standard system of automated cost estimation (ACE) and computer-aided design (CAD). Advantage of system is time saved and accuracy enhanced by automating extraction of quantities from design drawings, consultation of price lists, and application of cost and markup formulas.

  15. Program Tracks Cost Of Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III

    1993-01-01

    Travel Forecaster is menu-driven, easy-to-use computer program that plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost of business-related travel of division or branch of organization and compiles information into data base to aid travel planner. Ability of program to handle multiple trip entries makes it valuable time-saving device.

  16. Low-Cost Aqueous Coal Desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K.

    1982-01-01

    Water-based process for desulfurizing coal not only eliminates need for costly organic solvent but removes sulfur more effectively than an earlier solvent-based process. New process could provide low-cost commercial method for converting high-sulfur coal into environmentally acceptable fuel.

  17. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) OMB Circular A-122 does not cover the treatment of bid and proposal..., and agreements, including the development of scientific, costs, and other data needed to support the... method, they may be accepted if they are found to be reasonable and equitable. Bid and proposal costs...

  18. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31... scientific, cost, and other data needed to support the bids, proposals, and applications. Bid and proposal... to treat these costs by some other method, they may be accepted if they are found to be...

  19. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an agency... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance....

  20. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  1. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  2. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  3. Apollo experience report environmental acceptance testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubach, C. H. M.

    1976-01-01

    Environmental acceptance testing was used extensively to screen selected spacecraft hardware for workmanship defects and manufacturing flaws. The minimum acceptance levels and durations and methods for their establishment are described. Component selection and test monitoring, as well as test implementation requirements, are included. Apollo spacecraft environmental acceptance test results are summarized, and recommendations for future programs are presented.

  4. 48 CFR 245.606-3 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 245.606-3..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 245.606-3 Acceptance. (a) If the schedules are acceptable, the plant clearance...

  5. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  6. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  7. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  8. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  9. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  10. Acceptance of telepathology in daily practice.

    PubMed

    Mairinger, T

    2000-01-01

    The availability of pathology services differs greatly in our environment. Although pathology would be especially suitable for being practised at a distance by transporting digital image information, the spread of telepathology into everyday work still is relatively slow. The article describes the situation of diffusion of this innovative technology by reviewing the literature and discussing this in context to data based on questionnaires dealing with the acceptance of telepathology. The current situation of telepathology can be discussed by five items for innovation spead: (1) communication and influence; (2) economic costs and benefits; (3) knowledge barriers and learning; (4) feasibility of techniques offered for the demands of the users; (5) clarification of the legal status and other factors concerning international collaboration. All these head lines do not represent realistic obstacles for the more widespread use of telepathology. The real drawbacks may therefore be found behind certain professional habits of pathologists. The most important causes may be that (a) telediagnosis is not as easy as it may seem at the first glance; (b) telepathology is seen as a potential highway to a world-wide competition of pathology service providers. As soon as these mostly unjustified prejudices are corrected and telepathology is percepted as additional technique in pathology, it will become a diagnostic tool as common and as useful as the telephone.

  11. Effect of salt treatments on survival and consumer acceptance of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post harvest acclimation of live freshwater prawns to a mixture of water and marine salt increases the consumer acceptability of the finished product. However, the high cost of marine salts prohibits their use in commercial practice. Therefore, the identification of successful, cost effective salt a...

  12. Trends; Integrating computer systems

    SciTech Connect

    de Buyl, M. )

    1991-11-04

    This paper reports that computers are invaluable tools in assisting E and P managers with their information management and analysis tasks. Oil companies and software houses are striving to adapt their products and work practices to capitalize on the rapid evolution in computer hardware performance and affordability. Ironically, an investment in computers aimed at reducing risk and cost also contains an element of added risk and cost. Hundreds of millions of dollars have been spent by the oil industry in purchasing hardware and software and in developing software. Unfortunately, these investments may not have completely fulfilled the industry's expectations. The lower return on computer science investments is due to: Unmet expectations in productivity gains. Premature computer hardware and software obsolescence. Inefficient data transfer between software applications. Hidden costs of computer support personnel and vendors.

  13. HPV vaccine acceptability in HIV-infected and HIV negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Sadlier, C; Lynam, A; O'Dea, S; Delamere, S; Quinlan, M; Clarke, S; Sheils, O; Bergin, C

    2016-06-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly HIV-infected MSM are disproportionately affected by HPV infection and associated disease. The HPV vaccine has potential to greatly reduce the burden of HPV-associated disease including anal cancer in MSM. The efficacy of the HPV vaccine is dependent on high levels of vaccine uptake. The aim of this study was to examine HPV vaccine acceptability and factors influencing vaccine acceptability in MSM in Ireland. Methods A self-administered survey was distributed to HIV-infected and HIV negative MSM examining HPV vaccine acceptability and factors associated with vaccine acceptability. Logistic regression was used to identify key variables and predictors of HPV vaccine acceptability. Results 302 MSM participated in the study. Acceptability of HPV vaccine was 31% (unconditional), 51% (conditional on stated efficacy and a cost of €300), 65% (conditional on stated efficacy and a cost of €100) and 78% (conditional on stated efficacy and no cost). Cost was negatively associated with HPV vaccine acceptability (p<0.01) while knowledge of HPV vaccine efficacy was significantly associated with vaccine acceptability, even in the context of associated cost (p<0.01). Conclusions Acceptability of HPV vaccine in MSM in Ireland is high based on no cost vaccine and on stated vaccine efficacy (78%). Cost is negatively associated with vaccine acceptability. Understanding levels of knowledge of HPV infection, HPV associated disease and attitudes toward HPV vaccination are important as they will contribute to HPV vaccine acceptability among MSM and will help guide effective preventive programs.

  14. HPV vaccine acceptability in HIV-infected and HIV negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Sadlier, C; Lynam, A; O'Dea, S; Delamere, S; Quinlan, M; Clarke, S; Sheils, O; Bergin, C

    2016-06-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly HIV-infected MSM are disproportionately affected by HPV infection and associated disease. The HPV vaccine has potential to greatly reduce the burden of HPV-associated disease including anal cancer in MSM. The efficacy of the HPV vaccine is dependent on high levels of vaccine uptake. The aim of this study was to examine HPV vaccine acceptability and factors influencing vaccine acceptability in MSM in Ireland. Methods A self-administered survey was distributed to HIV-infected and HIV negative MSM examining HPV vaccine acceptability and factors associated with vaccine acceptability. Logistic regression was used to identify key variables and predictors of HPV vaccine acceptability. Results 302 MSM participated in the study. Acceptability of HPV vaccine was 31% (unconditional), 51% (conditional on stated efficacy and a cost of €300), 65% (conditional on stated efficacy and a cost of €100) and 78% (conditional on stated efficacy and no cost). Cost was negatively associated with HPV vaccine acceptability (p<0.01) while knowledge of HPV vaccine efficacy was significantly associated with vaccine acceptability, even in the context of associated cost (p<0.01). Conclusions Acceptability of HPV vaccine in MSM in Ireland is high based on no cost vaccine and on stated vaccine efficacy (78%). Cost is negatively associated with vaccine acceptability. Understanding levels of knowledge of HPV infection, HPV associated disease and attitudes toward HPV vaccination are important as they will contribute to HPV vaccine acceptability among MSM and will help guide effective preventive programs. PMID:27153289

  15. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers.

  16. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers. PMID:27494790

  17. Accessibility, acceptance boost teen clinics.

    PubMed

    1997-10-01

    Implementing reproductive health and family planning clinic hours specifically and exclusively for teens requires a commitment of both staff and financial resources. However, once open, the clinic will draw teens. Teens' most important concern is that their presence at the clinic and their receipt of services remain confidential. Many teens do not want to consult their regular doctor or visit a traditional health center out of fear of being seen by parents or friends of parents. By scheduling special hours, usually after school or on weekends, teens can come to health facilities without risking detection. Patient costs must be either kept low or nonexistent. Current concern over the rise in pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease rates among teens may help agencies qualify for special funding for clinic services. Clinic staff must also be attuned to teens' needs and committed to providing them with reproductive health services. It should also be understood that the provision of free or low-cost services may pull staff from reimbursable activities.

  18. The myth of secure computing.

    PubMed

    Austin, Robert D; Darby, Christopher A

    2003-06-01

    Few senior executives pay a whole lot of attention to computer security. They either hand off responsibility to their technical people or bring in consultants. But given the stakes involved, an arm's-length approach is extremely unwise. According to industry estimates, security breaches affect 90% of all businesses every year and cost some $17 billion. Fortunately, the authors say, senior executives don't need to learn about the more arcane aspects of their company's IT systems in order to take a hands-on approach. Instead, they should focus on the familiar task of managing risk. Their role should be to assess the business value of their information assets, determine the likelihood that those assets will be compromised, and then tailor a set of risk abatement processes to their company's particular vulnerabilities. This approach, which views computer security as an operational rather than a technical challenge, is akin to a classic quality assurance program in that it attempts to avoid problems rather than fix them and involves all employees, not just IT staffers. The goal is not to make computer systems completely secure--that's impossible--but to reduce the business risk to an acceptable level. This article looks at the types of threats a company is apt to face. It also examines the processes a general manager should spearhead to lessen the likelihood of a successful attack. The authors recommend eight processes in all, ranging from deciding how much protection each digital asset deserves to insisting on secure software to rehearsing a response to a security breach. The important thing to realize, they emphasize, is that decisions about digital security are not much different from other cost-benefit decisions. The tools general managers bring to bear on other areas of the business are good models for what they need to do in this technical space.

  19. Neural basis of increased costly norm enforcement under adversity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Yu, Hongbo; Shen, Bo; Yu, Rongjun; Zhou, Zhiheng; Zhang, Guoping; Jiang, Yushi; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-12-01

    Humans are willing to punish norm violations even at a substantial personal cost. Using fMRI and a variant of the ultimatum game and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated how the brain differentially responds to fairness in loss and gain domains. Participants (responders) received offers from anonymous partners indicating a division of an amount of monetary gain or loss. If they accept, both get their shares according to the division; if they reject, both get nothing or lose the entire stake. We used a computational model to derive perceived fairness of offers and participant-specific inequity aversion. Behaviorally, participants were more likely to reject unfair offers in the loss (vs gain) domain. Neurally, the positive correlation between fairness and activation in ventral striatum was reduced, whereas the negative correlations between fairness and activations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were enhanced in the loss domain. Moreover, rejection-related dorsal striatum activation was higher in the loss domain. Furthermore, the gain-loss domain modulates costly punishment only when unfair behavior was directed toward the participants and not when it was directed toward others. These findings provide neural and computational accounts of increased costly norm enforcement under adversity and advanced our understanding of the context-dependent nature of fairness preference.

  20. Neural basis of increased costly norm enforcement under adversity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan; Yu, Hongbo; Shen, Bo; Yu, Rongjun; Zhou, Zhiheng; Zhang, Guoping; Jiang, Yushi

    2014-01-01

    Humans are willing to punish norm violations even at a substantial personal cost. Using fMRI and a variant of the ultimatum game and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated how the brain differentially responds to fairness in loss and gain domains. Participants (responders) received offers from anonymous partners indicating a division of an amount of monetary gain or loss. If they accept, both get their shares according to the division; if they reject, both get nothing or lose the entire stake. We used a computational model to derive perceived fairness of offers and participant-specific inequity aversion. Behaviorally, participants were more likely to reject unfair offers in the loss (vs gain) domain. Neurally, the positive correlation between fairness and activation in ventral striatum was reduced, whereas the negative correlations between fairness and activations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were enhanced in the loss domain. Moreover, rejection-related dorsal striatum activation was higher in the loss domain. Furthermore, the gain–loss domain modulates costly punishment only when unfair behavior was directed toward the participants and not when it was directed toward others. These findings provide neural and computational accounts of increased costly norm enforcement under adversity and advanced our understanding of the context-dependent nature of fairness preference. PMID:24396005

  1. Neural basis of increased costly norm enforcement under adversity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Yu, Hongbo; Shen, Bo; Yu, Rongjun; Zhou, Zhiheng; Zhang, Guoping; Jiang, Yushi; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-12-01

    Humans are willing to punish norm violations even at a substantial personal cost. Using fMRI and a variant of the ultimatum game and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated how the brain differentially responds to fairness in loss and gain domains. Participants (responders) received offers from anonymous partners indicating a division of an amount of monetary gain or loss. If they accept, both get their shares according to the division; if they reject, both get nothing or lose the entire stake. We used a computational model to derive perceived fairness of offers and participant-specific inequity aversion. Behaviorally, participants were more likely to reject unfair offers in the loss (vs gain) domain. Neurally, the positive correlation between fairness and activation in ventral striatum was reduced, whereas the negative correlations between fairness and activations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were enhanced in the loss domain. Moreover, rejection-related dorsal striatum activation was higher in the loss domain. Furthermore, the gain-loss domain modulates costly punishment only when unfair behavior was directed toward the participants and not when it was directed toward others. These findings provide neural and computational accounts of increased costly norm enforcement under adversity and advanced our understanding of the context-dependent nature of fairness preference. PMID:24396005

  2. Acceptance in Romantic Relationships: The Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doss, Brian D.; Christensen, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Despite the recent emphasis on acceptance in romantic relationships, no validated measure of relationship acceptance presently exists. To fill this gap, the 20-item Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory (FAPBI; A. Christensen & N. S. Jacobson, 1997) was created to assess separately the acceptability and frequency of both…

  3. Cost estimating methods for advanced space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cyr, Kelley

    1988-01-01

    Parametric cost estimating methods for space systems in the conceptual design phase are developed. The approach is to identify variables that drive cost such as weight, quantity, development culture, design inheritance, and time. The relationship between weight and cost is examined in detail. A theoretical model of cost is developed and tested statistically against a historical data base of major research and development programs. It is concluded that the technique presented is sound, but that it must be refined in order to produce acceptable cost estimates.

  4. DOE acceptance of commercial mixed waste -- Studies are under way

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, T.L.; Owens, C.M.

    1993-03-01

    The topic of the Department of Energy acceptance of commercial mixed waste at DOE facilities has been proposed by host States and compact regions that are developing low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. States support the idea of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste because (a) very little commercial mixed waste is generated compared to generation by DOE facilities (Department of Energy--26,300 cubic meters annually vs. commercial--3400 cubic meters annually); (b) estimated costs for commercial disposal are estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubic foot; (c) once treatment capability becomes available, 70% of the current levels of commercial mixed waste will be eliminated, (d) some State laws prohibit the development of mixed waste disposal facilities in their States; (e) DOE is developing a nationwide strategy that will include treatment and disposal capacity for its own mixed waste and the incremental burden on the DOE facilities would be minuscule, and (6) no States are developing mixed waste disposal facilities. DOE senior management has repeatedly expressed willingness to consider investigating the feasibility of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste. In January 1991, Leo Duffy of the Department of energy met with members of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum, which led to an agreement to explore such an arrangement. He stated that this seems like a cost-effective way to solve commercial mixed waste management problems.

  5. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 10: The SATIL 2 program (a program for the evaluation of the costs of an operational SEASAT system as a function of operational requirements and reliability. [computer programs for economic analysis and systems analysis of SEASAT satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The SATIL 2 computer program was developed to assist with the programmatic evaluation of alternative approaches to establishing and maintaining a specified mix of operational sensors on spacecraft in an operational SEASAT system. The program computes the probability distributions of events (i.e., number of launch attempts, number of spacecraft purchased, etc.), annual recurring cost, and present value of recurring cost. This is accomplished for the specific task of placing a desired mix of sensors in orbit in an optimal fashion in order to satisfy a specified sensor demand function. Flow charts are shown, and printouts of the programs are given.

  6. Computation and control with neural nets

    SciTech Connect

    Corneliusen, A.; Terdal, P.; Knight, T.; Spencer, J.

    1989-10-04

    As energies have increased exponentially with time so have the size and complexity of accelerators and control systems. NN may offer the kinds of improvements in computation and control that are needed to maintain acceptable functionality. For control their associative characteristics could provide signal conversion or data translation. Because they can do any computation such as least squares, they can close feedback loops autonomously to provide intelligent control at the point of action rather than at a central location that requires transfers, conversions, hand-shaking and other costly repetitions like input protection. Both computation and control can be integrated on a single chip, printed circuit or an optical equivalent that is also inherently faster through full parallel operation. For such reasons one expects lower costs and better results. Such systems could be optimized by integrating sensor and signal processing functions. Distributed nets of such hardware could communicate and provide global monitoring and multiprocessing in various ways e.g. via token, slotted or parallel rings (or Steiner trees) for compatibility with existing systems. Problems and advantages of this approach such as an optimal, real-time Turing machine are discussed. Simple examples are simulated and hardware implemented using discrete elements that demonstrate some basic characteristics of learning and parallelism. Future microprocessors' are predicted and requested on this basis. 19 refs., 18 figs.

  7. Operating Dedicated Data Centers - Is It Cost-Effective?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, M.; Hogue, R.; Hollowell, C.; Strecker-Kellog, W.; Wong, A.; Zaytsev, A.

    2014-06-01

    The advent of cloud computing centres such as Amazon's EC2 and Google's Computing Engine has elicited comparisons with dedicated computing clusters. Discussions on appropriate usage of cloud resources (both academic and commercial) and costs have ensued. This presentation discusses a detailed analysis of the costs of operating and maintaining the RACF (RHIC and ATLAS Computing Facility) compute cluster at Brookhaven National Lab and compares them with the cost of cloud computing resources under various usage scenarios. An extrapolation of likely future cost effectiveness of dedicated computing resources is also presented.

  8. Standardization of DOE Disposal Facilities Waste Acceptance Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Shrader, T. A.; Macbeth, P. J.

    2002-02-26

    On February 25, 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) for low-level and mixed low-level wastes (LLW/ MLLW) treatment and disposal. The ROD designated the disposal sites at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of LLW/MLLW from sites without their own disposal facilities. DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL) and the National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Operations Office (NV) have been charged with effectively implementing the ROD. To accomplish this task NV and RL, assisted by their operating contractors Bechtel Nevada (BN), Fluor Hanford (FH), and Bechtel Hanford (BH) assembled a task team to systematically map out and evaluate the current waste acceptance processes and develop an integrated, standardized process for the acceptance of LLW/MLLW. A structured, systematic, analytical process using the Six Sigma system identified dispos al process improvements and quantified the associated efficiency gains to guide changes to be implemented. The review concluded that a unified and integrated Hanford/NTS Waste Acceptance Process would be a benefit to the DOE Complex, particularly the waste generators. The Six Sigma review developed quantitative metrics to address waste acceptance process efficiency improvements, and provides an initial look at development of comparable waste disposal cost models between the two disposal sites to allow quantification of the proposed improvements.

  9. Standardization of DOE Disposal Facilities Waste Acceptance Process

    SciTech Connect

    SHRADER, T.; MACBETH, P.

    2002-01-01

    On February 25, 2000, the US. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) for low-level and mixed low-level wastes (LLW/ MLLW) treatment and disposal. The ROD designated the disposal sites at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of LLWMLLW from sites without their own disposal facilities. DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL) and the National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Operations Office (NV) have been charged with effectively implementing the ROD. To accomplish this task NV and RL, assisted by their operating contractors Bechtel Nevada (BN), Fluor Hanford (FH), and Bechtel Hanford (BH) assembled a task team to systematically map out and evaluate the current waste acceptance processes and develop an integrated, standardized process for the acceptance of LLWMLLW. A structured, systematic, analytical process using the Six Sigma system identified disposal process improvements and quantified the associated efficiency gains to guide changes to be implemented. The review concluded that a unified and integrated Hanford/NTS Waste Acceptance Process would be a benefit to the DOE Complex, particularly the waste generators. The Six Sigma review developed quantitative metrics to address waste acceptance process efficiency improvements, and provides an initial look at development of comparable waste disposal cost models between the two disposal sites to allow quantification of the proposed improvements.

  10. The social acceptance of artificial photosynthesis: towards a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Sovacool, Benjamin K; Gross, Allan

    2015-06-01

    Advancements in artificial photosynthesis have the potential to radically transform how societies convert and use energy. Their successful development, however, hinges not only on technical breakthroughs, but also acceptance and adoption by energy users. This article introduces a conceptual framework enabling analysts, planners and even investors to determine environments where artificial photosynthesis may thrive, and those where it may struggle. Drawn from work looking at the barriers and acceptance of solar photovoltaic and wind energy systems, the article proposes that social acceptance has multiple dimensions-socio-political, community and market-that must be met holistically in order for investors and users to embrace new technologies. The article argues that any future market acceptance for artificial photosynthesis will depend upon the prevalence of nine factors, which create conducive environments; the lack of the conditions engenders environments where they will likely be rejected. The conditions are (i) strong institutional capacity; (ii) political commitment; (iii) favourable legal and regulatory frameworks; (iv) competitive installation and/or production costs; (v) mechanisms for information and feedback; (vi) access to financing; (vii) prolific community and/or individual ownership and use; (viii) participatory project siting; and (ix) recognition of externalities or positive public image. PMID:26052424

  11. Television station acceptance of AIDS prevention PSAs and condom advertisements.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, A M; Wicks, J L

    1998-01-01

    AIDS is a fatal, though preventable disease with more than 56,000 new cases reported in 1996 alone. Condom advertisements and AIDS public service announcements (AIDS PSAs) can help prevent the spread of AIDS, but these AIDS PSAs often contain controversial subject matter and are thus rejected for broadcast by television stations. It is for this reason why a large-scale national mail survey was conducted. The survey, which examined the impact of personal ethical considerations of television station management on AIDS acceptance decisions in the US, was based on five hypothetical questions. It used questionnaires mailed to television station managers. Responses were received from 364 stations, yielding a 40.63% response rate. Significant results were found related to the impact of personal ethical concerns of television managers on AIDS acceptance decision. Most stations were unlikely to accept condom or safe sex advertisements but were more likely to accept generic AIDS messages. These findings pose a dilemma for public health officials, which include the high cost of television advertisements and the difficulty in choosing a creative execution type. The most effective approach would be to appeal to sales managers to run the advertisements since they are important for the community and serve the public interest. PMID:12295801

  12. Negotiating vaccine acceptance in an era of reluctance.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J

    2013-08-01

    Studies to better understand the determinants of vaccine acceptance have expanded to include more investigation into dynamics of individual decision-making as well as the influences of peers and social networks. Vaccine acceptance is determined by a range of factors, from structural issues of supply, costs and access to services, as well as the more demand-side determinants. The term vaccine hesitancy is increasingly used in the investigation of demand-side determinants, moving away from the more polarized framing of pro- and anti-vaccine groups to recognizing the importance of understanding and engaging those who are delaying vaccination, accepting only some vaccines, or who are yet undecided, but reluctant. As hesitancy is a state of indecision, it is difficult to measure, but the stage of indecision is a critical time to engage and support the decision-making process. This article suggests modes of investigating the determinants of vaccine confidence and levers of vaccine acceptance toward better engagement and dialogue early in the process of decision-making. Pressure to vaccinate can be counter-productive. Listening and dialog can support individual decision-making and more effectively inform the public health community of the issues and concerns influencing vaccine hesitancy. PMID:23896582

  13. The social acceptance of artificial photosynthesis: towards a conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Gross, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in artificial photosynthesis have the potential to radically transform how societies convert and use energy. Their successful development, however, hinges not only on technical breakthroughs, but also acceptance and adoption by energy users. This article introduces a conceptual framework enabling analysts, planners and even investors to determine environments where artificial photosynthesis may thrive, and those where it may struggle. Drawn from work looking at the barriers and acceptance of solar photovoltaic and wind energy systems, the article proposes that social acceptance has multiple dimensions—socio-political, community and market—that must be met holistically in order for investors and users to embrace new technologies. The article argues that any future market acceptance for artificial photosynthesis will depend upon the prevalence of nine factors, which create conducive environments; the lack of the conditions engenders environments where they will likely be rejected. The conditions are (i) strong institutional capacity; (ii) political commitment; (iii) favourable legal and regulatory frameworks; (iv) competitive installation and/or production costs; (v) mechanisms for information and feedback; (vi) access to financing; (vii) prolific community and/or individual ownership and use; (viii) participatory project siting; and (ix) recognition of externalities or positive public image. PMID:26052424

  14. The social acceptance of artificial photosynthesis: towards a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Sovacool, Benjamin K; Gross, Allan

    2015-06-01

    Advancements in artificial photosynthesis have the potential to radically transform how societies convert and use energy. Their successful development, however, hinges not only on technical breakthroughs, but also acceptance and adoption by energy users. This article introduces a conceptual framework enabling analysts, planners and even investors to determine environments where artificial photosynthesis may thrive, and those where it may struggle. Drawn from work looking at the barriers and acceptance of solar photovoltaic and wind energy systems, the article proposes that social acceptance has multiple dimensions-socio-political, community and market-that must be met holistically in order for investors and users to embrace new technologies. The article argues that any future market acceptance for artificial photosynthesis will depend upon the prevalence of nine factors, which create conducive environments; the lack of the conditions engenders environments where they will likely be rejected. The conditions are (i) strong institutional capacity; (ii) political commitment; (iii) favourable legal and regulatory frameworks; (iv) competitive installation and/or production costs; (v) mechanisms for information and feedback; (vi) access to financing; (vii) prolific community and/or individual ownership and use; (viii) participatory project siting; and (ix) recognition of externalities or positive public image.

  15. Television station acceptance of AIDS prevention PSAs and condom advertisements.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, A M; Wicks, J L

    1998-01-01

    AIDS is a fatal, though preventable disease with more than 56,000 new cases reported in 1996 alone. Condom advertisements and AIDS public service announcements (AIDS PSAs) can help prevent the spread of AIDS, but these AIDS PSAs often contain controversial subject matter and are thus rejected for broadcast by television stations. It is for this reason why a large-scale national mail survey was conducted. The survey, which examined the impact of personal ethical considerations of television station management on AIDS acceptance decisions in the US, was based on five hypothetical questions. It used questionnaires mailed to television station managers. Responses were received from 364 stations, yielding a 40.63% response rate. Significant results were found related to the impact of personal ethical concerns of television managers on AIDS acceptance decision. Most stations were unlikely to accept condom or safe sex advertisements but were more likely to accept generic AIDS messages. These findings pose a dilemma for public health officials, which include the high cost of television advertisements and the difficulty in choosing a creative execution type. The most effective approach would be to appeal to sales managers to run the advertisements since they are important for the community and serve the public interest.

  16. Negotiating vaccine acceptance in an era of reluctance.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J

    2013-08-01

    Studies to better understand the determinants of vaccine acceptance have expanded to include more investigation into dynamics of individual decision-making as well as the influences of peers and social networks. Vaccine acceptance is determined by a range of factors, from structural issues of supply, costs and access to services, as well as the more demand-side determinants. The term vaccine hesitancy is increasingly used in the investigation of demand-side determinants, moving away from the more polarized framing of pro- and anti-vaccine groups to recognizing the importance of understanding and engaging those who are delaying vaccination, accepting only some vaccines, or who are yet undecided, but reluctant. As hesitancy is a state of indecision, it is difficult to measure, but the stage of indecision is a critical time to engage and support the decision-making process. This article suggests modes of investigating the determinants of vaccine confidence and levers of vaccine acceptance toward better engagement and dialogue early in the process of decision-making. Pressure to vaccinate can be counter-productive. Listening and dialog can support individual decision-making and more effectively inform the public health community of the issues and concerns influencing vaccine hesitancy.

  17. Robotic surgery: the computer-enhanced control of surgical instruments.

    PubMed

    Guyton, Steven W

    2002-12-01

    Robotic procedures are still in a developmental stage. Studies have shown that many operations can be performed safely with computer-enhanced telemanipulators, but distinct advantages of robotic procedures have not been established. Before third-party payors begin paying a premium for the use of a robot, costs will need to decrease or outcomes will need to be sufficiently better. Manufacturers of robotic surgery systems are marketing directly to consumers and promoting their systems to hospitals based on the number of patients that can be attracted by such programs. Only the acceptance of robotics into mainstream surgical practice, however, will prove it to be more than just a niche technology.

  18. Computer-assisted psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jesse H.; Wright, Andrew S.

    1997-01-01

    The rationale for using computers in psychotherapy includes the possibility that therapeutic software could improve the efficiency of treatment and provide access for greater numbers of patients. Computers have not been able to reliably duplicate the type of dialogue typically used in clinician-administered therapy. However, computers have significant strengths that can be used to advantage in designing treatment programs. Software developed for computer-assisted therapy generally has been well accepted by patients. Outcome studies have usually demonstrated treatment effectiveness for this form of therapy. Future development of computer tools may be influenced by changes in health care financing and rapid growth of new technologies. An integrated care delivery model incorporating the unique attributes of both clinicians and computers should be adopted for computer-assisted therapy. PMID:9292446

  19. Acceptance of Internet Banking Systems among Young Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; M, Yeow S.; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine acceptance of internet banking system among potential young users, specifically future young managers. The relationships and the effects of computer self-efficacy (CSE) and extended technology acceptance model (TAM) on the behavioural intention (BI) to use internet banking system were examined. Measurement of CSE, TAM and BI were adapted from previous studies. However construct for TAM has been extended by adding a new variable which is perceived credibility (PC). A survey through questionnaire was conducted to determine the acceptance level of CSE, TAM and BI. Data were obtained from 275 Technology Management students, who are pursuing their undergraduate studies in a Malaysia's public university. The confirmatory factor analysis performed has identified four variables as determinant factors of internet banking acceptance. The first variable is computer self-efficacy (CSE), and another three variables from TAM constructs which are perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PE) and perceived credibility (PC). The finding of this study indicated that CSE has a positive effect on PU and PE of the Internet banking systems. Respondents' CSE was positively affecting their PC of the systems, indicating that the higher the ability of one in computer skills, the higher the security and privacy issues of PC will be concerned. The multiple regression analysis indicated that only two construct of TAM; PU and PC were significantly associated with BI. It was found that the future managers' CSE indirectly affects their BI to use the internet banking systems through PU and PC of TAM. TAM was found to have direct effects on respondents' BI to use the systems. Both CSE and the PU and PC of TAM were good predictors in understanding individual responses to information technology. The role of PE of the original TAM to predict the attitude of users towards the use of information technology systems was surprisingly insignificant.

  20. 42 CFR 412.84 - Payment for extraordinarily high-cost cases (cost outliers).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... by the cost to charge ratios applicable to operating and capital costs, respectively, as described in... capital cost-to-charge ratios used to adjust covered charges are computed annually by the intermediary for..., 2003, statewide cost-to-charge ratios are used in those instances in which a hospital's operating...